THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEBLACKFRIARS TIME AGAIN"In Brains We Trust," the 1935 Blackfriars' offering, is light, finished, and smart, and seems amply endowed to carryon the best traditions ef the Order. May 10, II, 17 and 18, are the scheduled dates for the production.The authors of this year's show, Harry Kalvin and Robert Oshins, who are both young law students, have seizedupon the present political trend as a start for the play, stretching their imaginations and the facts until they reach thefarcical situation of a college completely numbed by the Washington influence. What faculty members are left atthe campus have come under the spell of the capitol and are aloof from and of no use to the students.In this setting we find Sidney Cary and June Day, romantic young undergraduates, pining their way through acollege education before phalanxes of high-kicking, if muscle-bound, athletes arrayed in skirts and what not.A lot of faces familiar to campus audiences will appear in "In Brains We Trust." Nathan Krevitsky, whose MonaLow of last year is remembered with glee, again has the feminine lead. Don Ettlinger, Sid Cutright, and Bobby Weissare other tried Blackfriars performers. Harry Snodgress, a freshman, has the important part of Sidney Cary.210VOLUME XXVII THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER 6APRIL, 1935SOCIAL PLANNINGAnd the Mores• By E. W. BURGESS, Ph D '13, Professor of SociologySOCIOLOGISTS have been active in social planning. In increasing numbers they have been calledinto government service in Washington and elsewhere. They hold, or have held, important positionsin agencies that directly or indirectly are concerned withthe success or failure of the New Deal, as for example,the Consumers' Advisory Board, the Central StatisticalBoard, the Census Bureau, the Federal Relief Administration, the Agricultural Administrative Act, the Children's Bureau, the Bureau of Agricultural Economicsand the Bureau of Labor Statistics.Despite our natural gratification at the increasingparticipation of sociologists in the alphabetocracy atWashington, two rather searching questions may beraised :First, are the sociologists in governmental serviceengaged upon research that is distinctively sociological?Second, are sociologists making7 the full measure ofcontribution to the solution of problems of the depression and of recovery which an application of the distinctively sociological point of view and methods of research might be expected to insure?Both these questions are to be answered in the negative. Sociologists are for the most part engaged uponresearch which other social scientists could perform aswell or better. No demand has been made of sociologyto mobilize and direct upon the consideration of policiesand programs of economic and social reconstruction itsdistinctive point of view and methods of research.But what is the distinctive point of view of sociology? What special significance may it have for the successful achievement of the New Deal or of any similarprogram ?Sociology, as a separate discipline in the field ofthe social sciences, seems to have arisen to take accountof a factor, or group of factors, which had been overlooked and neglected by economics and political science.This forgotten factor has been given differentnames by students of society. William G. Sumner invented the terms "folkways and 'mores.' " Anthropologists denominate this factor "culture." Historians usethe phrase "historical backgrounds." Pareto stresses the study of "non-logical human action" as the task for sociological research.Sumner ascribed to the mores the following characteristics :1. The "mores" arise from experience and aremaintained because they are believed to be essential tosocial welfare even when they run counter to naturalhuman impulses and require pain and sacrifice from theindividual.2. Although the "mores" arise out of past experience, they tend to resist the implications of presentexperience, changing but slowly to meet the demandsof technological change.3. Significant events, as they occur, are interpretednot rationally and objectively but in the perspective ofthe mores. This explains why the same external eventin the field of international relations has one interpretation in Washington, another in Berlin, a quite different one in Tokyo and a still variant meaning in Moscow. Our "mores" also explain why the American people are incapable of understanding what is now takingplace in Germany, in Japan, and in the Soviet Union.14. The mores, changing but gradually under theimpact of changed conditions of life, evolve along linesalready present in the folkways and the mores.5. Consequently, social programs of private orpublic bodies that run counter to the mores are foredoomed to partial or complete failure, while those thatfollow within their boundaries have promise of success.This, in brief, is the thesis maintained by Sumnerin Folkways. It may be called the theory of the cultural determinism of historical events. In essence itcorresponds closely with Pareto' s explanation of humanbehavior in terms of motivation by sentiment rather thanby interest. Both Sumner and Pareto emphasize thenon-logical character of much of human action. Bothassert that the task of sociology in the division of laborbetween the social sciences is to isolate and define themechanisms and processes of the non-rational aspectsof the behavior of peoples. Only in this way may so-xSimilarly, the new mores and the fixed findings of the Marxiandialectic prevent Bolshevists in Russia from arriving at any objectiveunderstanding of events taking place in the outside capitalistic world.211212 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEciology make its contribution, complementary to thatof economics and political science, to an understandingof human behavior.This theory of cultural determinism appears to bethe direct opposite of the many different formulations ofthe theory of economic determinism. At this point noattempt will be made either to reconcile these two pointsof view or to place them in a working relation witheach other. The point is that traditionally, economicsand also political science, although to a lesser extent,have generally been conceived as sciences of man's activity as a rational animal, while sociology has essayedthe more difficult task of formulating an inductive science of man as a creature of folkways and mores, imbued with sentiments, prejudices, and fixed ideas. This,perhaps, is the reason why the sociologist has not beencalled into consultation by practical men of affairs. Heis concerned with what are thought to be the intangiblesand imponderables in human behavior. But what if, inthe last analysis, the success or failure of a given policyand program will turn upon the so-called intangiblesand imponderables in the situation?Sumner's definition of the "mores" and their role inhuman behavior may now be put to the test of an analysis of the American "ethos," or national character,1in its relation to policies and programs of social planning.What may we take to be the dominant traits in theAmerican national character?The three outstanding conceptions in the moreswhich give form to the American national character appear to be individualism, democracy, and humanitarian-ism. These may be briefly described and analyzed interms of their interplay in determining the run of attention, the peculiar formation of institutions, and thecharacteristic and accepted patterns of behavior of theAmerican people.Individualism may be defined as the belief in the individual as the fountain source of energy, initiative,and responsibility in society. As a consequence, thesocial and political order should impose the minimum ofregulation and regimentation upon the individual andshould encourage the maximum of effort and achievement from him.Democracy may be defined as the faith of the American people in the social value of "government of thepeople, for the people, and by the people." As Sumnersays2Democracy is in our American mores. It is aproduct of our physical and economic conditions.It is impossible to discuss or criticize it. It isglorified for popularity and is a subject of dithy-rambic rhetoric. No one treats it with completecandor and sincerity. No one dares to analyze itas he would aristocracy or autocracy. He would getno hearing and would only incur abuse. The thing1It is true that Sumner spohe of the European ethos and deniedto the countries of Western Europe an ethos or a group character,that is a totality of characteristic traits by which a group is individualised and differentiated from others. He recognised for the Orient aHindu ethos, a Japanese ethos, and a Chinese ethos. He even refersto the Russian ethos. Had his studies of modern European peoplesbeen as intensive as of primitive and Oriental cultures, he doubtless wouldhave conceded to each of them an ethos or distinctive group characterwithin the common inheritance of Western Society.^Folkways, pp. 76-77. to be noted in all these cases is that the masses oppose a deaf ear to every argument against the mores.In the United States grave defects in our democratic machinery of government can only be correctedby following the formula "the cure for the evils ofdemocracy is more democracy."1Humanitarianism may be defined as the impulse todo for others what you feel will be for their welfare.Its motivation should not be too closely inquired into.It may arise from altruistic sentiments. It may be theoutcome of imagining one's self in the place of an unfortunate. It may result from a guilty conscience aspenance for personal sins or public wrongs. It may bethe expression of a wish to shine before the public asa philanthropist. Or it may be a combination of theseand other motives.Humanitarianism ranks with individualism and democracy as dominant articles of faith of the Americanpeople, although at times it seems to be in direct conflictwith them.2Individualism, democracy, and humanitarianism areall protected from criticism by what Sumner calls"pathos." He says:Pathos is the glamor of sentiment which grows uparound the pet notion of an age and people, and whichprotects it from criticism. . . . There is a pathos of democracy in the United States. . . . Humanitarianism isnourished by pathos and it stimulates pathos. The "poor"and the "laborers" are objects of pathos, on account ofwhich these terms, in literature, refer to a conventionaland unreal concept. Consequently there is no honest discussion of any topic which concerns the poor or laborers.3"Rugged individualism" was a phrase dripping withpathos, until its unreality in a period of depression wasfacetiously exposed by the pun "ragged individualism."4Sumner's theory of the mores and national characterwould imply that social, economic and political behaviorin America would follow lines indicated by one or moreof these dominant conceptions of individualism, democracy, and humanitarianism.Pioneer conditions of American life set the stagefor a hitherto unparalleled demonstration of the resultsachieved by giving full play to individual effort. Thehistorian Turner has given an admirable analysis of theindividualism of the American people as a product ofthe frontier. The exploitation of a continent releasedindividual initiative and inventiveness; the great wastesentailed seemed as nothing in comparison with the tremendous natural resources of the country. The speculative spirit of the pioneer and of the prospector entered^Frederick Howe. The City, the Hope of Democracy, p. 2.^Sumner includes with humanitarianism many tendencies which atfirst do not seem to be associated with it:The philosophical drift in the mores of our time is towards stateregulation, militarism, imperialism, toward petting and flattering thepoor and laboring classes, and in favor of whatever is altruistic andhumanitarian. What man of us ever gets out of his adopted attitude, foror against these now ruling tendencies, so that he forms judgments, notby his ruling interest or conviction, but by the supposed impact ofdemogogic data on an empty brain. We have no grounds for confidence in these ruling tendencies of our time. They are only thepresent phases in the endless shifting of our philosophical generalizations,and it is only proposed, by the application of social policy, to subjectsociety to another set of arbitrary interferences, dictated by a new setof dogmatic prepossessions that would only be a continuation of old methodsand errors. (Folkways, p. 98).3Folkways, pp. 180-81.^Sumner, as .a thoroughgoing individualist never refers to the pathosof protection against criticism of individualism. He, however, pointsout that the most learned scholar is limited by the mores of his group, p. 98.THE UNIVERSITY OFthe mores. No limitations were placed upon individualsuccess. Any boy, it was believed, even if born in alog cabin, had his chance to become a millionaire, orpresident of the United States.Individualism as a theory of society assumes thatthe greatest good of the greatest number is most likelyto be achieved where each individual is given the maximum of freedom and responsibility.This appeal to motives of individual success, according to its advocates, results in the developmentof aptitudes and in the attainment of standards ofachievement and efficiency which benefit not only theindividual but also society. The same justification isoffered for the free play of the profit motive, for theinstitution of private property, and for the right of inheritance as necessary to stimulate individual effort andso promote the general welfare.Included in the notion of the maximum freedom ofbehavior and of responsibility for the individual is thebelief in his right to personal liberty. The corrollaryto this is the conception that "the least government isthe best government." The popular antipathy to thepoliceman, the so-called lawlessness of the American people as reflected in our crime situation, the general resentment against regulations and regimentation are allexpressions of the individualism that is still deeply ingrained in American mores and national character.Democracy as the faith in the validity, if not in theinfallibility of the public will as expressed at the ballot-box, has implications that must be considered withreference to any program of social planning.Democracy glorifies the average man and discountsthe man of exceptional ability. It assumes the capacityof the average man acting in the mass to make intelligent decisions on questions that affect his welfare anddestiny. Democracy also assumes that the average manis able to discharge, more or less competently, any public office to which he may aspire.The success of democracy in the town meeting ofNew England and its breakdown, especially in our largercities, is well known to political scientists. Remedieshave been proposed, some have been tried, but with onlyindifferent success. Primaries, the short ballot, directelection of senators, commission plan of city government, city managers— not any one of them have achievedthe results claimed for them by their advocates.The brilliant achievements of democracy in theUnited States have been not in the field of politics, butin industrial, civic, and social life. The organizationof business enterprises, employers' associations, laborunions, boards of arbitration, represent significantachievements of democracy in industry. The shortcomings of political democracy have led to a developmentof voluntary civic agencies in American cities whichalmost completely parallel the political organization. InChicago, for example, public-spirited citizens have organized a bureau of municipal efficiency, a citizens' association, a better government association, a crime commission, a Committee of Fifteen to investigate vice conditions, a juvenile protective association, a safety council, etc. These agencies, together with a multitude ofphilanthropic and social agencies are, in general, effec- CH I C AGO MAGAZINE 213tively organized and efficiently run. In this respect theyare in marked contrast with the traditional inefficiencyand incompetency of our more formal institutions.Humanitarianism, as an article of the Americanfaith is often, but by no means always, in conformitywith the principles of individualism and democracy.The human sentiment to do what you believe to begood to others has supplied the main motivation to social welfare institutions in the United States.Social movements, enlisting the interest and support of socially-minded individuals, have arisen to copewith every social problem as it has emerged. This listis too long to enumerate, but it includes movements forpublic health, for progressive education, for better housing, for charities, for mental hygiene, for the care orthe sterilization of the feeble-minded, for social settlements, for playgrounds and recreation, for the community center, for labor legislation, for visiting teachers,for social hygiene, against vice, for the Juvenile Court,for probation, for parole, against the saloon and forsocial surveys.All of these social movements have had as leaderspersons devoted to human welfare; the organizationsfostered by these movements have in general maintainedhigh standards of service. Yet the efforts of thesehundred and one social movements, outside the field ofpublic health, have not achieved the success to be expected from the devotion, energy and efficiency investedin them.Voluntary agencies have, however, been more successful than our political institutions in their regimentation of the behavior of the public. The clients of welfare agencies, the majority of whom are foreigners, donot revolt against having their lives regulated, at least,not until they become Americanized. It is a notoriousfact that in every American community the law is notlikely to be applied too rigorously against members ofits best families who are regarded as pillars of society.When the humanitarian observes the failure of voluntary effort to make people good, he tends to turn firstto crusades and then to legislation to secure reform.This represents a union of the humanitarian and thedemocratic conceptions in the mores but is in conflictwith laissez-faire or individualism. Despite bitter experience the American people still believe in makinggood by legislation. The failure of constitutional prohibition is a signal case of mass action in the UnitedStates, impelled by a union of humanitarian and democratic sentiments in the mores, which in its enforcementran counter to sentiments of personal liberty ingrainedin individualism which is also in the mores.The "hypocrisy" attributed to Americans by Europeans flows naturally out of our humanitarian sentiments. We are readily disposed, because of our interest in the welfare of others, to impose upon them eitherour own standards of behavior, or standards of behavior higher than our own. Many persons quite sincerely voted "dry" for the sake of their weaker brotherbut continued to drink "wet." The Southern plantermight have a virtuous feeling in aiding prohibition legislation to protect his Negro tenant with the sereneconsciousness that his own stock of liquors would not214 TFIE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEbe curtailed. Social workers are often expected toenforce standards of housekeeping and conduct uponclients on relief which, under similar conditions, theywould find difficult to observe in their own households.What bearing, if any, does this discussion of themores of individualism, democracy and humanitarianismhave upon the New Deal and the programs of socialplanning now confronting the United States?A few generalizations may tentatively be put forward to test the validity of the preceding analysis ofAmerican "mores" and national character.1. Any program of social planning to be successful in the United States must follow a course inline with American traditions and habits of thinking.A program in violation of the dominant conceptions ofthe mores is certain sooner or later to result in failure.2. Policies and programs of continental Europeannations,1 have no lessons to give to the United States.The experiments now under way in Germany, Italy,and the Soviet Union are not and can not be understoodby Americans. Therefore the success of any one ofthese programs would not be relevant to the Americansituation. The solutions of problems in the UnitedStates must be in terms of our own situation and inconformity with our mores.3. Under the impulsion of the humanitarian ideal,the American people will, for the period of an emergencysuch as war or depression, tolerate and even demandsocial action of a type that they will be swift to repudiateas a matter of permanent national policy. It is important that the government and the party in powerhave an adequate realization of this primary fact.4. Any proposal for a collective and controlled society, at any time in the near future, seems completelyoutside the picture of reality. Individualism and democracy are too deeply entrenched in the folkways andmores to sanction the regulation and regimentation necessary, even if these features in certain concrete instances might win approval through appeal to humanitarian sentiments as temporarily necessary for the public welfare.Accepting for purposes of argument and for themoment these four generalizations, what application maybe made to current programs of governmental planning ?1. The N. R. A. according to our Sumnerian analysis, would be quite evidently a case demanding a minimum of governmental regulation and a maximum ofself-governing by industries. The codes of the different industries may be regarded as correcting a situationof anarchy naturally resulting from the Sherman Anti-1With the possible exception of Scandinavian countries. Trust Law, which conspicuously failed to prevent thegrowth of large industrial units but which succeeded inpreventing desirable trade agreements between competing enterprises.2. The program of the Tennessee Valley Authority may be taken as a crucial case in long-time socialplanning. Its success or failure may exert a profoundinfluence on the future course of social planning in theUnited States.The mountaineers of the Tennessee Valley, individualists of the pioneer type, influenced hardly at all bythe growth of our industrial and urban civilization,would seem to be the most unpromising subjects forsocial planning. This makes the experiment difficult, butall the more interesting and significant.The project assumes that by a tour de force theindustrial revolution which elsewhere in the UnitedStates required two or three generations will here betelescoped into four or five years and in that timemountaineers with their intense individualistic traditionsand attitudes will become completely adjusted to thepower age and modern technology.It is only too apparent that if the customs, attitudesand reactions of the people are not as fully studied andtaken into account as the geographic and economic situation, the Tennessee Valley project is likely to be a partial, if not a complete, failure.3. The relief program of the federal and stategovernments is certain shortly to be put to the test.The humanitarian sentiments of the American peopleheartily approve, as an emergency measure, the expenditure of hundreds of millions of dollars annually forthe support of those in distress. Until recently, thegiving of relief was so colored with pathos that thepublic paid no attention to any criticism of its administration. In fact, there are certain signs, both in urbanand rural districts, of a disposition to demand reliefas a right and as an escape from work which for theunskilled wage earner provides no more, if as much, asrelief.Far more significant than the rising tide of publiccriticism against alleged waste and mismanagement ofrelief administration is the fact that relief-giving, asmore than an emergency program, runs counter to thebasic concepts of individualism and democracy. A solution is demanded that provides opportunity for workand for freedom from investigation and Regimentation.This brief discussion of these three governmentalprojects indicates the desirability of applying the testof public reaction to these and other proposals underconsideration in the New Deal.A VISITOR FROM THE EASTLooks at the UniversityIT was an unusual sight to see the American flag flying over such superb examples of Gothic architecture. And yet there was no reason why it shouldn't,for these were the buildings of the University of Chicago.Nor was it particularly unusual that the first threestudents seen on the campus on 59th street were Chineseyouths just out of class. They were headed toward International House, the luxurious palace in which thelion and the lamb lie down together — in which Chinesestudents are on terms of cordiality with Japanese, andFrench with Germans, and Poles with Russians. Andthat is saying quite a lot.The University of Chicago is a vigorous, youthfulinstitution, and its story could never be confined withinthe bound pages of half a dozen books. The casual visitor from the orient, though he passed three-quarters ofa day wandering around out there, came away with theimpression he had not even scratched the surface.We also have universities out in the far east. Infact, one of the professors at the University of Chicagoused to teach in one of them at Shanghai and is now outin China gathering more data for his history classes inChicago.There is a frankness and directness about facultyand student body at Chicago that is most striking. Priorto visiting the campus I received a letter from a highschool student informing me that among the students ofhis school are "a few communists, socialists, and one ortwo violent reactionaries, but, as a whole, we are un-bigoted, open-minded youngsters eager to learn." Judging from average high school ages and the penmanshipof the correspondent, I should say the lad is about 20years old.To those persons who like to aver that America isno longer a land of liberty the visitor from the orientrises to remark that had that letter been written in Japanthe writer of it would today be shivering in a police cell,all of his schoolmates would be in police hands and theircareers would have been ended before they had begun.Were these same professors of communism and socialism found in a Chinese school or university theywould today most likely be facing a firing squad, for themere profession of communistic tendencies would havebeen a conviction of guilt that would probably have carried the death penalty with it.They make short shrift over in Asia of what theycall student radicals. This is especially so in Japan,which for, some time has been suffering a severe caseof nerves. Police cells in Tokyo and elsewhere in Japanare overcrowded and fully 80 per cent of those underarrest are charged with harboring "dangerous thoughts."Teachers in Japan have to be particularly careful,and once one told me that whenever he has to mentionsoviet Russia in any of his lectures he is careful enough to preface the remark with: "Now, I want to mentionthat ridiculous country in which they are experimentingwith that most absurd political experiment that is wrecking the country and imperiling the civilized world." Hethen laughs to show how ridiculous the idea is.Out at the U. of C. campus they discuss these political experiments with an open candor that is entirelyalien to the mother of the world's oldest civilization,China, and its erstwhile cultural progeny, Japan.History teachers in the American missionary colleges and schools of Korea, Japan's dependency, mustbe approved by the Japanese government and in mostcases, if not all, they are Japanese subjects. If historyand political science are to be taught, then the Japanesewant to make certain the historical stream flows confinedwithin its proper and patriotic banks.A teacher in the orient is held responsible for theviews held by his students. If he does lecture in socialism and one of his students in later life turns radicaland is arrested, then his crime is traced to the lessonslearned from his teacher and that individual is also heldguilty.In China for the last several years all warlords orpolitical malcontents who rose in arms for any of avariety of reasons against the forces of GeneralissimoChiang Kaishek were immediately dubbed communists though they may never have had an inkling of whatcommunism is. This is not to deny, however, there is avery definite communistic movement afoot in certain ofthe central and western China provinces.At the University of Chicago you gain the impression this institution is an open doorway leading into theworld and not an Arcadian sanctum shutting itself offin cloistered ease. At Oxford and Cambridge, bothGothic in their architectural conception, you gain theimpression all students and professors are secluded; atChicago the impression gained is just the reverse.One professor spoke freely of letters and cables hehad just received from friends and leaders of publicopinion in old world cities from which he learned whatis going on. The bookshelves in his study, or office, onthe campus housed only about sixty books, and yougained the impression he held a transatlantic or transpacific steamship ticket in his breast pocket and was juston his way out to learn what is going on in Europe orAsia and that he wasn't coming back until he had learnedsomething new and truthful to impart to his students.That is a new conception of a professor and of auniversity. It is the twentieth century one and the University of Chicago seems to be doing things in thiscentury's grand manner.*An article by Reginald Sweetland, Staff Correspondentfor the Chicago Daily News, reprinted by courtesy of the publisher.215UNIVERSITIES IN UNIFORM??By FREDERICK L SCHUMAN, '24 PhD, '27 Assistant Professor of Political ScienceWHAT is a university? What functions shouldit be expected to perform? What role shouldits teachers and scholars play in the politicaland economic life of contemporary society? What contributions should they be expected to make toward social stability, toward social change, toward the fuller attainment of truth, beauty and goodness amid the noiseand bustle of human affairs outside of academic walls?These trite and ancient queries today call imperatively for new answers. American universities are increasingly subject to attack as "hot-beds of radicalism,""breeding places of disloyalty and sedition," fountain-heads of "un-American" doctrines and, in Mr. Hearst'shappy phrase, shelters for "the panderers and trap-baiters of the Moscow Mafia." State legislatures aredemanding oaths of loyalty from all teachers. Lawmakers are threatening to withdraw the tax exemptionsof private institutions where subversive teaching isindulged in. A section of the press denounces RobertM. Hutchins, Charles Judd, John Dewey, George Countsand many other educators as "advisers to Moscow" and"authorized disseminators of communistic propaganda inthe United States who deliberately and designedly mislead our fine young people and bring them up to be disloyal to our American ideals and institutions" (Hearsteditorial of February 24, 1935, "Keep the Faith of OurFathers"). Business and professional men, alumni,public officials and private citizens naturally assume thatwhere there is so much smoke there must be some fire.They therefore tend to look askance at the higher learning and to view with approbation or complacency all demands that schools be cleansed of "reds."This current criticism of colleges and universitiesis obviously another symptom of the desperate insecurities from which contemporary society is suffering. It isanother manifestation of the frenzied search for bogeymen and scapegoats upon whom blame can be placedfor the ills of a disordered and mal-adjusted world. Theaccusing tongues will not be silenced by silence from theacademicians nor yet by specific answers to specific allegations nor by proof that "radicals" constitute but asmall percentage of faculties and student bodies. UnlessAmerican university people can redefine for themselves,in a fashion acceptable to the community, the social roleof universities, this task of redefinition will be performed for them by politicians, demagogues and pressmagnates or by the tax-payers and business men uponwhom all universities are dependent for moral and financial support.In education, as in politics and business, two diametrically opposed philosophies are battling for supremacy in the present-day world. One is the philosophy ofthe dictatorial, totalitarian State, best exemplified by theexisting regimes in Russia, Italy and Germany. Theother is the philosophy of the liberal, democratic State,still surviving somewhat precariously in northwesternEurope and America. Every political philosophy of absolutism and dictatorship — whether red or black, left or right, Communistor Fascist — necessarily postulates the supremacy of theState over all other social institutions and necessarilyrelies for mass support upon a set of myths and dogmaswhich no loyal citizen may question. The totalitarianState is a jealous State which brooks no critics or rivals.The soporific or intoxicating fire-water which it concocts,Marxism, N ationalsozialismus , or Fascismo, must bepoured down the throats of all members of the bodypolitic by all available agencies of publicity and propaganda. In such a State the sole function of educationalinstitutions is indoctrination of the current mythology.In the Soviet Union, schools and universities must inculcate the class myth ; in Germany, the race myth ; in Italy,the national myth. Teachers and scholars must elaborateand preach the credenda and miranda of dictatorialpower. For those who dissent, there is dismissal— orconcentration camps, prisons, exile or death."The epoch of 'pure reason' and 'free science,', "says Ernst Krieck, noted Nazi educator, "is ended. . . .Absolute academic freedom in universities is absolutenonsense." "All education," wrote Fritz Beck, eminentMunich schoolman, "must today be political education.""Education in the last half century," writes Alfred Rosenberg, high priest of the Nazi Weltanschauung, "became a major means of trickery, unbiological and contrary to all inner laws of race and people. . . . Germaneducation will not be formal and aesthetic, it will notstrive for an abstract training of reason, but it will bein the first instance an education of character. . . . Thiscleansing of spirit and instinct, the recovery of the emancipation of the blood, is perhaps the greatest task whichthe Nationalsocialist movement has before it."This conception of education has at least the meritof clarity of purpose and precision of method. The systematic indoctrination of reverence for current politicalsymbols is the easiest form of education. It is a necessary function of education in all societies. It is the solefunction of education in the new dictatorships whereblind obedience and unquestioning allegiance to the dictators is the first and last duty of the citizen. "Menare tired of liberty," declared Mussolini a decade ago."They have had an orgy of it. . . . For the youth that isintrepid, restless and hard, that faces the dawn of thenew history, there are other words of much greaterpower, and they are : order, hierarchy, discipline.""Fascism is war on intellectualism," asserted GiovanniGentile. "Fascism is and should be an enemy withouttruce or pity, not against intellect, but against intellectualism which is a disease of intelligence. . . . Against science and above all, against philosophy; but of courseagainst the science and philosophy of decadents, of thespineless, of those who always stand at the window andare satisfied to criticize as if it were no affair of theirs!"Education for citizenship in a democracy necessarilyproceeds from different assumptions. The basic postu-216THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 217late of democracy is that public issues should be resolvedand public policies should be formulated not throughforce and mysticism but through a process of free andunhampered public discussion. Inherent in this postulateis the pragmatic assumption that truth is to be found notin myths and dogmas nor in the mouths of inspired leaders but in the free competition between ideas in themarket place. If discussion is to lead to the discoveryof truth, those who discuss must be enlightened, tolerantand unrestrained by constituted authority. Democraticeducators must not merely pour into the minds of eachsuccessive generation the content of the cultural heritagebut must evoke in these minds the capacity to criticize,evaluate and enrich that heritage. In democratic societies citizens must develop ability to discuss public issuesintelligently rather than to render blind and unthinkingallegiance to traditional symbols. But at the same timeestablished loyalties to the faith of the fathers must notbe disintegrated in the minds of those passing througheducational institutions before they have developed critical insight and constructive social judgment commensurate with the responsibilities and opportunities whichcreative skepticism imposes.Precisely here is the dilemma of education for democracy in an age of unparalleled insecurity. If education be limited to conservative indoctrination those whoare exposed to it will be ill prepared to face sanely theclash of new social and political philosophies in a rapidlychanging world. On the other hand, a school systemdevoted primarily to dissolving ancient loyalties with theacids of unrest and disbelief or to preparing for a "newsocial order" (a term always left vaguely undefined) willincrease insecurities by making people chronically maladjusted to the real world. It will also bring down uponits head the righteous wrath of legislators, tax-payers and business men who are opposed to revolutionary social change. Yet both of these functions are necessaryin democratic education. No society can escape anarchyif its members, as they grow to maturity, are not emotionally bound together by common symbols and traditions. No society can achieve progress if its membersare not receptive to new ideas and discriminating in theirchoices between alternative programs of social and political action. No democratic society can survive if itscitizens are unable to reconcile liberty and security in afree and orderly progression from the old to the new.The issue hangs upon the point in the educationalsystem at which conservative indoctrination, e.g., the inculcation of Americanism, can safely be supplemented bythe development of critical social thinking. George Washington cannot wisely be made an object of detached, scientific investigation in kindergartens. Neither can he bemade an object of unreflective reverence in researchseminars in history or political science. Somewhere between these extremes there is a point in the educationalhierarchy at which conservative indoctrination ceases tobe useful and at which the analytical and critical skillsof the social scientist must be injected into the learningprocess — not only for future social scientists but for allprospective citizens.Since universities stand at the top of the educationalladder, it follows that their peculiar contributions to progressive democratic life can best be made by emphasisupon intellectual curiosity, open-mindedness and reasonedconsideration of the implications of all political symbolisms and philosophies. Social science teaching and research in the university, if it be worthy of the name andcapable of fulfilling its purpose, must eschew indoctrination of all kinds and strive for the impartial description(Continued on Page 237)"We praise herbreadth of charity,Her faith thattruth shall makemen free.That right shalllive eternally. . ."NATIONAL DEFENSE"Through Adult EducationTODAY, in this country, each one of us must decide whether he is for education or against it.Those who favor force and fascism have nodesire or need for education. Those who favor democracy and peace do both desire and need it. Indeed, education is the arch enemy of fascism. AVhere fascism isthe rule, education is taboo. In fascist Germany, womenhave all but been dropped from institutions of highereducation. The university professors and students arerequired to devote their time to target practice insteadof research.The uneducated and illiterate person responds morereadily to the beat of the tom-tom and the sound of thedrum; he follows colored shirts more readily than reason. Fie hasn't the ability to see the rascal lurking inthe robe of the demagogue or the villainy in the mindof the false leader.Education is the only sure guarantee against the ravaging, destructive and demoralizing influences of war andfascism. It is the bulwark of our nation and the freedom of its citizens. If you care for your liberty andthe liberty of your community, not only must you guardagainst curtailment in education but make every effort toextend its beneficence to those who are without it. Notonly should the 128,000 illiterates in Illinois, and 12,000,-000 illiterates in the United States, be given the opportunity and encouraged to educate themselves, but weshould see to it that the rest of the adult population isgiven an opportunity and encouraged- -to keep abreast ofthe times.Adult education is as much a necessity today as childeducation was a century and a half ago. What have wedone and what should be done about it are questions thatshould concern all men and women. What we have doneis, unfortunately, very little, except for the few who goto college or night school, attend lectures or study bycorrespondence. Newspapers at one time were an important factor in adult education, but with the advent ofbig business and advertising the newspaper cannot berelied on as an impartial force in education. If for noother purpose than to protect the education of their children, adults should be encouraged and given the opportunity to learn more of the world about them.In Illinois Governor Henry Horner has taken cognizance of the need of adult education. His biannualmessage stressed the need of education for the 350,000unnaturalized persons in the State eligible for citizenship.He has appointed a State-wide Committee on Citizenshipand Naturalization composed of the heads of the largestand most representative State-wide organizations to studythe work.As a result of that study, the Illinois Emergency Relief Commission has appropriated $7,500.00 a month to*A radio talk over WCFL by the chairman of the Illinois Committeeon Citizenship and Naturalizaton. •By CHARLES P. SCHWARTZ, '08, JD '09take unemployed teachers eligible for relief to teach andprepare foreign born adults for naturalization and citizenship. These teachers will be specially prepared to dothis work at a teacher's institute at the University ofChicago under the direction of Mrs. Kenneth F. Rich,Executive Director of the Immigrants ProtectiveLeague.The instruction at this institute will be given bymembers of the University of Chicago faculty. Onlyteachers approved by the regular school authorities willbe eligible to attend the institute, which will begin March1st. Superintendent of Schools Bogan has set up a committee of standards to select the eligibles from amongthe applicants for the institute and teaching positions inthe Chicago area. The institute is donated by the University of Chicago and its faculty are serving withoutpay. No charge will be made to the teachers taking thecourse. The University of Illinois is prepared to establish an institute, similar to the one at the University ofChicago, for down state teachers.While the efforts of this Committee were startedby Governor Henry Horner, the work, nevertheless, hasreceived the warm approval of John H. Wieland, theState Commissioner of Education, and State Director ofAdult Education, Harry Fults.The short working day for the worker, and the largenumber of unemployed, make adult education a necessity.What will people do with their leisure time ? The movies,radio, automobile and sports cannot and should not beallowed to absorb all of it. In England the worker hasbeen encouraged to use his leisure time to educate himself. England has seen the need, and developed adulteducation to meet it. Why should we not profit fromthis experience? Why wouldn't it be a good investmentfor the government, both state and national, to showpeople the value of education, so that they will not stoplearning at maturity but continue the process throughoutlife ? Apart from the fact that it will occupy the citizen'sleisure time, it will increase his usefulness both to himselfand his community. An enlightened citizenry is the bestkind of national defense.In a democracy where the quality of the governmentdepends almost entirely on the intelligence of its citizens,adult education is indispensable. We will not naturalizealiens unless they understand and subscribe to the principles of our government. Why should we be satisfiedto do nothing about the millions of our citizens who areilliterate and understand no more about our governmentthan do unnaturalized aliens? How can we maintain agovernment by the consent of the governed unless thegoverned know enough to give or withhold their consent ?Prohibition clearly demonstrated that a law, even if it iswritten in the Constitution, makes for trouble if it hasnot the support of all the people.(Continued on Page 235)218FANDANGO!?By JAMES WEBER LINN, '97I HAVE seen many strange things during my association with the University, but few so fantastic,so inimitable, so utterly arrogant as the plans for theMidway Fandango, super-carnival, scheduled by the present senior class in the Fieldhouse, April 26, 27. Perhaps the Fandango is attributable to the general peculiarities of this paradoxical senior class, who will be thefirst to graduate from the University under the newplan. The careers of some members of this class haveproduced more satisfactions and disappointments, morejoy and pain, more naivete and sophistication than anyother undergraduate careers I can remember. ThisFandango is just possibly, however, the maddest fling'35 has yet taken.Operating in their own office with two telephones,three typewriters, and four desks, a senior class committee is marshalling the cooperation of 1,000 undergraduates to combine hilarious entertainment with the triumphant acquisition of $5,000 as the Senior Class giftfor University scholarships. Estimates of the acquisitionvary like the weather and my estimate may be high, butthere can be no doubt about the entertainment. Evenmore audaciously, the Class of '35 has abandoned thetraditional panhandling that has so long been associatedwith the collection of the Senior Class gift. Are not themachinations of this class making campus history?Its leaders come in two varieties — popular and notorious. Patterson, Moore, Watson, O'Donnell, Solf,and Dille, for instance, are popular; Barden, Gerson,Haydon, and Morrison are notorious — "literati" alwaysare. It is taking a synthesis of everything to weld theFandango. Their motto for the Fandango is: "Anything can happen — and probably will !"These young persons have signed up more than ahundred different companies, corporations, and shops toprovide prizes for their contests. Best prize : a free trip to Banff and Lake Louise supplied through the CanadianPacific Railways. Every fraternity, club, and activityon campus will erect a booth at the Fieldhouse. TheDramatic Association is staging "Peer Gynt" in MandelHall on Thursday, April 25, as the curtain-raiser for theFandango. Friday night activities open in dead earnestat the Fieldhouse and do not close until 2 A. M. the following Sunday morning.Other senior men and women have secured ferriswheels, merry-go-rounds, games of skill and chance, orchestras, professional entertainers, and dare-devil stunts.Still others have plastered the South Side with posters,matchbooks, pluggers, and Fandango propaganda. Theiridea is to "soak the South Side for the Senior Classgift." Since every cent goes to the University with thesole stipulation that the money be applied to scholarshipsor some form of student aid, the procedure is not mercenary. This class is merely working day and night tosee how much it can get — for the University. At Lexington Hall one is intrigued by the strange atmosphereof business, pleasure, enthusiasm, cynicism, efficiency,and horseplay instituted by the collectivistic Class of'35. No one is left out in the cold. Everybody workswith the air of knowing what he wants and how to getit. At another school the whole Fandango movementwould be summed up in two words: "School Spirit."The 1935 Seniors do not have it; they just feel it.Do I inspire incredulity? If you alumni — ancient,medieval, and modern — are incredulous, show up at theFieldhouse on April 26 and 27 to look with your eyesand spend with your pocketbooks ; come and pretend theFandango is as good as the wildest dreams of its youngoriginators. One more thing — either come or finally andforever shut off the morose moans about "lack of collegespirit" at the University. It will be breathed by theFandango!COLLEGE ASSOCIATION NOMINATIONSElections for offices in the College Alumni Association will be held in May, by a Magazine ballot. Results will be announcedin the June Magazine. Additional nominations may be made by petition, signed by twenty-five members of the College Association, in good standing; such petition must be sent to the Alumni Council Office by May I. Following are the nominations madeby the Nominating Committee of the College Association. .For First Vice PresidentHarold T. Moore, '16Frank Whiting, '16 For Secretary-TreasurerCharlton T. Beck, '04For Executive CommitteePortia Carnes Lane, '08Gladys Finn, '24C. Daniel Boone, '25Thomas Mulroy, '27Delegates to the Alumni CouncilIsabelle McMurray Anderson,Davie Hendricks Essington, '08Ethel Kawin, 'II, AM'25Amy Bradshaw, '28Paul S. Russell, '16Milton E. Robinson, 'II, JD'I4 16 Harry R. Swanson, '17Charles G. Higgins, '20Charles Cowan, '27John Nuveen, '19George Hartman, '23Robert McKinlay, '29, JD'32219PROFESSORS IN WASHINGTON• By CHARLES F. REMER, Professor of Economics, University of MichiganUNIVERSITY professors have been in Washington in unusual number since March, 1933. Because of the overwhelming popularity of Mr.Roosevelt, their presence there did not arouse criticismin the beginning. But after some months, when, in Mr.Roosevelt's language, the people came out of their stormcellars, the voice of criticism and political debate washeard again.The criticism was naturally directed against the professors. Some of it was so unfair as to be humorous.One editor said, for example, that "the President wasrushed off his feet by his college professors." A stateRepublican platform referred to "the sinister and hiddenpurpose of a so-called brain trust." Such fantasticcharges are of course about as far from the truth asthe opposite charge that business is engaged in somedark plot to put us under the lock of fascist dictatorship.But usually the condemnatory attitude toward theprofessor was more understandable. For example, theprofessor was a "theorist." Professors "spend theirlives in mental acrobatics, planning this and plottingthat." Having met no real problems, they regard therest of the community as so many objects for experiment. And so we have frequent reference to "130 million guinea pigs."In direct contrast, however, one editor finds thatthe university brings out the very qualities most neededfor carrying out new programs — unimpeachable integrity, objectivity, flexibility, and quick adaptability ofmind. Mr. Ickes himself stated this idea strongly inan address last June when he said that those who criticize and denounce are "fearful of brains that have undertaken to redress the social and enonomic abuseswhich we have too long endured."There you have both sides. The professor, on theone hand, is an ineffective theorist. The professor, onthe other hand, is an objective scientist who will findand fight for the truth that is to set us free.But what actually has been the place of the professor in the New Deal ? Since the New Deal is largelyin the field of economics, let us select certain importantfeatures of its program, and then ask about each one,whether the proposal came from the economist in thefirst place, and next, whether it had the approval andsupport of the whole body of economists in the country.Consider the plan for the restriction of agriculturalproduction. Agreement is general that the immediatesource of this plan was a professor of agricultural economics in the University of Montana. Mr. Rooseveltgave the plan his approval about the time of the Democratic National Convention in June, 1932.However, a study of this feature of the New Dealtakes us back into the history of farm relief since thedepression of 1921. These earlier plans did not providefor reducing the so-called agricultural surplus. Iffarmers were paid more per unit of output, it was diffi cult to suppose they would produce less. The croprestriction plan provided for the actual reduction ofacreage. Many economists felt that long run restriction called for the retirement of the poorer lands fromproduction rather than general limitation. Others feltthat in the end more was to be expected from the revivalof foreign trade. However, my purpose is simply toestablish conclusions, and from the evidence we knowthat the plan came from the economists, that it carriedsome, but not general, approval as a temporary measure.The second feature of the New Deal lies in thefield of monetary policy. Here we must conclude thatno single policy was consistently pursued. Regardingthe two most notable steps taken — the adoption of theThomas amendment in April, 1933, and the rejection ofstabilization at the London Conference in July, 1933,no evidence is found that the economists were responsible. A third step was the adoption of the gold purchaseplan in October, 1933. It is known that Mr. Roosevelthad had conferences with Professor Warren of Cornelland other professors before the adoption of this plan.Economists must accept responsibility for the advicewhich led to its adoption, but they share this responsibility with the so-called "Committee for theNation," a group which was powerfully influenced,however, by the ideas of Professor Irving Fisher.The final step — the adoption of the modifiable goldstandard — was in part a rejection and in part a confirmation of earlier policy. What we actually got outof this wras not a commodity dollar, but devaluationand a return to the gold standard. The commodity dollar was supported by relatively few in any of its forms.The plans to restore prices to a definite level by monetary means would be generally condemned. Economistswould have been divided on devaluation and on thegeneral plan for a "managed" currency. Therefore itmust be reported that the currency policy of the NewDeal came from economists, but that it did not carrytheir general support.Consider, next, how far the whole set of policiesindicated by the letters NRA came from the professor?The immediate origin of the NRA seems to have beena bill introduced in the special session of 1933 by Senator Black to limit hours of work. There followeda series of conferences among lawyers, business men,members of Congress, labor leaders, government officialsand professors. It seems fairly certain that the professors played only a small part in the actual framingof the bill. Let us look then for the important groupsin the background out of which the NRA came.The first of these was business itself. Two planswere proposed — the Swope plan calling for the modification of the anti-trust laws and the control of businessby voluntary trade associations, and the plan worked outby a committee of the United States Chamber of Commerce, calling for the amendment of the anti-trust laws,220THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 221for the encouragement of trade associations, and for thesetting up of a National Economic Council. Both hadbeen advocated before the New Deal was heard of. Bothcarried with them the idea of compelling the recalcitrantminority to join, and both came frorrf business, notfrom the professors or the brain trust.There was the idea of economic planning, also theidea of creating purchasing power by a prompt and general increase of employment at higher wages, both ofwhich were widely questioned by economists. Therewas article 7 (a) which provides for collective bargaining. It originated with labor organizations and withthe Department of Labor, but commands rather generalsupport among the economists.But the NRA may be said to have come immediatelyfrom a small group in Washington, among whom theeconomists played a very modest part. Behind this immediate source were plans and proposals which camemore largely from business than from any other source.In short, the NRA was created by business, with amend ments by labor.There are other features, but I hope enough is givenhere -to destroy the false pictue of the New Deal as a neatset of plans thought up by armchair economists andfoisted upon an unsuspecting American people and aninnocent business community by an administration deceived by glib professorial talk.Nevertheless, I am sure that there will be an increasingly important place for the professor in Washington. In a society of increasing complexity, ourpolitical problems will more and more include difficulteconomic questions which cannot be solved by a mereagreement among experts, or political oratory, or byregistering votes in Washington. The economist, theman with technical training and with knowledge of thesubject, on the one hand, and the political representative of the people must get together, that a quality calledstatesmanship may be applied to public affairs. Theadvantages of such cooperation are so obvious, thatsooner or later, it is sure to be tried.A Credit to Alma MaterWASHINGTONUNIVERSITYhas appointed Thomas E.Blackwell, Jr., '21, comptroller andbusiness manager.Since 1921 Mr. Blackwell has beenassociated, first as business manager and then as comptroller, with thePrincipia. He was also professor ofeconomics in charge of the senior seminar in money, banking, and investments, in the Principia College. Hewill assume his new duties at theUniversity after April first.He has been a member of the salesforce of the National Cash RegisterCompany and a flyer in the air service during the war. He is a memberof Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity.LUCILE HOERR CHARLES,'30, whose article, "A TiroleanAdventure," appeared in these pagesa year ago, plans to be in Europeagain this summer as Drama Director for The American Peoples College in Europe. Headquarters are inOetz-in-Tirol, where the studentslast summer thrilled the natives withAmerican Indian and Negro plays.The Drama Study Tour after severalweeks in the Austrian Alps goes toGermany, Finland, Russia, and England in time for the Malvern Festival. The American Peoples Collegein Europe is a non-profit making institution founded by progressive edu cators wishing to make it possible foryoung Americans of limited meansto have the advantages of Europeanstudy and travel. Mr. Robert MorssLovett and John Dewey are on theadvisory board of the college.WOOLLCOTT AND LIGHTNINGStrike Quadrangles the Same EveningBy HOWARD W. MORT, Editor, Tower TopicsTHE Town Crier spoke at Mandel Hall andHutchinson Commons last Wednesday evening.He looked just like his photograph; was as gracious and spontaneous in his wit as you had imaginedhim; and he talked mostly about dreams. Mandel Hallhad been a complete sell-out days before he arrived. Tocare for the hundreds of others wishing to hear Mr.Woollcott, the Student Lecture Service — who sponsoredthe appearance — provided for an overflow of eight hundred people in Hutchinson Commons. A loud speakersystem brought the lecture to- this group. At the closeof his address Mr. Woollcott made a fifteen minute personal appearance in the Commons, which gave everyone a chance to see as well as hear him.Earlier the same evening lightning struck MitchellTower and splattered two-hundred-pound cubes of Indiana limestone through the roofs beneath. Fortunately,no one was hurt although one large block tore throughthe top of Mrs. Paul Loretta's car, parked ten minutes* Reprinted from Tower Topics for Mareh ?$, /p.?5- before on Fifty-seventh street, and shattered the steeringwheel. Mrs. Loretta is the addressograph operator inthe Alumni office.The lightning event came as a climax to a TownCrier dinner party being sponsored by Tower Topicsin Hutchinson Commons and the Coffee Shop. Ourguests were in the process of unscrambling a list ofnames (University notables), which had been hit — notby lightning — but by the entertainment committee previous to the party — when the clumsy thunder stormplayfully joined in the festivities via Mitchell Tower.Neither the Student Lecture Service nor TowerTopics claim any credit for the lightning act as a publicity stunt, although it certainly brought down thehouse ! »We are herewith reproducing five pictures taken byMr. Haines of the department of Buildings and Groundswhich will give you some idea of the extent of thedamage and the amount of work involved in making therepairs. Over a dozen holes were made in the roofs —Here is a before, after, and'S|^iq picture of the disaster to Mitchell Tower. Upper left-hand picture shows the turret before the storm.I In the center is a close-up of the wreck. Note the perilous looking block at the bottom of the picture. Upper right-hand view shows the_ scaffolding where the reconstruction is going on. The entire turret had to be rebuilt. Lower left and rtflVit show the work underway.222THE UNIVERSITY, OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 223one heavy stone cutting through into the hallway backof the stage in the Reynolds Club theatre.Thus we experienced, first-hand, how a colony ofcultured ants must feel when a giant human being, ina moment of nonchalant carelessness, kicks the artisticpeak of! the carefully constructed mound and sets thebudget back some few thousand ant-dollars.The analogy isn't so far astray when one considers that Mitchell Tower is a main entrance into thequadrangles and when, within fifteen minutes after thecrash, a corps of efficient workmen had begun patientlyto repair the damage.Spring on the QuadranglesIf there is such a thing as reincarnation we herebymake application to the committee on allocation for anassignment to the Erithacus rebecula (robin redbreastto you — there is no need for all of us to look that up)section. We can think of no pleasanter task than thatof starting from the south early in the year; announcing spring all the way to northern Canada ; and returning south for the winter.Three boisterous robins on the lawn outside ourwindow so completely disrupted our stream-of -thoughtthe other morning that we closed our office and— hat-less and coatless — wandered aimlessly through the quad-, rangles to experience, first-hand, what we assumed thesethree harbingers were announcing — the first spring dayin Chicago.It was a warm, quiet, lazy morning. South of Ry-erson laboratories the forest of lilac bushes had suddenly turned green and there was definite promise of afragrant purple blend soon to be added. Clustered dotsof deep blue and purple in the grass south of Joneslaboratories reminded us that the Scillas (we originallythought they were crocuses until corrected by CarlMack — head gardener) were already blooming.Just east of the flagpole and the diagonal walkleading to Cobb hall a young couple sat visiting on thestone bench ('96) in the shade of a cluster of mockorange and lilac bushes. In the background we could! see the elm tree planted by the class of 1900 hesitatingto exchange its early spring bronze ensemble for thatof a more brilliant and appropriate green. The markerat its base and the fountain stone ('98) near the circle dozed in a setting of spring green.The ten-fifty class bells in Cobb had just rungI and students were drifting out of the east entranceonto the broad flagstone court for a moment of fresh,spring air. The more fortunate seniors lolled on thei "C" bench ('03) while others clustered around the twobulletin boards ('06) to peruse the latest announcements :| "Tryouts for Blackfriars will be held all this weekI in Reynolds Club theatre" ;1 " Watch for the new April Phoenix on sale . . .";^ 'The chapel speaker for next Sunday will be . . . ".;"Senior class meeting to discuss class gift will beheld in Mandel Hall next ..."These boards are considered the most important general publicity mediums on the quadrangles bycampus organizations.A moment of sunshine; hurried glances at. the Cobbhall clock ('24) — which seems always to develop a burstof speed for these ten-minute recesses — and the chattering mass, desirous of further knowledge (questionmark), melted back into the oldest class-room buildingon the quadrangles. The two ornamental lamps ('07)on either side of the entrance, we mused, would belighted later and later each week, with the days lengthening into daylight-saving time, as would the lamp posts(T3) in Divinity quadrangle beyond. We could picturethe broad smile on the countenance of Mr. Flook, Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds, as he contemplatedthe savings in electricity this would make for the University.Crossing the court to Harper library, we pausedto read, again, the inscription on the dedicatory tablet('08) near the office of the President and then steppedinto the elevator to be taken to the third floor. Herewe strolled through the Gothic-vaulted reading roomwhere students yawned sleepily as they stretched backin their chairs and drowsily surveyed the slow-movingbronze hands on the faces of the clocks ('09) at eitherend of the room. We remembered that other classes('04) ; '('05) ; and ('10) had helped to make this beautiful memorial building possible. Classes in later yearshad contributed gifts in the form of funds which wouldprovide educational opportunity for their younger university brothers and sisters. We could be pardoned afeeling of pride at being a member of this loyal familywhich extends back through the years.Eleven-thirty found us wandering through our favorite quadrangle nook — Hull Court — with its botanypond and the artistically-arched stone bridge ('22). Wewere in time to witness the snapping of the first spring-picture of this pond and bridge. This particular sceneis probably pictured oftener — in the soft shadows ofsummer and the frozen crystal brilliances of winter —than all other scenes on the Midway campus combined.We stood under the stone arch leading to Fifty-seventh street and looked toward Stagg Field. Theponderous gates with the iron scroll-work ('12) wouldsoon be swinging open to allow the multitudes an opportunity to cheer Captain Berwanger's team of determined men as they roll up the gridiron scores in sixesand sevens.The picture of the bridge had been snapped sowe passed across to Hutchinson Court where the fountain, relieved of its wooden _^-rs==--__overcoat, once more bubbledmerrily in its sunken gardenof green. This is a picturesquealcove in the summer evening-dusk when the lights from thelamp posts (T5) play acrossthe shimmering musical watersof the fountain.In Mandel corridor we relived, in imagination, the daysof the Old University whenStephen A. Douglas was a m f m224 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEpower in Chicago and a leader in the campaign for aschool of higher learning on the south side. Wewere standing before his bas-relief ('01) in Mandelcorridor. The door into Mandel Hall stood open. Thememorial window ('02; mellowed the light from theeast wall and we were reminded that this gift had beenpresented to the University a year after the class hadgraduated because Mandel Hall was not yet completein 1902.We missed seeing the lectern given by the classof 1899 because it is now in the chapel as is also thePresident's convocation chair ('97). We should havestrolled arcund that way because the front lawn at thePresident's house is usually covered with yellow crocuses and daffodils at this season. We could have pausedfor a short over-the-fence chat with Hamlet, Miss Frances Hutchins' Great Dane pal (we have always likeddogs), and then could have continued on to Ida Noyeswhere, in the second floor Jounge, hangs "NovemberTwilight" (T9) painted by WalterSargent. In our humble lay opinionit is one of his best.But, instead, we chose to end ourwanderings by walking back downMandel corridor past the plaque ('23)placed on the east wall in memory ofPresident Judson and on to the Hutchinson Commons entrance. We watchedthe students hurrying to lunch in theCoffee Shop and Hutchinson Commons. Never once did anyone stepon the brass coat-of-arms ('11) sealed in the floor underthe tower. It is one of the University traditions.This Month s Yesteryear CalendarApril 1, 1908 — Huge mass meeting held in Kent theatre to celebrate national basketball championship presented to the University by captain JohnSchommer's quintet after winning from Pennsylvania by a score of 16 to 15. Schommer personally rolled up 275 points during the season.April 2, 1903 — Honorary LL.D. degree confered uponPresident Theodore Roosevelt in Kent theatre inexchange for which he laid the corner stone forthe new law school building.April 4, 1911 — Announcement made that dedication ofnew Harper Memorial Library will be postponeduntil fail (original plan had been June convocation) because of serious cave-in of west tower.Thirty men were working in this tower when itstarted to crumble. All escaped except one manwho had his leg broken by a falling stone afterhe had fled to "safety."April 6, 1914-— Sherwood Eddy arrives on the quadrangles to conduct series of Ploly Week servicesplanned by University.April 8, 1911 — University officials refuse Aero Clubpermission to sponsor Sunday airplane exhibition flight. Plan had been for daring guest aviator to "take off" from Marshall Field (Stagg Field)and completely circle Mitchell Tower!April 9, 1912 — Woman Suffrage decisively defeated atpolls. Jane Addams, speaking before campusEqual Suffrage League the following day, is stilloptimistic and is convinced women will some daybe allowed to vote.April 10, 1899 — Theodore Roosevelt, governor of NewYork and popular Spanish War hero, visits quadrangles. Leads procession of carriages out SouthPark Boulevard from Loop. Is met at Hull Gateby University Band and two thousand students.Speaks in old gymnasium where double windowhad been removed to make an entrance that wouldaccommodate crowd. "Teddy" Linn, who ranthe show, gets his nickname at this function butthat's another story.April 11, 1912 — "Jimmy" Twohig consents to attendOlympics at Stockholm in the fall as guest of"C" men, alumni and students.Will also visit old home in Ireland.April 12, 1910 — Western college paperannounces that Chicago youngladies have resolved to ignoreyoung men with mustaches.Charge vigorously denied by^ ^^^ local coeds.(I | April 14, 1907 — Big nine conferenceT severs relations with Michigan.April 17, 1914 — Pat Page's alumnibase ball team wins from Varsity 9 to 5. Pat didthe pitching.April 20, 1906— Acting President Judson wires sympathy to presidents of Stanford and Universityof California whose institutions are in the disastrous earthquake zone.April 21, 1904 — First organ recital in Mandel Flailplayed by Arthur Dunning.April 22, 1909 — Miss Gertrude Dudley, in an address toyoung ladies at Lexington gymnasium, states that,cleanliness considered, the "rats" used in buildinglofty pompadours leave something to be desiredand that bad head positions are encouraged bywearers of extremely large hats trying to "trimtheir sails" to meet the Chicago winds. Lecturereceives widespread publicity and she is the recipient of letters from all parts of the UnitedStates commending her courageous stand againstprevailing extreme styles for women.April 23, 1913 — Professor Robert Andrews Millikan receives the National Academy of Science award offifteen hundred dollars which is personally presented by President Woodrow Wilson.April 25, 1912 — Chinese baseball team from University of Hawaii plays Maroons. Chicago wins 6 to3 with aid of first baseman Nels Norgren's bat.April 27, 1907 — Announcement of two million dollargift from John D. Rockefeller in form of practically all property facing south side of Midwayfrom Madison avenue (Dorchester avenue) toTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 225\% ^5 esting events whichtook place during yourresidence on the quadrangles. Write them on the insidecover of something or other and send them to the stationto which you are listening. We'll do the rest.Good Looking Gargoyles!We had just crossed the quadrangles and wereabout to pass through the open arched corridor betweenRyerson and Eckhart when we noticed a couple of un-aesthetically dressed lads sitting on the stone projectionsof the steps. As we approached, one of the boys addressed us, "Pardon me, but will you tell us where wecan see the gargoyles ?"Now we have been kidded by professionals duringour residence in Chicago. We have long since beeninitiated into the game the Hyde Park youngsters liketo play with dignitaries and employees of the University. These boys have learned the innocent, albeit sincere, questions of visitors to the campus. It's a pleasant diversion from pavement baseball to approach amember of the LTniversity family, adopt the sincere toneof the visitor, and ask some question concerning the institution the answer to which they know better thanmost of us. Having served our full share of times asthe leading character in these three-minute farces, wepondered our answer while suspiciously surveying ourill-kempt friends. We could not be sure it was a merecoincidence that they were sitting directly under, andin plain view of, a prominent set of these grotesquefigures !The spokesman must have sensed something of ourdilemma. A glance at his partner permitted him torealize the impression they might easily make with theirsomewhat smudged faces and dusty khaki clothes. Atany rate, he volunteered the information that they werePennsylvania high school students; that it was springvacation; that they had just arrived in Chicago viathe hitch-hike route and that they had heard so muchabout the gargoyles at the University of Chicago theexpedition would be a miserable failure if they returned without having seen these famous carvings. His voicebetrayed a touch of impatience as he repeated his original request."Most surely," we humbly replied. If they wouldgaze skyward in the direction of the Ryerson gables theywould at once see a whole regiment of these beasts. No ! —and by now there was no question as to their irritation —they had seen those! But they had been told by a highschool teacher in their home town that there were somegood looking gargoyles at the University of Chicago.We could picture them disgustedly standing on theOuter Drive, thumbs pointed Pennsylvaniaward, an entire vacation week ruined ! But good looking gargoyles ! Heavens ! Who ever heard of a good looking gargoyle? We suppose it is a matter of interpretation or viewpoint or something. But, to us, it wouldbe like asking for a pound of sweet-smelling limburger— and we do not begrudge cheese its place in the schemeof things, nor do we gargoyles. Good looking gargoyles . . . ? There was one more possibility. It wasworth trying. Hull Court was just around the corner.We took our two young guests to this picturesquegarden and pointed to the winged dragons climbing thesloping archway of the stone gate.As we looked at this family of gargoyles for thefirst time in months (we pass that way only about oncea day!) we realized they did have more character and,shall we say, personality, than those long, all-neck oneson Ryerson. At least, we decided, they coidd be considered better looking. We turned again to our easternfriends. Their faces betrayed their satisfaction. Evidently the Hull Court gargoyles had met the demand.Chicago hospitality once more had triumphed. We hadfound some good looking gargoyles for our visitingguests — or had we ?THE EMERITA SPEAKSA Comment on a Recent Trans-continental JauntBy ELIZABETH WALLACE, Professor Emeritus of French LiteratureTWENTY-NINE lectures inthirty-seven days — ten nights ona Pullman, and then your editor asksme to write a sprightly account ofmy impressions !In Berkeley, California, I was entertained at International House,whose courteous Director, Mr. AllanBlaisedell, helped me to coordinatenumerous engagements almost painlessly. Former University of Chicago friends were met at every turn.Doctor and Mrs. James WestfallThompson are perched high abovethe bay in a charming home whenceDr. Thompson can look serenely andsecurely upon his new job of Research Professor of Medieval History at the University of California.Professor and Mrs. Rudolph At-trocchi and their two handsome bambini carry Italian culture to the Pacific. Mrs. Florence Goodspeed lendsgrace to the Woman's Faculty Club;son Harper Goodspeed grows plantsfrom all over the world in Californiacanyons; Leonard Loeb is growinggray and distinguished looking in hislaboratory.In Los Angeles at a joint alumniand alumnae banquet there were many never-to-be-forgotten faces, belonging, some of them, to the pastcentury, and others almost too newfor me to know. There was oneGeorge Winficld Scott, who claimedto have been at the University in1892-93, still going strong. Andthere was Dr. Fred Speik, whomakes a modern football man seemsmall and shrunken. Gladys Baxterwas there, and Helen Peck, and manyothers.In Pasadena I stayed with theMillikans, and there were daily encounters with those who were busymaking Chicago famous in quiet unobtrusive ways; Scott Brown, andClifford Barnes, Dr. Theodore Soaresand Dr. and Mrs. Millikan themselves.In Colorado I was taken to visita gold mine by one of the owners.He had impressed it upon me that Iwould there meet a very distinguishedmining engineer, upon whose advicethe mine had been re-opened. Whenwe arrived he was introduced. Hescrutinized me rather closely andpresently said, "I am sure I have metyou before. Have you ever been inBolivia?" "Yes," I said, "in 1929.""It wouldn't have been then, — butI am sure I've seen you somewhere.Have you been in Peru?""Yes, in the same year.""No, it wasn't there, then." Then,hopefully, "Have you been in Colombia?"'^Yes, in 1934.""Couldn't have been there."But he came back to the subjectwith renewed hope several times, andfinally my host said, a bit ironically,"Perhaps it was in Chicago.""By Jove, it was ! You taught meFrench in Ellis Hall !"It was Raymond Wile and he assured me he had forgotten his Frenchalmost as much as he had forgottenhis French teacher.Not one of the twenty-nine lectures given in California, New Mexico, Colorado, Missouri and Iowa,that was not followed by from oneto six persons coming up afterwardsto tell me proudly that they had oncebeen at the University of Chicago.Some gray-haired, some bald, somestout, some handsome, some slender,but all enthusiastic about that onefact.Planting a stagegarden in Man-del Hall. TheDramatic Association is presenting "Peer Gynt"on April 25thON THE TRAILOf the Law AlumniCHARLES F. McELROY, whois serving his sixteenth year asSecretary of the University of Chicago Law School Association, (besides one year as President,) made aseries of visits in February andMarch to the law alumni in sevenwestern cities — Des Moines, SiouxCity, Denver, Salt Lake City, LosAngeles, Oklahoma City and KansasCity. The trip was sponsored bythe Law School and the University,with a special message from DeanBigelow.The ground covered in his talks related to the history and changes inthe Law School; present faculty;new policies, such as classes for practicing lawyers and placement ofgraduates ; need of funds for fellowships, scholarships and library; desire to keep it a national instead of alocal law school by securing high-grade students from other states ;and in general trying to, awaken, reawaken, or stimulate the interest andco-operation of the alumni. Perhaps it could be characterized as aseries of alleged pep talks.At Des Moines eight out of seventeen were present, including the onlyalumna at any of the meetings —Miss Lillian A. Leffert, '18. JosephI. Brody, '15, was the local chairman. The others were :V. W. Cubbage, ex '26, Arthur C.McGill '11, E. V. Proudfoot, '25,Henry E. Sampson, '05, John NezvtonPlughes, Jr. '33, John N. Hughes, Sr.At Sioux City nine out of seventeen were on hand, including formerUnited States Senator David W.Stezvart, '17, and a former University of Chicago football player,Henry C. Shull, '16; also HerbertW. Brackney, '06, Carlton M.. Cor-bett, '24, Jesse E. Marshall, '14, VailE. Purdy, '08, Carl W. H. Sass, '19,Alfred R. Strong, '21, Sylvester F.Wad den, '16.Deloss P. Shull, T2, another football player, was prevented at the lastminute from attending*.Denver made the best showing inpercentage of attendance, havingseven out of ten on hand. StephenR. Curtis, '16, was in charge. Theothers were:Samuel Chutkow, '20, Julian P.Nordlund, '23, Frederick Sass, Jr.,'32, Hobart M. Shulenberg, '22, Ger ald E. Welsh, '25, Norris C. Bakke,'20.Salt Lake City proved to be a hotbed of prominent alumni. StephenL. Richards, '04, is one of the twelveapostles of the Mormon Church.William H. Leary, '08, is Dean ofthe Law School of the University ofUtah, and Willis W. Ritter, '24, ison the faculty there. The meetingwas graced by two Justices of theSupreme Court of Utah — Chief Justice Elias Hansen, who attendedsummer sessions of the Law Schoolin 1904 and 1906; and Justice DavidW. Moffat, wdio was a student in1904-5 without graduating. RobertL. Judd is counsel for the SouthernPacific, and is a higher-up in theMormon Church. The others aremerely leaders of the bar:Irwin Arnovitz, '28, Grant H. Bag-ley, '19, John F. Bowman, GeorgeM. Cannon, '14, Fisher S. Harris,'16, Joseph S. Jones, '30, Hyrum D.Lowry, '31, 7?. A. McBroom, '01,Artie U. Miner, '31, David A. Sheen,TO.Mr. Judd engineered a visit forMr. McElroy to President Grant andPresident Clark, two of the threePresidents of the Mormon Church.McElroy recalled that Utah hasmore law alumni than any state westof the Mississippi except Iowa, andthat Dean Hall of the Law Schoolwas reported to have said that scho-lastically he ranked Mormons first,Jews second, and Gentiles third.Los Angeles has more alumni thanany other city outside of Chicago—one more than Salt Lake City. William D. Campbell, '21, would nowbe Congressman except for the factthat, in 1934 he absent-mindedly ranon the Republican ticket. Harold P.Hids, '21, is city attorney of Pasadena. Joseph L. Lewinson was making the first page by his defense ofa woman accused of murder orsomething. The others apparentlydominate all fields of litigation except Hollywood movie contracts anddivorces. Not one would admit having a Hollywood client. The otherspresent were:George W. Adams, '22, Joseph D.Brady, Chester E. Cleveland, '21,Lee A. Dayton, '20, Gordon M. Lazv-son, '15, James B. Ogg, '17, Stead-man G. Smith, '23, Delvy T. Walton, '24, Jean Wunderlich, '31, WebbShadle, '22, Allin H. Pierce, '23.At Oklahoma City there had beena hitch in the arrangements, whichaccounted for the fact that only fourmen were present. These includedVictor H. Kulp, '08, who is on thefaculty in the Law School of theUniversity of Oklahoma at Norman,Gasper Edwards, '08, Walter A. Ly-brand, '06, John F. Webster, '17.Lybrand handled the litigation forthe Phillips '66 oil company againstover seven hundred defendants,which cleared up the title to a largearea in the adjacent oil fields. Thelawyers here probably do more practicing over the state than those inmost other cities.At Kansas City five men were onhand under the leadership of PaulE. Basye, '26, the others being:Raymond E. Draper, '22, InghramD. Hook, '05, Henry M. Shughart,'22, John S. Wright, '07.Wright is reported to have mademore 99-year leases along the mainbusiness streets of Kansas City thanany other lawyer there.The net results may be summarized as follows:1. All the alumni wherever I wentwant Dean Bigelow to make a similar visit to them. Almost every manwho ever attended Law School eithertook work under him or at leastknew him in Law School.2. The alumni are alert and loyal,and are glad to be asked to do something for the Law School. More local meetings among themselves willundoubtedly follow.3. While no* set program was offered for adoption, the alumni aregoing to do things for the LawSchool.Little Rock AlumniTHE University of ChicagoAlumni Club of Little Rock, Arkansas, met in the evening of March21, 1935, at Little Rock Junior College with Dean William E. Scott asspeaker. Thirty-six had made reservations for the dinner, but owing to asudden and unusually heavy rainstorm only thirty-one were presentat the dinner. An excellent dinnerwas served for 50 cents and was enjoyed by the members in spite of athreat of inundation.227IN MY OPINION• By FRED B. MILLET, PhD '31 Associate Professor of EnglishAMONG the ideational jewels scattered carelesslyover the surface of H. G. Wells's Experimentin Autobiography not the least brilliant is thenotion that writers in the future will turn away fromthe novel to biography and autobiography for the expression of their choicest wisdom. And now JosephWood Krutch in an article in the Nation for February13, 1935, has cast another pearl at the art of fictionby bringing in a generally negative verdict to the comprehensive question, "Are Novels Worth Reading?"The coincidence of these experts' testimonies incites oneto a preliminary scrutiny of the status of the novel inthese days and in the future!In the light of Wells's habitually cavalier treatmentof the novel, his view as to its diminishing utility is entirely explicable. Wells has never felt any very realinterest in the novel as an art-form; instead, he has regarded it as a sugar-coating of the pill of his wisdomabout life. In his earlier (and more readable) fictions,the coating was thick and delectable. With the years,however, he has come to feel free to offer his readersinterminable expositions of his views under a slightsmear of the honey of fiction. It is natural that heshould become increasingly impatient with the demandsof imaginative creation, and that, at last, he should feeljustified in advocating the complete elimination of thefictional element from his own and others' preachments.Krutch, though not so impassioned a preacher asWells, finds his temperamental melancholy deepened bythe discovery that novel-reading is not so exciting orso profitable as it once was. A part of his disillusionment, he admits, is not merely temperamental but chronological. On the verge of middle age, he is disconcerted to discover that "he is no longer what he was,and that there has passed a glory, not only from theearth, but also from those merely competent descriptions of it which the competent novelist gives." Everyserious reader of his generation will have made an approximate if not so completely conscious a discovery.What Krutch seems imperfectly to realize is, notmerely that readers of different ages ask and get distinctly different things from novels, but that it is naturaland on the whole salutary that they should do so. Heis eminently right in insisting that the mature readeris no longer titillated by representations of life andobservations upon it that seem epoch-making to theyouthful and adolescent. Tt is inevitable that youthshould read for discovery, middle age for reflection,and old age for the remembrance of things past.The values of the novel are then not constants butvariables. If the reader matures normally, he is boundto put many books behind him and to refuse to riskthe submission of his youthful favorites to the coolerscrutiny of his later years. What reader in the fortieswould risk the re-reading of The Prisoner of Zenda,Trilby, Grausiark, When Knighthood Was in Flower, or Ben Hur. except as opportunities for mourning sentimentally for the death and burial of his lost innocence?What reader of this generation will expect the wholehearted absorption of those silly and glamorous days,the rich, gaudy, preposterous fantasy-existence ofadolescence? And it is surely only decent that fortyishreaders should reject contemporary equivalents of thosepleasant literary narcotics. The reader who wishesmerely to repeat his earlier experiences without modification is unimaginative, unintelligent, or permanentlyadolescent. It is extraordinarily fortunate for writerslike Edna Ferber and Fanny Hurst that their millionsof readers are as permanently adolescent as those slightlybalmy alumni who infest college reunions.But the law of diminishing returns from fiction doesnot operate without qualifications. There are more thanadequate compensations for the failure of the capacityfor whole-hearted absorption, for the operation of thatsuspension of disbelief that is so easy for youthfulreaders. In place of absorption, one discovers detachment, critical standards, and the capacity for analysis.One develops, not merely the ability to see the wheelsgo round but the power to discriminate between expert and inexpert artistry, between sound and unsoundrenditions and interpretations of human experience. Todeny the operation of this law of compensation is toexalt the uncritical, above the critical apprehension oflife and art.And this process of critical analysis, this evaluationof values is as endlessly fascinating as the material isinexhaustible. The novels of three centuries await one'scritical beck and call. Surely one of the most unfortunate of our national reading habits is the ignoring ofany novel written longer ago than the day before yesterday. If the law of diminishing returns operatesfor readers, it operates even more bitterly for writers. How many of the great English novelists are stillread beyond the narrow confines of academic classrooms? For most novelists of distinction, the only immortality that seems likely is interment in histories ofliterature and the ignominy of becoming high-school orcollege classics. One can imagine the ironic glint inthe eye of George Meredith's spirit as he contemplatesthe handsome shelf-full of his incredibly brilliant novelsunmolested by even the most fastidious of contemporaryreaders. One can not imagine the stuttering, polysyllabicindignation of Henry James, most exquisite of craftsmen, as his eyes fall upon the passage in The Foreground of American Fiction, where Harry Hartwickpontificates that James has become a synonym for allthat is tedious in literature.From a brief excursion among the novels of thepast, I have recently happily returned with treasure-trove. Had it not been for this excursion, I shouldhave missed forever seeing Elizabeth Bennet's tour ofPemberly in the light of one's own visits to "country228THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 229houses open to the public." I should not have enjoyedthe singularly tender and humorous treatment of JohnnyNonsuch by Diggory Venn, when the frightened boystumbles upon the fiery-hued shelter of the reddleman'scart. I should not have been diverted by Samuel Butler's envy of the parentless, childless, wifeless Melchise-dek as the bachelor incarnate.And if there is no end to the potentialities of rarefied critical experiences with the great novels of the past,there are surely enough great novels written in ourtime to furnish Krutch with many a winter evening'sreading. Wary and disheartened by the repetitiousnessand emptiness of the season's best sellers, one can stillturn with confidence and delight to The Magic Mountain, Remembrance of Things Past, and Men of GoodWill, not to mention The Rainhozv, To the Lighthouse ,Point Counterpoint, Ulysses, or My Next Bride.And the novel of the future? What will it haveto offer exacting and mature readers? Prognosticationis dangerous but enticing. What one can be sure of isthat over and above the perennial provender for theperpetually adolescent will tower adventurous and fascinating fictions. They are, fortunately, not likely to beof the same form and substance as the great novels ofthe past. They are certainly not likely to be "merelycompetent descriptions" of contemporary experience.Great as have been the benefits that have accrued tothe novel from the realistic movement, the limitationsof realism become increasingly conspicuous. It willsurely not be enough for the novelist of the future torepeat such skilled representations as Bennett's TheOld Wives' Tale and Ruth Suckow's The Folks. Mererepresentation, one increasingly feels, is never genuinelycreative. The creative opportunities of the future novelistare infinite and unpredictable. But certain possibilitiesmay be sketched in. In the first place, the technicalpotentialities of the novel-form are unimaginable. Ifthe potentialities in the way of plot and plot-structureseem pretty well exhausted, if plot has come to seema relatively elementary form of appeal to sophisticatedreaders, the potentialities of structure and pattern adumbrated by such fictions as Point Counterpoint and Menof Good Will are inexhaustible. Though the novel hasbeen even richer than the drama in its creation of vitaland memorable characters, though most of the methodsof characterization would seem to be already discovered,the light that biology, psychology, and sociology arethrowing on the evolution and operation of charactermay -well stimulate later novelists to transcendent creations. In point of fact, despite the amazing achievements of James and Proust, one may very well expectin certain novels of the future a degree of individualityand subjectivity in characterization that will surpassanything that fiction has yet seen.On the other hand, it is possible that the novel of thenext generation will be less and less intensive and moreand more expansive. The novel is perhaps more sensitivethan any other art- form to the climates or opinion, andwhatever else is true of the current state of mind, it iscertainly turning outward upon the world and not inward upon itself. It is not necessary to subscribe tothe elementary aesthetic dialectic of the Marxian^or tfie"Fascist to see that the novel of the future is likeiyto attempt the representation and investigation of broadsocial phenomena, an exploitation of those social andpolitical values with whose fluctuations our existencesand fates, our exaltations and miseries are unhappilybut excitingly involved.oRUSH COMMENCEMENTThe date of the exercises and clinics has been advanced to Friday and Saturday, June 7 and 8, to giveopportunity to visiting Alumni to attend these activities and also the meeting of the A. M. A. which beginsMonday, June 10, at Atlantic City.On Friday, June 7, the program will include special clinics during the entire day at the College, thePresbyterian and Cook County Flospitals. In the evening class reunions will be held by the classes of f8$,95 and 1015.On Saturday, June 8, the clinics zvill be continued during the day.The annual meeting of the Alumni Association will be held at 6:00 P. M. at the Palmer House.The Faculty and Alumni Banquet will be held at 6:30 P. M., Saturday, June 8, also at the PalmerHouse. During the program of this meeting an oil painting of Prof. Arthur Dean Sevan will be presentedby his friends and fellow Alumni to the College.NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES• By JOHN P. HOWE, '27SOME 2,000 University people, including faculty,technicians, assistants and advanced students, areengaged in the business of research. The rangeof their interests is enormous, and the annual precipitateof their activity, in the form of publications, would spillover a five-foot shelf. No individual on the quadranglescan hope to keep up with all of it, even at the more obvious levels. Much of it is too involved for presentationin everyday language, and some of it is necessarily toodiscursive to be presented in brief form. Research inmathematics is an example in the former class, and muchof the research in the humanities is an example of thelatter. Strangely enough,, two of the fields most remotefrom ordinary affairs, astronomy and archaeology, appear to be most interesting to laymen. The social sciences, the biological sciences particularly where the workhas clinical possibilities, religion, psychology, physics,geology and home economics seem to command generalinterest. Several recent research projects at the Midway,chosen at random, are presented herewith.ErgotAn advance in the management and safety of child-bearing is expected to result from a discovery recentlymade by a group of University scientists. Chemists andobstetricians, working on a cooperative project, havenow succeeded in isolating and preparing in pure, crystalline form the active principle of ergot, a drug widelyuseful in childbirth.The discovery is expected to put a valuable agentin the hands of obstetricians, particularly in connectionwith the expulsion of the placenta and in minimizingthe danger of hemorrhage after the delivery of the child.Ergot is a fungus which develops on rye and othergrains. Its effect in inducing contractions of the uterushas long been noted, but its use has been questioned because its activating component was unknown, its actionslow and uncertain, and nausea and other difficulties oftenaccompanied its use.The new active principle, even in exceedingly smalldoses, uniformly and promptly induces strong, rhythmiccontractions, lasting from three to four hours, and starting within a few minutes after it is injected or taken bymouth. No discomfort accompanies its use.Isolation of the active principle culminates two anda half years of work on the problem by Drs. M. EdwardDavis, Fred L. Adair and Gerald Rogers of the Department of Obstetrics and : Gynecology of the University,and of the staff of the Chicago Lying-in Hospital, andby Professor Morris S. Kharasch and Dr. Romeo R.Legault of the University's department of Chemistry.Their findings are published in the February issue of theAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, afterhaving first been presented to the medical profession atthe November, 1934, meeting of the Central Associationof Obstetrics and Gynecology.Tests have been made on more than 250 patients during the course of the research, most of the tests taking place after the birth of a child. A technique perfected by Drs. Adair and Davis was used in the clinicalphase of the project."Alkaloidal" components of ergot, hitherto believedto be the activating element of the drug, were proved tohave little or no effect in inducing uterine contraction.The true activating principle was refined through variousstages until, in its present crystalline form, a dose ofthree-tenths of a milligram, so small that it must bemeasured with very delicate balances, is sufficient to produce the desired effect.Throughout the research "control" experiments havebeen made on animals ; and identical results having beenobtained with dogs, a method of "assay" of the drughas thus been developed.The new active principle is believed to meet all clinical needs for an oxytocic drug for use during thelying-in period. Its action is uniform and the effects ofa very small dose persist for three to four hours. Thepreparation is colorless, tasteless and odorless, it is stableunder ordinary conditions of heat and exposure to air,it has no effect on pulse or blood pressure, and it causesno intestinal disturbances even when the dose is severaltimes more than usual.Ergot was once responsible for widespread epidemics of ergotism, or "St. Anthony's Fire," a Europeanscourge resulting from eating fungus-infected rye. Thedisease was marked by gangrenous manifestations. "Thepossibility of producing ergotism by the use of the active principle has not been studied extensively," theChicago experimenters report. "It is our impressionthat there is little danger of its occurrence even afterthe administration of large quantities."Further work will be done at Chicago in the chemical analysis of the molecular structure of the activeprinciple, with a view to the ultimate production of thedrug by chemical synthesis.Ergot is not grown in the United States and its importation is under government regulation and inspection.The government test for the strength of the importedergot consists in injecting cocks with the drug andmeasuring the extent to which their combs turn blue.European midwives knew the medicinal effects ofcrude ergot as early as the 18th century. It was firstdescribed to the medical profession in 1807 by JohnStearns of Saratoga, N. Y., and coming into widespreaduse to induce or speed labor, it became a useful butdangerous therapeutic agent. Ill effects resulted fromits indiscriminate use, and conservative doctors recommended that its use be limited to the post-parturition period, to relieve atony and hemorrhage.TrustsA ten-year research project by Professor GeorgeGleason Bogert of the University Law faculty reached230THE UNIVERSITY OFconclusion last month with the publication of his 7-vol-ume treatise on "Trusts and Trustees." Prof. Bogert'swork is an authoritative and exhaustive treatment of thisincreasingly important field of law, written in the lightof the great modern development of the use of trustsand the modern trust company.More than 22,000 cases relating to trusts were analyzed by Professor Bogert in the preparation of thetreatise. The author, a former Dean of the College ofLaw of Cornell University, is recognized as one of theforemost authorities in his field. He is a member of theNew York Bar, at which he practiced for a number ofyears, was for several years chairman of the Committeeon the Preparation of Uniform Trust Legislation forthe Conference on Uniform Laws, has taught the subjectof Trusts since 1911, and has been an adviser on Truststo the American Law Institute.Formation and administration of all forms of trusts,including such comparatively modern developments asinsurance trusts, trusts in financing operations, votingtrusts, and trusts in real estate work, are treated fromboth the legal and business viewpoints in Prof. Bogert'swork. The text and notes are based on an examinationof all available American and English case and statutelaw. Allied subjects discussed include a special studyof the relative state and federal tax laws. Two volumesare devoted to forms obtained from expert draftsmenlocated in different states.TermitesTo make an intensive study of the amazing termiteinsects, which have one of the most nearly perfect socialorganizations known, Dr. Alfred E. Emerson, Professorof Zoology left Chicago in March for a six-months research project in the Panama Canal Zone.Professor Emerson will analyze the effect of changesin temperature, humidity and light upon the elaboratesocial life of the termites during the courses of his studies.He plans also to arrange battles between termite "soldiers" and other species, in order to study the defensivebehavior of the insects and the effectiveness of varyingnumbers of "soldiers."Termites are related to roaches. Their social organization includes the division of labor and the domestication of animals. The principal castes are the queenand king, which occupy a cell near the center of thenest, the soldiers, and the workers. Despite the fact thatthe queen and king monopolize the function of reproduction, and that the members of the colony are chieflytheir offspring, the soldier and the worker castes havediffering anatomical construction. Workers provide thequeen and king, the soldiers and the young with food,which is chiefly woody substances. Soldiers are equippedwith large heads or mandibles for fighting. The domesticated animals, or "termitophiles," are often membersof a species related to beetles. Dr. Emerson will make aspecial study of this group.Complex activities of the termites often involvechain series of as many as eight or nine instinctive actions, according to Dr. Emerson. He expects to studythis phenomenon. His equipment includes apparatusfor measuring temperature, humidity, light and gas con- CHICAGO MAGAZINE 231tent of nests. Termite reaction to varying humidities,for example, will be studied by changing the humidity ofsections of the nest and observing the conditions towhich the termites are attracted.Dr. Emerson will also study the "swarming" behavior of termites. Certain of the insects develop wingsat one stage of their development, and leave the nes£in swarms to start new colonies.Unlike humans, Professor Emerson observes, termites will not fight members of their own species. Thebattles of their soldiers are confined chiefly to defensiveoperations against enemies of other species. He willstudy the defensive behavior of the soldiers, varyingtheir numbers to study effectiveness. While their is littleanti-social behavior among the termites, their organization as compared with other social organizations lacksdiversity, Dr. Emerson points out.Dr. Emerson's headquarters will be the island ofBarros Colorado in Gatun Lake, Canal Zone, where theNational Research Council maintains a biological station. He is accompanied by his wife and two children.CareersSelection and training of future federal administrators should be as rigorous and exacting as West Point'sselection and training of future Army officers, in theopinion of Dr. Leonard D. White, Professor of PoliticalScience on leave serving as United States Civil ServiceCommissioner, who last month presented a series of fivelectures at the University in which he proposed theestablishment of a "career corps" for the higher permanent administrative posts of the national government.The lectures are published this month by the UniversityPress under the title, "Government Career Service."While suggesting no serious changes in the presentduties or personnel of federal office, Dr. White proposesthat some 2,500 appointments, which are or should benon-political in nature, including the highest permanentcivil offices and position leading by promotion into them,should now be designated as in the "career service." Ifoutstanding young men and women could be chosen byexacting tests and trained rigorously for these positionsby a program "comparable in exactions to that of WestPoint, but without the regimentation characteristic ofa military academy," the United States could develop,within two decades, a brilliant federal administrativestaff, Dr. White believes.Admitting that energetic and gifted individuals havetended to prefer private jobs, Dr. White said, "I amunable to accept the view that the highest intellectual andadministrative ability will shun the public service if thepublic service will put its house in order. If we establish a recognized career service and place it on a highplane men of ability will certainly come forward to taketheir place in it. I am more than convinced that thegovernment can now call upon some of the ablest youngmen in the generation which is now marching forwardto active life."Dr. White believes the career service is vital to improved administration, and necessary in view of theenlarged responsibilities of the government, and that an232 THE UNIVERSITY OF"administrative class" could be developed in a democraticway consistent with American ideals and avoiding thedangers of bureaucracy.Only about 2,500 of the nearly 700,000 employes ofthe government would be in the "career service." These2,500 would be administrators or potential administrators. Administrators are not responsible for policy, whichis the function of the political side of the government,Dr. White points out, but they should be able to adviseon policy. They should also be free from too much absorption in the day to day operation of bureaus, whichhe designates as an "executive" duty, as against anadministrative duty."Not only do we lack in this country a known andrecognized career in the higher brackets of the publicservice ; we do not even recognize the peculiar nature ofadministrative work," Dr. White said, defining the latter as "coordination, supervision and planning."According to Dr. White's plan about 250 men andwomen under 30 years of age would be inducted annually, through open competition, into the career service,150 of them from other branches of the federal service,100 from among college graduates. A five-year probationary period would ensue, during which increasinglyheavy responsibilities wrould test the probationers, andmany would be eliminated, with about 100 surviving ineach class. Three higher brackets of the service wouldbe scheduled.Probationary services would be set up in variouslarge areas of government activity. A "fiscal service"would lead into higher posts in such agencies as theTreasury Dept., RFC, Federal Reserve Board, FDIC,and Farm Credit Administration. A "commerce service"might include the Department of Commerce, InterstateCommerce Commission, Tariff Commission, FederalTrade Commission, . National Recovery Administration,etc. Other career services might be set up in postalservice, labor, public works, public health, etc.Probationers should be given responsibility as rapidly as they can handle it, Dr White believes. "Menwho do not assume responsibility until they are advanced in years seldom are able to carry it easily and discharge it well. A notorious weakness in all levels of ourgovernment is the disinclination of persons to take responsibility where the law intends them to do so."Working against deadlines would be one test of theprobationers, Dr. White said, adding that "Delay is oneof the nightmares of public service." The probationaryprogram would be aimed "to produce men who will notshrink from responsibility, who will know the theoretical and practical grounds on which their decisionsrest, who will be able to reach the conclusions in thelight of long-range as well as immediate considerations,who having taken a decision will stand up to the consequences of their decision, and who nevertheless retainthat capacity for adjustment which will enable them toadvise honestly and efficiently on different and perhapsconflicting points of view."Probationers would start at an initial salary of$1,620, with raises up to $2,580 before they became"principals," the next highest class. While promotionshould rest on merit rather than seniority, the next highest grade after "principal" should be reached only after CHICAGO MAGAZINEfive years in the latter rank. Highest salaries in theservice would probably be around $10,000, Dr. Whitesaid, pointing out that there are now 27 positions whichwould fall in the service paying over $8,000.Prestige and morale would be important in thecareer service, Dr. White points out, though career menwould not be identified with public discussion of controversial issues, and would be loyal to those responsiblepolitically to the electorate. He cited the recent difficulties in the solicitor's office of the AAA, pointing out thatif this office were headed by a career man, no issuewould have arisen, for "a career man never works himself into the position which faced Mr. Frank; he cannot indulge in the luxury of insisting upon his theoryof social organization or public policy."The Foreign Service branch of the State Department is already on a career basis, Dr. White pointed out.More of the SameThree recent publications by University social scientists are too exhaustive for discussion here. One is astudy of retail price movements for 1933 and 1934 inseven selected cities of the United States for 631 commodities, done under the direction of Professor JohnH. Cover of the School of Business. A pioneer effortof its kind, the work was developed under semi-governmental auspices, much of the statistical phase of it having been carried out on the second floor of the oldStadium on Ellis Avenue. Another tremendous statistical job, gathering and compilation of all the data of the1934 Chicago census, has been done under the directionof two young University social scientists, Charles New-comb and Richard Lang. A third recent study relatesto the relations, legal, administrative and political, between the city of Chicago and the state of Illinois, doneby Albert Lepawsky of the Political Science department,and published under the title "Home Rule for Metropolitan Chicago." The University Press is the publisherof all three of these studies.Two professors-emeritus, Charles J. Chamberlainof the Botany department, and Andrew C. McLaughlinof the History department, have turned their comparative leisure to good account with recent books, Dr. Chamberlain's volume being entitled, "Gymnosperms : TheirStructure and Behavior," and Dr. McLaughlin's "A Constitutional History of the United States." Recent andimportant books from the Humanities side of the campusinclude "The Prophets and Israel's Culture," by Professor William C. Graham, and "The Early Career ofAlexander Pope," by Professor George Sherburn, bothvery favorably reviewed.NotedProfessor-Emeritus Thomas Atkinson Jenkins, amember of the Romance Languages department since1901 and its specialist in the history of the French language until his retirement two years ago, died March24th in San Francisco, at age 66. He was visiting hisson, Francis A. Jenkins, of the faculty of the Universityof California, and succumbed to pneumonia following anoperation. The University in recent years has not beenTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 233<2>3><$'^^ o o *0(D ax«?What excitement there was when she got her firsttooth. And her second! And now there are seven.Already she is making brave attempts to say a wordor two.Much of your life is given over to keeping herwell and happy. For she is so little and lovable —and so dependent on you.During the day and through the darkness of nightyou have a feeling of safety and security because ofthe telephone. It is an ever-watchful guardian of your home — ready to serve you in the ordinaryaffairs of life and in time of emergency.In office and store and factory and on the farmthe telephone is an equally important part of everyactivity.The telephone would not be what it is today ifit were not for the nation-wide Bell System. Itsunified plan of operation has developed telephoneservice to its present high efficiency and brought itwithin reach of people everywhere.An extension telephone in your bedroom, sun room, kitchen or nursery will save manyai steps each day. It insures greater safety and privacy yet the monthly charge is small.BELL TELEPHONE SYSTEM234 THE UNIVERSITY OFholding formal memorial services, but an informal memorial service for Professor Jenkins was held April 9th byfaculty members and students of the language departments at which Professor William A. Nitze discussedDr. Jenkins' career in scholarship and Professor PaulDouglas paid tribute to his personality. ... ProfessorJames Mullenbach of the faculty of the Chicago Theological Seminary, an outstanding figure in the life ofthe University community and a nationally known laborarbitrator, died April 3rd. . . . Dr. Karl S. Lashley, Professor of Psychology, has resigned, effective in September, to accept appointment to the faculty of HarvardUniversity. A former president of the American Psychological Association and a recently elected member of theexclusive National Academy of Science, Professor Lashley has been one of the University's ablest research men,'and his departure to accept Harvard's munificent offerwill be regretted on the Midway. His most recent work,on the brains of animals, indicates that some generalizedprinciple obtains in the cerebral cortex with regard tolearning ability, and throws into question the theory oflocalization in the cortex and the neat switchboard picture. . . . He is the second able young biologist Chicagohas lost to Harvard in the last two years, the first havingbeen Alfred Romer, paleontologist. We hear that several other highly competent young faculty men havereceived tempting offers to go elsewhere, but the University authorities are making valiant efforts in the faceof the reduced income of recent years, and the expectancyis that the University will not only hold its best youngscholars and scientists but will be able to add to theirnumbers in the coming five years. . . . Professor Wolfgang Kohler, head of the Psychology department at theUniversity of Berlin and chief exponent of the "Gestalt"psychology, is on the campus during the current quarter, conducting a seminar and consulting with studentsand faculty. During the past two years the Universityhas given temporary appointments to a number ofdistinguished German scholars and scientists, includingProfessor Kohler in psychology, Professor MelchiorPalyi in economics, Professor Hans Rosenberg inastronomy, Professor Franz Weidenreich in anatomy,Dr. Rudolph Schindler in medicine, Professor MaxRheinstein in Law and Professor Walther von Wartburgin linguistics. Some of these are expatriates under theHitler regime. . . . Dean Louis R. Wilson of the University's Graduate Library School will be the President ofthe American Library Association for the year 1935-36.The Association has nearly 12,000 members. Dean Wilson, who is the sole nominee, will become, on his election to the office in June, the sixth member of theUniversity faculty chosen to head a learned or professional society since Christmas. The faculty of the Graduate Library School will be strengthened with theaddition of a sixth member this autumn, ProfessorCarleton Joeckel, now of the University of Michigan.Professor Joeckel, who is a Chicago PhD, is recognizedas the leading American authority on the relation oflibraries to public administration and is chairman of theCommittee on Federal Relations of the A. L. A. TheUniversity Press will shortly publish this volume, "TheGovernment of the American Public Library." An ap- CHICAGO MAGAZINEpointment in this field seems particularly appropriate inview of the University's increasing interest in problemsof public administration, through its Political Sciencedepartment, increased collections of social science documents in its Library, and through the development nearthe quadrangles of nearly a score of semi-public agencies, such as the American Legislators Association andthe International Association of City Managers. . . .Leonard Koos, Professor of Secondary Education in theUniversity's Department of Education, has been servingas Associate Director of the National Survey of Secondary Education undertaken by the Federal Office ofEducation. He has "carried the major burden of directing and handling the Survey," according to the FederalOffice's announcement of 28 monographs forthcomingon the subject. . . . Award of 218 graduate fellowshipsand graduate scholarships for the next academic yearwas announced April 1st. The awards, 81 per cent ofwhich were made to men, are valued at a total of $85,786,and are exclusive of an additional group of half-scholarships at the graduate level. Recipients were chosen fromamong 1,264 applicants, nearly all of whom seek thePhD degree. All academic departments and three professional schools, Divinity, Library Science and SocialService Administration, are represented in the selections. Fellowships and scholarships in Law, Medicineand Business are announced later, as are scholarshipsfor undergraduates and entering freshmen. . . . Morethan a dozen members of the regular faculty whose vacation periods ensue at this time have left, or are leaving,for foreign parts, most of them on research projects.Among these are Professor George Sherburn of theDepartment of English, who left for England to workon the second volume of his studies of Alexander Pope ;Professor Donald Riddle of the New Testament department, who left for Germany to work on New Testamenttextual problems at Heidelberg; Professor Alfred Emerson of the Zoology department, who left for Panama tostudy the social organization of the termite insects ; Professor Robert Redfield, Dean of the Social Sciencesdivision, who left for Yucatan to study the impact ofcivilization on primitive peoples; Professor GeorgeBogert of the Law School, whose 7-volume treatise on"Trusts and Trustees" has just been published, who leftfor Mexico; Professor Frances Gillespie of the Historydepartment, who left for London to do research work inthe British Museum and the Public Records Office ; Professor William Taliaferro, associate dean of the Biological Sciences division, who has gone to Panama towork on tropical diseases; Professor Paul Weiss of theZoology department, who has gone to various Europeancenters on a National Research Council fellowship todevelop his "resonance" principle of nerve reactions;Professor William A. Nitze, head of the Romance Languages department, who is leaving for Copenhagen toattend a learned congress; Professors Samuel Allisonand William Zachariasen of the Physics department,who will go to various centers of physical research inEurope ; Professor Bernadotte Schmitt, head of the History department, who will leave for Europe later in thequarter ; and Dean Louis Wilson of the Graduate LibrarySchool, who will be an American delegate to the Inter-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 235national Congress of Librarians at Madrid and Barcelonain May.Professor Arthur H. Compton returned to thecampus for three weeks in March and April, after a six-month period at the University of Oxford, England, consulted with his graduate students about the instrument-balloon flights in the stratosphere and made plans for theconstruction of a large magnet, then returned to Englandto finish the spring term at Oxford. Others returningfrom Europe this quarter include Professor Douglas-Waples of the Graduate Library School, Professor RalphGerard of the Physiology department, and Dr. RoyGrinker, neurologist in the University Clinics, all ofwhom have been engaged in research abroad. Remaining overseas for another quarter are several who havebeen on research projects during the winter, includingHarley McNair, Professor of Far Eastern History, whohas been in the Far East ; William Randall, Professor ofLibrary Science, who has been in the -Near East; Professors Manly and Rickert of the English department,who are in England on their Chaucer project and Dr.Margaret Gerard, psychiatrist in the University Clinics,who is studying in Vienna Professor Garfield Coxof the School of Business has agreed to head the Boardof Directors of new bank on 63rd St., the South EastNational Bank, which will serve a community which hasbeen without adequate banking facilities since the fold-ups two years ago A "Festschrift" number of the"Journal of Ecology" will be published shortly in honorof Dr. Henry C. Cowles, Professor Emeritus of Botany. Professor L. Ruzicka of Zurich, noted for his achievements in synthesizing complex organic substances,including the male sex hormone, will teach in the Chemistry department during the forthcoming Summerquarter When this campus goes collegiate, it goeswith a bang, the dates being April 26th and 27th, theplace the University field house, the event the SeniorClass "Fandango."National Defense(Continued from Page 218)Education and enlightenment will save us fromhasty and ill advised legislation, and aid us in enforcinglaws reasonably calculated to promote our common good.We have the same need for freedom and opportunitytoday as did the subjects of King George in 1776. Thebattle today, however, is not against a foreign monarch,but rather is against domestic influences advocating thecurtailment of education. With good intentions theseinfluences threaten to undermine our free institutions andthe very government that rests upon them. Just as inLincoln's day, no nation could survive half slave andhalf free, so today we cannot prosper half in light andhalf in darkness.May we not bespeak the interest of each and everyone in this State to urge upon our State and City officials to make ample provision for adult education? Astatewide program supported by the men and women ofthe State and nation would soon discourage the forcesof evil and dispel the depression brewed by ignoranceand stupidity.THIS HAM NEEDSNO PARBOILING. . . it's Swift's Premium and it's Ovenized!HERE IS A DELICIOUSWAY TO SERVE IT!Bake Swift's PremiumThis Easy Way:Place a whole or half Swift'sPremium Ham in a roaster. Add 2cups of water, and cover the roaster.Bake in a slow oven (325°), allowingabout 2 1 minutes a pound for a largewhole ham; about 25 minutes a poundfor smaller (up to 12 lb.) hams or<;_ half hams. When ham is done, remove from oven. Lift off rind. Scoresurface and dot with cloves; rub withmixture of 3^ cup brown sugar andI tbsp. flour. Brown, uncovered, for20 minutes in a hot oven (400°).For a festive touch, try basting theham — while it browns — with meltedcurrant jelly.Apple SurpriseCore and halve apples and boiluntil red in syrup made with cinnamon drops. Pile apples with saucemade with cranberries and drainedcrushed pineapple. Serve in parsleynests. Swift's Premium Ham needs no pre-cooking. Instead, it comes to you ready to bake, or to slice andcook in your favorite way with no parboiling. Itsaves you time and effort and assures you of tender,juicy ham, rich, sweet, and full-flavored.Ovenizing, Swift's own method of smoking hamin ovens, makes this possible. First the famousmild Premium cure, then this special way of smoking. . . and the result is a ham far superior in flavor andmuch, much easier to prepare. Why not try one thisweek-end? Just be sure to ask for Swift's PremiumHam. No other kind is Ovenized.SWIFT &> COMPANY . GENERAL OFFICES . CHICAGOATHLETICSANOTHER Chicago football team— the third sinceClark Shaughnessy took charge — is toiling theseafternoons on the practice field in the dull, butimportant, grind of spring training that is to build thefoundation for next autumn's campaign. There are sixty-six men on the weight chart, and between forty-four andfifty of them are on the field each afternoon. Jay Berwanger, captain, still working as earnestly as he did as afreshman, is the most important individual on the squad.And whenever Mr. Shaughnessy tends to grow melancholy about the difficulties of the autumnal job, he can getsome comfort from the presence of twelve other letter-men who bulk large and impressive in football suits.The problem, and it is a bigger one than most forecasters realize, of next autumn will be to replace Capt.Ell Patterson at center. His teammates were recordingtheir sincere conviction when they elected him the "mostvaluable" player at the end of 1934. As an offensivecenter he was the best in the conference ; defensively, heassumed magnificent proportions. Further, he was areal leader. Berwanger will be another exceptional leading force this season, and Sam Whiteside, the sophomoreguard who played more minutes of conference competition, everyone of them good, will probably be a betterthan average Big Ten center. But there will be no onein there next autumn able to back up the line with theconviction that Patterson had. Patterson and Berwanger, it should be recalled, together stopped the jug-gernaught of Minnesota power for a full half last season,and might have done it for a full game if Pattersonhadn't been smashed up in a scramble for a loose ball.The loss of Patterson should temper the enthusiasm thatrises so high about this time of year when the alumnistart to evaluate the team's possibilities from the perspective of the loop.There are a couple of other questions to whichCoach Shaughnessy will have to find an answer. One ofthem is the development of a quarterback to replaceTommy Flinn. Flinn may not have been the best fieldgeneral in the conference, but he was an aggressivequarter. Rainwater Wells, who was at right halfbacklast season, seems to be the first choice. Bill Runyan, a157 pound sophomore, who was next in line, injured aknee in practice and will need an operation. From oneviewpoint, at least, Runyan would have been better thanWells, for he also would be available next year, seasonedwith a year's experience in a job where experience isvaluable. There is also a shortage of ends, and Bob Perretz has moved out there again from guard, resuming anexperiment that was terminated in the middle of the 1934season when injuries dissipated the guard reserves.Ewald Nyquist, for two years the regular fullback, is alsobeing tried at the end position. Whether he will doremains to be seen.The first team lineup right now goes this way :Ends— Perretz, Gillerlain, Nyquist; tackles — Bush, • By WILLIAM V. MORGANSTERN, '20, JD '22Wright ; guards — Jordan, Meigs ; center — Whiteside ;quarterback — Wells; halfbacks — Berwanger, Bartlett;fullback, Skoning.Kyle Anderson's baseball team made its debut bydefeating the International Harvester team, 18 to 1, in afashion that was most encouraging. Harry Yedor, ajunior righthander, pitched three innings, striking outthree men, walking none, and giving no hits. He wassucceeded by Connor Laird, another righthander, whoworked three innings and struck out four men, walkedone, and allowed three scattered hits. Bill Haarlowfinished up, striking out six men, hitting one, and allowing one hit. An" unearned run was made off Haarlow.That kind of pitching is promising, and although it wasproduced in only one game, the fact that the Chicagoteam never before has been able to win from theHarvester club indicates the pitchers have something.There is a first class outfield, of Ralph Wehling, left;Dave Levin, center, and Harry Nacey, right. Levin andWehling hit .393 in the conference last year ; Nacey is anatural ball player who can hit and field. Haarlow willplay first base when he is not pitching, with ElmerNessler, lefthanded sophomore, as the second choice.Edwin Tyk, another sophomore, has a slight advantagefor the second base job, in a close fight with Paul Ganzer,a junior. Richard Cochran, junior, who led the team inhitting last year with .410, is at shortstop, and AntonKruzic, a transfer student, and Joseph Kacena, a junior,are evenly matched at third base. There are threepwuBJgng catchers, Robert Shipway, Austin Curtis, andMilton Bernard, all sophomores. If there is uncertaintyat present, it concerns the defensive work of the infield.The track squad will show no improvement overthe indoor season and will accomplish little. The tennisprospects are dubious, for the first time in years, becauseof the uncertain eligibility of Trevor Weiss and the setback caused Norman Bickel's progress by an appendectomy from which he is slow in convalescing. Ell Patterson at present rates as the No. 1 man on the team,instead of his normal No. 3.In the Big Ten swimming championship, held afterthe March issue of the Magazine went to press, Chicagofinished in sixth position, scoring 9 points, with a fourthin the 400-yard relay and Charles Wilson's fourth in the440 freestyle and third in the 220.Twenty-seven major letters and twenty-one minoremblems were awarded to members of the winter sportsteams. The swimming team, with ten major letters, sixof which were to men receiving their first "C," led all theother teams in the number of the awards.Winners in basketball were: Capt. Thomas -Flinn,Redwood Falls, Minnesota; Gordon Peterson, LongBeach, Cal.; Richard Dorsey, Streator, 111.; WilliamHaarlow, William Lang, Stanley Kaplan, and RobertEldred, all of Chicago. Dorsey and Kaplan were theonly new men receiving the letter.236THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 237Wrestlers who won their first letter were Theodore Bloch, RogerGorman, and Edwin Zukowski, Chicago. Norman Howard and RobertKracke also received the "C."The Old English letter wasawarded the following : Basketball —Walter Duvall, Raymond Weiss,Charles W. Merrifield, and George N.Pritikin, of Chicago, Fencing:George Gelman, Louis Marks, JamesWalters, Campbell Wilson, LelandWinter, of Chicago. Gymnastics—Theodore Kolb, R. H. Scanlan, andTheodore Savich, Chicago. Swimming and water polo — Sheldon Bernstein, R. H. Bethke, Chicago ; WilliamKoenig, Barrington, 111., and Karl L.Adams, De Kalb, 111. Wrestling—Charles Bntler, Donald Hughes, Robert Ware, Chicago ; Frank Pesek, Cedar Rapids, la., Sam Whiteside,Evanston, 111.Notes : A. A. Stagg, Jr., has beenappointed athletic director and football coach at Susquehanna University, Selinsgrove, Pa., and will takeover the position in September. Oneof his duties this autumn will be toachieve the defeat of Moravian College, coached by his brother, Paul.Swimming and water polo awards :Jay Brown, Floyd Stauffer, JosephStolar, and Daniel J. Walsh, of Chicago ; Juan Horns, Rockford ; CharlesWilson, Crystal Lake, 111., who received the letter for the first time.Previous winners on the list wereCapt. Charles Dwyer, Chicago. Mer-ritt Bush, Long Beach, Cal. ; GeorgeNicoll, Oak Park ; Hubert Will, Milwaukee, Wis.In gymnastics, Emery Fair andPeter Schneider, Chicago, and W. F.Schroeder, Rock Island, receivedtheir first letter. Previous winnerswere C. T. Adams and Martin I Ian-ley, Chicago.THE CHICAGO ALUMNAECLUBwill hold its Annual SpringLuncheon and Business Meeting,Saturday, April 20, at the Casino Club, at 12:30 o'clock.Members are urged to maketheir reservations (at $1.10 perplate) by writing or telephoningMiss Ruth Earnshaw, SocialChairman, at the Alumni Office,Cobb 403, Mid. 0800, Local3 1 7. Miss Gertrude Dudley willbe the guest of honor at theluncheon. Universities in Uniform(Continued from Page 217)and dissection of all social, politicaland economic institutions, practicesand ideas. This clearly requires thepreservation of the fullest possiblefreedom for scholars to teach, lectureand write without compulsion eitherfrom the guardians of orthodoxy orfrom the agitators of heterodoxy.This function of the university deserves emphatic restatement at a timewhen increasing demands are beingmade either for the regimentation ofuniversity teaching and scholarshipinto narrow, orthodox channels or, inother quarters, for the conversion ofuniversities into propaganda agenciesfor some ill-defined and ill-considered"collectivism." Academic freedom isjeopardized by radical schoolmen whopreach revolution through education.It is more immediately jeopardizedby conservatives and reactionarieswho view with alarm every manifestation of irreverence toward thestatus quo.The issue is far broader than therights and prerogatives of universityfaculties as such. It is a phase of theworld conflict between freedom andregimentation, liberty and tyranny,democracy and dictatorship. Universities can contribute most effectivelyto the preservation of democracy byinsistence on the preservation of freedom in teaching and scholarship. Butacademic freedom can be retainedonly if the confidence of the community in universities is retained. Suchconfidence depends upon the abilityof educators to convince the community that they can be relied upon todischarge the responsibilities of freedom, that they can be trusted to drawthe line between indoctrination anddetachment at a point which will enable educated citizens, committed tothe democratic way of life, to reconcile order with liberty, stability withprogress and continuity with change.This responsibility now weighs uponeducators more heavily than ever before, for upon it depends not onlytheir own personal freedom to seektruth and enrich knowledge but allfreedom in American society. Forthe fulfillment of this difficult missioneducators will need extraordinaryskill, subtlety, wisdom and courage.They will also need the wholehearted support of all friends of freedom in education and in government.Unless this support is forthcoming,unless educators awaken to the newresponsibilities and new perils whichconfront them, there is reason to fearthat American universities may alsosuccumb to the new despotism ashave so many of their sister institutions abroad. THIS LUXURIOUS STATEROOMwith private shower-toilet, com only$ W® EACH FOR TWOBritish port!round trip, $325.60OF YOUR ENJOYMENT ISSAILING AMERICANSwift transportation is actually only1 % of what the modest fare buys . . .ON YOUR OWN SHIPS TO EUROPEFive days of gracious living — inthe finest American manner . . .accented by meals of which Americans can well be proud. Fivebrilliant evenings. Five nights ofluxurious rest— in deep, soft,real beds. An interlude perfectas any smart American clubcould provide— or any fine American hotel. That is what we meanby sailing American. Extra room,the extra courtesies of understanding service, all the little extras which have made Americanstandards of living second to none:these you will find. In such generous measure that your pleasure,your entertainment in the American manner, actually accountsfor 99? of the modest fare . . .with3,000 happy miles of modernocean transportation for about 1%.RATES LOWER ISAILINGS WEEKLYUntil April 30, 1935, you canmake the round trip for aslittle as S151 (Tourist Class)to British ports. And here,too, you'll find accommoda*tions modern — Americanstandard. Note that four greatUnited States liners provideweekly sailings to Cohh, Plymouth, Havre and Hamburg. Fastest Cabin Liners Afloat IS. S. WASHINGTONApril 10; May 8; June 5S. S. MANHATTANApril 24; May 22 ; June 19And the very popularS. S. PRES. HARDINGApril 3; May 1; May 29S. S. PRES. 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Magnificent public rooms, deft, unobtrusive service,pre-release talking pictures.You call at Havana, see the Panama Canalby day, spend hours ashore at Balboa andold Panama, San Diego (for Mexico) andLos Angeles. Then — San Francisco ! ReducedFirst Class fares from$185. Tourist Cabin$120. Round trips for afare and a half.. revel in theCRUISES ONS.S. COLUMBIAAMERICA'S GREATESTCRUISE SHIPTo Bermuda,. April 12.SV2 days. $65 up Easter Cruise ta Nassau,Miami, Havana. April 19. 9 days. $110 up Early summer cruise to Mexico calling atNorfolk, Havana, Vera Cruz, Progreso, Jamaica and Nassau. 21 days. $200 up. June 8.Apply to your travel agent. His services are free.PANAMA PACIFIC LINEAssociated with American Merchant, Baltimore Mail andUnited States Lines to Europe ; Panama Pacific and UnitedStates Lines Cruises.Main Office: No. 1 Broadway, New YorkOther offices in all principal cities WHO'S WHOAmong the Doctors of PhilosophyTHERE can be no doubt about it— Chicago can afford to be proudof her Ph.D.'s. Aside from theirsplendid records in the work of theirchoice, and their frequent and valuable contributions to the sum of human knowledge, they have had, sincethe founding of the University, anespecially close and intimate connection with the Institution. It is seldom that graduate students feel thesame affection for the school of theiradvanced studies as the Ph.B.'s dofor the College. But Chicago's doctors have always been a notably loyaland devoted group of alumni.In 1906 they organized an Association of Doctors of Philosophy,and the organization has continuedwithout a break to the present day,meeting regularly and keeping inclose touch with the University, nomatter where the members might bescattered. A very large part of thecredit for this fine spirit and effective organization may be laid at thedoor of Herbert E. Slaught, Ph.D.,'98,^ who served as secretary fromthe inception of the Association, until his retirement in 1931. Dr.Slaught has been unstinting of histime and interest and has given the essential personal attention to all thesociety's affairs, making membershipin it more than a mere formality ofdues-paying.The Doctors of Philosophy are indeed a distinguished group. Themighty survey of Who's Who inAmerica reveals that 562 of thoselisted in that volume are Ph.D.'s fromChicago (non-graduates of the College)Their occupations (according toWho's Who) show an interesting variety, in spite of the not surprisingpreponderance in educational work ofone kind or another. Among thoselisted were found representatives in:the U. S. Bureau of Standards, U. S.Geological Survey, U. S. Tariff Commission, Director, U. S. Signal CorpsLaboratories, U. S. Department ofState, U. S. Interstate CommerceCommission, Federal Trade Commission, U. S. Office of Education, NewYork State Museum, and one economist for the Association of Railway Executives.A dozen clergymen are listed, andhalf a dozen writers of particular distinction ; there are also the directorof the Personnel Research Corporation, Director of the Institute ofAlumnusCarlos E. AllenDice AndersonElam AndersonWallace W. AtwoodDavid P. BarrowsKatharine BluntJulian A. BurrussHolly E. CunninghamElmer G. CutshallClifton D. GrayJohn C. HesslerAllen HobenLincoln HulleyTheodore H. JackDavid M. KeyConrad J. KjerstadFranc L. McCluerRobt. J. McKnightHarold G. MoultonGeorge NorlinAlbert G. Parker, Jr.Homer P. RaineyVernon F. SchwalmOscar A. TinglestadBuz M. Walker Table No. 1InstitutionNorth Dakota State TeachersCollegeWesleyan CollegeLinfield CollegeClark UniversityUniversity of CaliforniaConnecticut CollegeVirginia Polytechnic Inst.Alfred Holbrook CollegeNebraska WesleyanBates CollegeJas. Millikan UniversityKalamazoo CollegeJohn B. Stetson UniversityRandolph-Macon Woman'sCollegeMillsaps CollegeNorth Dakota State TeachersCollegeWestminster CollegeReformed PresbyterianSeminaryThe Brookings InstitutionUniversity of ColoradoHanover CollegeBucknell UniversityMcPherson CollegePacific Lutheran CollegeMississippi A and M College LocationValley CityMacon, Ga.McMinnville, Ore.Worcester, Mass.BerkeleyNew LondonBlacksburgMorgant'n, W. Va.LincolnLewiston, Me.Decatur, 111.Kalamazoo, Mich.DeLand, Fla.Lynchburg, Va.Jackson, Miss.DickinsonFulton, Mo.Williamsburg, Pa.Washington, D. C.BoulderHanover, Ind.Lewisberg, Pa.McPherson, Kan.Parkland, Wash.Agricul. Coll. Miss.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEEconomics at Washington, President,Bell Telephone Laboratories and several research members in that organization; a management Counselor,four consulting chemists, seven Stategeologists or directors of state geological surveys, president of a Cleveland, Ohio, bank, president of a Wisconsin Power Co., treasurer of aNew York department store, vicepresident of the General EducationBoard, vice president of a large advertising company, general managerof a New York firm of jewelers andsilversmiths, and an ex-president ofthe Rockefeller Foundation.This list should shatter, once andfor all, the theory that all Chicagograduates and especially all Ph.D.'sgo immediately into school teaching.However, there is a very goodlynumber that does go on into educational work, thereby spreading theinfluence of the University's methodsand ideas throughout the country. Itis really interesting to see how manypresidents and presidents emeritus ofinstitutions of higher learning havebeen recruited from among Chicago'sdoctors. (See table No. 1, page 238.)If we look further into the colleges and universities we find anamazing number of Chicagoans occupying faculty positions in institutions in every part of the country.Following is a list of those Universities on whose faculties are five ormore Chicago Ph.D.'s, whose distinguished work has given them placein Who's Who. This by no meansgives an adequate picture of the number of doctors on all the faculties ofall the possible Universities ; onlythose in Who's Who have beencounted here.Number ofInstitution whlff-wiToUniversity of Chicago 67University of California. . . 17(Berkeley, 12; Los Angeles, 5)Northwestern University. . 15University of Illinois 12Columbia University 11University of Texas 10University of Minnesota. . . 8Ohio State University 8Washington University (St.Louis) 8Duke University 8University of Michigan. . . 7University of Washington. 7University of Iowa 6University of Southern California 6University of Pittsburgh. . 6Vanderbilt Unversity 6George Peabody College ... 6University of Cincinnati ... 5University of Wisconsin... 5 Indiana University 5University of North Carolina 5Harvard University 5Cornell University 5University of Kansas 5Crazier Theological Seminary 5Colgate-Rochester Theological Seminary 5This gives some idea of the geographical distribution of the University's learned and distinguished representatives. Including those institutions with less than five Chicagodoctors from Who's Who on theirfaculties, we find that they are represented in the educational world ofevery state in the Union save NewHampshire, Delaware and New Mexico.It is only natural to wish to lookinto the past of these famous onesa bit, and make an effort to determinewhich years produced the largestnumber to be so honored. A littlefiguring with a calendar and tabulated classes indicates what one_ mightexpect, the largest number in the1934-35 volume were graduated in1916, the class with 28 representatives on this list. The years 1913(20), 1914 (19), 1915 (22), and1917 (25), bear out the theorythat it takes from 15 to 20 yearsfor the majority to accomplish whatever spectacular or noteworthy deedsare needed to admit one to this gallery of immortals. Two members of1930, 1931 and 1932 have been included in the current volume, butthe best decade is that between 1910and 1920. For the benefit of thecurious, here is the actual record :Ph.D.'s Conferred Number1894 ~41895 91896 81897 131898 151899 141900 201901 161902 121903 131904 201905 211906 151907 201908 171909 191910 151911 201912 191913 201914 191915 221916 281917 251918 13 WESTERN TRAVEL NEWSCoolCleanQuietTo completely air-condition our fivefinest trains to California, we are spending more than $2,000,000. The job willbe finished early this summer. In everycar on the Sunset Limited (New Orleans-Los Angeles), Golden State Limited (Chicago-Los Angeles), OverlandLimited and Pacific Limited (Chicago-San Francisco) and Cascade (Portland-San Francisco), you'll enjoy the cool,clean, quiet luxury of fresh, conditionedair. There will be no extra charge forthis convenience.Low summer roundtrip fares to California are in effect from May IS toOctober IS. Plan to see the CaliforniaPacific International Exposition (SanDiego, May 29 to November 11). Wewill have direct, through air-conditionedPullman service on the Sunset Limitedand Golden State Limited via CarrisoGorge and Agua Caliente. A new booklet describing the Exposition will besent upon request.The Salad BowlHELP YOURSELFIf imitation is the sincerest flattery,many restaurants have flattered us byadopting the Salad Bowl and Casserole,two specialties originated by our diningcar service. They are placed before youand you help yourself to as much as youwant. These specialties are featured inour popular "Meals Select" — completeluncheons and dinners for as little as 80c.We are proud of our dining car serviceand of our reputation for western hospitality. Next time you come West, weinvite you to see the West on SouthernPacific.For information about a trip to Californiaor Mexico, write 0. P. Bartlett, Dept.Z-4, 310 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago.Southern240 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"How Smart Is a CollegeGraduate?"A few days after you receive this magazine, there will be mailed to you anew kind of questionnaire for graduates. During the past 7 years, thirteen editions of this questionnaire havebeen issued to the graduates of the44 leading colleges and universities.We are anxious for Chicago Graduatesto make a good showing on the returncard which will be mailed to TheGraduate Group, our national advertising representatives in New York.Every Chicago alumnus who fills outand mails back this card will be rendering a distinctive service of valueto the University of Chicago Magazine.THE OLDEST CAMP IN THE WESTCAMP HIGHLANDSFOR BOYSSAYNER, WISCONSINThree Camps— 8-12: 13-14: 15-17Woodcraft, Athletic and Water Sports,Music, Photography, Scouting, Long CanoeTrips, Riding, Shooting, Shop, Nature Lore,Camping Trips, Unexcelled Equipment,Experienced Staff, Doctor-Nurse.WRITE THE DIRECTOR FOR CATALOGW. J. MONILAW, M. D.5712 Kenwood Ave., ChicagoAlbert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau for menand women in all kinds of teaching positions.Large and alert College and State Teachers' College departments for Doctors and Masters: fortyper cent of our business. Critic and Grade Supervisors for Normal Schools placed every year inlarge numbers; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration, Music, and Art. secure fine positions throughus every year. Private Schools in all parts of thecountry among our best patrons: good salaries. Wellprepared High School teachers wanted for city andsuburban High Schools. Special manager handlesGrade and Critic work. Send for folder today.GREUNE- MUELLERCOALIs of Highest Quality fromRespective Fields and isDUSTLESS TREATEDLet Us Prove This to You6REUNE-MUELLER GOAL GO.7435 So. Union Ave.All Phones Vincennes 4000 1919 151920 141921 171922 201923 141924 121925 191926 91927 31928 51929 41930 21931 21932 2 Most interesting of all, perhaps,though obviously proving nothing, isthe result of breaking down the representation in terms of departments.This shows how many of each department's Ph.D.'s have been judgedas "Whos" in America. When onekeeps in mind the varying ages ofthe departments, the changing currents of interest, the influence offuture employment possibilities uponthe students, et cetera, it is clear thatthis tabulation proves nothing as tothe departments' current strength.But it is interesting.Department ]\tq [nGranting Ph.D. Degree Who's WhoAnatomy 6Botany 39Home Ec. and Hse. Admin 2Hygiene and Bacteriology 7Medicine 0Pathology 7Physiol. Chem. and Pharm 6Physiology 10Surgery 0Zoology . 29Art 0Comparative Literature 0Comparative Philology 1Comparative Religion 1English Language and Lit 20Germanic Language, Lit 12Greek Language, Lit 15Latin Language, Lit 11New Testament Lit. and EarlyChristian Lit 20Oriental Languages, Lits. 18Philosophy 17Romance Languages and Lits. . . 13Astronomy 10Chemistry 32Geography 5Geology & Paleontology 32Mathematics 32Physics 16Anthropology Economics 22Education 42History 32Political Science 10Sociology 34Commerce and Administration . . 2Church History 9Christian Theology & Ethics .... 11Practical Theology 6Sociology 0Graduate Library 1Social Service Administration. . . 1 ^o. degreesgiven upto 1931 Percentage of totaldegree-holdersprevious to 1931represented in1934 Who's Who41211 15%1826 847 15125 2838 16751 13 plus100 291417 69 11121 16 plus68 17 plus60 2556 2059 3470 2586 2067 2033 3028327 1119 plusplus106 30183 17 plus141 11 plus114127449716 2536 plus252335uy248 2335 1662 5010 10T H E UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZI N E 241"All I Know IsWhat I See In the PapersTHE daily press forms for somany people their concept of theUniversity of Chicago — yes, evenamong alumni — that it seemed that itmight be interesting and enlighteningto collect for a few weeks such itemsabout the University as came to theeditorial desk in the form of newspaper clippings, with the intentionof analyzing their content and attempting to see what sort of University casual readers of the paperswere seeing. This task was undertaken with no idea of making a thorough survey of press clippings ; nocasual reader sees all the thingsprinted on a specific subject, so asampling is more significant for ourpurpose than a more inclusive bit ofresearch.No matter what may be the contents of the articles noted, and nomatter what significance may attachto the volume of material overlooked(marriages, deaths and sports, newswere ruled out), it is interesting tosee what aspects of the University, itsfaculty, and its alumni are presentedto the public eye.Undergraduate activities are apparently of news interest in direct ratioto the number of pretty girls or thedegree of alleged liberal politicalthought involved. Among severalattractive undergraduate womenwhose faces appeared in the Chicagopapers while the annual Mirror showwas in preparation, was that ofFrances Bezdek, daughter of the active alumnus, Hugo Bezdek, '08. MissAnne Palmer, of Foster Hall is reported to have received from theAlpha Delta Phi fraternity one neatlystriped barber pole. Dramatics andentertainment of divers sorts exist atthe Midway, then, says our hypothetical casual observer.A short feature article about LewisDexter, '35, and his amazing speed atreading — which enabled him to complete his four year course in less thantwo years — indicates that there are intellectual activities among the youngergeneration. A photograph of President Hutchins and a newly hoodedChinese PhD commemorates Convocation. The Tribune also reports finding 13 sets of twins in the University, its high school, and elementaryschool.The election of Alice Johnson ofOak Park, as chairman of the Federation of University Women is notedwith a brief article, and the award of SCHOOL AND CAMPDIRECTORYGIRLS' SCHOOLS BOYS' SCHOOLS— ContinuedPENN HALLFor Young Women. Junior College— 2 years,and 4 year high school. Credits honored byuniversities. Music Conservatory. Int. Decor.,Costume Design, Phys. Ed., Secretarial, HomeEc, Athletics, Riding. New flre-proof buildings.Connecting baths. Part of May at Ocean City.Catalog :F. S. Magill, A.M.Box C. Chambersburg, Pa.FAIRMONTJUNIOR COLLEGE and 4 YEAR HIGH SCHOOLCultural and Social advantages of the capital.Interesting trips. Two-year college courses.Liberal Arts. Secretarial. Home Economics.Music. Art. Develops talents. Accredited toUniversities. All sports. 36th year.Maud van Woy, A.B.1715 Massachusetts Ave., Washington, D. C.BOYS' SCHOOLSCLARK SCHOOLHANOVER, NEW HAMPSHIREAn accredited preparatory school certifying tothe University of Chicago and other colleges.Classes average five students. Supervised study.Instructors men of experience. Athletic andwinter sports.Frank F. Morgan, DirectorWESTERN MILITARY ACADEMYYour boy's success in life depends largely uponthe training he receives between the ages of10 and 19. Western specializes in developingthe success-winning qualities of initiative, perseverance, courage and judgment. That's whyWestern boys are leaders. Thorough preparation for college or business. Sports, riding,for all. 25 miles from St. Louis. Catalog.Col. F. C. Jackson, Alton, IllinoisCRANBROOK SCHOOLDistinctive endowed boys' school, grades 7-12. Graduates in 29 colleges. Unusual opportunities in arts,sciences, athletics, hobbies. Creative talent cultivated.William O. Stevens, Ph. D., Headmaster2200 Lone Pine Rd., Bloomfield Hills, Mich.SCHOOL INFORMATIONBOARDINC SCHOOLSFree Catalogs of ALL in U. S. Prices,ratings,, etc. Inspector's advice. Alsosmall COLLEGES and Junior Colleges.Only office maintained by the schools.American Schools Assn., 27th year, 921Marshall Field Annex, 24 N. Wabash.Central 6646, Chicago.V. C. Beebe, U. of C. '05, Pres.Camps- Information ULVErtMILITARY ACADEMYEDUCATES THEWHOLE BOY HELPS HIM TOFIND HIMSELFStudies and guides himunderstandingly. Discovers interests and aptitudes. Develops initiative, poise and enthusiasm for purposeful living.Prepares for all colleges .Junior College work.Modern equipment on1000-acre campus, adjoining Lake Maxinkuckee.All sports. Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery, Band. Catalog.41 PERSHING SQUARECULVER, INDIANACOUPONFOR COMPLETE SCHOOL ANDCAMP INFORMATION, FILL OUTAND MAIL THIS FORM TO THEGRADUATE SCHOOL SERVICE, 30ROCKEFELLER PLAZA, N. Y.Student's Age Sex Religion Rate .Location Preferred Type of School PreferredType of Camp PreferredRemarks Name Address CHICAGO COLLEGE OFDENTAL SURGERYDental School ofLOYOLA UNIVERSITYOffers a four year dental course requiring for matriculation thirty semester hoursof approved college credit in specified subjects.The three year dental course requiressixty semester hours of approved collegecredit in specified subjects.In the near future the requirements formatriculation will be two years of college credit and the dental curriculum afour year course.Graduate courses offered in selectedsubjects.For details addressThe RegistrarChicago College of Dental SurgeryDental School of Loyola University1757 West Harrison St. Chicago, UK242 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEIN SILVER JUBILEE YEARGreat Britain in this Jubilee Yearoffers you so much more than a vacation-spot, a destination. It invites youto join in a glorious celebration ... itcalls upon you to sharein the joyous, colorfulexpression of traditionsthat for centuries havemoved and inspired men.Let these traditionsenhance your voyage aswell as your stay in England . . . cross by CunardWhite Star. The April26 sailing of the Aqui-tania from New Yorkis just right for the Royal GEORGIC ANDBRITANNICOFFER A NEWCABIN SERVICEBritain's largest motorliners will now speedyou to France as wellas to Ireland and England. Whatever yourdestination in Europe,you can now enjoy theirultra-modern comfortand brilliant entertainment. Next sailings:April 8 and 22, May 4and 18, June 1 and 15.Jubilee Procession on May 6; theMajestic, sailing May 3, reachesLondon in time for most of the specialcelebration May 6-20. Thereafter,for all the great eventsin June, July, August,you'll find a First Classsailing every week . . .Cabin Class severaltimes a week . . . andall ships carry TouristClass. Plan your Jubileevacation now . . . seeyour local travel agentor Cunard White StarLine, 25 Broadway,New York.Ocean passage or complete tours available on the DeferredPayment Plan — 25% down, balance after you return.CUNARD WHITE STARTHE BRITISH TK «•}, DISTINGUISHESCUNARCVl 'e STAR the Rockne Trophy to Jay Berwangermerits news space off the sports page.The sorrows of Gus, the Alpha Deltmascot, are good for a feature storywith a cartoon.As the Magazine goes to press, thepapers are giving considerable attention to the activities of the PublicPolicy Association, an organizationof undergraduates purporting to advance the cause of Americanism.Among the ArtsIn the world of art the Universityand its alumni, in the four week period considered, filled a number ofcolumns with their activities. TheRenaissance Society, with its foreignmoving pictures at Internationaliouse, and its exhibitions and recitals,merits several notes of some length.Mack Evans and his UniversityChapel Choir added to Alma Mater'sfame, singing the evensong service atSt. Luke's Procathedral in Evanston.The Chicago Alumnae Club, (EthelPreston, '08, AM '10, PhD '20, president) did its bit for the fine arts inputting on a private gallery tour ofthe International Water Color Exhibit at the Art Institute.An exhibition of the paintings ofart students at the University of Chicago and Northwestern, at CarsonPirie Scott and Company, evidencedan interest in the College in humanistic endeavor. Such interests unfortunately seem to have less publicityvalue than have the divertisements ofdivers discussion organizations.Allied to the University's very vitalwork in the arts was the recent visitof Gertrude Stein to the quadrangles.Her lectures, her comment on the debating society, and her surprise appearance at the Mirror show, inwhich her "Four Saints" was satirized, all provided front page materialin abundance for the Chicago dailies.Among alumni winning public acknowledgment of their work wasMrs. F. L. H annum (ElizabethDrayer Crowe, '16) who won theAtlantic Monthly text-book contest,and a prize of $4,000, for her basaltext-book for high school English,entitled, "Speak! Read! Write!"Another Chicagoan published a bookwhich caused a good deal of pressexcitement, Elizabeth Madox Roberts, '21, author of "He Sent Forth aRaven."In Freeport, 111., Donald L. Breed,'14, newspaper publisher, wasawarded first prize in the Cedar Rapids Community Players MidwestPlaywriting Contest, with his farmplay, "Winding Road." In Wausau,Wis., the local papers carried storiesof the work of Gilbert W. Banner-man, AM '33, organizing the Wisconsin State School Band Tourna-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 243SCHOOLSE. A. BOOS SCHOOLFor Mentally and PhysicallyHandicapped Persons — All AgesBoarding and Day SchoolTo Limited NumberFree ConsultationInformation Sent on RequestReasonable Rates5740 W. 22nd Place, Cicero, III.BEVERLY FARM, INC.37th YearA Home, School for Nervous andBackward Children and Adults220 Acres, 7 Buildings.^ School^ Gymnasium, Industrial and School Training Given, Departmentfor Birth Injury CasesGroves Blake Smith, M. D. Godfrey, III.Key To SuccessMWfm COMPLETE BUSINESS COURSE^Bv IB Training you can sell ! A achool noted for its famous *tT1I graduates. Choice of alert young people intentIon LEADERSHIP. Write or Phone Ran. 1575.J 18 S. MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO +IS YOUR EDUCATION ADEQUATE?or could you benefit by a course in1. Effective Public Speaking.2. A Modern Foreign Language.3. Creative Writing and Journalism.4. Psychology, philosophy, economics?Expert personal instruction. Moderate fees.CHICAGO SCHOOL FOR ADULTS203 N. Wabash Ave. State 3774.The Mary E. PogueSchool and SanitariumWheaton, III.Phone Wheaton 66A school and sanitarium for the care and training of children mentally subnormal, epileptic,or who suffer from organic brain disease.SCHOOL OF THEATREMR. BEN GUY PHILLIPSFaculty Member of the RoyalAcademy of Dramatic ArtCOURSESInclude: Art of Acting, Voice Control,Pantomime, Playwrlting, Stage, Sceneand Costume Design, Public Speaking, etc.Children's ClassesSTUDIO— 72 EAST 11TH STREETHarrison 3800SAINT XAVIER COLLEGEFOR WOMEN4900 Cottage Grove AvenueCHICAGO, ILLINOISA Catholic College Conducted bythe SISTERS OF MERCYCourses lead to the B. A. and B. S.degrees. Music — Art ment. In Indianapolis, alumni readwith interest of the appointment ofEli P. Messenger, '33, as cataloguerand Frank C. Springer, '34, as musicologist and assistant cataloguer, forthe famous collection of Stephen Foster's work, recently given by itsIndianapolis owner to the Universityof Pittsburgh.Newsworthy AlumniA curious assortment of itemsabout alumni in general, noticed bythe papers, includes everything frompolitical appointments to real estatenews. We note that Robert Tieken,'27, JD '32, has been addressing theweekly Republican Round Table atHenrici's in Chicago ; that Maudie L.Stone, '97, SM '03, (Mrs. Levi S.Chapman) has bought a new house inPasadena ; that Arnold Schlacket, '30,known on the air as Arnold Hartley,has just been appointed manager of aPhiladelphia radio station. The election of Herbert C. DeYoung, '25, JD'28, as vice president of the ChicagoBarristers' Inn is announced; theparticipation of Professor E. W.Puttkammer, JD '17, and Dr. HarryHoffman, '08, MD '10, in the two-dayChicago conference on local government problems, sponsored by theChicago Woman's Club, is also noted.Faculty HeadlinersThe running reader of the dailiesalso finds a variety of activities onthe part of faculty members whichshould give him some clue as to thenature of their interests. The recently begun Teachers' Institute, forthe training of instructors in citizenship, to promote the naturalization ofaliens in Illinois, received publicity recently. Faculty members are contributing their time gratis for thiswork. Interested alumni are CharlesP. Schwartz, '08, JD '09, chairmanof the movement, and Harry T.Fultz, '15, executive committeeman.The acquisition of the ArmenianGospel manuscript, to be investigated by Dr. Ernest C. Colwell, PhD'30, caused much interest. A pictureof the ms. and the investigator occupied as much space as the Mirrorrevue commanded.Professor William Ogburn' s booklet, "You and Machines," banned foruse by the CCC, was greeted by thepress when it was finally acknowledged by the American Council onEducation. Dr. Ogburn's fame as asocial forecaster was spread into thefield of sports in Arch Ward's column in the Chicago Tribune, wherea recent article on social predictionwas presented in brief summary. Dr.Ogburn had made use of football ^SPRMCTIITlETCflC^^ISlEc/JUilEjCome to Nassau in the BahamasCome at Easter time when this unspoiled paradise is a dreamy isle of ahundred and one enchanted pleasures.Bathing in buoyant, transparent seas,basking in the sun on coral sands, sailing at twilight, dancing under the stars,dreaming under tropical moons,— andsleep . . . deep, untroubled sleep.Awake to new pleasures ... to tennis, to hunting, fishing and riding onfascinating bridle paths, to golf onpalm-flanked fairways . . . awake to thebeauty that is Nassau ... to the quaintcharm of its tinted houses, its walledgardens, its winding, old-world streets.Come to Nassau to "tan-up and tone-up" lot Summer. See your tourist agentor write —NASSAU Bahamas Information BureauRKO BUILDINGROCKEFELLER CENTERNEW YORK CITYllfiSSMjDEVELOPMENT BOARDNASSAU BAHAMASServing the Medical Professionsince 1895V. MUELLER & CO.SURGEONS INSTRUMENTSHOSPITAL AND OFFICEFURNITUREORTHOPEDIC APPLIANCES•Phone Seeley 2181, all departmentsOgden Ave., Van Bur en andHonore StreetsChicagoHAIRREMOVEDFOREVER14 Years' ExperienceFree ConsultationLOTTIE A. METCALFEGraduate NurseELECTROLYSIS EXPERTPermanent removal of Hair fromFace, Eyebrows, Back of Neclc or anypart of Body; destroys 200 to 600Hair Roots per hour.Member American Assn. Medical Hydrologyand Physical Therapy$1.75 per Treatment for HairTelephone FRA 4885Suite 1705, Stevens Bldg.I 7 No. State St.244 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECURTAIN CLEANINGGREENWOODCURTAIN CLEANERS1032 E. 55th St.Phone Hyde Park 2248We Clean All Kinds of Curtains — Drapes —Banquet Cloths — Window ShadesWe Also Do Dry Cleaning onCurtains and DrapesAWNINGSPhones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.,INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueBONDSP. H. Davis, 'II. H. I. Markham, 'Ex.'06R. W. Davis, '16. W. M. Giblin, '23F. B. Evans, "I IPaul H. Davis & Co.MemoersNew York Stock ExchangeChicago Stock Exchange37 So. La Salle St. Franklin 8622CHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, "12B. R. Harris, '21Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285BOOKSARE YOU INTERESTEDINMEDICAL BOOKSWe will send you gratis our bargain pricecatalog on Medicine, Surgery, MedicalHistory, Psychology and Sexology.LOGIN BROS.1814 W. Harrison St. CHICAGOMEDICAL BOOKSof All PublishersThe Largest and Most Complete Stock andall New Books Received as soon as published. Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medical Book Co.)Congress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medical CollegeCATERERJOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900- —0901Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882 score forecasts as an illustration ofthe method of predicting socialtrends. Dr. Harry A. Millis, Chairman of the Economics Department,has tried in vain to resign from hispost on the National Labor Board.Another famed economist, Dr. PaulDouglas, is reported as addressing ameeting of the Chicago Lions Club,Uptown Chapter (or is it Den?);and Professor K erwin, political scientist, recently told the Catholic Woman's League his opinions of themerits of Nazism, Fascism, Democracy and the oligarchical state.The appointment of Professor C.B. Joeckel, PhD '34, to the faculty ofthe Graduate Library School, and thenomination of Dean Louis R. Wilson,of the same School, as president ofthe American Library Association,bring that branch of the Universityto popular attention.Those long-time favorites of thepress. Professors Breasted andCompton, are represented most lately,the former with two long discussionsof whether his "Dawn of Conscience,"which reveals that the Old Testamentowes much to the ancient Egyptians,is undermining revealed religion ; thelatter with material about his cosmicray balloon and his cosmic raymagnet.Professor Fuller of the Botany department discloses that the weatheraround these .parts was probablywarmer 10,000 years ago than now.The dome of the U of C — U of Texasastronomical observatory in Texas isreported and pictured as completed.Professor R. M. Lovett puts up bondfor Evelyn John St. Loe Strachey.And so it goes. The most curiousthing about it all is, that no matterhow varied are the news reportsemanating from the Midway, eachreader, even among the alumni, sees,through these reports, a wholly different University. University — a goodword, the only word, to describe suchan institution.CHICAGO PETERSENMOTOR LIVERYA PERSONAL SERVICEof Refinement, Catering to theUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOLINCOLNSWith Experienced Chauffeurs5650 LAKE PARK AVE.Phone MIDWAY 0949 COFFEE— TEAW. S. Quinby CompanyIMPORTERS AND ROASTERSOF HIGH GRADECOFFEES AND TEAS417-427 W. OHIO ST.— CHICAGOPhones Superior 2336-7-8COALQUALITY COAL PRICED RIGHTLESTER COAL CO.4025 Wallace St., at 40th PlaceAll Phones: Yards 6464Wasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phones: Wentworth 8620-1-2-3-4Wasson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wasson DoesDENTISTDR. GEO . G. KNAPPDENTISTWoodlawn \\ Medical Arts Bldg.Suite 304. 1305 E. 63rd StreetPhone Plaza 6020ELECTRIC SIGNSELECTRIC SIGNADVERTISING•CLAUDE NEON FEDERAL CO.225 North Michigan Avenue•W. D. Krupke, '19Vice-president in Charge of SalesEMPLOYMENTCOLOREDDOMESTIC HELPFurnishedDay or NightReferences investigated.Englewood Employment Agency5530 S. State. Phone-Englewood 3 1 8 1 -3 1 82Street Night-Englewood3 181Established 16 yearsTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 245FLOWERS— ContinuedOBERG'SFLOWER SHOPFlowers by WireTo Any Part of the World1461-63 East 57th St.FLOOR FINISHING"Definitely Superior" ¦, jjneverubAbrazil wax mHardest Known Wax, %|Wears Longer \NO RUBBING y 1 m^TlUSED BY THE UNIVERSITYFURNITUREWE BUY - SELLFURNITURE & RUGSHOUSEHOLD SALVAGE GOODS CO.740 EAST 47TH STREETPHONE KENWOOD 2224F. STEIGERWALDFURRIERSTORAGE— REPAIRINGREMODELING902 Phone1 7 North State St. Cent. 6620Exclusive But Not ExpensiveGROCERIESTelephone Haymarket 3 1 20E. A. Aaron & Bros.Fruits and Vegetables. Poultry, Butter,Eggs, Imported and Domestic Cheese,Sterilized and Fresh Caviar, Wesson and"77" Oil, M. F. B. Snowdrift and ScocoShortening46-48 So. Water Market, Chicago, III.LEIGH'SGROCERY «nd MARKET1 327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9 1 00- 1 -2QUALITY FOODSTUFFSMODERATE PRICESWE DELIVERCOHEN and COMPANYWholesaleFruit — Vegetables — Poultry2 1 I South Water MarketPhones Haymarket 0808 to 08 1 6 News of the ClassesCOLLEGE1 900O. E. Pettet is teacher of electricity in the Boys' Technical HighSchool of Milwaukee.1 904Sophia Berger (Mrs. E. N.Mohl) is chairman of the Committeeon International Relations of the Palestine Association of UniversityWomen. Mrs. Mohl lives in Jerusalem, in the Herod's Gate Quarter.Sarah L. Patterson, AM'07, isworking at the Library of the University of California at Los Angeles.1 905Mary A. Nourse is the author ofThe Four Hundred Million, a shorthistory of the Chinese people, published by Bobbs-Merrill Co. It is oneof the most readable yet reliableworks of its kind to appear, and willundoubtedly be a boon to teachers ofhistory.Alida J. Bigelow is doing fieldwork for the National Red Cross, inOregon. Last year she spent sixmonths in flood relief work in thenorthwest.1 907Robert R. Williams, SM'08, director of the Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York, recently published a note on the structure of Vitamin B, in the Journal of AmericanChemistry. He has probably gonefarther into solving the mysteries ofits structure than any other chemist.1 909John W. Shideler, AM'21, isrepresenting the MacMillan Companyin Kansas.1910Lillian Gubelman, AM'24,teaches Spanish and English at Valley City, N. Dak. State TeachersCollege. She is president of the N.Dakota Federation of Business andProfessional Women's Clubs. Lastsummer she made a tour of the globefor her vacation.James Niewdorf, teacher ofmathematics at Calvin College,Grand Rapids, writes that he hasbeen much gratified at the trend toward the University of Chicagoshown among his students, especiallyamong those headed for medicalstudy. His own faith in the University is guaranteed by the fact thathis eldest son, John, is now takingmedical work here.Mary Rose Parkman is teachingEnglish at Wilson Teachers College,Washington, D. C. ThisSummer SWEDEN!LAND OF SUNLIT NIGHTSSweden is Scenic— Secure— SereneHere you find the hum of sober industry, adeep peace of simple, beautiful living such asyou may have thought had vanished forever.Spend at least a fortnight of continuousdaylight in beautiful Stockholm oramong thecharming inland waterways of Sweden. Seeits romantic castles and picturesque customsin a scenery of tranquil beauty.The joy of fine living experienced inSwedish American liners does not end withthe crossing. Each day in Sweden assuresthe same treat.Direct from New York in eight days — convenient from England and the Continent.Your travel agent or we will gladly send our new"Lands of Sunlit Nights"with complete travel detail of delightful journeysin all the Scandinavian countries — a treasurehouse of vacation guidance.SWEDISH TRAVELINFORMATION BUREAU551 FIFTH AVENUE P«H- SG NEW YORK1911Conrado Benitez, AM'12, writesfrom Manila : "It may interest you toknow that I was elected to the Constitutional Convention that is nowpreparing a constitution for the Philippines, as authorized by the Independence Law approved by Congress.I have the good fortune of being amember of the Committee of Seventhat made the draft of the constitution that is now being discussed at theConvention. It may interest you alsoto know that after serving as editorof the Philippines Herald for severalyears, while also practicing law, Iam back at the University of thePhilippines, as Dean of the Collegeof Business Administration. I amquite active in the work of the Institute of Pacific Relations and if youwant to be in touch with the big doings in the Pacific area I suggest thatyou read Pacific Affairs, their quarterly journal, published in NewYork."1914Harry H. Comer is editor of atrade journal in Los Angeles.246 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHOTELS"Famous for Food"Dancing and EntertainmentNightlyCircular CRYSTAL Barthe BREVOORT hotel120 W. Madison St. Ch icagoLAUNDRIESADAMSLAUNDRY CO2335 Indiana Ave.Superior Hand WorkOdorless Dry CleaningTelephoneCalumet 2346Morgan Laundry Service, Inc.2330 Prairie Ave.Phone Calumet 7424Dormitory ServiceStandard Laundry Co.Linen Supply — Wet WashFinished Work1818 South Wabash Ave.Phone Calumet 4700SUNSHINE LAUNDRYCOMPANYAll ServicesDry Cleaning2915 Cottage Grove Ave.Telephone Victory 51 10THEBEST LAUNDRY andCLEANING COMPANYALL SERVICESWe Also DoDry Cleaning — Shoe Repairing4240, PhoneIndiana Ave. OAKIand 1383MUSICRayn er Dalh e i m & CoMUSICENGRAVERS & PRINTERSof FRATERNITY,SORORITYand UNIVERSITYof CHICAGO SONG BOOKSNO 0RDERTO0 LARGE 0RT00 SMALL - WRITE FOR PRICES2054 W.LAKE ST. PHONE SEELEY 4710 F. L. Hutsler is with the LosAngeles branch of the United StatesRubber Company.1919Vesper A. Schlenker reportsthat the Schlenker Engineering Company has moved to 182 SullivanStreet, N.Y.C.Lulu C. Daniel, AM'22, is livingat Festus, Mo., engaged in writing.1921Elizabeth Zaciiari, SM'29, professor of geography at LouisvilleNormal School, is co-author of TheGeography of Kentucky, Kentuckysupplement to United States andCanada, by Barrowes and Parker.This book has been adopted for usein the elementary schools of Kentucky. Miss Zachari is a director-at-large of the National Council ofGeography Teachers.1922John P. Whittaker is registrarof Atherton University and Morehouse College, Atlanta, Ga.Karl N. Fasoldt is a marketgardener and poultry producer. Heis located at Oak Manor Farm, Rt.No. 1, Libertyville, 111.Mary May Wyman, AM'31, issupervisor of health and safety education for Louisville Public Schools.1923Marjorie Howard (Mrs. W. R.Morgan) writes this encouraging-note: 'Tm still plugging away atvoice work, French diction and musicappreciation in the studio of Mary P.Thomson, in the Fine Arts Bldg.(Chicago). Personally, I've had allthe dates I could take care of withmy experiment in presenting authentic, beautiful folksongs, in authenticcostumes. I find people do like something good, honest and attractivelypresented in spite of the depression !"Mrs. Morgan is singing at the Annual Spring luncheon of the Musicians Club of Women in April.Lester L. Lehman is an investigator for the Liquor Control Commission of Cleveland.Frances Christesen sends thisamusing note from Los Angeles,where she is employed at the University of Southern California:"About eight hours a day are spentin finding the answers to such questions as 'How much did a camel cost2000 years ago?' Such is the life ofa reference librarian. My sister andI have squeezed out enough timeotherwise to write two books forchildren, Tony, a book about TomMix's horses, and Wild Animal Actors, about the wild animals used inmotion pictures. The first was published last spring and the second is LITHOGRAPHERL. C. Mead '21. E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182PAINTSGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123Lake Street PhoneKedzie 3186JOHN E. ROCKEFELLOW, INC.Established 1893Paints, Wall Paper, GlassWindow ShadesWHOLESALE AND RETAIL4321 Cottage Grove Ave.Telephone Atlantic 1900PHOTOGRAPHERMOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C. ALUMNIPHYSICAL THERAPY UNITSMCINTOSHYelectrical CORPORATION- CHICAGO 1Established 1879MANUFACTURERSPhysical Therapy EquipmentTelephone— KEDzie 2048223-233 N. California Ave., ChicagoC. E. MARSHALLWHEEL CHAIR HEADQUARTERSFOR OVER FORTY YEARSNew and Used Chairs for Sale or Rent.Hospital Beds, Crutches, etc."Airo" Mattresses and Cushions5062 Lake Park Ave. Drex. 3300PLASTERINGT.A.BARRETTPLASTERERChimneys RepairedBoiler Mason Work, etc.6447 Drexel Ave. TelephoneShop 541 I Cottage R d papk Q653Orove 7THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 247due on the 23rd of May. Two moreare in preparation."Ernest J. Leveque, AM'26, isplanning to publish a French grammar, Introduction to French, throughDoubleday Doran and Co., some timethis spring.1925Vernette Davis (Mrs. StanleyForsythe) is reported as keepinghouse for one husband and two children, Tom and Merlita, ages 6 and 7,in Hinsdale, 111.W. L. River is co-author of DarkCanyon, a western novel, written incollaboration with Frank Wead.1927Barbara J. MacMillan, AM'28,(Mrs. Garcia) is teaching at MillsCollege. Her husband is finishinghis work for a PhD at the University of California.John R. Russell, of the NewYork Public Library, is on leave thisyear, making a study of the cataloging departments of large Europeanlibraries. He has already coveredthose of France, Switzerland, Italy,Austria and Germany, and is tospend the next six months in Holland,Belgium, England, Scandinavia,Finland and Russia. He intends tobe present at the Second InternationalCongress of Libraries and Bibliography, which is to take place in several cities in Spain in May.RUSH1894Dr. and Mrs. Frank Wieder-mann, of Terre Haute, Ind., arespending the summer in Europe.1913Ralph H. Kuhns, '11, MD, is presenting a paper May 3rd to the MiamiValley Hospital Society of Dayton,on the subject of fever therapy indementia paralytics. He is an instructor in neuropsychiatry at the University of Illinois College of Medicine.1924Alfred Leslie Craig, '20, MD, ischief surgeon at the Shriner's Hospital, Honolulu. He was elected aFellow of the American Academy ofOrthopaedic Surgeons in 1934.1925Frederic Purdum, '23, MD, andMrs. Purdum (Carmel Hayes, '24),live in East Brady, Pa. They havetwo children, Bill, age 4, and John,age 3.1928Maxwell J. Wolff, MD, is practicing dermatologv in Los Angeles,Calif.1929Grace Hiller, MD, is College Physician for Goucher College, Baltimore.1934Earle J. Hatteburg, MD, is serving his second year of interneship atthe city hospital of Hartford, Conn.Ernest B. Miller, MD, is servinga second year at the Henry FordHospital, Detroit.SCHOOL OFBUSINESS1915Carl W. Ullman is president ofthe Dollar Savings and Trust Company of Youngstown, Ohio.1932Maurice A. Zollar is now Secretary of the Bond Information andService Committee of National Fraternal Congress of America, 30 N.LaSalle St., Chicago.LAW1916Sylvester F. Wadden, JD, is withHenderson, Hatfield and Wadden, at405 Security Bank Bldg., Sioux City,Iowa.1926N. F. Arterburn, JD, is practicing law at Vincennes, Ind., with thefirm of Kessinger, Hill and Arterburn.1929George Edward Leonard, JD, ispracticing law in Chicago, at 208South LaSalle St. He was marriedlast August to Jane ElizabethDutcher, of Iowa City ; their home isat 6852 Crandon Ave.SOCIAL SERVICEA joint meeting of the Committeeon Poor Law Revision of the American Association of Social Workersand the American Public WelfareAssociation met in Judson Court onJanuary twelfth and thirteenth. Members of the staff and Alumni of theSchool taking part in the programwere: Edith Abbott, Grace Abbott,S. P. Breckinridge, Frank Bane, A.W. McMillen, Agnes Van Driel,Aleta Brownlee, Joseph Moss, Ed-wina M. Lewis, Alexander Elson, Sa-villa Millis Simons, Raymond Clapp,Clara Paul Paige, Eunice Robinson.Aileen Kennedy (AM, 1933), andSophonisba Breckinridge, Dean ofPre-Professional students, are theauthors of a new Social Service Monograph, The Illinois Poor Law, published by the University of ChicagoPress.A Handbook for Field Work Students hi Family Welfare by MargaretCochran Bristol (AM, 1933) andCatherine Dunn (AM, 1930), has PRINTINGMAGNUS-MARKSASSOCIATESPrinting-Publishing-Photo EngravingGeneral Offices 608 S. Dearborn St.Phone Wabash 2685CHICAGORADIATOR CABINETSBe in Correct ProportionsGARDNER REDUCINGSTUDIOS30 S. Michigan Ave.Phone Dearborn 3809RESTAURANTROOFINGGrove Roofing Co.(Giililand)Old Roofs Repaired — New Roofs Put On25 Years at 6644 Cottage Grove Ave.Lowest Prices — Estimates FreeFairfax 3206RUG CLEANERc. A. BOUSHELLECOMPANYRUG CLEANERS218 East 71st StreetTelephone: Stewart 9867SCENERYPAUSBACK STUDIOSScenery Props and LightsRENTEDTelephone Drexel 70603727 Cottage Grove Ave.248 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE STORAGEGARFIELDFIREPROOF STORAGE CO.Movers, Packers and StorageNew and Used Household Goods. Terms.5929—33 So. State StreetPhones, Englewood 5020-5021Phone MID way 9700 HYDe Park 0452Peterson Fireproof Storage Co.Chas. A. Peterson, Pres.Moving and ExpressingPacking and ShippingForeign ShipmentsBranch: 8126 Cottage Grove Avenue55th Street and Ellis AvenueTAILORFrank D. Campbell PhoneEdward Eisele State 3863Charles C. Polich Central 8898EISELE & POLICH, LTD.Merchant Tailors8 South Michigan Avenue — Fourth FloorCHICAGOTEACHER'S AGENCIESAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. Jackson BoulevardChicagoA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field.It is affiliated with the Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.THE YATES-FISHERTEACHERS AGENCYEstablished 1906PAUL YATES, Manager616-620 South Michigan Ave.ChicagoTHEHUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 E. JACKSON BLVD.TELEPHONE HARRISON 7793Member National Associationof Teachers AgenciesWe Enjoy a Very Fine High School, NormalSchool, College and University PatronageUNDERTAKERSLUDLOW - SCHNEIDERFUNERAL DIRECTORSFine Chapel with New Pipe OrganSEDAN AMBULANCETel. Faiifax 286161 10 Cottage Grove Ave. just been announced by the University of Chicago Press.Miss Aleta Brownlee (AM, 1930),formerly Assistant Administrator ofthe State Emergency Relief Administration in California, has joined theSchool of Social Service Administration staff as a Lecturer.Aileen Kennedy (AM, 1933), hasrecently accepted a position at theUniversity of Ohio as an instructorand supervisor of Social Work.Eva Hance (PhB, 1931), has beenappointed Regional Social Workerfor the Federal Emergency ReliefAdministration for California, Utah,Arizona and Nevada. Edith J. Foster (School of Civics, 1918), holds asimilar position in Illinois, Indianaand Wisconsin.Students who received the AM degree at the December, 1934 Convocation and their present positions include the following: Isobel CampbellBruce is continuing her work asExecutive Secretary, Family WelfareSociety of Huntington, West Virginia and Assistant Professor of Social Work at Marshall College, ofHuntington ; Richard Eddy is a Probation Officer with the United StatesDistrict Court of Maryland; BlancheR. Farber is a Case Worker in theUnited Charities of Chicago; LeonaMassoth, formerly a supervisor ofField Work in the School of SocialService Administration has been appointed Instructor of Social Workat the University of Iowa; MertonJulius Trast is continuing with hiswork at the Joint Service Bureau forChild Placing.New Field Work Supervisors inthe Winter Quarter, 1935 includeGladys Spenser (AM, 1931), formerly visiting teacher, and AmarettaJones, formerly with the Otter TailCounty Relief Administration inMinnesota.1928Mary Stanton is acting Executive Secretary of the Los AngelesCouncil of Social Agencies. She ispresident of the Los Angeles Chapter of the American Association ofSocial Workers.1929Erma H. Wainner, AM, is district supervisor for the NebraskaEmergency Relief Administration atKearney, Nebr.ENGAGEDRosalie Allman, '25, to Dr. Robert C. Levy, '26,MD'29, of Chicago.Mary C. Maize, '31, to James E.Stinson ; the wedding is scheduled forApril 27, 1935. Louise Pflasterer, '34, to Wilbur Wesley Ross, of LaPorte, Ind.Natalie Goldstein, '34, to Benjamin Hainman of Chicago.MARRIEDJohn McKinley Poland, AM'30,to Marguerite Mae Sundquist, March17, 1935, Evanston. Mr. and Mrs.Poland will live at Cedar Falls, la.Robert E. Asher, '32,AM'34 toEthel Watson, February 2, 1935 ; athome, 1028 Connecticut Ave., Washington, D. C.Ruth Kantor, '32, to Jack Ittin,March 17, 1935, Chicago; at home,443 Wright wood Ave., Chicago.Golde Anne Breslich, '34, toEdward Morgan Haydon, '33, December 15, 1934; at home, 5330 Harper Ave., Chicago.Ruth Hymen, '34, to Leo CohriJanuary 27, 1934. Mr. and Mrs.Cohn spent their honeymoon in Mexico, and are now living at 5658 Blackstone Ave., Chicago.Harry G. Thode, PhD'34, toSadie A. Patrick, of Yorkton, Saskatchewan, February 1, 1935. Athome, 5140 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago.Mary G. Voehl, '34, to WillardR. Sprowls, '31, June 30, 1934, Chicago; at home, \6\\y2 Rodney, Wilmington, Dela.Bruce Benson, '34, to HarrietFentress, April 27th, Lake Forest.Lois Klafter, 36, to Fred L.Mandel, March 14, 1935; at home,after May 15, at 22 East ChestnutSt., Chicago.BORNTo Harold Tucker, PhD'30, andMrs. Tucker (Dorothy Hart, '26),a daughter, Gail Ellen, February 7,1935, Chicago.To Mr. and Mrs. Jeremiah C.Leaning (Ora L. Brown, '26), a son,Joseph Riley, March 24, 1935, Highland Park, 111.To Mr. and Mrs. Sterling McCoy (Marguerite Wiley McCoy, '28),a son, Ronald, March 14, 1935.To Ogden K. Smith, '32, andMrs. Smith, a daughter, BarbaraKerfoot, February, 1935, Chicago.To Mr. Armand Bollaert, '29,and Mrs. Bollaert, a son, February2, 1935, Wilmington, 111.DIEDThomas R. Weddell, '86, November 26, 1934.Maude Calvert, '04 (Mrs. OmerFoisie), October 9, 1934, Seattle.Katherine Moran, '05, April 22,1934, Los Angeles, Calif.Esther Hildegard Johnson, '23,(Mrs. Walter A. Kumpf), March17, 1935, Hammond, Ind.Martin E. Rudolph, MD'28,March 29, 1935, Geneva, 111.?1225and up, list price at the Cadillac fac~tory, Detroit, Michigan. Offered infour models. Model illustrated, the Four-Door Touring Sedan, list price, $1295.Special equipment extra. La Salle is aproduct of General Motors, and available on convenient G. M. A. C. terms. ^ADILLAC is proud today to announce its latest achievement ... abrilliant, flashing new La Salle,with . . .PERFORMANCE of an inspiring newtype . . . responsively eager in traffic,swift and unlabored on the hills,faster and smoother on the openroad. Yet performance that carrieswith it new economies of operation.STYLING . . . that is smarter thanthat of the style-setting La Salle oflast year.SAFETY . . . that includes the latestFisher contribution to motoring security . . . the solid steel Turret-Top body. And the safety of big,capable, hydraulic brakes.QUALITY of unusual character. . . .Throughout its sturdy chassis andthroughout its luxurious interior,trimly tailored in quality fabrics,the new La Salle is a tribute to finecar ideals. This is but natural . . .for it is designed and built byCadillac.The new La Salle is now on displayat the salesrooms of your Cadillac-La Salle dealer. You are cordiallyinvited to see it and to drive it ... tojudge its exceptional value and itsbrilliant performance for yourself.CADILLAC MOTOR CAR COMPANYi 1935, Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co.