HE UNIVERSITY OFICÀCDMAGAZINELeaf through a French Line sailinglist. . . . Here's a well-known novelist,going abroad to write his next book.. . . Here's one of the most brilliant ofour younger actresses. . . . This name iswell known in industriai and financialcircles. (He's going abroad for a well-earned rest.) . . . This lady is aprofessor at Wellesley. . . . Here's abig-game hunter . . . an ex-Senator . . .a former Counselor of an AmericanEmbassy ... a tennis champion.They like to go French Line, becausethey know that on French Line shipsthe pace of life . . , whether they go First Class, or Cabin, or Tourist . . . isexactly suited to people of cultivation.They appreciate the studied excellenceof the food (table wine is includedwith our compliments) . . . the intelligent service (English-speaking) . .the broad, unobstructed sports deck. . . They know that under the brightcivilized surface, lie seventy years oftransatlantic experience, and a rigiddiscipline and navigating skill bornof ten centuries of maritime tradition.Best of ali, they like the atmosphereof French Line ships. That buoyancywhich lifts your spirits as you crossVmwh iìneNEW YORK TO ENGLAND AND FRANCE: PARIS, March 9 and 30. Aprii 20, May 1 1the gang-plank . . . it's hard to describe. . . but it's very real.Your Travel Agent will be only toohappy to help you pian your trip andmake your reservations. His servicescost you nothing. Consult him freely.French Line, 610 Fifth Avenue (Rocke-feller Center) , New York City.The FRENCH LINE is pleased to announrr thatTHE NORMANDIElargest and most luxurious liner afloat, usili sail frontNew York to England and France on June 7, 1935.ILE DE FRANCE,March 23. Aprii 13, May 18 • LAFAYETTE, Aprii 27, June 1 • CHAMPLAIN, March 16, Aprii 6, May 4 and 25THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHEDBY THE ALUMNI COUNCILCharlton T. Beck, '04 Ruth C. E. Earnshaw, '31Editor and Business Manager Associate EditorFred B. Millett, PhD '31, William V. Morgenstern, '20, JD '22, John P. Howe, '27Contributing EditorsMilton E. Robinson, Jr./11, JD '13, Ethel Preston, '08, AM '10, PhD '20, Elizabeth Faulkner, '85Council Committee on PubìicationsN THIS ISSUEWE share with our out-of-town Robert Morss Lovett, teacher of Eng- reasonable interests of the searchersubscribers one of the chief lish composition and literature, and f or light to the consideration of whatpleasures of the Midwinter Dinner, an editor of the New Republic. Mr. is humorously called upractical life/'the Presidente annual report to the Lovett is a distinguished and active His mental road is entertaminglyAlumni on the state of the Univer- resident of Hull House, and a strong traced in his contnbution of thissity. We only regret that it is im- defender of the principle of seeing month.possible to pass on the other features humanity rather than organization as •of this most agreeable party. the object of philanthropy. ^^ ^.^ D MacMman^ 0 presents an astronomer's applicationof a sdentine principle to the cloudedFrederic M. Thrasher's name is T. V. Smith, the democratic philos- questions of religion. The responseinevitably associated with his classic opher, is now T. V. Smith, the demo- from his radio listeners was an involume, The Gang, well-known to cratic Senator, and f or the next f our teresting commentary on the diversityevery student of sociology here since years will turn his attention f rom the of human minds ; the same mailits publication. In this issue, Dr. brought in one letter condemning theThrasher tells of some extremely in- — "lack of inspiration" in a "talk onteresting work he is doing in Newtadic ^c ^okitcmtc mathematics," one offering a com-York City, organizing a series of TABLE OF CONTtNTb plete solution to the physicist's doubtscommunity 'programs, designed to MARCH, 1935 as to the nature of energy, and aoccupy the leisure time of children in Page third commending his presentation asareas with high delinquency records. T^M^^IDENT'S Rep0RT^ Robert M'171 bein^ eminently satisfying to the mod-It is a very signiflcant development of u c s ern mind.the bond between a research institu- Oum e Prevention, Frederic M •, - ., • i- ,. _ 1 hrasner 173tion and the community, mdicatmg .how fruitful and how practical co- Midway Fandango, John Barden.... 177 Howard W. Mort offers typicaloperation can be in this field. The Social Settlement, Robert Tower Topics on the occasion ofMorss Lovett 179 the second birthday of that unique• A Book Worm Turns, T. V. Smith.. 180 publication.What do you know about the Mid- A Credit to Alma Mater 181way Fandango? Better read up on The Doctrine of Uniformity, Wil- As a variation from the usuai newsthis latest development in under- ^w D. MacMìllan 182 note department we are publishing agraduate originality on the quad- Tower Topics' Two Candles, How- list of those holding bachelor's de-rangles. John Barden, whose name <*rd W. Mort 186 grees from the University who havehas appeared in this journal before, In My Opinion 188 been distinguished by being includedas the author of a learned philosophi- Chicago Alumni in the Current m Who's Who in America. In a latercai article, now speaks in more col- Magazines 189 issue we hope to give similar infor-legiate accent. News of the quadrangles 190 mation about our Doctors of Philos-^ ¦, ,<,* ophy. As it is quite possible that• Athletics 194 r J u usome names may have been over-For a regrettably long time the edi- JuST AS PredicteI) 198 looked^ we will appreciate receivingtor has been attempting to adora these Alumni Meetings Far and Wide... 199 corrections and additional informa-pages with words from the pen of Who's Who in the College 200 tion.The Magazine is published at Chicago, 111., monthly from November to July, inclusive, for The Alumni Council of the University of Chicago, 58thSt. and Ellis Ave., Chicago, 111. Annual Association membership is $2.00, which includes the Magazme; single copies are 25 cents. Entered as secondclass matter December 1, 1934, at the post office at Chicago, Illinois, under the Act of March 3, 1879.This carefully posed photograph headed the Cap and Gown's section on Administrative Offìcers, and seems mildly appropriate tothis occasion. We assure the admirers of the President that there is no likeness attempted or implìed.I/OVOLUME XXVII THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER 5MARCH, 1935THE PRESIDENTE REPORTTo the Alumni at the Midwinter DinnerIN my experience of almost fifteen years as an alum-nus I have found that there are three questions thatalumni want answered. The first is: Is the University the same? At Chicago the answer is yes. TheUniversity is the same as when you were there. It makesno diflerence whether you graduated in '96 or '34, theUniversity is and always has been the same. It is truethat the same people are not there, either faculty orstudents. The buildings they inhabit are diflerent, too.But in every essential particular the University is thesame as it was on the day when it opened its doors forthe first time.A university is an association of people who aredrawn together because of a common interest in intel-lectual pursuits. The best university is the one in whichthe largest proportion of its members are engaged andare best equipped to engagé in the keenest intellectualactivity. Mr. Harper scorned the notion that he wasbuilding a Baptist college in the Middle West. He wasfounding a great university. The cause to which it wasdedicated was the impartial and unnagging search fortruth.So the University attracts scholars who want to be-long to such a community. The distinction of the facultyhas never been more widely recognized than it is today.More of them are presidents of learned societies thisyear than ever before. The Hughes Report plaees theUniversity at the top among the graduate schools of thecountry.So too the University attracts students who wantto join the search for truth, and attracts them, I think,in larger numbers than any other institution. Theirstanding on various tests when admitted, their progressthrough the University, and their records in professionaland graduate schools elsewhere indicate that their abilitiesare in the best tradition of the University. The good oldNew Pian, which is itself in the best Chicago tradition,has given them some new chances to show their mettle.Thirty-four of them have completed the work for theCollege Certificate in less than the usuai two years. Andyet they are not unpleasantly intelligent. I have neverseen a finer lot of students anywhere. They are almostas fine a lot of students as you were when you were in • By ROBERT M. HUTCHINScollege. Since this is true I think we may say that theUniversity remains the same.The second question that alumni want answered is :Is the University fiourishing? A partial reply to thisquestion I have already given. We may also note thatthe student body is larger by 9%. Even disregarding thestudents financed by the Relief Administration and theperhaps abnormal increase in Social Service Administration, there has been a pleasant bulge in our enrollmentfigures in both quarters of this year. On the GeneralBudget, which includes only our old established schools,income from students fell during the depression almost18%. It is now on its way up again.Income from endowments supporting the GeneralBudget fell something over 35%. We entered this yearwith an estimated deficit on that budget of almost $600,-000. We have now f ormally reported that we expect one$216,000 less than that. We cannot cut our expensesmuch more and remain a great or even a good university. We must therefore look to the improvement of ourincome, either from general business recovery or fromthe generosity of those who believe in the University.I would not seem to minimize the losses of the pastf our years. You cannot cut over a million and a quarterout of an annual budget without doing some damage.Stili the fact that we had reserves and trustees who werewilling to spend them and that the faculty was willing tocut costs and carry more work enabled us to maintainfaculty salaries and to keep up the quality of our researchand teaching. We have lost less in efTectiveness and rep-utation than the drop in our expenditures would sug-gest. As our budget comes into balance, if it ever does,and our income increases, if it ever does, we shall be ina position rapidly to make good the losses we have in-curred. I think it is fair to say that during the depression we have not lost a man to another university forsalary reasons alone. We have retired many, it is true.We are now looking for others good enough to replacethem and when we find them shall appoint them as fastas we have the money to do it.Throughout the depression the newer schools of theUniversity have been maintaining themselves remarkablywell. The financial position of the Medicai School on171172 THE UNIVERSITY OFthe South Side now looks better than it has at any timein the history of that institution. We are planning immediate development of the work in psychiatry and con-tagious diseases. The Orientai Institute continues to oc-cupy the leading position in its field. The same must besaid of the Graduate Library School and the School ofSocial Service Administration. They are both pre-emi-nent in the United States. Both have lately strengthenedtheir faculties. I ascribe to its newest faculty memberthe fact that Social Service Administration is now thelargest professional school in the University.Of the New Pian there is, after the numerousharangues I have made you, very little more to say.Every day seems to me to show its wisdom, for e veryday it is more success fui. With ali four undergraduateclasses under the pian, and with faculty, students, andadministration daily more familiar with it, we have cometo regard it not as a new pian at ali, but as the establishedroutine of existence. It is not perfect; but it is gettingbetter. Since we are told ali the time that it is the bestuniversity organization and the best college program inthe country, we may perhaps be forgiven for almost be-lieving these things ourselves.The third question alumni want answered is : Whatcan I do for the University? Oddly enough, there ismore than one answer to this question. I know theanswer you expect me to make. You know I will saythe graduates should give money to the University. Youare right. They should. If they do not, nobody else canbe expected to. And if nobody does the inevitable attri-tion that affiicts endowment funds will eventually wearthem away, and with them the University. You knowtoo that I will say that alumni should send students tothe University. If to you it is not the best place to studywe cannot hope to make any large section of the risinggeneration believe that it is the best place for them. Buteven to do these things an alumnus must do somethingelse for his University; he must understand it. If heunderstands it, he will believe in it. If he does not believein it he certainly will not give money or send studentsto it. A reasoned interest and not a sentimental feelingabout the good old days or the good old place is needed toproduce alumni support over any period of time. It isbecause the graduates of the University of Chicagounderstood it that they carne f orward in the DevelopmentCampaign and have stood by us ali through the depression with large gifts and small to the Alumni Fund.Since our alumni understand what a university isand what this one is, they can make others understandit too. This is today one of the most important thingsthat an alumnus can do for his university. The badcase of nerves induced in many people by the depressionhas led to attacks on everything. The normal reactionto misfortune is to blame somebody else for it. Univer-sities are easy marks. They are tax-exempt. They do notreply to abuse. During the boom people sent their chil-dren to college for social and financial advantages whichthey either did not get or which did not seem very help-ful when obtained. If a university is only for the propa-gation of such advantages, then certainly it does not deserve public support when millions of people are near CHICAGO MAGAZINKstarvation. And if you urge scholarship as justifying auniversity, you are told of ali the horrid things the schol-ars have been doing in Washington, in spite of the factthat there are few scholars there, that those who arethere have had very little to do with the things they areblamed for, and that some of the things they have donehave turned out to be not so bad after ali.Finally we are being treated to one of the red scareswhich we have every once in a while in this country.The only new aspect of this one is that the reds are nowin college. They used to be impoverished foreigners.Now they are the professors and the students they haveled astray. How the professors can at once be runningthe government and plotting to overthrow themselves byviolence is a mystery to me. Things have come to sucha pass that one great educator has lately appealed forpublic support of college football on the ground thatboys who play it do not become communists.I have met few if any college graduates of any chestexpansion who have become communists. At the University of Chicago, we deal with 13,000 different studentsa year. Including Rush, we have a faculty of almost athousand. It would be very remarkable and a little depressing if ali these people had the same economie andpoliticai views. George Santayana used to lament theindifTerence of American students to ali important ques-tions and their preoccupation with athletics and sociallife. It is not wholly a loss if our students do turn someof their attention, in however immature a fashion, tomatters more fundamental than fraternities and bridge.Nor can we entirely regret the fact that under the leadership of such people as the Misses Abbott and Professors Ogburn, Merriam, and Judd, professors have begunto take an interest in the world about them. The worldwas not going so well that the introduction of a littleintelligence should be unwelcome.If you want to see what comes of politicai conform-ity in universities, look at those of Germany, whichthough once among the greatest in the world, will shortlynot deserve the name at ali. A university, if- it is one, isseeking for the truth. Are we to say that it should seekthe truth only of those matters which have no hearingon our daily lives ? The f ree and independent exercise ofthe intelligence is the means by which the truth may bediscovered. Socrates used to say that the only thing heknew positively was that we were under a duty to inquire.Inquiry involves stili, as it did with Socrates, discussionof ali points of view. Must it be that those who followthe profession of Socrates are doomed to be silenced ashe was ? You will remember that the charge against himwas that he was corrupting the youth.The answer to such charges against a university isnot denial, nor evasion, nor apology. It is the assertionthat free inquiry is indispensable to the good life, thatuniversities exist for the sake of such inquiry, that with-out it they cease to be universities, and that such inquiryand hence universities are more necessary now than ever.The sacred trust of the universities is to carry the torchof freedom. You who have been reached by some of itsillumination must help this university to carry it to theend.CRIME PREVENTIONThrough Community PlanningIN developing the work in educational sociology atNew York University, an effort has been made tointegrate research, teaching, and community work.The result of the Boys' Club Study (financed by theBureau of Social Hygiene at a cost of approximately$40,000) and the Motion Picture Study (financed by thePayne Fund at a cost of approximately $6,000) havebeen carried into courses dealing with the community,juvenile delinquency and crime, the motion picture, andthe social backgrounds of the school child. Both the re-searches and the courses have been translated into community action on the Lower West Side through the Council of Social Agencies, the Leisure Time Conference, andthe Motion Picture Council. Further studies of locai community organization, housing and delinquency1 in thisarea have provided the research basis for the locai community programs.A brief statement of these community programs maybe of interest because they show how sociological prin-ciples and research data are actually being applied in aprogram of community planning and because they are ofsigniflcance as the beginning of an effective program ofcrime prevention.The Council of Lower West Side Social Agenciesis composed of r epresentati ves of the philanthropic,recreati onal, correctional, educational and religiousgroups and institutions of the community. The community itself, which is the sociological laboratory of theUniversity, extends from 14th Street on the North tothe Battery at the southern tip of Manhattan and fromBroadway on the East to the Hudson River on the West.In 1930 the population of this area, which includes his-toric Greenwich Village, was 81,044, 28.34 per cent lessthan it was in 1920. The district in general is cosmo-politan with large concentrations of Italian population.In most of the families with children the parents are f or-eign born and these groups live under very poor housingconditions; for their homes are the 1,200 or more "oldlaw" tenements, built prior to 1903. Families with children, in the great majority of cases, are living in povertyand more than one-third of the heads of such familiesare unemployed and recipients of relief . Death and mor-bidity rates are unusually high. Recreational facilitiesare inadequate and about 50% of the children are notaffiliated with any agency of organized recreation. Delinquency rates, while not as high as in several othersections of Manhattan, are sufficiently high to constitutea serious problem, and crime flourishes in certain partsof the district. Educational activities are not funeri on-ing to meet the complete needs of the community ; thereis, for example, only one parent teachers' associationamong the public schools of the area.i. These further studies have been made possible by the Cooper ation of Federai Civil Works Administration, the State Tem-porary Emergency Relief Administration, and the Works Division of the New York City Department of Public Welfare. By FREDERIC M. THRASHER, AM '18, PhD '26An important task of the Council of Social Agencies is the development of a health committee which isworking with the Lower West Side City Health Districtto formulate a program of district health planning. Thisprogram will coordinate and integrate the work of boththe public and private health agencies, and develop newhealth services in order to reduce the high morbidity andmortality rates of the area. Health in general providesa more encouraging example than other fields of theapplication of sociological principles in the developmentof community programs. The importance of co-opera-tion, co-or dination, and concentration of responsibilitybased on district health planning has been effectivelydemonstrated in such experimental programs as the EastHarlem Health Center and the Bellevue-Yorkville HealthDemonstration, both of which have been taken over bythe City of New York as the beginning of a permanentpolicy of locai community health planning.The principle of district recreational planning witha view to crime prevention was applied in the spring of1934 with the organization of the Lower West SideLeisure Time Conference as a permanent department ofthe Council of Lower West Side Social Agencies. ThisConference, which is composed of representati ves of alithe recreational groups and interests of the community,has as its general purpose to develop an integrated program of leisure time activities for ali children and ado-lescents of the Lower West Side irrespective of race,creed, or economie level. It has stated its immediateobjectives as follows:Fact finding: To provide a sdentine basis for acommunity leisure time program through f ur-nishing ali agencies with useful faets andinformation.Conference and co-operation: Increased co-op-eration and better understanding among aliagencies dealing with leisure time problems.Outdoor play facilities: (a) Utilization of va-cant land, play streets, and roofs to provideadditional facilities and reduce trafile haz-ards, (b) co-operation with Park Department and playgrounds.Summer activities and camps: To study vaca-tion activities and to promote wider oppor-tunities for camping.Co-operation with Public Housing Authority:For the development of recreational facilitiesas an integrai part of slum clearance projeets.Prevention of delinquency: Co-operation withJuvenile Aid Bureau of the Police Department for a better organization of leisure timefacilities for preventing delinquency.Leisure time adjustment of problem children:Co-operation with Public Schools of area,Bureau of Attendance, and Children's Courtto make available more adequate leisure timeactivities for problem children.Circulation of toys: To co-operate with theMAGAZINE174Toyery in promotion of more adequate facilities for this work.Wider use of school plani: Promotion of wider use of schoolbuildings and grounds for leisuretime activities after school hoursand in vacations.Wider use of church piani: Promotion of wider use of churchfacilities for wholesome leisuretime activities.Better Films Council: Development of a Lower West Side Motion Picture Council to improvepublic taste in pictures and provide more opportunities for children to see suitable films.Radio Committee: To study therole and possibilities of the radioin relation to the use of leisuretime.Reading and exhibits: Promotionof more extensive use of librariesand museums.Volunteer Workers: Fuller utiliza-tion of locai leadership for recre-ation: (a) Fuller co-operationwith parents and parents' organ-izations; (b) Fuller utilization ofBig Brothers as recreational ad-visors.Parent education: Promotion ofparent education and organizationto facilitate more adequate leisuretime activities for children.Experimental block program: Todevelop experimentally and evalu-ate programs of leisure time activities for ali children of givenblocks where recreational prob-lems are acute.Recreational advisement: Development of specialized personnel toorganize leisure time programsfor individuai children referredby agencies.Leisure Time Information Bureau:Development of a clearing housefor ali information as to locaileisure time activities and re-sources.Recreation for Handicapped Children: Development of specialfacilities for children who arehard-of -hearing, cardiac, etc.Education of the public: As to im-portance of wholesome leisuretime activities for children andadolescents and stimulation of in-creased support of existing leisuretime activities.New facilities: Study of leisure RSITY OF CHICAGOPlay Streets CutAccident VolumeThe recent action of theLeisure Time Conference ofthe Lower West Side Councilof Social Agencies in conduct-ing organized games in manyof the officiai play streets ofthe lower West Side alreadyhas decreased the number ofaccidents and lowered the juvenile delinquency rate in thedistrict, according to MissHenrietta Additon, Sixth Dep-uty Police Commissioner.Miss Additon, who in-spected several of the playstreets yesterday, declared thatit is a "great pian" and if it iscarried through success fully"ought to keep youngsters outof the children's court en-tirely."The first "playground" vis-ited by Miss Additon was theWest Washington Market areaon West Thirteenth Street.There, in spite of the hotweather, a paddle tennis tour-nament contested by twenty-fìve children was in progress.The next area visited wasthe "grounds" on West Thirteenth Street between WestFourth and Hudson Streets.Morris O'Connell, 7, of 219West Thirteenth Street, hadjust emerged victorious in ashuffleboard tournament. Healso expressed pleasure withthe playground, saying : "Nowthat I can play here I am notnearly so impatient for mySummer vacation." E a e hSummer Morris visits BearMountain for two days.Between Sixth Avenue andSpring Street more than 100youngsters were at play.Among other activities a stickball game was being played bytwo teams, the "Lone Stars"and the "Brooks." Accordingto Nat Winick, the supervisor,twelve teams are entered forthe Spring Street stick ballchampionship.Reprinted from a news itemin The New York Times ofJune 30, 1934. time resources of community anddevelopment of more adequate orneeded new facilities.While the above objectives wereformulated for purposes of educat-ing the community, rather than toachieve academic precision, they arebased upon locai researches and theyembody an application of sociological principles essential to effectivecommunity planning. Definite,though uneven, progress has beenmade in the realization of each ofthese objectives. A few examplesmay be cited.Reference has already beenmade to the fact that about 50%of the children of this area are un-reached by an organized recreationalagency. The growing recognitionof the failure of supervised recreation to reach the boys on the locaiblock led the Leisure Time Conference to develop its play Streetprogram, which was designed to oc-cupy the leisure time of childrennot reached by other agencies. Sevenplay streets were set aside by actionof the Board of Aldermen and adirector and staff of emergencyworkers were provided by the city.During the summer of 1934 a dailyaverage of about 1,000 children en-joyed a variety of games and leisure time activities on these playstreets. Seven hundred boys par-ticipated in stick-ball tournamentsand 900 boys were taken to bigleague baseball games at the YankeeStadium. At the end of the summerthe program was continued afterschool hours and on week-ends andsome indoor facilities were madeavailable for the use of the childrenin inclement weather. This programis being guided by a Steering Committee (of the Leisure Time Conference), which is composed ofrepresentatives of the recreationalagencies of the community.1 Thiscommittee has frequent meetings todiscuss policies and plans for thedevelopment of the program.Studies now under way willindicate precisely the leisure timeinterests, habits, affiliations, and1. They are Children s Aid Society,the Extension Division of the PublicSchools, the Works Division RecreationProject, the locai district of the publicschools, Greenwich House, New YorkUniversity, the Toyery, the Departmentof Parks, and the Juvenile Aid Bureauof the Police Department.THE UNIVTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 175needs of the children of the Lower West Side. Theseresearches will make possible a community recreationalpian which will serve also as the basis for an effectivecrime prevention program. It will be possible as theprogram develops to make a scientific evaluation of itsresults in terms of its assumed functions.Another phase of the work in which progress hasbeen made is parent education. An active Parent Education Committee has as its immediate objective the organization of parent-teachers' associations. The first schoolto be organized is Public School No. 3, where a progressive Principal is working with the committee. TheUnited Parents' Association of New York City has pro-vided a part time field worker to carry on the activeorganization. As a basis for this work the research staff,allocated to the University has secured basic data on the1,169 children attending this school, and their 440 families. Data of importance to this committee are those in-dicating that a large percentage of these families arerecipients of relief ; that about 90% of the parents areforeign born Italians ; and that most of the families livein the poorest grade New York tenements.Another field in which progress has been made isindicated by the development of the Lower West SideMotion Picture Council, which has become a permanentdepartment of the Council of Lower West Side SocialAgencies. This work was organized in the spring of1934 when the following immediate objectives wereadopted :To create interest in motion pictures andin improving public faste both from the stand-point of more artistically adequate and lessobjectionable films.To secure through a weekly PhotoplayGuide the distribution to parents and teachers ofadvance information on pictures shown in locaitheatres indicating what films are worthy anddesirable for adults, for family audiences, forchildren.The promotion of junior matinees and family week-end programs in accordance with prin-ciples already worked out in other communities and in co-operation with the Mayor in his at-tempt to work out a better pian with regard tothe admission to motion picture theatres of un-chaperoned minors under 16.Wide use of films by churches and socialagencies for educational purposes.To help solve the particular film problemsconfronting locai social agencies.Wide use of motion pictures in visual in-struction by schools and promotion of an interest on the part of schools in the development ofmotion picture appreciation through English orother classes.Study and development of penny movies ora similar pian involving use of 16 mm. film, tokeep children off the streets in order to reducetrame hazards and to keep them occupied undersupervision in a general program of crime prevention.Development of an interest on the part ofthe locai community in amateur movie-makingas a wholesome and constructive hobby.The executive committee of the Motion PictureCouncil is composed of representatives of various groupswhich are especially concerned with the motion pictureproblems.1The Motion Picture Council publishes each weeka Photoplay Guide to Selected Motion Pictures appear-ing in the locai theatres. It provides lists of films recom-mended for children's and family audiences to the dailyand other newspapers of the city. It has developed aprogram of junior matinees, the first of which was heldin the 8th Street Playhouse on Saturday, December 22,1934, and attended by more than 800 children. Thiswas a community program made possible by the co-/. These groups are New York University, the NationalBoard of Review of Motion Pictures, the Judson MemorialChurch, the National Council of Federated Church Women, theMotion Picture Bureau of the National Council of CatholicAlumnae, the New York Public Library, Greenwich House, t''eChildren's Aid Society, the Jewish Big Brothers, the JuvenileAid Bureau of the Police Department, the Public School, theParents' Association of P. S. 41, and others.A stick-ball game on theLower West Side, sponsoredby the Leisure Time Conference, Council of Lower WestSide Social Agencies.A snap-shot of a favorite play activity on Thompson Street.operation of more than seventy-five social agencies. Itincluded ceremonies connected with the municipal Christ-mas tree in Washington Square, a parade, a children'sentertainment, and motion pictures.The most important work of the Motion PictureCouncil is the development, by a special committee, of acomprehensive community pian covering every phase ofthe motion picture from the exhibition of entertainmentfilms in the locai theatres to the use of the pictures asvisual aids in the public schools of the area. This community pian is to be the basis for a year's experimentalprogram and is to include a selected community in Brook-lyn as well as the Lower West Side area in Manhattan.It is recognized that the efforts outlined above arebut the beginning of a program of community recreational planning in the direction of crime prevention. Itis eventually hoped that they may be directed more con-sciously toward achieving" a well integrated program ofleisure-time activities which will definitely include aconcentration of responsibility for crime prevention andthe co-ordination and integration of ali efforts in thisdirection. The essentials of such a crime prevention program may be stated as follows:I. The general purpose: To develop acomprehensive, systematic, and integrated social CHICAGO MAGAZINEprogram for the incorporation of ali children inthe delinquency area, especially ali the malad-justed and those likely to become delinquents,into activities, groups, and organizations pro-viding for their leisure-time interests as well asother normal needs.IL Means to the achievement of this purpose:1. Concentration of responsibility forcrime prevention for the locai delinquency areain question (a problem of community organization).2. Research to procure essential facts andkeep them up-to-date as a basis for an initial anda progressively developing crime-preventionprogram. (Involves child accounting.)3. Utilization of services of and co-operation among ali preventive agencies existing inthe given community (a problem of community, organization).4. Application of the preventive programsystematically to ali children in the delinquencyarea of the locai community — in groups as wellas individuate.5. Changing of community conditions dis-covered to be demoralizing to individuals orgroups of children and adolescents by means ofconcerted community action.6. Creation of new agencies, if necessary,to supplement existing social organization whenand at what points definite needs are discoveredwhich cannot be met by existing facilities (aproblem of community organization).A preventive program working with the group andthe community promises quicker and more economicalrealization of the goal of crime prevention than onedealing merely with unadjusted individuals who cometo the attention of attendance officers, juvenile courts,guidance clinics, and similar agencies. While it is necessary to deal with the individuai problem child, from thestandpoint of crime prevention, it is probably more important to go out and redeem the so-called "bad com-panions" who are so often held responsible for the down-fall of the individuai. The individuai product of thegang, the pool-room, or the streets is but a symptom ofthe processes of demoralization which are producing delinquents in wholesale lots. Sociologically, theref ore, theindividuai delinquent is far less important than the community influences which create him. If the pool-roomor similar hang-out, for example, is the "cradle of crime,"it is far more economical to regulate it rigidly, or to wipeit out entirely by providing more effective subsitutes,than it is to maintain an elaborate and expensive socialmachinery to correct the individuai maladjustments whichit produces or to protect society from the Constant streamsof delinquents which emerge from it.This is the sociological, as contrasted with the individ-ualistic, approach to the problem of crime prevention. Itis the community, as contrasted with the institutional, at-tack on the problem. The failure of the programs of.educational, welfare and recreational agencies to pre-vent crime may be summed up best by the term, "institutional mindedness." This is the collective individualismwhich puts the supposed success of institutional programs(Continued on Page 198)MIDWAY FANDANGO• By JOHN P. BARDEN, For the Senior Class CommitteeYOU are going to come to the Midway Fandangoat the Field House, Aprii 27 !How do we know that? We don't. We believe it. We don't think you can resist the Iure of rumor that pervades the campus, once you hear about it.For instance, there is that rumor that the Seniorclass is putting on the most tremendous event in thehistory of the University. It is our privilege to announceto waiting alumni that this rumor is true.It is said that ali money taken in will go to University scholarships for entering students — potentialLeaders of '39. This is correct. Huge profits from theMidway Fandango will be converted into Universityscholarships, no strings attached. They will be the giftof the Class of '35 to its Alma Mater.People whisper furtively in academic corners thatanother great University tradition has fallen — Mr. T.Nelson Metcalfe has permitted the use of the basket-ball floor for dancing. It is so. Nothing can resist theimpact of the Midway Fandango ! So when you put outthe cat, lock up the house, and come to the MidwayFandango for the evening, you, too, can step upon theimmortai floor — for ten cents a dance.Every fraternity, club, and extra-curricular organization on campus is bustling with secret, feverish activ-ity, preparing booths for the Midway Fandango. Theirreason : "We want the best men and women to attendthe University. Our very existence depends on this.Therefore, we're going to pitch in and create scholarships for them." Loyal alumni will pitch in too. That'swhy you're ali coming to be entertained at the Fandango.They say it only costs ten cents to come to theFandango. They are right. Last time you entered theField House, you paid $.75 to watch us lose a basketball game. Come on Aprii 27 for $.10 and watch us make$5,000 for University scholarships! The Senior ClassCommittee will be on hand to greet personally the onemillionth visitor to the Midway Fandango !Housewives are already buzzing with gossip aboutthe stupendous bake sale to be staged by the girls of theSenior class ali day, Saturday, Aprii 27, prior to theimmense, the teriffic, the unsurpassable Fandango.We wouldn't have you think we are mere dollar-chasers. In fact we aren't interested in either the Roosevelt or the Hoover dollar. Every visitor to the MidwayFandango will have ampie chance to change his cashinto Fandango money — a really stable currency, redeem-able at the end of the evening. The redemption will bestrictly at par value — no inflation here.With Fandango dollars and dimes you will consumevast amounts of indigestible food (ice cream from theMortar Boards, hot dogs from the Quads and so on evenunto the Dekes) ; you will dance on the site of many afurious basketball game to the music of the best orchestra Chicago-land can produce; you will win vastamounts of Fandango money at games of skill, whosenames escape us ; you will probably not misbehave because the stern presence of Chief Sergeants-at-Arms Jay(Captain) Berwanger and Bill (High Point) Haarlow.Blackfriars, laboring under certain illusions aboutthe masculinity of Senior men, pian a mustache andgoatee contest with exhibits of best and saddest speci-mens and appropriate prizes for each at the Fandango.But this is not the only contest.A Queen of the Midway will be elected amid dem-onstrations of extreme democracy. Every vote will costfive cents and everybody can vote as frequently as hewishes, limited only by his supply of good old FandangoVirginia Eyssell, left, EllmorePatterson, center, Noel Gerson,right.177178 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe Field House, to Be Known Hereafter as the Historic Site of the Fandango.money, A STABLE CURRENCY ! The Fandango al-so extends its prestige to the ancient May King election,except it will destroy another tradition by trying to makeit honest. Everybody may vote as frequently as shewishes, limited only by her supply of THE STABLECURRENCY!The story has not been half told. There is nothingyou can't do at the Fandango. Do you like side-walkcaf es ? Do you like games of chance and skill ? Do youlike to practice in a shooting gallery ? Do you like to rideponies? Do you like merry-go-rounds, popcorn, peanuts,hot dogs, ice cream, dancing, contests, odditoriums, bur-lesques, good music, bad music, and a riotous evening?What do you do? Now you teli us. You come to theMidway Fandango. Of course!It has even been reported that Harry Morrison,Editor of the Phoenix, is working out a dance called the Fandango — to be demonstrated in its first instance byFanny, the old Fandango. These rumors are unsub-stantiated as we go to press. However, as Napoleon re-marked, nothing is impossible.But nothing stops Fandango rumors. The DailyMaroon reports that it will stage a cockroach race, inwhich select cockroaches of the unparalleled Lexington Hall breed will fight it out to the bitter, bitter end.If this is like other Maroon reports, we'll just have torecord it as another rumor.But there's more to this than meets the eyes andears. The Fandango is no fad; it is a fete. It is nofraud; it's a favor. We don't have to persuade you.You'll be there. How do we know that ? We don't ; webelieve it. We believe it so strongly that we seniors arespending time, energy, and money to present the biggestgift to the University that a Senior class ever presented.THE SOCIAL SETTLEMENTAs a Humanizing AgencyTHE business of the Settlement is to humanize thesocial worker.The Settlement as a social f actor carne into ex-istence as a place of friendly contact between the two na-tions, the rich and the poor, or, to use modem termin-ology, the privileged and the unprivileged. When thecondition of the latter became a subject of scientificinquiry, and their relation to the former a matter ofbusiness administration, it seemed as if the Settlementhad lost its f unction. Bef ore the grandiose claims ofwhat its adherents called "charitology', the modest idealof mere neighborhood influence put forward by MissAddams in f ounding Hull-House, became pale and wav-ering. In the presence of the scientifically trained andequipped case worker the modest Settlement residentshrank into silence. It seemed as if the day of the SocialSettlement was done, its f unction of making the twonations sympathetically aware of each other, accom-plished. Yet in the face of the present crisis it wouldappear that something of the ideal of the Settlement andof its training is stili necessary to crown the gloriousachievement of "Relief." In some cases, at any rate,scientific investigation and business administration wouldseem to have f alien short of their high purpose ; and insome cases, one hopes a few, the conduct of the administration has contradicted that purpose and made negativeits results.The administration of the Oakwood District reliefstation, Chicago, was the subject of criticism which tookthe form of a protest meeting in a vacant lot near by.Police mustered within the station sallied forth and at-tacked the meeting with clubs, arrested five participantswho were too badly battered to escape, and beat themup further in the patrol wagon and jail. They were ar-raigned, held in $1,000.00 bail, summoned to court ascore of times within a year only to have the case post-poned, the indictment changed to conspiracy, and the bailraised, involving further imprisonment. At length theywere found guilty on police evidence and subjected toferocious sentences. The social scientists and businessadministrators in charge of "Relief" made no effort tohave withdrawn the case against these people, whosecrime was at most insignificant in comparison with theirpunishment, illegai and legai. The only protest wasinitiated at Hull-House.In New York a delegation of unemployed went inprotest to the 44th Street station. Although they wereentirely peaceful the superintendent called in the police.As the relief officers heard the cries and screams ofthe people as they were being beaten up in the next room,one girl, Miss Sidonia Dawson, rose up tor protest againstthis brutality, and later as chairman of the Grievance By ROBERT MORSS LOVETT, Professor of EnglishCommittee of the precinct employees, issued a statementasking :"Who called the police? Who issued orders thatthey come in ready for action and immediately attack agroup of clients which until the police carne was peace-fully discussing its grievances with the receptionist? Ifthe orders carne from the superior, we vigorously protesther action and demand her removal on the grounds thatshe is unfit for the duties of superior. A social workerdoes not need police assistance in administering relief.The function of the bureau is to give relief, to listen toclients' grievances and correct them — not to beat up andarrest the clients. "Was the superior dismissed? Certainly not, butMiss Dawson was, and ali efforts to make Mr. Hodson,the director of relief in New York City, realize that sheis exactly the type of person who should be in charge ofthe interest s of the unemployed, have proved unavailing.Miss Dawson's statement and its repudiation by Mr.Hodson cali attention to a sharp division between twoclasses of social workers: those of the older type, theproduct of the Settlement, whose attitude is that offriendly association with the poor as neighbors andequals, and those who have been trained in a more scientific school to regard themselves as officials of the gov-ernment, whose primary object is certainly not the wel-f are of the poor. I do not mean to suggest that the casesI have cited are typical of the conduct of relief, but itmust be admitted that this immunity from scenes ofviolence is largely due to the cowed and broken condition of the unemployed themselves. I mean not toimply that the residents of Settlements are impeccable insocial attitude, but on the whole I think it is unquestion-able that these institutions have lived up to their tradition of f riendship with their neighbors, and protection ofthem against a selfish and sordid economie system. Itis unthinkable that Miss Addams, or Miss MacDowell,or Miss Carroll should cali upon the police to assist themin their work of social service.It is often said that the social settlement is a productof the romantic or idealistic period of the late nineteenthcentury and that the training it gives does not fit itspupils to cope with conditions in a time when the twonations are coming to grips in a struggle for existence.On the contrary, the settlement in its mediatorial officewas never more necessary to preserve the humane attitude which must characterize social effort, whether calledscientific or not, if it is to accomplish its admitted purpose. It would be well to require of graduates of schoolsof social service a year of internship in a social settlement before entrusting them with positions of authorityas supervisors of relief stations and the like, in whichtheir attitude and animus necessarily determines thespirit and morale of the organization.179A BOOK WORM TURNSTo PoliticsIT is gladdening how orderly things appear in retro-spect. The preface of a book I finished before therewas any prospect of active politics for me — BeyondComcience — closed with these words : "The world ofaction beats hard today upon the study door. New in-terests awaken and fresh passions are unleashed. Ifthe fate of liberalism should demonstrate of her defensesthat the owl of Minerva does not take flight until theshades of night are falling, let those who follow libertyimpenitently to its grave, reverencing freedom of con-science more than conscience itself, brighten their placesof unwonted cramp with the reflection that what passesmay return, and even that what has never been, stili isto vision and may stili be to courage."And then through the mediation of Teddy Linn, thestrategy of Jerry Kerwin, the silent sagacity and down-right hard work of Stillman Frankland, not to mentionthe sympathy and substantial support of more friendsthan I can mention, I found myself state senator fromthe University of Chicago district.As I turned for a season at least from books to men,to complete my education at state expense — $1,750.00a year — my past life as a student and wrker of bookstook on, in retrospect as I have said, a pattern of intelli-gibility, even inevitability, which in the living it some-times sadly lacked. The editor has allowed me to com-ment upon that pattern.ITouched at birth with a philosophic turn of mindand caught in youth by a poetic fancy, my first professional love was literature, especially poetry. I was, how-ever, quickly driven from the teaching of literature intophilosophy by the discovery that the great arcs of insightfrom which the poet snatches only segments must betraversed, if at ali, through the systems of thought fabri-cated by the philosophers. The philosophers themselves,however, I simply could not read without trying in myown fumbling fashion to become a philosopher.The first book resulting from this fumbling, TheDemocratic Way of Life, tempered the trinity of Western social ideals — Liberty, Equality, Fraternity — to theirgreatest strength, and sought to re-touch them to dignityfor the contemporary scene. My second, The AmericanPhilosophy of Equality, which I had insisted upon as myown hazardous, even almost hell-bent, way of gettinga doctorate, seized upon the ideal of the three whichseemed to me deepest, and grounded it in American his-tory with suggestions at the end for bringing it to con-creter expression. here and now. My third, The Philosophic Way of Life, sought to turn America's greatestspeculative minds — James, Royce, Santayana, Dewey —to the service of a way of life for every individuai that • By T. V. SMITH, PhD '22, Professor of Philosophywould re-emphasize the right of each to equal independ-ence with ali.IIFriends who feel disdainful about active politicshave suggested that the book of dialogues, Philosophersin Hades, is the real book-key to my present servitude.Such friends, I sadly fear, have not read the book.Hades turns out to be a splendid place, an expanded stateof mind beautified at the center with gardens of Epicurus"fit for gods." At any rate such friends have not readmy own thoughts and feelings about politics. I am noplay-boy in politics, though I am having and shall haveat the business a bully good time. My turning from theacademy to the arena was motivated, if I may put thebest light upon the shift, by Plato's declared reason forgoing to Syracuse: I feared if I did not do so, I shouldfind myself at last altogether nothing but words. Theconviction has grown upon me for many years, until atlast it became a poignant personal problem, that I didnot fully understand even my own books upon social andpoliticai philosophy. Always a dissenter, I never couldget sympathetically dose enough to the struggle for power(whether as prestige with professional men or as moneywith business men) to know fully what the words that Iused actually meant. The book from the preface of whichI began this article reduces conscience to aesthesia; myfelt need as an intellectual was more kinaesthesia. Andpolitics was for me — from early day dreams — the naturai activity through which to repair my greatest feltlack as a social scientist and moral philosopher.This book, Beyond Conscience, seeks to shame citi-zens from doing wrong to others merely because theyfeel so right in and of themselves. Conscience is itselfparaded as being a power-drive which drives those integrated by it toward coercion. A social order generatedfrom conscience is but a mirage of order in a desert ofdisorder. Beyond the prod of moral urgencies, if any-where, lies a tolerance which defines right in terms ofwhat the majority can agree upon, instead of what a fewcan fasten upon others as already absolutely so. Mean-time, and of the last importance, this book celebrates inthe private life of imagination — that rich buffer state between science and art, philosophy and literature' — anisland of refuge and safety where every disciplined mancan with serenity become and remain his own blessedpope, enjoying thus his own tensions enough not to haveto inflict them upon others as the dictates of conscience.My last book, Creative Sceptics, as the sub-title says,is "a defense of the liberal temper." Continuing andpopularizing the argument of Beyond Conscience, I hereacknowledge that nobody can be liberal who is not willingto meet others upon grounds not chosen by either butdictated by the distasteful fact of their differences, andon those grounds come somehow to terms. Politicai ac-180THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 181tion, indeed ali social action, must passthrough the same renunciation of infalli-bility that every individuai endures inorder to grow. Doubt is inevitable in ourhuman life and uncertainty is the rawstufl of politics ; but doubt can be turnedto creative ends if endured in the liberalspirit. Many doubters are in this bookdissected to find in each and ali the samelowly moral : "He who doubts not isfossilized already." Justice OliverWendell Holmes is seized upon and ex-ploited as the sceptic of our age whosedoubt has most deeply grounded American democracy.IliThe preface of this latter book, itself a campaign document, was writtenin our Chapel while President Hutchins was deliveringhis convocation statement in the spring of 1934. (Hisback was to me and the loudspeaker was out of order!)I dose with it:"The day of tired liberals is passing, passing inmany places through the 'liquidation' of liberalism itself.Lusty radicals now strut and fret their hour upon theworld's stage, doubling ali too often for confident reac-tionaries who take their ease behind the scenes. Whoknows but that historic fact may connive with humanehope that their play be brief ? Never doubt that, soon orlate, the glitter of radicalism will also pass and the easeof confident reactionaries behind the scenes turn to ner- vousness as mutterings mount in thedarkening audience. No curtain callsin the pageantry of time for such asturn their backs on men and shudder atthe face of fate."When the curtains have fallen andnight has overtaken ali who use oppor-tunity ili, will not it then be day for thetemperate, the wise, the good?"But who are the temperate, thewise, the good? — who but you, and you,and you, my readers — ali ! Who of youdoes not volunteer for the honor of suchfair-seeming sounds? I wish to volunteer myself. But that makes too manyof us; for who's left to be the 'tiredliberal,' the 'lusty radicai,' the 'confidentreactionary' ? Do I hear volunteers forthese dour epithets-? I hear none — there seems to benone — there is none."This is a most embarrassing discovery, is it not?The sheep and the goats are mingling with each other,right along, and no shepherd's crook, though no dearthof would-be shepherds, to separate them. Why you your-self, my gentlest reader, may not be a sheep after ali. Imyself might be a goat. This is for a fact embarrassing."I have written a book here, for you, that may throwsome light upon our predicament. I hope so; for other-wise there remains only the fun of writing it. That wasgreat. But my fun can only be fulfilled if you find heresome way to teli whether you are a sheep or I am agoat."OA Credit to Alma MaterPROFESSOR CARL MOORE,who is completing his first yearas chairman of the department ofzoology, enjoys various kinds offame. None of it has come fromthe newspapers, although his workwould make sure fire copy for theSunday supplements particularly, forhe long has waged a successful campaign to keep out of the publicprints. To zoologists throughout theworld he is known for the tretrien-dous mass of accurate and originaimaterial he has developed in his research on the male reproductive system, particularly in relation to hor-mone control of reproduction. Thegraduate work done under his direction has been of high distinction ; thelatest achievement from his department has been the recent discoveryby a Ph. D. of the hormone of lacta-tion. He once engaged in a long andvictorious debate with a Swiss zoolo-gist on the subject of hormone an-tagonism, both parties to the argu-ment having to resort to interpreters. Among his own students he enjoysthe reputation of being the DizzyDean of softball pitching because ofhis dazzling speed; teacher of twocourses that have the highest scholas-tic mortality among premedics, he remains one of their most popularteachers. He becomes highly and vo-cally indignant cn two subjects: Theinfrequent reports that the newspapers carry about his work; thepseudo research of the "science" moti f of some makers of pharmaceu-tical supplies.WHEN Professor Samuel N.Harper returned to the quad-rangles during Christmas vacation hecompleted his sixteenth visit to Russiaand his fourth since the bolshevik revolution. Already launched on his life-time study of Russia, he was an eye-witness to that "Bloody Sunday" ofthirty years ago when the petitioningpeasants were shot down in Winter Palace Square of St Petersburg. Onhis last visit he missed by one daythe Kirov assassination. It is becauseof his intimate knowledge of Russiaover a long period that ProfessorHarper today is the preeminent for-eign authority on the Soviet Union.To him, the bolshevik regime is but apoliticai development to be observedwith the same detachment as was thecrumbling of Czarist Russia. Inanother part of the world, UnionGrove, in southern Wisconsin, Professor Harper also is accepted as anauthority. Forced by circumstancesto undertake the active managementof a farm in that neighborhood, heis a leading figure in the milk cooperative, an authority on farm marketing and a successful farmer whomakes his land pay. Even that ex-perience has been helpful in his major interest, for it has given him anacquaintance with agriculture thathag been applicable in his .observa-tion of the workings of collectivistfarms of Russia.THE DOCTRINE OF UNIFORMITYIn Religion• By WILLIAM D. MacMILLAN, AM '06, PhD '08, Professor of AstronomyDURING the last two or three centuries there hasbeen a marked increase in knowledge. Transportation has been much simplified so that there ismuch running to and fro of people. Communication oficleas by books, magazines, and newspapers is almost uni-versal; and, by radio, telegraph and telephone, almostinstantaneous.What the meaning of ali this is, is not so easy tosay, but its action upon our ideas has been very clear.Three centuries ago, the universal interpretation of theactivities of Nature was through the activities or agencies of spirits and many things were even under the direct control of God.Side by side with this spiritualistic interpretation ofthe activities of Nature there has been another percep-tion that did not rise so clearly into consciousness andthat is the fact that Nature is dependable and regular ;a doctrine that in more recent times has come to beknown as the doctrine of uniformity. But the consciousness as to activities of Nature was purely spiritualisticin its interpretation.Of course, every one knew that a free object droppedfrom the hand falls to the ground, and that is regular —dependable. Fi re always ascends. The clouds float byin the sky. The succession of day and night, the waxingand waning of the moon in its monthly course, and thesuccession of the seasons, are the sanie now as they havebeen throughout ali the past years. There are otherthings in the sky that have been noticed throughout alithe ages, but do not yet have that simplicity possessedby those I have just mentioned.The planets move among stars always in a regularway, and yet with certain irregularities. It was aboutthree hundred years ago that the German astronomerKepler undertook to examine these motions. After manyyears of careful study and comparison of the observa-tions with hypotheses, he finally arrived at the remark-able discovery that these planets, too, moved in a per-fectly definite way. Their orbits are ali elipses aroundthe sun, and their motion in these elipses is perfectlydefinite and regular.While Kepler was performing these studies inNorthern Germany, there was also in Northern Italy aman by the name of Gallileo, who was studying the question as to how bodies move.Aristotle had said that the naturai state of everybody is a state of rest. Gallileo said, "No, the naturaistate of a body — any body — is one of uni forni motion ina straight line, unless it is acted upon by some exteriorforce; and if a force is acting upon that body, then therate of change of momentum is proporti onal to theforce."These were marked extensions of the notion of uniformity, but after Gallileo and Kepler carne Newton, and some one of the old philosophers said, "With Newtoncarne light."Newton formulated the results of Gallileo's obser-vations on moving bodies into what we cali today thethree laws of motion, and to them he added what wecali, also, the law of gravitatioii. In these four laws ofNewton we have the foundations of the present scienceof mechanics.Not only did Newton lay these foundations, but healso developed the mathematical machinery that wasnecessary to interpret their consequences. This mathematical work of Newton was by no means the least partof it. The French mathematican, Laplace, in reviewingthe work of Newton, said that if we take ali the mathe-matics from the beginning of time to the death of Newton, by far the best part was done by Newton.But the field of mechanics was too great for evensuch a man as Newton, and in the century that followedNewton's death, there was tremendous development andextension in this field; at the end of a century and alialf, the positions of the planets in their courses amongthe stars can be foretold with a certainty within a fewseconds.Because of its clarity and definiteness, astronomyhas come to be known as "the exact science/' It has setthe goal toward which ali other sciences struggle ; namely,the ability to make precise and accurate computations andpredictions.I have said something about the science of mathe-matics because mathematics has played such an important role in this situation. I hesitate somewhat in speak-ing to a general audience about so abstract a thing, butthere is a human side to mathematics, as well as anabstract side, and it is on the human side that I wish tospeak.We ali have a kind of feeling that if we can provea proposition by mathematics, then there is nothing moreto be said. I remember many years ago, sitting on thesunporch of the old Quadrangle Club with my colleague,Professor Moulton. We were deeply engaged in a mathematical argument. He had taken one side and I hadtaken another. After a short discussion of these things,I said, "Yes, you are right. I am wrong."A mutuai friend, who was sitting by, jumped tohis f eet and exclaimed, "What ! A Scotchman admittingthat he is wrong? I never heard of such a thing.''I could only reply, "Yes, that is correct. Even aScotchman must submit to the persuasive arguments ofmathematics."But the mathematicians themselves have not alwaysbeen so sure. The science of geometry was started backin Egypt in the Third Century, B. C, or, at least, if notstarted then, there was a very active school of geometersin Alexandria.The situation was such that Smith would devise a182THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 183At the end of this two thousand years, a Russianfinally said, "Well, if we can't prove that is true, let usassume that it is not true ; and then, perhaps, we can ar-rive at a contradiction." And so he did it. To his as-tonishment, and to the astonishment of ali the mathematical world, he succeeded in constructing a geometrythat was just as f ree from faults of logie as the geometryof Euclid.It was only a decade or so until a Hungarian hadprecisely the same idea. The first one had assumed thatthrough a point you could draw two lines parallel to thegiven line. The second man said, "Well, I will assumethat we can draw none."Again he was astonished that he could construct ageometry that was just as faultless as the geometry ofEuclid.This was a tremendous lesson to the mathematicians.We must admit that the mathematicians, living in a cold,abstract world, dealing only with the passionless thoughtsof mankind, are free from those colorings that affectmost of us. Consequently the results given in mathematics are highly dependable.But here was a new thing even for the mathematicians. Almost at once carne up the question, "Whichone of these geometries is true?" A few years later aGerman mathematician by the name of Reimann showedthat not only were these three geometries ali right, butthere existed an infinite number of other geometries thatalso were free from contradictions. Then the question ofthe mathematicians as to which one of these infinitelymany geometries was true became a very pressing one.It was a full half century before the answer carne,and then it was furnished by a German mathema-Eckhart Hall, devoted to the use of students of Mathematics.very beautiful theorem and proof, and run around to hisfriend Brown to explain the proof and show him theproposition. Brown would look it over."I don't see any proof. Right here you assume thatso and so is true, and I don't believe that."In the midst of such a confusing situation carne thegreat geometer Euclid. Euclid is considered to havefounded this school. At any rate, Euclid did write abook, a book that has come down through the centuriesand is even today a standard textbook in geometry.Euclid, as I said, at the beginning of this book laiddown once for ali those assumptions that we wish to makein the science of geometry. Whenever we wish to makean assumption, it must be one of those that has been laiddown. Nothing new will be admitted. These are thefamous postulates of Euclid.There was one of them, known as the "Fifth Postulate," that always created in the minds of the mathematicians of succeeding generations a feeling that itshould be provable from the other assumptions. Euclidshould not have made such an assumption. It is a verysimple proposition. Here we have a straight line anda point that does not he in the line. Euclid said thereexists one and only one line through this given pointthat is parallel to the given line. Succeeding mathematicians thought he should not have assumed that. Heshould have proved that, because that is so obviously aprovable proposition.For two thousand years, the mathematicians of alicountries strove to prove that proposition, but never didthey succeed, and in those proofs that seemed to havebeen successful it was always found that some new assumption had been made that was not in Euclid.184 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtician by the name of Klein. He gave the unexpectedanswer: "Ali of these geometries are true." And heproved it by constructing a little dictionary, by means ofwhich any proposition in one of the geometries could betranslated into any other geometry. In other words,these geometries of mathematicians were like the lan-guages spoken by people. To ask which one of thesegeometries is true is, for ali the world, like asking thequestion: "Which, of ali the languages of the world, isthe true language ?" The question really has no meaning.And so the mathematicians at once started into ex-amining the foundations of ali the numerous mathemati-cal structures that had been built in the past.During the Nineteenth Century, it has seemed to me,one of the most valuable things for mankind at largethat has been done by the mathematicians, was showingthat everyone of these mathematical developments restsupon a definite series of assumptions ; or, if two assumptions are made that look different, they really are equiva-lent.Even the numerai system, the system of integers,one, two. three, four, — even so simple a thing as thatrests upon a system of assumption. Geometry, too,calculus, ali of our mathematical structures have atbottoni assumptions. So there is nothing naturai aboutmathematics. Just as none of the geometries could claimprecedence over other geometries, and we could not saythat any geometry is the geometry of Nature, so wecannot say that in mathematics there is anything that isnaturai. Mathematicians have given us structures thatare valuable because they are useful, but at bottom theyare nothing in the world but creations of man's ownmind.That is a tremendous lesson for mankind. It hasnot yet, I think, been properly estimated. But, at anyrate, it brings us over to the physical sciences and certainly gives the physical sciences a new point of view.Just as the interpretations of mathematics rest uponassumptions, so, also, do the structures built by the scien-tists in their various fields, rest upon assumptions. Thecardinal assumption made by scienti sts at the presenttime, is what is known as the doctrine of uniformity —this same doctrine that I spoke of that has been recog-nized throughout ali the ages, but not brought to thestatus of a definite principle.The doctrine of uniformity means that the opera-tions and changes that go on in Nature are the regular,orderly type, and so the cardinal doctrine of the scientistsis this principle of uniformity. That is what lies at thebasis of Newton's mechanics. Newton, to start with,laid down four laws, as I cali them, and the whole scienceof mechanics is built upon those four assumptions, because from a philosophical point of view that is ali wecan regard them as. They are assumptions — postulatesis the technical name that is given to them, so this doctrine of uniformity is a postulate.It is a postulate that is quite different from thepostulate of God, because the primitive distinction inthis situation is the question of uniformity or caprice.With the idea of a personal God is always associatedthe notion of caprice, and the principal of uniformityprecisely excludes that notion. When Laplace had finished his work on "CelestialMechanics," a work that today is regarded as one ofthe great classics, he dedicated it to Napoleon. Napo-leon, after glancing over the pages, which, of coursehe could not understand, said, "I see no mention hereof God."Laplace replied, "No, sire, I have had no use forthat postulate."This story is commonly told and it is often impliedthat Laplace's remark was made in a spiri t of irrever-ence. That is not the case. Laplace's reply was literallyand strictly correct. There was no place in that for thepostulate of God.I have said that this principle of uniformity is thef undamental doctrine of science. It is true that nowand then there arise eminent scientists who, when theylay aside the robes of their office and become merely oneof a social group, like to make postulates that there is aGod.But no scientist, whatever his standing, in his ad-dress to his fellows in the same field, ever appeals to thepostulate of God — none of them. Their appeal only isto the principle of uniformity.Another great principle that is voiced by the scientist is one of the assumptions that the physical universeis continuous in time. "The universe flows steadily fromone state into another in a continuous manner, and thatcontinuous flow is what we recognize as time. Thereare no abrupt changes. An object does not disappearfrom some position in Chicago and re-appear instanta-neously in New York." Discontinuities of that kind donot occur."The universe flows steadily from one state overinto another in a continuous manner." That statementimplies that there was no creation, there was no beginning, because that beginning would be a diseontinuity.And there will be no end because that, again, implies adiseontinuity. Such discontinuities are excluded by thisprinciple.But it follows from this that every object, as wefind it today, has come to be as it is through a Constant,steady, succession of states that preceded it. In otherwords, every situation, every object, has had a history.We ordinarily commonly cali that principle the doctrineof evolution, and when we think of the doctrine of evo-lution in its many and mani f old aspeets, the proper wayto think of it is that the universe is changing continu-ously in time, and that is a proposition so simple thatalmost anyone will subscribe to it when once he per-ceives its meaning. It is also axiomatic in its simplicity.A third proposition deals with the subject of energy.It used to be thought that there were two things in Nature, matter and energy. Now one of the recent ideasthat has come into the domain of physics and perhapsso recently that we should not insist upon it too much isthat the activities we see, ali of these things we calimatter, are simply concentrati ons of energy.This thing we cali energy appears to us in four different ways; first, in the kinetic energy of motion;second, as the potential energy of position; third, asradiation; fourth as locai condensations that we recognize as matter. So the physicists have finally succeededTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 185in bringing the whole physical universe down to a singleconcept.That concept is what we cali energy, and I wouldlike also, to have you notice that this concept of energyis just as vague, just as illusive, as was the old concept0f spirits. People used to say contemptuously about thespirits, "Show us one." That was not possible. Thesame thing can be said with respect to energy, "Showit." Well, we can show it in a sense, because we recog-nize it as a property but you cannot visualize it. Wecan measure it, and there is the difference. We canmeasure it.But what is this something we cali energy? Wedon't know. It is the fundamental underlying somethingor other that makes the universe in which we live. Andwe have only to ascribe to it the suitable properties inorder to account for ali we see.The physicists have been doing manfully in thatfield in learning about energy and its properties andwe have many postulates with respect to it, but thereis one phase of the thing I would like particularly tocali your attention to and that is that not yet have thephysicists found what postulates must we make withrespect to energy in order that we may account for theconscious side that we find existing in Nature.The physicists have done wonderful work. We canonly admire them ; and when I say "physicists," I don'tmean technically; I mean ali the physicists, physiologistsand biologists included. They have done remarkablework. They have shown us how to take advantage ofthose various things for our own profit.But there is one side of it not yet touched, and thatis the conscious side. We don't know how to take careof the conscious element in mankind ; and, theref ore, theworks of physicists are stili incomplete.We have learned much. We have not learned it ali.Furthermore, it is evident from the very nature of thesituation that we can never learn it ali. As we advancewe find the horizon ever receding from us. The astrono-mers in recent years have extended their notions ofspace. It was only a hundred years ago that we started.We found the distance of the first star one hundred yearsago, and that star was so far away that it takes itslight four years to come to us. It takes only eight min-utes to come from the sun. And this great physicaluniverse around us, that we cali the Galaxy, is a physicalunit that is so large that it takes probably a hundredthousand years for light to cross it.And with the great telescopes of our great obser-vatories we can look beyond this physical unit we cali the Galaxy and on the outside of it we see millions ofother Galaxies, the nearest one of them being on theorder of a million light years. With the power that wehave with our present telescopes we can see perhaps fortwo hundred million light years.The horizon always recedes as we advance, so weshould be prepared to say the universe is infinite. Aswe gaze down upon such a tremendous sweep we canappreciate those words of the Psalmist when he says,"What is man that Thou art mindful of him; or theson of man, that Thou visiteth him."Our physical scientists have learned a marvelouslesson from mathematics. It will take a long time forour scientists to properly appreciate that lesson, It willtake probably a stili longer time before that lesson hasseeped out into society at large, and its lesson properlyappreciated.One of the great places where I hope to see thisdoctrine properly appreciated is in the churches. If it istrue that the scientific hypothesis and theories that wehave at the present time are not unique, if there is aninfinitude of geometries in terms of which Nature canbe expressed, and an infinity of hypotheses in terms ofwhich Nature can be interpreted, is it not possible thatthe churches will find in respect to their work that thehypotheses that they find are more or less immaterial?They can make a series of assumptions — frankly openassumptions — with no insistence upon them of beingthe absolute truth, for the absolute truth always escapesus. We can never put our finger s upon absolute truth.The proper work of the church is a great and noblework. It is looking after the sick, showing charity tothe poor, sympathy for the suffering, and striving con-stantly for the welfare of the community. That is a fieldthat the church has taken unto itself and that is the realfield in which the future of the church lies, and so far asI can see, its work in this field, in the future, will be justas glorious as has been its work in the past.The postulates which are made in respect to thenature of the absolute are more or less immaterial. Theyare not necessary. The principal thing is to look afterthe human spirit and as far as possible remove fromthat human spirit the feeling of fear and uncertainty.That is what the doctrine of uniformity is precisely goodfor. It does give us a feeling of confidence in Natureand a complete remo vai of that sense of fear which hasalways been one of the terrors of mankind. I think wecan look forward to this scientific development as oneof the great achievements in the experience of the humanrace.TOWER TOPICS' TWO CANDLESFi*OR the benefit of thosewho have not been onthe quadrangles recent-ly we will explain thatTOWER TOPICS, for thepast two years, has beenpublished weekly at the University. It was developedthrough the cooperation ofthe REYONLDS CLUB,HUTCHINSON COM-MONS, and COFFEE SHOP managements for thethree-fold purpose of acquaintiQg the present generationof students with the traditions and history of the University; keeping them posted on the current activities"Under Mitchell Tower" ; and acquainting the studentswith the dining facilities provided by the University.True, TOWER TOPICS never has crossed its public on such debatable subjects as motion picture morals,grand opera or symphonic music (pardon us, Mr. Mil-lett). This, we like to think, is not due to a weaknessin our vertebrae but to the above mentioned purposeswhich prò vide no logicai place for philosophical editor-ials. There have been times when we have consid-ered the wisdom, if not the jolly fun, of igniting a fewdebatable intellectual bombs, and sitting back to watchthe effect of the reverberations. "In our opinion," thereis nothing that delays rigor mortis and guarantees ahealthy circulation (a metaphor — not a pun) like occasionai lusty slaps, whether they be on the back or inthe face.Lacking this stimulating medium for making itselffelt in the university community, TOWER TOPICS hasdeveloped a style and personality. If you wish, we willblow out the candles before the wax ruins the frosting.We will cut the cake and give you a liberal sample. Thiswill allow you to judge the texture.From Tower Topics' Yesteryear CalendarFebruary 29, 1908 — Women of the University published Daily Maroon as a leap year novelty. Mail carrierwas the only man to cross Maroon office threshold during officiai femmine occupancy.March 1, 1903 — Campaign inaugurated to compelali women to remove hats in class rooms. Ostrich plumesvery aggravating to those wishing to see who the in-structor might be.March 2, 1906 — Harold H. Swift elected presidentof the Dramatic Club.March 4, 1909 — Mitchell Tower chimes played"Hail, the Chief," "Star Spangled Banner," and "HailColumbia" at 11 a. m., while Taft was taking oath ofoffice at Washington.March 6, 1910-Alpha Tau Omega, 923 East 60thStreet, staged early morning pajama sprint down Midway • By HOWARD W. MORT, Editor, Tower Topicsafter a burglar. Boys madethe capture and ali Chicagodailies.March 9, 1903— GammaRho went national, and became Sigma Alpha Epsilon.Ceremonies took place atAuditorium Hotel.March 10, 1904— Orderof Skull and Crescentfounded.March 13, 1906 — Daily Maroon became a morningpaper. It had previously been published in the after-noon.March 14, 1907— First issue of the Alumni Monthlymagazine made its appearance on the quadrangles underthe managing-editorship of George O. Fairweather.March 17, 1903 — Forty-fifth convocation held inStudebaker theatre. Announcement of gift of ten thousand dollars from Mr. Leon Mandel for Mandell Hallpipe organ and a fund of five thousand dollars set asidefor the installation of chimes in Mitchell Tower in mem-ory of the first dean of women, Alice Freeman Palmer.Mrs. La Verne Noyes(Reprinted front Tower Topics of Augusi 13, 1934)We are nearly exhausted! We have just finishedfollowing a pleasant, trim little lady — a fraction overfive feet in height — through a very active fifty-nineyears.We started in frontier Iowa when this young ladywas four years of age. This was in 1857. With hermother, we worried over her safety as she darted hereand there in a country stili frequented by Indians andwild animals.It was something of a relief when we saw her safelyin college at Ames. We weren't surprised that her un-tiring ambition immediately secured for her the positionof private secretary to the president. In spite of thisextra work, the next four years brought echoes of "bril-liant student," "talented presiding officer," "finespeaker," and "graduated with honors/' We knew MissIda was making full use of a twenty-f our hour day.At college she met a bright young chap — La VerneNoyes — who was clever at inventing ali manner of labor-saving gadgets for the farm (he was a farmer's son).Three years after graduation she married this youngman and accompanied him to Chicago in 1879.There were just the two of them and La Verne wasbusy getting his business established. We could hardlyexpect his young wife to sit with folded hands until hecarne home from the office. She had already startedreading and studying. Strangely enough this industry186THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 187resulted in her husband's first important step toward hisfuture success.Her study demanded the Constant use of a huge un-abridged dictionary. She was small and the dictionarycumbersome. Seeing the plight of his ambitious wife,Mr. Noyes took a few evenings off and invented a con-venient, movable dictionary stand. It appears that aworld of scholars had been waiting for just such a de-liverance. This.invention and, a little later, a metal windmill, were the two of over a hundred Noyes inventionsthat brought the world to their feet.After nine years of reading, study and art interest(two of Mrs. Noyes' paintings hang in the Room on thesecond floor of Ida Noyes Hall), her husband announcedthat he was at last prepared to grant her most ambitiouswish — to travel and make new friends.We had managed to keep pace with the young ladyto this point. If we thought she had been active beforewe were only coddling ourselves ! The next twenty-fiveyears were to be breath-taking. We fell so far behindthat the entire period became a sort of daze.Out of the whirlwind of that quarter-century wevaguely remember: Heidelberg, Paris, Belgium, Eng-land, Rome, Venice, Naples, Washington, California,Hawaii, Yosemite, Spain, three long letters aweek to La Verne when he couldn't be withher, Greece, Egypt, Palestine, long, detaileddiaries, Turkey, Quebec, Pike's Peak, GrandCanyon, Alaska, friends and more friendsevery where, Yellowstone, Bombay, Ceylon,Ireland, Oberammergau, Wales, Panama, Car-ibbean Islands, and a hundred thousand picturesmany of which have since been published indifferent f orms !At home, between trips, she was active inwomen's clubs, and civic organizations. Shewas elected national vice-president general ofthe D. A. R. She worked hard and successfullyin this office. Never once, throughout her busy life, did she neg-lect the affections of the husband she sincerely loved.Their home on the north shore reflected this and was thecenter of a most pleasing social life.After her death in 1912, her devoted husbandwished to perpetuate her memory in a way he felt wouldhave been pleasing to her. This explains the erection ofIda Noyes Hall, perhaps the most beautiful and practicalclubhouse in the world for university women. The cor-nerstone was laid Aprii 17, 1915.Her picture hangs opposite that of her husband onthe landing of the stairs leading to the second floor. Aportrait of La Venie Noyes hangs on the east wall of theHutchinson Commons dining room.Mrs. Pearl Buck at Mandel HallMrs. Pearl Buck spoke so disparagingly of serialwriters in her lecture last week at Mandel Hall (at leastit left us with a feeling that such were on a lower pianethan authors having emotion, imagination and some otherthings) that we shall refrain from mentioning anythingabout breakfasts at the Commons in spite of the increasednumbers who are realizing the value of those 12c, 18c,27c and 33c specials. We could talk about the 12c breakfast, however, since cereal isn't included onthat special (fruit, buttered toast or roll andbutter, and coffee). But why speak of it atali ? You doubtless have your breakfast habitswell established at the Commons and we likedMrs. Buck — mainly because we see eye to eyeconcerning Gertrude Stein, viz : that her styleparalyzes our typewriter for twenty-minute in-tervals when we try to catalogne her in thescheme of literary things. Perhaps we can oc-cupy an insignificant corner pew at Miss Stein'sfour lectures scheduled to be given here early inMarch and learn more about her new formulafor punctuation and word (or is it words?)Usage. {Reprint ed, Tower Topics, January 21, 1935)NEW YORK ALUMNIOn May 2nd, at 7 P. M. a group of University ofChicago Alumni living in and near New York City, willgive a dinner at The River Club, 447 E. 52nd St, NewYork, located on the bank of the East River, in honor ofCyrus LeRoy Baldridge, who will teli us of a recenttrip he took to Persia.This is one of the Round Table dinners which havebeen given for outstanding University of Chicago Alumni,who have talked about their experiences in theactivities in which they are engaged. Other Alumni forwhom dinners have been given in past years include Mr.Frank B. Jewett, Mr. Wm. P. MacCracken, Jr., andMr. Nathaniel Peffer. A similar dinner was given in1930 for Mr. Baldridge after his return from Africa.Reservations should be sent to Mr. R. R. Mac-Gregor, 22nd Floor, 15 Broad St., New York City, en-closing a check for $6.00 per piate.Ernest E. Quantrell,For the Committee on Arrangement s.IN MY OPINION• By FRED B. MILLETT, PhD '31, Associate Professor of EnglishRECENTLY, in a moment of conscious exaggera-tion, I found myself saying, "For me, Pirandellois the only living dramatist." Second thoughtmakes this criticai extra vagance seem less preposterous.The current drama of England and France gives us littlesave expert trivialities. The drama of Soviet Russia isbased on an ideology so childish as to indicate a sort ofmass-infantilism. O'Neill, for the moment at least, ap-pears to be content with the cui de sac of religiosity inDays Without End and the pleasant but essentially un-important adolescent reminiscenses of Ah Wilderness.Where in the world is there a dramatist whose plays areboth absorbing and challenging? The Nobel Prize Committee suggests that we shall find him in Luigi Pirandello.Concerning the magnitude of Pirandello's talentsand the universality of his appeal, I have no illusions.Despite his international reputation and the cosmopolitansuccess of Six Characters in Search of an Author, despite the enthusiasm with which France has taken Pirandello to its dramatic bosom, he remains a playwright fora specialized audience, an audience, suffering, as one ofhis own characters says, from "a fit of depression, ofdisgust for the ordinary theatre as the public knows andlikes it." If the primary function of drama is the rep-resentation of action, then Pirandello conscientiouslyavoids the fulfillment of that primary function. Withhim, neither plot nor character is an adequate end in itself. Instead, he uses the technical resources of thedrama freely and highhandedly for the purpose that hehas made peculiarly his own : the exhibition of his favorite ideas.Yet Pirandello is not a social or "useful" dramatist like Shaw or Brieux òr Galsworthy. He is, like everyserious artist, a moralist, although the morality of hisplays is so indulgent that the hidebound or the inatten-tive might easily mistake it for immorality. But theideas to the expression of which Pirandello devotes hisplays are neither social nor useful. They are philosoph-ical conceptions of truth and reality, personality andcharacter.It might indeed be said that ali Pirandello's workillustrates a single idea: the relativity of truth. He isthe arch-enemy of intellectual absolutism in every sphereof human thought and experience. For him, truth andreality, character and personality, good and evil are notthe eternai and unchanging ideas dear to the idealist andthe neo-Aristotelian. Instead, they are momentary as-pects of the eternai flux of thought and life. This master-idea of Pirandello's is not, of course, unfamiliar; itmight indeed be charged that it is a commonplace ofcontemporary thought. What makes the idea importantare Pirandello's extraordinarily suggestive use of it, thecreative ingenuity, imaginative audacity, and theatricaleffectiveness with which he has embodied it in his dramas.Pirandello's dramas, dedicated as they are to the exemplification of philosophical notions, are bound todiffer disconcertingly from the works of his contem-poraries. They steadily minimize action and plot; theynegleet conventional characterization for the representa-tion of the mani f old aspects of a chameleon-like personality. They concern themselves very largely with theanalysis of motivation or the conflict between opposedinterpretations of a particular set of external events.But, despite these unwonted emphases, Pirandellomakes the shrewdest possible use of those resources ofthe drama that will hasten his ends. To draw on theaudience's capacity for crude and violent emotional re-sponses, he repeatedly creates a sensational situation onwhich to build the airy superstructure of his subtle analysis. Thus, plays like Just Think, Giacomino, The Rightsof Others, and The Pleasures of Honesty appear at firstto be manipulations of the familiar triangle with theadded complication of illegitimate offspring. The hero-ine of one of his most power fui plays, Naked, has had,before the play begins, an experience sufficiently luridto quicken our emotions and to intensi fy our impassionedinterest in the interminable psychological unravellings towhich the play itself is devoted. Pirandello is likewisea past-master of both exposition and dénouement. Sincethe point of his drama is the establishment (if possible)of the truth of what has happened, his exposition ad-vances by hints and suggestions, and its meaning andsignificance are frequently complete only at the fall ofthe final curtain. The indecisive conclusion of Right YouAre and the f oreseen but stili shocking suicide that closesSix Characters have extraordinary theatrical effectiveness. Possibly his most daring experiment in dénouement is that of Each in His Own Way, where the conclusion of the play within the play points the way tothe solution of the problem of the major characters inthe stage-audience that is witnessing the performance.Each in His Own Way is not only one of the mostdaringly experimental of Pirandello's plays, but one ofthe clearest of his demonstrations of the relativity oftruth and the complexity of human personality. Thenuclear situation is characteristically sensational. Awoman on the verge of being married gives herself tothe man who is about to marry her fiancé's sister. Theplay concerns itself with the motivation of this extraordinary event, and its first act is devoted to laying barethe superficial motives of the major characters. In thescene in the theatre lobby that follows the first act, itbecomes clear, through the swirls of criticai comment,that the story being represented on the stage is also thestory of two highly indignant persons in the foyer. Thesecond act of the play reveals the actual motivation forthe betrayal, but the continuation of the play is preventedby the indignant pair, who, however, in the final lobbyscene find the solution of their own problem in the play-wright's solution. Thus Pirandello has shown that whatappears to be the truth as to one's motives may not be188THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 189the actual truth, and that art is superior to life in itsillumination of human motivation.The dim margin between the reality of sanity andthe unreality of madness is powerfully dramatized inHenry IV. For the centrai figure,*' a contemporary Ital-ian, has been injured by a rivai as he was impersonatingHenry IV in a pageant, and for years he has been suf-fering under the delusion that he is that monarch. Atthe beginning of the play, however, it becomes clear thatfor some years he has really been sane but has continuedto act the accustomed ròle. An attempt to determine hissanity brings him face to face with his rivai and his falsemistress. In an outburst of sane range, he kills his rivai,but now he must go on until death with his play-acting inorder to escape the legai consequences of his vengeance.Pirandello's conception of the relativity of personality is most clearly revealed in such plays as Naked andAs You De sire Me. In the earlier play, a wretched girlhas constructed a personality for herself out of the con-ceptions her lovers have had of her. When, however, sheis stripped of these illusory personalities, she is quitedenuded of individuality, since she has never been any-thing in and by herself. Thus, Pirandello would demon-strate sensationally the social nature of personality andthe fact that our characters are discordant or harmonizedpatterns of what we should like to be, what we ought tobe, what other people think us to be, and what we arebut do not know our sei ves to be. In As You De sire Me,Pirandello illustrates even more directly the plastic qual-ity of personality. Here, a desperately unhappy womanis offered, through most ingeniously contrived circum-stances, an opportunity to impersonate a woman whoseway of life promises to be happier than her own. Theimpersonation is only too successful. For the woman sotruly becomes what she is pretending to be that whenher husband, who, Pygmalion-like, has created her,proves unworthy, she is unable to accept an easy compromise and abandons her self by disappearing.But it is in his internationally successful Six Char acters in Search of an Author that Pirandello has at-tained the most complex and startling effects. Here ap-pear not only his favorite doctrine of the relativity oftruth and character but also a dramatization of the proc-ess of artistic creation and a treatment of the contrastingrealities of art and life. For the six characters are sixpersonalities created by a dramatist who for some rea-son has re f used to give them a permanent dwelling placein a play. In their state of frustration, they appear beforea manager and beg him io let them act out on the stageof his theatre their t ragie history. The acting out of thisdrama not only f urnishes the structure of the play withinthe play but also offers endless opportunities to com-ment ironically on the inadequacies of the dramatic medium and the theatrical performance. The charactersobject vigorously to the falsification of their experienceby the stage-manager, by the actors themselves, and bythe director who tries to get their drama in shape forperformance. The spokesman for the characters statesmost explicitly Pirandello's conception of the eternaireality of art. "When a character is born, he acquiresat once such an independence, even of his own author,that he can be imagined by everybody even in many othersituations where the author never dreamed of placinghim; and so he acquires for himself a meaning whichthe author never thought of giving him. . . Ours is animmutable reality which should make you shudder whenyou approach us if you are really conscious of the factthat your reality is a merely transitory and fleeting illu-sion. Our reality doesn't change. It cannot change."Thus Pirandello's six characters, like Hamlet andFalstaff, Mr. Micawber and Elizabeth Bennet, Cleopatraand Leopold Bloom wander eternally down the imagina-tions of the world. They are more widely and endur-ingly known than you who read or I who write can everhope to be. Beyond their suffering and their laughter,beyond their desperate and gallant ends, they inhabiteternity.oChicago Alumni in the Current MagazinesAmerican Magatine — MarchRichberg Takes the Stand, DonaldI. Richberg, '01American Mercury — FebruaryThe Revolution in Cotton, OliverCarlson, Resch. Assoc. '31-'33Atlantic Monthly — FebruaryFinale in Moscow, Vincent Sheean,'2FCurrent History — JanuaryWhere the Dutch Fear Japan,Amry Vanden Bosch, '21, PhD'26Current History — MarchThe Voice of the Soviet Village,Anna Louise Strong, AM'07,PhD'08Collier' s Weekly — January 12, ff. The Smoky Years, Alan LeMay,'22Chicagoan — December throughMarchPilgrimage to Germany, Milton S.Mayer, '29Esquire — MarchLife History of Spaghetti, JohnGunther, '22New Republic — February 6Stili Forgotten, Wayne McMillan,g-exScientific Monthly — JanuaryAlong Darwin's i;Trail in SouthAmerica, Wilfred H. Osgood, PhD'18Science and the Recovery Program,A. M. MacMahon, PhD'27 Scientific America — JanuaryQuintuplets, Quadruplets, Triplets,Twins, H. H. Newman, Ph D'05Saturday Evening Post — ¦Decemberthrough MarchFrom Farm Boy to Financier,Frank A. Vanderlip, '95 ex, andBoyden SparkesSaturday Evening Post — February 16After the Oil Deluge, What PriceGasoline? Harold L. Ickes, '97,JD'07.Survey — FebruaryThe New Deal Security— Health,Grace Abbott, PhM'09Real America — MarchThe Challenge of Tomorrow, Donald Richberg, '01NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES• By JOHN P. HOWE, '27IT HAS been four years, lacking a few months, sincethe University of Chicago' s new pian of highereducation made its dramatic advent. How has theexperiment worked out? It has worked out so well thatit does not occur to> anyone to consider going back tothe old, and so well that although there is every disposi-tion to welcome suggestions for improvement no signifi-cant revisions of the basic ideas have been deemed necessary.The first comprehensive report on the reorganiza-tion, particularly on its most dramatic phase, at the College level, is now presented by Chauncey S. Boucher,Dean of the College, in a volume entitled "The ChicagoCollege Pian," published last month by the UniversityPress.Tracing the ten-year development of the pian, whichbecame effective in October, 1931, Dean Boucher pointsout that it is based in part on the belief that the juniorcollege — the first two years for most students — shouldbe devoted to general education. Four general courses,one each in the fields of the humanities, the socialsciences, the physical' sciences and the biological sciences,furnish the foundation for general education in the Chicago program. Attainment is measured in comprehensive examinations, which a student may take wheneverthey are offered, whether he has attended ali or none ofthe corresponding general courses."Though to a certain extent we returned to the oldpian of a fixed curriculum, though of a distinctly newtype, and to this extent abandoned the individualizationof student programs, we have made complete provisionfor individualization in regard to the attainments andthe capacity of each student," Dean Boucher says."Since we required the demonstration of achievementin both prescribed and elective fields, rather than coursecredits, each student is saved from what for him maybe boring repeti tion or routine, perfunctory, lock-stepprocedure."Each student can capitalize to the fullest his pastachievements and his present capacity for achievement— he may save time in the fulfilment of the junior-college requirements in exact conformity with his degreeof superiority over the average student in regard to pastachievements and present capacity for achievement."The syllabi which have been designed to guide thestudent in his work, and enable him to study indepen-dently, have been completely rewritten in each of thefour years, Dean Boucher's report reveals. In most in-stances the syllabi have been restudied and rewritten tosuch a point that they are now regarded as entirely successful instruments of instruction.Discussing the Chicago grouping of knowledge intofour fields, Dean Boucher says that this arrangement isonly one of several possible plans and that grouping into any number of fields from two to ten might be sug-gested and defended. The university is constantly dis cussing proposals for a fundamental regrouping, andthough no sufficient reason to alter the fields has developed, such a change can be made at any time in thefuture."Perhaps primarily because of the nature of thesubject matter, there is less serious disagreement amongour faculty members over the organization and contentof the introductory general courses in the biologicalsciences and in the physical sciences than over the general courses in the humanities and in the social sciences."Many new devices of instruction have been established to aid the student in his independent work, theBoucher survey shows. A physics museum with 125operating experiments ; special weekly demonstrationexhibits in the biological sciences, especially plannedtalking motion pictures, and entirely new college librariesare included among the added instructional devices.In addition to the usuai class sections, there aresmall discussion groups meeting each week on a volun-tary basis : "honor" sections open to superior students byinvitation, and review or "trailer" sections for studentsneeding extra assistance."There is no doubt that students have more oppor-tunities for, and more actual, personal contact with in-structors under the New Pian than the old one," DeanBoucher says. "Much of the most effective instruction isgiven through individuai conf erences or to groups oftwo or three students by faculty members in their offices.Though we do not have the tutorial system we do providean immense amount of tutorial service. Indeed, it mayhonestly be said that there is provided for each studentas much instructional assistance as he may need or desire. "During the first year of the New Pian the Englishcomposition course, designed to assist students to acquirethe essential minimum of proficiency in English usage,was unsatis factory, a fact that was demonstrated by thecomprehensive examination results."This is no more a commentary on our staff than itis on the teaching of English composition to junior-college students in most of the colleges and universities ofthe country," Dean Boucher observes. Revised eachyear, the course is now integrated with the work of thegeneral courses, and is regarded as unusually efficient.The report stresses the fact that one of the mostimportant aspects of the reorganization has been the tm-precedented scale of originai and effective development inexamination technique undertaken to improve testingmethods."The adoption of the comprehensive examinationmethod of measuring results, together with the establishment of a r elati vely independent Board of Examination,established the necessity of a clear-cut definition of objectives in each field of thought and established the necessity of a most criticai selection of subject matter andinstructional methods for the attainment of objectives.190THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 191"As the examination in a given field, through continuous criticai analysis, has become increasingly validand reliable, the results attained have shown clearly theadvisability or necessity of changes in subject-mattercontent, in organization, in proportions and time allot-ments, and in methods of instruction.""Our present examinations are so much better thanexaminations under our old pian — measure so muchmore and so much more nearly accurately — and contrib-ute so much to the diagnosis and remedy of defects indesign and administration of the educational program,that we have reason to feel that we have made a big stepforward and have reason to' believe that this step willlead to stili greater strides toward the goal of the bestattainable educational results," the report states.In June of last year students were allowed to usetexts and notes in the first half of the humanities examination, but a comparison of results with those ofthe previous June showed that the effect of the "open-book" examination was not great.Both faculty and students are in agreement that thepian has greatly improved student- faculty relations. Because the examination function has been divorced fromthe teaching function, the competition between studentand teacher has been eliminated. The amount of independent work is constantly increasing, as is the use ofthe libraries. Figures for withdrawals of books fromthe College Library for the two social sciences coursesand the humanities course show that the average numberof book withdrawals per registrant was 67 in 1931-32,and 80 in 1933-34.Although class attendance is voluntary, it has aver-aged almost exactly what it was under the old pian whenattendance was required. Daily records kept for pur-poses of analysis indicate that attendance is in directratio to the extent to which students think that the classperiod will be profitable to them. Failures have been nogreater under the new than under the old, althoughharder and more effective work is demanded."Under the New Pian, with students attendingclasses voluntarily and not under compulsion, with students asking for examinations, with students asking tohave the library open longer hours, with students askingfor extra discussion-group meetings, with students seek-ing more individuai tutorial conferences with instructorsthan ever before in spite of, or because of, knowingthat the instructor awards neither course credit nor gradepoints, it seems that the pursuit of knowledge and schol-arship is becoming a major 'student activity,' " DeanBoucher says.Elaborate analyses have been made of the examination results of 2,109 students under the New Pian whotook 9,931 examinations from its inception through lastOctoher. The records show that 11.07 per cent receivedan "A" grade; 20.01 per cent a "B" ; 40.99 per cent a"C" ; 17.63 per cent a "D" ; and 10.30 per cent an "F"or failure grade. Of the "F" grades, 45.59 per cent weresubsequently raised to passing by repeating examinations. The letter grades are recorded chiefly for use incases of transfer to another institution.Study of the grades revealed that no òne of thefour general and the English course (except in the first year of the plan's operation) was an impossible barrierto an unreasonably large group of students. Conversely,no one course was found to be unreasonably easy forslower students. Nor did the examination records indicate that any one course was especially easy for theabler students nor that any one course was unreasonablydifficult for them. Averages of student performance inthe four general courses showed dose correspondence inlevel.The analysis of the examination figures shows alsothat students who take more than two< years to completethe College requirements do not necessarily require morethan four years to complete their baccalaureati work orare necessarily low-grade in ability, for approximatelyhalf of this group were actually ahead of the normalschedule, having completed some of the Upper Divisionrequirements.Thirty-four students completed the College requirements in less than two academic years of residence, andsome also had anticipated some Upper Division requirements as well. Among students who took examinationswithout attending the corresponding course, the propor-tion of high grades was much larger than for studentswho attended the full course, and the proportion of failures in the faster group was only half that of the entiregroup, evidence that the superior students are taking advantages of opportunities offered under the pian.Latest of the developments of the pian has been theorganization of a "four year college" which makes thelast two years of the University High School and theCollege a unit.''The four-year college program is a naturai cap-ping stone to secondary education and a bridge betweensecondary education and truly higher, or university, education," the reports says. "We have endeavored to designour College program to bridge this gap successfully. Instead of permitting the tone and tempo of high schoolperformance to< reach up and control the junior collegeprogram, we have insisted that the tone and the tempoof university performance must be pushed down intothe junior college program."Who's Who in 1935Despite the glories of the New Pian (we shall referto it hereafter as the "Chicago pian," since its comingof age) the old pian must have had some merit, if anexhaustive piece of research by Mr. Charlton Beck is anyindication. Combing every page of the new "Who's Whoin America," the edition of 1934-35, Mr. Beck has culledout the names of an astonishing number of notables whoare former students of the University of Chicago. Theirnumber would delight the heart of any alumni secretary.And any pian which contributed toward so much great-ness (as conservatives would say of capitalism and theConstitution) must have merit.Biographies of 1,981 former U. of C. students ap-pear in the 1934-35 edition. This edition contains a totalof 31,081 brief biographies, and the University of Chicago representation is therefore 6.37% of the whole.One in every 15.7 persons listed is a former Midway student.While figures for the representation in "Who's192 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWho" from other institutions are not available, theUniversity of Chicago' s showing is made striking by thefact that there are nearly 1,000 colleges in the UnitedStates, and that the University of Chicago, at the timemost of its "Who's Who" representati ves were students,was a much smaller institution than it now is. Approximately 85% of ali the people listed in "Who's Who" areformer college students.A similar study of the 1932-33 "Who's Who" madeby Mr. Beck showed that 1,628 former University ofChicago students were among the 30,545 people listed.The increase in the number of U. of C. representati vesin the current issue is 353, and the percentage is in-creased from 5.32 % to 6.37%.Of the 1,981 Chicago representati ves in the currentissue, 562 hold the degree of Doctor of Philosophy fromfrom the University of Chicago, 351 hold the Bachelor'sdegree, 260 hold the Master's degree, 111 hold the M. D.degree from the University's Rush Medicai College, 72hold divinity degrees, 54 hold law degrees, and 860 areformer students who did not take degrees. Appropriatedeductions for cases where the individuai earned morethan one Chicago degree (289 in ali) brings the totalof individuals to 1,981.Mr. Beck points out that the list of former Midwaystudents in "Who's Who" includes four past presidentsof the American Medicai Association, the two most recent Chief Chaplains of the United States Army, and thetwo most recent heads of the Department of Superin-tendence of the National Education Association, in ad-dition to the 125 current heads of institutions of higherlearning.Included among the 125 former Chicago studentswho are listed as presidents of universities, colleges,normal colleges, età, are the presidents of the Universities of Oklahoma, Arkansas, North Carolina, Colorado,South Dakota, Tennessee and California at Los Angeles(Provost Moore), and of Clark University, Washingtonand Lee University, Boston University, Howard University, Washington University (St. Louis), BucknellUniversity, Ottawa University, Drake University,Southwestern University, Wilberforce University, Cum-berland University, New Orleans University, StetsonUniversity, Millikin University, Georgia Tech, GeorgiaWesleyan, and Nebraska Wesleyan ; of the f ollowingcolleges, Bryn Mawr, Goucher, Bates, Coe, Agnes Scott,Centenary, Otterbein, Wheaton, Carroll, Millsaps, Kala-mazoo, Linfield, Shurtleff, Hendrix, McPherson, LakeErie, Whitworth, Ouachita, Eureka, Paine, Randolph-Macon, Hanover, Wooster, Chicago Y. M. C A., James-town, Guilford, Inter-Mountain, Connecticut College forWomen, Virginia Polytechnical ; of state women's colleges in Texas and Georgia; and of state teachers colleges in Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Dakota, Texas, Idaho, Tennessee, Nebraska, West Virginia, Montana, Kentucky,Ohio, California, Missouri, Indiana, New Mexico, NorthCarolina, Pennsylvania, Utah, and Virginia.In ali candor it should be pointed out that amongthe 860 former Chicago students listed in the current edition who did not take Chicago degrees there must bemany whose stay at the Midway was brief, and who carne for a special rather than a general purpose. Also,it seems to be generally acknowledged that educators areadmitted to the volume rather more readily than men andwomen of comparable standing in other pursuits. Thegreat bulk of Chicago's 562 Ph.D.'s in the book are ineducation. Nevertheless, the figures are imposing.History on FilmComplete copies, recorded on film, of ali hearingson the codes of fair competition held under the NationalIndustriai Recovery Act, and the hearings on the marketing agreements, codes, licenses, processing tax andother matters of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, will be secured by the University, it was dis-closed recently by Dr. Frederick Kuhlman, associatedirector of the University's libraries.The project is a pioneer effort in the preservationof historical source materials through the use of film.Many library authorities believe the method will bewidely used in the future because it is inexpensive, space-saving, convenient and relatively permanent. The complete records of the NRA and AAA. hearings, so hugethat the government would not undertake to print them,comprise approximately 286,000 letter-size pages. Whenreproduced on 16-millimeter safety film — at a cost ofslightly more than one mill per page — these records oc-cupy less than three cubie feet of space.The filming project is sponsored by the Joint Committee on Materials for Research of the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science ResearchCouncil. Dr. Kuhlman is chairman of the public docu-ments committee of the American Library Association,which is cooperating with this group, and the Universityof Chicago is one of'several institutions subscribing tothe film volumes.The AAA materials, recorded in 58 film volumes of100 ft. of film each, are regarded as the most importantsingle body of source materials relating to Americanagriculture. In addition to recording the officiai sten-ographic reports of the hearings, the film copy includestentative drafts of codes with amendments suggested byinterested parties, together with supporting data in theforni of business letters, telegrams, petitions, casestudies, charts, statistical tables, lawyers' briefs, pam-phlets, books, etc, the whole amounting to approximately136,000 pages.The NRA hearings films total 68 film volumes, andcontain records of over 500 hearings, supplemented inmany cases by hearings on subdivisions and amendments,with ali the data submitted in support of testimony athearings, the whole amounting to approximately 1 50,000pages. Both the AAA and NRA films are elaboratelyindexed for easy reference, the latter being keyed withthe published 15-volume "Codes of Fair Competition."The University is acquiring a projector especiallydesigned for such library film records, in the expectationthat it will be increasingly useful as the practice of filming historical source records expands. The projectorcan be used in a lighted room, and is small enough tobe used at a work table, the film being shifted from pageto page with ease and the magnification changed readily.On Jan. lst of this year the University began sub-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 193scriptions to twenty-five care fully selected newspapers,about half of them foreign publications, with the expec-tation that they will prove, now and in the future, ex-tremely valuable sources for studies in the social sciences.This was made possible through a grant made to theUniversity last year by one of the eastern foundationsfor the purpose of enabling the University to securesocial sciences materials. Because newsprint disinteg-rates after some 25 years, even under ideal conditions,a pian is being considered wheréby ali of these paperswill be transferred to film, preferably at the site of publication. The University for some years has been re-ceiving its library file copies of the New York Timesand the Chicago Tribune printed on linen stock, whichis more durable. Use of film might conceivably be ex-tended to some of the learned journals. These journalsrepresent the very forefront of scientific and scholarlythinking, as of any one time, and are indispensableto further work, and often irreplaceable at any reason-able price, and like newspapers they sometimes have atendency to disintegrate. It might interest alumni toknow that the University subscribes to over 5,000"serials," mostly periodicals, not ali of which, of course,are learned. Other uses to which the special fund forsocial sciences materials is being put, in addition to news-paper subscriptions, are the building up of the University's fine map collection and the accumulation ofthe public documents of the several states.NotedOne of the oldest Armenian manuseripts known,tentatively dated in the ninth century, has been securedfor the University of Chicago's collection of New Testa-ment manuseripts through the generosity of Mr. Frederick Haskell of Chicago. The document is a parchment"depliant" folio, of unusual size, containing parts of Matthew and Mark; It was found in the Levant in 1886by Professor Caspar Gregory of Leipzig. ProfessorErnest Colwell of the University, one of the few American scholars expert in Armenian, will investigate andpublish the manuscript, which is certain to be significantfor the history of New Testament texts. The University has thirty-three New Testament manuseripts, written in Greek, Syriac and Armenian; the newest editionis one of the most imposing and one of the oldest. . . .Care of patients in the Billings Hospital and BobsRoberts Hospital, measured in terms of patient-days, hasincreased steadily since the depression low point of 1932,and these hospitals are now operating at capacity; theLying-In Hospital has also had an increase in servicerendered during recent months. . . . Dr. Paul Weiss ofthe Zoology department has been granted a six-monthsf ellowship abroad by the General Education for researchon the "resonance" principle of nervous control whichhe is developing. . . . Fraternities pledged 181 fresh-men at the conclusion of the rushing season last month,six less men than were pledged last year. Beta ThetaPi pledged an interesting group of non-fraternity upper-classmen who had formed a club. ... Degrees andcertificates were awarded to 283 candidates at the University's 179th Convocation March 12th. Dean Shirley Jackson Case of the Divini ty School delivered the ad-dress, on "The Profits òf Education." The Convocationpreacher at the University Chapel services the Sundaypreceding the graduation exercises was Dr. Henry NobleMacCracken, President of Vassar College, who was thef ourth layman to deliver the Sunday sermon thus farthis academic year. . . . John Vander-Velde, a junior inthe University and a candidate for the Maroon baseballteam, was an unsuccessful candidate for alderman of the"Bloody 20th" Ward. ... James Cusack, '27, was thesuccessful candidate for re-election in the 5th Ward,which includes the University. Robert Cusack, a fresh-man this year, is the seventh of the Cusack brothers andsisters to enroll at the University, the Alderman havingbeen one of the earlier Maroon representatives in thefamily. . . . Gertrude Stein, literary figure and stimu-lating personality, was on the campus the first two weeksof March, delivered four lectures to large studentgroups, conducted ten conference sessions with smallergroups, interviewed a number of literature students per-sonally, mostly on the theme of the narrative form ofwriting. . . . Other lecturers of recent weeks on thequadrangles have been Louis Untermeyer, LudwigLewisohn, Pearl Buck, Sir Willmott Lewis, Washington correspondent of the London Times, and Mme. Tatiana Tchernavin, author of "Escape from the Soviets."Alexander Woollcott is scheduled by the Student Lec-ture Service for an appearance in Mandell hall the evening of the 20th. ... A group of rare Sumerian statues,some 5,000 years old, discovered by the Iraq expeditionof the Orientai Institute, have been placed on exhibit atthe Institute museum. . . . Recrudescence of debatingon the University campus reached a climax last monthwhen a University debate team tied for first honors intwo intercollegiate tournaments. . . . Professor BertholdL. Ullman of the Latin Department recently received agreeting card from Pope Pius, whom he knew when thelatter was a librarian at Milan. . . . Dr. William H.Taliaferro, Associate Dean of the Biological Sciences division, whose recent work on malaria is of basic import-ance to the under standing of immunity processes, hasgone to Panama for several months to work on tropicaldiseases and to convalesce from a recent illness. . . .Professors Ezra Kraus and Herman Hayward of theBotany department hope to return shortly from Tucson,where both have been convalescing from serious ili—nesses. . . . Dr. Harold Willoughby of the New Testament department is spending the Spring quarter atPrinceton University, doing research work on apocalypseiconography. . . . The University, in cooperation withthe state committee on naturalization, recently conducteda two-week Institute for the training of teachers of citi-zenship, in connection with a prospective program oftraining for aliens in Illinois. . . The production atMandel hall of "Xerxes," Handd's forgotten opera, bythe University Chorus and Orchesis, University dancegroup, was a huge success, Other successful dramaticevents of recent weeks have been the Tenth Annual Mir-ror revue and the tenth annual revival of a popular 19thcentury play, this year T. W. Robertson's "Caste." . . .The Blackfriars show for this May is entitled '"In BràiììsWe Trust."ATHLETICSSCORES OF THE MoNTHBasketball :Chicago, 24; Wisconsin, 26Chicago, 41 ; Iowa, 40Chicago, 29; Illinois, 39Chicago, 25; Wisconsin, 48Track :Chicago, 55 ; Purdue, 39.Chicago, 36; Marquette, 58Chicago, 7A% ; Loyola, 20%Chicago, 58; North Central, 37Swimming :Chicago, 33; Iowa, 51Chicago, 42; Loyola, 41Chicago, 34; Illinois, 50Water Polo:Chicago, 13; Iowa, 2Chicago, 2; Illinois, 3Gymnastics :Chicago, 1101.03; Illinois, 1131.Chicago, 961; Iowa, 968; WiscomWrestling :Chicago, 38; Wisconsin, 30Chicago, 6; Northwestern, 26Chicago, 3 ; Iowa, 23Fencing :Chicago, 1 1 ; Purdue, 6Chicago, 12; Michigan State, 5Chicago, 7; Illinois, 10Polo:Chicago, 9*4; Culver, 13Chicago, 16*4 ; Illinois, 6Chicago, 5 ; Culver, 6Chicago, \9y2\ Michigan State, 3For lack of anything else, those who take their ath-letics seriously will shortly be engaged in warming upfor the football season which is now but six short monthsaway. The winter schedule is practically completed withthe only unfinished business being the swimming meet,and there was no particular distinction attaching to therecords of the teams operating from this territory. Alithings considered, the swimmers were the best in pointof improvement and performance. Great calamity over-took the gymnastic team, which not only lost three dualmeets out of four in the Big Ten, but dropped to f ourthplace in the annual championship meet. That sort ofthing hasn't happened in the memory of anyone butCoach Dan Hoffer and Jimmy Twohig, for it has beensomething like twenty-two years that a Chicago teamdropped so far. The basketball team won one game inthe conference and carne dose in another; the trackteam did well in dual meets but popped in the conference ; the fencing team won ali but one of its dual meets • By WILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN, '20, JD '22and then finished fifth in the big meet. The water poloteam was beaten by Illinois, 3 to 2, in an overtime gamedownstate, and thereby lost the championship.Chicago does not have the best teams in football orbasketball but certainly it does have about the best individuai in each of these sports. Just as Berwanger wasone of the finest football players in the country, BillHaarlow is in a class by himself in basketball. He ledthe conference with 156 points, with 51 baskets and 54freethrows, the second high score made since 1923, thelast year that one man on a team was permitted to makeali the freethrows. Haarlow made his record despitethe fact that he was playing on the last place team in theconference, which means not only that he had poorersupport than his rivals and could thereby be watchedmore closely, but also that he had to rise above some ofthe most atrocious officiating that has been seen. Theguards who opposed Haarlow wrestled with him, held,shoved, and did about everything but hit him with apiece of lead pipe.Because Chicago was playing first division teamsthat were in the race until the last game, the officiatewere very timid about calling f ouls on the opponents.McDonald of Wisconsin was called twice in the first fewminutes in the last game of the Chicago season, whenthe Badgers needed to win to clinch a share of the championship. Thereafter another foul was not calledagainst him until the game was nearly over. But thefollowing Monday at Purdue, with both teams fightingfor the championship, McDonald was fouled out by thefirst minute of the second half. The philosophy of theofficials seemed to be that a victory or two for Chicagowouldn't help its standing, but that until the game"broke" fouls called against the teams that were up inthe race might have unpleasant repercussions. Haarlowliterally was held without a basket in the Wisconsingame, but he made ten straight freethrows, after scor-ing nine without a miss in the previous game. Thatshooting helped, for Bob Kessler of Purdue was onlysix points behind Haarlow at the finish of the season.The Chicago forward was picked for ali the usuai "ali-star" teams and was named forward on an "Ali- Western"team selected by sixty college coaches of the country.Even to the final game, when his scoring honors werethreatened by Kessler, Haarlow was a team player aboveeverything else.There will be some help from the present f reshmansquad next season, and four of this year's varsity regu-lars, Haarlow, Peterson, Kaplan, and Lang, will be back.The f reshman forwards are: Robert Fitzgerald, Yank-ton, S. D., 5 feet, 11 inches, 170 pounds; John Egge-myer, Richmond, Ind., 6 feet; James Gordon, Chicago,6 feet. The two best centers are Kendall Peterson, thirdof the series of brothers on the Midway, who is 6 feet,3 inches, and Paul Amundsen, Chicago, 6 feet, 5 inches.Guards are Howard Durbin, Terre Haute, Ind., 6 feet.194THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 195With anear to the groundviaRadio Telephonei*L^Wthan 45,000,000 miles and 500,000 passengers a year.It is helping the airlines to set a notable record forfast, on-time service.Western Electric has acquired aspecialized knowledge of sound-trans-mission. It applies this in the publicinterest to timely developments ofwhich the radio telephone is only one.Western ElectricLEADERS IN S O U N D - T R A N S M I S S I O N APPARATUSPilots on the country's leading airlinesare always within hearing and speak-ing distance of airports. Reliable twoway voice contact is maintained byWestern Electric Radio.Produced by Bell Telephone makers, the flyingtelephone is ready day and night, good weather andbad. It gives vital information to pilots flying more196 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1 inch, 180; Robert Upton, Chicago, 5 feet, 11 inches,165 pounds; George Antonie, East Chicago, Ind., 6 feet,3 inches, 190 pounds ; Ward Albert, 6 feet, 1 inch, 174pounds, and Russell Chambers, 6 feet, 3 inches, 185pounds, both from Long Beach, Cai. These men are notstars, but they have better training than Chicago f reshmenusualìy have, and they have real possibilities of development. Coach Nelson Norgren at least can anticipateadding some badly needed height to his defense nextseason.The work of John Beai, sophomore high hurdlerwho defeated Mike Layden of Notre Dame, and Kenneth Sandbach of Purdue, among others : a 47 f oot, 10-V^inch shot put performance by Jay Berwanger, and theconsistently good races of Co-Captain Bart Smith in the440 were the only outstanding perf ormances of the trackmen during the dual meet season. Berwanger, out ofother competition on the track because of a leg in jury re-ceived while hurdling, had no chance in the Big Ten shotbecause he sprained several fingers. Beai tripped overthe first hurdle in his semifinal. Smith let himself getinto a bad pocket in the 440 final, and though he made agreat finish, could get no better than fourth in a race hemight have won with better racing luck. Edward Rappwas fifth in the two-mile, and Stewart Abel tied forfourth in the pole vault. These three places gave Chicago 3% points and ninth in the team totals. There are two freshmen coming up who should beheard from in track next year. One is Raymond Ellin-wood, from River Forest, 111., a transfer from Purdue.Ellinwood has run a 1 :56 half mile, a 4:31 mile, and a0:50 quarter this winter. A good student, he decidedafter a semester at Purdue that he preferred medicine toengineering. Instead of formally dropping his courses,he let them go through as incomplete. Unless the BigTen interprets the rule in his favor, he may be barredfrom competition for two seasons because he transferredwhile scholastically ineligible. George Halcrow, fromHyde Park, is first class in the 440 and 880, but notquite as fast as Ellinwood.In the catastrophic collapse of the gymnasts onlyone Chicago man, Charles Adams, the defending cham-pion in the rings, won an individuai championship. TheChicago wrestlers did nothing at ali in the Big Ten meet,which was dominated by the boys from the state schools,chiefly Illinois and Iowa. In the fencing, Leland Winter was third in the sabers ; Campbell Wilson tied forthird in the epee, and Marks was fourth in the foils.Kyle Anderson has been giving his baseball squadwinter training in the field house. If — the usuai one incollege baseball — he gets pitching, his team will be rightin the race. Haarlow, who was a pitcher in high school,has been taken off the infield and will be the big hopeon the slab.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 197CRUISES TO CALIFORNIASAN FRANCISCO 13 to 16 perfé et daysof Summer Sunshine j&tEKIOS ANGELESRocing al SANTA-ANITA Track FIRST CLASS$120 TOURIST CABINA sailing from New York and fromCalifornia every other SaturdaySAN DIEGOCORONADO «EACHMEXICOCRUISE away from cold to the glowing warmthof California — and enjoy summer ali the way!Sail on the largest liners in the service — the 33,000-ton sister ships Virginia, California or Pennsylvania.Enjoy ali their comforts and luxuries. They're theonly ships in this service with air-conditioned diningsalons. Two outdoor swimming pools. Large, per-fectly appointed cabins — ali outside. Pre-release mov-ing pictures. And you can do it for as little as $185First Class! Tourist Cabin from #120. 25% reduc-tion for round trips. Visits are made at Havana, thePanama Canal, San Diego (gateway to Mexico), Los Angeles and San Francisco. Stopovers permittedanywhere en route. Apply to your travel agent. Hisservices are free.Special! 9-day cruises to Havana and return. De luxe,all-expense, $120, includine 3 days in Havana.^TTJ'TAT I Ask about the 1 1 -day cruises of the mammoth* American cruiser Columbia, \a Nassau, Miamiand Havana, $125 (up), including shore excursions. SailsMarch 16 and 30. Also 5%-day Bermuda cruise, with 2days in Bermuda, $65 (up), sails Aprii 12. Special 9-dayEaster cruise to Nassau, Miami, Havana, $1 io (up), including shore excursions, sails Aprii 1 9.Main Office, No. I Broadway, New York. Other offices in ali principal cities.PANAMA PACIFIC LINEAssociated ivitb American Merchant, Baltimore Mail and United States Lines to Europe; Panama Pacific and United States Lines Cruises.JUST AS PREDICTEDJUST as predicted, the Fifth Annual MidwinterAlumni Dinner was a great success, the speakerswe advertised spoke, the turkey appeared and dis-appeared, the singers sang, and everyone of the six hundred alumni went home happy.It is a matter of history now that the dinner tookplace at the Union League Club on February 21. Weregret that ali that was said cannot be a matter of record on these pages for the benefit of those who wereunable to attend, but we are presenting President Hutch-ins' speech in full, which should be a considerable compensatici!. Professor Grace Abbott, to our sorrow, spokewithout manuscript, so her stirring plea to Universityalumni to do their part in making Chicago fit for Chicago^ children cannot be published here.Toastmaster James Weber Linn, of course, couldnot be adequately reviewed on the printed page ; we canonly congratulate those who were at the dinner and sheda sympathetic tear for ali who missed his introductoryremarks, and his comments on the college.Mack Evans' Midway and University Singers pro-vided the aesthetic touch for the program, with theirsplendid chorus work. It was interesting to note that ofali their varied selections, "Carry Me Back to Ol' Vir-ginny" found the most enthusiastic response from thealumni audience.An interesting variation in the proceedings occurredwhen the Alumni Secretary interrupted the contentedabsorption of mousses (mise?) and coffee to announcethe awarding of three handsome prizes ; one for the rep-resentative of the oldest class present, to Miss ElizabethFaulkner; one to the alumnus coming the farthest forsupper, to Miss Margaret Strong of Louisville, Kentucky ; and one to the representative of the most recentlygraduated class, to W. R. Hollaway, '34, of Manhattan,111. There were seven other members of '34 present, soMr. Hollaway owes his good fortune to the drawing oflots, rather than to his youth as an alumnus. The prizeswere copies of Thomas W. Goodspeed's History of theUniversity of Chicago.The Union League proved to be a very pleasantplace to have such a meeting ; the excellent dinner was acredit to both the chef and Thomas Mulroy, Chairmanof the Committee on Meetings, who took care of arrang-Crìme Prevention (Continued from Page 176)ahead of the community program. Vested interests un-doubtedly enter the picture at this point, but whateverthe explanation, the fact remains that community planning for crime prevention and consequent co-ordinationand integration of pertinent activities into a well-roundedprogram is well-nigh impossible under these conditions. ing ali the details that make such a party perf ect.Donald S. Trumbull, president of the College Association and Chairman of the Alumni Council, presidedand introduced the toastmaster, Mr. Linn, and expressedthe thanks of ali to Mr. Mulroy.One of the most interesting things about this dinner, however, was more apparent to the counters ofcards on the fourth floor of Cobb than to those at theparty. A study of the attendance reveals that 60% ofthose present were members of classes between 1920 and1935, indicating that the more recent alumni are discov-ering how desirable alumni dinners are.The Class of 1927 would win the medal (if onewere offered) for high attendance, — twenty-four of thisvintage showed up. The famous 'llers carne in thirdthis time, with twenty members, — beateti by 1933, withtheir representation of twenty-one. The Class of 1935,which was non-existent at the time of the dinner, anti-cipated the active role it will play in the alumni worldby having about eighteen members out. Altogether, suchattendance makes alumni secretaries cheer.Further research indicated that while 50% of thosepresent carne from Chicago's South Side, the other 50%carne from 13 different cities outside the Chicago metro-politan area. This does not include the Chicago suburbs.If they are counted, the total comes up to 32. States rep-resented included Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Washington,New York, and Kentucky.In case anyone wonders why Kentucky receivedthe distance prize, with Washington and New Yorkpresent, it may be remarked that the Kentucky delegatecarne in especially for the dinner and the other delegatesare at present in residence in Chicago; they didn't crossthe continent just for their supper, much though wewould like to think they did.Chicago suburbs contributing alumni for this dinner are as follows: Oak Park, Palos Park, Westmont,La Grange, Evanston, River Forest, Berwyn, BlueIsland, Flighland Park, Hammond, Hinsdale, Maywood,Winnetka, Riverside, Barrington, Flossmoor, Kenil-worth, Elmhurst, and Wheaton. Cities outside the metro-politan area: Gary, Spokane, Joliet, Davenport, Wauke-gan, Momence, Lockport, Harvey, Lake Zurich, Louis-ville, Manhattan, Bronxville, N. Y., and Moline.This point of view is not difficult to understand nofdoes it require any large concessions on the part of socialgroups and institutions to make verbal acknowledgenientof its validity. The real diffijculties are encountered whenany thorough-going attempt is made to carry it out in apractical program.198ALUMNI MEETINGS FAR AND WIDEOak Park: February 20.Dinner meeting at the Oak ParkClub, with Professor Arno B.Luckhardt speaking. Oak ParkAlumni will finish the season witha meeting on the Midway duringSpring Quarter, when they will behosts to a number of outstandingOak Park High School Seniors.Washington, D. C: February 24.The usuai Sunday evening success,with Judge Faye Bentley of theJuvenile Court as guest speaker.Atlantic City: February 27.Educators from far and near as-sembled to hear Dr. Judd, and tomeet other members of the teach-ing fraternity.Indianapolis: March 7.Dean Boucher spoke to some sixtyalumni about the work of the College.Cleveland: March 11.James Weber Linn visited theCleveland colony and spoke onsome subject known only to him-self to the great delight of largenumbers of Clevelanders. Gary: March 12.Fay Cooper Cole and the AlumniSecretary visited the faithful ofGary and Dr. Cole spoke andshowed some remarkably fine pictures.Memphis: March 16.Dean William E. Scott spoke toalumni and their friends at an evening assembly.Charleston: March 18.Professors Wilt and Blair spokeinformally to alumni and friends%at the famed Unitarian ChurchParish House of Charleston.Grand Rapids: March 18.Dr,. Anton J. Carlson met with thealumni at a meeting arranged byDr. Ruth Herrick.New York Alumni and Alumnae:March 22.Professor Emeri tus Elizabeth Wallace and Professor Percy H. Boyn-ton addressed a joint dinner meeting of the Alumni and AlumnaeClubs.Tallahassee : March 28.Dean Shailer Mathews is to meet with the members of the Tallahassee Alumni Club.Los Angeles: March 30.President Hutchins will meet withthe alumni of the Los Angeles district. Reservations may be madethrough Miss Edith Kraeft, 6433Stafford Ave., Huntington Park,Calif.Raleigh: Aprii 4.Dean Mathews contiiiues his southern tour and visits the residents ofRaleigh.Austin, Texas: March 20.President Hutchins addressed ameeting at which Chicago alumniwere specially invited guests.St. Louis: March 23.- Dean William E, Scott is reported,as we go to press, as headed foran assembly of alumni at St. Louisand another at Little Rock.Little Rock: March 22.At least the last word from LittleRock announced a meeting onMarch 22, with Dean Scott asspeaker.THIS HAM NEEDSNO PARBOILING. . . it's Swift's Premium and it's Ovenized!HERE IS A DELICIOUSWAY TO SERVE IT!Bake Swift's PremiumThis Easy Way:Place a whole or half Swift'sPremium Ham in a roaster. Add 2cups of water, and cover the roaster.Bake in a slow oven (325°),allowingabout 21 minutesa poundfora largewhole ham; about 25 minutes a poundfor smaller (up to 12 Ib.) hams orhalf hams. When ham is done, remove from oven. Lift off rind. Scoresurf a ce and dot with cloves; rub withmixture of 3^ cup brown sugar andI tbsp. flour. Brown, uncovered, for20 minutes in a hot oven (400°).For a festive touch, try basting theham — while it browns — with meltedcurrant jelly.Apple SurpriseCore and halve apples and boiluntil red in syrup made with cin-namon drops. Pile apples with saucemade with cranberries and drainedcrushed pineapple. Serve in parsleynests. Swift's Premium Ham needs no pre-cooking. Instead, it comes to you ready to bake, or to slice andcook in your favorite way with no parboiling. Itsaves you time and effort and assures you of tender,juicy ham, rich, sweet, and full-flavored.Ovenizing, Swift's own method of smoking hamin ovens, makes this possible. First the famousmild Premium cure, then this special way of smoking. . . and the result is a ham far superior in flavor andmuch, much easier to prepare. Why not try one thisweek-end? Just be sure to ask for Swift's PremiumHam. No other kind is Ovenized.SWIFT ó- COMPANY199 GENERAL OFFICES . CHICAGOWHO'S WHOIn the CollegeWE promised our readers in lastmonth's Magazine to print thebeginning of a summary of the Chi-cagoans who have achieved the im-mortality of a place in "Who's Whoin America." We thought at first wewould arrange them by classes, but itseems more sporting to give them outalphabetically and let the readers huntfor acquaintances of their own vin-tage. It would be impossible to gointo detail about the publications, degrees, and decorations of ali thesefamous ones, so we shall Jimit our-selves to a statement of name. class,occupation, and location. This listincludes those who attended the College.•Harry Delmont Abells, '97 : Superin-tendent, Morgan Park MilitaryAcademy and Junior College ; Chicago.Frank Ramsay Adams, '04 : Author,playwright; Whitehall, Mich.Marjorie Hill Allee, '11: Author;Chicago.Riley Harris Alien, '04: Editor,Honolulu Star-Bulletin; Honolulu,H.I.William Harvey Alien, '97 : Director,Institute for Public Service; NewYork City.Elbridge R. Anderson, '85: Lawyer;Boston, Mass.Frederick Lincoln Anderson. '82 :Theologian ; Newton Center, Mass.Harry Bennett Anderson, '07 : Judge,U. S. District Court ; Memphis,Tenn.Martin E. Anderson, '06: Minister,Central Presbyterian Church, Denver, Colo.Katherine Susan Anthony, '05:Writer ; New York City.Trevor Arnett, '98 : President. General Education Board ; New York.Oswald James Arnold, '97 : President,Northwestern National Life Insurance Company ; Minneapolis, Minn.Harold Richard Atteridge. '07 : Playwright ; Lynbrook, N. Y?Richard Atwaler, '10: Writer; Chicago.Wallace Walter Atwood, '97: President, Clark University ; Worcester,Mass.Harold L. A.xtell, '98: Professor ofClassics, University of Idaho ; Mos-cow. Idaho.Earle B. Babcock, '03 : Head of De partment of Romance Languageand Literature, New York University ; New York.Frank P. Bachman, '96: Director,Division of Surveys and FieldStudies, George Peabody College ;Nashville, Tenn.Amorose M. Bailey, '03 : Pastor,First United Baptist Church ; Low-ell, Mass.C. LeRoy Baldridge, '11 : Artist, author ; New York.Burt Brown Barker, '97: Lawyer,Vice President, University of Oregon ; Portland, Ore.John V. Barrow, '09: Clinician, Attending Physician, Los AngelesGeneral Hospital ; Los Angeles,Calif.Harlan H. Barrows, '03 : Chairman,Department of Geography, University of Chicago ; Chicago.Charles W. Barton, '10: Editor andpublisher, Casper Times ; Casper,Wyoming.Adelaide S. Baylor, '97 : Chief, HomeEconomics Education Service,Washington, D. C.Warren P. Behan, '94: Dean, OttawaUniversity ; Ottawa, Kas.Bernard I. Bell, '07: Canon, St.John's Cathedral ; Providence, R. I.Conrado Benitez. '11: Professor ofEconomics, University of the Phi-lippines; Manila, P. I.^ i Henry E. Bennett, '07 : Research ad-visor; Chicago.Abraham Berglund, '04 : Professor ofEconomics, University of Virginia ;University, Va.Arthur E. Bestor, '01 : President,Chautauqua Institution ; Chautau-qua, N. Y. .Jacob Billikopf, '03 : Executive Director of Jewish Charities ; Philadel-phia, Pa.Joseph W. Bingham, '02 : Professorof Law, Stanford University; PaloAlto, Calif.Grace Electa Bird, '97: Professor,Rhode Island College of Education,Providence, R. I.Frank H. Blackmarr, '93 : Physician ;Chicago.Eliot Blackwelder, '01 : Professor ofGeology, Stanford University ; PaloAlto, Calif.William R. Blair, '04: Major, U. S.A., in charge of Signal Corps Laboratories ; Fort Monmouth, N. J.Gilbert A. Bliss, '97: Chairman, Department of Mathematics, University of Chicago ; Chicago.Daniel J. Blocker, '10: Head, Department of Sociology, William andMary College; Williamsburg, Va.Hugo L. Blomquist, '16: Professor,Botany, Duke University ; Durham,N. C.William J. Bogan, '09: Superinten-dent of Schools ; Chicago.Gartield A. Bowden, '13: Head,Science Department, UniversitySchool ; Cincinnati, Ohio.William J. Bradley, '05: Head, Department of History, Mercer University ; Macon, Ga.Benjamin Brawley, '06: Professor,English, Howard University ;Washington, D. C.Caroline M. Breyfogle, '96: Dean,Ohio State University; Columbus,Ohio.Thomas H. Briggs, '07: Professor,Education. Teachers College. Columbia University ; New York City.Howard S. Brode, '96: Professor,Biology. Whitman College; WallaWalla, Washington.William S. Brouahton, '99: Commis-sioner of Public Deht ; Washington, D. C.Edward V. L. Brown. '02: Ocuhstand Professor of Opthalmology,University of Chicago; Chicago.Edwin P. Brown, '96: deceased.200VERSITYOF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 201GRADUATESCHOOL AND CAMPDIRECTORYTHE UNIJames G. Brown, '16 : Professor PlantPathology, University of Arizona;Tucson, Ariz.Henry Bruere, '01 : President, TheBowery Savings Bank; New YorkCity.Olive F. Bryson, '17: President, Cen-tenary College; Cleveland, Tenn.Herbert H. Bunzell, '06: Professor,Chemistry, and Consulting Chem-ist; New York City.lesse D. Burks, '93 : Efficiency Engi-neer; Palo Alto, Calif.Leonas L. Burlingame, '06: Professor, Biology, Stanford University;Palo Alto, Calif.Alien T. Bums, '97: Executive Director, Community Chests andCouncils; New York City.Margaret E. Burton, '07: DivisionaiExecutive, National Y. W. C. A. ;New York City.Russell Burton-Opitz, '97 : Physician,physiologist ; New York City.Charles J . Bushneil, '01 : Professor,Sociology, Toledo University; Toledo, Ohio.Fanny Butcher, '10: Literary Editor,Chicago Tribune ; Chicago.Robert G. Buzzard, '16: President,Eastern Illinois State TeachersCollege; Charleston, 111.George N. Cade, '17: Professor, Education, University of Arkansas;Fayetteville, Ark.Fred H. H. Calhoun, '98: Dean andProfessor, Geology, Clemson College ; Clemson College, S. Car.George M. Calhoun, '07: Professor,Greek, University of California;Berkeley, Calif.Francis D. Campati, '03 : Attorney atLaw ; Grand Rapids, Mich.Stephen R. Capps, '03 : Senior scien-tist, U. S. Geological Survey ;Washington, D. C.Doyle E. Carlton, '10: Lawyer, Former governor ; Tallahassee, Fla.Mollie Ray Carroll, '11: AssociateProfessor, University of Chicago,Head Resident, University Settlement; Chicago.Charles P. Cary, '99: Educator;Madison, Wis.Matilde Castro, '00, (Mrs, J. H.Tufts) : Educator, Lecturer; Santa^ Barbara, Calif.Charles C. Catron, '01 : Lawyer, Former Supreme Court Justice ; Santa„ Fé, N. Mex.Stella S. Center, '11: Author andteacher of English; New YorkCity.James F. Chamberlain, '04: Educator,author ; Pasadena, Calif.Rollin T. Chamberlin, '03 : Professor,Geology, University of Chicago,Chicago.Ralph W. Chaney, '12: UniversityProfessor ; Berkeley, Calif. GIRLS' SCHOOLSPENN HALLFor Young Women. Junior College — 2 years,and 4 year high school. Credits honored byuniversities. Music Conservatory. Int. Decor..Costume Design, Phys. Ed., Secretarial, HomeEc, Athletics, Riding. New fire-proof buildings.Connecting baths. Part of May at Ocean City.Catalog :F. S. Ma^ill, A.M.Box G. Ch ambersburg, Pa.FAIRMONTJUNIOR COLLEGE and 4 YEAR HIGH SCHOOLCultural and Social advantages of the capital.Interesting trips. Two- year college courses.Liberal Arts. Secretarial. Home Economics.Music. Art. Develops talents. Accredited toUniversities. Ali sports. 36th year.Maud van Woy, A.B.1715 Massachusetts Ave., Washington,. D. CBOYS' SCHOOLSCLARK SCHOOLHANOVER, NEW HAMPSHIREAn accredited preparatory school certifying tothe University of Chicago and other colleges.Classes average five students. Supervised study.Instructors men of experience. Athletic andwinter sports.Frank G. Morgan, DirectorWESTERN MILITARY ACADEMYYour boy*s success in life depends largely uponthe training he receives between the ages of10 and 19. Wèstern specializes in developingthe success-winning qualities of initiative, per-severance, courage and judgment. That's whyWestern boys are leaders. Thorough prepara-tion for college or business. Sports, riding,for ali. 25 miles from St. Louis. Catalog.Col. C. F. Jackson, Alton, IllinoisCRANBROOKEndowed non-military school for boys nearDetroit. College preparatory, grades 7-12. Un-usually high record in College Board Examinations. Equìpment new and famous for beautyand completeness. Wide variety of sports.William O. Stevens, Ph.D., HeadmasterBloomfield Hills, Mich.Albert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau for menand women in ali kinds of teachlng positions.Large and alert College and State Teachers' College departments for Doctors and Masters: fortyper cent of our business. Critic and Grade Sup-ervisors for Normal Schools placed every year inlarge numbers ; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration, Music, and Art. secure fine positions throughus every year. Private Schools in ali parts of thecountry among our best patrons; good salaries. Wellprepared High Sehool teachers wanted for city andsuburban High Schools. Special manager handlesGrade and Critic work. Send for folder today. BOYS' SCHOOLS-Continued<ULVEFt EDUCATESTHE WHOLE BOYBalances his mental and physical education.Builds character. Helps him discdver his inter-ests and bents. Develops initiative and individuali ty. Offers College Preparatory andJunior College work. Thoùsand-acré campus on;Lake Maxinkuckee. Ali sports. Write for catalog.;CULVER MILITARY ACADEMY31 PERSHING SQUARE CULVER, INDIANACOUPONFOR COMPLETE SCHOOL ANDCAMP INFORMATION, FILL OUTAND MAIL THIS FORM TO THEGRADUATE SCHOOL SERVICE, 30ROCKEFELLER PLAZA, N. Y.Student's Age Sex Religion , . . Rate. Location Preferred ........ ....Type of School Preferred. Type of Camp Preferred. Remarks Name Address ....... '.....' PROFESSIONALDIRECTORYTHE OLDEST CAMP IN THE WESTCAMP HIGHLANDSFOR BOYSSAYNER, WISCONSINThree. Camps— 8-12: 13-14: 15-17Woodcraft, Athletic and Water Sports,Music, Photography, Scouting, Long CanoeTrips, Riding, Shooting, Shop, Nature Lore,Camping Trips, Unexcelled Equipment,Experienced Staff, Doctor-Nurse.WRITE THE DIRECTOR FOR CATALOGW. J. MONI LAW, M. D.5712 Kenwood Ave., Chicago202 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHAIRREMOVEDFOREVER14 Years' ExperienceFree ConsultationLOTTIE A. METCALFEGraduate NurseELECTROLYSIS EXPERTPermanent removal of Hair fromFace, Eyebrows, Back of Neck or anypart of Body; destroys 200 to 600Hair Roots per hour.Member American Assn. Medicai Hydrologyand Physical Therapy$1.75 per Treatment for HairTelephone FRA 4885Suite 1705, Stevens Bldg.17 No. State St.CHICAGO COLLEGE OFDENTAL SURGERYDentai School ofLOYOLA UNIVERSITYOffers a four year dentai course requir-ing for matriculation thirty semester hoursof approved college credit in specified sub-jects.The three year dentai course requiressixty semester hours of approved collegecredit in specified subjects.In the near future the requirements formatriculation will be two years of college credit and the dentai curriculum afour year course.Graduate courses offered in selectedsubjects.For details addressThe RegistrarChicago College of Dentai SurgeryDentai School of Loyola University1757 West Harrison St. Chicago, HLDENTISTDR. GEO. G.DENTIST KNAPPWoodlawn rv dedicai Arts Bldg.Suite 304. 1305 E. 63 rd StreetPhone Plaza 6020ELECTROLYSISLOTTIE K METCALFEELECTROLYSIS EXPERT13 YEARS' EXPERIENCEHair Removed from Face, Neck and BodyFacial Veins.Warts, Moles Permanently RemovedGraduate NurseSUITE17 North State Street TELEPHONEFRANKLIN 4885SCHOOL INFORMATIONBOARDINC SCHOOLSFree Catalogs of AJAj in U. S. Prices,ratings,, etc. Inspector's adviee. Alsosmall COLLEGES and Junior Colleges.Only office maintained by the schools.American Schools Assn., 27th year, 921Marshall Field Annex, 24 N. Wabash.Central 6646, Chicago.V. C. Beebe, U. of C. '05, Pres.Camps- Information Ernest W. Clement, '80: Teacher,Author; Fiorai Park, N. Y.Charles C. Colby, '10: Professor,Geography, University of Chicago,Chicago.Charles Wallace Collins, ?08 :Lawyer; Washington, D. C.Charles Williams Collins, '03 : Dramatic Critic, Chicago.Emma M. Cowles, X)2: Educator;Hollidaysburg, Pa.Eloise B. Cram, '18: Zoologisti, U. S.Department of Agriculture ; Washington, D. C.William J. Cuppy, '07: Writer,Critic; New York City.Marye Y. Dabney, '08 : Surgeon, Editor ; Birmingham, Ala./. Frank Daniel, '06: Professor, Zo-ology, University of California;Berkeley, Calif.Karl K. Darrow, '11: Physicist, BellTelephone Laboratories ; NewYork City.Cari B. Davis, '00: Surgeon, Chicago.Cari H. Davis, '06: Gynecologist ;Milwaukee, Wis.Clinton J. Davisson, '08: Physicist,Bell Telephone Laboratories ; NewYork City.Lawrence DeGraff, '98: Judge Des-Moines, Iowa.Frank W. DeWolf, '03: Professor,University of Illinois ; Urbana, 111.Franklin G. DUI, '98: Professor, University of Tulsa; Tulsa, Okla.George Dillon, '27: Poet; Richmond,Va.Arthur D. Dunn, '96 : Deceased.Percy B. Eckhart, '99 : Lawyer, Chicago.I^yford P. Edwards, '05 : Professor,Social Science; Annandale, N. Y.Edward C. Eicher, '05: Congress-man; Washington, D. C.Ernestine Evans, '12: Journalist ;New York City.Emery T. Filbey, '17 : Dean of Facilities, University of Chicago, Chicago.Vernor C. Finch, '08: Professor,University of Wisconsin ; Madison,Wis.Harry A. Finney, '13: Author, Ac-countant ; Chicago.Morris Fishbein, '10: Editor, Physician ; Chicago.Orlin 0. Fletcher, '83 : Professor,Furman University ; Greenville,S. Car.Edith Foster Flint, '97: Professor,English, University of Chicago;Chicago.Joseph M. Flint, '96 : Surgeon ; NewHaven, Conn.George N. Foster, '12: Lawyer; LosAngeles, Calif.William M. Fonts, '17: Theologian;Chicago.Herbert W. Fox, 95 : Chemical Engi-neer; Los Angeles, Calif. SCHOOLSE. A. BOOS SCHOOLFor Mentally and PhysicallyHandicapped Persons — Ali AgesBoarding and Day SchoolTo Limited NumberFree ConsultationInformation Sent on RequestReasonable Rates5740 W. 22nd Place, Cicero, III.BEVERLY FARM, INC.37th YearA Home, School for Nervous andBackward Children and Adul+s220 Acres, 7 Buildings^ School Gymnasium, Industriai and School Training Given, Departmentfor Birth Injury CasesGroves Blake Smith, M. D. Godfrey, III.Key To Success" COMPLETE BUSINESS COURSETraining you can sell! A school noted for its famous ^ÉTgraduates. Choice of alert young people intenton LEADERSHIP. Write or Phone Ran. 1575.18 S. MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO^1IS YOUR EDUCATION ADEQUATE?or could you benefit by a course in1. Effective Public Speaking.2. A Modem Foreign Language.3. Cneative Writing and Journalism.4. Psychology, philosophy, economics?Expert personal instruction. Moderate fees.CHICAGO SCHOOL FOR ADULTS203 N. Wabash Ave. State 3774.NORTH PARK COLLEGEFully AccreditedJuniorCollege: Liberal Arts and Pre-ProfessionalCourses.High School: Language, Scientific and Voca-tional Courses.Conservatory: Public School Music and otherCertified Courses.High Standards of ScholarshipBeautiful Campus, Athletics and Social ActivitiesExpenses LowFor catalog write to the presidentNorth Park College Foster and Kedzie Aves.SURGICAL INSTRUMENTSServing the Medicai Professionsince i8q5V. MUELLER & CO.SURGEONS INSTRUMENTSHOSPITAL AND OFFICEFURNITUREORTHOPEDIC APPLIANCES•Phone Seeley 2181, ali departmentsOgden Ave., Van Buren andHonore StreetsChicagoTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 203Letters Like This"I am very glad of this oppor-tunity to express my appreciationof the very fine type of, and thevery splendid consideration con-stantly evidenced in, the service ex-tended by the Board of VocationalGuidance and Placement."So often when one suggests toanother the privilege of attendingthe University of Chicago, the reply is received, 'Oh, that is themost expensive University in thecountry!' I have not only foundthe fees no higher than fees of institutions of far lower rating, but Ihave found the University of Chicago extending many and variedprivileges . . . and extending themso graciously . . . that the finalcost of attending the University ofChicago is actually below the costof attending institutions that arestruggling to obtain the desiredrating, and to build up the insti-tution from funds which otherwisemight be used, at least in part, formaintenance.""With very sincere appreciation,I am,Leaffa L. Randall."Jerome N. Frank, '09: Lawyer,Washington, D. C.Henry J. Furber, '86 : Lawyer ; NewYork City.Henry G. Gale, '96: Dean and Professor, University of Chicago, Chicago.Howard S. Galt, '96: Professor,Yenching University, Peiping,China.George H. Garrey, '00: Mining Ge-ologist and Engineer ; Philadelphia,Pa.Sherlock B. Gass, '04: Professor,University of Nebraska; Lincoln,Nebr.Charles B. Gentry, '12: Dean, Connecticut State College; Storrs,Conn.Geraldine Brown Gilkey, '1-2: Ex-President, National Y. W. C. A.;Chicago.Kate Gordon, '00: Professor, University of California ; Los Angeles,Calif.William S. Gray, '13: Professor,University of Chicago; Chicago.Dwight H. Green, '20 : U. S. DistriciAttorney ; Chicago.Cari D. Greenleaf, '99: Manufac-turer; Elkhart, Ind.Frank L. Griffin, '03 : Professor,Reed College ; Portland, Ore.Safiford Griffith, '15: Broker; NewYork City. Harvey H. Guice, '16: Professor,Southern Methodist University ;Dallas, Tex.John Gunther, '22: Foreign Cor-respondent; Vienna, Austria.Michael F. Guyer, '94: Professor,University of Wisconsin; Madison, Wis.William H. Haas, '03: Professor,Northwestern University; Evans-ton, 111.George P. Hambrecht, '03 : State Director, Vocational Education ;Madison, Wis.Arthur B. Hancock, '95 : Live StockBreeder; Paris, Ky.Harry Hansen, '09 : Literary Editor ;New York City.Samuel N. Harper, '02: Professor,University of Chicago ; Chicago.Byron W. Hartley, '12: Superin-tendent of Schools; San Antonio,Texas.Gwendolyn Haste, '12: Writer; NewYork City.William G. Hastings, 76 : Lawyer ;Omaha, Nebr.Arthur W. Haupt, '16: Botanist,University of California; Los Angeles, Calif.Austin A. Hayden, '02: Physician;Chicago.Coe Hayne, '00 : Author, Clergyman ;New York City.Noble S. Heaney, '03 : Gynecologist ;Chicago.Robert W . Hegner, '03 : Professor,Johns Hopkins; Baltimore, Md.Robert L. Henry, Jr., '02: Judge,Mixed Court; Alexandria, Egypt.John C. Hessler, '96: President,James Millikin University; De-catur, 111.Thomas A. Hillyer, '01: Deceased.Florence Holbrook, '79 : Deceased.Daniel C. Holton, '08: Professor,Kwanto G a k u i n ; Yokohama,Japan.Albert L. Hopkins, '05 : Lawyer ;Chicago.James F. Hosic, '01 : Professor,Teachers College; New York City.Fari D. Howard, '02: Professor,Northwestern University; Evans-ton, 111.Alien G. Hoyt, '99: Vice President,National City Bank; New YorkCity.Edwin P. Hubble, '10: Astronomer,Mt. Wilson Observatory; Pasadena, Calif.Helcn Rose Hull, '12: Author; NewYork City.Howard R. Huse, '13 : Professor,University of North Carolina ;Chapel Hill, N. Car.Harold L. Ickes, '97: Secretary ofthe Interior, Washington, D. C.Norman A. Imrìe, '31 : AssociateEditor, "Dispatch" ; Columbus,Ohio. ROMANCE*BEAUTY • GAIETYYou'll always remember the del ight-ful days you spend in Nassau. Bach-i ng i n transparen t seas . . . sky-larkingunder southern suns on coral sands.Romantic nights under tropicalmoons.. .Minstrels crooning mutedtunes . . .Riding on scenic trails amid loftypalms . . . exploring the land of hid-den treasures. Tinted houses, walledgardens, old- world markets . . .You'll never forget theunspoiledparadise that is Nassau. Never a dullmoment — new friends, new ro-mances, new thrills, new excitement— or a complete rest. ..as you desire.Come to Nassau. Hotel luxury atmoderate rates or your own cottageand garden by the sea. Come on agreat ocean liner — sail or fly_ fromNew York, Boston or Miami. Seeyourtourist agent or writeNassau Bahamas Information Bureau330 West 42nd Street,NEW YORK CITYMSSI41DEVELOPMENT BOARD• NASSAU BAHAMASSCHOOLS— ContinuaciThe Mary E. PogueSchool and SanitariumWheaton, III.Phone Wheaton 66A school and sanitarium for the care and training of children mentally subnormal, epileptic,or who suffer from organic brain disease.SCHOOL OF THEATREMR. BEN GUY PHILLIPSFaculty Member of the RoyalAcademy of Dramatic ArtCOURSESInclude: Art of Acting, Voice Control,Pantomime, Playwritine, Stage, Sceneand Costume Design, Public Speaking, etc.Children's ClassesSTUDIO— 72 EAST 11TH STRKETHarrison 3880SAINT XAVIER COLLEGEFOR WOMEN4900 Cottage Grove AvenueCHICAGO. ILLINOISA Catholic College Conducted bythe SISTERS OF MERCYCourses lead to the B. A. and B. S.degrees. Music — Art204 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBUSINESSDIRECTORYAWNINGSPhones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park AwningINC. Co.,Awnings and Canopies for Ali pi/rposes4508 Cottage Grove Aven uèBONDSp. H. Davis, 'II. H. 1. Markherm, 'Ex '06R. W. Davis, '16F. B W. M. Giblin,. Evans, 'Il '23Paul H. Davis & Co ¦MembersNew York Stock ExchangeChicago Stock Exchange3> So La Salle St. Franklin 8622CHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epsh 3Ìn, 12B. R. Harris, '21Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and E ngineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285 BOOKSARE YOU INTERESTEDINMEDICAI. BOOKSWe will send you gratis our bargain pricecatalog on Medicine, Surgery, MedicaiHistory, Psychology and Sexology.LOGIN BROS.1814 W. Harrison St. CHICAGOMEDICAI. BOOKSof Ali PublishersThe Largest and Most Complete Stock andali New Books Received as soon as published. 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The wedding will take place atSt. Paul's Church, on Aprii 23.MARRIEDFanny Butcher, '10, to RichardDrummond Bokum, February 13,1935, Chicago; at home, 531 MelroseStreet, Chicago.Ramona Margaret Hayes, '21, AM'32, to John Francis Healy, January 2, 1935 ; at home, 5737 KenwoodAve., Chicago.Rosa Vicki Ecker to Ralph J.Helperin, '25, JD'27, February 21,1935.Cecelia Wolf, '31, to Dr. S. J.Benensohn, June 9, 1934.Phyllis Lucile Shafton, '34, toSidney Goldberg, '32, February 17,-1935, Chicago ; at home, May fair Hotel, Chicago.Frank R. Howard, '32, to Margaret F. Holahan, '34, March 1,1935, Chicago; at home, 5525 EverettAve., Chicago.Rodney C Wells, MD'33, toEvelyn Davis, Marshalltown, Iowa,July 5, 1935.Margaretha Moore, '34, to Donald Kerr, '34, March 16, 1935, Chicago.Myra I. Joffee, '34, to HowardR. Joseph, March 3, 1935, Chicago.BORNTo James M. Nicely, '20, andMrs. Nicely, a daughter, DeborahHendrick, December 17, 1934, Paris.To A. L. McCartney, '21, andMrs. McCartney, a daughter, Elizabeth Ann, June 17, 1934, Cincinnati.To Charles J. Merriam, '22,JD'25, and Mrs. Merriam, a son,Charles Edward, February 13, 1935,Winnetka. Charles Edward is thefirst grandson of Professor C. E.Merriam.To Wilton Marion Krogman,'26, AM'27, PhD'29, and Mrs.Krogman (Virginia Lane, '28), adaughter, Marian Knox, February 15,1935, Cleveland, Ohio.To John Allen Wilson, MD'29,and Mrs. Wilson, a son, John Alien,December 24, 1934, St. Paul, Minn.To Mr. and Mrs. Allan W. An-dress, (Mary Nixon, '27), a daughter, Marjorie Jean, December 1, 1934.To Raymond Perlman, JD'30,and Mrs. Perlman, (Ruth Hal-perin, '33) a son, February 14, 1935,Chicago.D I EDFrank H. Levering, '72, December, 1934, at Lefrric, Kotagiri, NilgiriDistrict, India.Penn Moore, DB'85, May 4, 1934,Lake Worth, Florida.William B. Marcusson, MD'85,February 18, 1935, Oak Park, 111.Simon W. Phelps, DB'91, January, 1935.Ida M. Gardner, '98, February 5,1935, Providence, R. I.Lee W. McKinnon, AM'23, February 15, 1935, Toledo, Ohio.George E. Read, PhD'28, December 10, 1934, Chicago.Mabel È. Rowe, '31, February 5,1935, Portland, Mich.¦'1U**SAIE AMERICAN! -FOR THE COMFORTS,THE LUXIJRIES, SO TYPICALLY AMERICANSAILIXiSWEEKLY:JVeut Lotv Rates : Until Aprii 30,you can make the round trip foras little as $151 (Tourist Class). . . British ports. These Americanships sail weekly to Colili, Plymouth, Havre and Hamburg:Fastest Cubiti Liner» AfloatS. S. WASHINGTONSails Mar. 13, Apr. 10, May 8S. S. MANHATTANSails Mar. 27, Apr. 24, May 22And their Fteet Sistersl'IIKS. HARDINGSails Mar. 6, Apr. 3, May 1PIIES. ROOSEVELTSaila Mar. 20, Aprii 17, May 15U. S. Lines — associateti withAmerican Merchant and Baltimore Mail Service to Europe;Panama Pacific Line to California ; Cruises. IT'S in a big room, this big, deep,real bed equipped with SimmonsBeautyrest mattress. Adjoining is themodem bathroom (shower and toilet).Thick-pile carpet covers the floor.Several soft chairs mutely invite. 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