yji i i»THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINENOVEMBERY-WG-E Camhi/sNewsTWO POLES IN ONERadio entertainment and "airmail" have beensent to the Antarctic through General Electric'sshort-wave station W2XAF, ever since Rear AdmiralByrd arrived there last year. Recently, in conjunction with a Byrd program, another was sentout to Rockwell Kent and his son in the Arcticregion — thus linking simultaneously Americans whoare, in the matter of latitude, farthest apart.Governor McNutt of Indiana and other prominentHoosiers spoke to the Byrd Expedition fromIndianapolis in a program sponsored by the Indianapolis Star. Immediately afterward, the CoffeeHouse Club, an organization of artists and writersto which Rockwell Kent belongs, sent music andgreetings from New York to him on the island ofUbekjent, just off the coast of Greenland, 600 mileswithin the Arctic circle. Features of this programwere special greetings from Mrs. Kent and herdaughter, and a talk in the Eskimo language byVilhjalmar Steffanssen, Arctic explorer, for thebenefit of the natives. Both programs were broadcast over a coast-to-coast NBC network as well asby short waves.GOOD-BYE, SMOKESTACKFor many years, the old central heating plant atMt. Holyoke College in Massachusetts, with its tall,unsightly smokestack, barred the way to certainnecessary improvements and landscape developments on the campus. This summer the old boilersand the smokestack were torn down. In one of thebuildings of the old plant stand 120 General Electricoil furnaces arranged in circular groups of five. Fifty-two more G-E oil furnaces are installed in the smalleror more isolated buildings of the campus, operatingsingly, in pairs, and, in one instance, in a batteryof 10. In the central plant, only as many groups of furnaces will operate as are necessary to maintain therequired steam pressure. The remainder will be shutdown, avoiding stand-by losses. The individualfurnaces and small groups in distant buildings permitthe abandonment of some of the longer runs in theunderground steam-distribution network. The highefficiency of the system is expected to producesavings which will pay for the installation in fiveto seven years. In addition, as a result of the morecareful regulation of temperature, it is expectedthat health conditions at the college will be considerably improved.The main plans for the system were drawn up byC. W. Colby, consulting engineer. D. W. McLenegan,Wisconsin, '21, assistant engineer of the Air Conditioning Department; W. O. Lum, and H. R. Crago,Penn State, '18, both of the same department,handled engineering details for General Electric.FLYING POWER PLANTGold was discovered in 1925 along the Bulola Riverin New Guinea, an island just north of Australia.Prospectors worked the richer veins by handmethods, and packed their "take" on the backs ofnatives through 40 miles of cannibal -infested andnearly impassable jungles to Lae on the coast.After the best veins had been worked out, it becameapparent that placer operations on a large scalewould pay if the necessary dredges and othermachinery could be brought to the location. Landtransportation was impossible, so a plane was sentin. The pilot found a spot to land, and a flying fieldwas cleared off.Four 875-kv-a. General Electric waterwheel generators were among the equipment ordered. Whenthey arrived at Lae, they were transferred to hugeall-metal Junkers freight planes and flown to thelocation piece by piece. The largest single pieceshad a net weight of 6545 pounds. As the load limitof the planes is 7000 pounds, it was a tight squeeze.D. B. Gearhart, Iowa State, '27, of InternationalGeneral Electric, Inc., handled the order for theCompany.96-83DHGENERAL » ELECTRICTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 1124344 THE ALUMNI COUNCILOFTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOChairman, DONALD S. TRUMBULL, '97Secretary and Editor, CHARLTON T. BECK, '04The Council for 1934-35 is composed of the following delegates:From the College Association: Paul S. Russell, '16; Elizabeth Faulkner, '85; Willoughby G.Walling, '99; Henry D. Sulcer, '06; Milton E. Robinson, Jr., '11, JD'13; Harry R. Swanson, '17; Harry D. Abells, '97; Frank McNair, '03; Herbert I. Markham, '05; Mrs. BarbaraMiller Simpson, '18; Mrs. Frances Henderson Higgins, '20; Mrs. Lucy Lamon Merriam '26;Donald S. Trumbull, '97; Helen Norris, '07; Harold H. Swift, '07; Howell Murray, '14; Mrs.Ruth Manierre Freeman, '16; Thomas Mulroy, '27, JD'28.From the Association of Doctors of Philosophy: Frank R. Lillie, PhD'94; Robert V. Merrill,PhD'23; Edwin E. Aubrey, PhD'26; Herbert G. Blumer, PhD'28.From the Divinity Association: Andrew R. E. Wyant, DB'97; J. Burt Bouwman, DB'29;Franklin D. Elmer, Jr., DB'30.From the Law School Association: Charles P. Schwartz, JD'09; Charles F. McElroy, JD'15;Willard L. King, JD'17.From the Education Association: Harold A. Anderson, '24, AM'26; Robert C. Woellner,AM'24; Paul M. Cook, AM'27.From the School of Business Association: Elizabeth Foreen, '26; Lester C. Shephard, '29;Neil F. Sammons, '29.From the Rush Medical College Association: George H. Coleman, MD'13; William A.Thomas, MD'16; Edward Stieglitz, MD'21.From the School of Social Service Administration Association: Anna May Sexton, AM'30;Erwin Johnston, AM'31; Wilma Walker.From the Association of the School of Medicine in the Division of the Biological Sciences: Sylvia H. Bensley, MD'30; Egbert H. Fell, MD'32; Gail M. Dack, MD'33.From the Chicago Alumnae Club: Ethel Preston, '08, AM'10, PhD'20; Mrs. Portia CarnesLane, '08; Elsie Schobinger, '08, AM'17.From the Chicago Alumni Club: Charles G. Higgins, '20; Roy J. Maddigan, '10; John McDonough, '28.From the University: John F. Moulds, '07.Alumni Associations Represented in the Alumni CouncilThe College Alumni Association: President, Donald S. Trumbull, '97; Secretary, CharltonT. Beck, '04, University of Chicago.Association of Doctors of Philosophy: President, Frank R. Lillie, PhD'94; Secretary, EdwinE. Aubrey, Ph'D26, University of Chicago.Divinity School Association: President, E. LeRoy Dakin, DB'll; Secretary, Charles T. Hol-man, DB'15, University of Chicago.Law School Association: President, Willard L. King, JD'17; Secretary, Charles F. McElroy,JD'15, 29 South LaSalle Street, Chicago.School of Education Association: President, Aaron J. Brumbaugh, PhD'29; Secretary, Le-nora Johns, AM'27, 6009 Kimbark Ave., Chicago.School of Business Association: President, Lester C. Shephard, '29; Secretary, Alice Atwood,AM'30; 5418 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago.Rush Medical College Association: President, Ralph C. Brown, MD'04; Secretary, Carl O.Rinder, MD'13; 122 South Michigan Ave., Chicago.School of Social Service Administration Association: President, Jane Mullenbach, '29,AM'31; Secretary, Frank Flynn, 615 So. State St., Chicago.Association of the Medical School of the Division of Biological Sciences: President,Normand L. Hoerr, MD'31; Secretary, John T. Hauch^ MD'34, University of Chicago.All communications should be sent to the Secretary of the proper Association or to the Alumni Council,Faculty Exchange, University of Chicago. The dues for membership in any one of the Associations namedabove, including subscription to The University of Chicago Magazine, are $2.00 per year. A holder of twoor more degrees from the University of Chicago may be a member of more than one Association; in suchinstances the dues are divided and shared equally by the Associations involved.2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGODINNER PLATESSECOND EDITIONMade of English Spodeware, in color. Either a soft greyor an old blue, with Gothic tower border and twelvedifferent views of the University in the centers of theplates. Priced at $15 the dozen. Delivery prepaid withinthe United States.The Alumni Council5750 Ellis Ave., Chicago, III.I enclose $15 for a set (one dozen) of the University of Chicago Commemorative Spode Plates.NAME ADDRESS Color desired 1500 SetsAlready on theTables ofChicago AlumniTHE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI COUNCILCharlton T. Beck, '04 Ruth C. E. Earnshaw, '31Editor and Business Manager Associate EditorFred B. Millett, PhD '31, William V. Morgenstern, '20, JD '22, John P. Howe, '27Contributing EditorsMilton E. Robinson, Jr., '11, JD '13, Ethel Preston, '08, AM '10, PhD1 '20, Elizabeth Faulkner, '85Council Committee on PublicationsIN THIS ISSUETHE Magazine opens its twenty-seventh volume with fondhopes of giving you morenews, more pictures and more Magazine than ever before. To furtherthis worthy end you are invited tohelp by sending in news of yourselfand fellow-alumni; even news thatis old enough to be classed simply asinformation is very welcome.•Floyd W. Reeves, Director of Personnel and Training for the Tennessee Valley Authority, brings us allthe information about how to get ajob in the TVA — and how not to.Mr. Reeves, known in educational circles as "the man who makes surveys,"left his position as Professor of Education at the University of Chicagoin 1933, to take over this very important post with the TVA. He has always been interested in the possibilities of tests and measurements andother such techniques common to educators in their application to humanproblems in the alleged practicalworld. Shortly before joining theTVA, Mr. Reeves completed a monumental ten volume Survey of the University of Chicago itself, probablythe most comprehensive analysis evermade of a living institution, and ofuntold value both to the Universityand as an example of the use of asurvey. A sequel to Mr. Reeves' article will appear in the next issue ofthe Magazine, telling of the handlingof the personnel after it has been socarefully selected.John F. Moulds, '07, Secretary ofthe Board of Trustees, scarcely needs any introduction to Magazine readers.His report on alumni gifts to the University will be of great interest toyou, and should make any alumnusfeel distinctly proud.Daniel Catton Rich, who writes soentertainingly of the development ofAmerican taste in art, is AssociateCurator of Painting at the Art Institute of Chicago. He had a mostinteresting time during the two yearsof the late World's Fair, negotiatingfor the borrowing of the impressivecollection of masterpieces which theInstitute arranged as one of the cultural attractions of the Fair. Asidefrom its being an unrivalled collection of paintings from the Europeanschools, Mr. Rich's organization andTABLE OF CONTENTSNOVEMBER, 1934PAGEHow the TVA Gets Its Men, FloydIV. Reeves 5What Alumni Did, John F. Moulds 9A Century of Collecting, DanielCatton Rich 10Educational Measurement, ChaunceyS. Boucher 13Chicago Alumni in the CurrentMagazines 17Free Competition, Garfield V. Cox 18Modern Thought, Frank H. Knight.. 20Here Comes That Big Drum, HowardW. Mort 22In My Opinion 24Ina Literary Mood 26News of the Quadrangles 27Athletics 30News of the Classes 33Alumni Meetings Far and Wide 34 treatment of the material collectedmade a trip through the galleries areal education in the history of painting.Dean Boucher, about whom wehave already said, in previous issues,practically everything we should, reports on that most controversial pointof the New Plan, the system of examinations. No other aspect of thePlan has been discussed more freelywith less information, so it is withmuch satisfaction that we present anauthentic, official comment on the development of this vital phase of theCollege program. An understandingof the aims and methods of these examinations is essential in evaluatingthe New Plan.Garfield V. Cox is professor offinance at the University and speakswith authority on the tangled questions of economics and trade, in termsso clear that even Old Plan studentsmay read and comprehend. The article published here was given overthe radio under the auspices of theLeague for Industrial Democracy,and our thanks are hereby expressedto Mr. Harry Laidler, of the League,for permission to print Mr. Cox'sremarks.•Frank H. Knight proves that aneconomist may also be a philosopherand a student of education in his briefcomment* on the "anti-intellectualismof modern thought." A dispute thatwould have done credit to the Paris(Continued on Page 36)St J!5e^-agaAZine ^J^^il aV£hica|°' *1L-' ^nthly from; November to July, inclusive, for The Alumni Council of the University of Chicago 58thbt. and Ellis Ave., Chicago, 111. The subscription price is $2.00 per year; the. price of single copies is 25 cents. "vcrsuy oi ^mcago, obtftEntry as second class matter at the Post Office at Chicago, 111., pending.VOLUME XXVII THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER INOVEMBER, 1934HOW THE TVA GETS ITS MENTHE Tennessee Valley Authority has been assignedthe task of assisting in the development of theTennessee River watershed. This watershed includes an area 700 miles long, with an average width of50 miles. It embraces 40,000 square miles and includesparts of seven states. More than 2,000,000 people residein the area.The program of the Authority is broad in its scope.Two large dams are now under construction and othersare being planned for the near future. Some electrictransmission lines have been built and others are underconstruction. In the conservation of the natural resources of the basin, a program for the improvement ofagriculture and the proper utilization of marginal landsis being developed. A fertilizer plant has been built, andfertilizer will be produced for experimental purposes.Some of the land will be taken out of cultivation andreforested. A program for the control of soil erosionis under way. To supplement agriculture in providinglocal employment, domestic and community industriesare being developed, and an attempt is being made to coordinate agriculture and industry along practical andpermanent lines. Muscle Shoals and other power developments will be used as a yardstick in determining therelative costs of public and private power operations.By controlling water flow, storage dams will aid in theimprovement of navigation and in flood control.The organization of the Tennessee Valley Authorityincludes three operating departments — Electricity, Engineering and Construction, and Fertilizer ; six servicedivisions — Personnel, Finance, Materials, Legal, LandAcquisition and Information; six planning divisions —Agricultural, Industrial, Land Planning, EngineeringPlanning and Geology, Social and Economic, and Forestry; and a division for coordination. In addition tothese departments and divisions mentioned, there are twoagencies under the same board of directors, the ElectricHome and Farm Authority and the Tennessee ValleyAssociated Cooperatives. The Personnel Division of theTennessee Valley Authority serves also as the personneldivision of both of the subsidiary corporations. Becauseof the broad scope of the program carried on by theTennessee Valley Authority and its two agencies, the • By FLOYD W. REEVES, AM '21, PhD '25personnel must of necessity include men and women witha wide variety of interests, experience and abilities. TheTennessee Valley Authority probably has more types ofpositions to fill than any other single agency of theFederal government.The Personnel Division is composed of six separateadministrative sections, coordinated and directed by acentral administrative staff. These sections include Employment, Health and Medical, Training, Labor Relations, and Records.The employment policy of the Tennessee Valley Authority has been guided by the Act creating the Authority. This policy seems sufficiently vital to the success ofa large governmental program to warrant somewhat detailed discussion.In Section 3 of the Act, is a clause which exemptsthe Authority from Civil Service regulations as the basisof employee selection. The entire responsibility for theselection of employees is placed upon the Authority itself. In summary this Section reads :"The Board shall without regard to the provisions ofCivil Service laws . . . appoint such employees asare needed for the transaction of its business, fix theircompensation, define their duties . . . and providea system of organization to fix responsibility and promote efficiency. Any appointee of the Board may beremoved in the discretion of the Board."Further on in the Act one finds a section which hasoccasioned discussion quite disproportionate to its length.This is Section 6, which reads as follows :"In the appointment of officials and the selection ofemployees for said Corporation, and in the promotionof any such employees or officials, no political test orqualification shall be permitted or given consideration,but all such appointments and promotions shall be givenand made on the basis of merit and efficiency. Anymember of said board who is found by the President ofthe United States to be guilty of a violation of thisSection shall be removed from office by the Presidentof the United States, and any appointee of said boardwho is found by the board to be guilty of a violation ofthis section shall be removed from office by said board."This section is but a modified form of merit pro-5THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEvisions to be found in the bills which Senator Norris,the author of the Tennessee Valley Bill, presented forthe development of Muscle Shoals in 1922, 1924, and1926. His provision in the earlier Bills added the requirement of publicity to all political endorsements. Senator Norris omitted the publicity requirement from hismeasures of 1929 and 1931. In explanation of thisomission, he has stated :"I did compromise on a great many things. That isone of them ... I wanted to encourage Presidentialapproval of the Bill. I know, from my experience inconnection with the bills which have passed before,. . . that there was objection to the particular provisions I had put in."That Senator Norris has long stood for the promotion of efficiency in government administration is furtherillustrated in the Congressional Record of April 30, 1934.Some years ago the Senator had been one of several menselected to write on the subject, "If I Were President."Men were selected who were not even indirectly candidates for the Presidency. The articles were never published, but a part of Senator Norris' article was recentlyquoted by him before the Senate and appears in theCongressional Record. Senator Norris said:"If I were President, my first official announcementwould be a declaration that my administration would beentirely nonpartisan. Every appointment, from Cabinetmember down, would be made without any considerationwhatever of the politics of the official. The object inview would be efficiency, and the qualification for theposition the only consideration."Recently Senator Norris was seeking to write intolaw a merit clause similar to the TVA's Section 6 forone of the Recovery Agencies. A New England Senatorproposed to substitute a Civil Service requirement.Senator Norris suggested that the opinion of the chiefof the agency be asked. That official replied that placingthe agency "under the provisions of the Civil Servicelaws and regulations appeared to be impracticable," andsupported his contention most ably. Senator. Norris notonly agreed with that opinion but vigorously supportedit. His objection to the Civil Service law was because in this particular case he believed it would delay theoperation of the law. There would of necessity be manytemporary appointments as certain parts of the programwould last but a short time. He said, — "Since expedition is one of the necessities of the case I should prefer,under the circumstances, the language in my amendment,which really seeks to accomplish the same thing."In other words, based on the statements of SenatorNorris, the sponsor of the Tennessee Valley AuthorityAct, the Tennessee Valley Authority is entrusted withall the responsibility the Civil Service law provides asto careful selection and treatment of employees, but withthe flexibility of a private corporation in administeringsuch a personnel program.The Employment Section of the Personnel Division has offices at Knoxville, Norris, Norris Dam, CoalCreek, and Chattanooga, in Tennessee; and at MuscleShoals, Wheeler Dam, and Decatur, in Alabama. TheSection is represented in Washington, D. C, in LaFol-lette, Tennessee, in Tupelo, Mississippi, and in othercenters of activity by the persons in charge of the respective offices. As activities are extended to new areasit will be necessary to establish additional branch officesto handle employment matters.In the selection of personnel for major positionswith the Authority, certain requirements in the way ofexperience and training have been set up. In each casea person who fits these requirements is sought, regardless of the locality from which he comes. Since the Actcreating the Authority states that all appointments andpromotions shall be made on the basis of merit and efficiency, the choice cannot be limited to those who haveapplications on file or to those who are out of work atthe time. Specialists in the field are asked to recommend persons whom they consider qualified to fill theposition. Staff members go out into the field to investigate personally those recommended, and to seek to locate other candidates.In Section 2 of the Act, the following statementoccurs, "All members of the board shall be persons whoprofess a belief in the feasibility and wisdom of thisAct." A Board believing in the feasibility and wisdomWe look dozvn fromthe air from the westupon the work in progress at Norris Dam.The purpose of thisdam is to eliminatefloods' on the ClinchRiver. Over ten percent of the concretegoing into the structure has already beenplaced. When completed, this wall ofconcrete will stand253 feet high.THE UNIVERSITY OFCafeteria at the Construction Camp at Norris.of the Act could not be expected to accomplish resultsunless supported by a staff with similar beliefs. Itthereby becomes essential that all persons holding majorpositions with the Authority also believe in the feasibilityand wisdom of the Act. The Authority, therefore, seeksmen and women who are not only technically qualified bytraining and experience for the job at hand, but who arealso social-minded.Fair and impartial selection on the basis of meritrequires as complete utilization of objective measurements as is feasible. To this end the qualifications ofevery applicant must be expressed in accurate terms, determined as objectively as possible. Classification andrating of applications for professional positions makepossible a high degree of objectivity in the preliminaryelimination of scores of candidates. Supplementary information obtained through letters of recommendationand personal interviews increases the selectivity of theprocess.Early last September it was announced that appointments to non-professional positions would be madefrom those taking an examination to be administeredthrough the facilities of the Civil Service Commission.The examination was for skilled workmen, helpers, andunskilled workers, and was open to all non-professionalapplicants in the Tennessee Valley area. It was givenin 138 examination centers. Approximately 50,000 menapplied to take the examination and 38,807 actually wereexamined. The United States Civil Service Commission in Washington conducted the examinations and assembled and scored the papers. Results of these examinations are now being used in employing this class ofworkers.This is not the first time an examination of thistype has been used in the selection of laborers. It hadpreviously been employed in the selection of personnelfor the Navy shipyards. The examination consists of amechanical aptitude test, a test of ability to follow printedinstructions, and a test of ability to follow oral instructions. Part of the examination and examining procedurewas especially designed for those men who have not hadthe advantage of an education — even to the extent ofnot being able to read or write. CHICAGO MAGAZINE 7The labor examination was used as a technique oflabor selection primarily because it facilitated eliminationof undesirable applicants. It was not adopted as a measure of special skills or ability in construction work. However, in selecting skilled and unskilled labor every effortwas made to recruit applicants from among the higherpercentile ranks of the 38,000 who took the test.A study is now being made to determine the effectiveness of the examination in labor selection.Approximately 100 foremen on the Norris Dam andTown Construction forces were asked to rate their menin three groups, the highest 25%, the middle 50% andthe lowest 25%. As a basis for rating, the foremenwere asked to consider which of their men they wouldwish to take with them if a new dam were to be built.The supervisors of the foremen were then asked to ratethe foremen in the same manner.Percentage distribution patterns based on reliablestatistical differences in the average examination scoresfor the three rate-groups indicate a surprisingly closerelationship between the ratings given by the foremenand the examination scores. I shall not take time togive the statistical details. It may be stated, however,that, based on reliable statistical differences, the forementended generally to rate highest those with the high average examination scores ; next to the highest those withthe next to the highest average scores ; lowest, those withthe lowest average scores. Interestingly enough, thisrelationship was more apparent among the skilled workers than among the unskilled, even though experiencewas given more weight in the selection of the skilledmen. Furthermore, the foremen who were given thehighest rating by the supervisors tended to rate theirmen in closer agreement with the examination scoresthan did the middle and lowest group of foremen. Itmay be said, therefore, that while the examination technique was used for a purpose of negative elimination ithas actually demonstrated its value as a means of verypositive selection.At the present time, after there has been ample opportunity to check on the quality of the labor groupselected, there is almost universal agreement that themethod of selection is superior to those usually employed. I do not mean to imply that the examinationis the only basis for selection. Personal interviews, andArchitect's drawing of the Spillway and Power House at Norris Damon the Clinch River. John L. Savage of the U. S. ReclamationService designed this Dam.8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEother methods ordinarily employed are also used in thefinal selection of all employees. The examination supplements other methods of selection and has made possibleintelligent and fair elimination of a number of applicants.The aim of the Authority, through its organizationfor personnel management, is to give men an opportunityto work into the particular position where they can bemost effective. All avenues of promotion are wide openwithin the Authority. A system of transfers, promotions and demotions has been set up to facilitate changesfrom one section to another or within sections. As newpositions become available, records of present employeesare combed to discover whether someone who is alreadyemployed is qualified to handle the new job. In a number of cases, men who started as common laborers, butwho were qualified for better positions, have alreadybeen promoted to positions of greater responsibility.The Tennessee Valley Authority is a National project. It is supported by Federal funds. It thereforeseemed desirable to call in to fill professional positionsthe best talent from wherever it could be found, withoutregard to geographical distribution, and thus to assistin making the project a successful national demonstration. However, the Tennessee Valley Authority is alsocharged with providing for the general welfare of thecitizens of the area. Since on construction work muchof the employment is of a temporary nature, it did notseem advisable to encourage an influx of transients to beemployed as laborers. Furthermore, there was a sufficient number already located in the Valley to care forthe needs of the Tennessee Valley Authority. For thisreason, it seemed better both for the Tennessee Valleyand for the United States, to limit employment at thislevel to residents of Valley states.A period of fifteen months has passed, during whichtime the employment policy and procedure I have justdescribed has been in operation. During this time morethan 12,000 men and women have been employed. Forthe two month period including March and April, employment proceeded at the rate of 2,000 per month.Despite the speed and pressure for time under whichthe employment program has been carried on, appointments have been made with extreme care. This selective process has operated with common laborers as well aswith administrative and executive personnel. A reservoir of more than 100,000 applications, carefully classified and rated according to training, experience, andother criteria, makes this selective procedure possible.By this method the Personnel Division is prepared tofill almost any type of position on short notice, fromcheese-maker to researcher, with a man or woman whosequalifications show real merit.The staff of the Employment Section includes, inaddition to the Director and the various personnel representatives located in the geographical centers of the Authority's work projects, a staff of examiners and interviewers. Examiners classify and grade professionalapplications for employment by evaluating experienceand other qualifications presented, using personal technical background and practical experience as a basis forjudgment. This requires familiarity with the nature andquality of performance required by various organizationsfor their professional employees. Later, they re-rateapplications in the light of the returns on reference inquiries. The technical criteria used in grading applications are supplemented by further criticism with respectto such special qualifications as the unique nature of theTennessee Valley Authority demands — that is, candidateswith the proper social point of view, whose backgroundsindicate that they are cognizant of vital social and economic questions.A description of the duties of a personnel representative in charge of the Authority's program will serveto indicate the extent to which contact is maintained withthe job in the handling of employment matter. A personnel representative maintains individual employmentrecords for the convenience of the field organization;checks up on the status of requisitions ; interviews present employees ; makes recommendations for transfers andpromotions; investigates discharges, and accomplishes avariety of such work related to personnel activities.I have cited only a few of the typical job descriptions relating to the functions of the Employment Section of the Personnel Division in the hope that they mayserve to indicate the detailed nature of the work of thisSection and the relationship these functions bear to thefunctions of the entire division and the entire Authority.ETYMOLOGISTS, ATTENTION:THE eminent Romance philologist, Professor Walther vonWartburg, will lecture at the University of Chicago this winter. Attention may be called to the fact that his important etymological dictionary (the FEW) was recently awarded the Prix Volney by the Institute of France. Heis offering the following graduate courses extending from January 2nd to March 15th: Explicationlinguistique d'anciens textes: Jeu de Saint-Nicolas; Jeu de la Feuillee, 4 hours weekly. Syntaxehistorique de la langue frangaise, 2 hrs. weekly. Prinsipienfragen der romanischen Sprachwissen-schaft, 2 hrs. weekly.WHAT ALUMNI DIDFor Alma Mater injl 934THE question is frequently asked by administrativeofficers of other institutions, "What is being donefor your University by its Alumni?" Since ourown alumni are undoubtedly fully as much interested inthe answer to this question, the following statement hasbeen prepared for the readers of the Magazine.Much might be said about the extraordinary amountof intangible service rendered by alumni, the importanceof which is perhaps not always adequately understood.The general public usually judges a University by whatits graduates and former students accomplish and bywhat comments and opinions they express regarding theinstitution. A considerable responsibility, therefore, restsupon alumni as "interpreters of the University." Theinterest which has been manifested in the Alumni Conferences held on the Quadrangles in June of the pastthree years and attended by representatives of alumniclubs from many parts of the country, and the enthusiasm with which large numbers of alumni have undertaken the task of passing along accurate informationto high school students and graduates of junior collegesis most encouraging and highly appreciated by theofficers of the University.Of no less importance is the financial support givenby alumni during these years of serious economic difficulties. In the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1934, therewas received through gifts from alumni a total of$51,959.96. Of this amount $11,813.34 was given forcapital purposes such as endowment of instruction, loanfunds, scholarships, etc. The remainder, $40,146.62, wasgiven for current purposes. Figured on the basis of current low interest rates, this amount given toward currentexpense is equivalent to the income at 4 per cent on amillion dollars.This substantial support means much to the University at a time when its income from endowment investments is so heavily depleted. It was especiallyencouraging to have the graduating class of 1934 recognize the need for scholarship aid with 345 pledges for atotal of $1,730, of which $975 has already been paid atthe time this is written. Altogether nearly two thousandalumni have participated either directly or through cluborganizations, with amounts varying according to theirmeans. In addition to the large number of small contributions included in the gifts from clubs, there were contributions of five dollars or less from 280 individuals.* Allof the contributors, whether their gifts were large or*It is interesting- to note that hundreds of alumni are not waitinguntil they can contribute large amounts, but are beginning their participation with contributions of five dollars or less. •By JOHN F. MOULDS, '07small, have the satisfaction of knowing that they aremuch appreciated partners in a great enterprise. Theirgifts both large and small have aided the President, theDeans and the members of the Faculty in carrying theUniversity through an exceedingly difficult year.The contributions from alumni during 1933-34 weregiven and used for the following purposes :For Capital Purposes1. Additions to EndowmentDevelopment Fund $1,717.33Ernest DeWitt Burton Professorship 233.30John M. Coulter Fellowship 35.00James Parker Hall Professorship (Law School) . . 3,372.00William Vaughn MoodyLectures 500.00Improvement of Undergraduate Education 5,000.002. Scholarships and Loan FundsQuadrangler Alumnae ClubScholarship Fund . 249.09Sigma Alumnae Association Scholarship Fund.. 89.00Deltho Club Loan Fund. . . 26.02Elizabeth Chapin Memorial(Loan Fund) 41.00Margaret Green Memorial(Loan Fund) 50.00John FyfTe Merrill Memorial (Loan & Gift Fund) 500.00 $11,813.34For Current PurposesScholarships and Student Aid. . .19,502.00Moody Lectures 1,000.00School of Business 72.67School of Social Service Administration 328.00Divinity School 150.00Rush Medical College 50.00Toward Instruction Expense. . . . 150.00Home Economics Department . . . 600.00Toward salary of displaced German scholar 700.00Undergraduate Instruction .... 17,593.95 40,146.62$51,959.969A CENTURY OF COLLECTINGIn America• By DANIEL CATTON RICH, '26A HUNDRED years ago, save for a bright andglaring copy of a Raphael or a blackened Dutchcanvas of little worth, there were practically noold paintings of consequence in the United States. Today,hardly a city of any size but has its museum and back ofthe museum a group of ardent collectors, treasuring intheir homes pictures of importance and rarity. How didthis come about? How did it happen that in so short atime we possess, nationally and privately, examples fromevery great period in Western painting and by the verygreatest masters? Perhaps we can answer this questionby studying the rise of American taste. But taste itself isintangible and hard to follow. Therefore I have takenthe liberty of inventing a special case to show the trendsof picture collecting. Let us imagine an American familyand let us follow, imaginatively, their reactions to certainpictures during the last hundred years. Let us call themthe Goodwins — that's a sound American name — and letus put them in New York, the market and center of art.In 1834, just a century ago, Caleb Goodwin, thehead of our invented family, is building a new house inWaverly Place overlooking fashionable WashingtonSquare. The only pictures he has are a few family portraits, inherited from the Goodwins and the Van Loons(his wife was Katherine Van Loon), and he neverthought seriously of buying a picture until, one day, hehappens to be strolling down Wall Street and suddenlyfinds himself staring into the window of Michael Paff'sgallery. A head of a Dutch girl has caught his eye andbefore he knows it, Caleb has stepped in to ask the price."That is a Van Dyck," says old PafI and begins to talkof its rarity. Caleb knows little of Van Dyck; it is theperiod when every portrait with a lace collar is called aFrans Hals and every old man with a beard a Rembrandt, but he finally buys it.Caleb's interest in art has been quickened and whenhis friend, Luman Reed, an inveterate patron, rebuildsthe top floor of his house at 13 Greenwich Street into agallery, Caleb and his wife visit the place in the companyof such notables as Peter Cooper, Washington Irving, andWilliam Cullen Bryant. In the catalogue he reads: "Agallery of Art in a city is a source of refinement: nay,more, it is a stronghold of virtue. . . . Pictures of fairand spiritual beauty, forms of majestic virtue, portraitures of heroism and patriotism, shall lift the thoughtsabove their wonted range to ^nobleness and sanctity," sonext time they bring the children. Caleb points out thebeauties of the Baroque masters; there is no one likeGuido Reni, Domenichino and the Carracci for "elevating thoughts with soft languourous brushwork." A fewyears later when he sees his first Italian primitives, he issurprised and pronounces them outlandish. An evengreater shock is in store for him at the exhibition of theJarves Collection in the Institute of Fine Arts at 625 Broadway. This is in 1860 and both children are nowmarried and living at home. Caleb rounds up the wholefamily and they drive to the Institute. In the gallery theyare met by John Jackson Jarves who is anxious to showthem the 145 early pictures he has gathered during thirtyyears stay in Italy. He is a man of real vision ; he wantsto found a gallery where pictures will be hung by periodand he hopes someone will buy his collection for NewYork. Caleb finds his ideas fantastic and he is badly impressed by the tall queer saints on their gold backgrounds.But let us listen a moment to the two gentlemen :Jarves (concluding) : and so, such a gallery of oldenart as I conceive of would aid greatly in the diffusion ofartistic knowledge and aesthetic taste in America. Don'tyou agree, Mr. Goodwin ?Caleb: Perhaps, sir, if that gallery would containsome good Corregios, Guido Renis and Van Dycks.Jarves (nettled) : But it is my firm and held-to belief, sir, that an appreciation of the early schools is essential to our pleasure in the later masters. Now take thisSano di Pietro. . . .Caleb: You mean that — that Chinese daub!Jarves (annoyed) : "Chinese daub," indeed, sir.That's a very grand altar-piece by Sano di Pietro, themaster of Siena. And may I ask, sir, that you do notpoint with your umbrella at the pictures. You mightdamage one of these masterpieces.Caleb: Masterpieces, humpf. Why, your Mr. Sanodi so-and-so couldn't draw. Look at that arm ! A merechild could improve on that ! Now, what I like in a picture is the finish of the drapery and its resemblance tonature. . . .Jarves: You may be interested to know, sir, thatmany of the best European connoisseurs esteem thatvery picture. ...Caleb: And there's no expression in the eyes ! Lookat that female over there. What do you call her?Jarves: That is "St. Catherine" by Taddeo Gaddi,one of the most splendid. . . .Caleb: "Sano di Pietro," "Taddeo Gaddi." Didyou ever hear such heathenish names? No, Mr. Jarves,I must be frank. I think you've wasted your time andfortune. I wouldn't give a gold dollar for the lot. . . .Jarves: And I wouldn't take a penny less than ahundred thousand. Sir, I'm sorry. I hoped to interestyou in a subscription toward buying the collection andpresenting it to the city.Caleb: What, this stuff? I should say not. Well,we'll be going, Mr. Jarves. Katherine? Peter, Eliza.Where's Eliza and her husband?Eliza: Here I am, Pa.Caleb: What are you looking at?Eliza: A little picture by Fra . . . Fra. . .Jarves: Oh, my Fra Angelico. Isn't it beautiful?10THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 11Eliza: I rather like the color. It's so bright . . .Caleb: Nonsense, Eliza. It takes more than a patchof pretty color to make a picture. Good day, sir.Jarves: You see, it is my hope that if the collectioncan be established as a free gallery, it will become a sourceof inspiration to art students !Caleb: Sir! We do not need more art students . . .we need only men who will . . . stand with their browsbared and their eyes and hearts open before nature. . .Come along, Katherine. Good day, sir.Jarves: Good day. (to himself) Well, Giotti, FraAngelico, Perugino . . . perhaps America is not ready,after all.When young Peter grows up to be a prosperous banker he still agrees with his father. Building a pretentious house on East Fourteenth Street, hefills it with pictures of the Dusseldorf and MunichSchools, dark, rich paintings in gold frames soheavy it takes two men to lift one. Soon he hasover 50 paintings arranged in several well lightedcabinets and is adding some of the more popular Frenchworks, paintings like Alfred Stevens's, "Are You GoingToo, Fido ?" and Gerome's "The Favorite of the Pasha," a modest little canvas 5 x 12 feet. He can't find anything good in the pictures Durand-Ruel is showing atThe American Art Galleries done by some queer Frenchmen who call themselves "The Impressionists." Thisnew fangled kind of painting isn't elevating and youhave to stand ten feet off to see it and then what haveyou seen?But in 1886, Peter, his wife and son, William, attend a most impressive art event. This is the exhibitionof Rembrandt's portrait "The Gilder" in the show-roomsof Mr. Schaus. A real Rembrandt ! A famous masterpiece! Mr. Schaus ushers the party of three into a private room. Before them is an easel holding a picturemysteriously draped with a velvet curtain. With aMr. Schaus unveils — the Rem-gesture,Very fine, very fine, Mr. Schaus."The Glider" — This picture is reproducedMetropolitan Museum of Art, and th< here through the courtesy of thei University of Chicago Press.magnificentbrandt !Schaus: There!Peter: Hmmm.Schaus: Vunderf ul, vunderful ! A gem of the firstwater.Mrs. Goodwin: What a noble face he has !Schaus: Ach, it is a very celebrated picture. Webought it from the Duchess of Sesto.Mrs. Goodwin: Think of it, William.The Duchess of Sesto.Peter: Is it signed?Schaus: Ach, certainly. Here, if youplease take this glass and look. I had thesignature rubbed up specially. R.E.M.B.RA.N.D.T. 1640. There's nothing like it.Peter (cautiously) : I understand you'reholding it for a big price?Schaus: Veil, I ask . . . $100,000. . . .Mrs. Goodwin and William: $100,000for a single picture!Peter: That's a staggering sum. WhyI only paid $25,000 for my Gerome.Schaus: But a Rembrandt, my dear Mr.Goodwin. They do not grow on every bush.I am confident I vill sell it, yet.Peter: Never at that price. Why, thereisn't that much easy money. . . .Voice: Mr. Schaus ! Mr. Schaus !Schaus: Here I am.Voice: A letter for you by messenger.Sc hau s (excitedly) : Bring it to me. Excuse me please if I open it. (Reads rapidly.)Ach, what was I prophesying just now. . . .Veil I have done it. I have done it. I havesold "The Gilder."All: Not really? Indeed? Who boughtit?Schaus: Mr. and Mrs. Havemeyer!William: You know, father, I think thisis just a beginning. I think people are goingto go on paying more and more for picturesuntil someday someone is going to pay halfa million for one old picture.Peter: Nonsense, William. There'll neverbe that much easy money in New York.But fashions change. When The Peter12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGoodwin Collection is put up for sale at The AmericanArt Galleries after his death, the pictures bring only asmall part of what he paid for them. The famousGerome is knocked down for a little under four thousandand the German canvases are practically given away.At the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893,where William and his widowed mother attend, it is thePalace of Fine Arts that interests them. The standwith thousands of others before the picture of the hour,Thomas Hovoden's "Breaking the Home Ties." Thewhole exhibit has its sentimental side and Mrs. Goodwinbuys one of the 340 Dutch pictures sold at this time,an interior with a peasant woman in white cap and apronbouncing a baby on her knee, the title being, "Mother'sDelight."William, during these years, finds himself drawnmore and more to the Impressionists, and actually buysseveral Monets and a Degas, feeling a little daring andrather "advanced" in his taste. Like the rest of America,he and his wife are totally unprepared for the art explosion of 1913, the famous "Armory Show." Theysqueeze among the tightly packed crowds gazing withbewilderment and distaste at "those queer pictures allpainted in bright colors and cut up into cubes. Oneroom is known as "The Chamber of Horrors" and peopleare standing in front of a puzzle picture called "TheNude Descending the Stairs." And there is one reallyfunny artist, a man by the name of Matisse, who paintsthe most dreadful looking people in the strangest way,daubing them over with fierce blues and reds. "Well,"remark the Goodwins, along with the thousands ofothers, "I'm sorry for art if it's come to this" and "Howglad we are that we didn't bring young Caleb. Youknow the child's so sensitive."But when young Caleb grows up, he attends a university and takes a course in modern art where theyteach him that pictures like "Mother's Delight" are trashand that two Frenchmen with the names of Picasso andMatisse are the world's greatest artists. (Can it be thesame Matisse that painted those strange things back in the 1913 show, Mrs. William Goodwin wonders?) It makesCaleb ashamed to bring his friends home from schoolwith him and find some of grandfather Peter's Germanpictures, in gold frames and with electric lights overthem, still decorating the hall. He will hurry up to hisroom and show his own treasure, a small Picasso "Abstract" on sandpaper, framed in an aluminum frame.In 1933, when the Art Institute of Chicago is organizing its Century of Progress Exhibition, the Goodwins are invited to lend their Degas and not only sendthe picture to Chicago but come out to see it hanging inthe show. Mr. and Mrs. Goodwin spend most of theirtime in the old master section and in the galleries devoted to nineteenth century French art; William beginswhere they stop and goes breathlessly on to "the verylatest thing from Paris." Like everyone else, the Goodwins are amazed at the extent and variety of the pictures,all of them, except Whistler's "Portrait of His Mother,"owned in America.Up in the attic, stuffed away with some old boxes,Caleb discovers a dark picture, has it cleaned and findsa Strozzi that originally belonged to his great-grandfather. "And who was Strozzi ?" asks William Goodwin."A most important baroque painter," replies young Calebimportantly. "I wrote a long term paper on him atschool." "But just a little while ago," objects William,"wasn't everyone calling that kind of painting false,artificial and theatric ? I was taught to believe that the*very word 'baroque' means decadent." "We know better, now," replies Caleb, crushingly.And when in 1934, the Art Institute of Chicago asksthe Goodwins to lend a portrait of Great Great GreatAunt Eliza Goodwin by Copley to its Century of Progress Exhibit which will stress American art, Williamthinks that he notices another change. Caleb patientlyexplains that there is a growing interest in the art ofthe United States. "Some of the collectors who usedto buy only French paintings are now buying picturesby our own men," he points out. "You know what Ithink, Father. I think America's going American."jK^a^^^^y ^\'^^^^^^^h^j^^^^fc K, .»^_. >/> k1 . ' mi BME?- &K.- ' ? IP?*- *"Hercules and Deianira, -, ¦ -the Yale Gallery of Fineby Pollaivolo — reproduced here through the courtesy ofArts and the University of Chicago Press.EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT• By CHAUNCEY S. BOUCHER, Dean of the CollegeWHEN new developments in a field of educational policy and practice come to be discussedin The New York Times and in some of the"popular" magazines of the "better group," it is a reliableindication that these developments are being consideredvery seriously in numerous educational committees, associations, and journals, and are of interest and significanceto the "lay" public. At the present time this is true ofeducational testing and educational measurements.For generations we have centered our attention onthe mechanical arrangements designed to facilitate thepursuit of education without having developed anythingapproaching an adequate method of measuring validlyand reliably the educational product. We have proceeded with a pious hope or blind faith that if the educational machinery were designed as well as possible, theeducational results would be the best attainable. Recentattempts to measure results more scientifically have beenconducted with sufficient success to show clearly that atmany points results from a given educational set-up arenot what we had hoped or taken for granted.The more nearly accurate methods of testing educational outcomes that recently have been developed haveforced in many quarters a more precise definition ofattainable educational objectives and a more criticalexamination of instructional methods.It is my belief that the results of such enterprisesas those now being conducted by the Pennsylvania Study,the Cooperative Test Service, the College EntranceExamination Board, the Progressive Education Association, a few state-organized groups, and the Universityof Chicago and a few other colleges and universities, inthe field of educational testing and measurement, will bejudged by educators a few generations hence to have asignificance comparable with that of the invention ofthe printing press and the steam engine.Just as we now regard the first printing press andthe first steam engine as crude and feeble affairs in contrast with modern presses and engines, so will futuregenerations regard our instruments of today for educational measurement as crude and feeble affairs in contrast with what will then have been developed. But thepioneers in this new field in our generation will then beregarded as the Gutenbergs and the Watts of educationaltesting and measurement. The important considerationis that a beginning, no matter how crude, has been madein a new and most significant field. This beginning willbring revolutionary advances in rapid succession. Itmeans that at last we are centering our attention ineducation upon substance rather than upon forms.Since many leading educators outside the Universityof Chicago have told us during the last three years thatwe are conducting one of the most heroic and most significant institutional experiments in the country in thisfield, at the junior-college level, some observations on a few of our experiences to date may be of interest andvalue.First of all let me make it clear that I write not as amember of the rapidly developing craft of testers, whohas an axe to grind since he is anxious to establish afirm place for himself and his ilk in the educationalsystem. I write as a faculty member and a facultyadministrator who is interested primarily in effectiveinstruction and would cry "down with the testers" asvigorously as any member of my guild, if I did nothonestly believe that the testers are our best assistantsat the present time in the attainment of our instructional goals.Secondly let me make it clear that I recognize thatwe are at present making significant headway in themeasurement of the attainment of only a few of thesignificant hoped-for outcomes of college education, andthat there are many that we have not as yet attemptedto measure scientifically. Qur major efforts at presentare confined to the measurement of results in mental andintellectual attainments from the pursuit of our academiccourses of study. Though we do all that we can toprovide a setting conducive to the wholesome development of the social, moral, and physical well-being of ourstudents, we have not as yet set up accurate measurements of attainments along these lines necessary for theaward of a degree. However, some promising experimentation is under way in an attempt to find accuratemeasures for these other significant products of theeducational process.Our primary objective for the junior college yearsin the University of Chicago is general education, withreasonable provision for specific necessary prerequisitetraining for those who desire and can qualify for thepursuit of advanced work in a chosen specialized field.We state our requirements for the junior college certificate and the Associate in Arts title solely in terms of abattery of seven comprehensive examinations that maybe taken by the student whenever he thinks advisable.We have abolished course credits and course marks thatcount for anything in the attainment of the junior collegecertificate.In colleges where the development of the curriculumwas left to chance, dependent only upon the caprices andpet hobbies of individual faculty members who introducedor withdrew courses of almost any type whenever theychose, chaos resulted. Whenever each faculty member isfree to award course marks in accordance with his ownindividual standard or system (or lack of both) of evaluation, chaos results. Just as the curriculum must be amatter of cooperative faculty consideration and control,so must the measurement of results. In many institutions the development of a realization of the formernecessity has preceded the development of a realizationof the latter necessity. The results of the measurement1314 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof the attainments of students from the pursuit of aprogram of one, two, or four years, by a faculty actingcooperatively through a group-controlled comprehensiveexamination system, are quite different from a merearithmetical average of individual faculty member judgments for each student as registered seriatim throughterm marks on small unit courses ; and the results of theformer type of measurements are much more significant,because more nearly valid and reliable, than the latter.It is sometimes said that at the University ofChicago we have divorced the examination function fromthe instructional function. This is only partially true.Though it is true that no instructor knows the mark ofany one of his students in his field until the report of theexaminers has been officially recorded, the examiners arenot an independent group outside faculty control. TheBoard of Examinations is a faculty board, and the fourexaminers (one for each of the four large fields), thoughthey give full time to the preparation and the supervisionof the scoring of examinations, are members of the faculty and are responsible to the faculty Board of Examinations. The Chief Examiner is a faculty member. Thestatisticians, the examination technicians, and the specially employed readers are all responsible, through theChief Examiner and the Board of Examinations, to thefaculty. This arrangement forces the examiners to design their examinations in conformity with the curriculum, and leaves curriculum control entirely with thefaculty.Dangers of "Outside Agencies"The opponents of some examination programs nowin operation or in the process of development are warranted in all that they urge against "outside" examination agencies. The examination system used by anysingle institution or by any group of institutions (state,regional, or national), must be under control of thefaculty or faculties concerned, through their duly accredited representatives, if it is to succeed. This is inaccord with the viewpoint of the best test-making expertsof the country, phrased by one of them as follows:"Test-making in the subject fields should follow, ratherthan precede or condition, the curriculum." The Cooperative Test Service and the Educational Records Bureauhave announced this to be their purpose and policy ; theyhave numerous workers and consultants on their staffswho are active teachers; they make no effort to dictatewhat any curriculum shall be or become; they merelyoffer their services to schools and colleges interested inthe effective and reliable measurement of the attainmentof objectives set by the schools and colleges themselves.I sympathize with the chorus of complaint that hasbeen rising in volume in recent years from secondaryschool teachers and administrators concerning curriculumdictation by the colleges through the agency of the College Entrance Examination Board. Fortunately thisBoard has recently seen the light in many directions andis greatly improving its policies and practices in an endeavor to remove many grounds for complaint.In so far as the C. E. E. B. aimed at the valid andreliable measurement of the results of the educational process as administered by the secondary schools, theobjective was praiseworthy. The colleges felt forced tosuch a step because of the unreliability of high-schoolmarks. It has been demonstrated repeatedly in manyquarters that an average grade of 75% in some schoolsmeans more than an average of 90% in other schools;and that to graduate at all from one school may meanmore than to graduate in the top quarter of the classin another school. But the attempt to bring order out ofthis chaos through an examination board should havecome from the secondary schools themselves. Had theydeveloped such a method to give the colleges meaningfulevidence regarding the attainments of college entranceapplicants, there would have been no necessity for the*colleges to undertake the enterprise and thus lay themselves open to the charge of dictating the secondaryschool curriculum.What we have long needed and still need is not aCollege Entrance Examination Board controlled by thecolleges, with secondary school advisory assistants, but aSecondary School Completion Board controlled by thesecondary schools, with college advisory assistants recruited by invitation. Then there could be no charge ofcurriculum control by outsiders and the colleges couldknow what attainments to count on from the applicantsthey accepted.Our experience at the University of Chicago hasshown that not only the determination of what is testedfor, but also the form of the test, must be in the controlof the faculty. Specifically this means the determinationof whether a given test or examination shall be "newtype" (short-answer), or "old type" (essay), or a combination of both and in what ratio.Our faculty legislation says that "comprehensiveexaminations" shall not be interpreted as being restrictedto any particular type of examination; they should include any kind of test, investigation, problem, assignment or creative work by which the abilities, achievements, or performance of students may be measured, andthe examination techniques designed to achieve theseends with the greatest degree of reliability should be thesubject of continuous study by the faculty and the Boardof Examinations. We are developing and using not onlycomprehensive examinations for the measurement ofstudent attainments for marking purposes, but also aptitude and placement tests for guidance purposes.As a result of critical and cooperative study by instructors and examiners we have had some interestingchanges in attitude on the merits of the widespread controversy between advocates of the two types of examination questions. Some new-type advocates are overzealous and make unwarranted claims; some old-typeadvocates are stubborn and uneducated in the many excellent possibilities of new-type tests. Fortunately mostof our instructors and examiners have proved themselvesopen-minded on the question, ready to be convinced bythe evidence at each point in each field. In some instances it took time and patience to convince an instructor or an examiner that his prejudices or preconceived notions were wrong.At the beginning of our first year the typical examiner's position was one of over-confidence, while theTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 15typical instructor's position was one of lack of confidence, in new-type tests. The instructor said, "Yournew-type tests are not valid, because they do not measurewhat they are presumed to measure or what we wantmeasured." The examiner said, "Your old-type test isunreliable, as witnessed by scores of A, C, and F on thesame paper by three different instructors." Each wasright in large part at the time. But in the course ofthree years, by long hours, days, and weeks of criticalstudy and earnest effort by both instructors and examiners, we have learned to produce many new varietiesof new-type tests that are valid ; and we have learned toproduce improved old-type questions that, with carefulagreement in advance among readers as to what to readfor and how to evaluate it, can be scored with a reliability in the nineties, which is very high reliability.After working several weeks with the staff of humanities instructors during the first year, one of ourexaminers told me that some of these instructors, whowere totally uninitiated to the problems of new-type testmaking when they began to work cooperatively, hadtaught him several new "tricks of the trade" that wereextremely valuable. Thus in nearly every field we havesucceeded in developing several expert test-makersamong our faculty members.In the construction of each examination from thefirst year to the present, the ratio of new-type and old-type parts has been and is set by agreement betweeninstructors and examiners. In some fields the proportionof new-type questions has steadily increased as the instructional staff members have become expert in framingquestions and in recognizing the validity of new-typequestions submitted by examiners for approval. As increasing reliability has been attained in the scoringof improved old-type (essay)questions, examiners have become their advocates. In onefield at the present time we havethe instructors urging a greaterproportion of new-type questions, and the examiner urginga greater proportion of old-typequestions, though three yearsago their respective positions onthis question of policy were thereverse. In not a few instancesinstructors, who at first werevociferously hostile to new-typeexaminations, have recentlycome to me to confess theirconversion and to expresstheir satisfaction with someof our most recent examinations that contain largerproportions of new-type partsthan they believed threeyears ago they would everapprove.Because of the ease and reliability of scoring new-typequestions, our present tendencyis to use this type in each spe cific examination to the extent that it can be validlyused in that field. In some fields the proportionsare now 50% new-type and 50% old-type parts, whilein other fields the new-type parts constitute as muchas 80% of an examination. The ratio for eachexamination in each field is determined anew each timean examination is constructed, in the light of the studyof previous experience. We have no set goal for adefinite ratio in any field at any time in the future. Weshall continue to be guided by reason in the light ofevidence as it accumulates from experience.Anyone who claims, as some have done recently inprint, that new-type (short answer) tests call merelyfor the development and exercise of the power to memorize — merely for the cramming of facts — simply demonstrates that he is not informed regarding the characterof the most recently developed varieties of new-type tests.Though this charge was true of the particularly varietyof short-answer test that was at first most widely used— the "true-false" question — this particular type is nowused but little because so many more significant varietieshave been developed and successfully used. Literallydozens of varieties of new-type tests have been developedin many fields in the last two years that measure validlypowers and types of mastery that it was formerlythought even by test-makers, and is still thought bythe uninformed in this area, could not possibly bemeasured by short-answer questions. And what is more,these questions can be scored with almost perfect reliability.Though any one of our instructors can honestly sayto his students all during a year-course that he does notknow what the comprehensive examination in that fieldwill contain, he can give assurance that the examinationwill be fair (valid) and will bescored fairly (reliably). Thoughin many instances the instructional staff members in a givenfield work fairly continuouslythroughout the academic yearwith the examiner for that fieldon the preparation of examination questions and materials,these merely go into the hopperfor future use and cover the entire field more completely thancould possibly be done in anysingle examination. Thus examination materials are being accumulated almost continuously.Superior types or forms areconstantly displacing old ones.When it comes time toprint a new examination foran announced date in the immediate future, the examinerfor that field brings to theinstructional staff a proposedselection of questions. Thestaff studies the proposed examination, suggests deletions,insertions, changes in propor-"Read not to contradict nor to believe, but to weighand consider."16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtions for various parts of the field, etc. No examinationis printed until approved by instructors in the field aswell as by that field examiner.Tests, quizzes, and examinations are frequentlygiven in many courses for instructional purposes ratherthan for marking purposes. The results of such examinations are never made a matter of record in the Registrar's office. When test papers are carefully read, corrected and returned to the student by the instructor inpersonal conference, as is frequently done, the test servesas an excellent instructional device. Students realize thisand frequently ask for more tests in a course than theinstructor has planned to give. The students realizethat these tests or examinations are solely for theirbenefit, to assist them, in their own education ; a test doesnot furnish an occasion for the student to attempt tocheat or fool the instructor, because, since the instructorawards neither course credit nor a mark that counts foranything, it is impossible for the student to cheat theinstructor out of a credit or an undeserved mark. Thusrelationships between students and instructor are greatlyimproved.These instructional tests given in courses furnish anexcellent opportunity not only to instruct the students,but also to instruct the instructors and the examinersregarding the value and soundness of examination questions concerning which they are in doubt. Many timesquestions are tried out experimentally in a course testand their value proved or disproved. This reduces materially the number of questions in official Board examinations that have to be eliminated in calculating scoresbecause results prove them to be faulty for one reasonor another.Real ImprovementWe have made significant improvement in the quality of design of examinations in our three years ofexperience and continuous critical study of results. Wemade good examinations in some fields the first year,and are now merely making better ones. In some fields,however, our first examinations were lamentably bad.In most of these fields we have learned to frame creditable or even good examinations, but we shall sooner orlater (I believe soon) learn to make excellent examinations in all fields. I blush with shame every time I thinkof an examination we gave in a certain field the firstyear; but I glow with pride when I contemplate theexamination in this same field given last June.Under our old plan some individual instructors andsome entire departments were habitually high markers,while others were low markers. Our examinations nowgiven are a more searching and more nearly valid evaluation of a student's genuine attainments, and the officialBoard examination marks are much more reliable, thanwas true of course examinations and marks under theold plan.Of course the objective or new-type parts of any examination can be scored by intelligent clerks. Readers forold-type (essay) questions are selected by the examinerswith the approval of the instructors concerned, who frequently assist in training the readers in what to read for,and how to evaluate it. All examination papers are scored anonymously — names are removed and numberssubstituted. Thus no special favors can be extended toathletes, children of trustees, or "teacher's pets."When the papers of a given examination are allscored, they are arranged in score order and percentilerank. A conference is then held between the examiner forthat field and one or more representatives of the instructional staff to agree upon the division points for theaward of A, B, C, D, and F marks, with D passing. Thisis not done merely by looking for convenient "breaks"in the distribution of scores, but involves the reading byinstructors of papers just above and just below a proposed division point. Still the papers are anonymous.When the final mark groups are agreed upon, they arereported to the Dean of the College for approval, merelythat he may have an opportunity to investigate unusualor apparently unreasonable instances of percentage distributions among marks. We have no established "gradecurve" for mark distributions, and though the Dean hasinvestigated unusual distributions, he has in no instanceto date ordered a review or re-reading, because a reasonable explanation was given in each instance. Not untilthe Dean has approved the distribution of marks are themarks assigned from paper numbers to the names of therespective writers and reported to the Registrar forofficial recording.Occasionally the Dean has had to serve as an arbitrator of differences between examiners and facultymembers. As instructors have increasingly come toappreciate more fully the character of examination problems, and as the examiners have learned more of thesubject matter and the educational objectives of instructors in their respective fields, serious disagreementshave become increasingly infrequent, and harmoniousrelationships are now the order of the day.In the most serious disagreement to date that arosein a most difficult field, the Dean, against his natural inclination, sided with the examiner, because the examinerdemonstrated to the satisfaction of the Dean that the instructional staff in question had not defined their educational objectives precisely, were not agreed upon themost effective instructional methods or materials to usein the attempt to attain their objectives, and were utterlyunable to measure reliably the attainment of the objectives — that instructors' course grades in this field in thepast had been of little value. After this crisis wassquarely faced the instructional staff began to study theirproblems constructively as never before. After a yearof earnest effort they succeeded in dissolving each ofthe three indictments of the examiner, and relationshipsbetween the examiner and the staff are now entirelyharmonious. Needless to say, the students have profitedgreatly from the development of an entirely new coursein this field, with objectives clearly set forth, with instructional materials and methods better designed andadministered, and with results measured validly andreliably.Though we had many excellent courses, well designed and effectively taught, before the adoption of ournew plan, we also had many courses that were a disgraceon the scores of organization and presentation. Since weearly, in the design of the plan, decided to abandonTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 17course credits and course marks,and to rely upon comprehensiveexaminations open to any studentat any time whether he had pursued in residences all or only partor no part of one or more of theyear-courses offered to assist students in preparation for the examinations, we decided that eachyear-course should have a printedsyllabus prepared by the facultymembers concerned. This wasthe first guarantee that thoughtand care in impressive amounts must be given to theorganization of each course. A second guarantee tothis same end, and at the same time a guarantee thatserious study would be given to the selection and useof the most effective instructional methods, was inherentin the examination system adopted.So seriously have the faculty members taken theirobligations in the preparation of course syllabi that mostof these syllabi have been revised each year to date. Aswe are now (October first) opening the fourth year ofthe new plan, most of our syllabi that are to be used thisyear are literally hot from the press and bear the imprint"Fourth Preliminary Edition." Most of the revisions ofsections of the various syllabi (and in some instances anentire syllabus) have come as a result of experience inthe administration of the courses, and particularly fromA Gargoyle's View of the Quadrangles. the testing of results through ourcontinuously studied and carefully administered examinationsystem. The appearance of syllabi in cold type and the continuous critical study of resultsthrough the examinations havetended to smoke out defects andweaknesses in subject matter selection and organization, and inthe selection and use of instructional methods. We have developed in three years more significant improvements in the clear definition of educational objectives in each field, and in the selection ofmaterials and their organization and presentation incourses, as a result of printed syllabi and particularlyour examination system, than would have come in ascore of years without these stimuli.Since "the proof of the pudding is the eating," onemay appropriately ask what the students think of themenu of courses and examinations served to them.Under our new plan our students have greater respectfor, and greater confidence in, the courses and the examinations; larger numbers of them are interested, exhilarated, and enthusiastic, are reading more and workingharder, with verve and intelligent purpose, than wasever true of freshmen and sophomores under our oldplan, which is still the prevailing plan in most institutionsin this country.Chicago Alumni in the Current MagazinesAmerican Mercury — SeptemberThe Soviets Fight Bureaucracy,Anna Louise Strong, AM'07,PhD'08American Mercury — OctoberThe Soviet "Dictatorship," AnnaLouise Strong, AM'07, PhD'08Asia — September.The Circus Comes to our IndianTown, Gertude Emerson Sen, '12Atlantic Monthly — OctoberMy Friend, the Jew, VincentSheean, '21The Original Language of the Gospels, Edgar J. Goodspeed, DB'97,PhD'98Chicagoan — September.Lohr of the Fair, Milton S.Mayer, '29Chicagoan — OctoberProfessors and Politics, JamesWeber Linn, '97 My Lady Nicotine, Morris Fish-bein, '11, MD'12Falconer McLaughlin, Kenneth D.Fry, '28Collier's Weekly— October 20After the Hounds, Alan Le-May, *22Current History — OctoberBusiness on the Dole, H. ParkerWillis, '94, PhD'98Fortune — OctoberThe Future of the NRA, DonaldR. Richberg, '01Harp ers — S eptemberJudging the Judges, Mitchell Dawson, '11, JD'14Harpers — OctoberForces That Control the Schools,Howard K. Beale, '21 Scientific Monthly — SeptemberThe Realm of the Nebulae, EdwinHubble, '10, PhD'17Survey Graphic — OctoberChicago, the Land of the People,Louis Wirth, '19, AM'25Corrupt and Discontented? MiltonS. Mayer, '29Vanity Fair — SeptemberHas Hitler a Mother Complex?John Gunther, '22Vanity Fair — OctoberDictatorship and the AuthorityComplex, John Gunther, '22Vanity Fair — NovemberHapsburg's Otto, John Gunther, 22Yale Review — Autumn QuarterTwo Humorists: Charles Dickensand Mark Twain, Stephen Leacock,PhD'03FREE COMPETITION:Its Economic Background• By GARFIELD V. COX, PhD '29, Professor of FinanceSOME critics of modern economic society have beenso impressed with the undesirable effects of competition that they regard it as an evil to be eliminated. Some concede that it has more than outlived itsusefulness. Before we pass judgment on so importantan institution, we should try objectively to understandthe vital role it has played in our economic life.If a newspaper is too close to one's eyes it is hardto read. Just so the economic picture is so close to oureyes that it is hard to see. We know, however, thatsince the beginning of the industrial revolution, eachman's work has become more and more specialized. Weknow that scores of men, each doing a different task,contribute to a process that ends with the milk beingleft at one's door in the morning, or with one's having ahcuse in which to live. How do men and materials getassigned to their respective tasks? How are choicesmade between different methods of production? Whatdetermines the division of the total output among themany individuals or family units in society?For more than a century this coordination has occurred by a process largely automatic in character. Thekey word in a description of this automatic process iscompetition. Economics, as developed in English-speaking countries, at least, has dealt primarily with the natureand workings of a competitive system of enterprise. Insuch a system economic competition operates throughthe institutions of private property and contract. It isassumed that people as producers will do what promisesto yield them the largest incomes, and that as consumersthey will spend their incomes in ways which they expectwill bring them the greatest satisfactions. The rewardof any single producer is limited by the fact that if hischarges are extortionate, his competitors will offer betterterms and thus win patronage away from him.If the results of competition are to be socially satisfactory four important conditions must be maintained.First there must be numerous independent buyers andnumerous independent sellers. Second, both buyers andsellers must have sufficient knowledge to make intelligent choices. Third, there must be at least some degreeof equality of bargaining power. And fourth, there mustbe transferability of labor power and of productive resources from one place and one use to another.If the ideal competition of economic theory couldbe realized it would consist of rivalry for income bythe process of giving more than one's rivals give in proportion to what one asks in return. Such a system wouldadmittedly inflict disappointments and hardships uponthose who made false starts before finding the jobs forwhich they were best fitted, or who proved relativelyinefficient wherever tried. But these costs of competition to the individual would be far more than offset bythe stimulus of competition to productive efficiency, by the manner in which it tends to diffuse initiative andresponsibility and to regulate automatically economic activities too detailed and complex for any man or groupof men to direct satisfactorily by authority.To the England of the late 18th century, the conceptof a genuinely competitive market was a liberating one.It appealed not only to the self-interest of the risingclass of small business men but to the social interest ofreformers. The advocates of free enterprise, however,saw clearly only one side of their problem. They recognized that the free market had to win its way againstthe lingering customs and traditions of feudalism andagainst innumerable state controls of trade which hadbeen set up in earlier times and no constituted barriersto freedom of contract and to the freedom of entranceinto industry. They did not see that a free marketwould be as hard to maintain as it was to create, thateternal vigilance is the price of free enterprise as trulyas it is the price of any other form of liberty.It is probable that a genuinely competitive ordercame as near to fulfillment in 19th century America asin any economically important country at any time. Thefrontier, while it lasted, served as a sort of automaticequalizer of opportunity for men of strength, initiative,and courage. But, by the time the frontier had passedinto history, business itself had in numerous fields contrived to limit seriously the freedom of markets.The growth of huge combinations in numerous industries and in finance reduced the element of bargaining.Although anti-trust laws were enacted, the efforts tocheck the tendency toward monopoly have been neitherserious nor persistent. Monopolistic practices of tradeassociations and of labor organizations have grown apace.Industries have turned to the state for higher and higherprotective tariffs and for subsidies open or disguised.Millions were spent by many businesses to mislead smallbuyers as to the quality of products. The temptation tostrive for monopoly has been increased by the fact thatchanging technology has increased the proportion ofequipment that is too highly specialized to be readilytransferable to other uses than those for which it wasdesigned. In addition, such industries as communication, light and power, and railroad transportation, fieldsin which competition is not feasible as the regulator ofprice, have grown in relative importance.On the other hand, farming has continued to behighly competitive, and some mining and many lines ofmanufacturing and of merchandising remain competitivein very considerable degree. The result is a mongrel orhybrid economic system. It is so monopolistic over largeareas that it can not make automatically the needed adjustments to changing market conditions, yet so competitive in other equally significant areas that it can notbe ruled by authority.18THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 19Many who have suffered such unfavorable pricesas have the grain and livestock growers in recent yearsare disposed to conclude that competition is socially bad.Such a conclusion, however, rests upon a one-sidedanalysis. The basic difficulty in this instance is that,while the output of agriculture was maintained, theoutput of much of industry was cut in two. In manyfields of industry, producers were few and competitionso polite that business managements, often aided by hightariffs, were in a position to choose between reducingprice to maintain volume and maintaining price by reducing volume. Such industries usually choose to letvolume suffer far more than price. By contrast, in ahighly competitive field, such as hog raising, with itsmillions of independent producers, concerted action torestrict production was too difficult and no producer wassufficiently important as a market factor to affect pricesby acting alone. Logically, there is no more reason toattribute the fall in farm incomes to the maintenanceof farm output than to blame it upon reductions in theoutput of those goods and services for which farm products are exchanged. And with rare exceptions soundsocial policy calls for the restoration of balance by expansion of the output of curtailed industries rather thanby contraction of output among those which have notcurtailed.Although the illustration just given relates to atime of depression, the principle involved is a generalone. A good deal of the harshness which competitionappears to mete out to a group of low paid workers orof poorly rewarded business enterprises is due not somuch to the price competition prevailing among the members of the group itself as to the lack of price competition among those from whom its members buy or towhom they sell.Selling at a loss in order to drive competitors fromthe field is often cited as behavior inevitable in a competitive system. The fact is, however, that such a practice could hardly thrive except where government is tolerant of private monopoly. For the management ofa business would hesitate to incur the risks of failureand the certain costs of a cut-throat war if in event ofvictory it had little hope that the government would permit it to retain its newly won monopoly.One of the commonest objections to competitionis its wastefulness. Some of the wastes complainedof are not peculiar to competitive business. For example, business salesmanship is often wasteful and misleading, but political appeals for popular support areequally so. Just as it is desirable that voters cooperateto inform themselves of the merits of candidates andissues, so it is desirable that small buyers cooperate totest the qualities of products offered for sale. Someduplication of effort is an inevitable cost of competitionand as such must be weighed against its benefits. In fields such as public utilities, the price of providingalternative facilities to make service truly competitivewould obviously be too high. And utilities do not exhaust the field appropriate for monopoly. The competitive extraction of petroleum, for example, resultsin such pernicious waste that the government should longago have adopted the policy of acquiring title to all oilpools.In the vast majority of industries, however, thecase for competition is a strong one. Indeed, I wishthere were a popular and intelligent demand today forthe re-creation of competition in numerous industries inwhich it has almost disappeared. Total investment inany single business unit might be strictly limited andlarge units might be broken up. In numerous instances,a colossal corporation embraces many units that are separately managed. It need not disrupt production ruinously to require that these units be separated in ownership, too. One of the slower but surer ways of reducing the risk that men of great wealth would still createmonopolies by buying control of the separate corporations would be to reduce great fortunes by progressiveincome and inheritance taxes. Indeed, the severe limitation of wealth inheritance must be an important itemin the social program of any consistent and sincereadherent of rugged individualism.The recovery and maintenance of normal production and employment can not be achieved so long as halfof industry makes price maintenance its goal at any costto volume of employment and production, and priceswill not be flexible unless private industry is competitiveand public industries intelligently adjust their prices tochanging conditions.To me it has long seemed unfortunate that in mostof the critical discussions of capitalism versus socialism,so little attention is devoted to the problem of the appropriate spheres for competition and for authority as regulators of our economic life. I doubt if many socialistswould favor the complete elimination of economic competition as a controlling agency ; note, for example, thatsome element of market competition must necessarily survive if any freedom of choice is to be allowed the consumer. At the same time, no rugged individualist thatI know seriously believes that competition should orcould serve as the sole guide and governor in everyfield of production and service.To create and to maintain a more effectively competitive order is a task of great and continuing difficultybut not an impossible one. Whether we create such anorder will depend largely upon how earnestly we wantto do so. I suspect that many of those who prefer thecurrent trend away from price competition do not fullyrealize that the only alternative is dictation by authority,however that authority may get its power.MODERN THOUGHT:Is It Anti-intellectual?AS THERE is some talk on the campus about theanti-intellectualism of modern thought, especiallyas contrasted with medieval, it may not be acriminally anti-intellectual project to inquire as to whatsuch an allegation may mean. To begin with negativeconsiderations, there are two or three senses in whichthe characteristic attitude since the Renascence is clearlymore intellectualistic or rationalistic than that of thescholastics or any preceding age, taking the thought ofeach period at its best.In the first place, it is a unique, modern creation tointerpret natural phenomena in terms of quantitativelaws of causal sequence leading finally and ideally topropositions in theoretical mechanics. It is true that inthe very latest developments of physics, mechanics showsa tendency to become more of an empirical, less of arational, science ; but the Newtonian mechanics was practically on the level of geometry. It is one of the strangefacts of intellectual history that the Greeks, with theirgeometrical genius, had practically no inkling of the notions of mass and force, which in the Newtonian worldview are virtually geometrical concepts. As to the medieval scholastics, their knowledge of and interest inthese things were childish.Secondly, modern thought contrasts with medievalin conceiving of man as a rational being, one whose behavior is explicable in terms of "reasons," which reasons,again, are eventually quasi-mechanical and amenable tomathematical formulation; the modern age is the age ofutilitarianism, working out into theoretical economics.In the third place, modern political thought has beenmore or less distinctive in its organization around certain rationalistic norms or concepts, the law of nature,natural rights, sovereignty, etc. This item is less in pointthan the other two, both because modern thought is lessdifferent from medieval or Greek in this respect, andbecause the movement has been away from this rationalistic political thinking for some time.From a positive standpoint we may take the firsthalf of the term "anti-intellectual" and ask what themodern attitude has really been "against" Here also,three main points are to be noted, whicJ, however, arereally aspects of one fundamental position. First, it hasbeen against absolutistic verbalism, the view that debatable questions, and social problems in particular, areto be settled by giving to positions names with an appropriate flavor, or by question-begging definitions ofwords. Second, it is against "wish thinking" as a substitute for truth. The close connection between thispoint and the first should not need elaboration; for theprocedure of verbalism is one of "demonstrating" aspersuasively as possible a position already held, and onethe grounds of which may be dark or clear to others,but are above question to the promoter himself. Third, •By FRANK H. KNIGHT, Professor of Economicsand finally, the modern mind has been particularly opposed to intellectual dictatorship. It has stood for freedom of inquiry and investigation, and especially, freedomof discussion and criticism, as against the regimentationof the intellectual life by any sacerdotal, political, oracademic bureaucracy or other organized punditry. This,again, is merely a repetition of the first and secondobservations from a different point of view. For authoritative regimentation is precisely the meaning, and theonly possible meaning in practice, of any assertion to theeffect that in morals and politics any problem can besolved by logical deductions from definitions of words.This does not mean to minimize the importance ofdefinitions of terms; rather the contrary. But in thesocial field, every important term is the name of a problem ! Consequently, the definition of a word is the content of a problem, and comes at the end, as the solutionof the problem, not at the beginning, of the discussion.This explains the second observation above, that thenatural tendency to which modern thought and all honesttruth seeking are opposed is to predetermine conclusionsby the use of question begging names, or questionbegging definitions, another species of the same genus.In any field where real interests are at stake, and practically speaking anywhere except in pure mathematics,every advance definition of an important word is question begging — if intended as more than a literary jeud' esprit. This is unavoidable, even with the utmost effortto be objective. If anyone has doubts about the matter,let him test it for himself by trying to give a definitionof, say, justice or liberty; or democracy; or, parexemple, of crime !. That a thick book could be writtenin the 1930's advocating a rationalistic criminology, andbe taken seriously by anyone, merely proves the advancedstate of intellectual disintegration in the society whereit happened.But those who reason from concepts are not tryingto be objective. The application of formal logic tosocial problems, or any seriously debatable issue, is atechnique of compulsion, a species of high pressure salesmanship, designed to bulldoze the timorous and confusethe uninformed. It is the procedure of the advocate, notthe truth-seeker ; and between these two there is a greatgulf fixed. Again, if there is doubt, let the doubter stepinto any court room and see the way in which concepts,definitions and "logic" are employed. The term "anti-intellectual" is itself a precious example of the use ofepithet for argument. (The Greeks had a name forthis practice.) But the technique never stops with salesmanship, and is not intended to do so. The very notionof self-evident or logically demonstrated truth is essentially a justification for the use of force. Any proposalof a rationalistic ethics, sociology, or jurisprudence is aproposal for a dictatorship, under the high-priesthood20THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 21of its promoter. All this should be obvious without comment to anyone who either thinks at all or has read anyhistory whatever. Any proposition about which thereis discussion or disagreement is, on the face of it, notself-evident or demonstrated, and the only purpose inasserting that it is such — if more than calling names —is to justify the forcible suppression of disagreement.If modern thought is to be criticized in this connection at all, it is on the ground of being still, or of havingbeen until recently, excessively rationalistic, and muchtoo tolerant and respectful of "theorizing," uncriticizedand unsubstantiated by facts. One of the greatestgenuine intellectual achievements in all history is theprogress recently made in the way of realizing the fundamental limitations of verbal association as a source ofknowledge — and those of the human mind in generalin the aspect of critical intelligence. There is no longeran excuse for any educated person not to realize thefundamental relativity and provisional character of allsignificant truth, or not to have a reasonably adequateconception of the psychological nature and grounds ofthe beliefs which people, including himself, generallyhold. The least dip into the history of religion, or ofmedicine, or of any natural science prior to the age ofexperiment, will show that the output of even the bestminds, set to "thinking" on any subject, without somedefinite rigorous control, is the multification of fancieswithout significance from the standpoint of truth andrating equally low as poetry, and in general interestingonly as curious specimens for psychological examination.It is a mistake to encourage people to think, without acorresponding emphasis on the sifting of the product,and adequate security that it will be done. For menare incapable of judging their own ideas — or phrases!Their attitude is like that toward their children ; if anything, the more misshapen and pitiful the poor things are,the more their parents love them.In this connection, the proponents of logical absolutism themselves furnish a perfect illustration and idealmaterial for study. The position is itself the essence ofanti-intellectualism, correctly understood. It representsthe primal romantic urge of the human mind to beginwith pumping out of words easy answers to hard questions, and proceed to "sell" the resulting verbal nostrumsto the wonder-hungry populace which lacks not onlycritical sense but the little intellectual ingenuity of energyrequired to satisfy its own wants in this regard. Wordspinning is an escape from and substitute for genuineintellectual work. Relative to the question of what peoplebelieve and why, in contrast with the nature of their professions, these producers and venders of formulas foranswering in advance all possible questions offer excellent laboratory material for some of the newer branchesof psychology. As practice matter, their case has thespecial merit of not being too difficult for any studentwho has once grasped the rudiments of a sound methodof attack.The significance of all this for education is plain.Using "truth" in no absolute sense, but only to stand forthat distinction between what is critically defensible andwhat is not which is the presupposition of all intellectualactivity, any education looking toward truth must placeliterally all possible emphasis on the criticism and testing of individual ideas. And this is particularly true in thefield where obviously definitive experimental testing isimpossible or meaningless. This, again, is not an argument "against" thinking. That thinking is the onlysource of knowledge or illumination goes without saying.But it is simply a patent and unescapable fact that theimmediate product of thinking is nearly always wrongand usually foolish. Man is a believing animal, andbelief is an intoxicating drug, with the peculiar effectthat the individual not only craves more for himself butavidly desires to infect others with the habit. Men'sbeliefs are not merely affected by their interests; thereally serious difficulty is that their beliefs, arrived at inways infinitely various, and devious, constitute interests — are interests.In the social field, moreover, these two sorts ofinterests merge. One who can get his special beliefsaccepted raises his social status and puts himself in linefor all the emoluments the heart craves. Yet so greatis credulity that we see great numbers of persons opento influence by propaganda which, under the guise ofhuman betterment, palpably looks toward making the promoters the rulers of society. This does not apply merelyto any single small group. It is the nature of practicallyall social reform propaganda. Marxism is the mostglaring example, but Thomism and all other "isms" arein the same class. Neither society nor any group orclass in it can be an intellectual community unless webegin with an overwhelming presumption against thesoundness of any teaching whose promoters cannot placethemselves above suspicion of motivation by other interests than love of truth and right. Between advocatingand truth-seeking, meaning the quest of right answersto problems, there is a nearly impassable gulf.Note by the Author:It is with some hesitation that I consent to have theforegoing paragraphs published. The work is in nosense a philosophical essay, but rather a sort of "broadside." It is relevant chiefly to a controversy which hasbeen injected into the life of the University communityand which developed to surprising proportions duringthe past academic year. The meaning may be somewhatobscure to readers who have not to some extent followedthis controversy in the Daily Maroon, in certain classrooms, in various public and official utterances circulatedmore or less generally on the campus, and in general conversation. A consistent impression of a strongly supported propaganda for the Medievalizing of our educational program finally led or drove a number of thosewho take education seriously in both faculty and studentbody to the conviction of a real danger that the issuemight go by default with the unthinking mass whichforms the majority of any community. It seemed thatthis should not be allowed to happen and that somethingshould be done by way of explicitly calling attention toconsiderations on the other side, even though these areessentially commonplace.The writer rather "threw together" the remarkswhich appear above, in connection, in the first instance,with a lecture in the Social Science section of a generalseries of lectures on the History of Science which wasgiven in the University through the year. A number of{Continued on page 23)HERE COMES THAT BIG DRUM• By HOWARD W. MORT, Director, University BandHAVE you ever heard the story behind the "biggest drum in the world?" You have probablytold your friends the biggest story they wouldbelieve about it, but here are the facts in a "drum-shell."Twelve years ago when Mr. Carl D. Greenleaf, '99,president of C. G. Conn, Ltd., and an alumnus of Chicago, presented the University band with one hundredConn instruments, he determined to include a bass drumwhich would be the largest ever built.Two men were sent from the factory at Elkhart,Indiana, to the Chicago stock yards to procure the largesthides obtainable. At the yards, after being furnishedwith horses and a guide, they set out in quest of bigcows. Measuring steers all day was a tiresome task, butlate that evening they finally found a huge ox that appeared to hold a record for size. He was headed for thechute and that was "the beginning and end of the firstday."Three days later our two scouts, paralyzed from thehips down, slid painfully off their mounts, hoping againsthope that the hide from the ox they had found thatevening could be stretched two inches to match the findof the first day.In the meantime, specifications of the first hide hadbeen wired to Elkhart and work had begun on the hugeshell which was to be more than three times that of thelargest "stock" drum. Guy wires had to be used to holdthe shell in shape.They had no vat large enough to soak the hides sothey were taken down to the river and spread out in thewater. This method had to be abandoned, however, because the turtles declared a field-day and started workon the hides. The skins were finally laid out on a cement floor and men were assigned to pour water on themuntil they were ready for stretching.The one head, for which the shell was built, wenton nicely, but the smaller skin raised disconcerting doubtsin the minds of the men. All hands and the cook werecalled out, the head was finally stretched enough so thatit could be tacked on the flesh-hoop, andthe men went home to nurse their raw mknuckles.A drum cart with large bicyclewheels had been made of steel tubingand they prepared to rush the drum tothe station where it was Xo be loadedon the "Rooters Special" from Columbus en route to the Chicago-Ohio game.The drum was to make its premier appearance at this game. But it was toolarge for any double door in the shop.A transom over one of the doors andpart of the wall had to be knocked outfor the exit of this hoodooed mascot.The baggage car, attached to the spe cial to receive the monster, had no door large enoughto admit it. The train was held two hours while a wildsearch was made through the yards to find a car thatwould serve in the emergency. An automobile freightcar which had a removable end was finally located andthe drum arrived in Chicago for its appearance.From that day to this it has successfully defendedits title of the most troublesome band mascot in existence. The wheels of the carriage proved to be too lightand crumpled under the strain at our return game withOhio the following year. Special wheels with airplanetires had to be built to replace the others. It took theUniversity truck almost a day to find a route to theNorthwestern depot that didn't involve viaducts whenwe went to Wisconsin. The drum rolled down theembankment of the I. C. tracks at 53rd Street when theywere loading it on a special car for Illinois. It had to becarried over the top of the stadium at Michigan becauseno gate was big enough to admit it, even off the cart. Ahigh wind blew it over one day at Stagg Field, so heavyhandles were welded to both ends of the carriage andsix men assigned to escort it from that day on.But Chicago, in spite of all this, is proud of its"biggest drum." It is over eight feet in diameter and,until bigger cows are made, there can hardly be a biggerdrum. It still has the original heads, but an average offour beaters are wrecked each year while playing it, inspite of the special construction of the reenforced sticks.Keeper of the Ex-Cow-PastureWe ran into Jimmy Twohig yesterday afternoonover on Stagg Field. Jimmy, you will remember, wasthe head grounds keeper for the athletic departmentuntil the heat got him this summer and he asked to beretired. It had been just thirty-four years since the OldMan put him through the catechism of "Do you useliquor to excess?" etc., and started him on his career at$1.75 per day. His main job was looking after theshavings on the field in the days beforeanyone thought a good sod could bemaintained on our gridiron. Jimmy insisted on trying and did it, as you know.When Jimmy arrived from Irelandin 1883 Stagg Field was part of a pasture extending from 55th Street to 59thand from Ellis Avenue to Woodlawn.Even in those days there was an admission charge to the field. Any HydeParker who wished to pasture his cowin this lot could do so for one dollara week. (There was no governmenttax as there is now — otherwise theprice is practically the same for seasontickets.)" '^22THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 23The dollar a week included the additional service ofopening the gate in the evening and allowing all the cowsto go home. It was years later that Mitchell Towerchimes were rung at 10:05 P. M., at which time all goodcow owners had the chores done, clocks wound, and catsdisposed of.Oh yes, the watering trough! Jimmy pointed outthe spot just inside the center gate along the south wallback of the temporary bleachers. Jimmy goes over tothe practice field every afternoon to watch the "b'ys"work out. He still thinks of them as "my b'ys" and isvery proud of the fact that Mr. Metcalf refused to accept the return of his keys upon retirement. Belief inhis integrity is the highest compliment one can payJimmy and Mr. Metcalf need never fear this trust willbe betrayed.Jimmy's only vice is smoking "Plow Boy" in apipe estimated to be three years his junior. He is 81years of age but looks twenty years younger when hestrolls across the quadrangles and is hailed by everypassing student and faculty member. He lives in thehome of friends at 5538 Ellis Avenue.Thorn Apples and ArchitectureWe had heard so many flattering accounts of theUniversity guide service, conducted for the benefit of Chicago visitors, that we decidedto drop in at headquarters in thechapel one afternoon.We tried to look like a bigcattle man from southwestTexas in order to get the fullbenefit of this service, but itdidn't work too well. Somewealthy prince from Bombay,with three of his wives, had preceded us, and we were an anti-^^^MZMMl climax- We followed a crowd fromone of the sight-seeing busesinto the main auditorium where we heard a most excellent talk by one of our graduate students, Mr. Kingdon,< on the architectural significance of this great Rockefeller memorial.We had remembered that the largest carillon bellweighs over eighteen tons and that the seventy-two bells,including the steelwork, weigh two hundred and twentytons. We had known — but forgotten — that the roof,which contains no steel, weighs over eight hundred tons,but we didn't know that expert wood carvers had beenimported from Oberammergau to carve the many woodfigures and designs on the interior. We had not beenaware that a statue of the master-architect, Bertram G.Goodhue, who died before the chapel was completed,stands, holding a small replica of this chapel, at theright of the east transept door.Other interesting facts we learned from our goodfriend-lecturer, but we still detest those little thorn appleshe tried to teach us to eat after the crowd had gone. Hehad gathered a pocketful from under a red haw (that'swhat he called it) tree just outside and ingeniously devised a way to eat them without disturbing the clusterof seeds in the center. We had to learn to eat greenolives but our wife, evidently, hasn't discovered the foodvalue in thorn apples and, until she does, we stand withthe man who didn't like bananas because there was toomuch cob.We learned that over fifteen hundred people visitedthe chapel every day this summer. Some days therewere more than two thousand. By actual count, anaverage of a thousand a week took advantage of the freeguide service for the Quadrangles. Mr. Frederick Gur-ney, who is in charge of this service, told us that a substantial number of young people entered as students herethis fall as a direct result of the favorable impressionsgained while being conducted over the Quadrangles. Sowe decided to forget about the thorn apples and placeour endorsement upon the project.Modern Thought (Continued from page 21)persons who heard the lecture, or to whom the noteswere shown, urged that in view of the current dispute,the material should be given wider circulation. Onemain reason for allowing publication here is that theDaily Maroon, for which the material would have beenmore appropriate, refused, in harmony with its editorialpolicy in the year 1933-4, to print it. The reasons givenby the editor were two: that it was too long; and thatsome of the points were "arguable." As to length, itwould have filled about three columns, and the Maroonpublished, in the issue of March 8, over eight columnsof articles by students on its own side of the question,which were . supplemented by more than a column ofeditorial. In the last week of the school year, the matter as printed here was made available in mimeographedform and was found to be in considerable demand.Even as a debating polemic, these paragraphs haveobvious shortcomings. The one of which the writer ismost acutely conscious is incompleteness ; but the readermay be reassured that there is no thought of remedyingthat deficiency here ! However, it may be mentioned thatanything like a discussion of the intellectual limitationsof Medieval culture should point out at least that ThomasAquinas and the other scholastics knew and cared nomore about authenticity in history, or critical judgmentin literature and art, than they did about modern science,¦ — say, the theory of energy in physics or that of inheritance in biology. — F. H. K.IN MY OPINION• By FRED B. MILLETT, PhD '31 Associate Professor of EnglishIF Hollywood's film-magnates had not been throwninto jittering hysterics by the current campaign toclean up the American movies, they would have hadthe wit to import a few thousand copies of Dr. DorothyKnowles' The Censor, the Drama, and the Film, 1900-1934 (London: George Allen & Unwin, Ltd., 1934) andto distribute them gratis to the most influential news-paper editors of the country. The case against officialcensorship has never been put more devastatingly.Dr. Knowles' well-documented study is yet anotherillustration of the British capacity for muddling, if notmuddling through. The only British law governing thesuppression of moving pictures is the Obscene Publications Act of 1857. The fact, however, that all censorship beyond the narrow limits of this act is extra-legalhas not prevented the growth of a series of semi-officialcensoring boards, from the British Board of Censors tothe Chief Constable of Bootle. The former body, despiteits imposing name, is only a trade-organization createdby the moving-picture producers and distributors as ameans of guarding themselves against losses due to censorship by irresponsible local agencies. An importantofficial of the Board has defined as its fundamental principle the dictum that all censorship must not be aheadof public opinion or behind it. What this means, ofcourse, is that the British Board of Censors aims toreflect the taboos and mores of the contemporary herd.The stupidities of official censorship can be illustrated readily from almost any action taken by thisBoard. It refused a permit for the American versionof Dreiser's American Tragedy, apparently because ofits frank treatment of the hero's sexual relations, although the author himself did all in his power to prohibit the distribution of the deodorized film. More frequently, however, in Britain than in America the motivebehind the censorship has been political rather thansexual. All the great Russian films have had to strugglefor a hearing in the Isles, and frequently have beenbutchered before presentation. The long arm of theBritish Foreign Office has even reached across thechannel. Protests against the showing of the Germanversion of The Beggar's Opera were made to the FrenchGovernment by the British Embassy, apparently on theground that the picture showed a close-up of a Queen ofEngland stricken with terror at the sight of the oncoming beggars. The Board was reluctant to grant alicense to the great expressionistic film, The Cabinet ofDr. Caligari, because it contained scenes of lunacy andbecause, they argued, "in every audience there were somepersons who had relatives in asylums." Perhaps theclimax of obscurantist stupidity was reached whenDuLac's surrealist film, La Coquille et le Clergyman,was refused a permit because it was "so cryptic as to bealmost meaningless. If there is a meaning, it is doubtless objectionable." Could unreasoning terror before the unfamiliar and the unintelligible be more perfectlyillustrated by a denizen of an Amazonian jungle?Nor does the Board's custom of designating certainpictures as suitable only for adults work out very satisfactorily. The Board's decision is only advisory, andwhat is restricted to an adult audience in one murkysuburb may be shown to all comers a few miles away.Perhaps the British faculty for eating their cake andhaving it was never more perfectly illustrated than bythe conditions under which the sexual-hygiene picture,Damaged Lives, was permitted to be shown: the reservation of Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays for "menonly," Tuesdays and Thursdays for "ladies only," andSaturdays and Sundays, "mixed." Apparently the relaxed morality of the Continental Sunday is makingheadway in England in the face of the conscientiousdeadliness of a London Sabbath.But the moving-picture audience, intelligent and unintelligent, is at the mercy, not merely of this semi-officialand quite extra-legal censoring body, but of any localgroup or authority strong enough to make its pressurefelt on the minds of local police. The Chief Constableof Sunderland refused to allow a local showing ofOutward Bound, because he felt that the picture was"profane" and "an insult to anyone with finer religiousfeelings." Before Pabst's production of Wedekind'sPandoras Box could be shown, it was necessary tosupply it with an ending in which the personification ofdevastating lust was won over to virtue by the Salvation Army! One is inevitably reminded of the recentslaughtering, by the new purity of Hollywood, of WillaCather's studiously moral Lost Lady. It turns out thatthe lady was not lost after all ; she merely strayed !The spectacle of the grubby godly in a thousandshabby Booties deciding whether or not a picture issuitable for local showing is merely amusing — in theremoteness of the British Isles. It becomes more serious when the godly begin to knit their threatening browsin one's native Podunk. Seen clearly, the chaos of British censorship should warn us against any step likely toplunge us into a chaos deeper than our own. Our ownmire is sufficiently malodorous. One has but to remember the attempts of various State Boards of Censorship to decide how much footage it was decent topermit to a perfectly legal, and how much to an equallyillegal, kiss. One sympathizes with the moral dilemmaof the inhabitants of that narrow protuberance of thestate of Pennsylvania that impinges on Lake Erie. Itsbewildered inhabitants must face the necessity of choosing between their own native morality and that availablejust across the invisible borders of Ohio and New York.The chill hand of the prude has smitten dozens of honestfilm-representations of life as it is. In Boston recently,the local censor decided that it was immoral to permitthe low heroine in the eminently serious and moral pres-24THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 25entation of Maugham's Of Human Bondage, to announce to the hero that she was going to have a baby.Unfortunately for the morals of Boston, a local newspaper published illustrations and text of the censoredportions of this and other pictures, and consequentlywhen the evil scene was shown, without the accompaniment of sound, there arose around one in dozens ofstage whispers the refrain, "She's going to have a baby."It is, of course, unnecessary to imitate the film-magnates' hysteria in the face of this summer heatwave of moral indignation. Anyone nearer to Americanlife than Hollywood would have realized immediatelythat the clean-up campaign would go the way of all similar waves of moral indignation in these states. In thelate preposterous controversy, one has reason, indeed,to suspect the sincerity of both parties. As that profound student of American culture, Westbrook Pegler,observed, "moving pictures continue to issue from Hollywood, Cal., in which male and female are divorced fromeach other, in accordance with the statutes of the various American states, and proceed to marry other persons,according to life and the statutes of the various statesand their mutual preferences. . . . And, in some ofthe scenarios, the hoodlum has been inferentially ennobled by comparison with the genteel brigand of thegold coast." There is a similar occasion for suspectingthe sincerity of the reformers when one learns thatschool-girls were ordered to march in a Legion ofDecency parade in academic costume, and that they weretold that a bus would trail the procession so that noneof the young innocents should be seen smoking in capand gown.The hysteria on both sides has well-nigh passed.But one ominous result of the clean-up campaign is stillwith us. That "living moral standard," Will Hays, hasconferred upon a single member of his staff the powerto censor films at any stage of their history fromembryonic idea to finished film. The conferring of suchtremendous powers on any one individual savors terri-fyingly of moral dictatorship, the more especially whenone learns that Mr. Hays' subordinate is a devout adherent of one of the narrowest of creeds. The idea thata hundred million Americans permit a single benightedindividual to determine the moral implications of theirmoving-picture fare is horrifying in its potentialities.Another cause for profound disappointment in connection with the summer's carefully publicized outburstof moral indignation is that, like all indignation, it hasfailed to throw any real light on the problem involved,in this case, that of the principles of censorship. Inarriving at any tenable conclusions in this difficult business, certain important circumstances must be kept inmind.( 1 ) The problem of censorship is not identical withthe problem of the production and distribution of franklyobscene films. Despite the state of confusion in someminds as to what is or is not obscene, the occurrence ofobscene films is so extremely rare that the law may beleft to deal with them as they occur.(2) The studies of the influence of moving pictureson the young, that are being made by means of the PayneFund, have already demonstrated that the movies have deep and far-reaching effects upon children and adolescents. One of the studies concludes that "young childrenshow little response to erotic incidents, but an unexpectedly violent response to incidents involving danger. . . .The age of sixteen is usually the age selected by censorsat which it is safe to allow young people to view certain films; but these experiments indicate that sixteen isalso the age at which the reaction to erotic incidents becomes most violent."(3) It must, finally, be borne in mind that the movring-picture audience is made up of radically differenttypes of personalities. Almost any public audience wouldshow itself upon analysis to be composed of normaladults, neurotics, nitwits, adolescents, and children. Thenitwits, although the most numerous, are ethically negligible.To distinguish the proportions of adults, adolescentsand children in the moving-picture audience is a matterof elementary statistics. To distinguish the normaladults from the border-line and abnormal adults wouldinvolve enlisting the services of hundreds of psychiatrists. But, whatever may be the proportion of neuroticsupon whom moving pictures have unfortunate effects,there seems no possible means of avoiding these effectsuntil they result in overt anti-social acts. The contention that adults, whether normal or neurotic, can not betrusted to make free and unhampered decisions as to themoving pictures they wish to see is utterly alien to one'sconvictions of fundamental human decency, one's feelings of self-respect, and his belief in personal liberty.To forbid the snowing of serious representations of human experience, because they affront the obscurantist,the provincial, the prudish, and the medieval celibate, is toimpeach the intelligence of a whole people.The solution of the problem of censorship foradolescents and children is not so easy to come upon.Surely the acceptable solution is not that recommendedby some reformers, namely that all moving-picturesshould be geared down to the emotional level of thechild and adolescent mind. Nor does the British attemptto discriminate between movies for adult and adolescentconsumption commend itself as a working solution, although such a discrimination, if it had a national validity, would be preferable to the current local option inmorals. Such a system, morever, would have the addeddisadvantage of placing upon the proprietors of moving-picture theatres the burden of enforcement and of stimulating the natural curiosity of the adolescent by the wholesale advertisement of forbidden fruit. The responsibility in this matter of censorship for the young must beplaced, one is driven to conclude, squarely where it belongs — not on the producer, the distributor, the proprietor, a board of censorship, or the local chief ofpolice. The responsibility belongs, obviously, not tochurch, state, or the police force, but to the parents ofthe adolescent or the child. If American parents havelost the will and the power to discriminate between moving pictures that are fit and unfit for their young, thenwe are ready for a communistic state in which the youngwill be severed from their careless or unintelligent parents and conditioned by the state to its own inhumanstandards of political and sexual behavior.INAThe Mountain Comes!GERTRUDE STEIN is comingto campus! This simple statement has caused more discussion andthe creation of more eager anticipation than this campus has experiencedsince the visit of Albert Einstein.Gertrude Stein, the magic genius, theunknown genius, the secluded butmuch written about genius, GertrudeStein, the American girl, returns tovisit her country for the first time irialmost thirty years. Gertrude Steinreturns to visit the scenes of herchildhood, her young womanhood, tovisit Baltimore, Johns Hopkins, sceneof her pre-med days, but primarily tomeet and know a new generation.This colossal giant of a woman,stuffed with ego and surrounded byrumors, malicious and otherwise,comes to show herself. This womanwho has had the affront to call herself one of the three living geniusescomes unconsciously to support herclaim to immortality. This is thewoman who "discovered" Matisseand Picasso and Hemingway, thewoman who is an intimate of AlfredWhitehead, who has had almost allof her writing either damned as incoherent trash or praised as work ofthe highest order of genius experimenting. This is Stein.The popular conception of Gertrude Stein is an interesting reflection on the average modern mind.We are all acquainted with her startling excerpts from her books. Thenewspapers, Vanity Fair, Time, andGertrude herself have furnished uswith these, and most of us are agreedthat Gertrude Stein is either a geniusor a fakir, and, further than that,most of us secretly cherish the possibility of the latter alternative.An entire philosophy, sound in appearance, has been built up to support either notion. On the one side,there are her accomplishments asidefrom her writing, and her admirers,and our knowledge of her personalattributes, especially in her youngerday, — all of these lead us to shout,"genius." On the other hand wehave the amazing unintelligibility ofher writings— this unintelligibilitybrought about, it is readily admitted,in great part by the fact that thereader is totally uninformed as tojust what Gertrude Stein is attempt- MOODing. James Joyce has fared better inthis respect.It is hard to conceive of a womanof Gertrude Stein's unquestioned intellect stooping to a hoax such as shehas been accused of. But FrederickCook, claimant to N.P. honors, perpetrated hoax after hoax in the nature of supposed exploration and discovery and today grave shadows ofdoubt^ are flickering about Peary'slong-since accepted data attesting tohis discovery of the Pole.Perhaps, only perhaps, Gertrude isfooling the people. It takes a smartwoman to do as thorough a job. Sonow that this woman has desertedher secluded rooms near Luxemborgwith her myriads of Picassos staringdown menacingly from the walls andher doors ever open to even the mostcasual acquaintance, we must rejoicein the opportunity at least of meeting her— if we were to do no morethan see her — that would be somereward for the doubt we have entertained.The opportunity to see and hearthis famous person is being providedby ^ the Student Lecture Service,which has arranged for Miss Steinto speak at Mandel Flail, November27th, at 8:30 o'clock. Seats, pricedfrom fifty-five cents to one dollarand ten cents, including tax, are available at the Box Office, Mandel Hall.Charles Tyroler, '35.Edna St. Vincent MillayWill Read Her PoemsAT MANDEL HALLNovember 12As the William VaughnMoody LecturerSomething to Sins WithWITH the football team providing such good reason for cheerin the hearts of alumni, it is verytimely that a new University of Chicago Song Book should come outright now. It contains all the oldfavorite football songs, Blackfriarditties, and some of the traditionalballads of the old days, whose wordsone can't wholly remember.The University Press has gotten26 the book up very attractively andoffers it at $2.15, postpaid.It is interesting to note that amongthe authors and composers who findimmortality here, is one DonaldRichberg, mentioned elsewhere inthese pages as journalist and novelist.He proves to be author of the wordsand occasionally composer of thetunes for the following: Flag ofMaroon; For Chicago, Alma Mater;Song of the "C," Chicago CheerSong and Maroon.The book is dedicated to PresidentRobert M. Hutchins by the Undergraduate Council, the publishers.Which calls to mind, through deviousmental channels, a clipping preservedin the Alumni Office archives for anumber of years against the day whenthere might be some good excuse forsharing it with Magazine readers.From the Oberlin Alumni Magazine of June, 1929, under the heading "Bob Hutchins Becomes President of Chicago" : "Bob Hutchinswas brought up as a boy in Oberlin,graduating from the academy in1914 and entering the college classof 1919 . . . Recognition of Bob'sability is evident from the quotationwhich occurs alongside his picture inthe Etean, academy yearbook of1915. 'Here was Caesar. Whencomes there another?' Elsewhere inthis book his popularity is shown bythe following:" 'Mr. Robert M. Hutchins, president of the senior class, stepped up toMr. Robert M. Hutchins, presidentof the athletic association, who waswalking down the hall accompaniedby Mr. Robert M. Hutchins, captainof the debate team, Mr. Robert M.Hutchins, manager of the footballteam, Mr. Robert M. ' Hutchins,manager of the glee club, Mr. RobertM. Hutchins of the men's council andthe tennis team, and Mr. Robert M.Hutchins, the commencement orator."Hello, bunch," remarked the president, "where is Mr. Robert M.Hutchins, the sporting editor of theannual ?" "Hello, president, answered the captain and manager andtheir friends, "he's over at the SecondChurch choir practice," "Muchobliged, fellows," returned the president, "I just wanted to see him amoment about writing up the classbasketball for the last two years whenBob Hutchins has been captain ofthe team.' "NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES• By JOHN P. HOWE, "27MOST pleasant in the University news for thepleasant month of October, 1934, is that whichappears in Mr. Morgenstern's department ofthe Magazine — the account of the to-date glorious doingsof Jay Berwanger and his fellow Maroon footballers.The reaction of the campus-in-general is not one of wildexcitement. It seems rather to be a feeling of satisfaction that Chicago once more has a team with dash andcolor, capable of winning its due share of victories.The Registrar's report on enrollment at the end ofthe second week of the Fall Quarter has also been apleasant phenomenon. Enrollment for classes on theMidway campus is up 9 per cent, as compared with thesame date last year. There are on the campus and atRush Medical College 5,893 students, 488 more than lastyear. Of this number 3,635 are men and 2,258 arewomen. The rough classification by status shows 3,110to be undergraduates; 2,680 graduate students, or professional students who already hold the bachelor's degree; 68 special students and 35 in the new classificationof "student-at-large." Noteworthy gains are in the College Division, which is 120 above last year, and in theprofessional schools, which are up by a total of 302.Enrollment in the University College downtown is2,195. This brings the total University enrollment forclass work to 8,088; this figure does not include registration for Home Study courses. The University College enrollment is 236 below that of last year. The decrease here is explained by the fact that last year thedowntown enrollment was abnormally high, due to theenrollment of nearly 500 lawyers for a special course inthe then new Illinois Civil Practice Act. With campusand downtown enrollment combined the percentage ofincrease is 3.2.The entering freshman group is somewhat largerthan that of last year; but more interesting than theirnumbers is their intelligence. Of the 760 freshmen onein every five ranked among the top four individuals inthe scholarship ratings of his high school graduatingclass. There are in the class 55 valedictorians, 37 salu-tatorians and 30 who ranked third. The performanceof the new freshmen in the scholastic aptitude test administered by the American Council on Education seemsto indicate that as a group they have more promise ofscholarly attainment than any freshman class since thetest was developed. Professor L. L. Thurstone, head ofthe University's Board of Examiners, is the author ofthe aptitude examination, which is now used in morethan 200 colleges and universities throughout the country. The examination has repeatedly been proved tohave an extremely high correlation with grades later-made in college work. In the nine years since the testhas been used generally, the median for the freshmanclass at the University of Chicago has consistently beenamong the highest several in the country — though it istrue that a good many of the better known institutions do not use the examination. Last year's freshmen atthe University had a median score of 218. This year'sgroup have a median score of 232.Forty-six of the entering freshmen are children ofUniversity of Chicago alumni. Among this group isBeatrice Washburne, who is the sixteenth member ofher family to matriculate at the Midway. She is thedaughter of Mr. and Mrs. Carleton Washburne, bothof whom are alumni. Mr. Washburne is superintendent of the progressive Winnetka, 111., school system.Relatives of Miss Washburne who have attended theUniversity are, in addition to her parents, two grand-aunts and two grand-uncles ; four children of the latter ;two uncles and one aunt; and a sister and a brother-in-law. Robert Cusack, another freshman, is the seventhof a group of brothers and sisters to enter the University. His oldest brother, James Cusack, '27, is nowAlderman of the 5th Ward, of which the Universitycommunity is part. Next spring the University expectsto have its first third-generation student, as of the newUniversity, in the person of Miss Betty Thomas, whosefather is Dr. William A. Thomas, Ph.B. '12, M.D. '16,and whose grandfather is Professor W. I. Thomas, sociologist, who received the University's first Doctor ofPhilosophy degree.The youngest freshmen are several 15 year olds;the oldest is 42 and a British war veteran. The freshman whose home is farthest from the Midway is aChinese student from Java, who stopped in Chicago onhis round-the-world wedding trip and decided to enroll.His closest rival for distance in the class is an Iraqyouth from Baghdad. Another freshman, Eugene Res-sencourt, has just returned from a four year jauntaround the world, on which he started with capital assetsof a few dollars, and during which he had the customaryexperience of being captured by Chinese bandits, as wellas many unusual experiences. Others are Robert Em-mett, a descendant of the Irish martyr ; and Miss Shaindel Kalish, who created something of a sensation locallythrough her performance in the Chicago production ofMaedchen in Uniform. Two daughters of well-knownMaroon athletes of other days are in the class — DorisDavenport, daughter of Ira Davenport, and FrancesElizabeth Bezdek, daughter of Hugo Bezdek. AnotherWalter Eckersall, a nephew of the famous star of some30 years ago, is a freshman.The rise in the scholastic aptitude level of the freshman class is probably explained partly by the fact theUniversity has awarded more full or partial scholarshipsto high school graduates than ever before, and was ableto choose the most promising from a large number ofoutstanding applicants who could not have matriculatedwithout some aid. The increase in scholarship awardswas made possible by gifts for the purpose totalling morethan $20,000 which came as the result of a campaignthis spring. The rise is also explained by the growing2728 THE UNIVERSITY OFappeal of the New Plan to exceptional students. Thatthe entering freshmen are a well-rounded lot is attestedby the fact that the great majority of them have participated in the extra-curriculum activities of their highschools.Thirty-five students enrolled on the campus thisautumn as "students-at-large," the new classification forthose who are interested in and can profit from instruction in special subjects and who are not interested primarily in degrees, and nearly 200 more registered in thisclassification at University College downtown. A number of interesting people are included in the "at-large"group. Among those on the campus is Mr. F. L. Morse,who retired in June from the principalship of a largeChicago high school, at age 70, and is now studyingunder Professors Merriam and Cole.Keith Parsons, a personable young man who wonthe highest kind of honors — scholarly and athletic — asan undergraduate, has been appointed to take charge ofthe work with prospective students which was formerlydone by Kenneth Rouse. Rouse resigned this spring tobecome Director of Public Services of the new town ofNorris, Tenn. Parsons has completed two years in theUniversity's Law School.Among several new members of the Universityfaculty who began their service to the University thisquarter is Miss Grace Abbott, who is acknowledged oneof the outstanding American women of the generation.Miss Abbott's appointment was reported in the Midsummer issue of the Magazine. For the past fourteen yearsshe has been chief of the Children's Bureau in Washington. Her post at the University is that of Professor ofPublic Welfare Administration in the School of SocialService Administration and editor of "The Social Service Review" published by the University. The University's social service school has had a remarkable growthin the past several years.With the appointment of Miss Nellie Hawkinsonas professor of nursing education, which was announcedlast month, the University is initiating the program inadvanced training for nurses which has been contemplated since 1926, when the Illinois Nurses TrainingSchool, a private institution with a long and distinguishedrecord, turned its assets over to the University. Financialconditions and the large surplus of nurses since the depression have delayed development of the training plan,although graduate courses have been given each summer. Miss Hawkinson is now planning with the assistance of a special committee, sequences for teachers ofYerkes Observatory, for many years the workshop of Dr. Edwin B. Frost. CHICAGO MAGAZINEnursing, supervisors, and administrative officers inschools of nursing, as the first part of the new program.The first courses will be offered in the winter quarter,according to present plans. Miss Hawkinson is a graduate of the Framingham Hospital Training School forNurses, and received a master's degree at Columbia University. She was formerly professor of nursing education and dean of the Western Reserve School ofNursing.Other additions to the staff at the higher levelsare Richard McKeon, from Columbia University, asVisiting Professor in the Department of History, teaching courses entitled "The Intellectual History of Western Europe" and "The Discipline of History" ; Dr. Rudolph Schindler, of Munich, as Visiting Professor inthe Department of Medicine; and Dr. Max Cohn, asVisiting Professor of Roentgenology. Two new department heads have been installed since June — Dr. GeorgeW. Bartelmez in the department of anatomy and Dr.Carl R. Moore in the department of zoology.Dr. Arthur C. Bachmeyer, nationally known hospital executive, has been appointed Director of the University Clinics, to succeed Dr. Henry S. Houghton, whohas resigned to return to China as advisory representative of the China Medical Board, which owns and operates the Peiping Union Medical College. Dr. Houghton'sresignation and the appointment of Dr. Bachmeyer become effective Jan. 1st. The new Clinics director hasbeen Dean of the College of Medicine of the Universityof Cincinnati for the last ten years. A past presidentof the American Hospital Association, he is widelyknown for his success in directing four of Cincinnati'sleading hospitals. Dr. Houghton's comparatively briefcareer at Chicago was one of high success, and his newpost is one of considerable importance for the futureof medicine in China.Economies in the StratosphereOn August 29th, shortly before he left for Oxfordto spend six months there as Eastman Visiting Professor, Dr. Arthur H. Compton supervised a rather dramatic experiment on the University campus. A successful stratosphere exploration, starting from the roof ofRyerson laboratory, was made with equipment costinglittle more than $100. Largely through the ingenuity ofDr. J. M. Benade, of the University of Lahore, India,who worked with Dr. Compton at the Midway duringthe past year, a delicate and complex bit of apparatuswas developed which records the incidence of cosmicrays, the barometric pressure and the temperature, andradios these records continuously by short-wave transmitter to observers on the ground. Gondola and equipment weigh about 10 pounds; the balloon necessary tocarry the mechanism aloft is only 15 feet in diameterexpanded. For most purposes, the scheme completelyobviates the enormous expense and the danger to life ofa human ascent. It is a notable improvement over ordinary instrument balloons in th«*i finding the instrumentsafter their drop is of little importance, since the datasought is recorded in the laboratory automatically during the flight. The test flight on August 29th, whichwas intended chiefly to determine the feasibility of theTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 29radio transmission, was a complete success. The balloon rose approximately\7y2 miles. It is hoped that a numberof flights can be made in the near future, in this country and in various partsof the world. The instrument balloonis invaluable at remote places where ahuman flight is out of the question. Oneplace regarded as crucial in cosmic raytests, for example, is the north magnetic pole.During the past year Dr. Comptonhas also supervised the building of anumber of large, extremely sensitivecosmic ray meters, which are to beset up at various mountain stations for aperiod of years. These instrumentsweigh more than a ton, and are self-recording, save that they will need battery service occasionally. Several of the units will beoperated for as long as eleven years, according to theplan, to determine whether there is a relation betweencosmic rays and sun-spot cycles.Interesting in this connection is the fact that Mrs.Jeanette Piccard, who made a stratosphere flight onOctober 23rd with her husband, Dr. Jean Piccard, is analumna of the University. Dr. Piccard himself was amember of the chemistry staff for several years and hasdone some laboratory work at the Midway during thepast year. And while we are on the theme of scientificdaring, let it be recorded that Dr. Thomas Poulter, amember of the Byrd Antarctic expedition, and leaderof the rescue party which went to Admiral Byrd's aidafter the latter's long vigil, received the Ph.D. degree atthe University of Chicago two years ago.Reading PeriodsA major experiment in instructional practice hasbeen undertaken this autumn by the Division of SocialSciences. The University Senate last year approved aproposal permitting the various divisions to adopt the"reading period" plan, which has long been practicedin England and is now being tried in several Americaninstitutions. The "reading period" involves a cessationof formal classroom sessions during several weeks latein the quarter, during which the student does independent study and reading. The usefulness of this planvaries with subjects and with instructional techniques,and its best application seems to be in the lecture course.The Social Sciences Division is the first to adopt theproposal. Formal lectures in the various courses of thisdivision will be limited to the first six weeks of thequarter. The next three weeks will comprise the "reading period." Though the objective is to give time for,and to encourage, independent study, the instructor mayat his discretion arrange for individual conferences, andassign projects and papers. In the last two to threeweeks of the quarter class sessions are resumed for discussions and quizzes. It is felt not only that this innovation is consonant with New- Plan philosophy, which encourages student initiative and responsibility, but also that it will give faculty members somewhat more time for research. Theheavier individual teaching load of thepast two years has cut into the researchtime of the faculty.Lincoln PortraitPurchase of the famous "Butler"portrait of Abraham Lincoln for theUniversity of Chicago's Lincoln collection has recently been arranged. Ananonymous friend of the University hasunderwritten the $5,000 purchase price,in the belief that the portrait shouldremain in Illinois, and in the hope thata donor or donors may be found.Arthur H. Compton The painting, an original oil portrait by George Frederick Wright, madeduring the period between Lincoln's first election to thePresidency and his inauguration, was Lincoln's favoriteportrait of himself. During the summer it has hungin the Illinois Host House at a Century of Progress, aspart of the Lincoln exhibit arranged by Llewellyn Raney,University librarian. It was most recently the propertyof the estate of the late Edward W. Payne, Springfieldbanker.Lincoln was too busy to give individual sittings tothe great number of painters who flocked to Springfieldafter his election, according to Mr. Raney. He gavejoint sittings to the entire group, and at the end calledin his friends, who unanimously chose the Wright portrait as the best. Lincoln then purchased it and presentedit to his old friend, William Butler, with whom he livedin Springfield for five years preceding his marriage in1842. Butler left it to his daughter, and she, in turn,to a nephew, who disposed of it to Mr. Payne.The portrait is a striking addition to the distinguished collection of Lincolniana which the Universityhas recently acquired. With the acquisition of the Barton, Hannah and Oldroyd collections, the Universitylast year became a chief center for Lincoln study.Though these collections contain several hundred photographs, portraits, sketches, cartoons and busts, in addition to hundreds of manuscripts and several thousandvolumes, the Butler portrait is regarded as a key piece.Mr. Raney has virtually completed plans for a permanent Lincoln exhibit in a special room of Harper Library.Dr. Frost at the Chapel"I am unable to escape the conviction that a supremeReason prescribes the laws of the universe," Dr. EdwinB. Frost, famous blind astronomer of the University ofChicago, told the congregation in his sermon at the firstSunday service of the autumn quarter in the UniversityChapel. Dr. Frost, who retired as director of the YerkesObservatory in 1932, after 34 years of service there,urged the study of the heavens as an aid to a higherspiritual outlook."Simple observation of the heavens without a tele-30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEscope at least twice a year might well be a rite of religious, educational and philanthropic organizations,"Dr. Frost said."Deductions from scientific researches since Copernicus prove that the universe is one of law and order.The latest great undertaking in astronomy is the demonstration now well in progress that our whole galaxy isin rotation, thus conforming to the established fact ofthe rotation of several similar external galaxies, orspirals. When this great research is concluded it willundoubtedly show order in what previously could appear only as a random motion of the stars."Since no automatic method of the evolution oflaw by inert matter or vibrant energy has been discoverable, I am unable to escape the conviction that a supremeReason prescribes these laws."I present the paradox that the study of the external, material universe gives us a higher spiritual conception of the supreme Mind behind and throughout theuniverse."The vastness of the Cosmos should not dwarf ourview of man's function. He is a part of it, chemicallyand physically."Man alone must work out his own physical salvation. He can pride himself on his status as a full citizenof the universe with all that this implies. Such a view istheistic. It has not touched a code of morals, but themodern research in oriental history shows the development of codes of morals through man's own effortsthousands of years before the development of the Hebrew nation and of their scriptures."Finally, for the troubled modern world in thefield of social justice and human morals, no statementcan surpass the simple words of the golden rule."Miss Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor, is to bethe Chapel speaker on Sunday, November 18th. TheChapel services are broadcast by station WGN.NotedAs this is written there is much rumor to the effect that President Hutchins will be given leave of absenceuntil next July 1st to accept a high administrative postin the government at Washington. * * The Universitycontinues to be a popular center for conventions oflearned and professional groups. During October alonethe following groups met on the campus : the Civil Service Assembly (with Professor Leonard White, nowUnited States Civil Service Commissioner as one ofthe speakers) ; the Midwest Conference on IndustrialRelations; the National Municipal League; and the Association of American Universities. * * Ruth BryanOwen, American Ambassador to Denmark, was the firstlecturer brought to the campus by the Student LectureService. * * Gertrude Stein will be the second, at Man-del hall the evening of November 27th. * * Edna St.Vincent Millay is the first lecturer of the autumn quarterunder the auspices of the Moody Foundation, November12th at Mandel hall. * * T. V. Smith, Professor ofPhilosophy, seems to have a good chance of being electedState Senator from the Fifth District in the Novemberelections. * * Special recognition in the form of a certificate will be given by the University for the first timenext June to candidates for master's degrees who arethoroughly prepared to teach. * * The world premiereof Edgar Lee Masters' first full length play, "AndrewJackson," will be presented by the University DramaticAssociation at the Reynolds Club theater December 6,7 and 8. * * Among new books by faculty members arethe following: "Education and Social Progress" byCharles Hubbard Judd ; "Makers of Christianity— FromJesus to Charlemagne" by Shirley J. Case; "BeyondConscience," by T. V. Smith; and "From Galileo toCosmic Rays" by Harvey B. Lemon. * * Forthcomingis a 720 page volume detailing results of the specialChicago census of 1934, conducted with CWA fundsunder the direction of University sociologists. * * Dr.George Alan Works, Dean of Students, left for Germany in October to make a study of the German educational system. * * The autumn opening of the Universitymarked the beginning of the University's 43rd year, thesixth under the leadership of President Hutchins.The Big Drum, Chaperoned by the Band Clown.ATHLETICSScores of the MonthFootballChicago, 19; Carroll, 0Chicago, 27; Michigan, 0 *Chicago, 21 ; Indiana, 0There they are — and not a typographical error inthe list! The amazing tidings that Chicago has a football team which has won three straight games, includingtwo Big Ten championship contests, surely must havepenetrated to the farthest limits of this catholic publication's circulation long before this. For that performanceis news. In three games this Maroon team has scored67 points, and if its last game of 1933, with Dartmouth,be included, has scored 106 points to nothing for itsopponents. Not since 1927 has Chicago won two Conference games in a season. Certainly the last skeptic *must be convinced that this New Plan of education reallyworks.For one who has chronicled faithfully the past sevenyears of Chicago football for the information of Mr.Beck's clientele, there is something unreal about thewhole business. More used to devising an explanationfor adversity, he has no vocabulary for such a suddenrush of prosperity. He has the uneasy feeling that thisMaroon team is doing well in the same sense as the guywho fell out of the fifty-ninth story of a skyscraper andwas still cheerful as he passed the tenth floor. This sortof thing can't go on for long. But try to tell that to theoptimists who stand around watching practice or crowdthe alumni section of the north stands. They've won thechampionship already and are trying to decide who Chicago's opponent in the Tournament of Roses will be.In some ways the old times were best ; at least, the strainwasn't so great.Accepting as a basis for discussion the fact thatChicago has won three games so far, and omitting allquestions of the Maroon greatness, there are some reasonable explanations for the record to date. One is thefact that no Chicago team in modern times has everbeen so little touched by ineligibility. All the dubiouscases turned out satisfactorily; the last addition to thesquad was the potentially valuable Ralph Balfanz, theend, who triumphed over the last comprehensive in lateSeptember. If the conference hadn't ruled out Bob-Deem and John Rice, the sturdy tackles, the team wouldhave been practically unscathed by losses except thoseof graduation. The result is a very fine group of physical specimens, none of whom are lacking in intelligenceon or off the football field. In fact, if your correspondent didn't have a working agreement with ClarkShaughnessy that it wasn't so, he would say that thisis by far the best looking squad he has ever seen atChicago, and his recollection goes back to 1916. Theboys on the squad are youthful, but apparently what theylack in maturity they make up in enthusiasm. Some ofthem are rather raw football players, but practically all • By WILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN, "20, JD '22of them are trying. Next year, more seasoned than theyare now, they may form no better football team becausesome of the zest may not be there. Add the fact thatMr. Shaughnessy knows this season what he is upagainst, in the way of his opponents' tactics — a knowledgehe didn't have last year — and that he has two smartyoung men in Otto Strohmeier and Marchmont Schwartznot only to help him coach but to scout, who weren'taround last year, and logic becomes more convincing.All that is helpful, but the most potent reason thatcan be produced is none other than Jay Berwanger. $Here is one of the greatest backs Chicago has ever had.If there is as good a football player in the United Statestoday, you can't convince Big Ten of his existence.Berwanger was just on the edge of greatness last year,and he really found himself in the Dartmouth game.The tenseness that handicapped him last year and prevented him from being the devastating terror that he istoday has gone; now he plays naturally and easily. Heaveraged practically 4 yards on each of 21 plays fromscrimmage against Michigan; he punted for an averageof 39.6 yards, placing his kicks as if he were shootingwith a rifle. His punting was even greater against Indiana; high, floating kicks that averaged 42 yards, despite the fact that on several occasions he was so closein that he aimed for the Indiana 5-yard line, and thathe had one kick blocked. Throw out that punt, on whichhe tried to get rid of a fumbled ball, and his average was45.2 yards. With kicking such as that, it is no wonderthat Michigan and Indiana were in the hole most of thetime. Against Indiana his plays from scrimmage averaged 4.6 yards. He topped that performance with a 97-yard touchdown run on a kickoff, just after he hadthrown a perfect 27-yard pass to Baker for a touchdown.Berwanger has ferocious power in the open field — anytackier who gets in the way of his slashing knees isthrough for the day — and he is just as deadly on defense.Mr. Berwanger is not the Chicago team, but he isa large part of it on any Saturday afternoon. The lineupthat Coach Shaughnessy started in the two conferencegames so far used John Baker and Gordon Peterson atends; Clarence Wright and Merritt Bush at tackles;Sam Whiteside and Prescott Jordan, guards ; Capt. EllPatterson, center; Tommy Flinn, quarter; Berwanger,left half; Rainwater Wells, right half, and EwaldNyquist, fullback. But there are men on the bench whocan go in the game and do just as well as those whostart. Ned Bartlett, a sophomore from Glendale, California, who hasn't Berwanger's ruggedness, but who iseven faster on the start, and who can pass and kick almost as well as the team's big star, is a first class halfback. Bartlett was dropped into the Michigan game andon his first play threw a 20-yard pass to Baker that leftthe ball a yard from a touchdown. Berwanger replacedhim and drove the ball over then. When Bartlett cameback in the fourth quarter he went 60 yards to a touch-3132 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEdown on three plays, although a bad pass went ten yardsbeyond him on one of the three runs. A little later hepicked his way 20 yards to another score. Bartlett andBerwanger also are used together, one making the othermore effective, because the defense can not center itsefforts.There is not space to go into detail about the meritsof all forty-seven men on the squad. That number, incidentally, is the largest in many a day. Forty-one men,by the best count available, were used against Indiana.Not all the forty-seven are great football players, butthere isn't anyone on the list who hasn't some possibilities. Even some of the less effective would have beenmost useful a couple of seasons back. Here is the list,in the positions in which they are used at present : Ends— Baker, Barton Peterson, Langley, Balfanz, Gillerlain,LeFevre, Cutter. Tackles — Bush, Wright, Whittier,Womer, Marynowski, Sappington, Hoop. Guards — Jordan, Whiteside, Perretz, Wolfenson, Meigs, Scruby,Kendall, Pokela, Lindahl, Thompson. Centers — Patterson, Gordon Peterson, Jones, Kelley. Quarterbacks —Flinn, Cullen, Runyan, Lang. Halfbacks — Berwanger,Bartlett, Wells, Skoning, Whitney, Hatter, Nacey, Ship-way, Channon, Webster. Fullbacks — Nyquist, Schuess-ler, Smith, Bosworth, Kellogg.It is difficult to sort many of these men into topand second flight at present, for some of them are developing rapidly. Gillerlain and LeFevre are certainlygood prospects ; all of the tackles can be used, althoughBush and Wright so far stand out; Jordan and Whiteside are the best guards, with Meigs close and the otherspractically on a level as between themselves. Several ofthe backs, Skoning, Hatter, Schuessler, Runyan, Smith,and Shipway, are giving some of the starters a fight.Much of the experimentation of the early season hasbeen abandoned, as the eligibility situation worked outand the players developed. Two who were tried at endare back in their regular positions, Bob Perretz, at running guard, and Gordon Peterson at center. Womer hasbeen moved from end to tackle. Whiteside has beenshifted from tackle to guard, and is also getting experience at center, the position at which he won all-statehonors at Evanston. Wells was used at halfback andend against Indiana, and did very well at both positions.All this, on top of those scores, sounds most opti mistic. But there are still some questions about thisteam that are unanswered. One is about the line; theother is about the forward pass defense. Chicago so farhas been an offensive team; Berwanger and Bartlettruined Michigan on individual play; Berwanger was thenotable difference between the teams in the Indianagame. It looks foolish to question the defensive abilityof a team that hasn't been scored upon in its last fourgames. But Michigan was a sluggish, slow team, whichwent to pieces in the second half in a fashion amazingto those who have seen Michigan teams of other years,including last. It didn't have a passer to point up itsattack, and Berwanger and Bartlett beat Regeczi at thepunting game. In fact, Chicago's differential in puntingon its 18 kicks over Michigan's 12 was 209 yards. Onrunning plays, Chicago made 11 first downs to Michigan's 8; made one on passes and one on penalties, toMichigan's none. But Berwanger and Bartlett madetheir gains count for touchdowns, the while their kicking was keeping Michigan in its own territory. Chicagohad a much bigger advantage over Indiana in groundgaining, with 201 yards from scrimmage to 33, and ithad some 250 yards differential in the punting. But itwas Berwanger who spelled the big difference here, particularly in the first half, when the Chicago line wasn'tnoticeably better than Indiana's.Chicago has yet to meet a team with a first classline. It has yet to meet a team with a first class passingattack. It will start right in doing so when it faces Purdue, and continue, so far as can be determined now, withOhio State, Minnesota, and Illinois. If its line doesn'tcharge in fast, Purdue will score; if the line doesn'tblock well, even Berwanger will find the going veryrough. The Ohio State and Minnesota games will beplayed away from home; probably the Minnesota gamewill be played under adverse weather conditions. ThisChicago team is green; what it will do under the veryreal handicap of a strange field is yet to be determined.In man power, Ohio State at least is the equal of Chicago; Minnesota on any reasonable estimate, is muchstronger. And so your correspondent turns dour again.This Chicago team has played good football, and it willcontinue to play good football, but it is too much toexpect it to roll on triumphantly as it has been doing.Shaughnessy and the Boys.NEWS OF THE CLASSESCOLLEGE1897Maudie L. Stone, SM, '03 (Mrs.L. S. Chapman), plans to winterin California. She writes that sheand Mr. Chapman thoroughly enjoyed a visit with Dean Gilkey lastsummer, when he preached in Syracuse.Waldo P. Breeden is practicinglaw in Pittsburgh. His daughter,Juanita, will probably be a member ofthe Class of 1939.Leila G. Fish (Mrs. Hervey Mal-lory) writes that she enjoyed thesummer at Grand Beach, on theshores of Lake Michigan, in the congenial company of Chicago neighbors.The Slaughts and Arnetts have homesadjacent.1901Donald R. Richberg, "key manof the NRA," is known for such avariety of talents as to merit thetitle of the "Renaissance man" aswell. His novel, "A Man of Purpose" is on the Crowell Company'slist for fall release in a second edition and new format. No, Mr.Richberg has been too busy the lastyear or so to write a novel ; this workwas in print before.1902G. M. W. Teyen is a librarian inthe Milwaukee Public Museum.1904Orville E. Atwood is republicannominee for secretary of state forMichigan.Agnes R. Wayman, head of thedepartment of physical education atBarnard College, Columbia University, and vice president of the American Physical Education Association,reports that the third edition of herbook, "Education Through PhysicalEducation," has just been published.Margaret McCoy is teaching atLindblom High School.George Fahr is professor of medicine at the University of Minnesota.1905Paul A. Walker of OklahomaCity is a member of the seven-manboard at the head of the FederalCommunications Commission, appointed by President Roosevelt for afive year term. Mr. Walker aftertaking a law degree at the University of Oklahoma, practiced in OklahomaCity, where he became interested inpolitics. From 1915 to 1930, he wasattorney for the Oklahoma Cooperative Commission. In 1931 he waselected a member of the State Commission and later became its chairman. He has represented the Commission on frequent occasions beforethe Interstate Commerce Commissionin Washington, to the great advantageof his state.Lucy Spicer is registrar for Western State Teachers College, Gunnison, Colo.Alice Seton Thompson (Mrs. H.A. Berens) is president of the Public Library Board at Elmhurst, 111.Mr. Berens, '06, teacher at AustinHigh School, Chicago, is much interested in the work of the Door CountyHistorical Association, and was responsible for the issuing of the Wisconsin Tercentennary three centstamp last summer by the Post OfficeDepartment. The stamp commemorates the landing of Jean Nicolet onthe shores of Green Bay in 1634.The Berens have three children; theoldest son, Alfred, enters Beloit thisfall.1906Edward H. Ahrens is the president of Ahrens Publishing Co., Inc.,the largest publisher of hotel and restaurant magazines. He was the pioneer in this field of journalism, starting with Hotel Management , a mostsuccessful business magazine. Thiswas followed by Restaurant Management, which covered the restaurantbusiness with equal success. Mr.Ahrens lives in Bronxville, N. Y.,where his wife and his son, Peter,share his enthusiasm for horsebackriding as the ideal sport for publishers and editors.George D. Buckley has beenmade assistant to James Moffett,housing administrator, at Washington. The newspaper publishing codewas under Buckley's direction, untilhe accepted this new appointment.1907Harry B. Anderson, U. S. Judgein Memphis, Tenn., made an interesting decision regarding the pricefixing features of the national lumbercode, one which may affect the codesof other major industries, when heissued the following statement : "Anyprice fixing is the antithesis of competition, fair or otherwise — and there is nothing in the national recoveryact to show that such was the intention of Congress."Mabel W. Porter is doing research work for the State of NewJersey ; she lives in Newark.Faith Hunter Dodge has beenvisiting in Chile, attending the Pan-American Educational Conference atSantiago. She writes that "it hasbeen a notable success in Latin America and took on far greater importance than it was probably expectedto attain in the United States. Thesocial activities in connection with ithave been endless but carefullyplanned and beautifully carried out.I feel that I have put in five months'work sightseeing of schools in cityand country, making new acquaintances, in two weeks." Miss Dodgeis a noted teacher of Spanish in Chicago.Clark C. Steinbeck is business-secretary of the mission station andcomptroller of Douw Hospital, atPeiping, China. He is also a member of the executive committee andsecretary of the provincial Presbyterian mission organization.1908Elsie Schobinger, AM, '17, spentthe summer in Estes Park, Colo.Mrs. Katherine E. Forster Roberts, AM, '11, is principal of Hos-mer Hall School for Girls at St.Louis.Mr. and Mrs. James H. Greene(Flora Jones, '08), formerly ofSouth Bend, are now located in Pittsburgh. Mr. Greene is with the Retail Merchants Association ; home address, 5470 Fair Oaks St.Vesta Jameson is head of themathematics department in one of theMilwaukee high schools.1909Kate Knowles sends a word ofappreciation to Miss Elizabeth Wallace, who was head of Beecher Hallwhile she was in residence, and expresses the hope that Magazine readers may enjoy further contributionsfrom Miss Wallace. Miss Knowles isliving at Kansas City, and enjoyedattending the Social Workers' Conference meetings last summer, whereshe met many alumni and old teachers.1910S. J. Wolferson reports that hehas completely recovered from a f rac-3334 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtured spine which he acquired in anautomobile accident a year ago. Heis back at work again at his hometown, Ft. Smith, Ark.C. D. Donaldson teaches psychology and education at the State College at Eau Claire, Wis., and coachesdebating in his spare time.1912Winifred Winne, SM, '15 (Mrs.R. A. Conkling), reported during thesummer that Oklahoma City, whereshe is living, approximated Hades dueto the heat and drouth.Ralph J. Rosenthal is now withNeisser and Meyerhoff, Inc., at 400N. Michigan, Chicago.1914Howell W. Murray, vice president of A. G. Becker and Co., presided as chairman at the ninety-thirdannual convention of Chi Psi, thisSeptember.Lillian A. Wells is visiting inEngland this fall.E. H. Lunde is selling screw cutting tools for the Federal MachinerySales Co. He reports that businessis much better under the new deal.1916Merlin M. Paine is executive director of State Emergency ReliefArea No. 3, at Stroudsburg, Pa.1917Cora A. Anthony is director ofthe experimental kitchen at the NewYork headquarters of the Atlanticand Pacific Tea Company.Rose Nath (Mrs. A. L. Desser)writes from Los Angeles, "I musttell you how very splendid the Alumni Magazine has become the last year.I read it eagerly and show it proudlyto my friends. The University isachieving great things." Thank you,ma'am !Donald Bradford is assistant tothe manager of the Boston Store,Chicago.1918Julia M. Ricketts (Mrs. JasperKing) presides over the Cook CountyLeague of Women Voters.Ida L. Wisher (Mrs. Oberbeck)and her husband enjoyed a brief visitto the quadrangles this summer. Shewrites that "the many additions ofnew buildings changed the old AlmaMater for one even as recent as 1918,and one could hardly call that remote." The Oberbecks especially enjoyed visiting International House,because their son and daughter havebeen staying at the House in Berkeley, Calif. 1919Neeta G. Boshell expects to beon the quadrangles for graduate workthis winter.1920Helen Gertrude Thompson iseditor of Arts and Decoration, andis living in New York City.Genieve Lamson, SM, '22, teachesgeography at Vassar College, where she is also head resident in a dormitory. This summer she traveled inEurope, visiting Italy, Jugoslavia,Czechoslovakia, and the InternationalCongress of Geography at Warsaw,Poland. An interesting aftermath ofher travels was the experience ofreading a paper on a Polish community, in a Vermont agricultural andquarry town.Florence T. Lewis is head of theAlumni MeetingsDe Kalb, IIIOctober 18: Under the skillfulguidance of Mrs. Franklin D.Elmer, Jr., (Margaret Nelson, '27)the De Kalb Alumni were assembled for a record breakingmeeting at the First BaptistChurch. Over a hundred of thefaithful dined together, with PercyHolmes Boynton, Professor ofEnglish, as the guest of honor.After dinner the meeting wasopened to members of theA.A.U.W. and friends, and overthree hundred heard ProfessorBoynton speak on "Literature ofthe Middle West." The speakerreported privately to the AlumniOffice that he was much impressedwith the alumni of De Kalb andthinks they're pretty nice people.We always knew that.Des Moines, Iowa.October 17: Shailer Mathews,having determined to visit DesMoines on business, generouslyoffered to meet the alumni if anycared to be met. That was onSaturday. On the followingWednesday nearly forty gatheredto do him honor and to enjoy hiscomments on the University. Mr.Joseph Brody, '15, JD '15, shouldreceive the credit for the speedywork so successfully accomplished.The moral of this story is that Chicago alumni can do practically anything on a minute's notice.Elkhart, Ind.October 4: Professor Ogburnstarted the alumni season at Elkhart with an address to the alumniand their friends at the Y.W.C.A.Mrs. Charles Boynton took care ofthe arrangements, so it is no surprise to hear that everyone had adelightful time. Professor Douglas is scheduled to speak in Elkhartin November some time at a meeting, which, although not exclusively for the alumni, will give thefaithful another contact with theUniversity.Oak Park, III.November 13 : With the inimitable Far and WideFay Cooper Cole as guest-speaker,the Alumnae Club will hold thefirst of a series of five dinners.Milwaukee, Wis.November 1 : The Milwaukee Clubtraditionally opens the season witha big meeting in connection withthe Wisconsin State Teachers Association Convention. This bringsan unusually large group of alumniin from all over the state andmakes occasion for a gala day.Dean Boucher is scheduled for theposition of guest of honor andspeaker at this luncheon.Racine, Wis.October 29 : A dinner meeting forthe alumni of Racine is beingplanned by Mrs. Clyde S. Simpe-laar (Patti Bloedel, '22) as theMagazine goes to press. GarfieldCox is the speaker.Minneapolis, Minn.November 16: It was not veryhard to persuade James WeberLinn, '97, to travel to Minneapolisfor an alumni meeting the eveningpreceding the Minnesota game. Itis even possible that the occasionmay be too much for J. W. tohandle without the help of the Alumni Secretary, who may feel impelled to go along to give him moralsupport in case of stage fright.Springfield, III.September 21 : Lucy C. Williams,'17, writes that the alumni ofSpringfield held a very pleasantand informal reunion in September,when they heard the report of Mrs.Ralph Dobbins (Lydia Quinlan,'15) on the Alumni Conference oflast June.Washington, D. C.October 21 : The Washingtonbrain trusters are alleged to havegone into session on Sunday nightat one of their famed supper meetings, but no report of the affair hasreached the editorial ear to date.However, the fame of those Washington meetings is very great andwe take it on faith that "all present enjoyed an elegant time."THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 35Home Economics Department of River side-Brookfield High School, Riverside, 111.1921Mary M. Rogers is teaching English at Lindblom High School, Chi-Frank Torell is a printer withthe Illinois Emergency Relief Commission Staff.1923Franklin D. Scott, AM, '25, islecturing on the air in a class-roombroadcast from the Teacher's Collegeat Superior, Wis. His lectures arein history, and attendance "in theclass room" is required for credit.Station WEBC handles the broadcast.Ethel O. Woodring, of Tulsa,Okla., taught European history at Allegheny College summer session thisyear.Dorothy Clark is in Pasadena,California, and reports that she likesit very well. She is secretary to EarleReynolds, banker.George H. Hartman, one timecaptain of the University's golf team,put in his vacation this summer golfing, bringing back several records,and celebrating five birdies and oneeagle.1924Irwin Fisher conducted the Chicago Symphony Orchestra on Saturday, July 14, in his arrangement ofFrench folk songs. He teaches harmony, composition and piano at theAmerican Conservatory.1925Frances M. Reinken (Mrs. David Jordan) reports that she hasmoved her family of four into NewEngland, "although that just meansConnecticut, really."Chester M. Culver is a memberof the Detroit Regional Labor Board.Hazel L. Jones is an instructorin reading at Maryland State Normal School; in the summer term sheteaches at Johns Hopkins at Baltimore.Amy Zoschke is on the faculty ofthe Central Junior High School ofMuskegon, Mich.1926Elmer Lampe is director of athletics and coach of football, track andbaseball at Carroll College, in Waukesha, Wis.Harry E. Merritt is state supervisor of high schools for Wisconsin.M. Lucile Harrison, AM '33, isassociate professor of primary edu cation at Colorado State Teachers'college.Louise Weitzer (Mrs. C. E.John) is living at Grand Island, Nebraska.Arnold Moecker is a designingengineer for the American Stove Co.Maude Smith is teaching Englishto high school juniors and seniors atMeridian, Miss.Arthur H. Hert is Secretary andDirector of Research for the National Retail Credit Association of St.Louis. He was formerly with theRetail Merchants' Association ofTexas.1927J. Burton Smith is with the FortDearborn Mortgage Company of Chicago.J. Frederich Burgh is businessmanager of the North Park JuniorCollege.Barbara Davidson accounts forher summer with golf and her winterwith an active little theatre in Burlington, Iowa.1928J. Harold Caesar, AM '32, hasbeen promoted to the principalshipof the Vanderloon School of Muskegon, Mich., after serving severalyears as a teacher in the CentralJunior High School.1929Ken Rouse, well known not onlyto his class mates as the Phi Betefootball captain, but to thousands ofhigh school students in the middlewest, through his work for the University in student promotion, writesmost interestingly from Norris City,where he is employed by the TVA asManager of Public Service. He is responsible for "(1) Policing TVAproperty, keeping the peace, and performing police duties of sundry types.(2) Guiding visitors in and aboutthe area. (3) Preventing fires anddirecting the fire fighting forces.(4) Creating a respect for law andorder and a spirit of good citizenship.( 5 ) General problems of public safety.To accomplish the above ends I havea staff" of 20 men, forming the US-TVA Police Service. They are uniformed in forest-green and black out-Professor Emeritus MarionTalbot, friend to many hun-dreds o f Alumnae, has movedt° 57x7 Kimbark Ave., Chi-cago. fits. I also have 3 horses, 1 seniorfire fighter, 16 volunteer fire fighters,1 fire truck, 1 police car, 1 radio station, and some miscellaneous equipment including revolvers, shot guns,handcuifs, saddle soap, books, maps,and et ceteras. It is interesting work ;Norris is gradually being built; thefirst concrete at the Dam has nowset. My family is here and all isrosy." The family consists of Mrs.Rouse, (Helen King '30) and theiryoung daughter.Miriam Greenwood, ex, (Mrs. A.L. Kirby) is assisting her husband inediting "Today's Astrology," a journal devoted to the lore of the stars.Edith Adams is supervisor of theMedical Wards at Michael ReeseHospital, Chicago.Dorothy Bernet (Mrs. Lester J.Cappan) is conducting a kindergartenat St. Anne's School at Charlottesville, Va.. Lester C. Shephard is secretaryto the Chairman of the Board of theUnited Light and Power Company.C. F. Denton is head of the English department at Blue Island HighSchool, 111.Czarna Moecker, AM '31, whohas contributed several very delightful articles to the Magazine, is teaching piano, theory and harmony atFlossmoor School.1930Bernard Weinberg, AmericanField Service Fellow, is studying inParis this winter. From all reports,via post card, France and Bernardare getting along very well together.1931John M. Kahlert is a case workaid at one of the men's shelters inChicago. He is living at Hull House,where he greatly enjoys the opportunities for art study in the famousstudios and pottery.Adelaide McLin is teaching inGrosse Pointe, Mich., this year.La Verne Gentner is supervisorof art education at Gilbert, Minn.Florence Walter is principal ofthe Mather School of Beaufort,South Carolina.Cecilia Margaret Rudin, AM'33, has just published a little book,"Stories of Hymns We Love."1932John Mills, Jr., writes fromWashington that he is enjoying hisjob as a commercial photographer forthe Washington Post. He suppliespictures for the rotogravure sectionof that paper, as well as hunting for36 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEcelebrities for news photos. According to John there are an amazingnumber of Chicagoans in Washington.Paul F. Coe is manager of awholesale fruit house in Maywood,Illinois.Carl Scheid is working with theFederal Deposit Insurance Corporation of Washington.Gilbert F. White, SM '34, isworking under Barrows in the National Resources Board, at Chicago.Werner Bromund is an assistantin the department of chemistry atNew York University. He took hismaster's degree at Oberlin Collegelast year.George Van der Hoef is connected with the Speakers' Bureau,Publicity Department, of the FederalHousing Administration.1933Erik Wahlgren teaches Germanand Swedish at the University ofNebraska.Carlos T. Curtis, formerly ofHancock, Mich., is now employed bythe F. C. Hill Casket Co., of Chicago.He lives at 842 Ainslie Ave.Edith B. Whitney is supervisingkindergartens and grades 1 through6, at Virginia, Minn.1934Phillip Mullenbach is doingstatistical research for the NRA.Kent H. Hughes has joined theShaw- Walker organization of Muskegon, Mich.MASTERS1895Frank M. Erickson, AM, is acting president of Willamette University.1912William F. Clarke, AM, teachespsychology and sociology at the StateTeachers' College in Duluth, Minn.1918James Marrs, AM, is an associateprofessor of sociology at the University of Oklahoma.1919W. S. Allen is vice president anddean and chairman of the School ofEducation at Baylor University,Texas.Frank P. McWhorter, SM, isstill teaching at Oregon State College, Corvallis, Ore. In This Issue(Contimied from Page 3)of Abelard raged on the Midway during the past academic year betweenthe disciples of Medieval and Modern thought. Mr. Knight summarizesthe discussion and its significancevery ably in his article. To the average PhB it is, perhaps, most significant that questions of philosophy arecausing such real excitement on theMidway that the undergraduates takesides.•Howard Mort appears in the Magazine for the first time in this issue,although he is well known to thosewho have watched the increasingskill of the University Band which hedirects. Not only is he getting a veryfine grade of music out of his bandsmen, but they are achieving a namefor their marching and singing aswell. Mr. Mort is usually to be foundover at the Reynolds Club, where heseems to> know everyone who comesand goes. Among other things, heedits the "Tower Topics," a chattylittle bulletin that appears in all theUniversity eating places to cheer andregale the mind while the inner student is fortified with a HutchinsonHamburger or an Ida Noyes CreamPuff. We hope to hear from Mr.Mort frequently in the future.•The Council Committee on Publications takes this occasion to expressto Mr. Millett, Mr. Howe and Mr.Morgenstern its sincere appreciationfor their regular contributions. Manyreaders of the Magazine have alreadyjoined in this expression of thanks.THE RENAISSANCE SOCIETYINVITES YOU TO AN EXHIBITION OF DRAWINGS ANDSMALL PAINTINGS BY SEURAT—LOANED BY ART MUSEUMSAND COLLECTORS — TO BESHOWN AT 205 WIEBOLDTHALL— 1050 EAST 59TH STREETNOVEMBER 14 UNTIL DECEMBER 5— THE GALLERY WILLBE OPEN DAILY INCLUDINGSUNDAYS FROM 2 UNTIL5 P.M.1921Wendell S. Brooks, AM '21, ispresident of the college of liberal artsof Billings Polytechnic Institute.1922Otto F. Bond is a Membre Associeof the Academie de Montauban,which has presented him with a medal for the work he has done on the lifeand writings of Emile Pouvillon.1923Cornelia Marschall, SM, (Mrs.Charles D. Smith) is an instructor inEnglish at Baylor University, Texas.John A- Larsen, AM, is principalof Little Rock Senior High Schooland President of Little Rock JuniorCollege, as one might guess, in LittleRock, Ark.1924Hugh S. Bonar, AM, is chairmanof the Committee on Changed College Entrance Requirements, the Wisconsin City Superintendents' Association, and has served in that capacity for two years. The faculty ofthe University of Wisconsin has recently adopted a revised entrance requirement program in harmony withthis Committee's recommendations.Mr. Bonar is also chairman of theCommittee of Superintendents whichis cooperating with Wisconsin in astate-wide testing program for secondary schools.DOCTORS OFPHILOSOPHY1898John W. Finch, recently appointed Director of the Bureau ofMines, did his undergraduate workat Colgate, and studied toward hisPh-D. at Chicago. In 1900 he wentto Colorado as State Geologist, resigning in 1902, to serve as consulting geologist for a number of thecountry's leading mining companies.During the next twenty years hiswork took him to Canada, Mexico,China, Siam, India, Africa and Turkey. In 1925 he accepted the professorship of Mining Geology at theColorado School of Mines. In 1930he became Dean of the University ofIdaho's School of Mines. Dr. Finchleft Idaho last July to take up hiswork in the Bureau of Mines. Uponhis arrival in Washington he foundthat his appointment had been heldup while Postmaster General Farleylooked into his political past. Although he had supported Roosevelt, itwas no secret that he had been aformer supporter of Herbert Hoover.So Dr. Finch withdrew his resignation at the University of Idaho, onlyto submit it again when his appointment was finally approved.1899Harry A. Millis is one of thethree members of the National LaborTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 37Music • • • in every room.1/In many modern hotels musicnow makes rooms more homelike. Simply switch on the loudspeaker and music is yours —delivered via Program Distribution System!This Western Electric equipment — a product of Bell Telephone makers — picks up themusic of the hotel orchestra, phonograph selections or radio broadcasts — amplifies it —delivers it with tonal quality that is naturaland clear.Public address systems, talking picture equipment, broadcasting apparatus, aviation, marineand police radio telephone systems and hearing aids are still other outgrowths of WesternElectric's long experience in Sound. All arereliable — leaders in their respective fields.Western Electric %GRAYBAR ELECTRIC — DISTRIBUTORSLEADERS IN SOUND TRANSMISSION APPARATUS38 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERelations Board appointed by President Roosevelt. Mr. Millis acted asreference librarian at the John CrerarLibrary after receiving his doctorate,until in 1903 he was appointed professor of economics and sociology atthe University of Arkansas. Fromthere he went to Stanford, where hetaught until 1912, going from Stanford to become head of the economicsdepartment at the University ofKansas). Millis was called to Chicagoin 1916 and has been a member ofthe University faculty since that time,chairman of the economics department since 1928. He is on leave ofabsence at present to accept this federal position. Along with his educational work Mr. Millis has been mostactive on trade and arbitration boards.He has served as arbiter in the clothing, newspaper and shoe industries.He is president of the American Economic Association.1901Max Batt, '97, has retired becauseof ill health, and is living in LosAngeles, Calif.1904Thomas E. Doubt, for thirty-oneyears associated with the Armour Institute of Technology, has movedfrom his Drexel Avenue home to hisfarm at Ferndale, Washington.1905Carleton J. Lynde is professor ofphysics at the Teachers College inColumbia University.1920Frederick A. G. Cowper published last spring a school edition ofVj. Blasco Ibanez' Los Muertos Man-dan, in collaboration with J. T. Lister. (Harper & Bros., Publishers).1921T. D. Brooks, AM'20, is Deanof Arts and Sciences and Dean of theGraduate School at the A & M College of Texas.1922Warner F. Woodring is professor of history at Allegheny College,Meadville, Pa. Last summer hetaught English history at the University of Southern California. Mrs.Woodring (Laura Lucas, '24), spentthe summer in the west, too.1923R. O. Hutchinson is head of themathematics department of TennesseePolytechnic Institute. 1925Donald Piatt, '19, is professor ofphilosophy at the University of California.1926E. E. Rosaire^ '20,SM'21, isconsulting geophysicist and presidentof the Independent Exploration Company of Houston, Tex. He is president of the Petroleum Geophysicists.Guy R. Vowles is at DavidsonCollege, N. Car.Robert Lee Campbell, AM'20,of Hendrix College, Conway, Ark.,is lecturing this winter at Little Rockon "A Poet Looks at Religion."1928Cornelio C. Cruz is a chartermember of the National ResearchCouncil of the Philippines and actsas secretary of the division of physical and mathematical sciences. Inaddition to teaching at the Universityof the Philippines, he is second vice-president and general manager of theManukatok Mining Co., Inc., and secretary-treasurer and director of thePujo Mining Company, Inc.Helen Fisher Hohman taught acourse in Labor Problems at Northwestern University this summer. Herarticle on British Unemployment Insurance will appear in the Decemberissue of the Journal of PoliticalEconomy.D. Raymond Bartoo is the newhead of the department of biology ofTennessee Polytechnic Institute.Walter S. Ryder is acting as minister of the First Unitarian Churchof Flint, Mich. He was formerly professor of sociology at Macalester College, St. Paul, Minn.Harold G. Holck, '21, for thepast five years chairman of the Department of Pharmacology at theAmerican University of Beirut, hasaccepted a fellowship in the Department of Physiology of the Universityof Chicago.1929Paul S. Martin, '24, is the newlyappointed acting curator of the department of anthropology at the FieldMuseum of Natural History in Chicago. Dr. Martin has been assistantcurator of North American archaeology at Field Museum since 1929. Hehas conducted four very successfulresearch parties in Colorado, excavating pre-historic Indian villages.George Lynn Cross is an assistantprofessor in the department of botanyat the University of Oklahoma. Hewas formerly head of the department of botany at the University of SouthDakota.Lois Borland, AM' 13, head ofthe English department at WesternState College, Gunnison, Colo., hasbeen honored with a research fellowship at Yale for the Fall Semester.Albert E. Edgecombe professorof botany at Northwestern University, is studying this winter in thebacteriological department of themedical school at the University ofMichigan.Junetta Heinonen taught thissummer at Ball State Teachers College.1930Blanche McAvoy spent the summer in the Yellowstone and RockyMountain region, as assistant to Dr.Harry Lathrop, on a geography tripfrom the Illinois State Normal University.Joseph L. Adler, '18, has movedto Houston, Texas, where he is connected with an oil company as geologist. (1517 Brainard St.)Walter Watson is a research associate in sociology at the Universityof Texas.1931John Dollard, AM, '30, claimsthat the news about him is not atall exciting, but it is interesting tohear of the work he has been engrossed in for the last year. "I amcontinuing my work as research sociologist at the Institute of HumanRelations. (Yale.) During the summer I participated in a conference atHanover on the subject i Adolescence'and problems of this period. . . .Thereafter I spent six weeks in asmall Mississippi village, studyingsome personality problems among thenegroes. Now I am back at workwith research and teaching."Isaac Schour, '21, is associateprofessor in histology, at the University of Illinois College of Dentistry.Albert Lepawsky, '28, a researchassociate in political science at theUniversity, was the slightly surprisedvictim of an unprovoked assault bya Storm Trooper in Berlin this summer, while he was watching a procession pass. The Trooper claimed thatthe professor failed to salute properly. The case is being investigatedby the American Consul.1932R. S. Campbell, '25, SM, '29, andMrs. Campbell (Imogene Foltz, SM'32), have moved to Washington, DC.Mr. Campbell has been transferred to the Washington Office ofTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 39CHICAGO LOCOMOTIVEOn Its Way to a MAROON Victory at MinnesotaTake the jSm up to the Big GameAnticipating That the Maroon-Minnesota Game, November1 7, at St. Paul, will be a classic no alumnus wouldmiss, arrangements have been made with thefor a "Chicago Locomotive"to take Chicago Alumni andStudent Rooters to St. Paul atSpecial Low Rates, good forthe week-end of the game only(November 16-17-18). This train leaves Chicago Friday, 10:45 P. M., and arrives at St.Paul Saturday, 8:35 A. M. For rates and reservations, call The Alumni Office, Midway0800, Local 316.Are You Seeking Employment?1HERE is a demand, at this time, for those qualifiedby education or experience in various lines.If you are interested in securing employment of the bettertype, either temporary or permanent, we invite your application.EXECUTIVE, SALES, TECHNICAL AND OFFICEMALE AND FEMALECall and Register at Your Convenience Without Charge or ObligationWABASH 0227EXECUTIVE SERVICE CORPORATION64 E. Jackson Blvd. Room 920 ;NOREGISTRATION FEE NO ADVANCEPAYMENT REQUIRED40 THE UNIVERSITY OF C H I C A G O . M A G A Z I N Ethe Branch of Research, U. S. ForestService. He was formerly at Jor-nado Experimental Range, NewMexico.G. D. Gore, SM'25, is chairmanof the department of mathematics ofthe Central Y. M. C. A. College,Chicago.RUSH1880Franklin A. Butterfield, MD,sends the following note: "I am ingeneral practice when not off on atrip to see the country. I went withmy son, who is in the Air Service,from Pensaeola, Florida, to SanDiego, California, stopping to visitthe Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico. We went down 750 feet beneath the surface and walked sevenmiles under ground before comingout. It was well worth going to see."Dr. Butterfield's home is in Dakota,111.1881Glenn M. Hamman, MD, is living on his ranch at Sunland, Calif.,which he has developed himself andwhich is famed for its beauty.1885Hart Beyer, MD, is practicing inPittsville, Wis.J. E. Engstad, MD, writes us that"the middle of February, 1935, willbe the anniversary of my graduationfrom Rush. The fifty years devotedto a large medical practice havebrought both sorrow and exaltation.There are still days when, nearingmy eightieth birthday, I am consultedby twenty or more patients."George Deacon, MD, is practicingin Pasadena, Cal.1887C. A. Boorman, MD, is practicingin Wisconsin Rapids, Wis.1889F. X. Pomanville, MD, is in general practice with his son and nephewin Wisconsin Rapids, Wis.J. J. Looze is practicing in the sametown.1891B. M. Caples, MD, is medical director of Waukesha Springs Sanitarium, Waukesha, Wis.William H. Bohart, MD, is nolonger practicing. He suffered astroke three years ago and has notbeen active since then. He is livingat Vero Beach, Fla. 1894Frank R. Weidemann, MD, andMrs. Weidemann spent the summerin Russia and Scandinavia. Dr.Weidemann found the economics andthe socialized medicine in these countries very interesting.1896J. E. Skinner, MD, although officially retired from his work conducting a hospital at Yenping, China,under the M. E. Church, is still hardat wprk. He is now located at Hai-tan Island, just off the coast of Formosa, and is the only medical man ina population of eighty thousand. Hewrites "One in forty-five of the totalpopulation, scattered over four hundred villages, has visited the dispensary twice on an average, since thework began, five months ago. Amongthese, twelve lepers were found, andfour are coming regularly for treatment. The most faithful in attendance is a little boy of 12, who is improving wonderfully."1900D. C. Budge, MD, of Logan, Utah,is president of the Utah State Medical Association.George F. Zerzan, MD, is specializing in physical therapy, especially in electro-coagulation of tonsils.He is living in Holyrood, Kans,.W. W. Walker, MD, is practicingat Willows, Calif., and operating aprune ranch.1902George B. Lake, MD, who hasbeen the editor of Clinical Medicineand Surgery, for ten years, has acquired the sole ownership of thatjournal, which is now entirely independent, and has moved the editorialand executive offices to Waukegan,111.1905Oliver A. Jeffreys, MD, is practicing in Honolulu. His son, S. I.Jeffreys, will enter Rush this year.1906Charles Augustus Katherman,MD, is practicing in Sioux City, la.Lt. Col. Harry R. Beery, M.C.,U.S.A., '03, MD, '06, has been stationed in Fort Worden, Washington,after three years' stay in Hawaii.1911Louis D. Smith, '10, MD, celebrated his 25th anniversary of graduation from Rush by the graduationof his son, Paul, last June. Paul enters law school this fall. 1912Fred C. Caldwell, '09, MD, is aninvalid, suffering with chronic epidemic encephalitis. He and Mrs.Caldwell, '08, are living at MaryEsther, Fla.1913J. C. Clark, '11, MD, and Mrs.Clark (Gladys Aileen Spencer, '30)have just returned from a twomonths tour of Europe. They wentwith the Clinical Assemblies of International Postgraduate Medical Association and attended clinics in allmedical centers.1914Clifford Watkin, '12, MD, andMrs. Watkin (Wilhelmina DeVries,'12) have a daughter, Charlotte, entering the University of Chicago thisfall.1918Norman C. Paine, '13, MD, practitioner in Glendale, Cal., has adaughter, Barbara, ready to enterSanford this year.1923James L. McCartney, '21, MD,is engaged in the private practice ofneuropsychiatry, at 916 Medical-Dental Building, Portland, Ore. Forthe past three years he was Psychiatrist and Director of Classification under the New York State Departmentof Correction at Elmira Reformatory,N. Y. Last year he completed a survey of all the prisons in the U. S.,and wrote a book on the classificationof prisoners, which has been underwritten by the Salmon MemorialCommittee of the N. Y. Academy ofMedicine. It will be published thisfall.1928P. Arthur Delaney, '21, PhD'25, MD, is director of the laboratories and pathologist at the Evangelical Hospital of Chicago. For thepast five years he has done similarwork at Englewood Hospital. Heplans to spend his afternoons on cancer research at the University of Chicago, on a Douglas Smith Foundationappointment.1929Arthur N. Ferguson, '23, SM'25, MD, is now a member of thestaff of the Duemling Clinic at FortWayne, Ind. He was previously connected with the University of Chicago Clinics.Barclay E. Noble, SM'28, MD,is practicing in Los Angeles, Calif.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 411930B. B. Earle, MD, is practicing atGlastonbury, Conn.1931Wayne C. Bartlett, MD, is assistant resident in surgery at BellMemorial Hospital of the Universityof Kansas.LAW SCHOOLDean Bigelow and thirty alumni ofthe Law School met for luncheon atMilwaukee, August 30, 1934, duringthe session of the American Bar Association. The meeting was presidedover by George M. Morris, '15,Chairman of the Alumni AdvisoryBoard.The Dean talked of the Law Schooland its prospects and needs. Everyone took part in the discussion ofwhat could be done over the countryin securing desirable students, and inother ways of making the force ofthe school felt. According to CharlesMcElroy, the good fellowship "wasimmense."The party included the followingbrothers in the order: Dean HarryA. Bigelow, David W. Bloodgood,'24, Milwaukee; Joseph I. Brody, '15,JD'15, Des Moines; Willard Brooks,'08, TD'10, Wichita ; Dean Robert M.Davis, JD'07, U. of Kansas; RobertF. Dewey, JD'33, Chicago; WilliamL. Eagleton, JD'26, Chicago ; CharlesC. Erasmus, '28, JD'29, Milwaukee;John H. Freeman, '11, Houston;John M. Flynn, '15, JD'15, Milwaukee; Dean Bernard C. Gavit,JD'30, Indiana University; WalterW. Hammond, JD'16, Kenosha; E.Harold Hallows, JD'30, Milwaukee;Silas A. Harris, JD'13, Columbus;Harold F. Hecker, JD'09, St. Louis ;Alfred H. Highland, '28, JD'28,Hammond ; Albert B. Houghton, '07,JD'09 Milwaukee; Benjamin Landis,'30, Chicago; William P. Mac-Cracken, Jr., '09, JD'll, Secretary,American Bar Association, Washington, D. C. ; Judge George T. McDer-mott, '08, JD'09, U. S. Circuit Courtof Appeals, Topeka; Charles ,F.McElroy, AM'06, JD'16, Chicago;Martha McLendon, '26, JD'27, Kansas City; George M. Morris, JD'15,Washington, D. C. ; Robert E. Nash,JD'20, Rockford ; Irving A. Puchner,'29, Milwaukee ; Justice George Ross-man, JD'10, Supreme Court of Salem,Oregon; Charles P. Schwartz, '08,JDT)9, Chicago; W. E. Stanley, '12,JD'13, Wichita ; Henry F. Tenney,'13, JD'15, Chicago; Henry P.Weihofen, '26, JD'28, JSD'31, Boulder; Daniel S. Wentworth, Jr., JD'34,Chicago.•Professor Edward W. Hinton ofthe Law School is giving a course on "Evidence" to practicing lawyers onWednesday evenings at the University College, 19 South MichiganAvenue, Chicago. Last year, Professor Hinton broke all world recordsby his cla'ss on the new "IllinoisPractice Act," which was attended by480 lawyers, including many of themost prominent men at the Chicagobar. The figures on the attendance inthis class are not available as we goto press, but an attendance of over200 is anticipated.Professor Malcolm Sharp will giveanother course in the winter quarterat the same hour and place on "TheNational Industrial Recovery Act."LAW1909Charles P. Schwartz, '08, JD, isTreasurer for The Chicago Independent, a newspaper which is being organized to supply Chicago's need fora liberal, yet representative, news medium. A good many other Chicago-ans, both alumni and faculty members are interested in the project;their ranks include T. V. Smith, Donald Schlesinger, Charles Merriam,Edwin Embree, A. J. Carlson, PaulDouglas, C. W. Gilkey, Nelson B.Henry, Arthur E. Holt, RobertMorss Lovett, James Mullenbach, anda number of the younger alumni.George T. McDermott, '08, JD,of Topeka, Kansas, judge of the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, waselected a vice-president of the American Bar Association this summer atthe annual meeting.G. C. Armstrong, '11, JD, is practicing law at Pontiac, 111.William P. McCracken, Jr., '09,JD, was reappointed Secretary of theAmerican Bar Association at the annual convention of that body in Milwaukee, in August.1914L. W. Powers, JD, of Dennison,Iowa, is a nominee for the SupremeCourt, on the Democratic ticket.1915Joseph Brody, '15, JD, is practic-ticing law in DesMoines, Iowa, withthe firm of Brammer, Brody, Charlton and Parker.1916S. F. Chien, JD, is, as far as weknow, the first founder of an "alumnifamily" among our foreign studentalumni. His son, Nai-wen Chien, isfollowing in his footsteps in the LawSchool, and likes it just as much ashis father did. There may be a thirdgeneration of Chiens represented on ¦Purely you'll want tomake stopovers. It may be in Honolulu,Kobe, Shanghai, Manila, Bombay. Or perhaps at ports in Egypt or Europe.President Liners let you stopover in anyor all of the many ports in their Round theWorld itinerary . . . visit ashore or makesidetrips. Then continue on the next or alater of these liners that sail every weekfrom California via Hawaii and the SunshineRoute, or via the fast Short Route fromSeattle, to the Orient . . . and on fortnightlyRound the World.You may circle the globe by PresidentLiner in no more than 85 days. Or you maytake the two full years your ticket allows.This fare takes you, hometown to hometown,R0IMDTHEUI0R1DFIRST CLASSRickshas may be hired for thirty oents a dayPresident Liners are famed for easy-ridingspeed . . . and luxury and gaiety. Everystateroom is outside, large and airy, withreal beds. Decks are broad and there is anoutdoor swimming pool on every liner.Your own travel agent, or any of ouroffices (New York, Boston,Washington,D.C,Toronto, Chicago, Cleveland) will be gladto tell you all about the President Liners.They'll be happy to tell you too, of otherPresident Liner trips . . . between New York,Havana, Panama and California (and backby sea or rail) and roundtrips to the Orient.D0LLRRSteamship lines andMnERKMlmail line42 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAlbert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago535 Fifth Ave., New York415 Hyde Bldg., SpokaneA general Placement Bureau for menand women in all kinds of teaching positions. Large and alert College, and StateTeachers' College departments for Doctorsand Masters; Critics and Supervisors forNormals. Also many calls for Specialteachers of Music, Art, Home Economics,Business Administration, CorrespondenceTeaching. Fine opportunities in SecondarySchools. A host of best Suburban patronsfor grade and High School teachers. Readour booklet. Call.•PROFESSIONALDIRECTORY•DENTISTDR. GEO. G. KNAPPDENTISTWoodlawn Medical Arts Bldg.Suite 304. 1305 E. 63rd StreetPhone Plaza 6020ELECTROLYSISLOTTIE A. METCALFEELECTROLYSIS EXPERT13 YEARS' EXPERIENCEHair Removed from Face, Neck and BodyFacial Veins, Warts, Moles Permanently RemovedGraduate NurseSUITE TELEPHONE17 North State Street FRANKLIN 4885SCHOOLSE. A. BOOS SCHOOLFor Mentally an d PhysicallyHand icapped Persons — All AgesBo arding and C ay SchoolTo Limited NumberFree Consu tationinformation Sent on RequestReasonable Rates5740 W. 22nd Place, Cicero, III.BEVERLY FARM, INC.37th YearA Home, School for Nervous andBackward Children and Adults220 Acres, 7 Buildings, School Gymnasium, Industrial and School Training Given, Departmentfor Birth Injury CasesGroves Blake Smith, M. D. Godfrey, III.Practical Business TrainingBusiness Administration, Executive - SecretarialStenotype and 14 Other College Grade Courses78th YearTrain for Assured Success Write for CatalogBryant & Stratton College18 S. Michigan Ave. Randolph 1575 the quadrangles, when young Christina, the dignified and charmingdaughter of Nai-wen Chien, decidesto be a University woman, of theclass of 1954.W. Russell Jordan, JD, of Des-Moines, Iowa, was recently nominatedfor the District Court on the Republican ticket.1919Harry F. Chaveriat, LLB, ispracticing in Chicago. (1616 N. Ogden Ave.)1920Katherine D. Biggins, 'IS, JD,(Mrs. Roswell Magill) reports thatshe and her husband, Roswell Magill,JD, '20, have been in England allsummer, where he made a study ofthe British tax system on behalf ofthe U. S. Treasury.1924Milton T. Hunt, Jr., JD, is anattorney, practicing at Los Angeles,Calif.1926Bryce L. Hamilton, '23, JD, iswith Winston, Strawn and Shaw,First National Bank Building, Chicago.1929David B. Shapiro, '27, JD, is associated with Joseph Rolnick, in thegeneral practice of law, with specialattention to State inheritance andFederal Estate Taxation cases.1931A. U. Miner, JD, is practicing inSalt Lake City, Utah.1932Robert T. Mckinlay, '29, JD, ispracticing at 176 West Adams St.,Chicago.SCHOOL OFBUSINESS1912Meyer Goldstein is manager ofthe Chesterfield Upholstering Company, Chicago.1914William H. Lyman is management and maintenance engineer forthe Prudential Insurance Co., Newark, N. J.1915Helen A. Carnes is personnel director for the Metropolitan Building-Company, Seattle.1916Edith Mae Bell, '15, AM, is alecturer on applied psychology for — POSITIONS-VACANCIES FORCOMPETENT WORKERSOffice — Technical — SalesMale — FemaleCall and Register-Free-NowEXECUTIVESERVICE64 E. Jackson Blvd.SCHOOLS— ContinuedMacCormac School ofCommerceBusiness Administration and SecretarialTrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESEnter Any Monday1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 2130NORTH PARK COLLEGEFully AccreditedJunior College: Liberal Arts and Pre-ProfessionalCourses.High School: Language, Scientific and Vocational Courses.Conservatory: Public School Music and otherCertified Courses.High Standards of ScholarshipBeautiful Campus, Athletics and Social ActivitiesExpenses LowFor catalog write to the presidentNorth Park College Foster and Kedzie Aves.The Mary E. PogueSchool and SanitariumWheaton, III.Phone Wheaton 66A school and sanitarium for the care and training of children mentally subnormal, epileptic,or who suffer from organic brain disease.SCHOOL OF THEATREMR. BEN GUY PHILLIPSFaculty Member of the RoyalAcademy of Dramatic ArtCOURSESInclude: Art of Acting, Voice Control,Pantomime, Playwriting, Stage, Sceneand Costume Design, Public Speaking, etc.Children's ClassesSTUDIO— 72 EAST 11TH STREETHarrison 3360BUSINESSDIRECTORYL APARTMENTS JCLOSE TO U. OF C. ¦¦Apartments — All SizesProfessional OfficesProperty Investments— Insurance —ACKLEY BROS. CO.1447 East 63rd Street HYDE PARK 0100THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 43the American Institute of Appliedpsychology.1917Guy R. Charlesworth is secretary - treasurer of the Gar - WorthManufacturing Company, makers ofpulp mill machinery, of Kaukauna,Wis.1918Walter A. Frost is general agentfor the Montana Life Insurance Co.,at Helena, Mont.1919Benjamin K. Engel is advertising manager for a garment-manufacturing concern in Milwaukee.1920Waldo B. Christy, AM, is teaching commercial subjects in UnionHigh School, Union City, N. J.Vera Lee is state auditor for theFederal Emergency Relief Administration of Kentucky.1921Harold DeBaun is treasurer ofthe Universal Credit Co., Detroit.He has been associated with this firmsince 1928.Max S. Lambert is manager ofmerchandise sales for the RobinsConveying Belt Company of NewYork.1923Hugh C. Gregg, '21 AM, is business manager of Iowa State Collegeat Ames.1924Billy E. Goetz is with James O.McKinsey and Co., business counsellors, Chicago.L. B. Krick is president of Mador,Inc., Chicago, manufacturers of cosmetics.1925William L. Embree is vice president in charge of investments of theNational Fidelity Life InsuranceCompany, Kansas City, Mo.1926George Bofman is office managerof the Durable Box Company, Chicago.1927Sidney G. Karras is examiner ofaccounts for the Illinois CommerceCommission.1928John H. Hildeth, AM, is specialassistant to the director of sales ofthe R. and H. Chemicals departmentof duPont de Nemours, Wilmington,Del. He is in charge of sales records and analysis. 1929Joseph L. Eisendrath, Jr., is secretary-treasurer of Banthrico, Inc.,advertising novelties, Chicago.Bert C. Goss, AM, is assistantprofessor of finance at New YorkUniversity, the institution where hewon his doctorate.George R. Gould is manager ofthe insurance department of theSouth Side Agency and Loan Corporation, Chicago.1930Kenneth B. Alwood is assistanttreasurer and chief of service at theGar rick Theatre, Chicago.Wayne Caskey is an assistant inagricultural economics at the University of Illinois.Daniel Hammond is project inspector for the Federal Public WorksAdministration, with headquarters inLouisville, Ky.1931Hamer C. Knepper is supervisorof statistical and inventory controlfor the Owens-Illinois Glass Company, at Toledo, Ohio.Harry Palmer Gordon is an operating auditor with Sears, Roebuckand Co., at Chicago.The Sunset Limited from New Orleans and Golden State Limited fromChicago are the finest trains on thesouthernmost routes to California,the sunniest routes in winter. Wethink you'll enjoy their modernPullmans, their quiet, dustless air-conditioned cars and many othertravel luxuries for which you pay noextra fare.We have the fastest trains to Phoe- Virginia Lockwood is secretaryto the vice president and controllerof the First National Bank and TrustCompany of Tulsa, Okla.I 1932e Paul F. Coe is manager of Central Lime Distributors, Chicago.f Enoch E. Ferebee, PhD, is exam-e iner of relief expenditures for theIllinois Emergency Relief Commission.A. D'Arcy Harvey, AM, is in thepublic service department of thet Equitable Life Assurance Society,e Rochester, N. Y.Lowell S. Hebbard is connectedn with the wholesale grocery businessin Ishpeming, Mich.Thor E. Holter is assistant buyerin the drug division of Montgomerys Ward and Co., Chicago.Q 1933Raymond W. Baldwin, PhD, ishead of the department of economicsr at Morningside College, Sioux City,)1 Iowa.i- Einar Bjorklund, '30, AM, is onthe research staff of Bauer and Black,i- Chicago.k Arthur Carstens, '31, AM, is afield supervisor for the Federal ReliefINDIO, PALM SPRINGSnix, Tucson and Douglas, headquartersfor Southern Arizona's guest ranches.We have the only trains to the Californiadesert resorts at Indio and Palm Springs.Pullman charges out west are a thirdless than last year. Rail fares are low.For any information on a trip west,write 0. P. Bartlett, Dept. AA-11, 310South Michigan Boulevard, Chicago.Southern PacificFollow the SUN toCALIFORNIA southern Arizona44 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAWNINGSPhones Oakland 0690—0691-The Old Reliable -0692Hyde Park AwningINC. Co.,Awnings and Canopies for All °urposes4508 Cottage Grove Aven ueBONDSP. H. Davis, 'II. H. I. Markham, 'Ex.'06R. W. Davis, '16. W. M. Giblin, '23F. B. Evans, 'I IPaul H. Davis & Co.MembersNew York Stock ExchangeChicago Stock Exchange37 So. La Salle St. Franklin 8622CHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, 12B. R. Harris, '21Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and E ngineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285CATERERJOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900—0901Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882COFFEE— TEAw. S. Quinby CompanyIMPORTERS AND ROASTERSOF HIGH GRADECOFFEES AND TEAS4 1 7-427 W. OHIO ST —CHICAGOPhones Superior 2336-7-8COALQUALITY COAL PRICED RIGHTLESTER COAL CO.4025 Wallace St., at 40th PlaceAll Phones: Yards 6464Wasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phones: Wentworth 8620- 1 -2-3-4Wasson's Coal Makes Good — or—Wasson Does Administration, with headquarters inWashington, D. C.Walter C. Fenton is in the stockdepartment of the Ford Motor Co.,Detroit.L. Edgar Freidheim is treasurerof the Cougle Commission Co., Chicago.Winton V. Hanson is in the general freight office of the Illinois Central System, Chicago.Bernard J. Johnson is an assistant buyer in the furniture departmentof Montgomery Ward and Co., Chicago.1 934Anthony G. Alesankas is employed in the Chicago Airlines TicketOffice.Frank D. Carr is a special salesman for the Procter and Gamble Distributing Co.George Constantine is with thePalace Office Supply Co., of Tulsa,Okla.Warren R. Kahn is secretary tothe president of Goldblatt Bros., Department Store, Chicago.Madeline Kann is on the research staff of Lord and Thomas,Advertising, Chicago.Allan N. Marin is in the advertising department of Gimble Bros.,Milwaukee.DIVINITY1 907Edward A. Henry, DB, is Chairman of the Committee on Exhibitsand Activities in Libraries for theBimillenium Horatianum, to celebrate the 2000th anniversary of thebirth of Horace. The committee willcover the United States and Canada;the celebration is world-wide in scope.William F. Rothenburger, DB,pastor of the Third Christian Churchof Indianapolis, is president of theInternational Convention of the Disciples of Christ, which met at DesMoines, Iowa, in October.1 909Mark F. Sanborn, DB, has resigned from the pastorate of Imman-uel Baptist Church of Scranton, Pa.,and is going to the First BaptistChurch of Battle Creek, Mich.John Cowper Granbery, AM'08,PhD, has returned from a twoyear sojourn in Brazil and is nowteaching philosophy and political science at Southwestern University,Texas.I9I4Donald T. Grey, '11, AM '13,DB, is pastor of the Michigan Ave- COAL —ContinuedRIDGE FUEL & SUPPLY CO.Coal — Dustless CokeFireplace Wood — Cannel1633 W. 95th St. BEV. 8205DECORATINGDERK SMIT & CO.Interior DecoratorsFurniture and DraperiesUPHOLSTERINGand Refinishing6830 Cottage Grove Ave.Phones Dorchester 3584-5-6EMIL C. ERICKSEN & CO.Painting and DecoratingDraperies — UpholsteringFurniture Refinishing6830 Cottage Grove Ave.Phones Dorchester 3584-5It pay you to haveour estimate and expert adviceNATIONALDECORATING SERVICEHart Bros. System, Inc.4035 S. Michigan Ave. Boulevard 9700ELECTROTYPERCONSOLIDATEDELECTROTYPERS, INC.(Midland Federal)Electrotypes — LeadmouldsNickeltypesAdvertising PlatesTelephones— Wabash 8100-8101EMPLOYMENTCOLOREDDOMESTIC HELPFurnishedDay or NightReferences investigated.Englewood Employment Agency5530 S. State. Phone-Englewood 3181-3182Street Night-Englewood 3 1 8 1Established 16 yearsFLOWERSFLOWERSbyKORTSCHDistinctly Better1368 East 55th StreetPhone— Plaza 2150THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 45nue Baptist Church of Saginaw,Mich. He is chairman of the Committee on Christian Education for theMichigan Baptist Convention.1919Otto R. Thome, AM, has recentlybecome pastor of the First Congregational Church, Eagle River, Wis.1925Benjamin E. Mays, AM, is Deanof the School of Religion at HowardUniversity, Washington, D. C.1927Milton M. McGorrill, pastor ofthe Fountain Street Baptist Church,Grand Rapids, has returned from aEuropean trip which included attendance at the Baptist World Alliance Congress in Berlin.1928O. Leonard Jones, AM, is pastorof the Methodist Episcopal Churchof Clatskanie, Ore.Emri Sylvester Sites, AM, isassociated with the Governor's Commission on Unemployment Relief atIndianapolis.Andrew P. Burton is serving aspastor of the First Baptist Church ofBig Rock, 111., where he succeedsRev. T. V. L. Harvey, DB '34, whois serving as Chaplain at CampSpringfield, 111.1929Merrill E. Gaddis, PhD, is chairman of the Faculty-Student Councilin charge of the Campus ChurchSchool at Central College, Fayette,Mo. This School will meet for onehour on Sunday mornings. BernardE. Meland, DB '28, PhD, is also amember of the Council, and is incharge of the curriculum.Nelson T. Chappell, DM, isChairman of Grande Prairie Presbytery of the United Church of Canada. He is pastor of St. Paul'sUnited Church, Grande Prairie.1930Henry H. Walker, DB '25, AM'31, PhD, is Chaplain and professorof religion and philosophy at Piedmont College, Demorest, Ga.Harry E. Parker, AM '28, DB,of Millet, Alberta, is secretary of theLaCombe Presbytery of the UnitedChurch of Canada.Franklin D. Elmer, Jr., DB,started a good deal of discussion lastmonth, through a sermon he delivered at the First Baptist Church ofDeKalb, where he is pastor, advocating the adoption of an international flag. 1931Phillip Johnson, of Quincy, 111.,attended the Baptist World AllianceCongress in Berlin this summer, andtravelled about in Europe.William O. Foster is preachingfor the Dunn Christian Church, andteaching in the high school at Dunn,N. Car.Roger T. Clarke, who is stationedat Bolenge, D.C.C.M;., Cocquilhat-ville, Congo Beige, reports that withthe aid of a native teacher in hisschool, he has recorded the long folktale of the origin and history of theNkundo people.1932Earle E. Em me, PhD, is teachingin Morningside College, Sioux City,Iowa.Charles D. Ebersole, AM, isworking for the Illinois EmergencyRelief Commission at Danville, 111.,where he is directing the Service Bureau for Transients.T, Edgar Lyon, AM, is MissionPresident of the Netherland Mission,Church of Jesus Christ of LatterDay Saints, at Rotterdam, Holland.He is in charge of the mission of thischurch throughout the entire Netherlands.Mildred Proctor, AM, is in Chinaon a fifteen months' appointment, incharge of a Woman's Industrial.1933E. J. Thompson, DB '29, PhD,pastor of St. David's United Church,Leduc, Alberta, is Chairman of theEdmonton Presbytery of the UnitedChurch of Canada.Harry C. Fraser, U. S. ArmyChaplain at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, reports the building of a new$75,000 chapel which is expected tobe completed by the first of the year.J. Clay Madison has accepted thecall to the pastorate of the FirstMethodist Protestant Church ofHigh Point, N. Car.Annie Lucile McGregor is ateacher of Bible and Religion in Andrew College, Cuthbert, Ga.1934Eugene S. Tanner, AM '31,PhD, is a member of the faculty ofWesley College, Grand Forks, N.Dak.J. Robert Sala, PhD, is professorof history at Lynchburg College, Va.Ivy G. Meyers is teaching in theDeaconess School, Helena, Mont.Dora Louise Nelson sailed September 22 for India, where she willwork for the Methodist EpiscopalMission at Godhra, Panch Mahals. FLOWERS— ContinuedHOMER LANGE A. LANGEEst. 1887Charge Accounts and DeliveryFLORIST<Zi East Monroe Central 3777KMM**.-^ mtfc Q CHICAGO§0* Established 1865QJ/j^ FLOWERSPhones: Plaza 6444, 64451631 East 55th StreetGARAGECARSCALLED FOR AND DELIVERED64th STREET GARAGETowing at All Hours634I HARPER AVE.PHONE HYDE PARK I03IGROCERIESTelephone Haymarket 3 1 20E. A. Aaron & Bros.Fruits and Vegetables, Poultry, Butter,Eggs, Imported and Domestic Cheese,Sterilized and Fresh Caviar, Wesson and"77" Oil, M. F. B. Snowdrift and ScocoShortening46-48 So. Water Market, Chicago, III.COHEN and COMPANYWholesaleFruit — Vegetables — Poultry2 1 I South Water MarketPhones Haymarket 0808 to 08 1 6LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1 327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9 1 00- 1 -2QUALITY FOODSTUFFSMODERATE PRICESWE DELIVERHOTELS"Famous for Food"Dancing and EntertainmentNightlyCircular CRYSTAL Barthe BREVOORT hotel1 20 W. Madison St. Ch icago46 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHOTELS— ContinuedPARKLAND HOTELFacing Jackson Park1550 East 63rd St.300 Rooms — Private BathFrom $5 WeeklyFolder with details of rates and services will besent on request.LAUNDRIESADAMSLAUNDRY CO2335 Indiana Ave.Superior Hand WorkOdorless Dry CleaningTelephoneCalumet 2346Morgan Laundry Service, Inc.2330 Prairie Ave.Phone Calumet 7424Dormitory ServiceStandard Laundry Co.Linen Supply — Wet WashFinished Work1818 South Wabash Ave.Phone Calumet 4700SUNSHINE LAUNDRYCOMPANYAll ServicesDry Cleaning2915 Cottage Grove Ave.Telephone Victory 5110THEBEST LAUNDRY andCLEANING COMPANYALL SERVICESWe Also DoDry Cleaning — Shoe Repairing4240Indiana Ave. PhoneOAKIand 1383MOTOR LIVERYCHICAGO PETERSENMOTOR LIVERYLINCOLNSWith Experienced Chauffeurs5548 Lake Park Ave. MIDway 0949 SOCIAL SERVICEADMINISTRATIONFACULTYMiss Agnes Van Driel, formerlySecretary of the School of SocialWork of Loyola University, has beenappointed Lecturer in Social Workin the School of Social Service Administration, and will assist MissDixon in Case Work and Field Workcourses.William Willard Burke, Associate Professor and Director of ChildWelfare, Washington University, received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the August Convocation.Eleanor Flynn, Instructor inSocial Work 1933-34, has recentlyaccepted a position as Assistant Professor in the New Jersey State College for Women in New Brunswick,New Jersey.Florence Hutsinpillar, Fellowin the School during 1926-27, sincethen a member of the staff of theUnited States Children's Bureau, hasbeen appointed Director of the Denver School of Social Work.MASTERS1934Students who received the M.A.degree at the August, 1934, Convocation and their present positions include the following: Grace Browning, formerly a supervisor of FieldWork in the School of Social Service, has been appointed AssistantProfessor of Social Work in TulaneUniversity, School of Social Work,in New Orleans ; Jessie Louise TaftCrane, '27, is in New York. MiriamFlexner took a position as MedicalSocial Worker at the PresbyterianHospital in New York City; MarieLouise Irelan returned to her position as Case Supervisor with theChildren's Joint Case Committee ofOklahoma City; Grace Lee May-mon accepted a position as Statistician with the Board of State Aidand Charities in Baltimore; Caroline Meis is now with the TransientBureau of the Cook County Bureauof Public Welfare; Grace White,'31, formerly Medical Social Workerat the Mount Sinai Hospital in Cleveland, has been appointed an instructor in Social Work at the Universityof Pittsburgh; Ethel Wilson hasaccepted a position as case workerwith the United Charities of Chicago.1932Florence L. Sullivan, AM, formerly Instructor in Case Work, Loyola University, Chicago, has taken aposition as Director of Research in LITHOGRAPHERL. C. Mead '21. E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing725 So. La Salle St.Wabash 8182OLD GOLDCASH FOR OLD GOLDJewelry, watches, gold teeth, plated articles,diamonds, silver, etc. We always pay the proper cash value. Licensed by U. S. Government.Established 1900Chicago Gold Smelting Co.37 S. Wabash Ave. (Corner Monroe, 3rd Floor)Members Chicago Ass'n of CommerceOFFICE FURNISHINGSPruitt's rebuilt office machines give theappearance and service of new equipment — carry a full guarantee — yet, saveyou as much as 50%.PRUITT, Inc.172 N. La Salle St. ChicagoPAINTSGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3 1 86JOHN E. ROCKEFELLOW, INCEstablished 1893Paints, Wall Paper, GlassWindow ShadesWHOLESALE AND RETAIL4321 Cottage Grove Ave.Telephone Atlantic 1900PHOTOGRAPHERMOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF DISTINCTION30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C. ALUMNIPLUMBERESTABLISHED 42 YEARSW. M. MclNERNEY624 EAST 63 rd ST.PLUMBING andHEATINGPHONE FAIRFAX 2911THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 47the Department of Public Welfare,Phoenix, Arizona.1934Esther H. Powell, AM, Instructor in Case Work at the Universityof Nebraska, and Alden Lilly-white assisted in the Social WorkTraining course at the University ofOregon during the past summer.1931Georgia Ball, AM, has been appointed State Director of SocialService in the Federal TransientService at Nashville, Tennessee.1934Elizabeth White, '29, AM, formerly a Field Work Supervisor inthe School of Social Service, has beenappointed on the staff of the Boardof State Aid and Charities of Maryland.Thomasine Hendricks, a formerstudent, who has been Acting Executive Director of the MontgomeryCounty Relief Committee of Alabama, has accepted a position as instructor in the social work trainingprogram of the Kentucky EmergencyRelief Administration.1932Grace E. Benjamin, AM, hasrecently taken a position in the Research Department of the StateEmergency Relief, making a surveyfor the Federal Government in theState of Kentucky.New Field Work Supervisors of1934-35 include Mrs. Alice New-bold, formerly Assistant Director ofthe Wisconsin Children's Aid Society; Miss Eunice Robinson, formerly Director of the Denver Bureauof Public Welfare; Miss OliveWalker, formerly of the West Virginia State Relief Administration;and Miss Kathryn Welch, formerly superintendent Pike CountyChild Welfare Board, Alabama; (1)Miss Pauline Bakeman, MissHilda Hanson, and Mr. MerrillKrughoff, formerly assistants inthe Probation Project of the School ;(2) Miss Anne Davis, formerly ofthe New York Charity OrganizationSociety.ENGAGED1921John W. Fulton, '21, to Katherine Mary Kenny of Chicago.1931Lawrence Beall Smith, '31, toHarriette Winn Revere, of Westfield,New Jersey. 1932Ruth Rosenthal, '32, to SamRosenburg of St. Louis, Mo.MARRIEDHorace L. Olson, '17, SM, '18,PhD, '23, to Loleta L. Bushnell ofLansing, Michigan, July 16, 1934.At home, 624 Evergreen Ave., EastLansing.Virginia L. Harvey, '26, to William J. Winter, July 30, 1934, Washington, D. C. At home, 2032 Belmont Road, NW, Washington, DC.Emelyn Rowell, '28, to Luis Milton Webster, July 7, 1934. At home,80 West Grand Street, Mt. Vernon,New York. Mrs. Webster is teachingat the Junior High School at Bronxville.Eleanor C. Wilkins, '28, to GlenC. Turner, of Claremont, Calif., July12, 1934. Mrs. Turner will be actinglibrarian at Scripps College this year.Miriam Miller, '29, to ChesterRumf, June 29, 1934, Hilton Chapel.At home, 5401 Ellis Ave., Chicago.Marcella Koerber, '30, to ClaudeH. Mathews, of Minneapolis, Minn.,Hilton Chapel, Sept. 1st, 1934. Athome, 2809 Park Ave., Apt. 101,Minneapolis.Viola D. Somerville, '30, to CyrilBarclay Bond, September 10, 1934,Joseph Bond Chapel. At home, 5418Woodlawn Ave., Chicago.Charles Perry Gould, '30, toMary Dalrymple, September 1, 1934,Alhambra, Calif. At home, 1546 Can-field Ave., Los Angeles, Calif.Gladys Nancy Stewart, '31, toCharles Huntley Wallace, September18, 1934, at Pittsburgh, Pa. At home,1421 E. 58th St., Chicago,Orpha K. Johnson, '31, to LyleJennings Brown, June 16, BondChapel; at home, 2654 Lunt Ave.,Chicago.James F. Ingfelt, AM '32, toVera Sterner, of Humboldt, Iowa,summer, 1934. The Ingfelts are located in St. Louis, Mo., where Mr.Ingfelt is activity director for theNorth Side Branch of the Y.M.C.A.Paul Stagg, '32, to Virginia Russell, '35, August 14, 1934, HiltonChapel, Mr. Stagg is now at Bethlehem, Pa., where he is coaching atMoravian College, and Mrs. Stagg isfinishing her undergraduate work atthe University of Chicago.Louis T. Ziska, '32, to LorraineBalkan, July 28, 1934, Riverside, 111.Martha Miller, '33, to John R.Davenport, July 3, 1934. At home,5630 Kenwood Ave., Chicago.Jean Edwina Stellman, '33, to PLATINGYou Wreck 'em. We Fix "emMcVittie Plating & BrassRefinishing Works, Inc.Expert Metal Platers and RefinishersChromium - Nickel - Copper - Silver - GoldBrass- Bronze -All Antique and Modern FinishesWe plate or refinlsh anything made of metalWe specialize in silver plating tableware1600-02-04 So. State Street Calumet 2646-7-8RADIATOR CABINETSBe in Correct ProportionsGARDNER REDUCINGSTUDIOS30 S. Michigan Ave.Phone Dearborn 3809RESTAURANTThe Best Place to Eat on the South SideCOLONIAL TEA ROOM6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone Hyde Park 6324ROOFINGGrove Roofing Co.(Gilliland)Old Roofs Repaired — New Roofs Put On24 Years at 6644 Cottage. Grove Ave.Lowest Prices — Estimates FreeFairfax 3206RUG CLEANERC. A. BOUSHELLECOMPANYRUG CLEANERS2 1 8 East 7 1 st StreetTelephone: Stewart 9867STORAGEGARFIELDFIREPROOF STORAGE CO.Movers, Packers and StorageNew and Used Household Goods. Terms.5929—33 So. State StreetPhones, Englewood 5020-502148 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESTORAGE— ContinuedPhone MID way 9700 HYDe Park 0452Peterson Fireproof Storage Co.Chas. A. Peterson, Pres.Moving and ExpressingPacking and ShippingForeign ShipmentsBranch: 8126 Cottage Grove Avenue55th Street and Ellis AvenueTAILORFrank DEdwardCharles Campbell PhoneEisele State 3863C. Polich Central 8898EISELE & POLICH, LTD.Merchant Tailors8 South Michigan Avenue — Fourth FloorCHICAGOTEACHER'S AGENCYTHE YATES-FISHERTEACHERS AGENCYEstablished 1906PAUL YATES, Manager616-620 South Michigan Ave.ChicagoTHEHUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 E. JACKSON BLVD.TELEPHONE HARRISON 7793Member National Associationof Teachers AgenciesWe Enjoy a Very Fine High School, NormalSchool, College and University PatronageUNDERTAKERSBARBOUR & GUSTINUNDERTAKERS4141 Cottage Grove Ave.PHONE DREXEL 0510LUDLOW - SCHNEIDERFUNERAL DIRECTORSFine Chapel with New Pipe OrganSEDAN AMBULANCETel. Fai rfax 286161 10 Cottag e Grove Ave.VENTILATINGTh e Haines ; CompanyVentilating Contractors1929-1937 West Lake St.Phones Seeley 2765-2766-2767 John Elwes Duffield, August 30,1934, Bond Chapel, Chicago. Athome, London, England.BORNTo George J. Serck, '20, and Mrs.Serck, a daughter, Ellen Bernice,June 15, 1934, New York, N, Y.To Lansing R. Felker, '20, andMrs. Felker (Addie Thompson, }23)a son, Lansing Raymond Jr., August29, 1934, St. Louis, Mo.To J. Alton Lauren, '20, andMrs. Lauren (Ruth Stagg, '25) adaughter, Janet, July 12, 1934, Chicago.To Percival Allen Gray, Jr.,'22, PhD '24, MD '27, and Mrs.Gray (Mary E. Foster, '25) a daughter, Caroline, June 30, 1934, SantaBarbara, Calif.To Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Ball(Glenna Mode, '24) a son, DonaldArthur, May 5, 1934, Wheaton, 111.To Paul E. Basye, JD '26, andMrs. Basye, a son, Charles Edmond,August 28, 1934, Kansas City, Mo.To Mr. and Mrs. Robert H.Pease (Esther Cook '27) a son, Robert Holcomb Pease, Jr., September4, 1934, Chicago.To William W. Morgan, '27,PhD '31, and Mrs. Morgan (HelenM. Barrett, '23) a daughter, EmilyWilson, January 2, 1934, WilliamsBay, Wis.To John Dollard, AM '30, PhD'31, and Mrs. Dollard, (VictorineDav, AM '30) a daughter, Julie, May30, 1934.To Karl A. Mygdal, '28, andMrs. Mygdal (Margaret Pringle,'29) a daughter, Kathryn Astrid,Sept. 26, 1934, Caripito, Venezuela.To Lester C. Shephard, '29, andMrs. Shephard (Daisy Dean Shephard, '34) a son, David Carleton,July 2, 1934, Chicago.To Dr. and Mrs. Richard K.Schmitt, MD '31, a daughter,Karen, June 13, 1934, Columbus,Ind.To Dan Seifer, '32, and Mrs. Sei-fer, a daughter, Diane, June 7, 1934,Chicago Heights, 111.DIEDD. H. Worthington, MD '79,June 2, 1934, Aurora, 111.Arthur B. Freeman, MD '85,January 26, 1934, San Diego, Cal.H. W. Sheldon, MD '85, March12, 1934, Berkeley, Calif.Charles Aubrey Parker, MD'91, July 16, 1934, Chicago. Dr.Parker had been connected with RushMedical College for forty years. Maude Radford Warren, '94,PhM '96, July 6, 1934, Ithaca, NewYork. Mrs. Warren was a notednovelist and journalist.Mrs. Jennie R. Goodman, '94,July 31, 1934, Chicago.Isaac Howard Dunaway, MD'96, October 16, 1933.Charles A. Lemon, DB '97,March 2, 1934, Ludington, Mich.Lawtrence DeGraff, '98, June 7,1934, Des Moines, Iowa. Mr. DeGraff was formerly State SupremeCourt Justice of Iowa.Blanche Swingley, '00, (Mrs.Frank H. Armstrong) May 25, 1934,Evanston, 111.Susan C. Grant, '02 (Mrs. Harold E. Smith) Sept. 19, 1934, NewYork City.Oscar P. Harris, MD '02, October 29, 1933, Mendota, 111.Leslie H. Wood, AM '02, June10, 1933.Frances B. Wells, '02, July 23,1934, Oak Park, 111.David R. Lee, '03, October 18,1933, Evanston, 111.Floyd McKennan Baldwin, MD'03, August 16, 1934, Palo Alto,Calif.Harold Van Cott, MD '03, February 15, 1934.John R. Cochran, '04, December22, 1933.Leo Wormser, '05, JD '09, August 9, 1934, in an automobile accident, at Reed City, Mich.J. DWIGHT DlCKERSON, '06, JD'08, October 20, 1934, Chicago, 111.James B. Blake, JD '07, July 4,1934, Milwaukee, Wis.George M. Logan, MD '09, March21, 1934, Akron, Ohio.Ernestine Savage, '15, (Mrs. C.Clyde Anderson) March 18, 1934,East Moline, 111.Annie Gardner, '16, (Mrs. CarlArchibald Glover), July 2, 1934,Charlevoix, Mich.George Curtis Ellis, MD '17,September 2, 1934, Chicago. Dr.Ellis was the first Negro doctor to besent abroad to study in the field ofneurology.Carl Richard Wagner, MD '20,June 8, 1934, Pasadena, Calif.Henry M. Adkinson, II, '31,July 14, 1934, Hamilton, Ontario.Martha S. G. Smith, SM '31,January 25, 1934, Richmond, Va.Robert E. McKittrick, '31, September 20, 1934, Chicago.Mona Hodge, '33 (Mrs. RobertW. Gates) September 1, 1934, Chicago.Joseph Wagner, '34, drowned inLake Michigan in an attempt to rescue a girl, July 29, 1934Your Campus Record in BronzeIndividualityPermanenceDignityArtThe actual size of your plaque will be 6 in. x 91/4 in.YOUR NAME HERE-in Ancient Roman Bronzeto endure through the agesFOR YOUR NAME HERECast of the same kind of bronze as was excavated from the ruins of Rome All embodied in this plaque containing the distinguishedCOAT OF ARMSof your university - to grace the wallsor fireplace of your home or office.Legally protected against cheap imitations!You would appreciate such a plaquehanded down to you by your ancestors. Your posterity will likewise appreciate such an act of yours.Mail this coupon today!To The Alumni Council,University of Chicago,Chicago, III.Enclosed is $10.00 for which pleasemail me postpaid a plaque made ofancient Roman Bronze, bearing the Coatof Arms of the University of Chicago,my name, class years, school and degrees.Print Name Street City NOTE - Lines must not exceed 20 letters. Where lines exceed 20 letters,punctuation included, in length, the useof abbreviations is herewith granted.PRINT below: class years, school anddegrees.I m no dirt farmerbut I was brought up on atobacco farm and I knowmild ripe tobacco . . .have a Chesterfield© 1934, Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co.