THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEMARCHMASTER DE LUXE SPORT SEDAN. . across this page and then across town in theNEW 1936 CHEVROLETNO DRAFT VENTILATIONTake a ride in the new Chevrolet for 1936.Notice, first of all, the greater beauty,luxury and more healthful comfort of itsTurret Top Body uith Fisher I\'o DraftVentilation. It's the smarter, safer bodyand, of course, it's exclusive to Chevroletin its price range.KNEE-ACTION RIDE*Give particular attention to the unmatchedsmoothness of the gliding Knee-ActionRide*. The safest, steadiest, most comfortable ride ever developed. It's obtainable only tfilh Knee-Action, and Knee-Action is also exclusive to the MasterDe Luxe Chevrolet in its field. TURRET TOPNext, examine the Solid Steel one-pieceTurret Top. This top puts the safety ofsolid seamless steel over your head . . .stiffens and reinforces the entire bodystructure . . . beautifies and identifies themodern car . . . and it, too, is exclusiveto Chevrolet in its field.SHOCKPROOF STEERING*Notice, too, how perfectly steady andvibrationlcss the steering wheel is at alltimes. How much simpler and easier it isto drive and park this car. That's due toShmkproof Steering*, a direct result ofKnee-Action, and another exclusive Chevrolet advantage. HIGH-COMPRESSION ENGINENow start Chevrolet's High-CompressionValce-in-Hcad Engine. The most economical of all fine power plants. Notice howmuch quicker this new Chevrolet is onthe getaway, how much livelier in traffic,how much smoother and more satisfyingin all ways on the open road.PERFECTED HYDRAULIC BRAKESNow step on Chevrolet's New PerfectedHydraulic Brakes, as lightly or firmly asyou please, and bring the car to a smooth,quick, even stop. You've never felt suchsuper-safe brakes before, and won't todayanywhere else, for they're exclusive toChevrolet in its price range.CHEVROLET MOTOR COMPANY, DETROIT, MICHIGAN*Av€iilalile in Master De I uxe mixlels only. Knee-Action, $20 additional00/ NEW MONEY-SAVINt; CM.A.C. TIME PAYMENT 1M.ANW / U ComfHire (.Iwinifl's lou- <A7m'/W /iri<vs and I. in- monthly iniymrnt%.ONE RIDE AND YOU'LL NEVER BE SATISFIED UNTIL YOU OWNA GENERAL MOTORS VALUETHE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINECOUNCILHoward P. Hudson, '35Associate EditorPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNICharlton T. Beck, '04Editor and Business ManagerFred B. Millett, PhD '31, John P. Howe, '27, John P. Barden, '35Contributing EditorsMilton E, Robinson, Jr., '11, JD '13, Louise Norton Swain, '09, AM '16, John J. McDonough, '28Council Committee on PublicationsIT is always a pleasure to be ableto give you an article by HarryD. Gideonse. This popular associateprofessor of Economics is more andmore in demand for his views on current economic and political trends,both in writing and on the radio. OnMarch 21 he appeared on a nationalradio hook-up in a discussion of theTownsend plan and is to be a witnessin Washington when the plan is considered by Congress. His treatmentof the critical issue of the fate of theConstitution is penetrating, logical,and clever.Once again John Roberts aids uswith our cover design.We were not very familiar withAmerican Indian Festivals in Belgium and didn't think many of ourreaders were either so we were determined that you have Florence Edler'sdescription of the Carnival of Binche,a celebration dating back to the Aztecs which has been going on in Belgium for several centuries. Miss Ed-ler, who received her Ph.B., M.A.,and Ph.D. from the University is nowin Antwerp as a fellow of the C.R.B.Educational Foundation studyingtrade relations between Antwerp andItaly during the sixteenth century.Henry Justin Smith, the managingeditor of The Chicago Daily Newswhose death recently was a hard blowto his fellow alumni and members of N THIS ISSUEthe University, was truly a life longfriend of the University. His life longfriend, Edgar J. Goodspeed, paystribute to him in this issue.It's news when a professor of English on campus writes a best sellerand its double news when that professor is Teddy Linn. But it is triplenews when a contemporary of his inthe English department steps forwardto criticise This Was Life. CarlGrabo has sent us a challenging review of the book that should provokeTABLE OF CONTENTSMARCH, 1936PageAn Economist Looks at the Constitution, Harry D. Gideonse 3The Carnival of Binche, FlorenceEdler 6Hutchins' Classics of the WesternWorld 8Henry Justin Smith, Edgar J. Goad-speed 9The Family Album nMan : Both the Experiment and theExperimenter, Wells D. Burnette ... 12Was This Life? Carl Grabo 17In My Opinion 18The Mason Saga, Howard W. Mort. . 20News of the Quadrangles 22Athletics 28Our Foreign Correspondent 31News of the. Classes . 35 much comment especially amongthose alumni of the turn of the century, the period of the story.Speaking of books what do you thinkof our frontispiece, a reproductionof the cover of President Hutchins'new volume, No Friendly Voice? Thework is a collection of his speeches ofrecent years and John P. Bar denexplains the whys and wherefores inNews of the Quadrangles.mWells Burnette has been conducting a survey and interpretation ofsome of the University's many acedepartments in recent issues. It's ouropinion that he's done one of his bestjobs on the Zoology department thismonth. In any event you won't be entitled to express an intelligent opinionof what our biologically inclinedbrethren are doing in Hull Court ifyou skip it.Two of our columnists have givenus cause for worry about their contributions. Exactly on his deadline,(we're sure it wasn't deliberate)Howard Mort betook himself to Billings hospital for an appendectomy.We wish him a speedy recovery andtrust he approves of our selection ofsome of his recent writings in TowerTopics. Our other columnist, Fred B.Millett is on his way to England fora three month's stay. It's our hopethat he'll continue with his comments<from across the sea and perhaps include some of his observations offoreign conditions.wii- P"bllshed by the Alumni Council of the University of Chicago, monthly, from November to July. Office of Publication, 403 Cobb Hall, 58th St atEllis Avenue, Chicago. Annual subscription price $2.00. Single copies 25 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, at the Post Officeat Chicago, Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The Graduate Group, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, is the official advertising agency ofthe University of Chicago Magazine.ROBERT MAYNARD HUTCHINSMaud Phelps Hutchins' sketch loaned by ErnestQuantrell for the cover of the President's new book,"No Friendly Voice" (see page 22).VOLUME XXVIII THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER 5MARCH, 1936AN ECONOMIST LOOKSAt the ConstitutionBy HARRY D. GIDEONSE, Associate Professor of EconomicsARE we governed by law or by judicial discretion?To some that may be a strange way of phrasingthe issue — the old slogan of government by lawrather than by men is often understood to mean thatgovernment by law and government by judges are oneand the same thing, and these are then contrasted withthe arbitrary rule of individuals. If strict constructionof the law had remained the rule, it might be possibleto distinguish the law from the men administering it.With the broad construction that crept into our "constitutional law" as early as Marshall's day, however, wehave, in fact, government by a changing majority in theSupreme Court which on one day may narrowly interpretthe law so that even an obviously national — and eveninternational — matter like agricultural production can bedescribed as a local issue, while a week or so later itmay interpret another federal power so broadly that evenan experiment in state socialism in the valley of a riverno longer navigable, can be held as incidental to theconstitutional power over navigation. The constitutionhas acquired all the expansibility — or contractibility —of an accordion, and whether in fact there is to be contraction or expansion is unpredictable, and a matterdecided by men.Those who think it is a clear matter of law, that is tosay of the text of the document, will, of course, objectto this statement. Like certain naive patriots, they mightadvocate hanging copies of the Constitution in all schoollobbies so that "mistakes" of this sort may be avoidedin the future. Who would not smile at the innocenceof a teacher who would seek to convince high schoolstudents of the constitutional validity of the power ofjudicial review by reading a constitution in which thepower is not even mentioned ? And what would a simplereader of the Constitution make of "due process" and"interstate commerce"? Would the clear separation inthe text of executive, legislative and judicial brancheslead him to believe that in practice our presidents arelegislative leaders, and 'that they run (or fall) on theirlegislative records and programs? Clearly the document Harry D. Gideonse•Based on receiaj addresses before the Ad Post of the AmericanLegion, the Hyde Park League of Women Voters and the Central Division of the Illinois State Teachers Association. itself is not enough,and traditional andjudicial interpretationare very nearly theheart of the matter.Any one "teaching"the Constitution bysimply reading theConstitution would begrossly misleading hispupils. Is it not prettywell established thatin view of the conflicting precedents theCourt has by now laiddown, the Court canfind equally "good"law to support manyvarieties of decisions? And that in practice the onlyway of determining the "constitutionality" of a bill, isto pass it and to submit it to a court test? And doesany one care to deny that a single new Supreme Courtappointment of the type Mr. Coolidge or Mr. Hoovermade (Stone, Cardozo) might considerably modify the"law" as it is now administered? Is it then a matterof law, or of personnel?There is a pathetic irony in the division of currentopinion about these issues. Liberals — who have as greatan interest as any other group in strict construction ofthe Constitution (think of the Bill of Rights) — clamorfor greater latitude in Supreme Court "interpretation,"while conservatives are seeking to establish a lastdefense against endangered interests in the Court, andmay eventually risk the principle of judicial review bymaking a dramatic political issue of the Constitutionitself. Would latitude for the Court be a long-run assetto "liberals" ? And would a passionate and emotionaldebate about the Constitution be a gain for conservatives ?This, I hope, will not be understood as a plea irtbehalf of New Deal legislation. I have had little enthusiasm for NRA and AAA, and even less for dollardevaluation and TVA, which was held constitutional inits first partial test. I have, however, a profound belief34 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEin constitutional government — which does not mean government by judges — and a growing conviction that areturn to a more flexible text and more strict construction is the only safeguard to the preservation of suchgovernment in contemporary America. If the Constitution is to be kept alive, it must be changed either in textor in interpretation ; not to adjust the document to changing circumstances is to make it unduly brittle. The realquestion is not whether but how it should be changed.Should it be changed by judicial amendment — that is bythe varying elasticity of interpretation, which will in theend arouse fundamental questions about the entire judicial system as recent debates about the confirmation ofsupreme court justices make clear — or should it bechanged by the regular constitutional process of amendment ? The latter implies strict construction, letting thechips fly where they may until amendment makes a different judicial opinion possible This would preservegovernment by law5 and keep the judicial system andappointments out of politics.The most serious error conservatives could makeis to identify constitutional government with unchanging-government. Thus Mrs. Huling, chairman of theNational Defense Committee of the D. A. R. and elevenother organizations, recently admonished her audience:"See that it (the constitution) is not altered noramended to meet the needs of what we are told is achanging world/ 'This is essentially a subversive doctrine; it woulddestroy the evolutionary — that is the constitutional —character of our government. Apparently the lady thinkseven the "changing world" is a myth, although Messrs.Tugwell and Frankfurter certainly did not invent it.This Daughter has also clearly forgotten the history ofthe Fathers who amended the Constitution ten times atthe first meeting of the first Congress of the UnitedStates. In fact, the chief distinction between constitutional and other forms of government is the explicitprovision for legal methods of change, and the amendingclause is therefore the very heart of the Constitution.Intelligent conservatives sense this very clearly, andHerbert Hoover in his Challenge to Liberty expressedit as follows:"To adhere to the spirit of the Constitution and itssafeguards, including orderly amendment, is the shelterof American life." (p. 131).What are some of the new circumstances calling fora new distribution of power ? An enumeration of a number of cases that are not of the same magnitude butillustrate the same general notion, may be suggestive.Transportation and technology have made a nationalmarket out of a group of more or less self-contained colonial commonwealths. In the days before airplanes, radio,modern highways, automobiles, railways, etc., the problems that arose from state incorporation of the typicalbusiness unit, were not serious. For more than a genreration the problem has become more clearly defined.Higher standards of corporate practice and the controlof monopolistic tendencies are impossible under stateincorporation which, in fact, results in a competition inlaxity of state legislation. Even William H. Taft — nobraintruster, but a Republican Secretary of War, Presi dent of the United States, and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court — called for federal incorporation as aremedy.The banking problem leads to similar conclusions.As long as we have had a dual — or rather multiple-banking system with the federal government and forty-eight states maintaining different standards of rigor ininitial requirements and subsequent administration, ourrecord will continue to be miserably deficient comparedto that of a nation like Canada with a roughly similareconomic and social development. Abraham Lincolnafter thirty years of "wild cat banking" succeeded inimposing the National Banking Act, largely becausepatriotism forgot about states rights under the fiscalstrain of the Civil War, but the record of bank failuresof the last fifteen years is there to suggest that the endis not yet.Another case can be found in the mosaic of ourmarriage and divorce laws. It is impossible for a conservative state like New York to enforce its own standards because residents with the purchasing power caneasily take advantage of more lax {deliberately lax)standards elsewhere. Experience with sales taxes allover the country, brings out the same sort of difficulties.Gary (Indiana) automobile dealers have a boom becauseof fiscal considerations in Chicago (Illinois).In a larger way, the major trend of social legislation tends to make the problem more urgent from yearto year. State legislation frequently does not lead tostate improvement, but rather to the migration of industries to low standard states — and to a consequent demoralization in the more "progressive" communities with arising tide of defeatism that saps the very life blood ofdemocracy. Frequently the Courts have held such legislation as not within the powers of the federal government, but the fact that the same federal governmentmaintains a federal market (that is to say, state tradebarriers are forbidden) destroys the practical effectiveness of state legislation. Thus federal legislation is unconstitutional, but state legislation is ineffective becauseof the federal market. In a sense, then, the constitutionis undermined by secret and indirect state protectionism— which is rife throughout the land — largely becausefederal regulatory legislation is held unconstitutional.A beautiful example can be found in Connecticut,where the state has maintained high sanitary standardsfor dairies. These standards are, of course, reflected inthe price of dairy products. Other states in the exerciseof their legal rights, have not established such standards,and their products sell at cheaper prices. Since the federal government maintains a federal market, the cheaperproducts enter Connecticut and undermine the nativedairy industry. The state has the right to legislate inthis field, but with a federal market has it the power toenforce the right? There is a widening twilight zonehere where the federal government cannot legally act,and where the states cannot expect to use their legalright to legislate because of the free trade amongst thestates which is maintained by the federal constitution.Such a condition will not endure. It will lead to determined efforts to set up state barriers which would makestate legislation effective (and destroy the federal systemT H E UNIVERSITY OFas well as undermine standard of living), or to amendment of the constitution redistributing federal and localpower in some fashion that is more in line with the newtechnological and communication factors, that have madea single national market out of a federal union of localeconomic units.Even in the control of crime the same problemsarise. If our crime rates are humiliatingly high, at leasta part of the problem is to be assigned to antiquatedpolice administration. The criminal has a "get away"that is as wide as the most modern communication devices will allow, but society's power to control the criminal is limited by the extent of local jurisdiction. Thenstartling crimes — like the Lindbergh kidnapping case —Professor GideonseQuotes Jefferson back at Hearstsuddenly draw dramatic attentibn to the limited powersof the federal government, and new statutes are passedenlarging the federal police powers with surprisinglyquick results. Conservative newspapers did not featurethe story that the (Lindbergh) Kidnapping and FireArms Registration Acts are now challenged by gangsters'attorneys before the Supreme Court on grounds of "constitutionality."Two weeks before the AAA decision which wasbased on the view that the control of agricultural production was not within the powers of the federal government, the Supreme Court handed down the Vermonttax case (Colgate vs. Harvey). "As citizens of theUnited States — the majority opinion said — we are partof a single great community consisting of all the statesunited and not of distinct communities consisting of thestates severally." Tariff policy has for generations beenused to build up a domestic market for manufacturingat the expense of the export market for the farmers.The tariff power to protect industry is constitutional,and the farmer cannot be blamed for insisting that thefederal power that harmed him, must be used to protecthim. "If there is so much unsound law and economicsbeing passed around, don't we get none?"Our federal system is a century and a half old. Notuntil the Civil War did popular usage refer to a"national" government. Not until this depression haspublic opinion sensed the legal obstacles to effectiveaction that are faced by a decentralized government and CHICAGO MAGAZINE 5a weak executive in an economy that is more and morenational in scope. The perils of centralized bureaucracyare enormous in a country that is a continent, but theeffort to maintain a "federal" interpretation of the constitution in a delicately balanced credit economy in whichstate lines have lost all economic significance, is fraughtwith the menace of utter demoralization. When reliefburdens increased, the national distribution of incomemade state relief intolerable in many cases. When thebanks broke down, the states were unable to handle theproblem. When standards of social legislation increased,the separate states were incapable of maintenance. It isperfectly clear that the trend toward regulation and interference — whatever we may think of its wisdom — mustachieve a congruency of the area of control with the areaof economic activity if a period of interventionist chaosis to be avoided. It is not without significance that everyfederal constitution that has been written since the American federal government was organized — including Canada, Switzerland and Australia — has allowed morecentral power than our own.America's first problem is political rather than economic. We are under a constitution, but as Chief Justice,then Governor, Charles E. Hughes has said : "The constitution is what the judges say it is." If we wish toretain government by law, and if we wish to avoid whatJefferson foresaw would become a tendency towardsthrowing the judiciary into politics, free amendment andstrict construction are the indicated procedures. Mr.Hearst recently called for a return to Jeffersonian democracy. He might be horrified to learn that Jeffersonhad little patience with those "who looked upon theConstitution with sanctimonious reverence." He saidquite emphatically that "one might as well require a manto wear the coat that fitted him as a boy, as civilizedsociety to remain ever under the regime of their ancestors."Jefferson's opinions about the federal judiciary wereso bluntly expressed that a tongue-tied college professorin these teachers' oath days of 1936, could hardly riskthe vigor of his images. He freely accused the court of"usurpation," and said that it had "long been his opinionthat the germ of dissolution of our federal government"was "in the constitution of the federal judiciary ; an irresponsible body (for impeachment is but a scarecrow)working like gravity by night and by day, gaining a littletoday and a little tomorrow, and advancing its noiselessstep like a thief, over the field of jurisdiction until allshall be usurped from the states, and the government ofall be consolidated into one." The direction of judicialusurpation was not the same as now, but the principleholds.To allow our social and economic policy to beshaped by judges is ill-advised, whatever our values orinterests might be. The law should be a means to anend, not an end in itself. Should we not first ask ourselves what our social (or economic) objectives are, andthen seek the legal ways and means of achieving them?If the judges decide — as they claim — on legal grounds,those are the wrong grounds upon which to determinethe answer to economic or social questions. If they decide(Continued on Page 30)THE CARNIVAL OF BINCHEAn American Indian Festival in Belgiu mAN American Indian Festival in Belgium? Nonsense, you say. And yet for centuries this strangeNew World custom has had a place in the tradition of the Old World.In the small town of Binche in southern Belgium isheld each year on Mardi Gras a carnival parade whichfor its historic interest, its harmonious beauty and pic-turesqueness has, perhaps, no equal. On that day fourhundred Binchois dressed in gorgeous, exotic costumes— all of them essentially alike — parade through the streetsof the small town, which is still largely confined withinits old ramparts. These men and boys in their picturesque costumes are called Gilles, the famous Gilles deBinche.Each Gille wears an ecru-colored linen suit coveredwith red and black rampant lions, with red, yellow, andblack stars, moons,banners, and stripes-all made of felt. Hehas a collar and cuffsmade of rows of narrow ruffled ribbontrimmed with lace orgold tassels. The jacket is stuffed in thefront and rear withstraw to form twolarge humps. On theGille's feet are wooden shoes trimmed withrosettes of white ribbon. Around his waistis a heavy leather beltdecorated with tenbells and red andwhite wool pompons.His headdress consists of a tall whitehat covered with imitation white daisies and topped witheight magnificent white ostrich plumes. On the frontof the hat are gilt ornaments, especially shafts of wheat.Long white streamers hang down from the hat. EachGille carries a wicker basket filled with oranges whichhe tosses one by one towards the spectators.To the sound of the beating of drums the Gillesexecute slow, rhythmical dance steps such as I haveseen used in American Indian ceremonies, especially inthe Southwest and in Old Mexico. They parade, orrather dance, down the long street leading to the TownSquare. The dancers frequently make complete turnsas they advance towards the Square. There they forma huge circle and dance a roundelay. The tapping ofthe drums is accompanied by the even beat of the sabotsclacking on the cobblestone pavement and by the tink-Gilles in Full RegaliaTwo Belgian "Indians" in Action * By FLORENCE EDLER, PhB '20, AM '23, PhD '30ling of the melodious bells worn on the belts of thedancers.What is the history of this curious costume and ofthis ceremonial dance so strongly reminiscent of American Indian festivities? A very interesting one, especially for Americans. In 1549, Mary of Hungary, governor in the Netherlands for her brother, the Emperor,Charles the Fifth, ruler of the Holy Roman Empire,Spain, and the Netherlands, gave a magnificent fete inher castle at Binche to celebrate the victory of Spainover the Incas of Peru. One part of the festivities wasa dance by Spanish soldiers dressed in strange costumeswith plumed headdresses, supposedly those of the Incas.The festival, and particularly the dance of the Incas,made such an impression on the spectators and becameso famous that the citizens of Binche soon began to carryon the tradition of the fete by reproducing the Incas'dance each year on Mardi Gras. The costume worn bythe Spanish soldiers in 1549 was probably an approximate representation of the tattooing and painting on thebodies of the Incas. The present costume has undoubtedly changed during four centuries, but the general impression it gives is still very exotic and the effect of theblack, red, and yellow decorations on the ecru background reminded me of the old embroidery of PeruvianIndians which I have seen in American Museums. Thelion of the Counts of Hainaut is certainly not Indian,but the stars and moon are. The deformity producedby padding the jacket with straw, the bells which takethe place of sonorous objects worn by Indians, and theplumed headdress are all suggestive of the ancient Peruvians. The wheat shafts on the hat and the orangesapparently symbolize fertility and are probably a survivalof spring festivals from a much earlier period than thesixteenth century.The name Gille is the French form of Gil, a verycommon Spanish Christian name. In the sixteenth century the Spanish soldiers in the Netherlands were calledGils by the natives as the English soldiers were called"Tommies" during the Great War. Since the Binchoiswere reproducing a dance first given by Spanish soldiers,they called the dancers Gils, or Gilles in French.The Gilles are grouped in eight societies of fiftymembers each. Every Binchois of sufficient means triesto be a Gille. The costumes, especially the magnificentostrich plumes on the headdresses, cost a small fortune.It is said that many a Binchois sells almost everythinghe possesses in order to own a fine costume. The sonsof adult Gilles are taken into the society at an early age,so that, by long years of training, they may carry on thefour-hundred-year-old traditional ceremony. The Binchois are extremely proud of this tradition and defendit valiantly from change and from imitation elsewhere.The Gilles appear in costume only once a year, on6THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 7Mardi Gras, but for several weeks before each carnival,they practice the measured dance step at home and inthe street of Binche. Dancing in wooden shoes on roughcobblestones requires endurance and skill. It is difficultand painful. For weeks after the festivities the Gilleshobble about on bandaged feet. On the two Sundayspreceding the beginning of Carnival each society ofGilles has rehearsals. The Gilles wear their woodenshoes and heavy leather belt with the ten bells. Eachsociety of fifty members has four drummers — one beatsa large drum and the others carry tambours. Regardlessof the weather, the rehearsals take place. The Gillesdance up and down the streets of Binche until they arecertain that they will all be in rhythm and unison onthe Great Day of the Year.On Mardi Gras each Gille is up long before dawn.He must be ready when the official "stuffer" and hisassistant arrive. The protuberances in the front andrear of the Gille's costume must be stuffed by an expertor they will not be firm and smooth. If the straw is notproperly placed, it will hinder the Gille's movements.After the stuffing each Gille is summoned by oneof the tambour players to the place where his group isforming. The grand carnival parade does not take placeuntil afternoon and is repeated by torchlight in the evening, but the Gilles are busy dancing from early morning.Each society of fifty members — big Gilles and littleGilles — wanders through the streets in the morning performing the characteristic dance. Each Gille dances byhimself, but fifty sabots are raised and clack on thepavement at the same time to the accompaniment of the drums and the five hundred little bells on the costumes.In the morning the Gilles do not wear their elaborate headdress nor carry the baskets of oranges. Theyappear with white stocking caps tied on with a whitei '«-jSiiH^'.1 ij I»r*'i£"i VLJ;-'-' £."¦t irf - '-aT: ra $&W?U-:rrr sL y&'F-?'.Hfffi W , k^ %.m CSr- 2«3«f9* &i *•The Big ParadePlumes reign supreme herehandkerchief. They wear this under their headdress inthe afternoon, the handkerchief serving as a protectionfrom the leather strap passed under the chin by meansof which the heavy plumed hat is held on. In place ofthe basket of oranges, each Gille carries a fagot whichhe brandishes as he dances. The morning activities areended with a roundelay in front of the Town Hall in themain square.In the afternoon of Mardi Gras comes the grandThe Morning RoundelayMardi Gras Festivities Begin Sans Plumes, Sans Formality8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEcortege — hundreds and hundreds of Gilles with wavingplumes advance with their peculiar dancing step alongthe street leading up to the Town Square which is ontop of a hill. Each society now has a band, instead ofonly four drums. As one stands in the square and looksThe Afternoon RoundelayA full house for the festivitiesdown the long straight street one sees an unforgettablybeautiful sight, a stream of something billowy and foamlike, glisteningly white, but with flashes of color here andthere (where the tips of the white plumes have been dyedred, pink, blue, orange, lavender, or black), a stream offairylike beauty flowing through a valley of human beings. Slowly the stream pours into the square and circlesall around it. The stream now looks more like a hedge,a soft, undulating hedge which encloses the eight bandsof musicians and several groups of young people inpierrot and other carnival costumes. Then comes the grand roundelay. Not joininghands as in the morning round dance, the four hundredGilles continue to dance alone, whirling and throwingoranges, if they have not flung them all towards friendsand relatives as they came up the long street. Finallythe music ceases and the feathery hedge disintegrates.The evening ceremony is even more impressive,although perhaps less beautiful. The Gilles appear againwithout their hats. They carry their empty basketswhich they wave in the air as they did the fagots in themorning. Amid flaming torches and to the rhythm ofthe music of their bands, the societies again advanceup the long street into the square. There they againform a huge moving circle. Suddenly the street lightsare dimmed and fireworks appear all over the square.Their crackling and hissing is added to the cacophonyproduced by the drums, horned instruments, bells, andsabots. The weird light from the fireworks gives ademonic appearance to the dancing Gilles. Unexpectedly the entire sky above the square is aglow with ashining white light that makes every figure stand outmore clearly than in daylight. The spectacle is fantastic,fairylike or demonic. The weird, humped figures apparently dancing now with frenzy might be the ghostsof medicine men or savages doing a war dance. Thenall is dark. When the street lamps are turned on againthe strange scene from another world has vanished.Where a few moments ago were dancing demons, thereis now only a confused, pushing mass of humanity tryingto surge in several directions at once.The Carnival of Binche is over. The ghosts of theIncas have vanished, to reappear only a year later.CLASSICS, AS TAUGHT BY THE PRESIDENTEvery Tuesday night at seven-thirty a group ofstudents, anywhere from thirty to sixty in number,gather in the University's comparatively new ClassicsBuilding to hear the possessor of the "no friendly voice"discuss in his own inimitable style the classics of ancientand modern literature. "Classics of the Western World"is what President Robert M. Hutchins calls it, the coursewhich he together with his close friend and brilliantlogician, Mortimer J. Adler, has been conducting forthe past six years. This course is extremely popularas evidenced by the crowded classroom which oftenswells to the extent that knowledge-thirsting studentsline the corridor outside the place where the University'spresident holds forth in order to hear the sometimeswitty, sometimes ironic, sometimes extraordinarily schol- larly comments on, for example, Thucydides or TomJones.Six years ago President Hutchins and ProfessorAdler undertook this mode of presenting some of thechoicest bits of the world's literature to a select groupof students, at the same time offering Adler and Hutchins a chance to get together for the purpose of expressing their views and criticism. It was not entirely anew idea, similar attempts had been made at ColumbiaUniversity and at Cooper Union.Considerable interest has been shown in the books,which are read and reviewed by the class. To the bestof our knowledge the following reading list of literarymasterpieces which comprise the "Classics of the Western World" appears now for the first time outside ofthe special course syllabus.Homer: IliadHomer: OdysseyOld TestamentHerodotus: WarsThucydides: HistoryAeschylus: Lyrical Dramas HUTCHINS' CLASSICS OF THE WESTERN WORLDSophocles: Dramas Tacitus: Germania; Agricola; DialogueEuripides: PlaysAristophanes: ComediesPlato: The DialoguesAristotle: Ethics, and PoeticsEuclid: Elements on OratoryCicero: Offices; Tusculan DisputationsVirgil: Aeneid, Eclogues, and GeorgicsLucretius; De Rerum Natura(Continued on Page 21)HENRY JUSTIN SMITHLife Long Friend of the University*WE are gathered here ata call sudden and un-forseen to share ourmemories of one whose full stature only death could reveal, andof whom we could not until nowsay all that was in our hearts.A generation ago, when President Harper sat down to dictateto his secretary the things hewished to say at the funeral ofDr. Justin A. Smith, he couldnot control himself to speak, andhad to write them with his ownhand. I thought of that on Monday morning, as I struggled toset down about Dr. Smith's sonsome of the tumult of memoriesand emotions that surged overme. after a friendship of morethan half a century. And Ithought of it again Monday afternoon, when I read that wonderful statement from one of his Henry Jumost seasoned associates, who confessed that he couldhardly see the typewriter through his tears. We saythese things without shame when we think of Henry J.Smith, and you who are his friends understand it.His father and my father were friends. Togetherthey worked to save the old University of Chicago, andthen to establish the new. They were poor men, butwhen the old University of Chicago closed its doors in1886, they, with Dr. Henson, on their own responsibility,rented a building in which for one year some at leastof its faculty and students were held together, and itswork was in part conserved in the hope of its re-establishment. When the new University enterprise wasundertaken, Dr. Smith opened the columns of his newspaper, The Standard, to its appeals, with unstintedliberality. As my father put it, the agents of thenew University could not have used The Standard morefreely, if they had been the owners of it.How well, and with what reverence, I rememberDr. Smith. From his well stocked library, my fatherused to borrow the books he wanted to read to us athome, but couldn't afford to buy. In such a home,Harry, as we boys called him, grew up, — an only child,with books for his chief playthings, with both his parents people of the loveliest and loftiest character, andfull of literary taste and interest to their fingertips.He had an editorial inheritance.We first met when he was four and I was eight,in that suburban Morgan Park of the eighties. When•Given at the Glencoe Union Church, February 12, 1936. • By EDGAR J. GOODSPEED, DB'97, PhD'98he was fitting for college, and II was beginning to try to teach inMr. Owen's Academy there, weall knew him as a scholarlyyoung man, developing thosetastes for learning that never lefthim and in some degree coloredall his literary work. We werestudents together later in the newUniversity, in its opening years,and I remember how when theGlee Club sang at Central MusicHall, it was he who walkedover to the piano and struck theopening chord. Already he wasdeveloping that fine taste andcompetence in music that gavehim and his friends such happiness in after years.After swiftly rising to successin his calling, he returned fortwo years to the University tohave charge of its public rela-stm Smith tions. A trifling incident showedme his character; I had turned over to him the University Record, which I had been editing, among otherduties. I had turned out two issues — January and April¦ — leaving July and October for him to edit. When theyear was over, I noticed he had put my name on thetitle page as Editor of the finished volume. It was asmall thing, but characteristic; the act of a man nothungry for honors, large or small, but readier to givethan to receive.I came to know him in his beautiful home, where hehad found with the wife of his youth his perfect happiness; surrounded with books and music, — a shrine oftaste and culture. There, he was always to the lastday of his life the devoted husband, the perfect lover;the very gentle knight — fearless, irreproachable, thoughtful, unselfish, understanding.In his office, no good cause, civic or philanthropic,ever appealed in vain for a hearing. He saw the city inits need with a sympathetic human heart. The publicwas not for him something to exploit for his own profit,but something to pity, serve and relieve. Always indomitably modest, determined that if there was anypraise other men should have it, in honor preferringothers to himself, he somehow managed to combine thespirit of a modern saint with the soul of an artist.For writing was to him an art, and to it he devoted himself with all his strength and beyond his strength. Fromhis exacting day in the office, he came home to writethat other, expression of himself in his books. No10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEwonder he was awarded not so long ago the first prizegiven by the Chicago Foundation for Literature.He was tireless in research and study, but the mostcommanding thing about his books was their deep human sympathy and understanding — understanding offailure and disappointment, though he had found success. Deadlines and Josslyn revealed himself, in hishigh professional and literary ideals. He felt, as RobertCasey said Monday, that newspaper writing could andshould be good writing.Meeting him even occasionally, as I did, in recentyears, I have felt the stimulus of every contact with him,that encouragement that he always gave, the wisdom ofhis counsel, and the value of his praise, which we allfelt, coming from him, was praise indeed.It seemed every time, after I had talked with him,that he had found something to do for me, that I had notdreamed of. So I know, as you do, that strange capacitythat he had of helping people on toward their goals, andseeing ways of doing it we had not thought of ourselves.One day, some years ago, he asked me, half idly, afterluncheon at the Cliff Dwellers, what I was doing, andI told him, with no idea he would be interested. But heexhibited keen interest in it, and when he thought itought to be ready, sent a reporter out for a story aboutit. It meant a great deal to that book; how much, itwould be difficult to estimate. So he was constantlyseeing the possibilities in the work of men about him andseeing ways to further it — ways they would not havethought of, much less asked for.His sense for beauty was so strong as to be almostlike an article of religion. He needed it and sought it,and wished others to have it to enjoy. This lay backof that article of his years ago in the Atlantic, "The UglyCity." It was a timely protest against the needless ugliness of our modern cities, particularly Chicago. Onlya great lover of the beautiful, a passionate apostle ofbeauty, could have written it.We have sometimes had the happiness of having himand Mrs. Smith with us on our Island in the northwoods, where he came to feel familiarly at home. Howwe shall miss him there ! He would pick up a book ofChopin's preludes, sit down at the piano and play themover. His friends found delight in the spirit and feelingwith which he played the great masters of musical composition. One day — just one — after a picnic at a distantoutcamp, surrounded by old friends, he arose and madea humorous speech, part French, part English, untiltears of laughter filled our eyes. And one day, he satdown at the desk and without effort wrote a poemabout the Island, so whimsical and yet so exquisite, thatwe were all amazed. It was an interpretation, imaginative and profound, of the place, with all its trees andplants and tiny creatures that opened the eyes of all ofus to beauty we had never seen ourselves and that all of us who have it will always cherish. So he gave himselfto his friends, in humor, music, poetry, and counsel — aman of many diverse gifts, and yet utterly unspoiled bythese endowments.How he could carry all this fastidiousness, this unflinching devotion to the highest literary ideals, thislove of beauty, this sensitiveness of nature, this refinement of taste, through what seems to most of us therough and tumble of modern metropolitan journalism-—and carry them to success in it — we have all often wondered. Yet it was these that gave him his distinction,his quality, his command and enabled him to guide somany of his young men into the paths of creative literature.Scores of men today all over the world look tothis occasion with full hearts, in gratitude and sorrowfor the man who opened doors of opportunity to them,who held them to high and stern ideals, but in a fashionso friendly that he bound them to him forever withhoops of steel.When he went abroad a few years ago and waswelcomed by some of them, who were representing thepaper in foreign capitals, he was really surprised at theaffection and warmth with which they greeted him.. Heseemed quite unconscious of what they, and all of uswho knew him, really owed him. He had little to sayabout religion, but his life of unfailing understanding,unselfishness and uprightness, spoke more strongly forit than many loud professions. We all felt in him highprinciples that he felt unflinchingly and to which he unconsciously rallied us. He was a man of spotless honor,who held the ideals of his profession sacred. He usedhis life for great causes, poured out his powers at a mostvital point in our modern life, — the Managing Editorshipof a great newspaper, — and never for any selfish or unworthy end, but always high-minded, unselfish, loyal,courageous, heedless of praise, supremely one who kepthis eyes upon the goal — not on the prize.But how vain it is to seek to put into words themeaning this valiant, gifted, self-effacing man had forus all. He seemed when you talked with him to comedown from some mountain height to speak to you. Notthat he showed the slightest superiority. But he seemedto live in an atmosphere Alpine in its ideals, beforewhich things cheap and unworthy immediately witheredand disappeared. And yet he viewed our purposes andaccomplishments with such a kindly, favorable eye, finding the best in them, and giving us encouragement andstimulus.We are all of us today grateful, and not a littleproud, that such a man owned us as his friends. Hismemory knits us who knew him best together in indissoluble bonds. Truly, we shall not look upon his likeagain.I'll* ^Tamlltf -(HltumFROM a waiter at the Commons to that highest ofappointive offices, Head Marshal, was CyrusLeRoy Baldridge's four year record at Chicago. Thencame art study and travel, interrupted by the war in which heserved with both the French andAmerican forces. In France he metCaroline Singer whom he marriedin 1921. He is now an illustratorand book designer. From eight toten hours a day, every day, hedraws — anything from a portrait tostraw hat ads. He hoards themoney thus gained. Sufficient carfare collected he and his wife startfor some country of which theyknow nothing when they start out and have the timeof their lives.EDUCATIONAL work does not kill the creative ifHelen Rose Hull is an example. Author of"Quest," "The Surry Family," "Heat Lightning,""Hardy Perennial," and contributor^. to many magazines, Miss Hull has4^H|fet spent her whole life in education.feg , ^ Her father was a superintendent ofa* ^ - JPL schools in Michigan. Before she en-^'M tered the University she attendedMichigan Agricultural College fortwo years and taught in the publicschools of Dewitt and East Lansingfor three years. Now, after a termof teaching in Wellesley College;she is associate professor in the extension English department of Columbia University. Between writing and teachingHelen Hull spends her time at an old farmhouse onthe coast of Maine.THE University seems to shine, at least in this FamilyAlbum, in writers and publishers. Lee WilderMaxwell, president of the Crowell Publishing Company is one of the leading publish-aers today. At the University he hada varied career, played four yearsof football with Eckersall and thatgroup of immortals, and ended asHead Marshal and cm officer of hisclass. Soon after he married AnneWells, a BWOC (Big Woman onCampus in present campus slang)and started up the publicationsladder. Lee Maxwell walked intoCro well's in 1913 and within sevenyears was vice-president, and inthree more president. Besides his publishing workhe busies himself with directorships in other corporations, works in New York, and lives in Greenwich,Connecticut. ALLEN TIBBALS BURNS, came from the East to jointhe class of '97 in that little Baptist school on theMidway. He continued on for several more yearstaking graduate work and thenworked back East once more as aY. M. C. A. secretary, secretary ofthe Pittsburgh Civic Commission,director of the Cleveland Foundation, chairman of the labor adjustment board of the Rochester Clothing Industry, and finally, his presentposition as executive director of theCommunity Chests and Councils,Inc. in New York City. His onlyrecreations and hobbies are thetheater and gardening. He married Jessie Wadsworth in 1911 and they have twochildren, Scott and Janet.I.N December the American Hospital Associationelected as president for the coming year ClaudeW. Munger, University B.A. and Rush M.D. It wasone of the high points in the careerof this man who has devoted his lifeto hospital work and efficiency. Dr.Munger plunged into this vocationimmediately after graduation in1916, as superintendent of the Columbia hospital of Milwaukee.From there he went to GrandRapids and since 1924 has been director of hospitals for WestchesterCounty, New York. He is thefounder of the Wisconsin State Hospital Association and has conducted much research on cleaning and dietary methods in hospitals. We congratulate Dr. Munger on hisnew position.THE world knows Margaret Wilson Turner as theauthor of "The Able McLaughlins," (Pulitizer prizenovel for 1923), "The Kenworthys," "The Crime ofPunishment," "One Came Out" andother successful books. The University knew her at the turn of thecentury as a member of the sincedefunct Spellman house. The sameyear that her prize winning bookwas published she married ColonelG. D. Turner of Oxford, Englandand is now busy, she says, writingthe second part of "The Able McLaughlins." No other activitiesdoes she have other than membership in the Labor party and theNational Council for the Abolition of the Death Penalty. For recreation she has "a little walled gardento play about in" and her object in life is twenty-fourhours of leisure a day.11MAN: BOTH THE EXPERIMENTAnd the ExperimenterONE sunshiny, typically New England afternoonan Eastbound train stopped at a prominent Massachusetts college town station to deposit arather kindly-eyed, portly passenger. No ceremoniousdelegation met the visitor. To a casual onlooker thisevent bore no signs of anything out of the ordinary.Lots of people get on and off college town trains eachday. Besides, the Midwesterner — his unaffected, energetic manner betrayed him as such — had no particularcredentials. He was simply a president of a newly-existent Illinois Baptist college.He had come in search of mindpower for that smallschool whose site consisted of two square blocks of nearmarshland bordering a half -completed World's Fairmidway.So, on this day was born what was destined to become one of the world's leading scientific training laboratories. Some thirty years after the portly, kindly-eyedpassenger had passed into memory, this department stoodout as a "star" in rating among Departments of Zoologyin America. Those kindly eyes could not have foreseensuch a conspicuous future when they persuaded CharlesOtis Whitman to leave this Massachusetts college to goWest with them to help establish a great university andto head its Zoology work. Certainly still less could theyhave foreseen the future of the young enthusiastic graduate student who tagged along with his teacher from already renowned Clark University to the unpretentiousMidway classrooms and workshops. He was Frank R.Lillie who has survived his master to head the NationalAcademy of Science.* * *Thus in 1892 Charles Otis Whitman set out as Professor of Zoology at the University of Chicago. Sincethat time his name has become synonymous with experimental embryology. His work in the genetics of pigeonshas been assumed since his death by Oscar Riddle atCold Springs Harbor Laboratory, Long Island.Inasmuch as this article is designed to give a repor-torial account of the work now going on in Zoology atthe University, it is not through lack of interest that Islide over, with but brief mention, the names of thosemen who have made this department what it is today. Itis because any popular zoology text can far better describe their history and work than can I from such atardy observation.Frank R. Lillie was one of the first two men to receive a Ph.D. in this department at the University. Following his graduation he began the teaching and researchwhich culminated in his chairmanship of the Departmentin 1911. As Professor of Embryology and Director of theMarine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, he continued until 1930 when he was placed incharge of organizing the Biological Science division under the new Chicago Plan. Here he served as dean untilhis retirement last year. Admired and respected by his • By WELLS D. BURNETTEcolleagues, Dr. Lillie is continuing his work in retirement in a small laboratory in the Whitman ZoologicalBuilding, the red-brick structure which he erected to thememory of his former professor. Still keenly interestedin embryology he spends long hours each day observingsex characters and the effects of hormones in chickens.Jar upon jar of specimens and tissue line the walls of hisworkshop as witness to the untiring efforts of the manwho in retirement is probably the most influential individual in the field of Biological Science in America today.Besides heading the Academy, he is chairman of the National Research Council.Succeeding Dr. Lillie as chairman of the Department, ProfessorCharles M. Child remained in this position until two yearsago when he was retired. He was recalled, however, thisyear to return to hiswork both in research and teaching.T'h e reappointmentincludes a six monthstay each year in abiological station onthe Pacific coast andsix months in residence. This springhe will again teachthe familiar course,Experimentsin Physiological Zoology. His earlier work in embryology and regeneration of invertebrates has brought him fame to the extentthat many foreign scientists consider him the rankingZoologist in America. In the early '30's Dr. Child,working with lower forms of animal life (particularlyflatworms) and plants, found that it was possible toalter the plan or general pattern of an organism. Bymeans of chemical agents, temperatures, and electrical currents, organisms were so altered and controlled asactually to make individuals which differed widely fromthe normal forms of the same species. These experimentsadded fuel to the already heated blaze of theories on theextent to which environment affects animal life. Thiswork on primitive forms and environment was well advanced at the time when Professor Horatio Hackett Newman began studying identical human twins for nature-nurture influences which shall be reviewed later in thisarticle.Of interest, even if not startling, were some of hisside-issue results in invertebrate physiology whichshowed that age could become youth — that is "youthFrank R. LillieHeads National Academy of Science12THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 13from the worm's standpoint. Aged flatworms whichwere divided into sections regenerated into youthful flat-worms with tissue that was markedly that of a youngworm. In his coastal station work "at the present timeProfessor Child is experimenting in embryology ofprimitive marine invertebrates.Turning from the men who are now filling in thefinal pages of their bulging laboratory note-books, wefind six men of professorial status and about a dozen research technicians who are not only carrying on the workstarted years ago by Whitman, Lillie, and Child, but areopening new fields of biological knowledge. A detailedaccount of their research and experiments now in processwould fill another Eliot bookshelf. In a hasty tour withthese men through their workshops I shall have timeonly for the high spots and a few interesting facts pickedup here and there. They are fascinating, the hundreddetailed experiments which are now taking place in theZoology Building, in Whitman Laboratory, and off campus. They tell a strange story of the mosaic that makesup life and its physical framework.Heading the list of staff members is bushy-browed,congenial Carl R. Moore who is now chairman of thedepartment. One of the older members, H. H. Newmanhas acquired a tidy bit of knowledge in the past ten yearson human twins. Then there is Warder C. Allee, commonly known to his colleagues as the animal "social scientist." Among other things he has found that althoughtoo many cooks may spoil the broth, too many fish do notspoil the gold-fish bowl.Proud possessor of the international champion queentermite (conservative estimates number her progeny upwards of 60,000,000) as a part of the world's most complete termite collection is Alfred E. Emerson who findsthat termites disprove the theorythat warfare is inherent in all living forms.Dr. SewallWright stands outfor his mathematical intepretationof Mendelian theories, the type ofmathematics thatwe hear rumoredequals the complexity of thatdone by Einstein.He too has alighter mark of ^^distinction,the keeper of theone and onlyguinea pig "cathedral," a near-Gothic structure just off the main quadrangle, which houses a thousand of the small animalswhich serve as his experiments on genes.A fairly recent addition to the department is Assistant Professor Paul A. Weiss of Vienna, a comparatively young man who has already won his laurels byWarder C. AlleeSociology of animals his specialty revolutionizing the concept of the motor nervous system.These are the men who are piloting the march ofZoology at the University of Chicago. These are themen who this year are preparing fifty graduate studentsto carry their work into the next generation.Carl Moore came to the University as a graduatestudent in 1914 and followed, in succession, the stepsof fellow, instructor, assistant, associate and full professor by 1928. During the War period he had chargeof the teaching of the pre-medical courses. "Some onehad to do it," he explains.Continuing with his pre-medic courses of comparative anatomy and embryology, Dr. Moore has developeda special interest in the biology of sex and sex hormones.He would like to know just what effect hormones haveon the individual animal. Some of his more or less "unheralded" work has been in connection with the modification of sex characters by means of hormone treatments.The future of the "he" man may be entirely changed ifone of Dr. Moore's experiments ever becomes common.He has been able to develop mammary glands in a maleguinea pig to the extent that the animal can suckle a litter of youngsters. Similar work has been going on inthe Whitman laboratories under the eye of Dr. LincolnDomm, a research associate, who, by sex-hormone transfer, has been able to develop crowing ability, spurs, androoster combs in the female barnyard fowl. Going a stepfarther, Domm has been able to introduce hormones intoan egg, prior to its hatching, so that the would-be-henemerges with a prominent male comb growth. I was assured that there are no hermaphroditic intentions or efforts to increase male "equality" in these experiments;they are simply to further the knowledge of the activityof hormones.Other sex-research projects are being supported byfunds from the Committee for Research in Problems ofSex, a part of the National Research Council, and theRockefeller Foundation which are helping to maintain alarge rat and gopher colony in the basement of the Zoology Building. Dr. Mary Juhn is observing the sexcharacteristics of chicken and pigeon feathers. Dr.Dorothy Price is studying the part played by hormones inthe development of the prostate gland and reproductionsystem of small mammals.When not engaged in twin research or teaching, Dr.Newman devotes his time to writing. During the pasttwenty years he has published a dozen books and a scoreof research monographs. Sandwiched in among thesemore or less academic pursuits are an occasional game ofgolf or contract bridge with the professorial "gang."Like many of the faculty he first came to the University as a graduate student. He was here shortly afterthe period described by James Weber (Teddy) Linn'snew novel, This Was Life (a rising best seller based onlife at the University in the nineties) . After studying fortwo years with Whitman, he taught at Culver MilitaryAcademy, at the University of Michigan, and at the University of Texas where he headed its Department ofZoology. In 1911 he settled down at the University.During the War period he was a dean in the College ofScience.Newman's principal job when he joined the Midway colony was to build up an undergraduate program in14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHoratio Hackett NewmanTen years' research on twinsZoology in a department which at this time had becomeprincipally a graduate school. As a culmination of thisprogram he organized and directed the parent of thepresent Biological and Physical Science courses, an experimental course that continued for seven years underthe title of "The Nature of the World and Man." Sincethe advent of the Chicago Plan he has spent half of histime helping to build up the general course for freshmenand sophomores.On the press now is his latest book written in collaboration with Educational Psychologist Frank H. Freeman and Karl Holzinger, professor of education and statistician. The book deals with a study of heredity andenvironment as shown in an examination of fraternal andidentical twins and is the culmination of ten years of research. The difference between fraternal and identicaltwins, explains Professor NeWman, is that fraternaltwins are derived from two separate ova which have beenfertilized by separate sperms at the same time, and bear arelationship of brother or sister. A pair of identical twinsoriginate from one ovum which at an early stage of itsdevelopment divides and forms two individuals which aregenetically identical. The treatise deals with fifty pairsof each type of twins. The vital material is however concerned with twenty pairs of identical twins which wereseparated in infancy and have been reared apart underdifferent environmental conditions. It took ten years anda Century of Progress Exposition to gather these cases,many of whom were refractory and would not come toChicago. By offering free transportation to Chicago andto the fair, Dr. Newman persuaded the remaining pairsto submit themselves to observation. Prior to the timethat the University professor began his project, only onepair of identical twins reared apart had ever been scientifically studied. He feels sure that he has now exhaustedthe present living supply of identical twins in this partof the world.Through such observations Newman has been ableto determine relative shares of hereditary and environmental differences in understanding human traits. Hebelieves that as a whole the work has shown that the effect of each factor is important, but that in some traitsheredity, and in others environment is more effective. Contradictory to the assumptions of many psychologiststhat I. Q. ratings are not affected by education and environment, Professor Newman has found that in cases ofextreme educational differences there have been produced marked divergencies in I. Q. ratings of twins whoare equal in heredity. One outstanding example of environmental effects was found in a set of identical twins.One of the two had quit school at the third grade, theother had finished college and had taught school. Therewas a difference of more than thirty points in their I. Q.testings. Other cases in which there were noticeable variations in education showed differences from twelve totwenty-five points.Another disagreement which Newman finds is inconnection with the belief held by many anthropologists,particularly Franz Boaz, that stature and cephalic index(head form) change with environment. He has notfound this to be true in the cases of separated twins. "Ifyou can't solve the problems of heredity and environmentin man with this set-up you never will be able to solve it.With identical twins we have a controlled experimentwith only one variable (environment). No other humanmaterial is so favorable as this."Two side-line pursuits have developed for ProfessorNewman out of this work. He is studying palm printsand finger prints and their resemblances and differencesin twins. In this connection he has become interested inright-handedness and left-handedness, whether such peculiarities are mere habits or are hereditary. He hascome to the conclusion that "handedness" has a definitegenetic basis with left-handedness tending to run in families. He has also found that where one of the two identical twins is right-handed and the other is left-handed, asis often the case, the right hand of one is usually morelike the left hand of the other than are the two hands ofthe same individual.Leaving the environment-heredity controversy, Ifound Dr. Alfred Emerson available in his office for adiscussion of the "social" insects. Emerson makes hisposition clear that he is not working on the economic control of the insect as pests but on their biological and evolutionary background.The "social" insect to which Dr. Emerson has de-Alfred E. EmersonThis Queen termite is his prideTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 15voted his time is the wood-eating termite. He has studiedthe domestic varieties, the European, the African, andthose of Panama and South America where he has spentconsiderable time. Study in the European field wasmade possible by a Guggenheim fellowship in 1926. Hismost recent efforts are in cooperation with Dr. HaroldKirby of the University of California on the evolution ofprotozoa and termites. A symbiotic relationship occurs when two animals live together in such a dependentstate that if one dies, the other cannot live. These protozoa live in the intestines of termites and digest the woodwhich is ingested by the termites. Without the protozoa the termite would starve to death and vice-versa.On a desk in his office is a special shipment of these termites and their protozoa from Africa, nine hundred vialswhich will require two hours each for analysis. In jarson shelves in this same office are the results of his formertermite ventures.Another of his recent interests has been the criticism of the Lamarkian theory of evolution which statesthat acquired characteristics are transmitted from generation to generation. The evolutionary sequence of structure and behavior in the sterile worker and soldier termites could not have occurred through the inheritance ofacquired characteristics.Dr. Emerson has never published a book, but onthis visit he gave me the list of proposed books which heassured me he would NEVER write. The first of thewould-be titles is "Termites" which he would prefer to— that is if he were going to — compile at the close of hiscareer. The second book is a "Text Book of Ecology"which he says is badly needed, but which he won't do because he has "too many other things to do." "A NewOrigin of the Species" would be the last which he woulduse to modernize the Darwinian theory which he believesstresses the origin of adaptation rather than the origin ofthe species.As an individual, Emerson has some very definiteideas about the correct mode of living, "I wouldn't careto be a research man pure and simple," the tropicallytanned Zoologist assured me. "Research work is of necessity ninety-eight per cent individual. In my researchwork I spent most of my time on matters which I cannot talk over even with my colleagues. We are all human and need our outside contacts." He further addedthat the ideal job is composed of half teaching and halfresearch with the rest of the time spent in editing. Emerson is co-editor of the journal "Ecology." He likes theUniversity "atmosphere" and enjoys a game of tenniswhich he intends to go in for "hot and heavy" this summer — that is, after some of those 900 vials of "social" insects have been looked into.After ten years in the Department of Agriculture asSecond Animal Husbandman in charge of animal investigation, Sewall Wright joined the University faculty in1926. While in federal work he first started his experiments on the effects of inbreeding and cross breeding ofguinea pigs. This has led to his major project, the studyof the statistical effects of Mendelian heredity, first inrelation to the practical problems of livestock improvement and more recently to the general theory of evolution. Other projects are concerned with gene physiologyof color factors in guinea pigs. Thus through the study of the pigments of the skin and hair in all possible combinations, he and his students are trying to relate the system of genes to the physiology of coat color.The experiments on inbreeding give an opportunityfor the study of "sports" or abnormalities which ratherfrequently arise in inbred lines. These are of interestfor the light which they throw on the control of the development of forms by genes. In one case Dr. Wrighthas found a gene which restores certain characteristicswhich the ancestor of the modern guinea pig probablylost millions of years ago during its evolution. Normalpigs have fourteen digits, typically lacking big and littletoes on the hind feet and thumbs on the fore feet. Theprimitive ancestors of the pigs had twenty digits, ten infront and ten in the rear. One dose of the new gene restores some or all of the missing digits. Two doses, however, disturb the development process in such a waythat a more or less indefinite number of digits (seven totwelve) are found on each foot.The collection of guinea pigs which is housed in theaforementioned building connected with Whitman Laboratory is as up-to-date as any breeding quarters. Experiments in the Department do not cease with merely theSewall A. WrightHe discovers genesanimals themselves. There are constant experiments toproduce more satisfactory cages for the guinea pigs andmore satisfactory methods of feeding and watering them.High up on the fourth floor of the Zoology Building, away from the furor of campus life I found the youngAustrian nerve specialist. Five years ago Paul Weisswas Assistant Director of the Biological Research Institute of the Academy of Sciences in Vienna. Today hisexperiment in tissue culture and the motor nervous system place him at the top among outstanding Universitymen.Of his work, the "Journal of General Psychology"recently said, "Paul Weiss' experimentally substantiated'resonance theory' is probably as significant for the motorside of the nervous system as Lashley's equipotentialtheory is for the cortex."16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHis revolutionary nerve discovery started with laboratory observation fifteen years ago disproving the prevalent theory that the central nervous system sent out specific signals to specific muscles much the same as aswitchboard might switch signals to particular points. Hecame to the conclusion that signals were not sent outalone to particular muscles, but that particular signalswere emitted from the spinal center along with hundredsof others into a common mixing channel. The musclesfor which that signal was intended simply reached outand took it from the host of signals meant for other regions that surround it. This hypothesis explained thereason why muscles which were grafted to a foreign portion of a body would react in the same way at the sametime as would similar muscles in the normal position.Identical muscles take from the nerve channels identicalsignals instead of responding to the nervous impulseswhich affect nearby muscles. In his laboratory he hasgrafted legs on salamanders which react to the samestimuli intended for the normal leg. If the leg isgrafted upside down it does not "learn" to act for thebest interests of the salamander, instead, because themuscle's position is reversed it will react to the samestimuli as the normal leg and consequently operate backwards.Experiments conducted by Weiss on toads have beenin connection with the central motor nerve and its response. In his tissue culture studies he is seeking tolearn why nerve fibres grow out from isolated nerve cellsin a common direction which they apparently do.Dean of the Biological Science Division, WilliamTaliaferro has recently appointed Weiss to the Neuro-Biological Committee whose aim will consist of integrating the work on the nervous system now being conductedon the campus.The last major name in University Zoology work isWarder C. Allee, whose University life is surrounded byhis innumerable experiments in Whitman Laboratorywhere he has his office. Dr. Allee was brought to theLTniversity to present the ecological side of animal life(bordering Botany, Physiology, Psychology, and Sociology). His personal research work has drifted largelytoward the "Sociology" of animals. In brief his experimental study lies in the realm of the effect of numbersupon animal life. In the Marine Biological Laboratory,of which he is a trustee, his summer research consistsof observations of sea urchin eggs. He now has evidencethat if eggs are crowded there is a greater speed in theearly division of them. He has also found that mice incrowded conditions grow with low temperatures muchfaster than if isolated although they reproduce morerapidly with only one pair to a cage than if morecrowded.A large number of experiments have been conductedon the effect of numbers on learning. Dr. Allee has justfinished a study of parakeets which showed that learningtakes place more easily with individual parakeets. Theintroduction of another bird (and not necessarily of theopposite sex either!) causes a disturbance which retardsthe ability to learn. In a similar arrangement with cockroaches he has found that alone, one will learn to findthe goal in a specially constructed maize within two minutes average time. Twice that amount of time or moreis required when the trial is made with two or three cock- Dorothy PriceExperimenting in the rat colonyroaches. Goldfish refuse to be bound to the rule andseem definitely able to "catch on" more quickly in numbers. The fish have the ability to follow or to learn bywatching others in an acquarium maize.Another experiment is now being conducted to ascertain why fish thrive better in water in which there hasbeen other fish. It has also been found that water intowhich a protein extract taken from the skin of fish hasbeen injected speeds the rate of fish growth even whendiluted to one part in 800,000.In two other experiments which he is conducting,the Socio-Zoologist intends to find out the effects ofnumbers on the respiration in salamanders and the effectsof ultra violet light in sunlight on the distribution of animal life. The s#ene for this latter study is the Indianasand dunes where there is an opportunity to study theultra-violet portion of sunlight.The long-run purpose of these experiments in goldfish, parakeets, mice, et cetera, has been to disprove thepopular contention that all crowding is harmful, that thegreater the rate of numbers the less beneficial the situation is to the individual. Dr. Allee has shown that up toa certain optimum point in many animals the fewer theanimals the less satisfactory is their general welfare. Beyond that point, however, the reverse situation holdstrue. As a social scientist in animal life he finds that animals profit by companionship and co-operate to the betterment of the majority up to the point where "company" becomes a "crowd." The question now raised iswhere does one classification end and the other begin.That, however, we are told depends on the animal.Professor Allee is president of the American Society ofZoologists and like Dr. Emerson he prefers a "balanced"life, commenting, "I would feel quite lost without graduate students — and even undergraduates."This Whitman scientist has found a higher "flunk"rate among students since the advent of the Chicago Planthan ever before. This was puzzling to him at first, headmits, until he found that most of these failures were(Continued on page 17)WAS THIS LIFE?By CARL GRABO, '03, Associate Professor of EnglishProf. GraboCriticOLD grads will read Mr. Linn's novel bifocally,both as a story and as a record of things past.The story concerns the pugnacious and chivalrous exploits of an Iowa youngster versed in Greek who getshis collar bone broken in football (weighs 140), becomescampus reporter for a city paper, andstands up to Swiney the dreadedteacher of English composition.There's a murder, and a homicidalfire, and one or two episodes mildlysexy as a concession to the youngergeneration. But it is a pure-mindedbook and thus may grace the parlortables of those who went to college inthe clays now curiously known as theNaughty Nineties — evidence of thetriumph of alliteration over truth.They were not notably naughty, though men were menin them days, as all old grads attest and as ProfessorLinn's story reveals. Seems we were more heroic thanwe knew, though not many of us talked back to Swiney.Several of the portraits of those early dons freshfrom Harvard and quoting Stevenson and Pater will berecognized as more or less authentic. It is the storywriter's privilege to report facts as they were or to colorthem as he sees fit. If he combines thecharacteristics of several persons inone, that also is his privilege unless heidentifies a fact of literary historywith one of his imaginary characters.Thus Cabot is made to utter as of hisown coinage the famous line of William Vaughn Moody's "A little manin trousers — slightly jagged." Nowunless Cabot is meant to be Moody —as clearly he is not — it is improperto attribute this line to him unlessthe implication is that Moody did notoriginate the line. If so, in the cause of literary scholarship, we must have proof. Prof. LinnAuthor Mr. Linn also remarks, "The word 'kid,' descriptiveof a young person of either sex, had not yet made itsappearance in the American vocabulary." This beingwholly contrary to our recollection and we being, asalways, scrupulously scholarly, we consulted the dictionary staff next door to our office and emerged with thesecitations :"Judge King at once dismissed the case remarkingthat once he was a 'kid' himself." (Kansas Timesand Star, Nov. 9, 1889).Again: "I thought Christ was partial to kids." BillNye in Baled Hay (1883).Also in the interests of accuracy I question whetherAlmayer's Folly (published 1895) was known on theChicago campus until long after. Charley Huston discovered Youth when it first appeared (Blackwoods wasit?) and read it to several of us, Fred Bramhall, DaveRobertson, and Sherlock Gass among them. That musthave been in 1901 or 1902. I myself subsequentlybrought Conrad to the notice of at least two membersof the English department who knew nothing of him.These finicking objections are, of course, of slightimportance and evidence merely the pedantry of the reviewer. Yet in one larger respect I would question theaccuracy of Mr. Linn's evocation of days long past.There was, as I recall the time shortly subsequent toMr. Linn's undergraduate years, very little of thatsocial consciousness with which he endows them.Marx and the Revolution and all that meant nothing.Only a few liberated minds ever questioned the justice meted out to the alleged anarchists of the Hay-market riot and applauded Governor Altgeld for commuting the prison sentences of those not hanged. It waseven later, I believe, that the promotion of a man nowfamous was held up by his dean because he questionedthe sanctity of the Protective Tariff. (Evidence supplied on request.) Obviously one so impious could notbe a safe guide to youth. We do move. In fondly recalling the old days we forget how much.MAN : EXPERIMENT, EXPERIMENTER (Continued from page i6)made by students who had transferred from other institutions. In his opinion this speaks well for the Hutchins' educational product.* * *One cloudy, typically Midwestern afternoon, Istepped out the door of the Zoology Building, a ratherwide-eyed, portly individual. No ceremonious delegation met me. To a casual student crossing the quadrangles this event bore no signs of anything out of theordinary. Hundreds of students go in and out of thisbuilding each day, but this individual had just completed a tour of science in the making, things which tomorrowmay completely change the trends of scientific processes,but which now are simply laboratory experiments in oneof America's foremost temples of learning. I paused,thought of the kindly-eyed passenger who had steppedoff a train in a Massachusetts college town some fortyyears ago. And, as I started to walk toward HarperMemorial Library I wondered just how far into thefuture he had seen when he persuaded master and student to follow him to that small Baptist college bordering a half-completed World's Fair midway.17IN MY OPINIONBy FRED B. MILLETT, PhD'3 1 , Associate Professor of EnglishNOWADAYS, a production of a play by HenrikIbsen is likely to be greeted by the critics withcasual contempt or slightly concealed superciliousness. Thus, the Daily Maroon's dramatic editor, C.Sharpless Hickman, disposes of Ibsen jauntily and cavalierly, — "Today Ibsen has shrunk, popularly, to the stature of a nonentity. His plays attract only a limited audience. His battles, fought and won three decades ago,appear tame beside other and present-day problems. Itis a matter of much debate yet, however, as to the eventual place Ibsen will hold among dramatists. There aresome who feel that his works are universal and timeless.There are others, like myself, who feel that his works aredecadent and dated, save for his great poetic drama,Peer Gynt."Even Brooks Atkinson of the New York Times,(though he is certainly old enough to know better)found it in his heart to write of Nazimova's magnificentproduction,— "Perhaps in its day Ghosts was a daringdrama that helped blow the stuffiness out of thought andmanners. Certainly the Gradgrinds denounced it violently enough to establish it as a masterpiece. But now,apart from the acting of Nazimova and her colleagues,it is only a temperate statement of an ugly thought witha milk-and-gruel attack upon authority and pious idealism." Such purblind judgments as these would seem tobe put at naught by the sensational history of this playin the theatre and its power to move large contemporaryaudiences to depths of emotion and heights of illumination.Months before a Norwegian theatre would open itsdoors to Ghosts, Andre Antoine, director of the TheatreLibre in Paris, undertook a production of it. His readingof a French translation had convinced him that it was asgreat a play as Tolstoi's The Power of Darkness. Hisjournal records his first impression of it: "It resemblesnothing in our theatre ; a study of heredity of which thethird act has the sombre grandeur of Greek tragedy.However, it seems rather long, as is natural perhaps in aFrench translation of a German text adapted from theNorwegian. This perhaps obscures and slows up the dialogue, but all the same I shall not hesitate." As rehearsals went forward, however, his doubts increased, and hecalled in a trio of his friends to criticize the piece. Oneof them, Catulle Mendes, declared it would prove impossible on the French stage. Another, Henri Ceard, said,"Yes, it is very beautiful, but it is not clear to our Latinminds. I should like a prologue, in which the spectatorswould see Oswald's father and Regina's mother surprisedby young Mrs. Alving. After this exposition, the Frenchaudience could follow the play with ease." Only onefriend, George Ancey, had the perception to say, "It ismagnificent. It does not need to be touched."Fortunately, we have two vivid impressions of An-toine's first production of Ghosts on May 29, 1890, inwhich he himself acted the part of Oswald, "the fin- fi -•1Fred B. Millettest role," hethought, "thatan actor couldplay." On thefollowingday, he setdown thesewords in hisjournal, — "Ibelieve thaton some theeffect wasprofound; forthe majorityof the spectators, boredomfollowedastonishment ;during thelast scenes,however,a veritable anguish grippedthe house." A greater man of letters, George Moore,gives a feeling account of Antoine's effectiveness in thisplay, — "Antoine was wonderful in the part of Oswald.Identifying himself with the simple truth sought byIbsen, by voice and gesture, he cast upon the sceneso terrible a light, so strange an air of truth, that thedrama seemed to be passing not before our eyes, butdeep down in our hearts in a way we had never feltbefore."In March of the following year, 1891, a Dutchman,J. T. Grein, launched the Independent Theatre of London on its career with the first English production ofGhosts. Probably no play in the history of the Englishtheatre has raised such a storm of abuse. Five hundredarticles are said to have been inspired by this productionalone, and the violently abusive tone of most of the articles may be measured by the epithets garnered by Bernard Shaw for his Quintessence of Ibsenism. Some ofthe more presentable are fetid, malodorous, garbage, carrion, and offal.But despite this unpropitious beginning, Ghostsmade its way into the repertory of most of the majoractresses of the early twentieth century. One of the greatest interpreters of the role of Mrs. Alving was EleanoraDuse, who acted the part on the ill-fated tour that endedwith her death in Pittsburgh in 1924. Of the impressionshe made in this role at almost the end of her career,John Corbin has given a treasurable description. "Duse'sMrs. Alving lives simply and expressively an everydaylife ; during long stretches of dialogue she sits passiveupstage, her back to the audience. But every scene isdominated, none the less, by the mood of her tragic suffering;18THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 19"The moments of outward demonstration are so fewas to be forever memorable. When she feels herselfhaunted by the ghosts of her young married life, thosemarvelous hands of Duse play about her temples, hereyes and her breast like an insinuating spirit. In momentsof positive will, her profile rises gently, yet superbly, imperially. When she breaks down, sobbing with Oswald inhis despair, the most poignant moment of all comes asshe clutches her side in the final effort of self-control."Her movement everywhere has a grace so easy andso measured as to seem a thing above her and beyondher. Her voice has the softly passionate sorrow of aviolin, but always its resinous sweetness, its perfect modulation. Yet somehow by these means, so simple and sounobtrusive as to be all but imperceptible, the quiveringheart of a woman is laid bare, and with it the soul of agreat drama/'In the main, the play has not been fortunate in itsAmerican interpreters. One of the least happy was Minnie Maddern Fiske, who, after a brilliant career as acomic actress, ventured on this tragic undertaking in1926. Almost the only critic to find anything good to sayof her performance was her lifelong admirer, AlexanderWoollcott, and even he seems to have suspected that therewas something amiss. "Those who have seen Ibsenplayed ever with a wry face will learn with a faint startof surprise that the Mansfield was swept with gusts oflaughter last evening. It would take Mrs. Fiske to finda lot of fun in Mrs. Alving. The inner laughter of thisgallant figure; her deep, ancient, unquenchable amusement at that big, blundering baby, Pastor Manders, andher fathomless irony in all her dealings with the hypocritical Engstrand — all this sent a rippling laughterthrough the play." It was, as he says, "an extraordinary experience," but not in the complimentary sensehe intended.Other critics gave a less biased view of the proceedings. Gilbert W. Gabriel remarked, "Something beyond staccatos must be sown after all in the style of playing Ghosts. Mrs. Alving's character lies somewhere faroutside the however pleasing recommendations of conversational impetuosity and a sense of humor. Turningghosts into parlor mots does not manage to brighten thecorner where they hide." And Gilbert Seldes observed,"If Mrs. Fiske had not babbled and shouted through therest of the play, her violent hysterics at the end, properly timed, would have been extraordinarily effective.Actually, they became part of the system which ended inthe ludicrous tableau of Oswald sitting in obscurity crying for the sun, while Mrs. Fiske posed magnificently inthe baby spot which should have given Oswald the cuefor madness."The announcement in the fall of 1935 that Alia Nazimova was to tour in a revival of Ghosts did not arousein me, I must confess, any very profound enthusiasm. Ihad not seen her in the earliest stages of her Americancareer, but I had followed it through certain of its curious episodes. My first glimpse of her was in the role ofBella Donna (incredible title!) in the melodrama fashioned from Robert Hichens' novel of that name. Thepart was a variant of the sinuous and alluring siren thathas been wrecking strong men's lives since the days of Cleopatra. To my undergraduate eyes, Nazimova wasthe quintessence of beautifully evil seductiveness. A little later, in some side-street nickelodeon, I found her ina moving-picture version of Wilde's Salome, in costumesand settings designed in the manner of Aubrey Beardsleyby Natacha Rambova, the spouse of the hysterically lamented Valentino. To a New Englander, the stylizationwas incredibly exotic; Salome's wig seemed made ofluminous pine-needles of an extraordinary length. But,despite its affectations, Nazimova's Salome was an infinitely more perfect study of perversity than Mary Garden's. (The picture now seems so remarkable that theMuseum of Modern Art has been hunting for monthsfor a copy of it.) Even Nazimova's excellent performances of the fretful and futile heroines of Turgenev'sMonth in the Country and Tchekoff's The CherryOrchard did not prepare me for her superb productionand performance of Ibsen's Ghosts.For the first time I became aware of the full valuesof the play and the measure of Nazimova's stature as atragic actress. It is too late in the day to point out thetechnical perfection of Ibsen's tragedy — a technique atonce so perfect and so personal that no one has ever beenable to imitate it successfully — the moments of false security in the first act, the gradual unveiling of the eventspreceding the rise of the curtain, "the passionate analysisof the past," the incredible economy in the use of motifsand symbols and characters, the sweeping to climax afterclimax in act after act. But repeated readings of the playhad not prepared me for its constant effectiveness, thegripping passages of retrospective narration, the incessant play of irony through the most innocent-appearingspeeches.And no reading of the play could have given me thehaunting graphic beauty of this production, — the tallgrey room, dim and sunless, the sinister cliffs of the darkfjord walls, the exquisitely plastic qualities of Nazimova'sposture and gesture, the inner serenity of the first scene,the shrinking back in horror at the apparition of the firstact climax, the mounting anguish with which she hearsher son's hideous story and beholds his ultimate collapseinto idiocy.The cumulation of pity and terror was the work ofNazimova and not that of her excellent company. HarryEllerbe's Oswald seemed adequate, McKay Morris'sPastor Manders was excellent, but it was the artistry ofNazimova as producer and actress that made the experience perfect. The secret of such artistry is unfathomable, but at least a part of the secret lies in Nazimova'ssure projection of her conception of the role, — a gracious,well-bred, civilized woman, perfectly at ease in her ownhome and comfortably superior to a world of stupid pastors and vulgar Reginas. Gradually her years of courageously borne suffering are revealed, her dream of happiness with her son seems about to be realized, but blowupon blow suddenly falls and her dream is shattered.But the courage with which she has taught herself tomeet life does not fail her in the end, and through thepity and terror with which we share her agony of soul,the indomitable spirit of a freed soul lifts us into the elevation of great tragedy.THE MASON SAGAAnd Divers Other StoriesR. MAX MASON, whose retirement as president of the Rockefeller Foundation was recentlyannounced, told the following story on himselfat one of the annual library dinners while he was president of the University :President Mason was the overnight guest at an Indiana home in a town where he was to speak before a largecommunity gathering. He ate sparingly at dinner, complimenting the hostess upon the sumptuous meal but explaining he never could speak well after eating heartily.The hostess was unable to attend the meeting but herhusband accompanied President Mason to the auditorium.As the President was retiring later in the evening-he heard voices through the thin wall of the guest room.The wife was asking her' husband how he liked thespeech. "He might as well have et," was the brief response.Don't MoveThere's something under the bed ! If you move, aniron rod, attached to the middle spring will flex a rubberdiaphragm stretched across a closed box under the bed.This will compress the air in the drum and move a cordwhich follows around to the side of the bed on a systemof pulleys ending with a suspended weight. The movement of this cord will turn a "work-adder" one notch andrecord indictment number one, that you have moved inbed!If that were all we wouldn't mention it. But fromthis point your action becomes quite involved. You willstop a clock, a red one. In stopping the red one, however, you start a yellow time-piece although a stoicalblack clock on the wall will scorn the interruption. Thecord which moves the counter will start a set of wheelsturning, a pen will be pushed across a sheet of papermounted on a slowly revolving drum and an indeliblerecord will tell posterity whether it was a major or minorflop.In an adjoining room a light will flash which willattract the attention of our friend, Norman R. Cooper-man. If the move awakens you, Mr. Cooperman's instructions to push a button at your side should be followed which sets off a buzzer in his roonx The graphrecording your body temperature will continue uninterrupted as will the mechanism which is recording yourskin resistance — correlating this with depth of sleep.If the movement did not awaken you, Mr. Cooper-man may decide to make another test by pushing a buttonin his room which sounds a loud speaker near your bed.This is a part of the test to discover if you awaken moreeasily after or before moving.All of the above, of course, in the event you havebecome a part of the sleep experiments which have beencarried on in room 145, Goodspeed hall and elsewhere * By HOWARD W. MORT, Editor, Tower Topicsfor the past number of years by the Messrs. Kleitman,Cooperman, Mullin and Palitz in the department ofPhysiology.They are in the process .of modifying earlier conclusions that one does his best sleeping the first hour and ahalf after retiring (we do ours — if it is of interest to you,Mr. Cooperman — just three minutes before and ten minutes after the alarm goes off!). Although there may beonce or twice during the night when you sleep for asmuch as an hour (more probably half an hour) withoutmoving, the average is about every ten minutes. The twoabove mentioned clocks that stop or start at every moverecord the fact, however, that the total time consumed inmoving may be as little as two and seldom more than fiveminutes during the night. Under normal sleeping conditions you will be awakened less than five times by thesemovements. A normal number of moves during sleepare an aid to rest.If you drink a cup of coffee before retiring you willprobably move a few less times during the night although,if you have the American habit of overdoing every goodthing (four or five cups) you will doubtless ring the bellmore frequently.A half pint of whiskey may quiet you the forepartof the evening but the early morning graph will look likea picket fence and the average number of moves will beabout the same. Mr. Cooperman admitted making thisexperiment on himself by hastening to explain that grainalcohol mixed with ginger ale and a touch of lemon wasused which concoction is anything but habit-forming.Normal body temperature drops slightly during theearly sleeping hours but rises a little above normal thelatter part of the night. Alcohol lowers this recordslightly in the early evening and raises it before morning.All of which explains the mystery of room 145Goodspeed from whence came the strange request in October, "Please return our old beds. The new ones justinstalled are too comfortable!"The Calvesyou hear bawl in Morgan L. Eastman's (ex '11) opening theme song on the "Contented Hour" Monday evenings are confined in four five cent Carnation Milk cansmounted in pairs on two wooden paddles. The cans haveholes punched in the top so the calves can breathe. Eachof two members of the quartet holds one of these paddlesupright until that pause in "Wait 'Til the Cows ComeHome" where the first set of calves enter. One of thepaddles is then turned upside down which, of course, ir-tates the confined miniature bovines with the resultingaudible protests. This is repeated with the other paddleone measure farther on and the half-hour program isaway to a contented start.20THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 21One of the Year's Biggest Storiesconcerns a sixty ton sperm whale which, late in June, willcross the path of a harpoon shot from a gun mounted onthe forward deck of an American Pacific Whaling Company boat a few miles north of Queen Charlotte Islands(about 500 miles northwest of Vancouver Island in thePacific). On the reception committee at the Britishwhaling station at a northern point of the islands will beDr. E. M. K. Geiling, who left Johns Hopkins UniversityFebruary 1 to become head of the department of Pharmacology at the University.When the cables and winches have rolled the whaleinto position on the "operating table" Dr. Geiling willperform the first operation, which will be on the head ofthe mammal. Dr. Geiling will not be interested in the 45barrels of oil that later will be taken from his head. Hidden beneath six inches of solid bone and a few feet ofblubber will be a small organ about the size, shape andcolor of a California Lamber cherry, the pituitary gland.Substituting hip boots and a rubber apron for theusual immaculate white uniform, using an ax for his scalpel and a crosscut saw for the bone forcep he will removethis gland which, in company with some thirty similarglands, will be brought back to his laboratory on thefifth floor of Physiology building for scientific study. Although the whale is recognized as a mammal in spite ofits fishy appearance tendencies, its organs have neverbeen studied exhaustively to determine the extent of thesimilarity with land mammals or the human body.A steak, one foot thick, cut from this whale wouldweigh a ton ; his liver will weigh half a ton and his heartabout 400 pounds. The aorta will be large enough for aman to crawl through — which reminds us that if you areinterested in the scientific aspects of the Jonah Old Testament episode the answer is "Yes ; a man could get pastthe epiglottis of a sperm whale after which he would findhimself in a four room apartment (a whale has four stomachs), but without benefit of outside exposures." Dr.Geiling told of a twenty foot shark being found in theliving room or front stomach of a whale. This will make the third summer Dr. Geiling hasspent at these British Islands working on this originalscientific project. The islands are sparsely settled inclusters of small fishing communities with now and thena small lumber camp, or Indian village. Two whaling-stations are located on the islands.Speaking of Flowers and Beesas they did in the recent Mirror skit, "Progressive Education," there were no bees in this country until after thecoming of the English. You notice the Indians stoppedgoing barefooted after the English arrived ! The Indianscalled this imported insect "the Englishman's fly." "Bee"is an English word but "bee-line" was made in America,Mr. Hearst. Therefore, you will find this compoundword in Sir William Craigie's new dictionary, "A Dictionary of American English," the first part of which issoon to be published by the University Press.Dictionary editing is almost a life hobby for Sir William Craigie. He was an editor of the Oxford EnglishDictionary and he is now assembling a Scottish languagedictionary similar, in purpose, to the Dictionary of American. English. Lady Craigie also has a hobby, woodcarv-ing. Her instructor in this art was Edward Cross ofOxford.One day in 1902 she went to the studio of Mr. Crossand found him working on a series of wooden shieldswhich, he explained, were forvati American university.Week by week she watched these shields increase innumber. Before he had completed the series, LadyCraigie had learned much about woodcarving fromwatching Mr. Cross design and carve these shields, eachof which was different. Years later, when Lady Craigiecame to Chicago she recognized the shields above thewood paneling in Hutchinson Commons !Mr. Cross' studio is at Watlington, England, sixteenmiles from Oxford and only a short distance from thehome of the Craigies. Sir William Craigie and his wifeleft for England this month.HUTCHINS' CLASSICS OF THE WESTERN WORLD(Continued from Page 8)Aurelius : MeditationsEpictetus: Moral DiscoursesLucianPlutarch: LivesGalen: On the Natural FacultiesNew TestamentSt. Augustine: ConfessionsThomas Aquinas: Summa TheologicaDante: Divine ComedyDa Vinci: Note BooksMachiavelli: The PrinceRabelais: Gargantua and PantagruelMontaigne: EssaysCervantes: Don QuixoteShakespeare: PlaysBacon: Novum Organum; Advancement of Learning; New AtlantisGalileo: Two New SciencesGrotius: De Jure Belli et Pacis Hobbes: Leviathan; A Dialogue of theCommon LawsDescartes: Discourse on Method;Meditations; The Principles of Philosophy-Milton: Paradise Lost; AreopagiticaSpinoza: Short Treatise on God, Manand his Weil-Being, EthicsLocke: An Essay Concerning HumanUnderstandingNewton: Optioks; The MathematicalPrinciples of Natural PhilosophySwift: Gulliver's TravelsVoltaire: Candide; Toleration; Voltaire's LettersFielding: Tom JonesHume: An Enquiry Concerning Human UnderstandingRousseau: The Social Contract: Discourse on InequalitySmith: The Wealth of Nations Kant: Prolegomena to any FutureMetaphysicsHamilton, Jefferson: The FederalistPapersBentham: Principles of Morals andLegislation; Fragment on Government; Theory of FictionsGoethe: FaustMalthus: An Essay on PopulationMill: On Liberty; Utilitarianism; System of LogicDarwin: On the Origin of SpeciesMarx: The Communist Manifesto;CapitalfQostoievski: Crime and Punishment; ¦0 The Brothers KaramazovTolstoi: War and Peace; Anna Kare-ninaWhitehead: Adventures of IdeasFreud: Outline of Psychoanalysis;Civilization and Its DiscontentsNEWS OF THE QUADRANGLESPRESIDENT ROBERT M. HUTCHINS turnsfrom the spoken to the written word for the communication of his views in a new book entitled NoFriendly Voice, published Tuesday, March 17, by theUniversity Press.No Friendly Voice is the first book written by Mr.Hutchins since he became president of the Universityof Chicago. It is a collection of essays which he hasdelivered as public addresses between 1930 and 1936 in27 different states of the union and over national radiohookups. A drawing by Maude Phelps Hutchins illustrates the cover. The book is dedicated to Dr. WilliamJ. Hutchins, father of President Hutchins, with thisinscription: "To the President of Berea College."First principle of NoFriendly Voiceis that the problems of mankindcan be met onlyby a return to theintellect, by anabiding faith inthe intellect. Firstcorollary of thisfirst principle isthat application ofthe intellect's reasoning power toany problem isthe first effectivestep toward itssolution, regardless of its natureor complexity.In the light of that principle and its corollaryPresident Hutchins has approached problems of law,medicine, education, research, higher learning, religion,and administration by a rational analysis of means, ends,and errors. Rational analysis does not mean arm-chairphilosophy or cloistered meditation severely detachedfrom reality, for President Hutchins has drawn fromhis own experience, experience of others, and the worksof the greatest minds in intellectual history."These ideas were not original with me," he writes,"If they were, they might be discredited merely bypointing out that fact."The mere reading of No Friendly Voice and theworks to which it refers would give the reader a goodgeneral education.With no friendly voice, President Hutchins articulates his unfriendliness toward "the stuffed shirt", "thosewho preach the doctrine of salvation by incantation","the gentlemanly ways that have been discovered bybeing dishonest, indecent, and brutal", "the return ofPresident HutchinsNo friend of the errors of education • By JOHN P. BARDEN, '35billingsgate to politics", "the Fascist mind", and "thedecay of the national reason."With even less friendliness, President Hutchinsuses a systematic exposition of the principles uponwhich the search for and communication of truth arebuilt to designate the errors of JJanti-intellectualism ofAmerican universities which will mean an end of purescience and education", "universities that are merestorehouses of rapidly aging facts", "academic boondoggling", "the vicious specialization of the medicalprofession", and "the legal scholar without a legaltheory."Although President Hutchins is no friend of theerrors of American education and research, his faith ineducation and its necessity for the democratic way oflife is indisputable. In the last analysis his faith is,again, in the intellect."My thesis is that in modern times we have seldomtried reason at all, but something we mistook for it ; thatour bewilderment results in large part from this mistake ; and that our salvation lies not in the rejection ofthe intellect, but in a return to it.""If research is understanding and education isunderstanding and what the world needs is understanding, then education and research are what the worldneeds. They become at once the most significant of allpossible undertakings. They offer the only hope ofsalvation, the hope held out to us by the intellect ofman."Since we have confused science with information,ideas with facts, and knowledge with miscellaneous data,and since information, facts, and data have not lived upto our high hopes of them, we are witnessing today arevulsion against science, ideas, and knowledge. Theanti-intellectualism of the nineteenth century was badenough. A new and worse brand is now arising.""The anti-intellectual position must be repudiatedif a university is to achieve its ends. Its buildings maybe splendid, its endowment adequate, and its facultynotable; it may have achieved unity, liberty, and clarityin its organization. Its mechanics may be perfect. It isnothing without an abiding faith in the intellect of man."For his colleagues, the educators, President Hutchins has re-examined the fundamental principles underlying education and its relation to American society :"The problems of education are more complex andbaffling than they have ever been before. The elaboratestructure that has been rapidly erected is in danger frommisunderstanding without and disagreement within. Ifwe can envisage an educational system in the UnitedStates, built on cooperation and not on rigid centralcontrol, if we can grant to each organization that independence which its full development requires, we shallilluminate the educational scene for our people and forourselves, and in the light of a new day perform ourcommon task.22THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 23"I have yet to hear a single valid argument againstthe position that education is a national responsibility.The only protection against government, visible or invisible, is in the professional tradition of educators.Where that tradition is strongest, namely, in England,the parliamentary grants that the private universitieshave received do not lead anyone to expect that, because of them, the government will attempt to regulatethe policies of Oxford and Cambridge."We must accommodate the youth of the nationup to their eighteenth or twentieth year. There is nowhere else for them to go."If we reconsider the system of public educationfrom the elementary school through the junior college,we see that the normal child should be able to completeelementary work in six years. He should then entera secondary school which we may as well call thehigh school. This unit would be definitely preparatoryand not terminal. Its work should be completed in fouryears. Some pupils might require more time, someless. The average pupil would come to the end of hissecondary educational at sixteen."He would then enter one of two programs whichshould occupy four years, more or less. One of themshould be concerned with general education. The othershould provide technical or home-making training of asub-professional type for those who do not want, orwould not profit by, a general education."To his friends and colleagues, the lawyers, legalscholars, and law teachers, President Hutchins pointsthe way from chaos to order:"I suggest that if we are to understand the law weshall have to get another definition of it. I suggest thatthe law is a body of principles and rules developed inthe light of the rational sciences of ethics and politics.The aim of ethics and politics is the good life. The aimof the law is the same. Decisions of courts may betested by their conformity to legal principles. The principles may be tested by their consistency with one another and with the principles of ethics and politics."The duty of the legal scholar, therefore, is to develop the principles which constitute the law. It is, inshort, to formulate legal theory."I believe that an educated lawyer will be moresuccessful in practicing law, as well as in improving it,than one who is merely habituated to fact-situations.His training will rest not on his recollection of a massof specific items, but on a grasp of fundamental ideas.The importance of these ideas cannot be diminished bythe whims of legislatures or the vagaries of practicalpolitics/' President Hutchins directs the attention of hisfriends in the medical profession to the works of Galenwho wrote down the best in medicine the Greeks knewand who proclaimed the value of experiment:"The central idea which Galen entertained was thatthe organism is a whole. As such it cannot be furtherdivided. The whole is not the sum of the parts. Anorganism is just that, nothing more or less. The organism is a whole with the environment. It cannot be considered apart from that environment. Knowledge of theenvironment is, therefore, as important as knowledge ofthe organism. Knowledge of the organism as living is more important than knowledge of it as body. Andknowledge of the whole organism living in its environment is more important than the most intimate familiarity with all its parts. I think you will agree that in respect of this central idea Galen can hardly be calledmodern at all."The development of modern medicine, though itsrecord is a grand one, has carried with it surprisinglosses in general intelligibility of subject matter, withunfortunate effects on research and practice. We see,too, that medical education, like all education has confused the public and drawn its attention to spectacularor trivial details."The kind of analysis which medicine has pursueddeserves all the praise it has received. But, as theRenaissance could accuse medieval medicine of beingrich in principles and poor in facts, we are now entitledto inquire whether modern medicine is not rich infacts and poor in principles."The present confusion rests on doctrinaire empiricism, the antidote to which is the recapture of therational science or sciences that lie hidden in medicalknowledge."Without intellectual scope or grasp, with the belief that thought is memory and speculation vanity, withno obvious incentive but the need to make a living, themedical student becomes the proud product of our institutions of higher learning. I recommend a return toGalen, which is perhaps only another way of sayingwhat Galen said in the title of one of his treatises, "TheBest Physician Is Also a Philosopher."To those who think they are religious, PresidentHutchins recommends a return to the intellect and anattempt to achieve the highest function of the intellectwhich is faith in the proper object which is God:"No one will venture to express a doubt that themessage of Christ is more necessary to the world todaythan at any earlier period in our history."A vague, sentimental desire to do good and begood does not seem to me to constitute religion. Theold methods of emotional appeal have lost their effectiveness. I doubt if they ever had much permanent influence. Certainly they will not bring young men andwomen to Christ today. The appeal that must be madeto them is the appeal to reason. A process of conversion to be worthy of that name must be an intellectualprocess. Faith is intellectual assent. You will remember that St. Augustine, one of the most powerful minds,of history, had for fifteen years to struggle with theintellectual problems raised by Christianity before hecould become a Christian. The approach to God uponwhich young men and women may come to Him is notsociological or aesthetic ; it is intellectual/'As to what place intellectual endeavor in schools,colleges, and universities has in the present state of thenation, President Hutchins's doubts just about balance his hopes:"Current fears are reflected in attacks on highereducation. From one point of view these attacks arejustified. From the point of view of those who believe that heaven is one big country club, universitiesare dangerous things. If what you want is a dead level24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof mediocrity, if what you would like is a nation ofidentical twins, without initiative, intelligence, or ideas,you should fear the universities. They try to make theirstudents think; they do not intend to manufacture somany imitative automatons. By helping the studentslearn to think, the universities tend to make them resistant to pressure, to propaganda, or even to reward.""Democracy rests first on universal comprehension,to which the universities contribute through the education of teachers for the public schools and through thediscovery and communication of knowledge. Democracy rests secondly on individual leadership, not necessarily political, but intellectual and spiritual as well.To this the universities contribute through the labors oftheir professors and their graduates."In America we have had such confidence indemocracy that we have been willing to support institutions of higher learning in which the truth might bepursued and, when found, might be communicated toour people. We have not been afraid of the truth, orafraid to hope that it might emerge from the clash ofopinion."The American people must decide whether theywill longer tolerate the search for truth. If they will,the universities will endure and give light and leadingto the nation. If they will not, then, as a great political scientist has put it, we can blow out the light andfight it out in the dark ; for when the voice of reason issilenced the rattle of machine guns begins."James Henry BreastedA service in honor of Dr. James Henry Breasted,founder of the Oriental Institute at the University, whodied last December 2 in New York following a tourabroad, will be held in the University Chapel, Wednesday, April 1, at four in the afternoon. Invitations havebeen issued by the President's Office. Members of the Chicago Symphony Orchestralunder the direction of Dr. Frederick Stock will play-selections from Schubert's "Unfinished Symphony", the"Prize Song" from Wagner's "Meistersinger", andMovements Two and Four from Beethoven's "Eroica"in tribute to Dr. Breasted, who was one of the earlyorchestra enthusiasts and an organizer of the UniversityOrchestral Association which regularly brought the Chicago Symphony Orchestra to the campus.President Robert M. Hutchins will read brieflyfrom the works and letters of Dr. Breasted — passageswhich friends of Dr. Breasted will select as most revealing of his character and intellect.Friends of Dr. Breasted have requested that peopledo not send floral tributes, but to give the money thatmight so be spent to charity in accordance with a sentiment Dr. Breasted voiced during his life. They viewthe service, not as a funeral or gloomy tribute, but as atribute to a triumphant life. It would have been Dr.Breasted's wish that, on such an occasion, his friendsmight gather and enjoy what he loved, they say.Professors Go to School and Like ItFive professors from the Teacher's College of. Columbia University attended school at the University forfour days recently.After closely observing Chicago's "New Plan" theyunited on this statement: "It's great!"The visiting professorial students were: Dr. JesseNewlon, professor of Education and chairman of thedivision of Instruction; Dr. W. D. Reeve, professor ofMathematics; Dr. S. R. Powers, professor of Science;Dr. Allan Abbott, professor of English; and Dr. ErlingHunt, professor of Social Science. The ColumbiaTeachers College is the graduate professional school ofthat university for the training of teachers and administrators."We have been very interested in the New Plan asthe most important educational experiment in the recent ristory of education; so we decided to come on thescene and investigate for ourselves," declared Dr. Newlon, who is leader and spokesman of the group."Having talked with students, teachers and administrators here, we feel that the University of Chicagohas done more to solve the problems of general education than any other institution," he continued, "theintegration of courses under the plan represents a forward step in American education.""Some 'new plan' must be brought to every collegein order to provide a general education program. TheChicago plan is the most comprehensive to date," hesaid.During the four days the group was on the Midway,they talked with President Robert M. Hutchins, thedeans of the four university divisions, professors and instructors teaching under the New Plan, and various ^members of the department of Education. There will¦ be no formal report of the survey at Columbia, and thereis no intention on the part of Columbia to institute anything similar to the Chicago Plan. But the principlesof the plan will be weighed, considered, and taught at theColumbia Teacher's College, Dr. Newlon indicated.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 25Robert RedfieldPhi Beta Kappa SpeakerPhi Betes from Far and WideTwo women and nine men have been elected to PhiBeta Kappa at the University by the executive committee of the Chicago Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa,headed by Mrs. Mayrrie Logsdon, associate professorof Mathematics. These eleven students, who are thesmartest ten per cent of their class, were graduated atthe Winter Convocation of the University.Both the women receiving Phi Beta Kappa are students in the University College downtown. They are:Mrs. Ethel M. Ben-nett, and JeanElouise Gillette.The nine menreceiving the covetedundergraduate academic honor camefrom parts all theway from China toPennsylvania.Those fromabroad are: CharlesC 1 a r k s o n Steele,Tunghsien, China ;and Griffith P. Taylor, Toronto, Canada.Those fromparts of the UnitedStates other than theChicago area are: Anthony J. Eidson, Fort Madison,la. ; Robert T. Whittenberger, Sharon, Pa. ; and JosephP. Witherspoon, Wichita Falls, Texas.Those from Chicago are : Adolph Hecht, Herman S.Kogan, Benjamin Libitsky, and Louis Yesinick.The initiation of these successful candidates for PhiBeta Kappa was held in Judson Court. Robert Red-field, dean of the division of Social Science, spoke on" 'Social Science' and Social Science."How Many Words Do You Know?Tabulation of words used in themes and letters bychildren of grades I to VIII in the -public schools of theUnited States reveals that American children know atotal of between 12,000 and 13,000 words, accordingto a study compiled recently by Dr. Frederick S. Breed,associate professor of Education at the University. Theaim of the study, said Dr. Breed, is to find what wordsand how many words should be given children to learnto spell. The number of words tabulated in the studywas almost 1,200,000."An identical investigation among adults," said Dr.Breed, "in which over 5,000,000 words were listed fromthe writing vocabulary of adults, gave approximately35,000 different words."Other results of the study by Dr. Breed show thatthe differences in the writing vocabularies of countryand city children are not great and that differencesamong the various sections of the country in the vocabulary of children are almost negligible. Assyrians and Babylonians Couldn tFix Prices EitherTexts from thousands of ancient Assyrian andBabylonian clay tablets, the longest series of businessrecords available, are being pieced together into aremarkable picture of business and banking in theTigris-Euphrates valley 2,500 years ago by Dr. Waldo H.Dubberstein of the Oriental Institute at the University.Forerunners of such modern practices as old-ageannuities, long and short-term credit, price-fixingattempts, and government hoarding of precious metals,with resulting "inflation," are clearly evident from Dr.Dubberstein's work. He has compiled price-charts forstandard commodities, in terms of shekels, for a periodof more than 200 years, 625-425 B. C.Price-Fixing Is Still Bad, Says Simons"It's rules versus authority," in monetary policy,says Henry C. Simons, assistant professor of Economicsin the leading article of the current issue of the Journalof Political Economy."The monetary problem stands out today as thegreat intellectual challenge to the liberal faith," Mr.Simons states."For generations we have been developing financialpractices, financial institutions, and financial structureswhich are incompatible with the orderly functioning ofa system based on economic freedom and political liberty."The liberal creed demands the organization of oureconomic life largely through individual participation ina game with definite rules."The dangers of substituting authorities for rulesespecially deserves the attention of students of money.An enterprise system cannot function effectively in theface of extreme uncertainty as to the action of monetaryauthorities or, for that matter, as to monetary legislation.In our search for solutions of this problem, however, weseem largely to have lost sight of the essential point,namely, that definite, stable legislative rules of the gameas to money are of paramount importance to the survival of a system based on freedom of enterprise."Artistic Geometry or Geometrical Art?Seven paintings by Ferdinand Leger, distinguishedFrench modernist, have been placed on exhibition atWieboldt hall. The exhibit will last for one month andis under the auspices of the Renaissance Society ofwhich Mrs. Harold Stark is president. The pictures arenoted for the artist's use of geometrical figures."Regardless of whether the majority of the publicunderstands or appreciates contemporary painting," saysthe Bulletin of the Art Institute in Milwaukee, "theexhibition of his paintings in this country marks one ofthe leading events in the art activities this year. Theimportance of Leger in the field of contemporary painting has never been questioned by art critics or artists."The Renaissance Society, largely through the effortsof its former president, Mrs. Martin Schutze, who has26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEj. *since died, procured 27 paintings jfrom Leger who isliving in Paris for exhibition in -¦ this country. Thepictures were received last fall and were exhibited inthe Museum of Modern Art in New York City fromOctober through November. Some of them were thenplaced on exhibition at the Art Institute at the sametime as the Rembrandt exhibition, from the middle ofDecember to the middle of January. Others of the 27pictures were exhibited at the Milwaukee Art Institutefrom January 22 to February 22.The exhibit at the University will continue untilApril 6. Among the pictures on display are "Womanand Flowers," "Composition in Yellow and Black,""The Mechanic," "Composition with Two Profiles,""Still Life," and "Composition with Aloe."The insured value of the 27 pictures is $20,000.The value of those on display at the University ofChicago is $8,566.80.Sir William Craigie Leaves to ComposeScottish DictionaryWith the first section of his monumental historicaldictionary of the American language now in the handsof the printer, Sir William Craigie, professor-emeritusof English at the University, departed March 12 to visit several universities in the south, and he sails forEngland from Norfolk, Virginia, onProfessor Craigie intends to remain in England as long as is neces- ^%sary for the research work on the his- ^. J^_3^^^torical dictionary of Middle Scottish, - />. -Vnow about one-fourth completed, i ^_^^Bwhich he is editing. He has been at 'the University of Chicago for ten ' ldmyears, supervising the great bulk of the research onthe Chicago dictionary, which traces the history of everyword which is American in origin or which has distinctive American usages.First section of the Chicago dictionary, 125 pages,will appear within two months. Twenty-four othersections will appear at intervals. Professor Craigie willkeep in close touch with progress on the dictionary,which is now being carried on under the direction ofJames R. Hulbert, professor and secretary of the department of English.Knighted by King George V. in 1928 for his workin directing the completion of the great Oxford historicaldictionary, Sir William Craigie is recognized as the outstanding lexicographer in the world. He is an authorityon Scandinavian languages, Old Icelandic, Old Irish,Lithuanian, Greek, Rumanian and Anglo-Saxon as wellas English and American.Ancient Universal Language Lives AgainThe language that Jesus spoke — Aramaic — is beingtraced word for word from its earliest beginnings beforethe Persian kings ruled the world to its development inthe Syriac of the sixth century by Dr. Raymond A. Bowman, instructor in Oriental Languages at the University's Oriental Institute.The occurrence of every known word in Aramaicis. noted, traced, dated, and translated from passages onmanuscripts, tablets, bowls and vases discovered in areasfrom the Caucasus Mountains to southern Egypt, fromGreece to India."We are chiefly interested in the material onAramaic for historical reasons,' said Dr. Bowman. "Weare finding personal names, geographical names, andnames of deities which are of utmost importance to thehistory of the ancient empires and nations of the East.We are particularly interested in the cultures of themany peoples who used Aramaic."Meech Predicts Inflation, Expects theWorst, and Hopes for the Best"Control of monetary inflation has never been effective," Professor Stuart P. Meech of the School ofBusiness at the University said recently in a talk at theArt Institute. "Historically, inflation born of fear forthe future buying power of a nation's media of exchangehas never been checked short of wholesale destructionof the value of savings deposits, life insurance funds andfixed-income securities, or short of a declining standardof living for the worker and the white-collar man on asalary."Outlining two types of inflation, "fear" inflation and"natural" or "competitive" inflation, Professor Meechsaid, "That we shall have one of the two is, I think,inevitable." The problem of inflation control is as complex as ever, and the outcome is "on the knees of thegods.""Our controls are likely to be effective only in proportion to our knowledge of their values and in proportion to our willingness to use them in time. We do notknow what a normal price level is and what index touse in determining it. We are always moving fromone stage to another of the cycle."We do not know how much time elapses betweenthe application of controls and the taking effect oftheir braking power. We do not know how effectivecontrol measures will be, how much inflation is enough,nor whether checking inflation will keep us on a level,or, in itself, will produce deflation."Among the control measures that are available are,first, a balanced government budget produced by reducedexpenditures and higher taxes levied more heavily on thelower incomes, taxes on all forms of business profits.We've gone pretty far in this direction already. Ofcourse political considerations are formidable enemies tosuch controls. A balanced budget, or at least somesign of terminal facilities to our excess of spending,would do much to prevent fear-inflation."Second, more reform laws antagonistic to businessprofits. For example, increasing levies upon employersfor the various forms of social insurance, and more deathsentences for utility and other holding companies.Third, new tax levies on excess profits, and on allspeculative profits. Fourth, revaluation of gold reservesback to the 23 grain gold dollar, thus wiping out nearlyTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOMAGAZINE 27half of our credit base. This would injure our exporttrade and aid our import trade, at least temporarily."Fifth, get the same results domestically bydoubling legal bank reserve requirements. The FederalReserve Board now has this power. This would greatlyshrink the power of our banking system to expand(inflate) loans and the offsetting deposits."Sixth, the Federal Reserve Board has the powerto fix margin requirements on securities, to limit theuse of bank lending power in security speculation. Byclosing the present wide open rules relating to papereligible for rediscount at the Ted/ the Board couldat least warn our banks to limit or cut down loans toindustries deemed to be expanding too rapidly."Seventh, the Federal Reserve banks could wipeout present excess member bank reserves by sellinggovernment bonds in the open market and taking, inexchange, drafts or checks, deducting these from reservedeposits of members on the books of the Ted/ But thismight force up government borrowing costs — so weagain see the need for a balanced budget or, at least, aplan for one. While lower bond prices would impairthe values of bonds held by our banks, liberal loan valuescould still be offered by the Federal Reserve banks."Eighth, Reserve banks could raise rediscount rates,once excess reserves of members were eliminated andthe latter had to rediscount. Theoretically this wouldforce up interest rates, check bank loan expansion, andcurtail inflation."On the other hand, we face serious problems inapplying controls. Who will assume responsibility for'stopping our prosperity' and perhaps precipitatingdeflation ? The politicians ? The Federal Reserve Board,which is damned if it does, and, with deflation damnedbecause it didn't? The fear of political emasculation ofthe System's power is ever present."And then there will be the yowls of groups thatfeel they've had less benefit than others. Politics mayagain hinder controls until it is too late. The Treasurywill not be interested in strong money market pressuresuntil the budget is balanced. Even then refunding ofold debts will make it shrink from a falling bondmarket."Whether high money rates (how high we do notknow) will check inflation is open to doubt. Expectancies of profit may defeat them ; desperation in avoiding losses may have the same result. Further, muchof our media is owned by non-borrowers and theiropinion about prices and the value of money are butindirectly subject to Reserve Bank credit controls. Thehistory of rediscount rate and open market rate controlsby our Federal Reserve System offers small comfort tothose seeking reassurance that either fear-inflation or'natural' inflation can be kept in hand."Master Map of the World Is University AimPhotography with airplane and multiple-lensedcamera has become a rapid, accurate method of securingdata for the making of maps and it is a process to which the University is turning in its campaign to build up theprincipal map collection in the Middle West.The University's present collection totals over80,000 maps and is already the largest collection westof the Alleghenies in this country.Meanwhile, maps are being bought by the University in six different countries in an effort to get a"master map" of the world in this country. The project,begun in 1931, is being carried on under the generaldirection of a faculty committee headed by Dr. H. M.Leppard, assistant professor of Geography.Only a few areas in the United States have beenmapped by aerial photography, according to EdwardEspenshade, Jr., Curator of . Maps. A droning planeflying back and forth across the state of Connecticuthas photographed the entire area of the state under thedirection of state authorities. Private companies have"shot" most of southeastern Texas for oil enterprisers."A tremendous impetus has been given to aerialphotography by the federal government," said Espenshade, "the TVA is preparing excellent maps of theentire Tennessee valley from aerial photographs, andthe Soil Conservation Authority photographed severalother important localities in the country."The United States is perhaps the most poorlymapped civilized country in the world," Espenshadeadded.A large number of single photographs are requiredto map any considerable area. These photographs arepasted together using only the central portion to make a"mosaic." The "mosaic" is then rephotographed, givinga permanent map of the area to any desired scale. Fromthis, accurate drafted maps can be made."These same vertical photographs," said Espenshade, "may be used in a stereoscope to show reliefand to aid in plotting the contours of the land."The scale of an aerial photograph depends upon theheight of the plane at the time the photograph was taken.The usual procedure is for the pilot to keep his planeat some exact altitude and at an exact speed, thenset the camera, which is suspended vertically to theground, for taking pictures at regular intervals. Besidesthe vertical photographs, the Canadian government haddeveloped a technique for plotting maps from obliquephotographs in northwestern Ontario."There has recently been developed a camera withnine lenses which will photograph areas to all sides ofthe plane as though the plane were directly over them,"said Espenshade, "this type of camera greatly speeds upthe process of photographing an area."Cities Grow Inside-Out in This Up-Side-Down WorldChicago has grown "inside out" during the last 40years. Its population has continuously emptied at thecenter and settled on the periphery, a sociological surveyat the University reveals. Sociologists call this processthe "suburban trend."The study, conducted by Dr. Louis Wirth, associateprofessor of Sociology, and his associate, Mr. Richard(Continued on Page 29)ATHLETICSChicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Rank inChicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Rank inChicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Rank inChicago,Chicago,Rank in Scores of the MonthBasketball20 ; Iowa, 3334; North Central, 2632 ; Wisconsin, 4039; Iowa, 4733 ; Northwestern, 34Track56 ; North Central, 4864 ; Armour, 32 ; Loyola, 2335 ; Iowa, 6955^4 ; Purdue, 38l/449}i; Northwestern, 36J4Conference meet — 7th.Fencing11; Ohio State, 614; Northwestern, 314; Wisconsin. 39V2 ; Illinois, 7y24 ; Notre Dame, 5Swimming54; Illinois, 3044; Northwestern, 40Conference meet — 5thWater Polo5 ; Illinois, 84; Northwestern, 43 ; Northwestern, 4Wrestling^y2 ; Franklin and Marshall, 23y.10 ; Illinois, 229l/2; Northwestern, 18^Conference meet — Tie for 5thGymnastics1093.5 ; Iowa, 1033.51143.25; Minnesota, 1117.5Conference meet — 2ndONE Conference championship came. to Chicago —in fencing — as the winter sports season came toa close in the annual series of Big Ten meets inMarch. The story of the month, however, is again astory of outstanding individual performances, as it hasbeen repeatedly in recent years, rather than a story ofteams.First mention must go to Captain Bill Haarlow ofthe basketball team, who on March 7th completed hiscareer on the Midway court in a heartbreaking gameagainst Northwestern. Surely Haarlow's record mustbe unique; he played for three seasons, with unflaggingspirit and astonishing skill, on three of the losingestteams in Maroon basketball history; and he establisheda new scoring record for an individual career in Conference play.When Bill poked three baskets and seven freethrows through the hoop in his last game he raised his • By JOHN P. HOWE, '27total of points for three seasons of Big Ten play to 416,ten more than any Conference player has made. Thehighest previous total was 406 points, made by CharlesMurphy of Purdue inthe seasons of 1928,1929 and 1930, with awinning team. ThisHaarlow did despitethe fact that he missedall of one game in hissophomore year, because of injury, andall but 30 seconds ofanother. And obviously he did it despitethe fact that he playedwith teams that didnot control the ball asmuch as did their opponents. His averagein 35 Conferencegames was 12.2 pointsper game.A dead eye on thebasket, knowing allthe shots and a few ofhis own, including abackward - over - the -head shot and a spectacular swooping shotfrom the corner, adeft, driving ball-handler, Bill scored109 points as a sophomore, 156 to leadthe Conference as ajunior, and 151 thisyear. During thisperiod the Maroonswon only three oftheir 36 Conferencegames, two in his firstyear, one last year,and none this year.Individual scoringhonors for this seasonwent to Capt. BobKessler, of the co-champion Purdueteam, with 160 points ;last year Haarlow ledKessler by six points.In the eight-non-conference games thisyear Haarlow scored 118 points, so that his season totalfor the 20-game schedule was 269 points — which isBill HaarlowWinds up career28THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 29some total. Bill will now switch to a baseball uniform;he is co-captain and first baseman of the Maroon nine,which has considerable promise.Second honors of the month — and this is the firsttime he has been second in anything — go to RaymondEllinwood, brilliant sophomore middle-distance runner.Last month we reported that Ellinwood had, in his firstintercollegiate race, created a new world record for theindoor quarter-mile, at 49 seconds. This month thereis the same news ; he has broken the record again. Running against the pick of the Conference at the annualBig Ten meet this month, which was held at the Midway, Ellinwood covered the distance in :48.9 seconds,leading the fast field to the tape by a good ten yards.The performance lowered, of course, the Big Ten record,which was :49.4, by Ivan Fuqua of Indiana in 1934.This feat raises the question as to what he will doto the outdoor records, which are much faster, partlybecause there are fewer turns on the outdoor tracks.The American collegiate record for the 440 is :46.8,by Glen Hardin of Louisiana State in 1934. Our ownimpression is that he might fare better at a longer distance, for he is the tireless rather than the sprintingtype of runner. Earlier this month he ran the half-mileagainst Northwestern in 1 :55.9, which was faster thanthe winning time in the Conference meet.And Mr. Ellinwood is the very model of a New-Plan student. He came to Chicago because of the NewPlan. Two months his adviser, Professor MerleCoulter, knowing nothing about Ellinwood's athleticprowess but noting his unusually heavy program ofcourses and his unusually good rec6rd, counselled thathe take regular exercise. This month the Daily Maroonprinted a colunm-and-a-half letter from Ellinwood, hiscontribution to a controversy over superficiality in criticism, which contained a brilliant and amusing series oforiginal definitions of various philosophical viewpoints.Other Maroons-of-the-month were Robert Finwall,skillful and aggressive sophomore wrestler, who wonthe Big Ten championship at 145 lbs., the first title theMaroons have had in this sport in several years; andCaptain Campbell Wilson of the fencing team, who wonthe Conference championship in the foil, defeating thedefending champion, Chiprin of Illinois, then took second in the epee, losing 3 to 2 in an extra bout to thedefending champion, Gillies of Northwestern, after theO. Lang, included fifteen counties comprising the Chicago area, nine of which are in Illinois, three in Wisconsin, and three in Indiana. In 1930 the populationof this Chicago region comprised 37 per cent of thepopulation of the three states.I)r. Wirth and Mr. Lang report: "The moststartling increase in population, has taken place in thatpart of the Chicago region which immediately surroundsthe city. In 1890 this area, lying within a fifteen milezone of the city, contained only 22 per cent of theregion's population and only thirty incorporated towns, two had finished in a tie at the conclusion of the scheduled round-robin. Captain Charles Wilson of the swimming team, who had been breaking records in the freestyle events in dual meets, bettered the record at 220yards in the Conference meet, but lost the race to Lewisof Illinois, whose sprint caught Wilson by such a closemargin that the judges debated for some time as towhich had won.As to teams : The fencing team won the championship on the basis of its undefeated dual-meet recordagainst five Conference opponents.The basketball team finished its season without aConference victory, although it won five of its eight non-conference games. This was the first time the Maroonshave been thus blanked. The final game, against Northwestern, where victory would have been especially pleasant, especially for Capt. Bill Haarlow, was the best andmost disappointing of the season. An inspired Maroonrally, led by Haarlow and Johnny Eggemeyer, sharp-shooting sophomore forward, overcame the 9-point leadthe strong Northwestern team had built up, and theMaroons were ahead by four points with two minutesto go, for what promised to be the biggest upset of theseason. Northwestern scored twice to tie the score.McMichaels of Northwestern tripped Bob Fitzgerald,sophomore guard for the Maroons, and the hot-temperedFitzgerald let fly with a fist. A double-foul was called,Fitzgerald missed his free throw, McMichaels made his,and the game was over. A sophomore "find", little Morris Rossin, who played guard with much the same zip"that Tommy Flinn played forward last year, seemed tomake the Maroon team go.The swimming team was one of the best theMaroons have had; not the least of its accomplishmentswas a dual meet victory over Northwestern, whom Chicago had not been able to down in 25 years of off-and-on-competition, although Chicago once had won a Conference championship in a meet in which the two were.the chief contenders.The gymnastics team, after having beaten Minnesota in a dual meet, placed second to the Gophers in theConference meet, with the competent Minnesotans enjoying an "on" night. Co-captains Emery Fair andPeter Schneider of Chicago placed second and third inthe all-around individual competition to Matison ofMinnesota.while in 1930 more than half — 54 per cent — of theregion's population outside of Chicago lived in this areaand it contained 108 incorporated towns."If we break up this forty year period into decadeswe find that the city proper has had a decreasing rateof growth, while the region outside the city has had anincreasing rate of growth. In the decade, 1920-1930,for instance, the population of the city proper grew25 per cent, whereas the region outside the city grew45 per cent.{Continued on Page 30)NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES (Continued from Page 27)30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEA Novel ofChicago's Nobleor Naughty NinetiesThis Was LifeBy JAMES WEBER LINNChicago '97THIS was life in the early days of a"superbly human university" which noone can fail to recognize. And no one inthe know can fail to identify with joy certainof the characters. A story rapid, dramaticand full of the friendly spirit of youth, thisbook is also something more, for the characterswill live in your memory long after you havefinished reading the book.It is Mr. Linn's special talent that he doesnot have to labor with pretentious analysisin order to make his characters live. Theycome alive in their acts and words. He doesnot have to insist that a character be witty — ¦he makes him witty. And since in this bookhe writes of a day he loved, and of people heloved, you can imagine the treat in store foryou.$2.00 At All BooksellersBOBBS-MERRILL • Indianapolis * New York News of the Quadrangles(Continued from Page 29)"This is a characteristic that is true, not only ofChicago but of any other metropolitan region in theUnited States."A number of signs are apparent indicating thatChicago is no longer in the hectic period of rapid expansion, that it is settling down as a stable city andregion. In the early history of the city, there was apredominance of young adult males who were attractedby the opportunities for industrial employment. Today,in contrast, there is a greater equalization of the sexesand the population as a whole is older. The child-rearing families are tending to escape from the cityproper to the suburbs.Fighting Irish Weren t Brawlers, SayScholarsIreland's oldest literature, called "the earliest voicefrom the dawn of western European civilization," ispresented in comprehensive form in a new book, AncientIrish Tales, written by Dr. Tom P. Cross, professor atthe University and authority on Celtic language andliterature, and Dr. C. H. Slover, former fellow of theUniversity."Both in age and variety the literature of ancientIreland surpasses that of any other western Europeanvernacular during the early middle ages," says theauthors.Many readers of Irish tales, Drs. Cross and Sloversay, have assumed that since there are many stories ofancient rivalries and battles, of heroes and their deeds ofvalor, the Irish were a tribe of brawling, lawless savages.This, they point out, is far from the truth."The ancient Irish possessed an elaborate systemof law which reveal a highly developed sense of personaland property rights and of legal procedure. Above all,they shared with the Gaulish Celts the ideals of honor,fair play and respect for women which "were laterdestined to become the essentials of twelfth-centurychivalry at its best."An Economist Looks at the Constitution(Continued from Page 5)— as is sometimes surmised and even admitted — on economic or social grounds, then judges are the wrongpeople to be trusted with the decision for they are students of the law, and not of economic or social problems.Recovery may have advanced too far to expect circumstances to force us to face these problems now.There is another breathing spell in sight, and we shallbe tempted to put thought aside until another majoremergency tests our federal system. Conservatives —constitutional conservatives — might ponder upon thereality of the federal market and the consequent unrealityof state powers, mindful of Burke's historic warningthat "a state without the means of some change is without the means of its own conservation. Without suchmeans it might even risk the loss of that part of theconstitution which it wished most religiously to preserve."OUR FOREIGNCORRESPONDENTEleanor M. Burgess, '20, is spending the year on a round-the-world tour.Since early fall she has visited Hawaii,Japan, Chosen, Manchukuo, China, thePhilippines, Java, Straits Settlement,and India. She spent Christmas inJava, celebrated New Year's day inSingapore, and has been covering largeparts of India during the past twomonths. And from both hither and yonshe sends us news of Chicago alumni,for she has met them by the score andjoyfully admits that many of her pleas-antest contacts have been with Chi-cagoans and her most delightful socialaffairs have been of their arranging.So we pass on to you casual news notesfrom the Orient through a series of"quotes" :Chester Wentworth, '18, is a consulting engineer with the Bureau ofWater Supply in Honolulu. Mrs. Wentworth (Edna Louise Clark, '20, AM'22)is with the Institute of Pacific Relations.Constant Hartt, SM'24, PhD'28,is in the experimental laboratory of theHawaiian Sugar Planter's Associationas a research associate.The roster of the faculty of WasedaUniversity at Tokyo includes six Chi-cagoans: Kiiciie Tanaka, '95, of thePhilosophy Department; Ghen-icheroYoshioka, PhD'07, dean of ForeignLanguages; Ruchiro Hoaski, DB'16,PhD'17, of the Department of Comparative Religion; Nasoshige Satake,AM'17, of the Junior College EnglishDepartment; Naotaro Otsuka, DB'06,of the English staff; and Harry B.Benninghoff, '06, (hM'07, the onlyAmerican member on the faculty.Hiro Ohashi, PhD'26, heads theHome Economics Department of JapanWomen's University.Arthur Jorgensen is senior secretary of the Tokyo Y. M. C. A.Chicago has three representatives onthe Doshisha University faculty: Gen-pei Ninomiya, AM'27, Logic andEthics; Masao Morikawa, AM'32, Divinity School; Katsuo Takenaka,AM'23, Social Service Administration.At Kobe College, Miss Burgess calledon Grace H. Stowe, AM'32, and Florence E. Holt, daughter of ProfessorArthur E. Holt.Harry P. Jones, AM'22, and SamuelM. Hilburn, PhD'30, teach at theBoys' School, Kwanse Gakuin atKobe, Japan.Pitt W. Hyde, who studied for PhDin Geology in 1922-23, is the miningengineer at the Oriental ConsolidatedMining Company, Hokuchin, Chosen(Korea).At Seoul, Korea, our correspondentbecame acquainted with Dr. HongkeeKarl, PhD'34, and Rev. Roscoe C.Coen, AM'25, both of Chosen ChristianCollege, and also Moneta J. Troxel,AM'32, of Ewha College for Girls. I\V ."Ji IOOK at trie map below and see-^ how easy it is to visit fascinating Normancty ... if you travel viaFrencK Line to Le Havre . . . Andit's not expensive, as your travelagent can snow you!A trip through the old province of Normandy islike turning the pages of a history of France . . .Rouen, rich with memories of the Plantagenets, ofJoan of Arc, of Flaubert . . . Lisieux and Ste.Therese . . . Bayeux and the tapestry of the Norman conquest . . . everywhere the past comes tovivid life before your eyes.The Norman school of cooking deserves your serious consideration also. Try a Filet de Sole a laNormande and a bottle of sparkling cider in one ofthe ancient inns you'll discover for yourself.It's all very easy to do if you travel via FrenchLine. You'll land in Le Havre . . . Rouen is onyour way to Paris . . . only 40 minutes by train oran hour by car.Let your Travel Agent make all the arrangementsfor you. His expert services cost you nothing.MONT ST.M1CHEL¦ ¦\_•U-~> It y<jfrer\eh Jlr\e611 FIFTH AVE. (ROCKEFELLER CENTER), NEW YORKTo England and France direct and thus to all Europe:Normandie, April 22 • He de France, March 14 •Paris, March 21 • Champlain, March 27 • Lafayette, April 1832 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEKNOW MORE!If you want to safeguard yourstake in this civilization withsuperior information, try FACT.FACT is the unique weekly informationand ready-reference service whose subscribers include hundreds of leading executives, editors, financiers, investors, pub-lie men, writers, librarians, educators— suchas B. M. Baruch, Herbert Hoover, John T.Flynn, Gen. Hugh Johnson, D. S. Freeman,Arthur Brisbane, Merle Thorpe, Sir WilliamWiseman, George Soule, Francis P. Garvan,H. V. Kaltenborn, David Lawrence.Each issue contains more than 100 highlysignificant factual items of current importance, boiled down from 200 authoritativepublications in 17 countries, nine languages—total subscription prices $600.At $16 a year FACT is a genuineeconomy for any man or woman who hasto know what he's talking about in thefields of U. S. AFFAIRS, WORLD AFFAIRS,ECONOMIC TRENDS, SOCIAL TRENDS.Edited in the historical spirit, without bias.The weekly issues and the QUARTERLYCUMULATIVE INDEX placed in the Full-Year Binder, comprise a complete and up-to-date history of the year. FACT in1935 carried 5,145 items, indexed andcross-indexed in more than 10,000 entries.Act now and take a TRIAL SUBSCRIPTION to FACT-5 ISSUESFOR $1. If you are disappointedwe will refund your $1. MAILCHECK OR BILLS TODAY.6 East 39th Street, New York City"Reading FACT I realize the dreadful waste of timber for news pulp production." — PROF. EINSTEIN."Insurance CareersforCollege Graduates'THIS booklet, published byThe Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company, explains theadvantages life underwritingoffers to the college graduateat the present time. It coversthese topics:FINANCIAL OPPORTUNITIESTHE COMPANY'S FIXEDCOMPENSATION PLANQUALIFICATIONSYou may obtain the bookletwith no obligation from:NATIONAL COLLEGIATEPERSONNEL BUREAUTHE PENN MUTUALLIFE INSURANCECOMPANYIndependence Square, Philadelphia William P. Woodard, AM'29, issecretary of Kumiai Church, Osaka.His address, Shurkugawa, Nishino-miya, Japan.At Peiping Union Medical College,Harry B. Van Dyke, '18, PhD'21,MD'22, is professor of Pharmacology;Faye Whiteside, '34, is associate superintendent of Nurses; Ching Wu,SM'32, is assistant professor of Roentgenology; and Hsi-Chun Chang, 22,MD Cert'25, is assistant professor ofPhysiology. Reno WarburtonBackus, MD'26, and Laura M.Wheeler, AM'25, of the M. E. Missionare other members of the Peipingcolony.Florence Chaney, '08, AM'12 (Mrs.Paul Benedict) has lived in China since1912, and is now in Peiping so thather two sons, Martin, 16, and John,12, may attend the Amrerican School.Her husband is at Hangchow with theStandard Oil.Clark C. Steinbeck, '07, secretary,treasurer, and business manager of thePresbyterian Foreign Missions, is located at the American PresbyterianMission in Peiping.Leo Shen, '20, executive secretaryof Tsing Hua University, gave a teaparty for Miss Burgess and invited thefollowing University of Chicago graduates on the faculty: Ching Chao Wu,AM'26, dean and professor of Sociology; Chi-Sun Yeh, '20, dean of theCollege of Natural Sciences and professor in Physics; Hua-Cheng Wang,PhD'27, professor in Political Science;Iping Chao, '31, PhD'34, lecturer inBiology; Yiu Hsun Woo, "22, PhD'25,chairman and professor in the Department of Physics; Pei Yuan Chou, '16,SM'16, professor in Physics.Stanley D. Wilson, PhD'16, ispresident of a very active alumni groupin Peiping. He is dean of the Collegeof Natural Sciences at Yenching University there. Among others on thefaculty are Ching- Yueh Yen, PhD'33,Sociology; Yu Ming Hsieh, JhD'26,Physics; and Tsai-Liu Sheng, '31,Chemistry. Cum Wei Luh, PhD'20,is chancellor of the University.Mrs. Sophie Chen Zen has published her essays on The ChineseWoman and her husband, head of the"China Foundation," has recently beenmade president of the National University of Chengtu.Three alumni are at National NormalUniversity in Peiping: Ching-YuehChang, '23, Shau Yi Chan, PhD'28,and Thomas Li Yuan, '25.The following Chicagoans reside inShanghai :Mrs. Alfred Sherriff (FlorenceEdith Janson, '14, AM'18) lives at 57Verdun Terrace.May K. Toy, '27 (Mrs. P. C. Au),instructs English at the Kwang HuaUniversity and the Customs College.Her husband, P. C. Wu, JD'26, is ministry of Finance, Shanghai Office.J. C. Hsai, AM'25, is associated withthe Aluminum Union Limited. ARE YOU AFRAID?— to face vital issues; to wrestle newideas?TheChristian CenturyAmerica's most quoted socio-re-ligious magazine. Tears away thenews screen; gives you the truthbehind the news. Searchingarticles ; undaunted editorials —devastating to complacency. Regular subscription rate $4.00 peryear, 15c a copy.Special Get-Acquainted Offer — •17 issues for $1.00.Recent subjects: "Munition Millionaires," "What Happened toNeutrality?", "New Modernism,""Tampa Warns America." Leading writers, Strong Departments— Monthly survey of Books.Write your name in margin, clipwith this advertisement and mailwith check or dollar bill today.The CHRISTIAN CENTURY440 South Dearborn Street, Room 1056Chicago, IllinoisssQWEDEN!ever \J land of sunlit nightsSweden hat solved the problems of modernliving. Everyone from the humblest to thehighest lives cheerfully in security and contentment.The visitor responds quickly and happilyto this attractive habit of peaceful living.The long sunlit hours develop Sweden'sfruits and flowers to unmatched perfection.Let the magic of these golden hours give youa keener enjoyment of living.This summer make Sweden your gatewayto all the Scandinavian wonderlands andthe fascinating Baltic region.Direct from New York in eight days — convenient from England and the Continent.Ask your travel agent or us for our new"Lands of Sunlit Nights"with complete travel detail of delightful journeysin all the Scandinavian countries — a treasurehouse of vacation guidance.SWEDISH TRAVELINFORMATION BUREAU630 FIFTH AVENUE Dept. GG NEW YORKTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 33Wen Hai Wei, JD'27, of 300 RouteWinling, is an attorney-at-law.Sarkon Ou, '24, attorney at law,has established his practice in Shanghaiat 212 Kiangsi Road.Wan Hsuan Chiao, JD'26, is thechief procurator in the Second District Court.Jerome Lieu, '24, assists in managing the Pao Fung Insurance Companyand C. L. Wang, '24, has the same responsibility in the Shanghai Commercial Savings Bank.Dorothy T. Wong, '24 (Mrs. FisherYu), may be addressed at the Bank ofChina Compound, Lincoln Road, Shanghai.Rev. Ts-Chien Wu, AM'19, is atChinese Mission to Lepers, 20 MuseumRoad.Yuching Tu, PhD'32, is now onleave with the Religion and YouthTeam sent out by the National Y. M.C. A.H. H. Sun, '22, JD'23, is dean of theLaw School of Great China University.Mrs. Sun got her bachelor's degree in1920.Siu Hung Chao, SM'25, PhD'35, isprofessor of physics and Shao TingChao, AM'25, professor of economicsat St. John's University, Shanghai.The President of Shanghai University is Herman C. E. Liu, AM'20,and three more degree holders werefound to be on the staff: Sterling S.Beath, AM'16, Ernest Kelhofer,AM'16, and Dr. S. C. Wong, '24 (Mrs.Lai).Secretary of National Committee forChristian Religious Education isChester Miao.Hannah F. Saixee, AM'12, teachesat the Yates Girls' School, Baptist Compound, Shanghai.Addresses: Yung-Li Yao, JD;26, 59Hongkong Rd., and John Y. Lee, 33Yu Yuen Road, Shanghai.In Shaohsing, Mildred Proctor,AM'31, is in charge of the Industrial• Mission. The president and two of thedeans at Hangchow Christian Collegecall Chicago their Alma Mater — they areBaen E. Lee, AM'21, Ting-chiu Fan,'26, and Daniel Fan, '25-'27.Teacher of Biology at HangchowChristian College, Hsi Wang, is now onleave studying for his doctorate at theUniversity of Chicago.Gertrude F. McCulloch, AM'19, is a member of the teaching force at theUnion Girls' School at Hangchow.Charles Wang, AM'26, PhD'31,gives his present occupation as professor at Honan University, Honan, China.The chief procurator at the HigjiCourt in Soochow, Kiangsu, is noneother than Y. K. Hu, who was a studentat the Law School in 1906.At Nanking University, H. R. Wei,PhD'28, holds the deanship of theScience Department, and Yu Yu,SM'28, a professorship in Mathematics.On the Tjisalane of the J. C. J. Linebetween Manila and Bali, Miss Burgessmet Fartsan T. Sung, '06, the ChineseConsul General for the Netherlands,India (Dutch East Indies), located inBatavia, Java. Leim Swie Huva, astudent in 1934-35 at the U. of C, wasreturning to his home at Sourabaya,Java.Allen Bassett, SM'31, is in chargeof the Science Department at the Bangkok Christian College, Siam. OtherChicagoans residing in Bangkok include Sup Vatna, AM'30, who is teaching biology at Chulalongkorn University, and Chamras Mitrakal, whostudied in the Medical School in 1934.Wallace St. John, DB'98, PhD'00,has been associated with Judson College in Rangoon, Burma, for thirty-three years, serving for some time asprincipal. In 1933 when ill health compelled Rev. St. John to give up( hisadministrative duties the students presented him with a splendid testimonialexpressing their sentiments of appreciation and gratitude for the time andthought he had "put in for the progressof the youth of Burma."Johnson Kangyi, AM'28, of JudsonCollege, took Miss Burgess sight-seeing one afternoon in his new Morris(English) car.Frederick G. Dickason, also of Judson College, did graduate work at University in 1929-30.On the afternoon of January 23rdMiss Burgess attended the AnnualAthletic meeting of Cushing HighSchool, Rangoon, Burma, and found theprincipal of the school was George D.Josif, who received his AM from Chicago in 1919 and who did some additional work in 1925-26.Paul R. Hackett, AM'21, who happened to be attending a conference inRangoon while our correspondent wasthere, is principal of the Judson Boys'High School, in Moulmein, Burma.DISTINCTION — PROTECTION — SATISFACTIONCampbell, Eisele & Polich, Ltd.Merchant TailorsWilloughby Tower — 8 South Michigan Avenue — Fourth FloorTelephone State 3863 ROBERT MAYNARD HUTCHINS.H.N the thirteen years that hehas been in higher education,there has been no keener criticof the weaknesses and failuresof education — and no betterfriend to education — than Robert Maynard Hutchins, President of. the University of Chicago.Here are collected for the firsttime twenty-four addresses byMr. Hutchins which commandattention for their logic andsanity, and captivate by theforcefulness and brilliance oftheir style. With such challenging titles as What It Means toGo to College, Thomas Jeffersonand the Intellectual Love ofGod, Education as a NationalEnterprise, The Professor IsSometimes Right, Radio andPublic Policy, these addressesare "must" reading for everyAlumnus interested in currentproblems in educating youth insuch a way that they will bebetter citizens tomorrow.$2.00;postpaid, $2.10.NOFRIENDLYVOICEBy ROBERT MAYNARD HUTCHINSThe University of Chicago Press34 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESCHOOL DIRECTORYBOYS' SCHOOLSWILLISTON ACADEMYUNUSUAL educational opportunities at modestcost. Endowment over half a million,, Over150 graduates in 40 colleges. New recreationalcenter, gymnasium, swimming pool. Experienced, understanding masters. Separate JuniorSchool.Address Archibald V. Galbraith, HeadmasterBox 3, Easthampton, Mass.ROXBURY SCHOOLFor boys 11 years and olderFlexible organization and painstaking supervision of each boy's program offer opportunityfor exceptional scholastic progress and generaldevelopment.A. N. Sheriff, HeadmasterCheshire, ConnecticutPEDDIE An EndowedSchoolfor BoysPeddie specializes in preparing boys for college. Outof 373 boys graduated in last five years, 302 have entered colleges such as Yale, Princeton, Dartmouth, Harvard, Brown. Cornell, Pennsylvania, Mass. Institute ofTechnology. 150-acre campus. 15 modern buildings.Near Princeton. Separate school for younger boys. Allsports for all. School golf course. Summer session.71st year. Catalog.Wilbour E. Saunders, HeadmasterBox D, Hightstown, N. J.CRANBROOK SCHOOLDistinctive endowed boys' school, grades 7-12 andpost-graduate course. Arts, sciences, athletics,hobbies. Non- military. Single rooms. NearFor catalog- addressRegistrar3000 Lone Pine Road, Bloomfield Hills, MichiganCOUPONFOR COMPLETE SCHOOL ANDCAMP INFORMATION, FILL OUTAND MAIL THIS FORM TO THEGRADUATE SCHOOL SERVICE, 30ROCKEFELLER PLAZA, N. Y.Student's Age Sex Religion Rate Location Preferred Type of School Preferred Type of Camp Preferred Remarks Name Address GIRLS' SCHOOLSThe MARY C. WHEELER SCHOOLA school modern in spirit, methods, equipment, rich intraditions. Excellent college preparatory record. Generalcourse with varied choice of subjects. Post Graduate.Class Music, Dancing, Dramatics, and Art. an integral part of curriculum. Leisure for hobbies. Dailysports. 170 acre farm — riding, hunting, hockey. Separate residence and life adapted to younger girls.Catalogue.Mary Helena Dey, M.A., PrincipalProvidence, Rhode IslandLOW- HEY WOODOn the Sound— At Shippan PointEstablished 1865Preparatory to the Leading Colleges forWomen. Also General Course. Art and Music.Separate Junior School. Outdoor Sports. Onehour from New York.MARY ROGERS ROPER, HeadmistressBox G, Stamford, ConnecticutCO-EDUCATIONAL SCHOOLMORNING FACE in theBerkshiresA small boarding school for boys and girls fromfour to fourteen. Prepares for leading secondary schools. Men and women teachers whounderstand children. Intimate home life.For information addressMrs. Eleanor Runkle Crane, directorRichmond, Mass.SECRETARIAL SCHOOLSKATHARINE GIBBSSecretarial Executive AcademicTwo- Year Course — First year six college subjects: second year intensive secretarial training.One year course of brood business training.Special Course, College Women. Day, Residentin N. Y., Boston. Catalog. Office of Admissions.New York Boston Providence230 Park Ave. 90 Marlboro St. 155 Angell St.Optional Spring Session in BermudaIntensive Stenographic CourseFOR COLLEGE MEN & WOMEN100 Words a Minute in 100 Days As- asured for one Fee. Enroll NOW. Day "j*classes only— Begin Jan.. Apr.. Julyand Oct. Write or Phone Ran. 1575._18^S. MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO^MacCormac School ofCommerceBusiness Administration and SecretarialTrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESEnter Any Monday1170 E. 63 rd St. H. P. 2130 CO-EDUCATIONAL SCHOOLThe Midway School6216 Kimbark Ave. Tel. Dorchester 3299Elementary Grades — High SchoolPreparation — KindergartenFrench, Music and ArtBUS SERVICEA School with Individual Instruction andCultural AdvantagesSPECIAL SCHOOLTHE ORTHOGENIC SCHOOL OFTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOBoarding and day school for the studyand training of children, 6 to 14, witheducational or emotional problems. Mental defectives are not accepted. Undersupervision of University Clinics and Department of Education.Dr. Frank N. Freeman, DirectorDr. Mandel Sherman, PsychiatristCHIROPODY SCHOOLILLINOIS COLLEGEof Chiropody and Foot SurgeryFor Bulletin and Information AddressDR. WM. J. STICKEL, Dean1327 North Clark StreetChicago, IllinoisCOLLEGESIATIONAL COLLEGE ofEDUCATION49th yearN1 International reputation for superiorscholarship and distinguished faculty.Teacher training in Nursery School,Kindergarten and Elementary Grades. Exceptional placement record. Demonstration School,Dormitories, Athletics. For catalog write, EdnaDean Baker, Pres., Box 625 -C, Evanston, 111.SAINT XAVIER COLLEGEFOR WOMEN4900 Cottage Grove AvenueCHICAGO, ILLINOISA Catholic College Conducted bythe SISTERS OF MERCYCourses lead to the B. A. and B. S.degrees. Music — ArtTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 35NEWS OF THE CLASSESCOLLEGE1896E. R. Branson is at the present timepracticing law in Chicago, with officesin the Conway Building, 111 WestWashington Street. He is associateeditor of the National Corporation Reporter, a journal devoted to generalnews, law, commerce and finance, andhas at various times contributed to lawjournals throughout the country.Charles S. Pike is with the American Industries Corporation located inthe Penobscot Building in Detroit.1897The Class Secretary, Donald S.Trumbull, passes on to us some of thegreetings and comments sent to him lastmonth when he was making an attemptto round up a corking good representation of his class for the Midwinter Assembly.Burt Brown Barker writes : "Sorryenough that I cannot attend, but it isa bit far even with the attractions youoffer. I shall be passing through Chicago the first week in May on my wayto Europe to attend the Anglo-American Historical Conference in London.Shall try to spend a day in Chicago. I entertained Mr. and Mrs. Hoover inmy home when he gave his Lincoln'sday address in Portland. Hoover andI were boys together and I was glad tobe able to get him to come to Portland.Please remember me to all who may inquire. I am and for eight years havebeen Vice President of the Universityof Oregon — salary $1 per year.From Los Angeles, Wilbur Bassettsends his regards to the old crowd andadds, "I feel as young and able as Iwas thirty years ago. Sorry I haven'tseen any of the class in a long time.Extend my invitation to look me up inthe city of the angels."Otho Fairfield, now a retired college man, and his wife are living inOrland, Florida. They regret not beingin closer contact with the U. of C. butrejoice in being so close to Rollins atWinter Park.A note from Marilla Waite Freeman, librarian at the Main Branch ofthe Cleveland Public Library, carriesthe following tidings: "How I regretthat I cannot leave my Library responsibilities to join the class of '97.We have a lively Alumni group here inCleveland with at least Mayo Fesler(Director of the Citizens' League) andmyself carrying the banner of '97. We BLACKSTONEHALLanExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748 TelephoneBlackstone Ave. , Plaza 3313Verna P. Werner, DirectorTHE OLDEST CAMP IN THE WESTCAMP HIGHLANDSFOR BOYSSAYNER, WISCONSINThree Camps— 8-12: 13-14: 15-17Woodcraft, Athletic and Water Sports,Music, Photography, Scouting, Long CanoeTrips, Riding, Shooting, Shop, Nature Lore,Camping Trips, Unexcelled Equipment,Experienced Staff, Doctor-Nurse.WRITE THE DIRECTOR FOR CATALOGW. J. MONILAW. M. D.5712 Kenwood Ave., ChicagoAWARDED TOSWIFT'S, , , A Summa Cum Laude Degree inFlavor and MildnessFor Your Easter Dinner Serve Swift's Premium Ham/ \ NO PARBOILING36 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAlbert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau for menand women In all kinds of teaching positions.Large and alert College and State Teachers* College departments for Doctors and Masters: fortyper cent of our business. Critic and Grade Supervisors for Normal Schools placed every year inlarge numbers; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Heme Economics, Business Administration. Music, and Art. secure fine positions throughus every year. Private Schools in all parts of thecountry among our best patrons: good salaries. Wellprepared High School teachers wanted for city andsuburban High Schools. Special manager handlesGrade and Critic work. Send for folder today.HAIRREMOVEDFOREVER16 Years' ExperienceFree ConsultationLOTTIE A. METCALFEGraduate NurseELECTROLYSIS EXPERTMultiple 20 platinum needles can beused.Permanent removal of Hair from Face.Eyebrows, Back of Neck or any partof Body; destroys 200 to 600 Hair Rootsper hour.Removal of Facial Veins, Moles andWarts.Member American Assn. Medical Hydrologyand Physical Therapy$1.75 per Treatment for HairTelephone FRA 4885Suite 1705, Stevens Bldg.17 No. State St.SUPERFLUOUSHAIRPositivelyDestroyed !Your BeautyRestoredELECTROLYSISis the only method endorsed by physicians.We are the inventors of multiple needle electrolysis and leaders for 40 years in removalof superfluous hair, moles and warts. Nopan — no scars — experienced operators andreasonable rates for guaranteed work.MADAME STIVERSuite 1009 Marshall Field Annex25 E. Washington St.Clip Ad for Booklet or Call Central 4639CHICAGO PETERSENMOTOR LIVERYA PERSONAL SERVICEof Refinement, Catering to theUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOLINCOLNSWith Experienced Chauffeurs5650 LAKE PARK AVE.Phone MIDWAY 0949 wish the class might meet in Clevelandsome time, perhaps when the GreatLakes Exposition is holding openhouse here this summer. Meantimewarmest greetings and good wishes to'97 and all its members."Emily Fogg (Mrs. Edward S. Mead),another '97er who wished that she couldbe in Chicago on the 26th rather thanso far away as Philadelphia, hopes thatthe alumni of their city can be moreactive soon.In expressing his regrets, WilliamO. Wilson of Cheyenne, Wyoming,comments : "I was in Chicago in January attending the midwinter session ofthe General Council of the AmericanBar Association but I find you citychaps seemingly too busy to visit withus main street lawyers, so I seldommake calls, such as we do out in thebig open spaces, where we know everybody, including Governors ana U. S.Senators and all judges personally. Ihope I may 'hit' one of these alumnidinners sometime."1889Observing his twentieth anniversaryas chaplain of Baylor Hospital and theBaylor University Medical and DentalCollege, Louis M. Waterman, ThB'89,was honored February 1 with a luncheon at the hospital. He was an associate editor of the Baptist Standard andserved as assistant to Dr. George W.Truett, pastor of the First BaptistChurch, before assuming his presentpost. He has written much poetry, ofwhich a poem on his childhood homeentitled "The Palace of the Past" is themost widely known.1906A teacher at the Senn High School,Chicago, Minnie M. Dunwell, is amember of the Board of Directors ofthe Women's University Club of Chicago.1907Benjamin C. English is presidentof the First National Bank of Danville,111.1908George F. Cassell is district superintendent in charge of high schools inChicago.1909Lincoln K. Adkins, SM'll, headsthe department of Mathematics at theState Teachers College at LaCrosse,Wisconsin.Professor Emeritus Marion Talbot received a citation at theannual meeting of the AmericanAssociation of Deans of Womenheld in St. Louis on February20. She was presented by DeanLeonard of the University ofIllinois. Miss Talbot is alreadyan honorary member of the Association. NEWS-WEEKTHE ILLUSTRATED A'A'II >- il-W \/.l\EKEEPS YOUTHOROUGHLY INFORMEDACCURATE • UNBIASEDTHE PERFECT BALANCEOF WORD & PICTURENEWS-WEEK1270 SixthYour whole life throughShorthand will be useful to you.LEARN GREGGThe World's Fastest Shorthand.THE GREGG PUBLISHING COMPANY2500 Prairie Ave. ChicagoSCHOOLSSTAGE ARTS SCHOOL, INC.Peggy Lou Snyder, PresidentDANCING— INSTRUCTION615 Lyon & Healy Bldg., 64 E.Jackson Blvd.Harrison 4782South Side StudioHayes Hotel — 64th and UniversityLIBRARY SCHOOL209 S. State St., Chicago, III.Preparatory course for public Librarian.Practical book courses for positions inRental Libraries and book stores.Register Mon. to Fri. II a. m. to 4 p. m.ELIZABETH HULLFor SCHOOLRETARDED CHILDRENBoarding and Day Pupils5046 TelephoneGreenwood Ave Drexel 1 188PIANO INSTRUCTIONOLGA H. SCHAWETEACHER OF PIANOStudio— Del Prado Hotel5307 Hyde Park Blvd.For AppointmentPhone Hyde Park 9600THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 37for Economical Transportation^CHEVROLETSALES SERVICEJ. D. Levin '19 Pres.PASSENGER CARS - TRUCKSModern Service StationDREXEL CHEVROLET CO.4733 Cottage GroveDREXEL 3121GREUNE- MUELLERCOALIs of Highest Quality fromRespective Fields and isDUSTLESS TREATEDLet Us Prove This to YouGREUNE-MUELLER GOAL GO.7435 So. Union Ave.All Phones Vincennes 4000BUSINESSDIRECTORYASBESTOSA UNIVERSITY FAVORITEK. &M.FEATHERWEIGHT85% MagnesiaUniform and light in weight. Moredead air cells. Better insulation.KEASBY & MATTISON CO.205 W. Wacker Drive Ran. 6951AWNINGSPhones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.,INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove Avenue 1911Eugene D. Merriman is the educational adviser for Camp Ginkgo at El-lenburg, Washington. His home is inBuckley, Wash.Bbnjamin Wilk is with the Fair-child Publications and lives at 54 Riverside Drive, New York City.1912Rachel Mary Campbell is executive secretary of the Public HealthCommission of Milwaukee County andsecretary of the Maternity Hospital andDispensary Association of Milwaukee,Wis.William P. Harms is working withthe Bay County Emergency WelfareRelief Commission in Bay City, Michigan.1913Elizabeth Bredin is president of theChicago unit of the Women's OverseasService League, which recently held itsannual dinner. All women who servedoverseas with the Allies during the warwere invited to the party, for which anoriginal stunt show was staged by themembers.W. M. Harrison presides over theStar Refining and Producing Companyof Fort Worth, Texas.Cora Hinkins (Mrs. Fred D. Far-rar) is president of the Birmingham,Michigan, branch of the American Association of University Women. Shehas two daughters, 17 and 14 years old,who expect to be future students herebefore long.Harold Kramer is secretary andgeneral manager of the Loup RiverPublic Power District, otherwise designated as the Columbus-Genoa Project,PWA Docket 665, at Columbus, Nebraska.Regent of the Waukegan Chapter ofthe D. A. R., Charlotte M. Porter,is treasurer of the Woman's Club ofBreckinridge, Colorado, and is keenlyinterested in genealogy.1914From Tower Topics we learn thatRobert Waterman Stevens, who wasthe University organist and choir director from 1911 until 1925, paused on thequadrangles recently to greet old friends."Mr. Stevens is located in Great Falls,Montana, where he deals with discordand harmony in a variety of ways including the directing of a chorus andplaying the organ at two local churches.. . . Mr. Stevens was in the mid-west onbusiness — among other things — connected with the records he made for thecompany which has introduced the newHammond pipeless organ to the musicworld."1916Esther Jacobs, AM'21, is dean ofthe Burlington Junior College in Burlington, Iowa.1917G. E. Burget is professor of Physiology at the University of OregonMedical School at Portland. BEAUTY SALONSERNEST BAUERLEBEAUTY SALONSpecializing inIndividual HaircutsSuite 130817 N. State St.Stevens Building TelephoneDearborn 6789BOOKSMEDICAL BOOKSof All PublishersThe Largest and Most Complete Stock andall New Books Received as soon as published. Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medical Book Co.)Congress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medical CollegeBROADCASTINGNORMAN KLINGOutstandingVOCAL INSTRUCTORTO STARS OFRadio — Stage — OrchestraWill Help You to Improve orDevelop Your VoiceHis Aid Has Helped Many toGreater Earning Power and SuccessStudio903 Kimball Building TelephoneWebster 7188CATERERJOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900—0901Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882CHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, '12B. R. Harris, '2 1Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285-6COALJAMES COAL CO.ESTABLISHED 1888YARDS58th & Halsted Sts. Phone Normal 28008 1st & Wallace Sts. Phone Radcliffe 8000THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECOFFEE -TEALa Touraine Coffee Co.IMPORTERS AND ROASTERS OFLA TOURAINECOFFEE AND TEA209-13 MILWAUKEE AVE., CHICAGOat Lake and Canal Sts.Phone State 1350Boston— New York — Philadelphia — SyracuseELECTRIC SIGNSELECTRIC SIGNADVERTISING•FEDERAL ELECTRIC COMPANYCLAUDE NEON FEDERAL CO.225 North Michigan Avenue•W. D. Kruplce, '19Vice-president in Charge of SalesEMPLOYMENTCOLOREDDOMESTIC HELPFurnishedDay or NightReferences investigated.Englewood Employment Agency5530 S. State. Phone-Englewood 3181-3182Street Night-Englewood3 181Established 16 yearsPhones: Plaza 6444, 64451631 East 55th StreetFURNITURE POLISHHfL "Marvelous"1 INEVERUBmm/ Cream 01)1 I Q IIm jM *y Furniture I U L I O II£iir Brilliant, Lasting, Not OilyWfeUI#' Dilute with equal waterHP NO RUBBINGSold by: Fieldt, Davis Store, The Fair, andRetail Stores everywhere. FURRIERF. STEIGERWALDFURRIERSTORAGE— REPAIRINGREMODELING902 Phone17 North State St. Cent. 6620Exclusive But Not Expensive 1918Chester K. Wentworth, geologistwith the Board of Water Supply inHonolulu, has recently been electedpresident of the Hawaiian Academy ofScience.1919Carter B. Cordner of Los Angelesis vice-president and manager of theCarlisle-Cordner Corporation.Pauline Rosaire, AM'33, gave atalk to the college section of the National Council of Teachers of Englishlast November at Indianapolis. Theaddress will be printed in full in theApril number of the English Journal(College Edition). Miss Rosaire isnow with the Herzl Branch of the CityJunior Colleges as head of the Humanities Department there.1920Walter C. Evans is general manager of the Westinghouse Electricaland Manufacturing Company Plant atChicopee Falls, Mass.John Joseph, publicity director forR-K-0 in the Middle West, is leavingfor New York to take charge of theoffice there.Anne Kemp (Mrs. Harold Zink) ispersonnel assistant on the Governor'sCommission on Unemployment Relief ofthe State of Indiana.Anna Koopman (Mrs. Hao JlsuanSun) and her husband have just builta new home in Shanghai. Their sixyear old son, Ray, is reported to bequite a reader of English books for hisage.John R. Slacks, AM'30, is an associate professor of rural education at theIowa State Teachers College.1922An active worker with the Wisconsin State Board of A. A. U. W., Mrs.Charles Doman (Mary Kiugsland),is finishing the fourth year of her termas secretary of the National Kindergarten Association. Her home addressis 622 Watson Street, Ripon, Wisconsin.John P. Whittaker, Registrar ofAtlanta University and Morehouse College, likes to work in his garden andenjoys motoring and church work.1923Emily Laura Cadwell (Mrs. Harold C. Peterson) is now living at 1718Oakwood Boulevard, Royal Oak, Michigan.In answering the query as to detailsof her work during the last few years,Marjorie Howard (Mrs. WilliamRufus Morgan) writes: "Details? Lifeis just one series of details when youmanage a family and try to carry on acareer besides ! I am still fairly deepin music but convinced of the ancienttruth : 'The more you study, the morethere is to learn.' The Cordon Clubtraversty of grand opera, 'Hi, Eda !' ranthe record nine nights to a packedlounge. I was Judge Burp ! My husband (Wm. Rufus Morgan, JD'24) isstill fairly deep in untangling property GALLERIESO'BRIEN GALLERIESPaintings Expertly Restored!New life brought to treasured canvases. Our moderate prices will please.Estimates given without obligation.673 North MichiganSuperior 2270 GROCERIESLEIGH'SGROCERY <.nd MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9 1 00- 1 -2QUALITY FOODSTUFFSMODERATE PRICESWE DELIVERHOTELS"Famous for Food"Dancing and EntertainmentNightlyCircular CRYSTAL Barthe BREVOORT hotel120 W. Madison St. ChicagoLAUNDRIESMorgan Laundry Service, Inc.2330 Prairie Ave.Phone Calumet 7424Dormitory ServiceStandard Laundry Co.Linen Supply — Wet WashFinished Work1818 South Wabash Ave.Phone Calumet 4700SUNSHINE LAUNDRYCOMPANYAll ServicesDry Cleaning2915 Cottage Grove Ave.Telephone Victory 5110THEBEST LAUNDRY andCLEANING COMPANYALL SERVICESWe Also DoDry Cleaning — Shoe Repairing4240 PhoneIndiana Ave. OAKIand 1383-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 39LITHOGRAPHERL. C. Mead '21. E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182MUSICRayner Dalheim &CoMUSICENGRAVERS & PRINTERSof FRATERNITY,SORORITYand UNIVERSITYof CHICAGO SONG BOOKSNO 0RDERT00 LARGE ORTOO SMALL - WRITE FOR PRICES2054 W.LAKE ST. PHONE SEELEY47I0NURSES' REGISTRYNURSES' OFFICIAL REGISTRYof FIRST DISTRICT, ILLINOIS STATENURSES ASSOCIATIONFurnishes registered nurses for all types ofcases and for varying hours of service tofit the patient's need.TelephoneNURSES' HEADQUARTERSSTATE 85428 South Michigan Ave., Willoughby TowerBuilding — Lucy Van Frank, RegistrarOPTICAL SUPPLIESSince 1886BORSCH & COMPANYEyes Examined Glasses FittedOculists Prescriptions FilledWe Can Duplicate Any Lens fromthe Broken PiecesTelephone52 E. Adams St. State 7267PAINTSGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating— Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3 1 86PHOTOGRAPHERMOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C. ALUMNIPHYSICAL THERAPY UNITSMSINTOSH1 ELECTRICAL CORPORATION- CHICAGO MEstablished 1879MANUFACTURERSPhysical Therapy EquipmentTelephone— KEDzie 2048223-233 N. California Ave., Chicago reorganizations, with the firm of Gottlieb and Schwartz, and giving his extratime to the political actions committeeof the Hamilton Club. Our two daughters take more time as they grow uprather than less — their interests runningall the way from dramatics and musicto skating and bicycling."Egil E. Krogh has assumed chargeof the new Basement Merchandise Bureau of Marshall Field and Company.Frank J. Mackey is a candidate forthe Republican nomination for representative in the second Illinois Congressional district. Mackey did his undergraduate work at Chicago and has beenactive in the publishing field since leaving the University. He is president ofSchool Methods Publishing Companyand the Classroom Teacher, Inc. He isdirector of the department of rehabilitation, Disabled American Veterans ofthe World War. Mr. Mackey has beendecorated recently for this stand againstcommunism and other An-American"isms."1924Edgar Bibas is now treasurer andone of the directors of Draper andKramer, Inc., one of the largest realestate firms in Chicago. Mrs. Bibaswas Helen Ullman of the Class of '25.Irwin Fischer's outstanding work asa composer, conductor and pianist wasgiven a suitable setting at the CivicOrchestra's Concert in Orchestra onFebruary 23, when his new concerto forpiano and orchestra were played, withthe composer at the solo instrument, andwhen he took the baton from ClarenceEvans to conduct the orchestra's performance of the "Valse Triste" and"Finlandia." In commenting on his performance Eugene Stinson says : "Theapplause he won at the close of theprogram was of unusual demonstrative-ness and was highly deserved by a youngmusician who had performed with candor, modesty and complete authority.His beat is precise and eloquent; I hadno doubt that it betokened an innategift for conducting. He brought enthusiasm and energy and an abundanceof freshness to his work and I wastouched to more than admiration atsensing in him so wholehearted, simple and unspotted a musical view."George O. Savage is principal of theMerrill Junior High School and Elementary School of Oshkosh, Wis.Gladys P. Winegar directs the Textile Education Bureau, located at 401Broadway, New York City. The Bureau is a department of the Byran G.Moon Company, an advertising agency.1927Jack Bernard Zavatsky managesthe mail order department of Younkersin Des Moines, Iowa.1928Sidney M. Perlstadt is a UnitedStates Internal Revenue Agent in SanFrancisco and resides at 1434 Lake-shore Avenue, Oakland, Calif.1929John Crowell notifies us that thelaw firm that he is associated with, C.E.MARSHALLWHEEL CHAIR HEADQUARTERSFOR OVER FORTY YEARSNew and Used Chairs for Sale or Rent.Hospital Beds, Crutches, etc."Airo" Mattresses and Cushions5062 Lake Park Ave. Drex. 3300ROOFINGGrove Roofing Co.(Gillil and)Old Roofs Repaired- -New Roofs Put On25 Years at 6644 Cottage G rove Ave.Lowest Prices — Estimates FreeFairfax 3206SPORTING GOODSJ. B. Van Boskirk & SonsSporting Goods"Van" of Bartlett Gym1411 East 60th StreetMidway 7521Complete Tennis EquipmentSquash & BadmintonSPLINTSDe Puy SplintsFracture BookFreeUpon RequestProfessional Card SufficientWARSAW— INDIANATEACHER'S AGENCIESAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. Jackson BoulevardChicagoA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field.It is affiliated with the Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.THEHUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 E. JACKSON BLVD.Telephone Harrison 7793Chicago, III.Member National Associationof Teachers AgenciesWe Enjoy a Very Fine High School, NormalSchool, College and University PatronageX-RAY SUPPLIESX-RAY SUPPLIES& Accessories"At Your Service9Tel. Seeley 2550-51Geo. W. Brady & Co.809 So. Western Ave.40 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELucius, Buehler & Lucius, have movedtheir offices to 135 S. La Salle Street,Chicago.Edwarda A. Williams, AM'35, iscontinuing to. teach English at SummitSchool, a private girl's school in St.Paul. She and Marion Keane, '34,AM'35, frequently indulge in sessions offond reminiscence about the U. of C.1930Robert Ardrey occupied the author'sbox at the Golden Theatre for the premier of his first Broadway play "StarsSpangle," March 10. Miss WinifredVerNooy of the University Librarymade a special trip to be among thosepresent at Bob's first-nighter.Cary J. Boyd is assistant office manager of the Indianapolis branch of Armour and Company.From Jerome L. Wenk, who last October opened the Wenk-Reynolds Corporation, otherwise known as a dealership in Dodge Plymouth Motor Cars inBloomington, Illinois, sends the gladword that he has been doing a "riprsnorting" business since. Anyone interested in "a real deal on a real automobile" would find a willing correspondent and salesman in Wenk, P. O. Box733. And more personal news, he plansto marry Geraldine Manaster, }33,this spring. Recent visitors in Bloomington include Joe Kaufman, '30, andJoe Ratner, '30, who is the Deep-Rock Oil assistant to the sales manager.1931Gene Blumenstock, ex, now attends the Alaska College of Agricultureand Mines. He and his wife live a milefrom the campus and Gene goes to andfrom school on skis in weather frequently sixty below.Roberta Larew is teaching in theCharleston, West Virginia, Senior HighSchool.Raymond E, Ulveling, AM'32, is alibrarian and instructor at the DetroitCity Law School in Detroit, Mich.1932Robert E. Asher, AM, supervisesresearch in the section of finance, procedures, and statistics in the Divisionof Professional and Service Projectsfor the Works Progress Administrationin Washington, D. C.On the subject of what featuresalumni would like to see emphasized inthe Magazine, Ruth Balch of Windsor, Ohio, suggests a column giving thethoughts, ideals, aspirations of and constructive criticisms by alumni. Shewrites: "The title or slogan might be —The U. of C. Can Lead the Way.' Forone of our ideals I believe we shouldstrive for greater leisure among theemployed and intelligent use of thatleisure. As I have been situated in thepast four years, my time has been myown, in the quiet country, no town, nocar even, no distractions, hence so manyhobbies — reading, hiking, letter writing,gardening, quilting and embroidery. Astimes improve, hours of work are lessened, and salaries increase, there is every reason to look forward to aricher, fuller life for all of us, employedand homemakers alike, more opportunityto do things with arid for others."John Tiernan now uses his personality to encourage the consumption ofKellogg's Corn Flakes in New YorkState. . ¦ ;1933Edward R. Geagan is with Barcus,Kindred and Company, municipal bonds,231 S. La Salle Street, Chicago.Joseph Haden is with the Libraryfor the Social Security Board in Washington, D. C, as Assistant Librarianunder Mr. Bane. His present addressis 1468 Belmont St., N. W.1934Seymour Orville Baker, AM'35, isteaching English at the Hopkins Township High School in Granville, Illinois,and with dramatics is kept busy.Marion Keane, AM'35, is teachingFrench at Oak Hall, a private girl'sschool in St. Paul, Minnesota, and reports that, she is enjoying it immensely,what with the experience of teaching allthe grades from third up through seniorhigh school. And she spends her sparetime thinking up ways to go traveling.ENGAGEDZelda Rubinstein, '35, to Dr. Ernest T. Heffer.MARRIEDClark Scammon Reed, '00, to MarySwaffield Cowan, January 27, 1936,Columbia, S. C.Julia R. Rhodus, '24, to Joseph E.McClain, June 22, 1935, Chicago. Theyare living at 220 Sarto Ave., CoralGables, Florida.Clarinda F. Brower, '26, to W.Warren Burchill, February 26, 1936,Chicago; at home, 1379 East 57thStreet, Chicago.A. Louis Rosi, '26, MD'31, to Barbara Shambaugh, February 21, 1936,Chicago.Agnes Spoerer, '30, to FrederickWilliam Langner, January 18, 1936; athome, 1107 West State Street, Olean,N. Y.Gertrude Hiltpold, '31, to AlbertVan Syckle Lloyd of Springfield, 111.,February 21, 1936; at home SaranacHotel, 5541 Everett Ave., Chicago.Marcia Mae Elisberg, '33, to LeoDavid Ovson, f33, December 8, 1935;at home, 1049 Glenlake Avenue, Chicago.Mildred Jean Ash, '34, to PercyR. Jacobson, January 19, 1936 ; at home,525 Cornelia Ave., Chicago.Josephine Pridmore, GS'35, to PaulRichard Kitch, JD'35, January 25,1936, Glencoe, 111. Mr. Kitch is amember of the law firm of Brooks andBrooks in Wichita, Kansas.BORNTo Chester K. Wentworth, '18,and Mrs. Wentworth (Edna L. Clark,'20, ¦ AM'22) , a son, Gordon Howard ' Wentworth, November 28, 1935, Honolulu.To Mr. and Mrs. Laurence M.Clark (Margaret Davis, '27), adaughter, Judith, January 16, 1936, Detroit, Michigan.To Mr. Ralph B. Huston, '23,PhD'32, and Mrs. Huston (AntoinetteMarie Killen, '26; SM'30, PhD'34),a son, Peter Eugene, November 21 '1935, Troy, New York.To Mr. and Mrs. Samuel J. Miller(Muriel M. Ferguson, '29), a son,James Ferguson, February 20, 1936.To Mr. Joseph W. Haden, '33, andMrs. Haden, a son, Peter Joseph, February 19, 1936, Washington, D. C.DIEDR. A. McIlhenny, MD'91, "diedvMarch 3 following a brief illness at his'home in Conway Springs, Kansas. He.was^ a prominent physician at ConwaySprings, where he had practiced for thelast 46 years and had taken an activepart in the affairs of the medical society.Alelaide Steele Baylor, '97, December 18, 1935, Washington, D. C.Last October Miss Baylor retired fromher post which she had held for 12years as chief of the home economicseducation service in the United StatesOffice of Education. For seventeenyears she had been secretary of the National Council for Education and wasat one time president of the elementarysection of the N.E.A. and of the Na^tional Council of Administrative Womenin Education.John. I. Hutchinson, PhD'96, Professor of Mathematics at Cornell University, died December 15, 1935. Hewas the second doctor in mathematicsat Chicago; Leonard E. Dickson wasawarded the first doctorate by that department.William G. Matthews, '06, waskilled Saturday, March 14, 1936, in anautomobile accident. Former newspaperrepresentative, he had been connectedwith M. C. Mogensen and Company,Chicago publishers representatives,' forthe last several years.Eugene W. Shaw, Fellow in Geology, '05-'07, October 7, 1935, at Washington, D. C. For many years he wasgeologist of the U. S. Geological Survey.Samuel C. Beckwith, '15, at hishome at 1239 Jarvis Avenue, Chicago,January 4, 1936. He had been associated with Stack-Goble AdvertisingAgency.Raymond J. Garver, PhD'26, Assistant Professor of Mathematics at theUniversity of California at Los Angeles,died suddenly on November 7, 1935. Inthe short span of ten years since hetook the doctorate he had produced morethan sixty research papers, and wascounted one of the brilliant workers inthe mathematical field.Charles Franklin Bowles, PhD'30,Assistant Professor at the School of*.Mines, Repuil City, South Dakota, diedof typhoid February 7, 1936.Cri mo takes a tumbleiin Evansville60% more arrests 17% fewer crimes, since2-way radio was put on the police force . • •During the six months after Western Electric police radio was adopted, that was the record inEvansville, Indiana. C With Western Electric 2-way radio, patrol cars may reach the scene of crimeeven before the get-away. Cars report results instantly to headquarters; askfor and receive further instructions. CT, Western Electric radio equipment isdependable — backed by 54 years of Bell telephone making.Ask your police department if your town has radio protection."Calling all carsWestern ElectricDISTRIBUTORS: CRAYBAR ELECTRIC COMPANYLEADERS IN SOUND-TRANSMISSION APPARATUS© 1956, Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co.