THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE¦¦¦¦¦i MIDSUMMER 19 3 5THE ALUMNI COUNCILOFTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOChairman, DONALD S. TRUMBULL, '97Secretary and Editor, CHARLTON T. BECK, '04The Council for 1935-36 is composed of the following delegates:From the College Association: Harry D. Abells, '97; Frank McNair, '03; Herbert I. Markham, '05; Mrs. Barbara Miller Simpson, '1 8; Mrs. Frances Henderson Higgins, '20; Mrs.Lucy Lamon Merriam, '26; Donald S. Trumbull, '97; Helen Norris, '07; Harold H. Swift,'07; Howell Murray, '14; Mrs. Ruth Manierre Freeman, '16; Thomas Mulroy, '27, JD'28;Mrs. Davie Hendricks Essington, '08; Milton E. Robinson, '11, JD'13; Paul S. Russell, '16;John Nuveen, '19; Charles G. Higgins, '20; Robert T. McKinlay, '29, JD'32.From the Association of- Doctors of Philosophy: Robert Redfield, PhD'28; Herbert Blumer,PhD'28; Harold A. Swenson, PhD'31.From the Divinity Association: Andrew R. E. Wyant, DB'97; J. Burt Bouwman, DB'29;Franklin D. Elmer, Jr., DB'30.From the Law School Association: John R, Montgomery, JD'25; Charles P. Schwartz,JD'09; Charles F. McElroy, JD'15.From the Education Association: Harold A. Anderson, '24, AM'26; Robert C. Woellner,AM'24; Paul M. Cook, AM'27.From the School of Business Association: Elizabeth Foreen, '26; Lester C. Shephard, '29;Neil F. Sammons, '29.From the Rush Medical College Association: Frank B. Kelly, MD'20; William A. Thomas,MD'16; Edward J. Stieglitz, MD'21.From the School of Social Service Administration Association: Helen Haseltine, AM'34;Anna May Sexton, AM'30; Erwin Johnston, AM'31.From the Association of the School of Medicine in the Division of the Biological Sciences: Sylvia H. Bensley, MD'30; Egbert H. Fell, MD'32; Gail M. Dack, MD'33.From the Chicago Alumnae Club: Ethel Preston, '08, AM'10, PhD'20; Elsie Schobinger, '08,AM'17; Mrs. Louise Norton Swain, '09, AM'17.From the Chicago Alumni Club: Charles G. Higgins, '20; Roy J. Maddigan, '10; John J. McDonough, '28.From the University: John F. Moulds, '07.Alumni Associations Represented in the Alumni CouncilThe College Alumni Association: President, Donald S. Trumbull, '97; Secretary, Charlton T.Beck, '04, University of Chicago.Association of Doctors of Philosophy: President, Charles R. Baskervill, PhD'll; Secretary,Herbert Blumer, PhD'28.Divinity School Association: President, E. Le Roy Dakin, DB'll; Secretary, Charles T. Hol-man, DB'15, University of Chicago.Law School Association: President, John R. Montgomery, JD'25; Secretary, Charles F. McElroy, JD'15, 29 South La Salle Street, Chicago.School of Education Association: President, Aaron J. Brumbaugh, PhD'29; Secretary, LenoreJohn, AM'27, 6009 Kimbark Ave., Chicago.School of Business Association: President, Lester C. Shepherd, '29; Secretary, Dorothy Die-mer Thompson, '33, 8251 Ellis Avenue, Chicago.Rush Medical College Association: President, Michael H. Ebert, MD'17; Secretary, Carl O.Rinder, MD'13, 122 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago.School of Social Service Administration Association: President, Eleanor Goltz,' 29, AM'30;Secretary, Frank Frynn, 615 South State Street, Chicago.Association of the Medical School of the Division of Biological Sciences: President,William Brooks Steen, MD'31; Secretary, John T. Hauch, MD'34, Presbyterian Hospital,Chicago.All communications should be sent to the Secretary of the proper Association or to the Alumni Council,Faculty Exchange, University of Chicago. The dues for membership in any one of the Associations namedabove, including subscription* to The University of Chicago Magazine, are $2.00 per year. A holder of twoor more degrees from the University of Chicago may be a member of more than one Association; in suchinstances the dues are divided and shared equally by the Associations involved.THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI COUNCILCharlton T. Beck, '04Editor and Business ManagerFred B. Millett, PhD '31, William V. Morgenstern, '20, JD '22, John P. Howe, '27Contributing EditorsMilton E. Robinson, Jr., '11, JD '13, Ethel Preston, '08, AM '10, PhD '20, Elizabeth Faulkner, '85Council Committee on PublicationsTHIS page once had a purpose.It was dedicated to the introduction of our contributors. In brief butfearless style, we have divulged thefacts, pertinent and impertinent, aboutthose who have done the really important work of creative writing forthe Magazine. But this month thereis little need for a Who's Who amongthe contributors. Much of this issueis given over to the faculty symposium on What Is This Thing CalledAcademic Freedom f and in DoctorCarlson, whose remarks are printedin full, these faculty folk provide theirown introducer and master of ceremonies.The contributing members of ourstaff, those four men who, monthafter month, provide the timely andtrenchant comment that makes yourMagazine distinctive, not to say, distinguished, need no introduction.They are old friends. As such youmay be interested in knowing theirwhereabouts during this summerseason.Fred Millett forwards his In MyOpinion Column from Cambridge,Massachusetts, and we can picturehim in the Harvard libraries penninghis conclusion that "only on a prolonged and prayerful discipline in material and intellectual rejections canthe good life begin to be built." Howard Mort makes a personal deliveryof his manuscript as he heads towardthe service station for the family carin which he and Mrs. Mort are tostart on a cross country trek to Salem, Oregon. William Morgensternproduced his resume before leavingfor a vacation on the Atlantic seaboard, and John Howe, whose monu mental review of the recent senatorial Then there are scores of alumniinvestigation livens the pages of this from distant parts who include theissue, remains in Harper M.14 di- University on their vacation itiner-recting the University's publicity dur- aries. Many of them lack strengthing the absence of his chief. or inclination to scale the heights toe the Alumni Office, but with some thestairs of Cobb Hall are no insur-Yes, this is the vacation season on mountable hurdle. The visits of thesethe quadrangles. The editor locked members of the family delight us be-his sanctum m early July and with yond expression. Among the manythe promise not to inflict his presence alumni that we have been h tQupon a single alumnus for a fort- meet durJ ^ j season havenight, set out in the patriarchal Buick , at -d 1 x t -n 1for the Brule, that stream so famous been Norman Barker of Long Beach.for its trout. He figured that no unofficial student inspirer of the Pa-alumnus would be holding forth in cific Coast; Sidney Bisno, PresidentDave Archibald's Camp in the wilds of the Southern California Alumni;of Douglas County, but, frankly George Pullen Jackson Professor offolks, these Chicago alumni are every- German at Vanderbilt University andwhere and whom should he find but foremost authority on the white spir-Milton Portis, '98, MD'01, the well ituals of the southern uplands ; Georgeknown medicine man, demonstrating T- McDermott of Topeka, Judge ofat least four methods of fly casting the U. S. Circuit Court; Daniel Clarynever dreamed of by a Calvin Coo- Webb> the wdl klJown attorney and]jf|„e former judge of Knoxville; George R. Beach, for the past two years inWashington as a codifier ; HaroldTABLE OF CONTENTS Hayden Nelson, the world renownedepigraphic expert from Luxor; Rob-MIDSUMMER, I935 ert l Judd, who has been practicing. ¦t, toE law in Salt Lake City for a quarter1 he 1935 Alumni Reunion ... 331 centur Doroth Greenleaf Bovnton,n™Vk™THING CALLED Program director for the women's or-DEMIC JhREEDOMf * 9 . - rin , T d A nI. Anton J. Carlson 332 gamzations of Elkhart ; Jay B AllenII. Hayward Keniston 333 f Sloux ,Falls> insurance broker andIII. Quincy Wright 334 *ath^ of an entering freshman ;IV. Gilbert A. Bliss 336 Luclllf Vick Howell, associate coun-\t w.„,™ r a,,.. ,oo selor from Herrm, and Alan LeMavV. Warder C. Allee 339 . „ _.. . ', ., ,rr, t- ai n 7j/; -, cm of San Diego, the famous writer otTempus Fugit, Alan D. Whitney. .. . 340 ". , °. '. , , ^ ... ,Drama at Sea, Howard W. Mort. . . 341 fictlon who disappointed the editor byIn My Opinion 343 wef m% f lther SPUrS n0r chaPS-„News of the Quadrangles 345 And there were many more allAthletic News 353 °f whomf *dded t0 the ^S °f theIt Might Have Been, Charles F. aliimni startMcElroy 355 May you all come and visit us whenNews of the Classes 356 next you visit Chicago.Published by the Alumni Council of the University of Chicago, monthly, from November to July. Office of Publication, 403 Cobb Hall, 58th St. atEllis Avenue, Chicago. Annual subscription price $2.00. Single copies 25 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, at the Post Omceat Chicago, Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The Graduate Group, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, is the official advertising agency ofthe University of Chicago Magazine.Casual Glimpses of the June Reunion330VOLUME XXVII THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER 9MIDSUMMER, 1935THE 1935 ALUMNI REUNIONTHERE were no parades. The unusual and exoticcostumes of earlier years were nowhere to be seen.The athletic events were limited to the Alumni-Varsity ball game and the pseudo-athletic to the recurring contest between the Classes of '16 and '17. In manyways it was a different sort of a reunion.To be sure many of the established customs andceremonies were observed. Half a dozen classes held reunions, the individual associations and professionalschools gave their annual dinners with the largest totalattendance ever recorded, the Alumnae Breakfast wasmost successful, the University Band gave a concert, theUniversity dramatists demonstrated their histrionic ability, the Symphony Orchestra presented a brief but delightful program, and the University Sing celebrated itsquarter century with closer harmony than common, toan audience estimated at anywhere from twelve to fifteenthousand, with a half hour of its program broadcast tothe far corners of the country. More than one thousandalumni and students attended the Saturday night OpenHouse at Ida Noyes Hall, where dancing was enjoyedfor several hours after the Sing. So the gustatory, theamusing, and the recreational phases of the reunion season were not neglected.But throughout the Friday and Saturday of Reunion week, an opportunity was offered the alumnus toenjoy a somewhat more serious but none the less stimulating program than had been offered during previousreunion seasons.The Alumni Conference and Forum, originallyestablished as an agency for educating the delegates fromoutside the Chicago area in the more recent developments at the University, was thrown open to all alumni,with the result that its sessions were attended by approximately fifteen hundred of the elect.A series of most stimulating programs was presented to the returning graduates. On Friday afternoon,Mr. James M. Stifler, Secretary of the University,talked on University-Alumni Relations. He was followed by four undergraduates who gave, with refreshingcandor, their opinions of the work being offered by theUniversity in the undergraduate field. To many this wasthe most interesting and to some the most surprisingly enlightening feature of the entire program. The thanksof the organized alumni are extended to Quentin Ogren of Rockford, Lillian Schoen of Pittsburgh, John Flinnof Redwood Falls, and Sidney Hyman of Gary, undergraduates all, who took time off to educate the graduatesof former years on what is going on at the College levelin Chicago.Following this symposium, Professor Carey Croneisof the Department of Geology presented an illustratedlecture on The Age of Dinosaurs. This is one of the lectures offered to students in the general survey course inthe physical sciences, and was not only of intrinsic interest to the alumni and audience, but was doubly interesting as a sample of the work being given to our freshmenand sophomores. Mr. John P. Howe of the PublicityOffice closed the afternoon session with a most comprehensive resume of the year at the University.On Saturday morning a delightfully diversified program was offered by four well known members of thefaculty. M. Llewellyn Raney spoke on The Play ofChance in Lincoln's Career, and so enthused the audience that three hundred alumni made a pilgrimage to theLincoln Memorial Room in the late afternoon. PercyHolmes Boynton told of the accomplishments and unfolded the possibilities of the University's radio program.Philip Schuyler Allen followed the precedent of yearsand failed to say a word on the subject he was booked todiscuss. Instead he delighted his hearers with a veryintimate and reminiscent talk on the University of thepast forty years. Harry D. Gideonse closed the mornings program with a most stimulating talk on Who Runsthe University.The Saturday afternoon meeting in Mandel Hallwas of outstanding interest. It was climaxed by theannual address of President Hutchins who gave a scintillating review of the Senatorial investigation of theUniversity. This address was preceded by a talk, as interesting as it was enlightening, by Harold H. Swift,President of the Board of Trustees. He told of the financial status of the University, and the facts that headvanced made the alumni as proud of the financial record of their Alma Mater as they are of its academicstanding. The first feature of the Saturday afternoonprogram was a symposium by faculty members on thetimely subject, What Is This Thing Called AcademicFreedom? At the request of scores of alumni, we areprinting this symposium in this issue of the Magazine.331WHAT IS THIS THINGA Symposium from the 1935I By ANTON J. CARLSONProfessor of PhysiologyTHIS thing called academic freedom is no longeran "academic" question in many lands. For thatand other reasons the University of Chicago groupof the Association of University Professors was glad torespond to the request of the Alumni Council and arrange the A section of this afternoon's ABC program.As mere chairman, I am supposed to say nothing, which1 now will proceed to do.Now, as ever, the four men who are about to discuss freedom of the University and in the University,speak for themselves, not for' the University ; not evenfor the Professors' Association. As none of the speakers has, as yet, been accused of treason, at least not inpublic, a truth loving press will, I hope, not construe theprogram as an ex parte personal plea.In the last twenty years the A. A. U. P. has on manyoccasions drawn the sword in defense of freedom ofteaching in the colleges and universities of our land.Never once has there been a need to do so in the University of Chicago. From Harper to Hutchins, fromRyerson to Swift, that page of our University Record iswithout a blot. Whatever inside or outside voices andthreats have secretly sought to beguile or coerce the university into a college for propaganda, the UniversityAdministration has had the wisdom and the backbone toresist. Be it ever so! The past attacks on freedom ofthought and teaching in American universities have beenlargely local, sporadic, and due to a few individuals withpower of position or of wealth too great for their intelligence and character.But now the very life of the University is beingthreatened from without. Sons of this and daughters ofDr. Carlson that, legions of greed and leagues for personal propaganda see red and scream, "Treason," when the University, in pursuance of its trust, goes on its way, investigating everything, and extolling only that which isproven true. Some of these modern enemies of the University, however lacking in information, are undoubtedlyboth honest and sincere. It seems to be ignorance, agitated by fear. I would forgive them for they understand not what they are doing or saying. It may bepartly our fault that American adults, otherwise seemingly sane, conceive the university as a Sunday Schoolfor the indoctrination in particular social, economic, orscientific faiths.But the judgment of posterity will be more severeon the legislator, the would-be statesman, who proposesto promote truth in teaching, intelligence in research, andcourage in speech by oaths of loyalty and threats ofstarvation; on newspaper publishers and editors, someof whom are more noted for their cash than for theircharacter, who demand freedom for the Press, anddeny freedom to the University, both for the sake ofdemocracy; while it is perfectly clear, at least to someof us, that freedom of the University, of the Press, aswell as of the man in the street, are necessary if democracy is to endure. These enemies of freedom, these assassins of democracy know perfectly well what they aredoing. These Caesars, big and little, know that it is onlythrough controlled propaganda by the Press, and in theschool, from the kindergarten to the university, that theirpower and privilege will endure.We are descendants of a race of stiff-necked pioneers. Has prosperity and ease so softened our spine, hastemporary woe so shaken us that we are ready to denyour reason, betray our trust, and surrender the University for a loaf of bread? If that happens tomorrow theUniversity is lost now, for we have failed to foster thatsearch for understanding, that reverence for truth, whichis our privilege and duty to promote. I hope our failureis not so complete. I discern no signs of surrender. Ihave heard no hints of compromise. I do not think Isee a mirage: alumni, students, faculty, and trustees, atThermopylae, defending the fair fields of modern Hellasagainst the Barbarians.In this belief I turn the meeting over to my colleagues. From the field of the humanities, from thesocial sciences, from the physical sciences, and fromthose delving in the mysteries of biology come worthyrepresentatives to plead the cause of academic freedom.For these men and the hundreds for whom they speak,see eye to eye with President Hutchins when he says,"Freedom of inquiry, freedom of discussion, and freedom of teaching — without these a university cannotexist. Without these a university becomes a politicalparty or an agency of propaganda. It ceases to be auniversity. The university exists only to find and tocommunicate the truth. If it cannot do that, it is nolonger a university."332CALLED ACADEMIC FREEDOM?Alumni Reunion ConferenceII By HAYWARD KENISTONProfessor of the Spanish LanguageI AM not so bold as to think that I have somethingnew to contribute to the definition or defense of thisthing called academic freedom. It is a problem as oldas the story of education itself. Was not Socrates accused of corrupting the youth of Athens, because hesought to train them in the search for truth? Throughthe centuries academic freedom has been proclaimed asthe very charter of university life. Thus Thomas Jefferson, at the moment of founding the University of Virginia, wrote "This institution will be based on the illimitable freedom of the human mind. For here we are notafraid to follow truth wherever it may lead nor to tolerate any error so long as reason is left free to combatit." And so far as I know, no man has ever attemptedto justify an attack upon academic freedom on sound,rational grounds. But that conflict between freedomand restraint is an endless one. And so it is properto remind a group like this of the importance of defending at all times the right of every man to speak whathe believes to be the truth.From the days of the earliest universities it hasbeen their special task to seek and to disseminate thetruth. A community of teachers and of students, gathered from many places and concerned with every phaseof learning, the university has aimed to preserve the intellectual heritage of the past, to enlarge the boundariesof learning, and to hand on this knowledge to a newgeneration. By the very nature of its devotion to thehigh ideal of truth, it has been singularly free frommotives of personal profit and from efforts to inculcatespecial doctrines favorable to any particular group orinterest. But the truth is no respecter of doctrines anddogmas. And hence the university has constantly founditself the object of attack from those individuals orgroups who felt that their doctrines or their authorityor their privileges were threatened by the free dissemination of the truth.These attacks have been motivated by varying conditions according to the temper of the times. In the Middle Ages it was primarily the ecclesiastical authoritieswho "viewed with alarm" the heretical teachings of someof the professors. Just as long as there was a singleecclesiastical authority, the problem caused little difficulty, because the Church could eliminate the offenderby excommunication. Often the mere threat of such anaction "was sufficient : Galileo was forced to recant inthe matter of his scientific discoveries. But since theReformation, and above all since the establishment ofthe great non-sectarian universities, ecclesiastical attackson the freedom of teaching have had recourse to othermethods. I shall leave to my scientific colleagues thediscussion of this problem.The second type of attack on academic freedom isthat based on political considerations. It is interesting to note that when a state, despotism or democracy, feelssure of its authority, it can afford to be tolerant of freepolitical discussion. Monarchic Spain, at the beginningof this century, tolerated the existence of a variety ofpolitical parties which were avowedly dedicated to theoverthrow of the monarchy. Socialists, republicans, syndicalists, and even anarchists were duly elected to thenational assembly and freely presented their doctrines inthe discussion of national affairs. The monarchy wasconfident of its security. Perhaps the most striking example of this confidence in the soundness of its politicalsystem is England. But the moment that a political authority doubts the validity of its control, it turns perforceto the repression of free examination and free discussion of political questions. It does not matter what thetype of state, despot and proletariat alike seek to maintain a precarious rule by prohibiting freedom of speech.In these circumstances the universities have always foundthemselves in the middle ground, attacked from both extremes. During the . Commonwealth in England it wasproposed to abolish the British universities altogether, asbeing hopelessly moss-backed and reactionary. Today wefind them charged with being "radical" and "red." Theexplanation is obvious. The university professor, as such,is concerned not at all with the defense of a particulardoctrine; his one aim is to establish criteria whereby heand his students may form intelligent judgments as tothe relative values of different political philosophies.In other words, his function is not to defend the statusquo nor to preach revolution. His one concern is thetraining of more intelligent citizens.The third type of attack on academic freedom isthat which is based on economic considerations. And thisis the most recent, and at present, the most frequent ofthe sources of attack. As in the case of political attacks,Dr. Keniston333334 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEit will be noticed that these efforts to limit freedom ofdiscussion of economic questions have been most frequent when groups which enjoy special privilege havefelt their position insecure, that is to say, during periodsof economic depression. You will all admit, I am sure,that such a reaction is natural No man looks with equanimity on the loss of his possession. A disgruntled rabble can be held in check by force, but the university isan influence which is intangible; it can be checked onlyby being silenced. And the greater the uncertainty onthe part of the holder of special privilege as to the justice of his privilege, the greater will be his violence inattempting to repress any untrammeled study of thebases of a sound economic order.In all these types of attack upon academic freedom,the problem is relatively simple and clean-cut when thegroup or individual which assails the university's freedom speaks openly and specifically as representing theinterests of the group. But in reality this seldom occurs. The churches do not attack the teaching of atheory of evolution on the ground that such teachingwill diminish the number of their communicants or theirrevenue; they talk only of the undermining of the character of the youth of America. The politican does notobject to the study of political principles on the groundthat, if truth should prevail, he might lose his office; hemouths unctuously the, to him, empty words of "patriotism," "democracy," "the Constitution." And thecapitalist who would prevent the free discussion of economic problems does not announce that he is stirred byfear lest his possessions or his property be taken fromhim, but rather turns to shibboleths like "The sacrednessof the home" or "rugged individualism." Let no onethink that I hold lightly such ideals as religion, patriotism, or individual freedom ; my comment is directed onlyat the cynical or naive abuse and misuse of these ideals.It is our task and your task, as men and women of intelligence, to search out the real foundations of the attacks upon academic freedom.Even more complex is the problem of academic freedom in the face of public opinion. And this, it seems tome, is the chief justification which we have in presentingthe question to you this afternoon. I shall not try toanalyze the diverse influences which contribute to theformation of public opinion. In general, we may be surethat the different elements of religious, political, and economic nature are inextricably interwoven and that emotional elements bear a large place in its makeup. Wemust recognize the validity of many of these emotions.But it is the business of universities and colleges, and ofall those who have come under their influence to strivefor a more enlightened public opinion, an opinion whichdistinguishes and rejects mere prejudice and self-seekingpropaganda, an opinion which is founded, net on passion, but on reason. If this University has given you,during your years within its halls, some glimpse of theideals to which it is dedicated, if you have caught somespark of that impersonal devotion to truth which is itschief preoccupation, then we may be confident that notonly here shall that flame continue to burn clearly andsteadily, but that outside of its walls, wherever your influence is felt, the love of truth shall more and moreprevail, that truth which makes men free. HI By QUINCY WRIGHTProfessor of International LawI WOULD define academic freedom as the freedom ofmembers of the academic profession to express ideasand opinions with immunity from economic penalties tothe extent essential for the performance of their functions.Academic freedom is a claim for immunity, that ismembers of the academic profession claim to be exemptfrom certain penalties which the normal individual maybe liable to for freely expressing his opinions. Suchexemptions are also found in other professions. For instance under the Constitution of the United States, Senators and Representatives "shall not be questioned in anyother place for any speech or debate in either House,"diplomatic officers are exempt from all jurisdiction ofthe country within which they perform their functions,and consuls are exempt from the local jurisdiction foracts in the performance of their official duties. These,like academic freedom, are special immunities belongingto particular professions and thus differ from the general freedom of religion, speech, the press, and assemblyguaranteed to all against congressional encroachment bythe First Amendment to the Constitution.These immunities, however, both special and general, exempt from certain legal liabilities and thus differfrom the exemption from economic penalties claimed bythe academic profession. So far as the law is concernedthe members of the academic profession enjoy no morefreedom than the average citizen. They however claimsecurity of tenure and freedom from economic discrimination by the administrative authority of the institutionsthey serve in a way which most persons who earn theirliving do not enjoy.Although the nature of the immunities of these various professions differ, the reason for them all is similar, namely, that their recognition is essential for theperformance of professional functions. A legislativebody cannot function as an agency for representing public opinion and remedying dissatisfaction by legislationunless the representatives are free to express their opinions and discontents and proposals for reform withoutfear of reprisal. A diplomat cannot represent his country if he is under any possibility of personal threat anda consul cannot perform the duties imposed by the lawof the country he serves if he is liable for his acts connected therewith under a different law. So also a member of the academic profession cannot perform his functions if certain immunities are not respected, and if themembers of a University's staff cannot perform theirfunctions the institution loses its reason for existence.These immunities, however, are no more extensivethan the nature of the academic function requires. Toascertain what they are, therefore, we must consider thefunctions of a university. In his address of April 18,1935, President Hutchins defined a university as "a community of scholars" which "exists only to find and tocommunicate the truth." With that I am sure we allagree. Universities have not existed in all civilizationsat all times but they have flourished in those times andplaces where civilization has flowered most luxuriantly.The university tradition of our civilization goes back toTHE UNIVERSITY OFthe Middle Ages and developed its modern form in theseventeenth century when Francis Bacon outlined hisconception of a university in the The New Atlantis(1627) "a place devoted to the continuous advancementof learning" through an organized and cooperative "inquisition of nature."Today universities constitute, it seems to me, oneof the four great types of institution upon which ourcivilization rests, the other three being the churches, thestates, and the business corporations. Not until the seventeenth century did the university emancipate itselffrom the church. It is not yet fully emancipated fromthe state. In fact, in Italy, Germany and Russia it hasrecently become a mere arm of the state. There is danger, perhaps more in this country than elsewhere, thatthe university will become subordinate to the businesscorporation. Free government rests on the independenceof all four of these types of institution. Civilization requires universities to wrestle independently with theproblem of truth no less than churches to wrestle independently with the problem of values, governments towrestle with the problem of order, and business to wrestle with the problem of production.Controversy arises where the functions of these typesof institution overlap. The primary activity of the academic profession, that of research and advancementof the frontiers of knowledge, seldom comes underfire nowadays, although we need but recall the experiences of Galileo and Giordano Bruno to realizethat freedom of research is, as times goes, a recentacquisition and even today the activities of theanti-vivisectionists suggest that we cannot regard itas permanently secure. The results of research discussed in seminars and learned societies and publishedin scientific journals full of mathematical symbols andtechnical terms are heard, read or understood by so fewthat public opinion takes little note of them. For this reason, however, the university must dispense its findingsto a larger public. Unless it does so it will fall short ofmaking its proper contribution to civilization. The academic profession must therefore in addition to researchengage in training, education, and public discussion.By training I refer to the habituation of studentsin the techniques, arts, and professions essential for making a living in and administering our civilization. Themedical, engineering, legal, business and other professional school faculties seldom encounter problems of academic freedom. Their function is primarily training andthey must, if they are to train the student, assume thatthe basic principles of these professions as recognized incontemporary society will continue. Their function isprimarily to train students for action within the orbit ofrecognized principles and objectives, only secondarily toexamine the bases of those principles and objectivesthemselves.It is in performing the functions of education andpublic discussion that the freedom of the academic profession is nowadays most likely to be attacked.By education I understand habituation, not in theapplication of a technique, but in the application of reason to all problems. It is because they encourage theapplication of reason to all problems that the classroomactivities of the academic profession come under fire. CHICAGO MAGAZINE 335The great majority of mankind shy at the rational examination of fundamental problems particularly the dogmasof religious, political, and economic institutions. Theyprefer tradition, authority and rationalization to reason.This attitude was probably essential in an earlier stageof culture when change was infrequent and faith in themores was adequate for social cohesion over long periods. Even in our present age unquestioning acceptanceof traditional opinions is probably necessary for the majority of mankind on most occasions. But with the widediffusion of literacy, knowledge, and communication,change has become more rapid, continuous adjustment ismore essential and institutions can no longer be secureif they rest on faith alone. Some people must be continually re-examining their foundations and readaptingthem to changing conditions. Certain states are, it istrue, reverting to the reliance upon faith which characterized earlier stages of our civilization. We, in America, however, are committed by our Constitution and ourexperience to the proposition that social institutions mustbe products of understanding rather than articles of faith.As Milton said nearly three centuries ago, "If the watersof truth flow not in a continual progression they thickeninto a muddy pool of conformity and tradition" and"though all the winds of doctrine were let loose to playupon the earth, so truth be in the field, we do injuriouslyby licensing and prohibiting to misdoubt her strength."Fifteen years ago Justice Holmes found this doctrine inthe American Constitution (Abrams vs. U. S. 1919) "Toallow opposition by speech seems to indicate that youthink speech unimportant, as when a man says that he hassquared the circle, or that you do not care whole-heartedly for the results, or that you doubt either your poweror your premises. But when men have realized that timehas upset many fighting faiths, they may come to believeeven more than they believe the very foundations oftheir own conduct, that the ultimate good desired is better reached by free trade in ideas — that the best test oftruth is the power of the thought to get itself accepted inthe competition of the market; and that truth is the onlyground upon which their wishes safely can be carried out.I 'it'.?¦-.t&^I I ^ Dr. Wright336 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThat at any rate," concludes Justice Holmes, "is thetheory of our Constitution."Professors in the social sciences do not indoctrinate in radicalism but they also refuse to indoctrinate inconservatism or any other ism. They shy at all dogmabecause all dogmas are propaganda symbols designed toinduce unreflective behavior and to estop reason. Education is not propaganda but immunization against propaganda. It is habituation, not in standard reactions togiven symbols, but in the inhibition of all reaction untilthe idea or symbol has been examined as thoroughly as-possible in the particular setting. The Universities maynot always be successful in educating in this sense butthey certainly will fail if they are obliged to inculcatethe dogmas of the church, the state, or the businessworld.Education in this sense involves specialization, andthe complete freedom which the professor should enjoyin expounding his subject in his classroom involves theduty to confine his classroom discussion to that subject.Students are entitled to expect that the conclusions university instructors present to them flow from their knowledge of the field unalloyed by external suggestions. Theyare also entitled to expect that the instructors really knowthe field and confine themselves to it. Students can legitimately complain if they are subjected to harangues onmatters remote from the course. The instructor on hispart is entitled to expect that he will not suffer economically or otherwise for anything he may say in his classroom discussions within this limit and, as PresidentLowell of Harvard emphasized in his report on academicfreedom in 1917, he is entitled to assume that his classdiscussions will be confidential. Remarks reported bystudents out of context are certain to be misinterpretedif not misquoted.Academic freedom is even more under fire in relation to the extramural activities of the academic profession than in relation to their educational activities. Ihave heard it suggested that professors ought not to express opinions in public contrary to the view of the financial supporters of the University. As such supporters areusually either business men or legislative bodies it iswith respect to members of the economics and politicalscience faculties that this problem most frequently arises.Rumors of rich men who have cut the university off theirwills because of the utterances of some instructor areoften circulated. This is a suggestion that members ofthe academic profession enjoy less than the normal rightsof citizens.Probably most university men resent the time theyhave to give to outside speaking. Yet the public makesthem feel that if they never respond to invitations totalk on current political and economic problems theywould be shirking their duty.I believe the university does have a function inpublic discussion, in the process of forming public policy.Researches will not be of immediate value unless popularized and no one but those who make or are closelyassociated with the research can popularize it. The university cannot be content with providing an educatedleadership for the next generation. It must also, in thepresent rapidly changing world assist the state, churchand business in solving the common problems of civiliza tion. To refuse to do so would be to alienate itself fromthe economic and political stream of society and to losethe support upon which its life depends. Although thefour types of institution to which I have referred mustbe independent, each must cooperate in the commoncause of civilization or lose its reason for being. Academic freedom therefore requires that members of theacademic profession enjoy the normal rights of citizenship in extramural activities. This was recognized inPresident Lowell's report of 1917, in the report of thefaculty of the University of Minnesota in 1920, in thereport of the Association of University Professors in1925, and in President Hutchins' address of last Apriland I have no doubt in other documents which have notcome under my immediate observation. Academic lecturers and writers are, of course, subject to the law oflibel and sedition the same as others but they also enjoythe general guarantee of free speech and free press.While I believe this freedom in public discussion isas essential to the functioning of the university as freedom in research, in training, and in education, theprofessor cannot be oblivious to the fact that the publicwill associate his utterances with his institution and withhis profession. He should therefore choose his wordswith care and should hesitate to speak on subjects onwhich he is not an expert. If he does speak on such subjects he should make every effort to drive home to hisaudience that he has no special competence in that fieldand that his views do not in any sense represent theviews of the specialists in that field at his university.These considerations, however, are matters of professional ethics to be sanctioned by the profession, not bythe institution.The University of Chicago has a distinguished record of academic freedom. Today, as always, the University administration realizes that academic freedom isessential to civilization and particularly to democraticgovernment. Like all other freedoms, however, its priceis eternal vigilance.IV By GILBERT A. BUSSProfessor of MathematicsGALILEO was an ardent searcher for the truth. Hewatched the great bronze lamp swinging from theroof of the cathedral in Pisa and discovered the isochronous property of the pendulum, thus paving the way forthe invention of the clock. By letting heavy bodies fallsimultaneously from the top of the leaning tower of Pisahe demonstrated the fact that their velocities are all thesame, instead of proportional to their weights as hadpreviously been supposed. He improved the telescope somuch that he has sometimes mistakenly been called itsinventor. With an instrument of his own making, magnifying some thirty-two times, he observed the spots onthe sun, the phases of the planet Venus, the mountainson the moon, the satellites of Jupiter, and the structureof the rings of Saturn, and he showed that the milky wayis made not of some milk-like substance but of a myriadof stars.I suppose there has never been a period richer inscientific discovery than those first few years whenTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 337Galileo was examining the heavens with his telescope,and never a man to whom a greater array of scientifictruths could be attributed.The activities just described are known to every oneas those for which Galileo is justly famous. Relativelyfew people know, however, that he proposed a seeminglysimple mechanical problem, for which he failed to findthe correct solution, but which turned out to be thesource of a number of the most powerful and usefulapplied mathematical theories which we have today. Theproblem is that of joining two given points, not on thesame level, by a curve down which a marble will rollfrom one point to the other in the shortest time. It iscalled the brachistrochrone problem, the name being appropriately derived from the Greek words ppa-xi-oro?meaning shortest and xpovo<: meaning time. The theory towhich the study of the problem gave rise is called the calculus of variations, a name which also may seem to youto have an atmosphere of technicality. But calculus isthe Latin word for pebble, and the old Romans usedpebbles to help them through their problems in arithmetic,from which custom we have gradually come to designatemany other mathematical operations also as calculations.I confess with some embarrassment that I often wish thepebble habit for arithmetic had been preserved unto thisday. If one is demonstrating the minimizing propertiesof a particular curve for the brachistochrone problemone must compare the time of descent of the marblealong that curve with its times along others. The differences between these other curves and the particular oneare in this case called variations of the first one. Thusthe theory arising from Galileo's problem is with propriety called the calculus of variations.The brachistochrone problem may seem to you morelike a toy than a serious scientific question, but it quicklyloses its apparent triviality when one tries to solve it.Galileo himself mistakenly thought that the curve ofquickest descent must be an arc of a circle. The correctsolution was found by two Swiss mathematicians, theBernoulli brothers, some seventy years later. It is acurve called a cycloid which I cannot describe furtherhere than to say that it has just the right steepness atthe start to give the marble a high initial velocity in thefirst part of its fall, and it has not so much flatness atthe end that the marble is unduly retarded near its finish.The simpler studies of the Bernoullis were followed bythose of a sequence of distinguished mathematicians frommany countries who made the calculus of variations afundamental part of optical and mechanical theories.These in turn found applications to celestial mechanicsand to the many pressingly practical problems of themotions of the bodies in our solar system.If you should ask me why these theories of Galileoand his successors have great value for us I should answer first of all because there is no finer heritage thanthe record of such devotion on the part of so many ablescientists to the search for truth. However, if one isvery practically minded he must still be satisfied andimpressed. For these theories have given us a clear picture of the universe around us, and an increasing understanding and command of some at least of the naturalforces in which we find ourselves immersed. They havecontributed so essentially to the complicated structure of modern manufacture and commerce that when one enjoys such simple comforts as a cup of coffee, or a garment of imported silk, or a well-fitted pair of glasses, orsmooth riding on a rubber tire, he may with great appropriateness dedicate a grateful thought to Galileo.I have tried to indicate by this hasty summary howmost important consequences may follow seeminglyinsignificant scientific beginnings. Galileo himselfwas far from insignificant, but a very humble scientistindeed might easily have proposed and failed to solve hisbrachistochrone problem. If the search for truth is tocontinue without interruption, it is essential that eachgeneration should provide encouragement for its searchers, prominent or obscure, and environments in whichthey may flourish appreciated and unmolested. Galileohimself was fortunate in his earlier years. He was patronized and protected and encouraged by some of themost eminent and influential men of his day. But helived at a time when most men regarded the humanrace as the very apex of creation, and consequently believed, with some logical justification, that the planet onwhich men live must be the center of the universe. Whenit became evident that Galileo's discoveries were likelyto displace the Ptolemaic, or earth-centric, theory of thesolar system in favor of the Copernican, or solar-centrictheory, great opposition arose. In his declining yearshe was arrested, imprisoned, threatened with torture, andforced to publicly deny his fortunately already publishedviews. Nowadays of course we regret this retraction.We wish that Galileo had told his critics to go to whatever place it is that one should go to when one is toldto. But it is not to be said with certainty that any oneof us would have had the courage so to speak in theface of a threat of seventeenth century torture, wellknown to have its inconveniences. It would indeed havebeen most unfortunate for us if Galileo's career as ascholar had been seriously interfered with before heattained his most important results, or if the truths whichhe discovered had not lived on, indestructible, in spiteof persecutions or retractions. To his great credit itshould always be recorded that after he was forced toDr. Bliss338 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEadopt a life of relative seclusion, and even after he losthis sight and hearing in his old age, he still continuedunobtrusively but persistently his relentless search fortruth.I should like to pause a moment to inquire with youjust what is this truth for which men search so assiduously. It is not always easy to define. In mathematicswe have rules of logic, and when a mathematical theoryhas been constructed it can be critically examined, if itis not too complicated, to see if it conforms to the rulesagreed upon. If it does so it is called a true theory, ifnot it is a false one. Thus the mathematicians have adefinition, which can be tested, of abstract truth. Thepossession of this definition is perhaps a principal reason why mathematics as a science is much admired andrespected, and mathematicians also sometimes beyondtheir just deserts. I say sometimes, but in deference tomy colleagues I hasten to say, of course, not always.The situation is quite different when one attempts toapply a mathematical theory to the explanation and correlation of observed data, or to the prediction of newresults to be found by observation or experiment. Dataobtained by measurement are in fact always accompaniedby a percentage of discrepancy with themselves, and because this discrepancy exists it is always possible to correlate the data by more than one, and indeed by many,equally well fitting mathematical theories. Under thesecircumstances it is clear that justifiable differences ofopinion may arise as to which theory is the true one. Ihave myself arrived at the conclusion, not always agreedto by my colleagues, that an applied mathematical theorywhich men come to regard as being true is the one amongthose fitting the data which turns out to be the simplestand most convenient. The greatest danger in the development of science arises when a theory has beenhighly successful over a long period of decades or ofcenturies. For then men are likely to regard the theoryas uniquely true. They conclude that nature behavesprecisely as predicted by the theory, which nature infact never does, and their minds become closed to thepossibility of improvements or extensions.I have been trying to make it clear that even in thedomains of the physical sciences differences of opinion asto what truth really is may easily arise. There have infact been many such differences in the history of science.In our own community I believe that any noon at luncheon I could, without the exercise of unusual adroitness,start a scientific argument at the Quadrangle Club whichwould promptly raise the room temperature there bysome degrees. You can imagine what the temperatureof that dining room may sometimes be when peopled notonly by numerous natural scientists and mathematicians,but also by a liberal representation from the socialsciences and humanities, not to mention lawyers andphysicians. The arguments which we have there andelsewhere are, however, the very nourishment of progress. One leaves them chastened with ideas better thanhis own, or filled with new determination to establishbeyond question some doubtful principle for which onehimself has stoutly stood. It is not always easy in ourmodern controversies, especially those not resolvable bylogic or experiment, to see reason;; or wisdom in opponents' arguments. But if we contemplate again what seventeenth century psychology must have been, we seehow easy it would be for us ourselves, by some accidentof education or environment, to seem to wiser later generations like Galileo's public, and for our opponents toseem to have wisdom like that of that great scientist himself.In discussions of rigidity of character and prejudice I am often reminded of the delightfully writtenautobiography of a middle-western relative of mine bymarriage, which is devoted much more to the environment in which he has lived than to himself. In it hementions the fact that his wife's ancestors came overin the Mayflower and settled within eleven miles ofPlymouth Rock, and he adds that many of their descendants have remained to this day, in person or in spirit,within that radius.Tolerance is a fundamental guiding principle ofdemocracy, and intolerance is the inveterate foe of progress. The threat to universities from intolerance at thepresent time is a serious one. In some foreign countriesfaculty men are told what they must or must not teach,and if their opinions are not in accord with those ofgovernments they are deprived of their positions or evenexiled from their countries. It is indeed pathetic tosee departments in some foreign universities, for decadeseminent and respected by the scientific world, fallingpromptly to ineffectiveness or mediocrity or less. Thefact that freedom of thought and speech has been preserved inviolate in universities in our own country is asignificant token of the great advantages of democraticinstitutions. I cannot pretend that this freedom is entirely unattended by its irritations. Every faculty aslarge as ours has some speakers to whom the publicseems to lend attentive ears but who represent in facta small minority only of faculty opinion. The misinterpretations of our faculty community which sometimesappear in print must, I think, be most disturbing to manyof our friends, and also to many of our faculty who arebusy with researches in less controversial departments,who as a group are unorganized for the expression ofopinions on social or economic questions, and who hesitate to embarrass colleagues by pressing individual opinions upon a public which so often takes the words ofone as characteristic of the faculty as a whole. But incomparison with the importance of the preservation offreedom of thought and speech these irritations are likethe old-fashioned infinitesimals of the mathematicians,less than any assignable quantity however small. Thefact that others do not seem to think so indicates clearly,I think, that you and I, as alumni of our University,have in these restless and critical times, an importantservice to perform. We should practice tolerance in ourpersonal judgments of faculty opinions, especially sincesuch opinions may have attained quite unintended notoriety and may have been distorted in transmission.We should endeavor to convince our critics of the realspirit of the University and convert them into friendsinstead of enemies. We may with greatest confidenceassure them that in universities, and notably in our own,men are searching, sometimes successful and sometimesfailing, but ever searching, as Galileo did, for that mostelusive but most important thing for all of us, calledtruth.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 339V By WARDER C. ALLEEProfessor of ZoologyPERSONALLY, and to a large extent I shall speakpersonally, this question of academic freedom hasbeen with me from my youth. I grew up, went to school,academy and college, under a well-intentioned systemspoken of with much respect in those days as furnishinga guarded Christian education, and regardless of theChristian or educational qualities, my education wasguarded. One question in which discussion was to bemost closely guarded was that of organic evolution.Almost two decades before my college days, my capableold professor of biology had been disciplined for havingbeen caught teaching evolution, and in my time the lectures on evolution were given as a part of an otherwisedry-as-dust series on osteology. While we forgot veryefficiently all the lore about bones, we certainly didremember the half -bootlegged information about organicevolution.The ideal of a guarded Christian education may stillprevail in places, but in the college of which I am speaking and in many others, it has given way to that of aguided Christian education to the great advantage of allconcerned.Much later, in a flourishing state university of thenear southwest, when complaint came to the Presidentthat I was teaching evolution, he called me in to showme his letters replying: he stated that in that institutionthey believed in airing all sides of a question, and tobalance my teaching of evolution there was a professorof psychology who believed in and taught special creation. "And now," he continued in a friendly aside,"don't think too harshly of us for having old Blankabout, for by tolerating him we can let you have completeteaching freedom."Still later in an excellent college much nearer Chicago, I was to find that one of the most effective agenciesfor sending students into Biology and keeping them interested in the subject was the evident horror of the gentlemanly old professor of Biblical Literature over the rankand open teaching of evolutionary and even of mechanistic views concerning life.As you know, complete freedom of discussion ofevolution is still prohibited by law in Tennessee. Theways around such a law are legion; one was describedto me with much amusement by one of the regents ofthe University of Tennessee of about the time of theDayton trial. "Really," he said, "we are teaching evolution more effectively in Tennessee than ever before. InEmbryology, for example, when lecturing on gill slitsin chick or pig embryos, the instructor will say: "Now inany other state but Tennessee I would say that we havehere eyidence for evolution, but being in this state, Ishall only point out that gill slits are functional in adultfishes and in some amphibians, and develop only to disappear in higher forms." "And," the regent continued,"during that sentence, whatever happens before or afterwards, you can hear a pin drop in the class room."I confidently believe that current discussion concerning teaching in economics, political and social science,will similarly focus undergraduate attention on those fields and on those instructors whose views on their subjects have attracted outside criticism.Fortunately for us in biology, however, despite thethrills to be experienced in teaching and learning controversial matter, we have largely won the right to teach inclass rooms and to present in public print or in lectureseven in many pulpits, our interpretation of the truthrevealed in our laboratory and field studies. On thispoint and for the present, our struggle for freedom ispractically won. This is the more important since controversy, although exciting and at times necessary, takesenergy and does not promote the mental attitudes necessary for the prosecution of careful, critical research ; andresearch, it is scarcely necessary to state here, is one ofthe chief functions of a university.There is one phase of the present biological situationwhich is troublesome. The so-called anti-vivisectionists,while admitting apparently full freedom of teaching fromknown evidence, attempt to limit the methods availablefor the collection of new data to be used in tomorrow'steaching. Thus they strike at the roots of our freedomin the experimental branches of biology. If they prevailwe shall be greatly handicapped for we can less readilyaccumulate evidence, which, paradoxically enough, ifavailable, we are free to teach. Already the struggle toretain our freedom of investigation according to theneeds of the subject, using animal experimentation whenand as indicated, has been very costly, locally, to biological sciences. Consider, for example, the time andenergy the chairman of this meeting has spent in thisstruggle; time and energy that might have gone intophysiological experimentation. Basic science and medicine are the poorer for this necessary transfer of attention. Only the imperative need of keeping open the channels of investigation can justify Dr. Carlson for spending his time in order to frustrate this attempt to sabotagescientific inquiry.While I have never personally been hampered infreedom of scientific investigation or scientific discussionby college or university authorities ; while particularlythere has been the greatest freedom along these lines atDr. Allee340 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe University of Chicago, yet I want and expect freedom outside the classroom to discuss general matters inwhich I am not an expert, but on which I can supposedlyspeak with as much or as little intelligence as a banker,clergyman or lawyer, when out of his specialty.I am, for example, strongly attached to the ideals ofdemocracy, and in spite of its well known faults, I believethat the democratic system and our American variety ofit, works better in the long run than any other systemyet tested. I believe in the general principle of representative government as applied to affairs of city, stateor nation, and even as applied to University matters;and at times I want to confess this faith in public andto be free to work for an even greater application ofdemocracy than we enjoy at present.Again, while not a specialist in human biology or inhuman social affairs, I have certain well grounded ideasconcerning the idiotic inadequacy of war as a means ofsettling either international or inter-class struggles; andhere again as time, energy and opportunity offer, I wantfreedom to speak to general audiences and to write fromthe point of view of a biologist or even from that of asupposedly intelligent citizen.While possessing a profound love and respect forAmerica and for things American, there are aspects ofpresent political and economic as well as cultural relations which can be adequately organized only on an international basis ; and I expect freedom to continue to discuss and to work towards some aspects of internationalism when and as the way opens, just as I have done inthe past even during the late war and in the hystericalperiod following it.What happens if academic freedom is limited orstopped? If only the advance of knowledge were therebychecked, the cost would be great enough; but there arestill greater dangers. Although a mature university professor, I am not yet cut off from contacts with representative and candid university undergraduates. Twice during this last winter intelligent and frank students havetold me in my living room at home, in as kindly a manner as possible, that we faculty folk have to take theconservative tone we do in order to hold our jobs. Andthis in one of the freest of American universities ! Ourhold on and influence over our students is none toostrong at best ; let them have a single concrete instanceTempusWhen I attended U of C,The campus atmosphere was mystic;And yet my father cautioned meOf dire forces socialistic. of lack of complete freedom of expression of our honestconvictions and it will be hard, if not impossible, to convince them that we are not kept clogs preventing neededchanges. It is only by possessing and using our hardwon and constantly threatened academic freedom ofappraisal and pronouncement, advocating changes whichappear to us to be wise and sound and opposing thosethat are not, that we can continue to act as balance wheelsin maintaining the social and economic equilibrium.Despite popular newspaper abuse of so-called"brain-trusters" there can be no better summary of thisphase of the afternoon's discussion than that given someyears ago by Professor William E. Dodd, now American ambassador to Germany. In speaking on academicfreedom, he said in effect that today the scholars of thecountry are the only group which enjoys general publicconfidence as being disinterested observers. Formerlythe clergy had power to loose or to bind not only forearth but for Heaven ; now, their power is largely limitedto that growing out of individual abilities. At anothertime people generally trusted the remarkable group ofstatesmen who staged a successful revolt against Englandand set up the present American government; now, thegeneral distrust of those in public office is only emphasized by the popular approval occasional men enjoy.Lawyers as a group are closely identified in the publicmind with special pleading, and hence are suspect. Newspapers, while making a gallant fight for freedom of thepress, have forfeited most of any popular reputationthey may have had for being disinterested observers andinterpreters of events. There is left only the generalconfidence in the disinterestedness and detachment ofscholarly people between the orderly development of ourpresent system and chaos. You, as university alumni andfriends, have been generous to us as university scholarsin the past, in giving us support, both financial and moral,and you must continue to support us in the future, notfor our sakes but for your own. In return we promiseno definite results ; we do, however, promise to examinenot as a group but as individuals, every crucial situationthat arises with all the acumen we possess and with thedetachment which is in part ours by nature, otherwise,we would not have chosen a scholarly career, and in partthe result of schooling in self -elimination in the presenceof the situations we are trained to analyze.FugitMy father s dead, — I'm middle aged,My former profs, are getting old;So they and I are much enragedBecause, today, youth is so bold.Alan D. Whitney, '13.DRAMA AT SEA!A HOME on theFreighter Teakis the revisedversion of the old tarsong of the sea whichMr. Frank O'Hara hasadopted for his summer theme song. Atthis moment he is inthe process of realizingthe ambition we (speaking for about 103% ofthe total male population of America — wesuspect) have alwayshad: to drift casuallyaround the globe aboarda freighter. Of course we would, of necessity, be content to peel our way around the world (assuming theship's cook was willing to serve that many potatoes) orto see Singapore from the port hole off the starboard sideof the boiler room. Mr. O'Hara, however, occupies oneof the three guest cabins on the Teak, a member ofthe Silver Line family, which left Los Angeles Junethe tenth and will arrive in Boston or New York late inSeptember.The Teak will load and/or unload cargo at manyfascinating ports in the Philippines, Dutch East Indies,the islands beyond the equator and ports in China — including a week's stop in Singapore. It will return via theSuez Canal, stopping at Port Said and Naples, crossingto Halifax and will finally drop its guest at either Boston or New York.It is our idea of a restful, interesting vacation andMr. O'Hara agreed that we might accompany him inabsentia^ he will describe the trip for us after his return and we promise to share it unselfishly with you ina fall issue of the Magazine — if you are interested.Miss Gertrude DudleyExcept for a year and a half when she was "loaned"to Columbia University and one other year when shewas "on leave of absence," Miss Gertrude Dudley hasbeen in charge of physical education for women at theUniversity since 1898.In the early years of the University, Dr. Harper commuted toChautauqua, New York, each weekduring the summer to teach twoSunday classes in Biblical Literature. Here it was that he firstlearned of the commendable work inwomen's physical education beingdone by Miss Dudley at Newberg-on-Hudson — a women's preparatorycollege. Miss Dudley was also as- ^syITNV By HOWARD W. MORT, Editor, Tower Topicssisting William) G. Anderson (Yale) at summer Chautauqua.In 1898, Dr. Harper persuaded Miss Dudley tocome to Chicago and have charge of women's physicaleducation. In those beginning years of limited quartersand equipment, Miss Dudley conducted her work at thenorth end of the one-story brick building which stood onthe present site of Hutchinson Commons. This buildingalso housed the men's gymnasium, the libraries, the University Press, and the heating plant. When the MitchellTower group was built, the north half of this buildinghad to be torn down. This made necessary a change inquarters for the women's physical education department,which was moved to the Sunday school rooms of theHyde Park Baptist church.The following year this department returned to theoriginal building and used the quarters just vacated bythe library, which had moved into the new Press buildingon Ellis avenue. The winter quarter found Miss Dudley's department moving to the School of Educationgymnasium which had just been completed. In thespring Lexington Hall was completed as a women'sbuilding, so our gypsy department was on the move again.Miss Dudley laughs today over their experiences inLexington. The quarters were more or less temporaryuntil funds could be secured for the proper Gothic structure which would permanently house this department. Inthe meantime, the roof sagged and supports had to beinstalled ; the windows blew in at frequent intervals andthe floor . . . well, on a day when a large physical education class was in the room the instructor strode in andcommanded, "Fall in !" which the floor proceeded to do.It was only six inches to the ground so there were nocasualties.When Ida Noyes Hall was built, complete facilitieswere provided for this wandering department and MissDudley informs us the University now has one of thebest and most complete equipments for women's physicaleducation work to be found anywhere.Miss Dudley is spending the summer at her NewEngland home (the old family residence) in North Gilford, Connecticut. The house was built by her greatgrandfather with the help of his son, who was aboutto be married. This home was then given to her grandfather for a wedding present. There are twenty-eightacres that slope down to the riverand Miss Dudley always has a beautiful garden the summers she spendsamong the Connecticut hills.She missed, by one week, thecelebration of the three hundredthanniversary of the founding of Gilford — three miles south of herhome. The drummer, who stood onthe village green to call the folks toworship, is a direct descendant of341342 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe first drummerwho performed thistask three hundredyears ago. The singing master who ledthe song service isthis generation'srepresentative fromthe singing master'sfamily of thoseearly days.Miss Dudley'seyes twinkle whenshe remembers thatsixteen loyal Con-. gregationalists stillattend Sunday services at the littlewhite church on the hill while, just across the road, fivestaunch Episcopalians have their dignified service in anEpiscopal edifice.We join with the multitude of friends who trustthat Miss Dudley is having a pleasant and restful summer in her Connecticut flower garden and hope shewill plan to make her winter home in Chicago, as usual.Nature NoteWe barked like a dog and then felt rather foolish.We hadn't expected to attract the attention of three students lying on the grass near the back of Kent Lab, buthow else were we to determine whether those stickybands Buildings and Grounds put around all the treetrunks would keep the squirrels out of the trees if wedidn't scare one of the little fellows up a tree?That's not the purpose of these bands, mind you, butwhen a humane-minded student arranged a sort of bridgeover one of these bands so the squirrels could get out ofa tree we wondered which of us was . . . well, we wondered.The bands are placed there to keep the caterpillarsfrom climbing into the foliage and eating all the leavesand if you are going to build bridges over this tanglefoot(that's all it is) you need to place a sign at the bottom:"For squirrels only. All caterpillars keep off !"But the whole thing is unnecessary. Our startledsquirrel didn't even hesitate at the band. When thesebands were first put on last week the squirrels did a littleinvestigating (there were claw marks on some of thetrees near the flag pole and the cotton padding was pulledout a little in the same locality) but that was all therewas to it. And the once bushy tails of some of thesefour-footed friends didn't get that way because ofswiping them through the sticky substance — it's probably moulting season for squirrels' tails.Over 1 31 ,500 AutopsiesThis is the world record Miss Maud Slye, AssociateProfessor of Pathology, holds! Thirty years ago MissSlye was a student at the University of Chicago. Becoming depressed over the suffering caused by cancer — aboutwhich so little was known — she decided to dedicate herlife to a study of the cause and prevention of this malady. The University consented to allow her a corner ofZoology greenhouse. She started with six healthy, pedigreed mice which she purchased and cared for with herpersonal funds. She chose mice because, like humanbeings, they are of the mammal family and a physicalbody identical, organ for organ, with the human body.She had learned that the percentage of mice with cancerwas about the same as humans (10%) which meant that,out of every ten mice born in her little family of six,there would be one which would develop cancer.The first summer in these original quarters was quitea trying one. With the thermometer creeping to 125°she was forced to move her growing family back intothe basement during the day.Eight months elapsed before the first cancer developed and Miss Slye's work now began in earnest. It isinteresting to note that in the thirty years she has spentwith these mice she has at no time introduced cancerinto the strain, confining her work entirely to studyingand treating those cases which were spontaneous in therace.Over 131,500 mice have come and gone, but as eachmouse passed on an autopsy was made and a completerecord kept (there are 253 volumes of these records atpresent). Out of this number about 20,000 had developedcancer which, she has determined; is usually caused byan irritation.The laboratories are as clean and sanitary as anyhospital. She is very particular about this and is proudof the record of never having had the suggestion of anepidemic among animals that commonly succumb toplagues in natural life. Every cage is sterilized at leastonce a week and there is positively no danger involvedin visiting this laboratory.Miss Slye's work has attracted world attention andher findings are recognized as among the most advancedin this study.The University ShieldThe following description of the university shieldis found on page 467 of A History of the University ofChicago (University of ChicagoPress) : "The . . . coat-of-arms is asfollows : Argent, a phoenix displayedgules, langued azure, in flame proper.On a chief gules, a book expandedproper, edged and bound. Ondexter pageof book the words Crescatscientia inscribed, three lines in pessesable. On sinister page the words Vita excolatur inscribed, three lines in pesse sable."Which, being interpreted, means a red phoenix witha blue visible tongue rising from a flame, the whole superimposed on a silver or white background. Above thisdesign and superimposed on a red background an openbook. On this book's right page (as it faces you) is theinscription Crescat scientia — "Let knowledge grow frommore to more" and on the opposite page Vita excolatur —"And so be human life enriched."We quote again from this same History : "The University owed the motto of the coat-of-arms and the seal{Continued on Page 344)IN MY OPINION• By FREDTO THE perfect determinist, man is a mechanicalsquirrel revolving meaninglessly in a toy cage. Tohim modern science seems to have transformedthe universe from a tremendous stage for an unendingconflict between the powers of God and the powers ofthe Devil to a mechanism that is as unmeaning, exceptto the child-mind, as the cheapest of mechanical toys.Modern science, in its unflinching application of theprinciple of causation, has degraded man from a freeagent capable of taking sides with either God or Devilinto a psycho-physical organism as circumscribed in itspowers of choice as the toy squirrel revolving on its bar.Is there any possible means of escape from thismechanistic cage r Can man again become a free agent,the shaper of his own destiny? For all persons reasonably aware of the modern dilemma, this problem isfundamental. So long as the mechanistic theory dominates the modern mind, there can be no real escape;the chains of causation, by the very assumptions ofmodern science, are unbreakable. But, despite the factthat veritable escape is impossible, there is audacity,there is nobility in attempting escape.The urge to such an attempt is the end of everyman's desire — some semblance of the good life, a life inwhich there is a satisfactory balance between vision andfulfillment, a life in which there is a happy union betweenthe values of the subtle incommensurate world of consciousness and the equally subtle but refractory worldoutside the mind. For the values of the good life mustbe both subjective and objective. The good life cannotrely exclusively on externality, since externality meansan over-valuation of those things which moth and rustwill corrupt. The way of externality — the way characteristic of most of our contemporaries — is the way ofthose who lay up treasure on earth. In making possess-iveness the end and motive of existence, they attributeto objective reality a significance that belongs within thepersonality; they deny the significance of any faculty ofthe human spirit higher than mere ownership.The sensualist likewise makes possession the endand motive of existence; he would possess the exquisiteflowers of his own and others' sensibility. But the sensualist errs with the miser in raising to the position ofsupreme value what is, and must be, a minor thoughadmittedly precious value. And its wages are, if notthe death of the body, the much more terrifying deathof the spirit. Yet this death of the spirit some millionsof our contemporaries mistake as the crown of the veritably good life.The ascetic's quest for the good life lands him inan even less enviable plight. He would deny, in so faras is possible, all relationship with the world of theflesh. He denies life, while he clings to it. His ideal isthe attainment of a remoteness from sensibility andpossessiveness, a reduction of existence to the Nirvana B. MILLETT, PhD '3 1 f Associate Professor of Englishof mere awareness, of depersonalized and undifferentiated consciousness. But even a mechanical squirrelcannot escape from his cage by ignoring it.If, then, the good life is, as we have said, a happybalance between subjective and objective values, it mustinvolve something of the ascetic's fastidious rejectionand something, as well, of the sensualist's discriminating-acceptance of the potentialities of the inner and the outerworld.But in the face of the infinitely alluring and seductive world, the task of rejection is an inevitable preliminary to the task of acceptance. The easiest of rejections is the elimination from the environment of mechanisms that complicate existence instead of simplifyingit. The test of every mechanical device, any attempt ofadvertising to force a new gadget upon us, is whetheror not such an invention or device is likely to help orhinder the attainment of a balance between desire andsatisfaction. The omnipresent telephone will serve asa convenient example. For it, it can be said that itmakes easier the transaction of business, and that itmakes more convenient, if less elegant, our intercoursewith friends and enemies. Against it, must be urged itsincessant threat to privacy of the most intimate orabstract sort, its capacity for interrupting importanttrains of thought or significant processes of feeling. Theclue to the intelligent use of this pestiferous device, asof every other proffered mechanism, is control. Its incursion into our life must be allowed only on conditionthat we shall be able to determine when it shall not complicate existence.A particular problem of rejection is raised by theextension of mechanization into the fields of the arts,and of this extension, the radio is perhaps the mostobvious and horrid example, and its threat to privacyand decency is the most repellent. If one grants theenemy entrance into one's own castle, control may beeasy unless insensitive youth insists on detective thrillersor Cab Calloway's cavortings. But control of the brawl-ings and bellowings in the neighboring castles is not soeasy. Furthermore, the radio constitutes a threat, notmerely to one's nerves, but to one's taste. For its inevitable character as popular entertainment is vulgarization, and vulgarization means a dulling of sensibilities,a substitute of the common for the superior or rare.The good life can have little room for the illiteratesexuality of the popular song or the abysmal sentimentalities of a Tony Wons. The radio may end by drivingthe over-sensitive to exile among the milder cacophaniesof the rustic rooster and the plaintive cow.The radio is only the most obvious of the temptations the modern world offers to the over-stimulation ofthe nerve-ends. The movie with its elementary psychology and its depraved publicity, its reduction of therepresentation of life to the satisfaction of a shop-girl's343344 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEerotic visions ; the popular magazine, which, when it isnot deliberately pornographic, appeals to the lowest common denominator of thought and feeling : these are othersymbols of the threats to decency, symbols of the assaultson energy and taste with which the modern world iscursed. ^But rejection is needed on a higher level than themechanical. There must be an intellectual rejection moredifficult since it cannot depend upon the inevitable reaction from the nausea caused by cheapness and vulgarity.Here the fundamental task is the rejection of the principles of psychological determinism and of the arrogantclaims of the scientific method. A complete rejectionof psychological determinism is, of course, impossible,at least at present. So long as man is deeply convincedof his mechanistic nature, the only means of escapingeven momentarily from this conviction is by acting asthough his behavior were not completely determined.Even though he may believe that he is not free to decidethe nature, not merely of his career and his avocations,but of his food and raiment, he gains immeasurably inpride and dignity if he behaves as though he were a freeagent, capable within limits of imposing his will upon thestubborn world, and responsible for his decisions. Thereis immense creative virtue in so conscious a process ofself-deception. And such a process would seem to bepracticable so long as the moral concepts implicit in thecurrent social order assume, to even the slightest degree,the freedom of the will and its logical consequence, theindividual's responsibility for his character and conduct.And this self-deception is justified, if for no other reason, by its pragmatic consequences, the heightened courage and morale that result from the refusal to accept aperfectly mechanical universe without morality and without meaning.A less personal but equally significanct revolt mustbe made against the presumptuousness of the scientist.To be sure, no adult being in the modern world can withreason deny the right of the scientist to apply his methodto any field of human experience — the idea of God, thedream of personal immortality, the morality of birthcontrol, or the rationality of race prejudice. But solong as the scientific method remains scientific, its resultsto Professor Paul Shorey. Mr. Shorey was thinkingone day of that phrase in Tennyson's In Memoriam:'Let knowledge grow from more to more,' and it impressed him as expressing one purpose of a university. . .Casting about for some phrase that would express theUniversity's ideal of service ... he was minded of thepassage in the sixth book of the Aeneid, in which Vergiltells of seeing in the happy fields those who on earthenriched or adorned human life." Dr. Shorey, therefore, are bound to be quantitative rather than qualitative. Inthat fact, the very definite limitations of science becomeapparent. It may be of interest to the social historianif he learns, for example, that more Catholics thanLutherans favor world peace, but such a quantitativedemonstration can have little or no relevance to the individual Catholic or Lutheran of adult and independentmentality. And if the scientific student of attitudes concludes that most contemporary artists do not believe inGod, and that most scientists do, again the finding isirrelevant to the individual for whom the idea of Goddoes or does not have energizing value. That man cannotlive by facts alone cannot be stated too strongly. Hissustenance is, and always must be values, at any rate,until the behaviorists have banished consciousness fromthe universe even as they have banished it from psychology, which purports to be the study of consciousness.But the final rejection in which the seeker of thegood life must school himself is the uprooting in himself of those motives which the modern world has overdeveloped. These motives are closely allied; indeed,they are merely facets of the same ill-omened jewel.They are the acquisitive impulse, the competitive impulse,and the passion for profit. The eradication of these basichuman impulses, only a wrong-headed ascetic wouldattempt. But the right-minded man may learn to transfer their operation to the realm of the non-material.The acquisitive impulse is a constant threat to the hard-won freedom of the human spirit. At the very least,the craving for the possession of things complicatesexistence, and at its worst, it enslaves the possessor,determines the depth of his servitude to work, and inhibits experiments in taste, learning, and social andcreative relationships. The competitive impulse is legitimate so long as it is not dominant, and so long as itdirects itself to the artistic and intellectual level. Competition will be, not destructive, but constructive, onlywhen it is directed toward strength and beauty, powerof intellect and purity of feeling, increase of knowledgeand to the unselfishness of outdoing those one loves indevotion and charity.Only on a prolonged and prayerful discipline inmaterial and intellectual rejections can the good life beginto be built.translated these combined ideas into the Latin phrasesabove, which, in their full meaning, are to be interpreted :"Let knowledge grow from more to more; and so behuman life enriched."We assume that the phoenix, rising from its ownashes, symbolizes the outgrowth of this university fromthe "Old University of Chicago" just north of 35thstreet on Cottage Grove Avenue which succumbed tofinancial difficulties June 16, 1886.THE UNIVERSITY SHIELD (Continued from page 342)NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES• By JOHN P. HOWE, '27WHEN the Illinois Senate, during the hullabalooattendant upon the withdrawal of Charles Wal-green's niece from the University, decided toinvestigate "subversive communistic teachings and ideasadvocating the violent overthrow of the established formof government," the reaction of those who know verymuch about the spirit and functioning of this and otheruniversities in the state was that the proposed investigation was, at best, unnecessary. Now that the investigation is concluded the absence of its necessity becomes evenmore shiningly apparent.A committee of five Senators held three hearingsunder the resolution to investigate, with the Universityof Chicago as subject; listened to 125,000 words of testimony, and received a small library of documentary material; then issued a report, which in its majority, supplementary and minority sections, runs to more than12,000 words. The net result, as we interpret it, is whatanyone familiar with the University could have told theSenators in a few minutes : that there are no communistson the faculty of the University of Chicago; that theUniversity and its professors make no effort, directly orindirectly, to convert students to communism or anything else but a sense of the importance of reason andknowledge; that no members of the faculty believe in"violent overthrow of government" ; that the Universityis a great place, and contributes substantially to the causeof democracy and to the understanding of social processes. The net effect, in the opinion of President Hutchins and others, is that the investigation has done theUniversity no harm, perhaps some good.The five Senators who comprised the committee wereRichey Graham of Cicero, as chairman, and James Barbour of Evanston, Wilbur Hickman of Paris, John Fribley of Pana and Charles Baker of Monroe Center. Senator Baker, who for several years has been urging passageof anti-radical legislation, had introduced the resolutioncalling for the investigation, and during the hearingssponsored the appearance of most of the anti-Universitywitnesses. The committee report, printed in the Senatejournal for June 26th, is in several sections, a majorityreport signed by Graham, Barbour, Hickman and Fribley,. several supplementary sections signed by various of themajority signatories, and a minority report by Baker.The majority report reaches three "conclusions" : ( 1 )that the stenographic report of the evidence and exhibitsis submitted with the report, and should be filed but notprinted ; (2) that the existing sedition laws of Illinois areadequate to restrain people from advocating violent overthrow.- of the government; (3) that violations of thesesedition laws should be reported to the State's Attorneyof the appropriate county. These "conclusions," socryptic as to seem wearied, might well be a paraphrase ofwhat President Hutchins remarked, probably ratherwearily, in thirty seconds at the first hearing: "The University cannot, of course, have a professor who commits illegal acts. Under the laws of Illinois it is illegal toadvocate the overthrow of the government by violence.The University would therefore dismiss any professorwho, before an appropriate tribunal, was proved to haveadvocated the overthrow of the government by violence.Anybody who thinks that any of our faculty are doing soshould inform the State's Attorney so that a prosecutionmay be started."In the main body of the majority report appear several statements of the committee's opinion, two of whichare of interest. One is to the effect that "all oral testimony offered by Mr. Walgreen and his witnesses doesnot prove the charges against the University of Chicago,even if his witnesses were uncontradicted," and that University witnesses "directly contradicted the testimonypresented by Mr. Walgreen and his witnesses." Theother, based chiefly on the documentary evidence submitted, censures Professor Robert Morss Lovett. Thecriticism of Professor Lovett does not state the opinionthat he is a communist or a government thrower-overer,but that he "has pursued an unpatriotic course of conduct" in his activities outside the University. On thiswe shall touch later. The majority report describes theUniversity as an "outstanding American educational institution."The supplementary and minority reports are morelively. One of these we shall give in full here, leavingthe others for mention later. Senators Graham, Hickman and Fribley affix their signatures to a supplementaryparagraph commenting on the minority report as follows: "The report of Senator Charles W. Baker is adiscussion of differences between capitalists and the laboring class of people. It bids for publicity in three ofthe metropolitan papers of Chicago. It is not based onevidence offered at the hearings of the committee. Itsuggests the members of the faculty of the University ofChicago should teach partisan ideas of government. Thereport of Senator Baker was delivered to the press beforeit was submitted to the other members of the committeeand before it was filed."When the Senate voted to conduct an investigationthe University announced that it would cooperate fully.This the University did. The principal officers of theUniversity attended all of the sessions. All documentscalled for, such as files of the Daily Maroon, werepromptly supplied, and outlines of 161 courses dealingwith the social sciences were offered for the committee'sinformation. All questions were answered freely. Witnesses were produced when their presence seemed indicated (although literally hundreds of students whowould liked to have refuted Mr. Walgreen had to be disappointed) and whenever an explanation of the University's methods seemed in order. The University cross-examined none of the "Walgreen" witnesses, offered rebuttal only where their testimony, or the documentaryevidence, seemed worthy of rebutting, and made little345346 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEobjection when the inquiry seemed to be straying farfrom its purpose. Charges of "communistic teaching,"on which the investigation was to center, collapsed completely, and the latter two hearings dealt largely with off-campus affiliations of faculty members, principally thoseof Professors Lovett and Frederick Schuman, and withpacifism.The First HearingThe first hearing was held in the County Building, inthe chambers of the County Board, before a highly interested audience, many of them students, and with alarge company of reporters and photographers present.The testimony of the four principal witnesses of the day,Mr. Walgreen, President Hutchins, Mr. Harold Swiftand Professor Charles E. Merriam, has already been sent,in full, to all alumni.If it is excusable to use the tactics of those who opposed the University, in quoting sentences out of theircontext, we should venture the guess that the key line inMr. Walgreen's statement was this one : "I became somewhat bewildered." Mr. Walgreen testified that he became bewildered because of conversations with his niece,Miss Lucille Norton, concerning the ideas she seemed tobe acquiring at the University. The majority report discounts Mr. Walgreen's recital of these conversations sincethey were at second-hand as testimony, and since MissNorton herself later testified. Mr. Walgreen did, however, introduce what turned out to be a note of levitywhen he quoted his niece as saying she had heard Professor Schuman say that he "believed in free love forhimself." This quotation, it developed in later evidence,was a humorous remark, authenticated as such by accompanying laughter, made by Mr. Schuman not in class butat the conclusion of a debate, for the purpose of turningaside an irrelevant question and proceeding with seriousdiscussion. Its citation by Mr. Walgreen can be interpreted only as a symptom of an astonishing literal-mind-edness on the part of both Mr. Walgreen and hisniece. Mr. Walgreen explained the situation by sayingthat he understood "free love" to be a tenet of communism. He concluded with the statement: "I am persuaded that the methods used . . . evidence a subtle andinsidious design to impress, by indirection, communisticviews on the student mind."Mr. Harold Swift, the President of the University'sBoard of Trustees, was the next witness. He read a listof the membership of the Board — and it is a distinguishedlist; related something of the University's distinction inthe academic world ; described his own close contact withthe University, its faculty and students, and concluded:"I am entirely convinced there is no Communistic teaching in the University and that no member of the University faculty is a Communist ... no faculty memberadvocates the violet overthrow of the government."President Hutchins, the next witness, began his testimony with the statement: "The charges against theUniversity are without foundation." He pointed out thatthe Universiy has 901 teachers, who teach 3,492 courses.Presenting to the committee catalogues of the Universityand the outlines of 161 courses dealing with social, economic and political problems, he said he had examinedthe material and could find nothing of a subversive, com munistic nature in it. The syllabus for Social Science I,in which Miss Norton was registered, "revealed a widevariety of subjects, authors and attitudes." The University's effort is to "discuss important problems critically,objectively and scientifically." "In order to guard againstthe effects of individual bias, the University deliberatelyappoints in the same department men of widely differentpoints of view." . . . "The members of the faculty arelaw-abiding, patriotic citizens. Some of them, of course,are dissatisfied with current economic, social and politicalconditions in this country. But they all believe in orderlychange under the law. None of them advocates or hasadvocated the violent overthrow of the government. Onbehalf of the faculty, I repudiate the charges madeagainst them."The professor is not disfranchised when he takes anacademic post, President Hutchins continued. While theprofessor is not permitted to propagandize in the classroom, he may join any church, club or party, and think,live, worship and vote as he pleases. Violations of theIllinois sedition laws should be referred to the proper authorities. "The University has admittedly the strongestgroup of social scientists in the world. ... If the staff ofthe University is to be subject to irresponsible attacksupon their loyalty and patriotism, the faculty will disintegrate and Chicago will lose not only the distinction ofcontaining one of the great universities of the world, butalso the invaluable services of the public spirited expertswho are its professors." Mr. Hutchins cited twelve examples of services to the community rendered currentlyor recently by members of the faculty. One of these wasthe conduct this year, without charge to the community,of a special institute for teachers who are to train Illinoisaliens in American citizenship, an institute so successfulthat the University has been asked to enlarge its scopealong national lines.Eloquent, and to this observer moving, was the testimony of Professor Charles E. Merriam, who is regardedas the dean among social scientists in this country, andwho next took the stand. After telling something of hisown background Professor Merriam said, "I am chieflyresponsible for the type of civic education in the University of Chicago. I gladly assume that responsibility,for I am proud of our system. . . . The attacks directedat the University are aimed chiefly at me and my standingin this city and country. I resent these charges, insinuations, or innuendos against my life work in and for thiscity and the University and I denounce them as uninformed, false, or malicious. . . . Who is it that now bringsthese charges against my Department and our system ofcivic education? What are their credentials and standing?. What facts do they supply to discredit our work?... I charge these persons, wittingly or unwittingly, withattacking one of the strongest forces for the stabilizationand maintenance of our civilization — our University. . . .Our students have gone out in hundreds over the UnitedStates and occupy important and responsible positions.. ^ . They are the living refutation of the lies that arebeing recklessly scattered about. ... I rejoice that not allthe shameless gossipy tongues in the world can dim theluster of that roll. . . .What we tend to subvert is notAmerican institutions but misunderstanding, injustice,corruption, graft, waste, special privilege in AmericanTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 347public life. . . . Only madness moves those who in thename of American liberty try to suppress thought onhow that liberty may be preserved. ... I raise my voice tosay, looking back over thirty years of political observation and experience, that when free thought dies in ouruniversities we may be sure that American liberty andAmerican democracy have not long to live." During adescription of the impressive work now being done in hispolitical science department, Professor Merriam said inpassing: "I am responsible for the selection and retentionof Dr. Schuman. He was one of my students, and isnow one of our best teachers and most promising researchmen in the field of international relations. . . . He is not aCommunist, or a Socialist. There are doubtless somewho think badly of him for voting for Roosevelt in thelast election, but I am unable to regard that as subversiveor unconstitutional. He once allowed his name to be usedon a document he had not read, but many better menhave made worse mistakes." Answering the free-lovecharge at its own level, Professor Merriam pointed outthat Mr. Schuman and his wife have "two fine fatbabies."Testimony by Mrs. Edith Foster Flint, who headsthe University's freshman English program, concludedthe first hearing. Mrs. Flint's remarks bore on Mr.Walgreen's intimation that the use of a few extracts fromNew Russia's Primer in the freshman English coursewas an example of insidious propagandizing. She explained that the use of the quotations, comprising one assignment among hundreds in the course, and amongdozens of quotations set up as targets for student criticism, constituted "the very reverse of any 'indoctrination.' " In its majority report, the committee says, "Criticism of the use of New Russia's Primer is fully answered, and its commendable use in class rooms is thoroughly explained." In view of the use of the word"commendable" by the committee it is interesting to notethat one Chicago newspaper, reporting Mrs. Flint's testimony, began its story with the statement that members ofthe committee were "amazed" when Mrs. Flint "franklyadmitted" that New Russia's Primer is used in freshmanEnglish; on another page the same paper described thePrimer as a "textbook" in English.The Second HearingWhen the second hearing opened, in the Red Roomof the Hotel La Salle, the investigation developed a verydifferent tack. Mr. Joseph B. Fleming, attorney for Mr.Walgreen, secured the floor and spent two hours introducing 27 "Walgreen exhibits." By what right we donot quite know, he acted as a sort of master-of-cere-monies and prosecutor-general during the day. His exhibits had no bearing on the charge of "communist teaching," and dealt largely with the off-campus activities ofProfessors Lovett and Schuman, neither of whom wereinstructors of Miss Norton, or have any connection withthe freshman program. His performance seemed to bean effort to make Mr. Walgreen's case stand up. It is agood surmise that at least some of his exhibits wereobtained through a small group of professional patriotsin Chicago who devote most of their time to ferreting out evidences of "radicalism." Chief among this group areMrs. Albert Dilling of Kenilworth, author of The RedNetwork, a compendium of American "radicals" whichincludes many a distinguished name, among others ^thatof Mrs. Franklin Roosevelt; and Mr. Harry Jung, whodescribes himself as "Honorary General Manager of theAmerican Vigilante Intelligence Federation." Both ofthese pleasant folk have devoted considerable attentionto the University of Chicago over a period, and if thereis anything reprehensible about the University, they havememoranda on it in their archives. Both sat with Mr.Walgreen during the second hearing, and both were witnesses at the third hearing, so that it may safely be saidthat the committee heard all there was to hear on thatside. iAmong Attorney Fleming's exhibits were items,some from the Daily Maroon, showing that a chapter ofthe National Student League had been organized on theUniversity campus ; that William Z. Foster, Communistcandidate for President, had been allowed to speak onthe campus in 1932 ; that Professor Schuman's signaturewas appended, among many others, to a pamphlet entitled "Culture and the Crisis" which supported the candidacy of Foster and his running-mate, Ford; thatSchuman's name appeared in a committee list sponsoring a banquet for Ford ; that Schuman had addressedThe Friends of the Soviet Union; that an anti-warrally had been held on the campus, at which communistsspoke; that the "Oxford oath" (not to take up armsin any war) had been subscribed to by some studentsat the University; and that Professor Lovett was amember of the American League Against War andFascism. Then followed a laborious effort by Mr. Fleming to link the American League Against War and Fascism and the Friends of the Soviet Union with the Communist Party, and, triumphantly, a reading of the platform and purposes of the Communist Party, provingthat it stands for the violent overthrow of the* government. It was at this point that the prize remark of theinvestigation was made, by Professor Merriam: "Mr.Chairman, shouldn't the room be cleared of studentswhile he is reading this stuff?"It became apparent about this time that in the mindsof those criticizing the University anyone who knowsa "Communist" is probably himself infected with communism, that anyone who actively opposes war is suspect, and that all liberal organizations are probablylinked with Moscow.One document submitted by Mr. Fleming should bequoted, for it figures in the committee report. It isa personal letter written in 1926 by Professor Lovettto a gentleman named Gordin.- The text is as follows:"Dear Gordin: I have your book Utopia in Chains andam sending it to Dr. Jerome Davis — the best reviewerI can think of for books on the early years of the Russian Revolution. I hope it will be very successful. Iassure you there was no 'reversal of attitude' on mypart. I was anxious to have the book published as ahuman story, not caring in the least whether it reflectson the Russian government, or the United States government, or any other — all, in my opinion, being rotten.Houghton Mifflin will undoubtedly handle the book as348 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEa counter-revolutionary document, and obviously I cannot associate myself with such a campaign." The bookwhich Professor Lovett hoped would be successful, andwhich he was anxious to have published, was an attackupon the Soviet government; and yet the committee, inits report, cites the letter as one of its chief reasons forcensuring Professor Lovett, because he used the expression, "all governments are rotten."Professor Schuman was the next witness. He deniedflatly that he believed in free love, communism, socialism, syndicalism, anarchism, etc., and cited his publishedworks (which are numerous and scholarly for so younga man) as evidence thereof ; reported that he had votedfor Al Smith in 1928 and for Roosevelt in 1932; quotedhis writings to the effect that extensive governmentalinterference with profits and property can lead only tochaos, and that communism in this country would leadonly to social and economic collapse; quoted his one-volume report to the Rotary Club of Chicago, in whichthe profit motive is recognized as the source of progress in America; easily explained the free-love remark;explained that his name was printed on the "Cultureand the Crisis" pamphlet before he had read the text;that the National Student League chapter on the campushad dwindled in its three years of existence, and thathe was no longer its adviser; reported that his interestin candidate Ford, a Negro, was purely scientific, sincehe was at the time making a study of the Negro in politics; and that he did not regard the Friends of theSoviet Union, which he had addressed as an expert onRussian-American relations, or the League AgainstWar and Fascism as communist organizations, but thathe was against both war and fascism. The Friends ofthe Soviet Union is a non-propaganda organization interested in promoting commercial and cultural relationswith Russia.Questioned by Senator Baker as to what he thoughtof the Soviet government, Professor Schuman said : "Apolitical scientist is not in the habit of characterizingany government in a word or two. . . I don't think itis a better form of government than we have, and I amopposed to dictatorship in all forms. Since that is adictatorship, and not a democracy, I am on that groundopposed to it." Attorney Fleming, whose demeanor waslater described in The New Republic as "vindictive andgloating," then undertook a cross-examination of Mr.Schuman, which brought out chiefly that Schuman is nota subscriber to the Daily Worker, that he has met Foster and Ford only once, etc., and which ended withMr. Schuman remarking, "I'm sorry to disappoint you,Mr. Fleming."Professor Harry Gideonse, who is in charge ofthe social science survey courses in the College division,then testified, in reply to Mr/ Walgreen's statement thatthere seemed to be "more study of communism than ofAmerican government" in his niece's course, that of the5,987 pages of indispensable reading listed in the syllabusof Social Science I, only 55 pages might be describedas descriptive of communism; that half of the readingin the first quarter and almost all of the reading in thethird quarter are devoted to contemporary American institutions; that of 195 "optional" readings listed, only three are concerned with Communism; that readingsfrom Karl Marx have been a standard assignment inAmerican colleges for 20 years; that if anything inthe course might be considered "insidious" it must befrom his own lectures, and that his last political enthusiasm was Al Smith ; that he regards the trend towardcollectivism "with the gravest concern" ; that any attemptto dodge important issues in the classroom is unwise;that the course is designed to produce the reverse ofindoctrination.Next appeared Professor Lovett, who made anurbane witness. He reported that he has been connectedwith the English department of the University since1893; that President Harper in that year had assuredhim the University stood for freedom of investigation,of teaching, of opinion and of speech, subject to goodtaste and general attitude, and that the University hadbeen undeviating in that position since ; that he has neverused his classroom as a place for the expression ofhis own views ; that he has been president of the Leaguefor Industrial Democracy, which urges that the nation'sresources should be used more directly for the generalwelfare and less for individual aggrandizement; that hehas been vice-president of the League Against War andFascism, which is opposed to violence in all its forms."I am opposed to violence in all its forms on the groundthat it is unnecessary and futile." Cross-examined byFleming, Professor Lovett said that he believes in theOxford oath, which he regards as "the individual equivalent of the Kellogg Pact." . . "I cannot conceive of thiscountry at war under the Kellogg Pact. . . If youngmen would back up the Pact we should not enter a war."Professor Lovett said that when his own son was killedat Belleau Wood he resolved, so far as his effortsmight be fruitful, to prevent a recurrence of such atragedy; that in the event of war he would defend conscientious objectors but would not advise any individual.There was much craning of necks when Miss Norton, the Cause of It AH, was next to take the stand.Reading from a prepared statement, she said she agreedin substance with her uncle's account of their conversations; that while at the University she "lostconfidence in the perfection of our government";that she "gained the feeling that Communism would bean excellent form of government"; that in one lecturethe class was warned against speakers who "appealedto our patriotism by words and symbols" ; that she hadgathered that many of the older functions of the family are being taken over by outside agencies; and thatsince leaving the University she no longer believedthat communism would be an excellent form of government. "It is my impresison," said Miss Norton,"that communists and communistic activities on thecampus are not frowned upon."In a newspaper interview at the time of her withdrawal from the University Miss Norton had said: "Icannot say that I have felt any communistic influencesoperating on me at the University. I perceived no undercurrent of propaganda in the lectures on economicand political subjects, but my uncle believes that suchpropaganda is being administered." Examined by Russell Whitman, committee attorney, at the conclusionTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 349of her direct testimony, Miss Norton admitted that shecould not detect that any special effort had been madeto induce her to favor communism, and that she couldnot point to any particular instances. Professor Wirth,she was sure, had nothing to do with it.Professor Gideonse then arose to point out that theSocial Sciences course which Miss Norton was takingwas divided into three sections, that he himself lecturedin the autumn quarter section, Professor Wirth lecturedin the winter quarter, and Professor Kerwin in thespring quarter; that since Professor Wirth was specifically exempted and since Miss Norton did not attendthe spring quarter section of Professor Kerwin, ergo,the criticism must be directed against himself.Whereupon, the final significant witness of the daywas produced, Mr. J. W. Clarke, 58 years old, businessexecutive, war veteran, and student-at-large in the University, who has been enrolled this year in the sameSocial Science course as has Miss Norton. Mr. Clarkestated that there was no indoctrination in the course,else he, an opponent of communism, would have detectedit quickly. He then read from his class notes, quotinginstances when Professor Gideonse had attacked communism sharply, had described the Communist Manifesto as a "propaganda document," and had criticizedgovernment ownership of industry and the idea of aplanned society. As for the disintegration of the family, Mr. Clarke reported that it had been pointed out,in the course, simply as a matter of demonstrable fact,that schools, factories, clubs, etc., have in recent decadesbeen taking over some of the functions formerly performed by the family.The third hearing, which took place at the Hotel LaSalle, had its Gilbert-and-Sullivan moments. Thoughit was an all-day session, little that occurred is reflectedin the committee report. Mrs. Dilling and Mr. Jung,the red-revealers mentioned above, were the first twowitnesses. Mrs. Dilling introduced the phrase, "communist-aiding," and under this concept intimated thatvarious liberal and humanitarian organizations and people are allied with Moscow. The Chicago Civil LibertiesCommittee, to which several Chicago faculty membersbelong, was a chief object of attack.Mrs. Dilling, a vivid lady in a floppy pink hat, washeard only after much bickering with the committee, during which she announced tartly that if they would nothear her she would "go on the radio and tell my story."Opening with the statement that she "would rather bedead than see the principles of communism triumph inthe United States," and that she was devoting her timeto preventing this, she rattled on at a gatling-gun rate forninety minutes, in a disjointed discourse, the generaltheme of which was "just because you can't hang aCommunist Flag on their foreheads is no sign they aren'tpreaching it." Her testimony was sprinkled with scornful phrases about communism, such as "dog-like morals,""free love," "racial intermixture," "God-hating," "dirtylittle Communist schools of revolution." She reportedthat a Soviet film had been shown several times onthe campus, that communists had been allowed to speakthere, that there are some student radicals, that PresidentHutchins had a connection with the Moscow SummerSchool. She handed the committee a 102-page pamphletentitled How Red Is the University of Chicago? whichhad just been published under the signature of one ofher associates, a Mr. Nelson Hewitt, which contained350 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe choicer items from her dossier on the University,some of which had been cited by Attorney Fleming.Questioned by the committee about various of thehundreds of prominent Americans listed as radicals inher volume, The Red Network, Mrs. Dilling proceeded to defend the inclusion of such names as thoseof Newton D. Baker, Justice Louis D. Brandeis (ofwhom she told the committee, "he is the biggest contributor to this filthy, lousy little college at Mena, Arkansas), Senator Borah, Ambassador William E. Dodd("his daughter has just written a communist love storycalled Red Wedding Morning), Senator Nye, WalterDill Scott, president of Northwestern University ("Idon't think the man is a Red at heart — I think he thinksit's fashionable"), Secretary Henry Wallace, HaroldSwift, Jane Addams ("I could give you an hour or twoin proving her record"), and others. This performance pretty thoroughly exploded whatever credibilityMrs. Dilling's testimony might have had, and one section of the committee report describes as unwarrantedand unjustified the characterization of persons of honorand repute as "Reds" and "Communists."Before Mr. Jung was permitted to testify, SenatorBarbour read into the record sections of the report ofthe Dickstein congressional committee which investigated "un-American" activities last year. In this reportJung is described as "un-American," "unworthy of support" and a disseminator of literature "tending to inciteracial and religious intolerance." Mr. Jung spent mostof his time on the witness stand defending himself.Federal Judge William Holly, the next witness, described to the satisfaction of the committee the purposesand functioning of the Chicago Civil Liberties Committee, of which he was a founder, and which defends freedom of speech. Professor James Weber Linn, in a livelystatement, pointed out that over a period of years at theUniversity he had known 20,000 students well enoughto call them by their first names, and that none of themwas a communist to his knowledge.Hulen Carroll, the student whose anti-radical activities this spring were extensively reported in thisplace in the May issue of the Magazine, was the nextwitness. He described the organization of the studentPublic Policy Association, which he headed, and outlinedits patriotic motives ; said that several members of thefaculty had "ridiculed" it, and went on to suggest thatits demise came about because University officials thoughtit too patriotic; quoted excerpts from several recent addresses on the campus by visiting lecturers ; quoted a remark by a radical student ; quoted, from his class notes, aremark he attributed to Professor Harold Gosnell, asfollows : "Patriotism is a mystic group-loyalty that grewup out of the Middle Ages" ; said that one professor, inclass, had criticized the theory of racial purity ; and said"the injustices of the present system are unduly stressed"in class.The committee's majority report specifically discredits Carroll's testimony, as follows : "It is sufficientto state that his (Carroll's) grievance against the University of Chicago professors grew. out of the result ofhis own repeated violations of well-established rules andregulations of the University. . . Mr. Carroll's evasive answers to questions on the witness stand and his lackof ready response thereto, lead one to wonder if hehad properly 'prepared' his testimony."Two outstanding seniors, EUmore Patterson, captain of the football team and president of the seniorclass, and John Womer, president of the InterfraternityCouncil and football man, as the next witness, refutedmuch of Carroll's testimony, and added that the radicalgroup of students on the campus was very small andlacking in influence. Dr. George A. Works, Dean ofStudents, outlined the University's policy toward student organizations, pointing out the soundness, both peda-gogically and practically, of a policy which allows maximum freedom to student organizations and activities withthe limitation that they be legal and in good taste. William E. Scott, assistant dean of students, in a statementdescribed by the committee as "clear and convincing,"described the relations of the Dean's Office with the Public Policy Association and other student groups. Oneinteresting bit of information relating to student radicalism provided by Dean Scott was the fact that thetotal amount of dues paid by their members to the tworadical student clubs, the National Student League andthe Student League for Industrial Democracy, averagedabout ten dollars a year.Several incidents not directly related to the hearings, but interesting in connection with them, took placeduring the period of the investigation. Mr. Walgreen,in an address before a Chicago club, said that in hisopinion the University of Chicago is "the greatest university in the United States," and added that he personally believed in academic freedom. The two radicalstudent organizations, the National Student League andthe Student League for Industrial Democracy, were suspended from the list of recognized student groups, andtheir privileges withdrawn, not, as some may have suspected, in the interest of expediency, but because the twogroups chose that time to violate a recognized rule prohibiting student organizations from representing themselves, off the campus, as University of Chicago groups,by participating, with identifying banners, in a protestparade on May 30th. The Rosenwald Family Association, as a gesture of confidence, presented the Universitywith a check for $10,000. The University announcedthe program of the 11th annual Harris Institute, whichwas held on the campus the last week in June with "TheSoviet Union and World Problems" as its topic, andwith three Soviet representatives, including AmbassadorTroyanovsky, among the speakers. The Harris Institute has regularly held symposiums on the role of various nations in international affairs, with representativesof those nations on the list of speakers. When Russiawas recognized last year, it was decided, last October, todevote this year's Institute to Russia. Hearst papersdescribed the Institute as "Red Week," but the investigating committee, although taking cognizance of it, couldfind nothing to be alarmed about in the program. Itshould be pointed out here that President Hutchins'"connection with the Moscow Summer School" is merelythat he is an adviser to the Institute of International Education, which has established summer sessions forAmerican students in twenty-one countries, includingTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 351Russia. Interesting also is the fact that the various radical students, though they were never called, were readyto testify that in their judgment the University is a hotbed of conservatism and reaction.More on the ReportMuch of the significant substance of the majority report has already been touched upon here. RegardingProfessor Lovett, the report states that he "has been anactive participant in communistic and socialistic meetings" ; that many of his "co-workers" are "undesirables" ;that "conclusive proof of his disloyal conduct" is contained in the above-quoted letter in which he refers togovernments as rotten; that "he cannot be an asset toany forward looking American educational institution" ;that "his personal attitude and testimony before the committee were unsatisfactory"; that "he has pursued anunpatriotic course of conduct for a period of eight orten years"; that "he is not loyal to the spirit or letter ofthe Constitution of Illinois or the United States," theconcluding remark being, "However, Professor Lovettlost a son in the World War."Some observers interpret this censure, in part atleast, as a rather innocuous nomination for scapegoat,since Professor Lovett will become professor emeritusin another year, under the age provision. Howard Vincent O'Brien, columnist of the Chicago Daily News,crystallized the opinion of all those who know ProfessorLovett when he devoted his column to Lovett a fewdays after the report came out. "In a world of shabbygreed, Robert Lovett stands out as one of the gentlest,kindest human creatures it has been my privilege toknow," O'Brien wrote. "He has lived most of his lifeamong the very poor and at this moment is busy tryingto raise funds for carrying on Jane Addams' work atHull House. . . Lovett is one of those queer people whoburn with a passion for justice. . . He lacks that convenient mechanism with which most of us are blessed— the ability to ignore the pain around us, and quicklyto forget what little we are forced to see. . . Lovett isafflicted with a sensitive imagination. The sight of coldand hungry people makes him suffer ; and being withoutany talent for evasion, he will literally take off his coatand give it to the shivering. . . He really believes thatprotest meetings accomplish something, and he still hasfaith in the passage of resolutions. . . I can think ofno man among my acquaintances who holds the affection of such a variety of people. . . The stones now beingflung at him are cast by strangers. There has neverbeen so much as a pebble from those who know him.. . Creatures with the moral standards of a starvingwolf are allowed to go peaceably about their occasions,while a man like Lovett, whose life is as near an expression of the Sermon on the Mount as one is likely toencounter in this curious salad of practice and preachment, is invited to drink the hemlock. . . It makes onewonder if man is going to prove just another dead endon the tree of evolution, an experiment that didn't work,a slight improvement on the chimpanzee, but really toostupid for nature to bother with further."The majority report makes but little, comment onSchuman; reviews the testimony and reports that he "stoutly" denied the allegations; but in one place saysthat "neither of them (Lovett and Schuman) did anything to correct the frequent use of their names in thecapacity of a Communist."In a brief statement supplementary to the majorityreport Senator Fribley objects to the fact that CarlHaessler, radical and conscientious objector during thewar, had been allowed to speak on the campus. Hereports that he "does not feel that an individual withsuch a background of disloyalty should be allowed theplatform privileges of a hall of such a great institutionas is the University of Chicago."Still another supplementary statement, a long one,signed by Senators Graham and Barbour, bears evidence of being the most carefully prepared of the variouscommittee statements. The signers point out that inthe rush attendant upon the close of the legislative session there was no time for the committee fully to workout the reactions of individual committee members withthe majority report and that their statement is a special "concurring assent" to the majority report.Nine conclusions are reached by Senators Grahamand Barbour: (1) defining communism; (2) outliningthe stringent sedition laws of Illinois; (3) pointing outthat Illinois has ample laws to deal with communismeffectively. "Has the University of Chicago or any ofits professors violated either the letter or the spirit ofour laws?" the report asks, and goes on, "The answerto this question must be in the negative. . . The University's social science department is conducted alongrecognized, proper lines providing for the instruction ofstudents in political and social science, in the history ofthe various forms of government throughout the world.Nothing in the teachings or schedule of the school canbe held to be subversive of our institutions or the advocation of the communistic form of government as a substitution for the present form of government of theUnited States."The two senators say (4) that they were impressed with Professor Merriam's statement, and thatthey wish to cite a recent address on academic freedomby President Lotus Coffman of the University of Minnesota, in which the latter says, "Universities are something more than the echo of a thousand platitudes," etc. ;(5) that Mr. Walgreen acted in good faith, and theyare grateful to him. "While the very fact of an investigation such as we have made might be distasteful to aschool so universally recognized as a great institutionas is the University of Chicago, we feel that some goodhas been accomplished by it," the senators report. "Investigation enables this committee to give definite assurance of the high character of the work of the Universityof Chicago and its great value in the development ofAmerican idealism."Conclusion (6) is that Professor Schuman was negligent in permitting his name to be used on the "Cultureand the Crisis" pamphlet; (7) "We believe that attackson prominent statesmen, professional men and socialworkers and reformers, many of them being personsof honor and high repute in the city of Chicago, andthe characterization of them as 'Reds' and 'Communists/is unwarranted and in no way justified by the fact that3S2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthey are or have been members of the Chicago Civil Liberties Committee"; (8) "We recognize a marked distinction between the teaching or advocating of communisticor other radical doctrines and advocating of peace amongnations'''; conclusion (9), a long one, condemns the administering of the Oxford oath, indicates that communistmeetings should not be permitted on college campuses,and that faculty members should not associate with communist agitators, urges stricter supervision of student activities, and study of sedition laws, suggests that Professor Lovett be given "honorary retirement," andgoes on :"It has been well said. . . that 'Chicago is proudof its University, one of the greatest in the world.' . .We have become thoroughly convinced by this investigation that one of the greatest safeguards for the perpetuation of American idealism and American institutions lies in the absolute scholastic freedom of our universities and that the University of Chicago is an admirable example of how that freedom should be exercised. Without advocating any philosophy of government other than our own, it presents to its students atrue picture of forms and philosophies of government,past and present, thus preparing their minds for a betterunderstanding and, therefore, a higher appreciation ofgovernmental values that we cherish in America. Anyaction on our part which would even indirectly hamperthat scholastic freedom which our schools enjoy wouldindeed be subversive of the very principles underlyingour form of government. Religious freedom, freedomof thought and of speech are the very cornerstones ofour civilization."Investigations were conducted in no other Illinoisuniversities, this section of the report relates, because nocharges against any other had been brought to the committee's attention, and because a report was requiredbefore the close of the legislative session.Senator Baker's one-man minority report, some4,000 words in length, opens with the statement thathe will attempt "to clearly and correctly record the eventsleading up to this report" and "to correctly analyze theevidence." He outlines his understanding of the principles of communism and says that "with the abovehideous monster in mind as to what are the aims andprinciples of communists in this country" he will showwhat the investigation revealed as to "tolerance, sympathy and support" of communism.Then follows a recital, unrelieved by any citationsfrom the University's witnesses, of what Senator Bakerconsidered most damaging in the evidence. He recallsthat "a young lady" became more sympathetic to communism as a result of her contact with the University ;lists the ludicrous charge that "the red flag flies over thecampus three hours on May Day" ; cites the Daily Maroonto the effect that students had organized a "communist"club ; mentions the fact that William Z. Foster and CarlHaessler were allowed to speak on the campus, and thatProfessor Schuman's name was attached to a documentsupporting Foster's candidacy; reports (and this is asimple error of fact) that a reception-banquet was heldon the campus for Ford, Foster's running-mate.Discussing Professor Lovett, Senator Baker re ported that Lovett is a member of the Civil Libertiesunion, "which defends anarchists and bomb-throwers";that Lovett had been present at meetings where the Oxford oath was administered; that Lovett had beenquoted as saying "the attack on Vera Cruz was comparable to the jap assault on Shanghai"; and Lovett's letterdescribing all governments as rotten was written at atime "when the beloved Calvin Coolidge was President,yet this man wrote the above about his administration."Touching upon the testimony of Hulen Carroll,Senator Baker pens a few lines with which membersof the University would heartily agree: "A most patheticscene was enacted before this committee, a scene neverto be forgotten . . . this young man recited a story asstrange as any you ever heard." Senator Baker, ofcourse, takes tne position that Carroll was persecuted because he is a patriot ; the ma j ority report specifically discredited Carroii's testimony. At one point Senator .Bakerreters to "young Carroll and his League for Social Justice," apparently confusing the Public Policy Associationwith Father Coughlin's Union for Social Justice.The Baker report takes time out to praise the publishers of Chicago newspapers, saying of them that they,"by their consistent and patriotic advocacy of the greatprinciples of liberty contained in the Constitution ofthe United States have built for themselves monumentsmore enduring than any which could be made of stone,and that the effect of their work will last long beyondthe end of their earthly pilgrimage."Baker closes with some uncomplimentary remarksabout the quality of Senator Barbour's wit and with fourrecommendations : ( 1 ) that there be a full and completeinvestigation; (2) that the University of Chicago "immediately require its Professors to cease allowing thename of the University to be connected with those whoare engaged in communistic propaganda"; (3) that"whatever aid Chicago University gives to communism... if those activities do not cease I recommend thepassage of a law which will take away the tax exemptionwhich that University and others enjoy"; (4) that "moretime be given to exalting the glorious principles of theAmerican Constitution and less to extolling the virtues ofcommunism as practiced in Russia."Even Senator Baker, however, apparently concedessomething to academic freedom, for he mentions theright of the University "fairly to present tenets of Communism side by side with the ideals of the UnitedStates," and speaks of the "right to gather and fairlyconsider all pertinent facts," while implying that thepresentation and consideration has not been fair.The Hearst press gave the Baker report considerableplay, and implied that the majority report showed evidence of a "whitewash." Senator Baker, to the accompaniment of much publicity in Hearst organs, promptlywired Congressman Dickstein in Washington suggestinga federal investigation of communism in colleges, starting with the University of Chicago. Congressman Dickstein, also to the accompaniment of much publicity,evinced interest in the proposal, and presently submitteda resolution to that effect in the House of Representatives. At this writing, the resolution is in the rules committee ; its chances of passage, are not regarded as good.ATHLETIC NEWSTHE time for the annual appraisal of the footballteam, it appears, is at hand. Between this dog-days discussion of what may happen and the nextissue of the Magazine the team will have completed partof its schedule. With so lengthy an interval betweenhope and actuality, an August football writer perhapsshould lean to the expansive side, and let realities explainthemselves in the next issue.This is the third year of Coach Clark Shaughnessyat Chicago. It is also the last year of Jay Berwanger asa player. The first statement indicates that the coach hashad experience enough with Big Ten football to befacing more or less known quantities in his conferencegames. He knows the pattern of the other boys; theylikewise know his. And so the factors of the problemare those of material and soundness of technique. Captain Berwanger's status as a senior promises his bestseason of play. Still retaining his enthusiasm, he nowhas played long enough to take the season without thepressing which means losing effectiveness.The grades are now available; again the squad didvery well in meeting the comprehensives. The dilatoryRalph Balfanz, end and back, as usual has some unfinished business that will interfere with practice and render him of little use in the early season, always assuming that he will complete the course satisfactorily. Robert Shipway, quarterback possibility; Thomas Kelley, acenter candidate, and James Chappel, a sophomore back,all have yet to meet their full quota of requirements.The probabilities are that they will do so.Rainwater Wells, end in his sophomore year andright half last season, has married and quit college forthe necessary pursuit of money to pay the rent. CoachShaughnessy had counted on him to be the quarterbackthis year, and had centered his attentions on him duringspring practice. The defection of Wells has caused thecoach much distress ; Rainwater's bride is unlikley to receive a cocktail shaker from Mr. Shaughnessy. Thequarterbacking abilities of Wells, it might be said, weremore potential than demonstrated, but Shaughnessy • By WILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN, '20, JD, '22thinks that the player might well have been very good.There also is some question as to whether Jack Scruby,useful in both the line and as a fullback, will return tocollege.Serious students of Chicago football will recall thatnine lettermen of 1934 have completed their competition : Captain Ell Patterson, center ; John Baker, Bartlett Petersen, and William Langley, ends ; John Womer,tackle ; Thomas Flinn and Edward Cullen, quarterbacks ;Keith Hatter, halfback, and Barton Smith, fullback.Most important of this group was Patterson, who was inthe judgment of the players the team's most valuableplayer. Patterson was unrivalled in backing up the lineand his defensive work will be noticeably missedthis year. Baker was a highly dependable end, particularly on defense. Womer turned in a grand game againstIllinois. Smith would probably be the regular fullbackthis year if he were back, for he came with a rush in thelast few games.The Maroon line shapes up well for the comingseason, despite the loss of Patterson and the ends. Itwill be big enough for strenuous competition, and on thewhole it will be experienced. There are none too manybacks in sight, and the loss of such a man as Berwangerwould be ruinous. If Balfanz gets around to finishinghis course, and if Scruby returns, the margin will bebetter.With Wells gone, Ewald Nyquist, fullback of thelast two years, will move back from end, the positionthat Coach Shaughnessy insists is the one for which heis best fitted. Bob Perretz, 187 pounds, who was to havebeen an end last year, but was returned to runningguard because of a shortage there, will get his chance onthe wing this season. Gordon Petersen, who has alternated between center and end, will be in the latter position this year. Weighing around 185, and with plentyof experience, he should be satisfactory. These two menhave the edge; behind them come Kendall Petersen,third of the brothers, 6 feet, 2 inches, 190 ; David Gordon, another sophomore, 6 feet, 3 inches, 182; William354 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGillerlain, 6 feet, 3 inches, 184, a reserve last year;David Le Fevre, 180, another reserve, and Henry Cutter, 6 feet, 2 inches, 182, who saw little play as a sophomore.In the first group of tackles are big Merritt Bush,6 feet, 5 inches, 218 pounds; Clarence Wright, 5 feet,11 inches, 205 pounds, and Earl Sappington, 6-1, 182pounds. Bush is a fixture at left tackle; Wright andSappington will fight it out. Sappington was a welcomesurprise last year, his only fault being inexperience. Andrew Hoyt, a member of the freshman team two yearsago, who has 200 pounds on a good frame, promises tobe a useable addition. Harold LaBelle, 190 pound sophomore who came to college preceded by a considerablereputation, but did not play freshman football, probablywill be among the candidates on September 10. If heapproximates in performance his reputation he will befitted into the line somewhere, either as tackle or end.Stanley Marynowski, a reserve of two years, who weighs186 and ought to arrive this season ; Edward Thompson,174 pound sophomore last year, and Woodrow Wilson,195 pounds, a sophomore, also help ease Mr. Shaugh-nessy's concern for the tackle position.Prescott Jordan, who moved in as a regular in hisfirst season, is first choice for running guard and mayalso have to take over Patterson's defensive post. Jordan is a football player of the top rank; a chunky 195pounder, he is fast and smart. It may be, if the questionof quarterbacking can be determined by no other means,that Jordan will play the position. George Antonic, a190 pound sophomore, would take over Jordan's guardposition in that event. Antonic was the best of the freshman linemen last year; clever and able to get aroundwith the best, he doesn't know too much about footballbut will learn in a hurry. Harmon Meigs, who saw considerable play last year, is the choice for the right guard.Jerome Stirling, a transfer from Notre Dame, 190pounds, and William Bosworth, who carries 202 poundson a 5 foot, 8 inch frame, will keep Meigs working athis best. Then there are Murray Chilton, a lightweightsophomore who is tough nevertheless ; Allen Hoop, andNelson Thomas.Sam Whiteside, 197, the sophomore who playedsuch a steady and efficient game as guard last year thathe was in more minutes of Big Ten play than any member of the squad, has moved over to take Patterson's place. Whiteside was an all-state center at Evanston andwill handle the job very well. There probably will be aconsiderable gap between Whiteside and his substitutes,among whom are James Jones, 202 pounds; RobertWheeler, sophomore, 195 pounds ; and Thomas Kelley,186.The fact that Clark Shaughnessy is stewing aboutthe quarterback has already been indicated. He has various alternatives. First is to add to Berwanger's alreadyheavy duties by having him call the signals and playingNyquist in the position. The second is to use Shipwayas the quarterback. He is at home in the position, havingplayed it in high school; he has good judgment, and heis big enough, 165 pounds, to do. Third is to move Jordan in, and play Antonic at running guard. Fourth isFred Lehnhardt, a hard hitting back who stood out onthe freshman team. If Allen Riley, who dropped out ofathletics last year, decides to play, Shaughnessy will givehim every chance for the job. Bill Lang, whose injuredshoulder necessitated an operation last year, would beabout the best of the lot, but it is most unlikely that hewill try to play. Then there are several lighter men,all good except for their lack of power. William Runyan, not much over 150, is a fiery little player, but hewould be very vulnerable on defense. Henry Kellogg, abare 160 and 6 feet tall, is not open to that criticism ;he tackled so hard last year that Shaughnessy would notlet him operate on Berwanger in scrimmage. After thecoach studies his list a while longer his gloom maylighten a bit, for he is not completely without men whomight do a better than ordinary performance. If worstcomes to worst, Lehnhardt, who is 182 pounds, ought toprove equal to the opportunity, and solve the perennialproblem not only for this year but the next two seasons.Left halfback is Jay Berwanger, too well known torequire any comment. Substitute for Berwanger, ordinarily not a very heavy job, is little Adolph Schues-sler, pint-sized, but a dangerous offensive player nonetheless. Another is Robert Fitzgerald, a sophomore whodid not play with the freshmen. He proved in his basketball work that he is an athelete of ability, and without question he would bolster the backfield.For right halfback the heir apparent is Ned Bartlett, the sensation of the Michigan game last season.Hurt early in the Purdue game, and forced to playagainst Ohio because of the lack of Berwanger that day,THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 355Bartlett was slow getting back to form. There is someargument as to whether he is faster than Berwanger —Coach Shaughnessy thinks that in the open field he is —but he plays havoc when he gets started. Bartlett andBerwanger coupled in one backfield are a pair to worryany team. Paul Whitney, a hard young man who putseverything he has into a game, is one of Shaughnessy' ssecret hopes. If Whitney applies himself to the businessin hand he will find plenty of opportunity to play. HarryNacey, another of the little fellows, and Dan Blake,likewise little, a transfer student, are very good for theirsize, but they aren't rugged enough for steady service.Key to the effectiveness of the offense this year willbe the fullbacks. Maroon opponents after the middle oflast season were spreading their defense to stop Berwanger from going wide. They probably will use thesame tactics this year. If there is a fullback who cangain real ground through the middle of the opposingline, the defense will have to tighten up. Warren Skoning, second string to Ewald Nyquist last year, showedso much stuff this spring that Shaughnessy had no hesitation in moving Nyquist out to end in the practice. Heis not any too fast, but he has drive and ought to beenough of a threat to make the going easier for Berwanger and Bartlett. Nyquist, of course, can be usedif necessary. When and if Balfanz applies himself tosuch purpose that he is square with the Registrar's Office,he will be used as a fullback instead of a halfback asoriginally planned. Chappel also will be drilled as a fullback when he becomes available.This is the team that will start against Nebraska onSeptember 28 : Perretz, left end ; Bush, tackle ; Jordan,guard ; Whiteside, center ; Meigs, guard ; Wright, tackle ; Gordon Petersen, end; Nyquist, quarterback; Berwanger, left half and signal caller; Bartlett, right half,and Skoning, fullback. Generally competent, this teamhas its spots of brilliance, but it faces a hard schedule.The Nebraska game at Lincoln on September 28 willbe bitter, and after it the team certainly will be able touse the comparative rest that Carroll and Western Statewill provide. Purdue has almost a new team, and thoughits sophomores are good, they probably won't make upfor Purvis and Carter. Wisconsin hasn't any great openfield runners, unless Dr. Spears has kept them hidden,but the Badgers will have as tough a line as Chicago willface, and a sustained line pounding attack. Ohio rates asMinnesota did last year — the top of the Big Ten. Indiana is considerably stronger, and so is Illinois.The addition of a line coach, Judge Jerome Dunne,should help improve the Chicago team where it wasweakest last year. The backfield will go if the line doesits part. The weakness on forward pass defense of lastseason may be eliminated ; if it is, the team will giveaway much less ground. Berwanger and Bartlett willtake care of the kicking and passing in excellent fashion.The team is more experienced than it was last year ; thestarting lineup does not have one sophomore, althoughit does have one or two men in new assignments. Working with Shaughnessy on the varsity, in addition toJudge Dunne, will be Julian Lopez, in charge of thebacks as usual ; Otto Strohmeier, end coach, and EllPatterson, coach of the centers. Nelson Norgren willhead the freshman staff, with Tommy Flinn, John Baker, and Robert Deem as assistants. There are the facts.Constant readers are free to draw their own conclusions.oIT MIGHT HAVE BEEN• By CHARLES F. McELROY, JD'15Student — Professor, what is communism ?Professor — S-sh !S — I say, what is communism?P— Er — as I was about to say, wewill now take up Bryce's AmericanC o mm o nwealth .S — We finished that last week.Isn't communism actually being-practiced somewhere?P — I can't tell you.S — You mean, you don't know?P — I can't discuss it in class.S— Why?P — See Illinois Revised Statutes,Chapter 38, Sec. 999.S — You — you mean — there's a lawagainst it?P — Just so.S — But isn't this a course on comparative forms of government?P — Some forms of government.S — Didn't someone write a treat ise on communism that is relied onby the Russians?P — I didn't see him write it.S — Wasn't his name Karl Marx?P — We were never introduced.S — Isn't the book in the University library?P — Not any more.S — But, professor, you have readit, haven't you?P — I can't remember.S — Isn't there a book called theYoung Russians' Primer?P — I hope not.S — Is there any objection to myreading these books ?P — Emphatically.S— Why?P — Because anyone who reads abook on communism becomes enamored of it and loses all his Americanism.S — But you read it, and it didn't affect you that way, did it?P — I was much older than you.You are at an impressionable age. Ifyou should read one of these books,it would make you mad. You wouldbegin to tear down American flags,throw bombs, try to assassinate government officials, and organize armedmobs to overthrow the governmentby violence.S — But professor, haven't I beenin your classes long enough to convince you that I have some sanity ?P — I am not the one to convince.S— Who, then?P — The Illinois legislature.S — Can't I find out what communism is, and then decide for myselfwhat is good and what is bad in it?p — we can't take a chance.S— Why?P — See Illinois Revised Statutes,Chapter 38, Sec. 999.NEWS OF THE CLASSESCOLLEGE1894Samuel D. Barnes, practicingphysician in Los Angeles, Calif., recently published a biography of hislate wife, Life of Anne WilliamsBarnes. Mrs. Barnes, a graduate ofVassar, died November 13, 1933.1896Mary D. Spalding is professor ofEnglish at the Harris Teachers College, St. Louis, Mo.John F. Voigt, Chicago lawyer,is now the second vice-president ofthe Illinois State Bar Association.His avocation is traveling, especiallyin America, and motoring.James P. Whyte, AM'03, actedas field agent for Bucknell University this past semester, addressinghigh school assemblies. He is "stilltalking on 'The Saving Sense ofHumor,' from the point of view of a'cannie' Scot, who has acquired a fullsupply of 'American extravagance,'and an 'erratic imagination.' "1897Leila G. Fish (Mrs. H. F. Mal-lory) and Hervey F. Mallory, whoseconnection with the University ofChicago dates back to October, 1892,are now at Grand Beach, Mich. InNovember they will return to Clearwater, Fla., once more.1898Margaret Baker, SM'02, hasretired from teaching and is living at2120 N. W. 16 St., Oklahoma City,Okla.1903W. N. Garlick writes that he is"still teaching in the Woodrow Wilson High School, Long Beach, Calif.The building is now ready for occupancy after the earthquake and thetent colony will soon be a 'dustyrecollection.' "Livonia Hunter is teaching Latinin the Monmouth High School, Monmouth, 111.1905Lieutenant Charles A. .Kirt-ley is now on duty aboard the U.S.S.Arkansas.1906Evon Z. Vogt is now working forRay Smith on a far-reaching exploratory undertaking in connection withsteel making and a large part of hisnew work will be in Mexico. Hisaddress is Hotel Santa Rita, Tucson, Ariz. He will continue as part-timecustodian of El Morro NationalMonument.1907Margaret E. Burton is the authorof Education of Women in China,Comrades in Service, Women. Workers of the Orient and New Paths forOld Purposes.A. Beth Hostetter has been appointed acting president of FrancesShimer Junior College of Mt. Carroll, 111., for the year 1935-36. Sheserved as dean of the college from1930 to 1934.Isabella A. McIntyre is studying for her master's degree in theSocial Science Division of the University of Chicago.Mrs. William Newell, activewith her husband, minister of theMethodist Church of Salisbury,N. C, has been director of the Interracial Association of the Church.1909Albert S. Long, lawyer, is amember of the firm of McNab,Holmes and Long, 69 W. Washington St., Chicago.1911Hargrave A. Long, recently became a partner of the law firm ofAyers, Resa and Long, 933 ConwayBldg., Chicago. His eldest son, Robert, will enter Wabash College on ascholarship this fall.Florence H. Silverman, Ed.Cert., teaches kindergarten part timeat the Mark Twain Main Building at5131 South Linder Ave., and the remainder of the day at the Branch atArcher and Normandy Ave., Chicago.Hebbert L. Willett, Jr., was recently made director of the Community Chest of Washington, D. C.1912A. Boyd Pixley is still feedingstarving Chicagoans as vice-presidentof Pixley and Ehlers, Restaurateurs.He is treasurer of both the ChicagoAssociation of Restaurateurs and theNational Restaurateurs Association.He is also bandmaster of the Chicago Black Horse Troop Band andvice-president of the Army and NavyBandmasters Association.Fanchon I. Henderson is thebranch librarian at the Albany Parkdivision of the Chicago Public Library. Joseph G. Masters, AM'16, isprincipal of the Omaha Central HighSchool. His hobby is taking "longexploration trips over the old SantaFe Trail, the Oregon Trail, and historical battlefields and shrines of thetrans-Missouri Country, interviewingoldtimers and searching for and digging out historical data and materials." Ginn and Company will publish his first volume of historicalstories of the fur trappers or mountain men some time during the fallof 1935 under the title of Stories ofthe Far West. It will carry 100photographs, extensive maps, andglossary.George N. White is the field secretary of the American MissionaryAssociation, 287 Fourth Ave., NewYork City.1913Essie Chamberlin, AM'24, isteaching at the University of Missouri for the summer term of 1935.Harriet Murphy teaches kindergarten at the Sawyer Avenue School,Chicago.Alan D. Whitney's hobbies aretaking amateur movies and photosand writing doggerel for the Wakeof the News and any other willingpublisher. He is a Chicago dealerin securities.1914Aruba B. Charlton is teachingat the Central Missouri State Teachers College, at Warrensburg, Mo.Marguerite H. J. Hess is working at the New York State TransitCommission, in New York City.Edwin D. Hull, SM '16, is stillrunning a laboratory supply businessat Gary, Ind. He has published several articles on the care of aquariaand terraria in School Science andMathematics.Lydia Lee (Mrs. James Pearce)is teaching English and public speaking at Tilden Technical High School,Chicago. Her avocations are runninga house and trying to bring; up, a bitmore than adequately, three adolescent children.Margaret F. Williams, AM'33,is teaching English during the day,evening, and summer sessions atLewis Institute. Her hobby is traveland she writes, "I have been to Europe three times since 1922 and lastsummer I went to Mexico. I spend356THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 357my spare time trying to get others todo likewise."1915Edith M. Bell, AM'16, hasworked for the last ten years in thefield of religious education in NewYork state and Ann Arbor, Mich.This August she begins new work asthe dean of the American Institute ofApplied Psychology at Canon City,Colo. Her avocation is writing andher hobby is scientific research incolor. She frequently lectures on thepsychological use of color and also onthe therepeutical value of its use.Zena Kroger, teacher of foreignlanguages at Crane Technical HighSchool, is working hard and watchfully waiting for the salary due.1916Donald L. Colwell, who hasbeen a metallurgist for the StewartDie Casting Corporation, of Chicago,for thirteen years, is now the salesmanager of the Corporation. His twofine daughters, ages 7 and 1 1 , are hishobby. He is chairman of the Chicago Section of the American Institute of Mining and MetallurgicalEngineers.Hannah E. Pease is teaching vocational home making at PutnamHigh School, Putnam, Conn.Agnes A. Sharp, AM'31, is theassistant director of the Psychiatic Institute of the Municipal Court ofChicago, instructor of abnormal psychology at Rush Medical College, andhas a private practice as consultingpsychologist, in the Strauss Bldg.,Chicago. Aviation, golf, motoring,and gardening are her hobbies.R. B. Whitehead, chief geologistof the Atlantic Oil Producing Company of Dallas, Tex., recently buriedhis father in Mt. Pleasant, Mich.1917Charles F. Allen, supervisor ofsecondary education, at Little Rock,Ark., was the joint author with Joseph Roemer and Dorothy Yarnell inwriting, Home Rooms, Clubs, andAssemblies, which was published bySilver, Burdett and Co., July 1. Thisis the fourth book of the Roemer andAllen Series. He was president of thedepartment of secondary school principals of the Northeastern Association from 1934-35. He recently addressed the Texas Conference on Junior High School Problems and theSouthern Association of Student Government at Hot Springs, Ark.W. R. Bimson is president of theValley National Bank of Phoenix,Ariz.Catherine Chamberlin andBeulah Chamberlin, '21, have recently moved to Flossmoor, 111. BERMUDA'S SUMMER AVERAGES 79'NO TEMPERATURESIN THE NINETIES No stifling heat, no hay fever; never atraffic jam. No wonder it's such a popular~—summer spot !Leave the world behind — summer holdsno greater pleasure than you find in Bermuda.There's ample time, and room to do everything.Championship golf courses, numerous tennis courts,world's finest beaches; every form of sport. Lowsummer rates — many of the hotels far-famed fortheir brilliant social life. You'llreturn with vivid memories,new friends and no regrets.Send Today for the NewEdition of the Bermuda GuideBook, free. Address yourtravel agency or Furness Bermuda Line, Munson Steamship Line, Canadian NationalSteamships, or the BermudaTrade Development Board,230 Park Avenue, Yew York.In Canada, 105 Bond Street,Toronto.SUBMARINE EXPLORATIONIt's safe and inexpensive to "walk on the bottom.'Glass-bottom boats, too— and don't miss the Government Aquarium, world's finest.*OOL ENOUGH FOR PENGUINS358 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWilliam A. Hunter and Raymond B. Coulter, '14, are associatedwith Walter A. Bowers, '20, in theDepartment of Commerce in the division that supervises loans to municipalities.1918J. Milton Coulter, with AlvinH. Baum, '21, Herbert O. Rubel,'22, Robert S. Adler, '23, has beenexpanding the activities of the Selected Investment Co., (a general investment banking business principallyon a counsellor basis) and the Security Supervisors, Inc., (managementservice to investors), since 1931. Mr.Coulter is the vice-president and director of these two Chicago companies.Dorothy Fay (Mrs. George A.Barclay) has been the publicity, representative of the Apollo MusicalClub of Chicago since 1923.1919Walter C. Bihler, AM'20, rector of Christ Church at 65th andWoodlawn, Chicago, was the dean ofthe faculty of the seventeenth annualsummer conference of Episcopalchurch workers held in Kenosha recently.Frances R. Donovan will spendtwo weeks at the dramatic festival,held throughout August, in Malvern,England. She will devote some timeto London, where she will stop at theDartmouth House.William W. Henry is engaged inoil investments with the ContinentalInvestment Company in Tulsa, Oklahoma.1920B. B. Ballard is associated withthe Prudential Insurance Companyand is also a member of the ChicagoBoard of Trade. His interests arecentered in his three small sons.C. C. Inglefield has been assistant manager of the South Bend division, Ind., of the Standard Oil Company since January 1. Formerly heheld a similar position in Joliet.Ruth G. Mallory (Mrs. ReveleyH. B. Smith) lives in Winchester,Mass., with her husband and fourchildren. Reveley Smith, ex'21, hasbeen assistant sales manager of theUniversal Atlas Cement Company (asubsidiary of the U. S. Steel Corp.)in New England for the last fiveyears. Both are prominent in churchwork in Winchester.Mary E. Owen of Rochester, N.Y., was elected president of the Educational Press Association of Americaat its annual meeting in Atlantic Citylast February. 1921T. W. Ha wes recently joined theEdward B. Smith and Company, 31Nassau St., New York City.Marjorie S. Logan is professorand director of the department of artof Milwaukee-Downer College.Norman C. Meier, AM'23, associate professor of psychology at theUniversity of Iowa, devotes his leisure to landscape painting and hasmade two pilgrimages (1931, 1933)to the colorful Taos-Santa Fe regionin New Mexico. He is directing theCarnegie research program in GeneticAspects of Artistic Capacity.Katherine Sisson (Mrs. J. P.Jensen) and her husband are traveling through Italy, Austria, Switzerland, southern Germany, and Francethis summer.1922E. K. Eichengreen is an associatebroker with Rollins, Burdick, HunterCompany, General Insurance, 175West Jackson Blvd., Chicago. Golfand amateur movies are his avocations. He has two daughters, Ann, 4years old, and Sallie Helen, 6 months.For the past five years he has beentreasurer of the Young Men's JewishCharities of Chicago.Nellie Gorgas has been appointedassistant to the dean of the division ofthe biological sciences of the University of Chicago. As such she willserve as manager of the dean's anddirector's offices. She will performthe duties of executive assistant tothe director of the Clinics and be responsible to him for much of the detail of the Clinic's administration.Lucy D. Henry has been appointed assistant in surgery at theSouth Side Medical School of theUniversity of Chicago.Bertha Kraeger is a dietitian atSt. John's Hospital in Anderson, Ind.George W. A. Rutter, AM^26,and Mrs. Rutter celebrated their paper wedding anniversary, June 16,1935, in Evanston.1923T. Russell Baker is the legal representative in Chicago of a large mahogany forest concern in SouthernMexico. He and Mrs. Baker (Elizabeth Wallace '25) with GladysFinn, '23, recently drove to Mexico.Norman Graham is alderman ofRichton Park, 111., and claims he isstarting at the bottom.Leslie H. Klawans is an assistanttrust officer of the American NationalBank and Trust Company of Chicago.Lewis L. McMasters is presidentof the Junior Chamber of Commerce and the Kiwanis Club of St. Petersburg, Fla.Harold F. Moses is a geologist withthe Carter Oil Company at Mt. Pleasant, Mich.Mrs. Ella F. Waful has beenelected president of the CatholicWoman's League of Chicago for1935-37.1924Harold A. Anderson, AM'26, isthe chairman of the department ofEnglish in the University of ChicagoHigh School. This summer he isteaching courses in education in theCollege of Charleston, S. C.Henry T. Holsman is presidentof the real estate firm of Parker,Holsman and Leigh, Chicago.Clifford Manschart, '18, AM'21, is reported to have been placedin charge of a very substantial endowment to further the social servicework in which he has been engagedin Bombay, India.Marguerite Nelson (Mrs. Walter G. Preston, Jr.) has moved to 14Sutton Place South, New York City.Mr. Preston, assistant to PresidentHutchins for several years, is nowconnected with the National Broadcasting Company.Loeva Pierce teaches mathematicsin the Senior High School, San An-gelo, Texas.1925Robert Becker is sales managerfor "Kensington" of New Kensington. He and Mrs. Becker (MarionM. Jaynes, '23) live at 962 WellesleyRoad, Pittsburgh, Pa.Helen Sisson (Mrs. LawrenceYingling) is painting this summer inMr. Giesbert's outdoor sketchingclass in Jackson Park.1926Mabel M. Whitney, AM'28, isteaching English and music in theParker High School, Chicago. Music, particularly the writing of songs,is her hobby.1927J. Parker Hall is now workingwith Messrs. Clark Dodge & Company in New York City. He recentlyreturned from a holiday on his wife'sfamily's plantation in Mississippi andreports that "farming sure has itstroubles."1928Edwin W. Colman is an economist in the sugar section of the AAAin Washington, D. C.Raymond E. Hayes was recentlyreappointed head of the history department at Arlington Heights Township High School and also appointedcoach of lightweight basketball.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 359Rob Roy MacGregor is a salesman for Halsey Stuart and Companyin New York City.Kenneth A. Rouse, formerly onthe University's staff, who has beensince April, 1934, in charge of PublicSafety, fire fighting, guide service,and other important details under theTennessee Valley Authority at Norris, Tennessee, has been promoted tothe position of Safety Engineer forthe TVA with general supervisionover the before mentioned activitiesin all parts of the Authority.Helen Williamson, AM'32, isrunning a private kindergarten andnursery school at 7401 Yates Ave.,Chicago, serving the South Shore district.1929Arnold Hartigan, constructionengineer, is learning to fly at the Municipal Airport. He married Margaret A. Walker, February 7, 1935.They are living at 1724 E. 83rd Place,Chicago.William B. Holmes is alwaysabreast of building activities in theChicago area, since the F. W. Dodgecompany continues to report his observations to the country at large.V. Reginald Ibenfeldt of OakPark is going on a trip to the lakes of northern Wisconsin in August.Esther E. Kimmel is director ofthe home economics department andthe Home Institute of the New YorkHerald Tribune.Thomas C. McCormick will assume his duties as professor of socialstatistics at the University of Wisconsin beginning September 20, 1935.Isaac H. Miller is professor ofeducation at Livingstone College, Salisbury, N. C.Louise Wilson is spending thesummer in Europe, dividing her timebetween sight-seeing and study at theSorbonne.1930Herbert S. Beardsley writes : "Ihave been a checker in the IndustrialEngineering Department of Armourand Company for two years now andfind the work interesting and beneficial to anyone learning the packingbusiness. I sing in the church choir,am a member of the up and comingMorgan Park Gleemen, a fine men'schorus, and do some whistling by invitation and on amateur programs justfor fun. I was married to JeanetteL. Berlin on October 20, 1934."Jack Diamond was recently appointed to the staff of the UnitedPress Service in New York. Lloyd R. Harlacher is workingin the Chicago agency of the MutualBenefit Life Insurance Co., in chargeof the distribution of policy holderleads, which is more technically called"Running a prospect bureau." In addition he sells life insurance.Leo C. Rosenberg was recentlyappointed fellow (pre-doctoral) bythe Social Science Research Council.George L. Townsend is now supervisor of rehabilitation in the department for homeless and transientsof the State Emergency Relief Board,Harrisburg, Pa.1931Ruth Earnshaw, former associateeditor of this publication and at present doing graduate work at Columbia,writes that she is starting work forthe Institute of Pacific Relations.Her duties? Let's quote from herletter. "My work will be taking careof the library, indexing periodicals,making abstracts upon demand, andthen, as my chief project — assembling information about far easternstudies in this country, reading asmuch as possible about the Chinesesituation in general, and particularlyin regard to the language problem —all things I have been burning themidnight oil to accomplish !"THIS HAM NEEDSNO PARBOILINGit's Swift's Premium and it's Ovenized!HERE IS A DELICIOUSWAY TO SERVE IT!Bake Swift's PremiumThis Easy Way:Place a whole or half Swift'sPremium Ham in a roaster. Add 2cups of water, and cover the roaster.Bake in a slow oven (325°), allowingabout 2 1 minutes a pound for a largewhole ham;about25minutesa poundfor smaller (up to 12 lb.) hams orhalf hams. When ham is done, remove from oven. Liftoffrind. Scoresurface and dot with cloves; rub withmixture of 3^ cup brown sugar andI tbsp. flour. Brown, uncovered, for20 minutes in a hot oven (400°).For a festive touch, try basting theham — while it browns — with meltedcurrant jelly.Apple Surprise-Core and halve apples and boiluntil red in syrup made with cinnamon drops. Pile apples with saucemade with cranberries and drainedcrushed pineapple. Serve in parsleynests. Swift's Premium Ham needs no pre-cooking. Instead, it comes to you ready to bake, or to slice andcook in your favorite way with no parboiling. Itsaves you time and effort and assures you of tender,juicy ham, rich, sweet, and full-flavored.Ovenizing, Swift's own method of smoking hamin ovens, makes this possible. First the famousmild Premium cure, then this special way of smoking. . . and the result is a ham far superior in flavor andmuch, much easier to prepare. Why not try one thisweek-end? Just be sure to ask for Swift's PremiumHam. No other kind is Ovenized.SWIFT 6- COMPANY . GENERAL OFFICES . CHICAGO360 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGREUNE- MUELLERCOALIs of Highest Quality fromRespective Fields and isDUSTLESS TREATEDLet Us Prove This to YouGREUNE-MUELLER GOAL GO.7435 So. Union Ave.All Phones Vincennes 4000HAIRREMOVEDFOREVER14 Years' ExperienceFree ConsultationLOTTIE A. METCALFEGraduate NurseELECTROLYSIS EXPERTPermanent removal of Hair fromFace, Eyebrows, Back of Neck or anypart of Body; destroys 200 to 600Hair Roots per hour.Member American Assn. Medical Hydrologyand Physical Therapy$1.75 per Treatment for HairTelephone FRA 4885Suite 1705, Stevens Bldg.17 No. State St.SCHOOL INFORMATIONLBOARDI NO SCHOOLSFree Catalogs of ALL in U. 9. Price*,ratings,, etc. Inspectors advice. Alsosmall COLLEGES and Junior Colleges.Only office maintained by the schools.American Schools Assn., 27th year. 921Marshall Field Annex, 24 N. Wabash.Central 6646, Chicago.V. C. Beebe, U. of C. '05, Sec'y.Camps- InformationE. A. BOOS SCHOOLFor Mentally and PhysicallyHandicapped Persons — All AgesBoarding and Day SchoolTo Limited NumberFree ConsultationInformation Sent on RequestReasonable Rates5740 W. 22nd Place, Cicero, III.ILLINOIS COLLEGEof Chiropody and Foot SurgeryFor Bulletin and Information AddressDR. WM. J. STICKEL, Dean1 327 North Clark StreetChicago, Illinois 1932Harry D. Ashley is manager ofthe New York office of the MasoniteCorp., 551 Fifth Ave., New York,N. Y.Robert W. Beck, SM'34, is a geologist with the Carter Oil Companyat Mt. Pleasant, Mich.Kathrine Bemisderfer is teaching English at the Tilden TechnicalHigh School, Chicago.Mary Harty and Ruth Jahnkeare working for the Illinois Emergency Relief.Mary A. Heglin, teacher, lives atthe University of Chicago SettlementHouse.Lawrence J. Schmidt is with theNational Resources Board, InteriorBldg., Washington, D. C.Blanche J. Vodvaska worked asa saleslady at the Century of Progressin 1933-34 and since then has beendoing odd jobs.Mary Waller is teaching chairman of the language department ofthe Country Day School of Winnetka,111.1933Jeannette M. Elder, AM'34, isthe director of special studies of theIowa Emergency Relief Administration located at 314 West 8th St., DesMoines.Diana Gaines (Mrs. Henry Jafre)is now employed as a copywriterat Neisser - MeyerhofT, advertisingagency, Chicago.Martin J. Herrmann is managerof the employment department of theBerrien County Emergency ReliefCommission, located in Benton Harbor, Mich.Catharine Haley is studying atthe French School at Middlebury College, Vermont, this summer.1934Ramon B. Perez has just receivedhis diploma from the Alliance Fran-caise in Paris, France, and will returnto this country in September.MASTERS1893Clifford W. Barnes, AM, ischairman of the Chicago CommunityTrust, president of the Chicago Sunday Evening Club and Committee ofFifteen, vice-president of the ChicagoCommunity Fund and World Alliance for International Friendship,trustee of the Chicago Y.W.C.A.,chairman of the Subscriptions Investigating Committee of the Associationof Commerce, a member of the Senior Council of the Association ofCommerce, and director of the Council of Social Agencies. 1898Lolabel House, AM, (Mrs. Robert A. Hall) is a teacher and head ofthe economics deparrtment at BayRidge High School, Brooklyn, N. Y.She is vice-president of the NewYork City High School Teachers Association. Her latest article was achapter on Economics in Educatingthe Superior Child, published by theAmerican Book Co.1914Herschel T. Manuel, AM, hasbeen professor of educational psychology at the University of Texassince 1928. He has two children,Jane, 11, and Eleanor, 1.1919Karl A. Hauser, AM, became theanalyst for the Investor's EconomicService, Inc., Milwaukee, May 1 ; hewas formerly in charge of the bonddepartment of the Continental National Bank and Trust Co., Salt LakeCity, Utah. His hobbies are fishing(his favorite location is the QueticoNational Forest in southwestern Ontario) and wild flower gardening, specializing in orchids and lady slippers.1920Jeanette Ridlon, SM (Mrs. JeanPiccard) and her husband are nowwith the Barthol Foundation, Swarth-more, Pa.1922S. S. Shearer, SM, was recentlyelected national president of PhiSigma Pi, a growing national honorfraternity in teacher training institutions. Shearer is professor of biology at the State Teachers Collegeof Shippensburg, Penna.1923Leonard D. Haertter was appointed director of John BurroughsSchool of St. Louis County, Mo.,beginning July 1.1925Harry B. Ebersole, AM, is professor of European history at theNorthern State Teachers College atMarquette, Mich.1926Amy I. Moore, AM, was head ofthe broadcasting committee last winter that sponsored an educational program from Nashville and musical programs over other stations. MissMoore's hobbies are music, swimming, books, and travel.1929Carl A. Nissen, AM, recently accepted a position at Baldwin-WallaceCollege, Berea, Ohio. His appointment begins September 16, 1935.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 361Carleton D. Speed, Jr., AM, is ageologist and land man for G. B.Stoddard Companies, 1516 MagnoliaBldg., Dallas, Tex., who have extensive producing properties in the state.Mr. Speed recently married Marvo-lene Bowe of Findlay, Ohio, and Mc-Allen, Texas.Ethel W. Stallings, AM, sendsthe following note : "I have been supervisor of teacher training at Emoryand Henry College at Emory, Va.,since the fall of 1930. I enjoy reading philosophy and biography, andhope to publish some stories for upper grade work on early life in Virginia."1930John L. Ballif, Jr., AM, is teaching French and phonetics at the University of Utah. Theaters and kindredwork are his hobby. He is a districtchairman and committeeman on thestate distribution of money to students.A. S. Leven, AM, practicing physician and surgeon, is on the attending staff of the Frances E. WillardHospital. He is a master of PurityLodge No 1086 and patron of Chapter of the Eastern Star. His hobbiesare aviation and music.1932SlGNE A. CORNELIUSON, AM, issupervisor of the training departmentof the Racine-Kenosha NormalSchool, Union Grove, Wis.1933Thompson R. Fulton is the district supervisor of the Emergeny Relief Administration of Lincoln, Nebr.Benjamin Greenstein, AM, statistician, published an article on "Peri-odogram Analysis," in Econometrica,for April, 1935.Kenneth J. Martin is an assistant professor at Denison University,Granville, Ohio.Harold W. Rigney, SM, writesfrom Girard, Pa., that he is returningto the U of C next fall to continuehis studies.Sidney E. Tarbox, AM, waselected to the position of AssistantDirector at the Milwaukee UniversitySchool, Milwaukee, Wis.1934Miriam G. Buck is an associateprofessor at Oklahoma College forWomen, Chickasha, Okla.Vernon D. Keeler was recentlyappointed to a position at Park College, Parkville, Mo. His work willbeein there September 15.Veva McAtee, AM, is co-authorwith Dr. Downing of a recently published work book in biology. She isalso the author of a general sciencework book for junior high schools.She teaches and heads the science SCHOOL DIRECTORYulver:MILITARY ACADEMYEDUCATES THEWHOLE BOYI ex I/'Mi HELPS HIM TOFIND HIMSELFStudies and guides himunderstandingly. Discovers interests and aptitudes. Develops initiative, poise and enthusiasm for purposeful living.Prepares for all colleges.Junior College work.Modern equipment on1000 -acre campus, adjoining Lake Maxinkuckee.Alt sports. Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery, Band. Catalog.81 PERSHING SQUARECULVER, INDIANAWESTERN MILITARY ACADEMYYour boy's success in life depends largely uponthe training lie receives between the ages of10 and 19. Western specializes in developingthe success-winning qualities of initiative, perseverance, courage and judgment. That's whvWestern boys are leaders. Thorough accredited preparation for college or business. Sports,riding, for all. 25 miles from St. Louis.Catalog:Col. C. F. Jackson, Pres., Alton, IllinoisCOUPONFOR COMPLETE SCHOOL ANDCAMP INFORMATION, FILL OUTAND MAIL THIS FORM TO THEGRADUATE SCHOOL SERVICE, 30ROCKEFELLER PLAZA, N. Y.Student's Age Sex Religion Rale Location Preferred Type of School Preferred Type of Camp Preferred Remarks Name Address Key To SuccessBM COMPLETE BUSINESS COURSEIW Training vou can tell! A school noted for its famous "w"rffl graduates. Choice of alert young people intentH on LEADERSHIP. Write or Phone Ran. 1575.I"""*PSJ1B a. mimibAn AVL-, bnitnUUVMacCormac School ofCommerceBusiness Administration and SecretarialTrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESEnter Any Monday1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 2130 CHICAGO COLLEGE OFDENTAL SURGERYDental School ofLOYOLA UNIVERSITYOffers a four year dental course requiring for matriculation thirty semester hoursof approved college credit in specified subjects.The three year dental course require*sixty semester hours of approved collegecredit in specified subjects.In the near future the requirements formatriculation will be two years of college credit and the dental curriculum afour year course.Graduate courses offered in selectedsubjects.For details addressThe RegistrarChicago College of Dental SurgeryDental School of Loyola University1757 West Harrison St. Chicago, 111*IATIONAL COLLEGE ofEDUCATION49th yearN' International reputation for superiorscholarship and distinguished faculty.Teacher training in Nursery School,Kindergarten and Elementary Grades. Exceptional placement record. Demonstration School,Dormitories, Athletics. For catalog write, EdnaDean Baker, Pres., Box 525 -H, Evanston, 111.SAINT XAVIER COLLEGEFOR WOMEN4900 Cottage Grove AvenueCHICAGO, ILLINOISA Catholic College Conducted bythe SISTERS OF MERCYCourses lead to the B. A. and B. S.degrees. Music — ArtSCHOOL OF THEATREMR. BEN GUY PHILLIPSFaculty Member of the RoyalAcademy of Dramatic ArtCOURSESInclude: Art of Acting, Voice Control,Pantomime, Playwriting, Stage, Sceneand Costume Design, Public Speaking, etc.Children's ClassesSTUDIO— 72 EAST 11TH STREETHarrison 3300THE ORTHOGENIC SCHOOL OFTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOBoarding and day school 'for the studyand training of children, 6 to 14, witheducational or emotional problems. Mental defectives are not accepted. Undersupervision of University Clinics and Department of Education.Dr. Frank N. Freeman, DirectorDr. Mandel Sherman, PsychiatristThe Mary E. PogueSchool and SanitariumWheaton, III.Phone Wheaton 66A school and sanitarium tor the care and training ot children mentally subnormal, epileptic,or who suffer trom organic brain disease.362 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAWNINGSPhones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park AwningINC. Co.,Awnings and Canopies for All 9urposes4508 Cottage Grove Aven ueBEAUTY SALONSERNEST BAUERLEBEAUTY SALONSpeciaIndividua izing in1 HaircutsSuite 130817 N. State St.Stevens TelephoneDearborn 6789BuildingBOOKSARE YOU INTERESTEDINMEDICAL BOOKSWe will send you gratis our bargain pricecatalog on Medicine, Surgery, MedicalHistory, Psychology and Sexology.LOGIN BROS.1814 W. Harrison St. CHICAGOMEDICAL BOOKSof All PublishersThe Largest and Most Complete Stock andall New Books Received as soon as published. Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medical Book Co.)Congress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medical CollegeCATERERJOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900— 090 1Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882CHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, 12B. R. Harris, '2 1Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and E ngineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285 <p.COALWasson- ¦PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phones : Wen rworth 8620- 1 -2-3-4Wasson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wa sson Does department at Clark High School,Hammond.Florence A. Partridge, AM, received the appointment this July ofdean of women at Heidelberg College,Tiffin, Ohio, for 1935-36. Her article, "Evaluation of AdministrativeOffices in the Smaller College of Liberal Arts," based on the findings ofher masters thesis will appear in anearly fall issue of the Journal ofHigher Education.RUSH1880John A. Badley, MD, is practicing medicine and surgery and is stillthe medical director of the DeKalbCounty Tuberculosis Sanatorium.1882Arthur H. Mosher, MD, is nowlocated in LeMars, Iowa.1892William D. Harrell, MD, writesfrom Norris City, 111., that as a country doctor, he has been on the go andis still going, though not so much asformerly.1899Dean D. Lewis, MD, chairman ofthe department of surgery at JohnsHopkins University, and formerly ofRush Medical College, spoke on thesubject of "The Advance in Surgery," at the University of Chicago onMay 3.1900Frederick F. Fowle, MD, is senior physician at the Hospital for Mental Diseases in Wauwautosa, Wis.1901Jacob S. Weber, MD, practicingphysician and surgeon, is also president of the Northwest DavenportBank of Davenport, la. His hobbiesare golf and violin.1902Joseph B. Sonnenschein, MD,physician, supervises the division ofsocial hygiene of the Chicago Boardof Health. Collecting old plates andglassware and singing are his hobbies.1909Arrie Bamberger, '07, MD, is assistant professor of surgery of theUniversity of Illinois Medical Schooland chief surgeon at the Jackson ParkHospital.1913George H. Coleman, MD, is anattending physician at St. Luke's Hospital and assistant professor of medicine at Rush Medical College. He isstill the secretary of the Institute ofMedicine of Chicago. He occupies hisleisure with golf and fishing.Ralph H. Kuhns, '11, MD, hasbeen scheduled to speak at the an nual convention of the American Congress of Physical Therapy to be heldin Kansas City, September 9, on thesubject of "Fever Therapy in Dementia Paralytica." He is an instructor in neuro-psychiatry at the University of Illinois, College of Medicine.1918Herbert H. Christensen, MD,practicing physician and surgeon inWausau, Wis., is doing pioneer work,being the first and so far the only onein the state who is severing tubercularadhesions by the aid of a thoracoscope. He is a staff member at thelocal sanatorium where he employsvarious methods of chest-surgery forthe purpose of collapsing lungs.1920Clifford J. Barorka, '18,MD, amember of the medical staff at Northwestern University, recently leasedspace on the fourth floor of the 700North Michigan Avenue Building,Chicago, and is developing here amodern suite with all facilities andequipment available for completediagnostic work.1921Jacob A. Bargen, '19, MD, fromthe Rochester Mayo Clinic gave asplendid paper on the pharmacologicalstudies of the human colon before theGastro-Enterlogical Convention heldrecently in Atlantic City.1924Harold E. Smith, '21, practicesmedicine and surgery at Maywood,1929Daniel L. Stormont, PhD'25,practices in internal medicine and diagnosis. Recently he moved into muchlarger quarters in the same buildingin Evanston where he has been forthe past six years. He and his wifeattended the AM A convention at Atlantic City from June 9 to 14, andthen drove to New York City andNew Haven to visit friends.1930Harry B. Burr, MD, of San Antonio had a very fine exhibit and alsoread a paper at the Convention.Martin F. Gaynor, MD, is a successful pediatrician in Springfield,Mass.Ernest S. Olson, MD, is nowpathologist and bacteriologist at theUnited States Veterans Hospital atPittsburgh, Pa.1932Robert S. Baldwin, '27, MD, iswith the Marshfield Clinic, Marsh-field, Wis.Myron M. Weaver, '26, PhD'29,MD, who is in charge of the researchdepartment of Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, also had charge ofTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEYOUR MAGIC CARPETis your Bell Telephone . . .ever ready to transport youquickly over continents andoceans to people with whomyou wish to speak.their splendid exhibit at the AmericanMedical Association Convention heldin Atlantic City in June.1933John L. Probasco, MD, is beginning a private practice in gynecologyat Rockford, 111.Lincoln Stulik, '28, MD, isstarting his practice at 1658 West 21stSt., Chicago. He finished his residency in obstetrics at Cook CountyHospital and two years internship atMichael Reese Hospital.LAW1914Benjamin F. Bills, '11, JD, is theauthor of a new book, Principles ofPersuasion.1915Francis L. Boutell, JD, announces the removal of his offices to231 South La Salle St., Chicago.William J. Grace, LLB, was recently elected Commander of the CookCounty Council of the Veterans ofForeign Wars.1917John W. Chapman, '15, JD, ispracticing law and helping to revivethe Republican party. Mrs. Chapman(Eva Richolson, exT8) is active inthe Women's Club of Irving Park.Their oldest and only daughter, LoisElaine, will enter the University ofIllinois next fall, but Father Chapman encourages us with his comment,the "boys, I am glad to say, talk onlyof Chicago."Thomas F. Ryan, '16, JD, hasmoved his law offices to Suite 205,E. C. Lyon Building, Reno, Nevada.1918Louis J. Victor, JD, has his lawoffices at 111 West Washington St.,Chicago.1923Joseph R. Rose, JD, is living at5466 Montgomery Ave., Philadelphia,Pa., and is a lawyer for the PublicService Commission of Pennsylvania.1925John Skweir, JD, attorney at law,was recently appointed special deputyattorney of Pennsylvania and counselfor receiver of closed banks. He hasbeen chairman of the board of trustees for waiving depositors of theFirst National Bank of McAdoo andposmaster of McAdoo, Pa.1927H. Marjorie Carroll, '25, JD,(Mrs. Owen M. Johnson), is a lawclerk for Judge Fitz Henry of theCircuit Court of Appeals of Chicago.Martha V. McLendon, '26, JD,has engaged in the general practice oflaw at 1031 Scarritt Building, Kansas City, Mo., since April, 1927. She was appointed divorce proctor in1928.1928Owen M. Johnson, JD, formerlywith the trust department of the FirstNational Bank of Chicago, announcesthe opening of offices for the generalpractice of law at 524 South StateSt., Belvidere, 111.1929Herbert F. Geisler, '27, JD, hasmoved to Suite 1716, 160 North LaSalle St., Chicago.1930Erwin Seago, JD, Stuart B.Bradley, '29, JD, and Burton B.McRoy, '29, JD, announce the removal of their law offices to Suite2411, the Field Building, 135 SouthLa Salle Street, Chicago.1932Alvin Kabaker, '31, JD, is manager of the publicity department ofMontgomery, Ward and Co., Chicago.SOCIAL SERVICEADMINISTRATIONPresent and former students of theSchool of Social Service Administration gathered for the annual Schooland Alumni Dinner held at BurtonCourt, May 28, 1935. As former andpresent students of the School mingled in friendly fellowship there wasa rapid exchange of professional andpersonal news. This was especiallyrich for all present because of thelarge number of persons now in residence from all over the country. Following the dinner a brief business session resulted in the unanimous election of Eleanor Goltz as Presidentand Anna Mae Sexton Mitchelland Helen Haseltine as Councilrepresentatives. The three others continuing in office for another year areMrs. Archer Taylor (HasseltineByrd), Vice President; FrankFlynn, Secretary; and EuniceJohnston, Alumni Council Representative.Miss Breckinridge, in response tothe appeal of the Alumni, served astoastmistress with appropriate storiesof the old School of Civics and Philanthropy and its illustrious studentsin introducing the speakers of theevening. A cable from Miss GraceAbbott, who was on her way to theInternational Labor Conference atGeneva, Switzerland, expressed herregret at not being present. This wasespecially disappointing to the Alumniwho had wished to welcome her asa new member of the Faculty of theSchool. A note from Dr. GrahamTaylor, former Director of theSchool of Civics and Philanthropy,was read. Mr. Joseph Moss, formerstudent of the School, and now Di- CHICAGO PETERSENMOTOR LIVERYA PERSONAL SERVICEof Refinement, Catering to theUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOLINCOLNSWith Experienced Chauffeurs5650 LAKE PARK AVE.Phone MIDWAY 0949Serving the Medical Professionsince 1895V. MUELLER & CO.SURGEONS INSTRUMENTSHOSPITAL AND OFFICEFURNITUREORTHOPEDIC APPLIANCESPhone Seeley 2181, all departmentsOgden Ave., Van Buren andHonore StreetsChicagoAlbert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau for menand women in all kinds of teaching positions.Large and alert College and State Teachers' College departments for Doctors and Masters: fortyper cent of our business. Critic and Grade Supervisors for Normal Schools placed every year inlarge numbers; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics. Business Administration. Music, and Art. secure fine positions throughus every year. Private Schools in all parts of thecountry among our best patrons; good salaries. Wellprepared High School teachers wanted for city andsuburban High Schools. Special manager handlesGrade and Critic work. Send for folder today.364 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECOFFEE— TEAw. S. Quinby CompanyIMPORTERS AND ROASTERSOF HIGH GRADECOFFEES AND TEAS417-427 W. OHIO ST. —CHICAGOPhones Superior 2336-7-8CURTAIN CLEANINGGREENWOODCURTAIN CLEANERS1032 E. 55th St.Phone Hyde Parle 2248We Clean All Kinds of Curtains — Drapes —Banquet Cloths — Window ShadesWe Also Do Dry Cleaning onCurtains and DrapesELECTRIC SIGNSELECTRIC SIGNADVERTISING•CLAUDE NEON FEDERAL CO.225 North Michigan Avenue•W. D. Krupke, '19Vice-president in Charge of SalesEMPLOYMENTCOLOREDDOMESTIC HELPFurnishedDay or NightReferences investigated.Englewood Employment Agency5530 S. State. Phone-Englewood 3181-3182Street Night-Englewood 3 I 81Established 16 yearsFLOOR FINISHINGDefinitely Superior"NEVERUBBRAWL WAXHardest Known Wax,Wears LongerNO RUBBINGUSED BY THE UNIVERSITYFLOWERSmmHOMER LANGE A. LANGEEst. 18Charge Accounts and DeliveryCHICAGOEstablished 1865FLOWERSPhones: Plaza 6444, 64451 63 I East 55th Street rector of the Cook County Bureau ofPublic Welfare, spoke of old daysat the School and of the presentproblems for social workers arisingout of the trend toward businessleadership of social agencies. Closelyrelated to this was the talk which Mr.Frank Glick, present Assistant toMr. Wilford Reynolds of the Illinois Emergency Relief Commission,gave, stressing the need by socialworkers for an understanding of themethods and objectives of politicians,the while avoiding active participation in politics. The activities of theSocial Service Club were reportedand an invitation extended to all present to share in them by Miss RuthEndicott, President of that organization.The high point of the evening, however, was the annual report given byDean Edith Abbott with news ofthe School's work for the past yearand its hopes for the future. Withthis presentation of "facts and figures" former students of the schoollearned the participation of the Schoolin the FERA program for professional education and those in residence obtained a perspective on thedaily work, based as it is on the highest ideals of professional training forsocial work. Dean Abbott's conclusion was a challenge to all presentthat they equip themselves for leadership in the growing programs for social welfare.One hundred fifty-eight Alumni ofthe School of Social Service Administration, who were attending the National Conference of Social Work inMontreal, Canada, the second weekin June, met together for breakfast.Dean Abbott presided and calledupon each member present to introduce herself or himself and to tellthe group the kind of work they wereengaged in at the present time. Itwas an interesting description of thevarious phases of social work beingcarried on from one end of the country to the other. At this time a groupof Alumnae living in Chicago presented Dean Abbott with one hundred dollars to be used as the beginning of an Alumni Loan Fund to beadministered by the Bursar's officeon the recommendation of the Deanof the School.Grace A. Browning, AM '34, isthe author of a new Social ServiceMonograph, The Development ofPoor Law Legislation in Kansas, published by the University of ChicagoPress. Miss Browning is now Instructor in Social Work at TulaneUniversity.Two other Social Service Monograms, Three Centuries of Poor LawAdministration, by Margaret D. Creech, PhD '35, and The MichiganPoor Law and Its Administration, byIsobel Bruce, AM '34, are announced for publication in August.Students who received the AM degree at the March, 1935, and June,1935, Convocations and their presentpositions include the following : Mrs.Mary Phillips Decker, MedicalSocial Worker in the UnemploymentRelief Service in Chicago ; Elizabeth Greene Gardiner, AssistantProfessor and Supervisor of MedicalSocial Work, University of Minnesota; Charlotte Klein, PsychiatricCase Worker in the Transient Service Bureau in Chicago; Kathryn F.Lain, Social Worker with the Children's Bureau of the Indianapolis Orphan Asylum ; Alice T. Theodorson( Mrs. Angeloff) , medical SocialWorker in the Harborview Hospital,Seattle; Edith G. Annable, Director of the Bureau of the Aged, Council of Social Agencies, Chicago ; Benjamin C. Hayenga, assistant to theDirector of Social Service, HousingDivision, P. W. A. in Chicago;Nancy J. Moir, Social Worker withthe Chicago Home for Girls; AlvinJ. Roseman, Federal Emergency Relief Administration, Washington, D.C. ; Martha Niles Shadduck, Social Worker at the Chicago OrphanAsylum; Alice C. Shaffer, CaseWork Supervisor in the AssociatedCharities in Cincinnati, Ohio ; Josephine G. Taylor is a Senior CaseWorker in the Social Service Department of the Cook County Hospitalin Chicago.Dr. Neva Deardorff, of the NewYork Welfare Council, is givingcourses at the School during the Summer Quarter.Margaret D. Creech, who received her PhD degree in the June,1935, Convocation, is spending thesummer in England but will return tothe School of Social Service as anInstructor in Social Work in the Autumn.Dora Goldstein, AM '31, who returned to the School as Medical Social Work Assistant, took charge ofa University College course last quarter.Miss Grace Abbott, Professor ofPublic Welfare Administration, hasrecently returned from Geneva,Switzerland, where she was Chief ofthe United States delegation to theInternational Labor Conference.DOCTORS OFPHILOSOPHY1895Henry B. Kummel is completing43 years of service on the GeologicalSurvey of New Jersey — 34 years asTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 365FURNITUREWE BUY - SELLUsedFURNITURE & RUGSHOUSEHOLD SALVAGE GOODS CO.740 EAST 47TH STREETPHONE KENWOOD 2224FURRIERF. STEIGERWALDFURRIERSTORAGE— REPAIRINGREMODELING902 Phone17 North State St. Cent. 6620Exclusive But Not ExpensiveGALLERIESO'BRIEN GALLERIESPaintings Expertly RestoredNew life brought to treasured canvases. Our moderate prices will please.Estimates given without obligation.673 North MichiganSuperior 2270GROCERIESTelephone Haymarket 3120E. A. Aaron & Bros.Fruits and Vegetables, Poultry, Butter,Eggs, Imported and Domestic Cheese,Sterilized and Fresh Caviar, Wesson and"77" Oil, M. F. B. Snowdrift and ScocoShortening46-48 So. Water Market, Chicago, III.LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9100-1-2QUALITY FOODSTUFFSMODERATE PRICESWE DELIVERHOTELS"Famous for Food"Dancing and EntertainmentNightlyCircular CRYSTAL Barthe BREVOORT hotel120 W. Madison St. ChicagoLAUNDRIESADAMSLAUNDRY CO2335 Indiana Ave.Superior Hand WorkOdorless Dry CleaningTelephoneCalumet 2346 state geologist and 13 years as director of the department of conservationand development of which the Geological Survey is an integral part. Onthe side he is trying to develop ahobby to help fill his time when heretires two years hence at age 70.He married Mrs. Anna Goetz Williams of Kenmore, N. Y., September1, 1934.1896Herbert L. Willett, Sr., has returned to Kenilworth, 111., from California, where he went after sufferingwith arthritis for some time.1898Otis W. Caldwell, '98, sends thefollowing announcement: "Since Ihave passed the age for retirementfrom Teachers College, ColumbiaUniversity, the Board of Trusteeshave voted the title of ProfessorEmeritus for me, effective June 30,1935. On that date my directorshipof the Institute of School Experimentation ceases, though I shall continue in an advisory capacity on certain investigations in which we havebeen engaged. My work as GeneralSecretary of the American Association for the Advancement of Science,and other scientific work will be continued from an office in the BoyceThompson Institute for Plant Research, Inc., Yonkers, New York,where professional communicationsmay be sent after September 1. Mailmay be sent to 47 Rockland Ave.,Yonkers, N. Y., or to our summerhome, Aspetuck Rd., New Milford,Conn., where Mrs. Caldwell and Ishall welcome our friends. "1906James W. Lawrie, '04, is thegrandfather of Ellen Lawrie, bornMarch 27, to Mr. and Mrs. MalcomD. Lawrie. He is the director of research at the Joseph Schlitz BrewingCompany of Milwaukee, Wis.Lyon Sharman (Mrs. Henry T.)is the author of a new book on thefamous Chinese leader, Sun Yat Sen ;it is entitled Sun Yat Sen — His Lifeand Its Meaning, A Critical Biography.1908R. E. Buchanan is dean of thegraduate school of Iowa State College and director of the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station. He wasrecently appointed president of thesection on agricultural bacteriologyof the International MicrobiologicalCongress to be held in London in1936.1909Herbert F. Evans, DB'07, whowas professor of religious educationfor fifteen years at the Pacific Schoolof Religion at Berkeley, is now head LAUNDRIES— ContinuedMorgan Laundry Service, Inc.2330 Prairie Ave.Phone Calumet 7424Dormifory ServiceStandard Laundry Co.Linen Supply — Wet WashFinished Work1818 South Wabash Ave.Phone Calumet 4700SUNSHINE LAUNDRYCOMPANYAll ServicesDry Cleaning2915 Cottage Grove Ave.Telephone Victory 5110THEBEST LAUNDRY andCLEANING COMPANYALL SERVICESWe Also DoDry Cleaning — Shoe Repairing4240 PhoneIndiana Ave. OAKIand 1383LITHOGRAPHERL. C. Mead '21. E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182MUSICRayner Dalheim &Co.MUSICENGRAVERS & PRINTERSof FRATERNITY, SORORITYand UNIVERSITYof CHICAGO SONG BOOKSNO 0RDERT00 LARGE 0RTO0 SMALL - WRITE, FOR PRICES2054 W. LAKE ST. PHONE SEELEY 4710NURSES' REGISTRYNURSES' OFFICIAL REGISTRYof FIRST DISTRICT, ILLINOIS STATENURSES ASSOCIATIONFurnishes registered nurses for all types ofcases and for varying hours of service tofit the patient's need.TelephoneNURSES' HEADQUARTERSSTATE 85428 South Michigan Ave., Willoughby TowerBuilding — Lucy Van Frank, Registrar366 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEOPTICAL SUPPLIESSince 1886BORSCH & COMPANYEyes Examined Glasses FittedOculists Prescriptions FilledWe Can Duplicate Any Lens fromthe Broken PiecesTelephone62 E. Adams St. State 7267PAINTSGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedzie3l86JOHN E. ROCKEFELLOW, INC.Established 1893Paints, Wall Paper, GlassWindow ShadesWHOLESALE AND RETAIL4321 Cottage Grove Ave.Telephone Atlantic 1900PHOTOGRAPHERMOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C. ALUMNIPHYSICAL THERAPY UNITSMCINTOSH1 ELECTRICAL CORPORATION- CHICAGO IEstablished 1879MANUFACTURERSPhysical Therapy EquipmentTelephone— KEDzie 2048223-233 N. California Ave., ChicagoC. E. MARSHALLWHEEL CHAIR HEADQUARTERSFOR OVER FORTY YEARSNew and Used Chairs for Sale or Rent.Hospital Beds, Crutches, etc."Airo" Mattresses and Cushions5062 Lake Park Ave. Drex. J300PLASTERINGT.A.BARRETTPLASTERERChimneys RepairedBoiler Mason Work, etc.6447 Drexei Ave. TelephoneIhop 5411 Cottage H de park 0653 of the department of religion at Whit-tier College, Calif.1911Harvey Fletcher, acoustical research director of the Bell TelephoneLaboratories, New York, was recently elected to the National Academy of Sciences.1912Walter S. Hunter was elected amember of the National Academy ofSciences at the recent meeting inWashington. He is the G. StanleyHall professor of psychology at ClarkUniversity.1913William C. Kratiiwohl of Armour Institute of Technology hasbeen elected president of the Men'sMathematics Club of Chicago and theMetropolitan Area for the season of1935-36.1916Benjamin F. Pittenger is deanof the School of Education and professor of educational administrationat the University of Texas.1918F. E. Brown, '13, has had almost30,000 enrollments in his chemistryclasses at Iowa State College since1917. He occasionally publishes ashort report of research. His twinboys will be seniors at Iowa State College next year. Between them, theyare president of the Cardinal Guild(student governing body), and Y.M.C.A., members of the track team,Cardinal Key (only six in the college), Memorial Union Board, student paper staff, board of directors oftheir fraternity, and captain of thetennis team.1919A. W. Haupt, '16, is teaching atthe University of California at LosAngeles. His book, Fundamentals ofBiology, is in its second edition.John T. Lister, '13, AM'16, is amember of the Spanish department,College of Wooster, Ohio.William L. Richardson is professor and dean of the College of Education of Butler University. He ischairman of the Indiana State Advisory Committee on Teacher Training.1920William F. DeMoss, '11, AM'12,is near the end of his tenth year ashead of the department of English atthe Agricultural and Mechanical College, Stillwater, Okla.Derwent Whittlessey, '14, AM'15, was in this spring's crop of Fellows of the American Academy ofArts and Sciences. He is off on asabbatical half year from his work atHarvard University and is studyinggeography at first hand. 1923John H. Roberts, '20, is associateprofessor of English and chairman ofthe committee on academic standingat Williams College, Williamstown,Mass.Mark W. Tapley, '20, has resigned his appointment with Squibband Sons to take a position in theNew Products Division of the ByerCompany, Inc., New York.B. J. Yanney is teaching mathematics in the College of Wooster,Ohio.1925Richard F. Flint, '22, is makinga study of the later geological historyof eastern Washington and the adjacent part of British Columbia, under a grant from the Geological Society of America. The present summer will be his third in the field inthis region, aided by assistants fromYale.1926Joseph C. McElhannon, AM'22,dean of the College at Sam HoustonState Teachers College, was electedpresident of the Texas Society ofProfessional Teachers of Educationin April.Erma A. Smith, MD'33, associate professor of physiology at IowaState College of Ames, spent themonth of June at the Old FaithfulInn in Yellowstone National Park,ividing the time between viewing nature's wonders and representing PhiOmega Pi at the National Conclave.Guy R. Vowles went to DavidsonCollege as professor ot German inSeptember, 1925, and hopes to staythere until he retires. He has published two articles this year: "Vagaries of the Modal Auxiliaries inGerman," The Modern LanguageJournal for March and "What Dothe Germans Read?" The GermanQuarterly for May.1927D. C. Harkin plays the violin inthe Auburn Ensemble of Auburn,Ala.Hyla Snider of Connecticut College, New London, Conn., left June29 for Mexico City to be a memberof the Tenth Seminar of the Committee on Cultural Relations withLatin America.1928Three of the doctors of philosophyof this class are teaching at the College of Wooster: Winford L.Sharp, AM'22, psychology ; CharlesO. Williamson, mathematics; JohnW. Chittum, SM'24, chemistry.Minnie Miller, AM'23, is livingin Emporia, Kans., where she teachesmodern languages at the State Teachers College.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 3671929Lloyd V. Moore, AM'28, is professor of the department of religionat the University of Tulsa. He writesthat he is giving a series of six addresses on the "Church and its relationship to recent social trends" at aninter-denominational church conference to be held at Grand Mesa, Colo.,July 30 to August 6 and plans to dosome trout fishing in the meantime.Garfield V. Cox is chairman ofthe board of the new South EastNational Bank of Chicago aside fromhis work as professor of finance atthe University of Chicago.William H. Gray, AM'26, hasbeen teaching in Kansas State Teachers College at Emporia since 1929.1930Joseph L. Adler, '17, has recentlytaken charge of the geophysical exploration for oil in foreign territoryfor the Independent ExplorationCompany, seismograph contractors,of Houston, Tex.Ralph R. Pickett, AM'24, andJames B. Stroud, AM'27, are bothmembers of the faculty of the Kansas State Teachers College.Earl Rauber, '24, AM'25, is thepianist of the Auburn Ensemble ofAuburn, Ala.1931Carroll L. Christenson is teaching economics at Indiana Universitv.Last year he was an economic adviserto the federal government.Joseph L. Johnson, MD'31, isprofessor and head of the department of physiology, Howard University School of Medicine, Washington,D. C.Mary Z. Johnson, '24, is a member of the political science departmentat the College of Wooster.Arnold L. Lieberman, MD'28,and his wife are leaving in July to attend the International PhysiologicalCongress at Leningrad from August8 to 18. Then they will proceed toBudapest, Vienna, and Paris, returning to Gary late in September. Dr.A. J. Carlson and his wife are goingas far as Moscow with them.H. C. Witherington, '20, AM'26,assistant professor of education atBowling Green State University,Ohio, reports that the name of theinstitution was recently changed from"State College" to "State University."Witherington is teaching graduatework exclusively this summer.1932Emma J. Olson, AM'25, will begin serving under her appointment toa position at Concordia College,Moorhead, Minn., September 7, 1935.Thomas Park, '30, has been ap pointed instructor in biology at JohnsHopkins.1933Arthur Bennett, assistant professor in the department of physiology and pharmacology at the University of Nebraska Medical School, isattending Rush Medical College thissummer.Arthur C. Boyce is vice-presidentand professor of sociology and ethicsat Alborz College, formerly theAmerican College of Teheran, Persia.Charles D. Flory, AM'28, hasbeen a fellow in child developmentfor the past eighteen months underthe General Education Board. InSeptember he will begin his duties asassistant professor of education andpsychology at Lawrence College,Appleton, Wis.1934Frances E. Baker is teachingmathematics for the second semesterof 1935 at Vassar College, Pough-keepsie, N. Y.Vincent A. Davis teaches at theKansas State Teachers College inEmporia.Earl A. Dennis has been appointed assistant professor and headof the department of biology at theAmerican University in Washington,D. C.Richard M. Kain, AM'31, is assistant professor of English at OhioWesleyan University.William C. Korfmacher is assistant professor of classical languages and secretary of the department at St. Louis University.Clayton G. Loosli has beengranted one of the Jessie HortonKoessler Fellowships by the Instituteof Medicine of Chicago. During theyear beginning July 1, he will carryon an investigation on "Lung Phagocytes in Experimental Pneumonia"under the direction of Professor O.H. Robertson in the department ofmedicine at the University of Chicago.1935F. Taylor Gurney, '21, is professor of chemistry and a ranking scientific man on the faculty of the American College of Teheran, Persia. Thecollege is a missionary institution under the Foreign Mission Board of thePresbyterian Church. By requirement of the Persian (Iranian) government the name was recentlychanged to Alborz College.John K. Rose has been awarded aSocial Science Research Council Fellowship for 1935-36, and will studymost of the year at Chicago, but willdo some of his work at Columbia. Heand Mrs. Rose are the parents of ason born on April 17. PRINTINGMAGNUS-MARKSASSOCIATESPrinting-Publishing-Phofo EngravingGeneral Offices 608 S. Dearborn St.Phone Wabash 2685CHICAGORADIATOR CABINETSThe Best Place to Eat on the South SideCOLONIAL TEA ROOM6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone Hyde Park 6324ROOFINGGrove Roofing Co.(Gilliland)Old Roofs Repaired — New Roofs Put On25 Years at 6644 Cottage Grove Ave.Lowest Prices — Estimates FreeFairfax 3206RUG CLEANERC. A. BOUSHELLECOMPANYRUG CLEANERS2 1 8 East 7 1 st StreetTelephone: Stewart 9867SPLINTSDe Puy SplintsFracture BookFreeUpon RequestProfessional Card SufficientWARSAW— INDIANASTORAGEGARFIELDFIREPROOF STORAGE CO.Movers, Packers and StorageNew and Used Household Goods. Terms.5929—33 So. State StreetPhones, Englewood 5020-5021368 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESTORAGE— ContinuedPhone MID way 9700 HYDe Park 0452Peterson Fireproof Storage Co.Chas. A. Peterson, Pres.Moving and ExpressingPacking and ShippingForeign ShipmentsBranch: 8126 Cottage Grove Avenue55th Street and Ellis AvenueTAILORFrank D. Campbell PhoneEdward Eisele State 3863Charles C. Polich Central 8898EISELE & POLICH, LTD.Merchant Tailors8 South Michigan Avenue — Fourth FloorCHICAGOTEACHER'S AGENCIESAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. Jackson BoulevardChicagoA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field.It is affiliated with the Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.THEHUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 E. JACKSON BLVD.TELEPHONE HARRISON 7793Member National Associationof Teachers AgenciesWe Enjoy a Very Fine High School, NormalSchool, College and University PatronageTHE YATES-FISHERTEACHERS AGENCYEstablished 1906PAUL YATES, Manager616-620 South Michigan Ave.ChicagoUNDERTAKERSLUDLOW - SCHNEIDERFUNERAL DIRECTORSFine Chapel with New Pipe OrganSEDAN AMBULANCETel. Faiifax 28616110 Cottage Grove Ave.X-RAY SUPPLIESX-RAY SUPPLIES& Accessories"At Your Service'Tel. Seeley 2550-51Geo. W. Brady & Co.809 So. Western Ave. SOUTH SIDEMEDICAL1934Charlotte L. Clancy, MD, plansto be an interne at the Chicago Lying-in Hospital after September.Edwin F. Neckermann, '29, MD,finished his internship at the Presbyterian Hospital in May, 1934, and isnow a physician practicing in Elm-hurst. His hobbies are singing secondtenor in the Elmhurst Maennerchorand reading history and biography.His son, Edwin Francis, Jr., was bornon December 26, 1934.1935Paul T. Bruyere, MD, has beenappointed a fellow in the Private Diagnostic Clinic, Duke Hospital, Durham, N. C.George V. Leroy, MD, who hasjust completed his internship at St.Luke's, has been appointed an assistant in medicine at the University ofChicago.Lawrence E. Skinner, MD, ispracticing medicine with Dr. MiltonV. Walker in Springfield, Ore.ENGAGEDMildred J. Ash, '34, to Percy R.Jacobson of Chicago.Maxine Roslyn Fischel, '36, toWillis D. Aronson, '30.Lorraine A. Donkle, '35, toGeorge W. Weatherby, III. The wedding is planned for the early fall.William P. Gerber, '35, to Le-nore Weber, of Chicago.MARRIEDBernard W. Vinissky, '14, JD'16,to Jennie Dolly, June 29, 1935, Chicago.Marilee Harris, '33, to BernardK. Shapiro, '25, JD'28, June 17,1935, Chicago ; at home, May fair Hotel, Chicago.Carolyn E. Masini, ex '26, toJohn Johnston Keith, MD, '33,July 4, 1935, Chicago. At home,1205 E. 60th St., Chicago.Virginia Edith Hardt, '28, toFrederick Granville Jones, July 20,1935, Chicago. At home, 6800 Constance Ave., Chicago.Lucia G. Downing, '31, to JamesFrederick Hewitt, June 27, 1935,Williams Bay, Wise. ; at home,"Springfield House," Michigan 50,R. R. No. 1, Onsted, Mich.Frederic Walter Heineman, JD'31, to Mary Gorman, December 22,1934. Their address is 10423 SouthSeeley Ave., Chicago.Sophia Pernokis, '31, to John Di-amant, June 20, 1935, Chicago; athome, after September 1, Napanee,Ont., Canada.Harold E. Wilkins, Jr., '32, to Priscilla Carol Waite, June 28, 1935 ;at home, 5302 University Ave., Chicago.Marjorie Ann Chapline, '34, toRandall Vernon Ratcliff, '32,June 24, 1935, Chicago.Adeline Janet Holleb, '34, toSidney Yates, '31, JD '33, June 24,1935, Chicago. At home, Park LaneHotel, 2842 Sheridan Road Chicago.Louise A. Pflasterer, '34, toWilbur W. Ross, Jr., May 16, 1935;at home, LaPorte, Ind.George H. Putnam, MD'34, toBertha Mae Thompson, June 1, 1935 ;at home, Slocomb, Ala.Elizabeth M. Lansburgh, '35,to Arthur T. Lyon, June 27, 1935,Baltimore, Md. ; at home, HotelShoreham, Washington, D. C.Minnie Giesecke, PhD'35, toEdward Allen Wight, July 2, 1935,College Station, Texas ; at home, 1 1Perry PL, Bronxville, N. Y.BORNTo Mr. William G. Whitford andMrs. Whitford (Dorothy Edwards'16) a daughter, Eleanor Louise, February 19, 1935, Chicago.To Reveley H. B. Smith, ex'21,and Mrs. Smith (Ruth GaylordMallory '20) a son, August 3, 1935,Winchester, Mass.To William J. Blackburn, ex'29,and Mrs. Blackburn, twins, a sonand daughter, March 26, 1935, Columbus, Ohio.To Mr. Andrew D. Mitchell andMrs. Mitchell (Anna M. Sexton,AM'31), a daughter, Mary Jane,July 9, 1935, Chicago.DIEDHenry Milton Wolf, old U. ofC. '80, June 4, 1935, Chicago.James C. Gill, MD'90, July 1,1935, Chicago.Edward McLaughlin, MD'90,July 1, 1935, Chicago.William Sheriff Orth, MD'90,July 16, 1935, Chicago.Mary L. Hubbard, '96 (Mrs. Arthur W. Bush), April 28, 1935, Men-dota, 111.Charles Frank Vreeland, '96,April 23, 1935, Tecumseh, Michigan.Margaret Myrtle Sleezer, '11,April 1, 1935, Freeport, 111.Charles R. Baskervill, PhD' 11,Tuly 23, 1935, Chicago.John G. Agar, PhB '17, June 20,1935, Chicago.Rachel A. McNabb, '29 (Mrs.Edgar E. Flesher), May 22, 1935,Chicago.Howard C. Dillenbeck, '31,MD Cert '34, June 21, 1935, LosAngeles, Calif.Helene A. Kitzinger, '31, June18, 1935, Chicago.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOFOOTBALL SCHEDULE AND PRICESSide Line SeatsReserved West StandNot ReservedSept.Oct. 28-5- -Nebraska ($2.20)-Carroll Away$1.10 Away$ .40Oct. 12- -Western State 1.10 .40Oct. 19- -Purdue 2.25 1.25Oct. 26- —Wisconsin 2.25 1.25Nov. 9- -Ohio State 2.25 1.25Nov. 16- -Indiana 2.25 1.25Nov. 23- -Illinois ($2.20) Away$11.20 AwaySEASON TICKET (North Stand) $7.70(All prices Include Federal Tax)SEASON TICKET APPLICATION6 GAMES AT STAGG FIELDPrint Name Street and Number.City State( ) Check here if a former University of Chicago Student. ( ) Check here if "C" man.Application for season tickets @ $7.70 (inc. Tax) For mailing and registration fee .25Total Pin one check payable to The University of Chicago to this application. Sign and mail to The FootballTickets Office, 5640 University Avenue, Chicago. Season ticket does not include games played atLincoln and Urbana.lo knit and spinwas not much funWhen 'twas my soleemploymentBut now I smokethese ChesterfieldsAnd find it reaenjoyment'la . . . and yet© 1935, Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co.