gflppM^^y *¦$*!?¦<7 ,JPto i V**?*' J~-v\;'"•I *THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEOne of the nicest things about cruising on the famous President Linersis the absolute freedom they allow you — to sail when you please, stopover as you like, continue on when you choose.Actually you may go through the Panama Canal to California(or New York), to the Orient and back, or Round the World almostas freely on these great ships as you could on your own private yacht.And the fares are no more than for ordinary passage!STOPOVER AS YOU LIKE Regular, frequent sailings ofthe President Liners make it possible for you to stopover exactlywhere you want to — see the things you want to see and make the sidetrips you want to make, then continue whenever you are readySuppose you are making an Orient cruise: arrive at Shanghai, andfind China more fascinating than you ever dreamed any place could be.Stopover! Visit Hangchow and Soochow, Tientsin . . . and Peking. Stayas long as you like. Then continue on ... on another President Liner.ORIENT ROUNDTRIPS President Liners sail every weekfrom Los Angeles and San Francisco via Hawaii and the SunshineRoute to Japan, China and the Philippines; every other week fromSeattle, via the fast Short Route. You may go one way, return the other— stopping over wherever you like, travel on the new S. S. PresidentCoolidge and S. S. President Hoover and as many others as you chooseof the President Liner fleet. Special summer roundtrips are from $450,First Class . . . $240 for extra-economical Tourist Class.ROUND THE WORLD The most thrilling cruise of all.26,000 miles. Visits in 21 ports in 14 different countries, includingHawaii, Japan, China, the Philippines, Malaya, India, Egypt, Italy,France . . . Take only 85 days, or up to two full years — stopping overwherever you please, at no additional fare. First Class fares are from$833.50. And you may sail any week from NewYork, Los Angeles or San Francisco; alternateweeks from Seattle. Get full details at once.CALIFORNIA President Liners bring allthe thrill of real world travel to this speedy Inter-coastal trip . . . via Havana and the Panama Canalto California. If you like, you may stopover withthe same freedom that these liners allow you onthe longer cruises. Fares are from $140 on Round the World liners and from $165 on the Trans-Pacific vessels. Round-trips by President Liner are generously discounted, and Round America roundtrips — one way by President Liner, the other by train — arefrom $230 First Class, hometown to hometown. There is a sailingevery week from New York; fortnightly from California.President liners Ask any travelagent to show you pictures of the charming publicrooms and ample decks, the staterooms that areall outside— and samples of the splendid menus 1Get all information from your own traveltT^ 'uV/TPTit'TrlTPfiQ^n tu\i? asent' or at any one of our offices: New York;SMSsiliEsiffij rostm: Thington'BDccs; ^t" 2 ToTl—J-Jb-IJi II II b-ii— i^WUhdbJM Toronto; Vancouver, R.C.; Seattle; Portland, Ore.;MITT LTNE San Francisco, Oakland, Los Angeles or San Diego.WMMSTEAMSHIP LINES ANDTHE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI COUNCILCharlton T. Beck, '04 Ruth C. E. Earnshaw, '31Editor and Business Manager Associate EditorFred B. Millett, PhD '31, William V. Morgenstern, '20, JD '22, John P. Howe, '27,Contributing EditorsMilton E. Robinson, Jr., '11, JD '13, Ethel Preston, '08, AM '10, PhD '20, Donald Bean, '17,Editorial BoardIT HAS been claimed by an authority on unimportant statistics thatenough halftones of the BotanyPond have appeared in Universitypublications to blanket the entiresurface of that far-famed body ofwater. Be that as it may, we bringyou on our cover another picture ofthe Pond and its borders of luxurious vegetation and with HutchinsonHall and Mitchell Tower in thebackground.Any University would be fortunateto have Edgar Johnson Goodspeed asits convocation orator, but it waspeculiarly appropriate that he shouldbe the speaker at the March Convocation of the University of Chicago. He is known to Chicagoans notonly as the Ernest D. Burton Distinguished Professor of Biblical andPatristic Greek, as Chairman of theDepartment of New Testament andEarly Christian Literature, as theauthor of the first American Translation of the New Testament, and ofmany a delightful collection ofessays. To Chicagoans he is knownas a fellow alumnus and to them heis in truth a part of "a great tradition"— the Goodspeed tradition, forthe University of Chicago wouldnever have been the institution thatit is today, had it not been for thebroad vision, the supreme courageand the untiring energy of his father,Thomas Wakefield Goodspeed, thefirst financial secretary of the University's Board of Trustees. IN THIS ISSUEThere is no man better qualifiedto write of Rush Medical Collegethan Arthur Dean Bevan, for hehas been intimately acquainted withits accomplishments during the pasthalf century and has had a large partin determining its policies and itsideals. After a general education inthe Sheffield Scientific School of YaleUniversity, the author returned tohis boyhood home in Chicago andentered upon the study of medicineat Rush Medical College. Graduatingwith the Class of 1883, he spent someyears as surgeon with the UnitedStates Marine Hospital Service, returning to Chicago in 1887, where heentered into private practice, at theTABLE OF CONTENTSJUNE, 1934,PAGEThe Great Tradition, Edgar J. Good-speed 267Rush Medical College, Arthur DeanBevan 271An Electronic Love Song 274Phi Beta Kappa Prospects, C. S.Boucher . 275Chicago Alumni in the Current Magazines 278Flag at Half Mast? Frederic J. Gurney . 279True Confessions, Charlton T. Beck. . .280In My Opinion 282College Election Returns 283News of the Quadrangles 284Athletics 286News of the Classes 288Undergraduate Trends 296 same time accepting a faculty appointment with his Alma Mater.For nearly fifty years he has remained on the teaching staff of Rush,where he is now Chairman of theDepartment of Surgery. A fellow ofthe American Surgical Association,a past president of the AmericanMedical Association, he is a distinguished representative of a distinguished profession.Chauncey Samuel Boucher speakswith authority when he states thatresults seem to indicate that our firstcrop of initiates to Phi Beta Kappaunder the new plan will be moresignificantly selected than were manyelected under the old plan. For thisis the Dean of the College who isspeaking, and he knows his students.At the same time he is a wearer ofthe key of Phi Beta Kappa, and whilehe achieved that honor in the era of"judiciously elected pipe coursesgiven by faculty members who werenotoriously easy" we still contendthat he speaks with authority.With this issue of the Magazinethe editor welcomes nearly 500 newreaders— alumni, who, within the lastthirty days, have become active members of one of our eight associations.The College Association has gainedthe greatest number of recruits-more than 300. The Rush MedicalCollege Association wins secondhonors with an increase of more thanfifty.The Magazine is published at 1009 Sloan St., Crawfordsville, Ind., monthly from November to July, inclusive, for The Alumni Council of the Universityof Chicago, 58th St. and Ellis Ave., Chicago, 111. The subscription price is $2.00 per year; the price of single copies is 25 cents.Entered as second class matter December 10, 1924, at the Post Office at Crawfordsville, Indiana, under the Act of March 3, 1879.VOLUME XXVI THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER 7JUNE, 1934THE GREAT TRADITIONTHERE is a knowledge of an institution whichcomes only to those who are its students. This iswhat Arthur Quiller-Couch meant of Oxford:"Know ye her secret none can utter?Hers of the Book, the triple crown?Still on the spire the pigeons flutter,Still by the gateway flits the gown;Still on the street, from corbel and gutter,Faces of stone look down!"President Judson brought us up to believe that theMarch Convocation was the home convocation of theyear, when the speaker was one of ourselves, and wetalked among ourselves, of our own hopes and memories. And in that spirit I want to speak today; as analumnus, among alumni; a voice from the ranks, of onewho has gone through the mill before you; of theUniversity, as it appears to me, after a lifetime spent,you may almost say, within its walls.For I, like you, have known the magic of this University; her inspiration, her transforming power; that quality peculiar to Chicago among universities. Years ago,when E. E. Slosson, an alumnus like ourselves, wrote aseries of articles on American Universities, he namedthe one on this university, "Chicago: a University byEnchantment."To one who saw it rise out of nothing, swiftly, surely,dramatically, to its firm place among educational leaders, like a rocket going up to join the stars, the phrasedoes not seem extravagant. There was a time when ittook much courage and faith to join the faculty of whatwas freely described as a "paper" university; but wegather today in the midst of a group of academic buildings hardly equalled in the world, which are only thesymbol of the University's significance and power.It was not the purpose of our founders simply to addone more to the country's institutions of higher learning, but to create one in a new key, in which teachingand research should unite to serve the people. This waswhy we took the lead in offering summer instructionto those who could come at no other season, and in conferring degrees four times a year. This is why we firstamong American universities included a University Pressamong the divisions of the University. This is why suchgreat numbers of teachers all over the country and the • By EDGAR J. GOODSPEED, DB '97, PhD '98world look back to these quadrangles as their academichome.Ours is indeed a great tradition; of a sequence ofgreat scholars, teachers and men of science: men likeChamberlin and Coulter, Michelson and Small, Harperand Henderson;— all pioneers of truth, heroes of learning and research, whose devotion removed mountains,conquered kingdoms, shut the mouths of lions. Therehas been a passion, a sense of mission, about the University, that has made it restless in seeking ways toserve the cause of western education; to bring its bestto those who needed it most; a great democratic impulseto open the fields of learning to the unprivileged. Thishas been the spiritual genius of the University; thisgilds our great tradition.Not that they diluted learning, or shaped their scienceto some vulgar aim; they rather opened the deepestfountains they could reach to all who could benefit bythem. This disposition is still vigorous today in ouracademic reorganization, in which it takes new andfruitful forms. And it must remain deeply interwovenin the University's life, if it is still to do the uniquething it has always done, and carry on in fullness andpower the Great Tradition.With us, there has always been a mutual tolerationand respect within the faculty; between faculty andstudents; and between the faculty and the trustees.This University opened its doors with a young president and a young faculty. Many heads of departmentswere in their thirties. Of course, youth is not alwayssympathetic with youth, but taken on so broad a scaleas it was then taken, it certainly bred in those firstdays a spirit of companionship in study that has neverwholly departed.How generously the trustees have stood by us, inparticular efforts, again and again! Let me relate asingle instance. A few years ago, there was offered us,directly from Paris, the so-called D'Hendecourt Roll,a unique form of Greek gospel manuscript. It threw aclarifying light on an obscure passage in Chrysostom,and was unparalleled in the Bibliotheque Nationaleand the British Museum. I wrote Mr. Martin Ryerson,asking him if he would let me show it to him, give ushis judgment upon it, and perhaps help us to acquire267268 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEit. He replied that if I would bring it to the approachingconvocation, he would be glad to look at it. I did so,and as the trustees were gathering for the procession,I found Mr. Ryerson and showed him the manuscript.He examined it carefully, gave his own expert judgmentupon the date of its miniatures, and readily undertookone- third of its cost. It now hangs in the rare book room.Ours is indeed a Great Tradition of manners, understanding and good companionship, within this University; and withal of great endeavor. I well remember withwhat earnestness and directness Dr. Harper would sometimes on these occasions urge upon his faculty the necessity for research, productive scholarship, publication;and the scorn with which some of my first instructorshere alluded to specialists in our field who had never"published."I remember, too, applying to the new President, inthe summer of '92, for a fellowship in his own department of Semitic languages. The only time he could giveme was while he ate a sandwich in a lunch room, nearthe University office down town. I laid my case beforehim; one year of graduate work with him at Yale, oneyear of teaching. He replied, "You have proved thatyou can learn and you have proved that you can teach;but you have not proved that you can investigate; andthese fellowships are for men who can. If you get one,it will be by default."So sternly he talked to us, students and faculty, ofthe duty of research, in days when research was hardlymore than a name in this part of the world; until itbecame a sort of religion here among us, and a passionfor it has come to pervade the University from top tobottom as it does few places in the world. In this oncemore, we have a Great Tradition, which must alwayscarry on. There were, indeed, great spirits like Chamberlin and Coulter here in the west, already mature, buthow gladly they left their presidencies to come into theresearch-atmosphere, which it had been left to Chicagoto create. All this is a bright page in the history ofAmerican education; I simply allude to it here as adominant note, a mighty undertone in our own GreatTradition.In its relation to the City, too, the University has agreat tradition. It was the City's response to the generosity of the Founder that established it, and again andagain it has responded to its needs for buildings, endowments and equipment. Certainly, the entente withthe City ebbs and flows, but fundamentally, it is there,as an enduring element in the University's life andwork. From the days when President Harper headedthe commission to reorganize the school system, to thedays when President Hutchins headed the committeeon Unemployment Relief, the University has served theCity well.And the City on its side has countless hands held outto us to help and for help. What a public it offers in itsamazing social organization, in clubs and churches, fora man who has a cause and has something to say! Andwhat generous support it has often given our variousprojects! Where else in this country, I wonder, couldwe have found such cooperation?IINot only in the life, but in the subject matter of theUniversity, we have a great tradition. It is the human ities. For they are not our achievement— they are our inheritance. Through them we make contact with theconscious past. The aim of the Humanists of the Renaissance was to revive antiquity, by which they meant itsart, literature and life,— the things the barbarians hadsuffered to perish or at least to disappear. Upon thistask we are still engaged, persuaded that its thoughts andattitudes, its art and letters, have value for us still, andmay still contribute elements of strength, beauty, andeven truth to modern living. This only means that wewill also avail ourselves so far as possible of all thathas been thought before our time.Beyond doubt, an enormous lot of thinking and achieving was done before our day. All this is the provinceof the humanities. To dispense with this, or to neglectit, is to assume that all sound thinking and sound feelingbegan with us. So the Humanities have been, since therevival of learning, the core of education.There is no sadder sight than the man whose mindalone has been educated; whose sensibilities remaincrude and undeveloped. There is an education of theemotions and sympathies. This is one reason peoplegather in universities, instead of studying quietly at home,by correspondence. That might do, for their books, butnot for the social values of student contact. It is thisthat we have in mind when we say that students educateone another. The give-and-take of table talk, the campusbanter, the more serious long conversations in one another's rooms— these are a part of education, on itshumaner side. They increase, as we say, our understanding, particularly of people.Reading is a kind of projection of this; a somewhat—but not entirely— one-sided conversation with a widerange of authors who, in the generosity of their spirits,are willing to open their minds to the public. Onecomes to see how many kinds of people there are, andhow many kinds of minds. Novel incidents, situationsand attitudes pass before us, for our instinctive enjoyment or appraisal. We pass through a variety of emotions—anxieties, perplexities, excitements— far wider—we trust— than anything we have personally known. Weharvest the experience of books.We make the acquaintance of other times and otherpeoples. We are— vicariously— at home in the Arctic andthe Antipodes. We penetrate antiquity. Our concernis man and all his conscious expression. For we saywith Menander, "I am human, and I count nothinghuman alien to me." With all this sound developmentof human sympathy and understanding, goes the advanceof taste and appreciation. You perceive that a thing issometimes well said; sometimes supremely well said.Some books have delicacy, some have power; some repelyou; to some you return again and again. An estheticsense asserts itself within you. This is fostered by experience of the world's music and its art. You feel theauthority of a fine picture, a noble building, a greatplay. You are entering into the inheritance of the GreatTradition.Sometimes we find our way blocked by differencesof language. But we surmount the barrier, and in thejoy of a new technique find ourselves masters of a newworld. This is the charm of the acquisition of a language; it opens to us new and wider fields. Men keepon making translations of Homer fov the sheer joy of it.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 269John Wesley made his translation of the New Testament "for plain, unlettered men, who understand onlytheir mother tongue." There is an unmistakable note ofcompassion in the words; poor fellows!After Enjoyment and Appreciation, comes Criticism:— seeing through a writer to his sources, the observation of his use of them; his purposes and method; untilwe can, as it were, stand at the elbow of some first century evangelist and see him turn from this source tothat, and thus build up his narrative. With such an experience comes a new understandingof his aim and his work.Over the Alps lies Italy, andbeyond the books are the manuscripts! Printing is a comparativelymodern thing, and behind all ourolder classics lie the written forms ofthem, through which they go back,by a series of copying, to the timeswhen they were first composed. Not .inferior to the exhilaration of mastering a language is that which comesto you with the power to decipher amanuscript,— especially if it be onewhich no modern eye has seen beforeyou. So after Criticism, Discovery!The frontispiece of my schoolboyHomer was a picture of what wasthen considered the best authorityfor his text— the tenth centurymanuscript at Venice. But now wehave Homers a thousand years olderand nearer the original than that.And what an excitement fills you asyou unroll a Greek papyrus on which no eye haslooked since the second century.The poets have felt the romance of this:Oh ye who patiently exploreThe wreck of Herculanean lore,What rapture, could ye seizeSome Theban fragment, or unrollOne precious, tender hearted scrollOf pure Simonides!Simonides still eludes us, but many another classicwriter of ancient Greece has been brought to literarylife again, since Wordsworth wrote these lines— climaxing the humanistic discipline with the joy of Discovery.Of course, we, in this Western America, are at apeculiar disadvantage in this matter. For we are far removed from the materials of such research— the inscriptions, sculptures, documents and manuscripts, whichare to so large an extent the indispensable materials ofresearch in the Humanities.This is why we have set ourselves to build up collections of original research materials here in this countryand at this University; so that the techniques of researchmay be learned and practiced here in the presence ofactual original materials and face to face with the newproblems they invariably create.Not so long ago the bringing to the University of aunique collection of Balzac's letters made possible significant researches on the part of our Romance scholarsinto his literary method. The formation at the University of a complete collection of manuscripts ofChaucer, even in photostat copies, is leading to a re-Edgar J. construction of his text on a more authoritative scalethan has been possible anywhere heretofore.Last month there was brought to the Oriental Institute a newly discovered Assyrian tablet giving a newlist of 95 kings of Assyria, which will carry back thedynastic framework of Assyrian history 1,000 years beyond present knowledge. We have of late years developed a collection of New Testament manuscriptshere at the University surpassed in this country onlyby the one at the University of Michigan, and already ithas proved a great stimulus to research. Chicago collectors have beengenerous in placing their manuscriptsin our hands for investigation; andthe organization last month of theFriends of the University of ChicagoLibrary promises to be very fruitfulin this direction. How immensely alittle original material stimulatesresearch in any field; and howlittle research can accomplish without such materials!What can be done is shown by therecent bringing to London of theChester Beatty papyri, Greek andCoptic, some of them as early as thesecond and third centuries; muchthe most ancient considerable biblical manuscripts ever found. Suchmaterials are to research in the Humanities what great laboratories areto our colleagues in science. WithoutGoodspeed them, Humanistic research cannotflourish and produce. One suchtouch of authentic reality does more than volumes ofargument and discussion. It transforms the whole matter from academic exercise to vital experience. A famouswriter was recently going through the Oriental Institute.When she came to the Gate of Lions from Babylon, shedrew off her glove and touched them with her fingers. Itwas actual contact with antiquity, and she instinctivelydramatized it in that act. The great bull from Sargon'spalace sets up for the beholder a sense of connectionwith ancient Assyria, that no plaster cast of it couldpossibly create.In my adventurous youth, I crossed Greece and riskeda night in Pyrgos, to visit Olympia and stand beforethe Hermes of Praxiteles— almost the sole authenticmasterpiece of Greek sculpture that has survived. It wasfound some fifty years ago imbedded in mud besidethe very base on which Pausanias had seen it in thesecond century. How can I describe the impression thatstatue makes upon you? For one thing, you are neverquite the same again. You begin to understand what arevelation is; and you vaguely perceive that if Michelangelo could have seen this statue, the history of modern sculpture would have been different. You go out ofthe little museum conscious that your education hasdefinitely advanced. You have come under the authenticspell of the Great Tradition.IllI have spoken of the study of the Humanities and thepossibilities of research in them, which may so easilyenhance and embellish the humanistic tradition. But270 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEit is already clear that they cannot be confined to anacademic discipline; they are a social culture; they arenot just learning; they are life. There is the Great Tradition to which they are only the key.Lord Acton said of Erasmus that he was of all menmost capable of living in imagination in other timesthan his own. It is by humanism that we rise aboveour own narrow times and are transported to otherages. This power to achieve perspective is one of themarks of education at its best; to be able to enter understanding^ into the life of other times and other peoples.Here belongs the creative power of literature. It unlocks for us the doors of the past and admits us to scenesand atmospheres widely removed from our own. Itmakes us free of new worlds of experience and emotion,with all the cultivation of perception and sensibilitywhich that involves. In London, you instinctively seekout the Old Curiosity Shop to see the home of LittleNell; and you thread the hot streets of Verona to findthe Tomb of Juliet. Of course they never lived! Butthey are much more real and precious to the modernworld than most people who have! And we are allricher and more sensitive for having known them.There are various ways to extend our acquaintancewith life: travel, society, radio, the stage— but aboveall, books! And in particular those creative works ofliterature in which the great masters of letters have recorded human experience and feeling. It is such culturethat holds the keys not only to the conscious past butto the wider present. Wandering in my student daysthrough Moravia, I found myself one spring evening atBriinn, looking up at the grim old castle-prison. Theysaid it was the Spielberg. You know the Spielberg! It wasthere one idle summer in Wisconsin that you experienced with Silvio Pellico, the Italian patriot, thosefifteen dreary years of imprisonment which he hasshared with all the world in his little book "My Prisons."So you are at home at the Spielberg; it is not strangeor alien to you. And you know what prison life is, perhaps better than many prisoners of less sensibilitythan he.This is our inheritance in books; this is our wealth,inexhaustible, yet ever increasing; not of course by thewhole vast mass of annual book production, but by thatinfinitely precious fraction of it that has the right toendure.There came into my hands recently a little biographical dictionary, published more than a hundredyears ago, and what interested me most about it wasthe names it did not contain. No Byron or Wordsworth;no Keats or Shelley; no Goethe, no Carlyle; no Hugo orDumas. No Scott, Dickens, or Thackeray; No Washington Irving or Mark Twain. No Stevenson, Kipling orConrad; no Mendelssohn or Wagner; no Sargent orSaint Gaudens. And of course none of the living heroesof today. How meager its heritage of culture seems tous! Or rather, how immensely one century has enrichedit! Will the next century do as well? Why should wenot think so? Please see that it does.For what is tradition? Something to be handed on. The Great Tradition is not yours to gloat over; still lessto squander or neglect. It is something to hand down.To pass on this glorious tradition, enhanced and clarified and even increased to the future; this is what savesus from barbarism. The barbarians did not esteem thisinheritance, and let it perish. They made the dark ages.But there are no barbarians now, you say. But arethere not? It sometimes seems as though a new barbarismwere invading our civilization, seeking to capture ourmanners, our literature and our art, the traditionalcitadels of culture; a subtler Bolshevism, seeking not oureconomic, but our cultural, levelling down. Some wantto degrade our speech, some our manners, some ourbooks and plays, some our sports and our amusements,some our inmost ideals. Theirs is the cult of the raw,the crude, and the violent. They work together to undermine that heritage of human culture, which the racehas fought so hard to win.It is a great thing, in the phrase of Matthew Arnold,to know the best .that has been said and thought in theworld. But that is not enough. It is our task as educatedmen and women to see that this best is not forgotten.And in the midst of new ideas and attitudes often claiming everything for themselves, it is not unlikely thatit will be. But you are the custodians of this heritage ofculture; you are its trustees. It cannot operate withoutyou. Do not expect it to exist apart from you, as thoughan idea could live without a mind to entertain it. Thisis your responsibility as educated people. Without it,is there any education?For language, culture, taste, ideals— all that belongsto the human spirit, however much revised, reinterpreted, revalued, and reorganized— are Tradition— partof the inheritance of the race from its own past. For thisgreat tradition, every educated man and woman mustcherish reverence, affection, solicitude.To understand and organize the past; its thought andits experience, its accomplishments and its failures, isnecessary before any intelligent approach can be madeto the problems of the present and the future. This isthe task of the humanist. His is the breadth of view,the organizing mood that builds the intellectual platform for the future.So above, below and around us is the Great Tradition—Art, Music, Letters, Manners; our vast inheritance,which none of us can fully know but on which all ofus depend, in which we can all take delight and findrefreshing, and for the best of which we must, as menand women of culture, stoutly contend in our generation.The danger of the modern man is that he will be onlymodern; that he will lack background, tradition, consciousness of the past. May your education be not justthe acquisition of a set of nimble techniques; but atransforming inward experience! May you carry from usnot just a rearrangement of old prejudices, or a newdogmatism replacing an old one; but a broad and realtolerance and understanding of mankind. May you beheirs of all the ages, and defenders and continuators ofall that is best in the Great Tradition.RUSH MEDICAL COLLEGEPioneer Professional School of the WestIN 1836 Chicago was a village of three thousandpeople. It was incorporated one hundred years agoin August 1833. In the three years after its incorporation it increased in population more than seventeenfold. People were coming in from everywhere by steamboat, by way of the Great Lakes, by wagon and by stageover almost impassable roads. The people who camehad great faith in the future of Chicago and believedthat on account of its location in the Mississippi Valley,and at the head of navigation of the Great Lakes, thatit was destined to become a city of more than onehundred thousand people, and they were already planning to petition the legislature for a city charter.Among the arrivals in 1836 was a young Doctor,Daniel Brainard, who had graduated from the JeffersonMedical College in Philadelphia in 1834. When hecame to Chicago Brainard was twenty-four years old,full of ambition and enthusiasm and convinced thatChicago would rapidly become the center of populationof the new and great West. As the great wave of population poured into the Mississippi Valley and new farmsand villages sprang up everywhere, the demand for doctors to provide medical care became more and moreurgent. The few eastern medical schools could notsupply this demand; with clear and prophetic visionBrainard saw the necessity of establishing medicalschools and training the urgently needed medical practitioners in the West. He was not slow to act. He obtained a charter from the legislature in 1837 to establishRush Medical College. This same legislature in thewinter of 1836-1837 gave a charter to the City of Chicago.The name Rush Medical College was well chosen.Dr. Benjamin Rush of Philadelphia was regarded as thefather of American medicine in the same sense thatSydenham is regarded as the father of medicine in GreatBritain. Rush was not only the foremost medical manof his time but he was also one of the most eminentcitizens in the colonies. He was one of the signers ofthe Declaration of Independence and took an activepart in the Revolutionary War and in the life of theUnited States after this country had won its independence. Rush was born in 1745, graduated at Princetonin 1760 and in Edinburgh in 1768. He was professor ofmedicine in the University of Pennsylvania. He wasTreasurer of the United States Mint from 1799 to 1813.He was a man of very positive opinions and strongly opposed to war, slavery, alcoholism and the death penaltyand did not hesitate to present forcibly these views. Hetook an active part in fighting the great yellow feverepidemic in Philadelphia in 1793 and wrote a vividdescription of it. He was a copious writer on both medical and civic problems. He died in 1813.The American Medical Association erected a monument of Dr. Benjamin Rush in Washington and dedicated it on June 11, 1904. The American Medical As- • By ARTHUR DEAN BEVAN, MD'83sociation regards Rush as the most eminent physicianof his time. The monument bears the inscription: "Dr.Benjamin Rush, physician and philanthropist, andsigner of the Declaration of Independence." PresidentTheodore Roosevelt in accepting the monument said,"I accept on behalf of the nation, the gift so fittinglybestowed by one of the great professions, this statue ofa man who was eminent, not only in that profession,but eminent in his service to the nation as a whole. Icongratulate you of the medical profession today onwhat you have done, not merely in commemorating theforemost pioneer in your own profession, but in addingat the National Capital a figure to the gallery of greatAmericans who should be here commemorated."Brainard had great confidence in the future of Chicagoand the West and believed that they would become greatand prosperous communities. He believed that sucha future demanded the development of schools and colleges and professional schools. Although he secured thecharter in 1837 ne did not succeed in organizing andopening his medical school until 1843. He went toParis, which was then the center of medical education,in 1839 and remained until 1841 doing post-graduatework. Brainard obtained in Paris the benefit of thebest medical teaching of his time. Magendie and ClaudeBernard were then teaching physiology in Paris, Cruveil-hier was teaching pathology, Cloquet was teaching anatomy, Trousseau was teaching medicine, and Brainardlearned surgery from Velpeau, Malgaigne and Nelaton,the leading surgeons of their time. Brainard made asecond visit to Paris for post-graduate work in 1852-1853.While there he read a paper before the Societe de Chir-urgie de Paris on the injection of iodine into the sac tocure the congenital defect of the spinal column andspinal cord, known as spina bifida. In recognition ofthis work he was made a member of the Society of Surgery of Paris. Brainard did a number of brilliant piecesof original research work in surgery; one of the mostimportant being a new method of treating ununitedfractures. This was made the prize surgical essay of theyear 1854 by the American Medical Association and waslater published in France.Rush Medical College, which Daniel Brainardfounded, is the oldest educational institution in Chicago. It has performed a very important function in thedevelopment of the west. Brainard surrounded himselfwith a strong group of men many of whom became important factors in the development of American medicine; such men as Austin Flint, Sr., who was later calledto New York, Nathan S. Davis, the founder of the American Medical Association, and William H. Byford, oneof the pioneers in American gynecology, and manyothers. Brainard founded a great surgical clinic on thevery sound knowledge which he had acquired from hisEuropean training. His conception was that surgerymust be built on a knowledge of anatomy, physiology271272 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBENJAMIN RUSH, M. D.,A GREAT PHYSICIAN, A NOBLE PATRIOT, A SIGNER OF THE DECLARATIONOF INDEPENDENCE.and pathology. This conception of Brainard's has beentransmitted to his successors; Moses Gunn, Charles T.Parkes, Nicholas Senn, John B. Murphy and others.With the great development which has taken place inanatomy, physiology and pathology, which still continueto form the foundation on which the clinic is built, it hasgrown stronger and stronger with the passing years.One of the things which has become a tradition in theclinic is the training of young men to become teachersof surgery. In this it has been successful as shown bysuch men as Charles T. Parkes, John B. Murphy, D. B.Phemister, Evarts Graham, Dean Lewis, Charles Rowan,Howard Beye and Waltman Walters who have beencalled to chairs of surgery in Northwestern University,The University of Chicago, Washington University inSt. Louis, Johns Hopkins University, University ofSouthern California, University of Iowa and the MayoClinic. We can obtain an estimate of Brainard's workby the men who shortly succeeded him. Nicholas Senn,one of the greatest of American surgical teachers, whenhe succeeded to the professorship founded by Brainard,said, "Brainard, the founder of this institution and thefirst occupant of the chair of surgery, was a great surgeon, a gifted teacher and an original investigator. Hisgiant intellect was not content in acquiring, practisingand teaching what was known at his time, but soughtnew fields of exploration, and the knowledge thusgained was freely infused into his students. Brainard'swork in the field of experimental surgery brought himinternational fame. His work left numerous permanentimpressions on surgical literature; it created a stimuluswhich took possession of students and progressive surgeons throughout the world, leading them into newand unexplored territories." The several buildings occupied by Rush MedicalCollege have been: First, Dr. Brainard's office in whichthe first course of lectures was given. Second, The firstcollege building, a very modest structure. Third, Thesecond college building which was well planned forteaching and which was burned in the great Chicago fire.After the fire temporary quarters were secured at theCook County Hospital for a short time while the newcollege building adjoining the new Cook County Hospital was being built. Later the Senn building and thenew laboratory building were added, and then the oldcollege building was replaced by the Rawson ClinicalLaboratory containing the Norman Bridge pathologicallaboratory. Fourth, Rush Medical College took an active part in the creation of the Presbyterian Hospital.In 1882 the College determined to build a hospitalwhich could be used as a teaching hospital. In 1883 thePresbyterian churches and Rush Medical College decided to unite and build the hospital to be known as thePresbyterian Hospital. The College furnished theground upon which the Hospital is built and twenty-five thousand dollars toward the enterprise and made acontract with the Presbyterian Hospital Association bywhich they could appoint the attending staff and convert the Hospital into a teaching Hospital of high order.The plan adopted by Rush Medical College and thePresbyterian Hospital Association of creating and maintaining a teaching hospital has proven to be very successful and to the mutual interest of both institutions andhas been copied by a number of medical departments ofhospitals in the United States. Such an arrangementsecures for the Hospital the best possible medical menon its attending staff; it secures for the patients in thehospital the best medical and surgical service and itsecures for the medical school without the cost of maintenance a great fund of clinical material.The location of Rush Medical College in close contact with the Cook County Hospital has been of verygreat value to the institution. The Cook County Hospital has thirty-five hundred beds and furnishes a fundof clinical material which it would be impossible toduplicate. Gradually the Cook County Hospital hasbeen reorganized into a great teaching hospital, and thisreorganization has made it possible to use this great fundof clinical material to very good advantage. The attending staff is composed of members of the faculties ofRush Medical College of The University of Chicagoand of the medical departments of Northwestern University, the University of Illinois and Loyola University. The younger men in these University Facultiesobtain the position of attending men by competitiveexamination, and this method has secured for thepatients of the Cook County Hospital the best possiblemedical and surgical care by thoroughly qualified men.Grouped about Rush Medical College, the Cook CountyHospital and the medical departments of the Universityof Illinois and Loyola are a number of other medicalinstitutions, such as the McCormick Institute for Infectious Diseases, the Durand Hospital, the dental departments of several of the universities and a numberof other hospitals and out-patient departments whichtaken altogether have made the medical center aroundthe Cook County Hospital in many ways the greatestcenter of medical education in this country.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 273In 1898 Rush became a part of The University ofChicago and under the inspiring leadership of PresidentWilliam R. Harper began a reorganization along university lines. President Harper was determined to createa great medical school and succeeded in developing oneof the strongest medical faculties in the country. Itconsisted of the following men in 1902:Anatomy: Lewellys Franklin Barker, Robert Russell Bensley,George E. Shambaugh, Dean D. Lewis, Basil G. H. Harvey; Zoology: Charles Otis Whitman, Frank Rattray Lillie, Charles Manning Child; Neurology: Henry H. Donaldson; Physiology: JacquesLoeb, Elias Potter Lyon, Albert Prescott Mathews, Martin H.Fischer; Chemistry, Pharmacy and Toxicology: Walter S. Haines,Ralph W. Webster, John Ulric Nef, Alexander Smith, JuliusStieglitz; Pathology and Bacteriology: Ludvig Hektoen, EdwinOakes Jordan, Edwin Raymond LeCount, George H. Weaver,H. Gideon Wells, Howard Taylor Ricketts, William BuchananWherry, Ernest E. Irons; Medicine: Frank Billings, Henry M.Lyman, Daniel R. Brower, John M. Dodson, James B. Herrick,Bertram W. Sippy, S. R. Slaymaker, Joseph A. Capps, Thomas R.Crowder, Joseph L. Miller, George W. Hall, James C. Gill; Surgery:Nicholas Senn, Arthur Dean Bevan, William T. Belfield, D. W.Graham; Obstetrics and Gynecology: J. Clarence Webster, CharlesE. Paddock, Rudolph W. Holmes, Palmer Findley; Diseases of theChest, Throat and Nose: E. Fletcher Ingals, John Edwin Rhodes,Otto T. Freer, George A. Torrison, N. P. Col well; Ophthalmologyand Otology: Ferdinand C. Hotz, Cassius D. Wescott, William H.Wilder, George E. Shambaugh, Brown Pusey; Skin, Genitourinary and Venereal Diseases: Professor James Nevins Hyde,Associate Professor Frank Hugh Montgomery, Associate OliverS. Ormsby.During this period we were all studying eagerly thesubject of the reorganization of medical education atThe University of Chicago. In 1902 I was made Chairman of the Committee on Medical Education of theAmerican Medical Association, and in 1904 we succeededin having created the Council on Medical Educationof the American Medical Association. From 1904 until1928, when I retired as Chairman of the Council onMedical Education, I devoted a great deal of my time tothis work. A program was formulated which aimed tosecure in America a pre-medical course of twoyears in physics, chemistryand biology in the university, four years in themedical school and an interneship of at least a yearin the hospital. In lessthan twenty years thisprogram was put intoeffect. The number ofmedical schools was reduced from one hundredand sixty to eighty. Thenumber of medical students was cut in half.Twenty homeopathicschools and ten eclecticschools were eliminatedby securing the general acceptance of the preliminary requirements of physics, chemistry and biology,and almost all of theschools that survived were ^^x^p^CcyC dZ^&^^converted into medical departments of universities.The reorganization was more thorough and morecomplete than we had ever dared to hope. The cooperation of President Pritchett of the Carnegie Foundation was secured and also the cooperation and enormousfinancial assistance of the Rockefeller Foundation andthe General Education Board through President Vincent. We secured the active support of the StateExamining Boards and of the Association of AmericanMedical Colleges. The success of the reorganization ofmedical education in this country was in large part dueto the co-operation of these various agencies with theAmerican Medical Association.Samuel P. Capen, Chancellor of the University ofBuffalo, read a paper before the Annual Congress onMedical Education and Licensure, held February 13,1933, in Chicago, in which he said, "No other phase ofAmerican education has ever been so drastically reformed in so short a time as was medical education. In1904 the vast majority of medical schools were withrespect to requirements for entrance and instructionalprocedure scarcely above the level of trade schools. By1918 medical education had been generally transformedinto a university enterprise; on the whole the most consistently excellent enterprise that the universities conducted. The Council on Medical Education reformednot medical education alone; through the influence ofits example it has brought about the general reform ofprofessional education." In this work of the reorganization of medical education the graduates and the members of the Faculty of Rush took the leading part; Dr.George H. Simmons, the editor of the Journal of theAmerican Medical Association, Dr. Frank Billings, Dr.John Dodson and Dr. N. P. Colwell, the secretary of theCouncil on Medical Education; I served as chairman,as I have stated, from 1904 to 1928.In addition to our interests in the science and art ofsurgery, we, the faculty of medicine of The Universityof Chicago, have other important functions to perform.We must teach our youngmen the importance of accepting a code of ethics, acode of morals, which willinsure the highest character to all their actionsin their medical work. Wemust teach them to develop a judicial attitude.As physicians and as surgeons they are often thecourt of last resort; we arecalled upon to decidequestions which involvethe life and the health ofthe patient. These questions must be answered inthe safest, most logical,most judicial and themost scientific way. Wemust teach them thatthere is an art as well as ascience of medicine andsurgery which they mustmaster. We must teach274 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthem that one of the most important things in the practice of medicine is the practice of common sense.We can all be proud of the great developments thathave been made in medicine and surgery in the lasthundred years. We are proud of the contributionsmade to this wonderful development by the graduatesand the members of the faculty of The University ofChicago. We of Rush are fortunate, we are proudthat we are a part of the medical department of thegreat University of Chicago. We are sure that we bringto The University of Chicago clinical work, clinicalinstruction and clinical research of great value andsound medical tradition and a sound conception ofmedical education. The development of medical education throughout the world has shown that greathospitals and great dispensaries for out-patients areessential to clinical teaching and that our great medicalschools have been developed around these great hospitals and out-patient departments. The experienceof recent years has emphasized the fact that it is unwiseto burden the university with the cost of the development and maintenance of these hospitals used as teaching hospitals. Such expense must be borne by thecommunity. Sound medical education must be a matterof co-operation between the university and the community. Rush brings to the medical department ofThe University of Chicago as a contribution to clinicalteaching a fine teaching hospital, the Presbyterian; agreat out-patient department with 240,000 visiting patients a year housed in the Rawson Clinical Laboratorybuilding; the access to the great clinical material of theAn Electronic Love Song*I was once a sweet electronPure as anything;Wedded to a handsome protonWith a valence ring.Then appeared this dashing ComptonWith his beta ray.He got my atomic number andStole my heart away.He's been working on the atomAnd the cosmic ray.He's been fooling the electronsJust to pass the time away.Don't you hear the protons pleading,"Milliken, you're too rough!"Don't you hear the colloids calling?"Compton, do your stuff!"(To the good old tune of "I've Been Workin' on the Railroad")* Composed and sung by members of the Washington, D. C,Alumni Club as a greeting to Arthur H. Compton, guest speakerat a recent meeting. Cook County Hospital with thirty-three hundred patients and a strong group of clinical teachers. These constitute an asset in clinical teaching which as far as thebuildings are concerned, taken altogether, could not bereplaced short of ten millions of dollars and could notbe maintained with an endowment of less than twentymillion dollars. I have sketched for you hastily thestory of medical development in Chicago which theswiftly moving finger of time has written since thefounding of Rush Medical College. We have accomplished much but we are but at the beginning of ourtask. The mighty future holds for the science of medicine, for the science of surgery the greatest possibilitiesof development, the greatest possibilities of good.We of The University of Chicago can well be proudofs the development of the medical department of theUniversity. Beginning with the foundation of RushMedical College by Brainard in 1837, it represents theoldest educational work in the State. During thisperiod of almost one hundred years it has been the mostimportant and influential medical school in the Mississippi Valley. It has trained ten thousand medical menwho were greatly needed in the rapid settling up ofthis territory. It has kept pace with the wonderfulprogress of medicine and medical education. It hasplayed an outstanding part, possibly the most important part played by any university in the reorganization of medical education in this country, and todaythe medical department of The University of Chicagois recognized as one of the great medical schools of theworld.PHI BETA KAPPA PROSPECTSAt Chicago Under the New Plan• By C S. BOUCHER, Dean of the CollegeAMONG high-school and college educators greater/\ emphasis, in rapidly increasing amounts, is beingJL Jl. placed upon substance as contrasted with forms.In the Study of the Relations of Secondary and HigherEducation in Pennsylvania, not a few instances werediscovered such as the following: on a comprehensiveobjective examination given to seniors, a young woman,about to receive her degree magna cum laude, scoredfifth from the bottom in a class of forty-eight in herinstitution and in the lowest ten per cent for the state;after reviewing the case the examiner at the institutionreported that the girl was an ambitious credit-hunter,extremely anxious to satisfy her teachers, and had received high marks term by term, although his inspectionshowed that her courses were mainly those for whichcredit was notoriously easy to get; she was tractable, ofpleasant personality, very religious, and apparently hadput the faculty completely under a spell as to the validityof her intellectual activities.Under our old plan of measuring the student's progressin terms of course credits and grade points based oncourse marks— a plan still almost universally employedby the colleges of this country— not a few students wereelected to Phi Beta Kappa at the University of Chicagobecause they judiciously elected "pipe" courses givenby faculty members who were notoriously "easy" orhigh markers, and courses by some other faculty members who marked not on genuine intellectual achievement alone but rather more than less on student personality, character and attitude— pleasantness of personality,faithfulness, promptness, neatness, and complete conformity in routine. Such factors still enter too frequently and too prominently into the award of highmarks and thus the award of the Phi Beta Kappa keyin too many colleges.I do not wish to be understood as belittling theimportance and value of a pleasing personality, faithfulness, promptness, neatness, and many other suchpersonal traits. I merely raise the question whether theevaluation of such traits and characteristics should bemerged and confused with the evaluation of genuineintellectual attainment in the award of course marksand Phi Beta Kappa. I believe that it is important tohave the evaluation of such traits and characteristicsof each student filed regularly by each of his instructorsand entered in the student's personnel case history, butdistinct from and not confused with the record of thestudent's academic intellectual progress and attainments.We have endeavored to design and administer ourNew Plan at the University of Chicago in such a manner.One of the essay questions, to which sixty minuteswere allotted, in the June, 1933, Humanities comprehensive examination, was the following: "Give a briefbut adequate summary of the civilization of the Hellenistic period according to the plan suggested in thefirst diagram given you (in the syllabus); that is, sketch in first the political and economic background, thencharacterize successfully the various forms of thought(philosophy, science, religion) and expression (literature, sculpture, painting, and architecture). You are expected to make general statements, but also to substantiate them by reference to definite names of persons andplaces, dates, works, and accomplishments. Try to spendat least ten minutes in marshalling your facts and planning your organization. Organization and presentationas well as factual material will be taken into consideration by the readers."After the examination papers were scored by the readers, some of the best and some of the poorest papers wereread by two instructors in the Introductory GeneralCourse in the Humanities, merely for their own enlightenment on how students performed on the comprehensive examination in their field. These instructorsagreed in the judgment that any one of three of thebest answers written by freshmen to the questionquoted above could be substituted for chapters or sections on this topic in not a few widely used textbookswith a resulting improvement of the textbooks in factualand thought content, organization, and literary style.At the present writing (March, 1934), we are in themidst of a fervid debate over the relative importance offacts and ideas in various fields of intellectual endeavor.This debate was precipitated by a convocation addressby President Hutchins last December and has drawnthe entire university community into participation. Forthree months the student paper, The Daily Maroon, hasrun an almost continuous series of editorials and communications, ringing the changes on the theme, to the extent that the factual and thought content and the instructional methods of courses and the comprehensive examinations of virtually every departmental and divisionalfield have been searchingly and critically discussed.Even though many of the Maroon criticisms havebeen unfounded in fact or unwarranted in basic concept,some have been in point and all together have constituted a worthy contribution to the intellectual lifeof the community because students and faculty alikehave devoted more critical thought in an articulatemanner to all phases of the main project in hand— education— than the present writer has ever known to betrue of any other college or university community in ageneration.One debate of this question of ideas versus facts,between two faculty members, arranged by an undergraduate group (self-started and self-propelled for thediscussion of problems in biology), and scheduled originally in a classroom seating 350, had to be moved toMandel Hall, seating 1500, so great was the demandfor tickets, and even this lecture hall was not half largeenough to seat those who desired" to hear the debate.Many small groups of students have discussed the question for many hours. One such group— another self-275276 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEstarted and self-propelled group— organized two yearsago by students primarily interested in the social sciences, at one stage of their discussion recently asked aProfessor of Physics to meet with them and discuss theinductive and the deductive methods of work as usedby physical scientists, in order that these social-sciencestudents might compare and contrast methods of workin the two fields. The Professor of Physics later told methat it was one of the most interesting and stimulatingdiscussions in which he had ever been privileged toparticipate or to which he had ever listened.In the design of our new plan we endeavored to givestudents greater encouragement, and, indeed, to confront them with an increased necessity, to do more independent work and to read more books with greaterprofit. But none of us dreamed that in so short a time"freshmen and sophomores could be brought to read somuch or so intelligently as has already proved to betrue. We early learned that our major library problemwas not to get the students to use the books, but tosupply enough seating capacity in the reading rooms,enough books, and enough service for the withdrawalof books. During the current year we have had a dailycirculation of over a thousand volumes of books usedonly in the Humanities course and in the first andsecond year Social Science courses; and the reading inthese volumes is in addition to rather heavy text assignments in one course and large amounts of indispensablereadings in each of the other two courses in a set ofseveral volumes rented to each student for the academicyear.A part of the on-going program of each of the fourintroductory general courses is the organization of several types of special sections: honors sections open tosuperior students by invitation; special interest sectionsopen to any student who has a burning desire to pursuethe particular phase of the field announced for theparticular special section farther than is provided bythe regular program of the syllabus; and trailer trainingsections for students who need additional assistance.These sections are in addition to the regularly scheduleddiscussion sections and are on the voluntary basis. Inthe Humanities course special interest sections are offered in literature, in philosophy, in religion, and infine arts. Last autumn when a member of the Humanitiesstaff announced the special interest section for the fieldof literature, hoping to attract about twenty students,he was nonplussed when at the first meeting he foundapproximately a hundred students— twice as many asthere were seats in the room. In spite of the fact thathe gave them his assurance "as a gentleman and ascholar" that he would not attempt in any way to conductthe program of the section so that it would be of any direct assistance to any student in passing the Humanitiescomprehensive examination, and in spite of the fact thathe announced a qualifying examination to be given aweek hence to eliminate those not genuinely in earnestin their expressed desire to pursue the study of literaturesolely for its own sake, he succeeded in cutting thenumber of the group no more than half. Even with agroup too large for the plan of procedure originally contemplated, the program as modified by necessity is attaining most gratifying results.In the program of the Introductory General Coursein the Biological Sciences there is no provision for individual manipulatory laboratory work on the partof the students. The object of the course is not to trainbotanists, or zoologists, or physiologists, or bacteriologists, but general education for freshmen and sophomores, at least three-fourths of whom will never pursueany more formalized instruction in biology. The objectsof the course are: (1) to cultivate the scientific attitudeof mind through repeated illustrations of the scientificmethod of attack upon nature's problems; (2) to implantsuch practical information about biology as is desirablefor a citizen in the modern world; (3) to awaken interestin the impressive machinery of the organic world andin the major concepts of biology. Many of the lecturesare laboratory demonstration lectures. On approximately half of the Monday and Tuesday afternoonsthrough the year, special laboratory demonstration experiments and exhibits, arranged so that students individually and in small groups may have opportunity toexamine, observe, and contemplate at close range andin an unhurried manner many illustrative phenomena,are provided on the voluntary basis. Each exhibit anddemonstration is given in the graduate research laboratory of the department concerned. Though this not infrequently means for the student running all over thecampus, locating buildings he has never before entered,climbing four flights of stairs in search of a particularlaboratory, all at an inconvenient time of day, morethan seventy-five per cent of the class regularly takeadvantage of these special offerings.The official Board examinations, offered on scheduleddates twice a year, are the only required examinationsNo examination is required of either faculty or studentsin any course at any time by administrative regulationsAny type of test, quiz, or examination may be given irany course at any time, however, for instructional purposes, but not for mark-recording purposes. The officiaBoard examinations are the only ones the results owhich are made a matter of record in the registrar's officeWhen the new plan was inaugurated faculty memberagreed that reviews, tests, quizzes, or examinations oany kind should be given at times and in amounts aneeded to attain desired educational results, the neecto be determined by faculty and student judgments iithe light of experience as each course progressed.Interestingly enough, in not a few courses studenthave asked that examinations be given more frequentlthan the instructors thought necessary to acquaint botstudents and instructors adequately with the rate andegree of progress being made by the students. Thtendency is to accede to student requests in such irstances. In more than one instance at the end of tbAutumn and Winter quarters, after several instruction;tests have been given during the quarter upon the coielusion of logical units of work, it has been left tstudent vote to determine whether a final examinatioon the entire quarter's work should be given. In eveisuch instance the students have asked for the examintion, though they knew that the result would have rofficially recorded effect upon their attainment of tljunior-college certificate. They did know, however, ththe examination would be carefully corrected and 1turned, and would thus serve as an excellent instrutional aid in their endeavor to master as much of tlfield as possible in preparation for the official Boaexamination.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 277A student may take any one ormore of the comprehensiveexaminations any time they areoffered whether he has attendedall or part or none of the sessionsof the corresponding coursesoffered as year courses throughthe three regular quarters of theacademic year to assist studentsin their preparation for examinations. Though most studentsattend courses through the entireacademic year before taking thecorresponding examinations, inthe first calendar year thatexaminations were offered(June, 1932, to June, 1933, inclusive), 131 students took examinations after having attendedcorresponding courses only twoof the three quarters, 62 afteiattending only one quarter, and78 without attending at all.Counting A as 4, B as 3, C as 2,D as 1, and F as o, with Dor 1 passing, the average of these 271 students was2.31, while the average of all taking the examinations was 1.90. The letter grade proportions forthe 271 students who took examinations before completing the customary three quarters of the course were:A 14%, B 30%, C 36%, D 12%, and F 8%; the proportions for the entire group taking the examinations wereA 9%, B 18%, C 41%, D 18%, and F 15%.The proportion of high grades, A and B, was muchhigher for those students who took examinations withoutregistering for the course or after only one quarter's attendance than for those who attended the full threequarters. The proportion of failures in the faster groupwas only half the proportion of failures in the entiregroup. Thus, the students who take examinations withless than the customary amount of instruction receive thebetter grades. These facts show that the superior studentsare taking advantage of the opportunities offered underthe new plan. The important result is not merely thatstudents may save time by completing the junior-collegerequirements in less than two years and the Bachelor'sdegree requirements in less than four years, though thisis a factor of real significance in some instances, butthe important result is that students are encouragedto work "on their own" and are saved from perfunctoryand routine repetition or boring and unnecessary reviewand are encouraged always to be engaged in work thatchallenges their capacity to the utmost.The group of students customarily taking these examinations in June, immediately following the completion of the corresponding courses offered to assiststudents in their preparation for the comprehensiveexamination, may be regarded as typical. Though afew good students postpone taking one or more examinations until the following September, in order to haveadditional time to devote to preparation in the hopeof writing better examinations, as many poor studentsdo likewise.The group of students taking the examinations inSeptember is atypical because heavily weighted with twoDean Boucher types of students: (1) some of ourbest students who have passed afull quota of examinations inJune and use the summer monthsfor independent study in fieldsin which they take examinationswithout attending the corresponding courses; and (2) someof our poorest students who havefailed one or more examinationsin June and take them a secondtime in September.In the June, 1933, examination period, 1961 comprehensiveexaminations were written onthe four general course fields—the biological sciences, the humanities, the physical sciences,and the social sciences— eachfield examination being six hoursin length. Of these 1961 examination papers, 188 (9.6%) werescored A, 345 (17-6%) B, 883(45%) C, 3x8 (16.2%) D, and227 (11.6%) F.In the September, 1933, examination period, 272comprehensive examinations were written on the fourgeneral course fields. Of the 60 students who took anexamination without registering for any part of the corresponding course, 26.7% wrote A examinations, 46.7%wrote A or B examinations, 10% wrote F examinations.Of the 99 students who took an examination after attending the corresponding course less than the customarythree quarters (two or less than two of the three quarters), 17.2% wrote A examinations, 36.4% wrote A or Bexaminations, 14.1% wrote F examinations. Of the 173students who took the examinations after attendingthe entire corresponding course, 1.7% wrote A examinations, 6.4% wrote A or B examinations, 39.3% wroteF examinations. Of the total 272 students, the 60 students first mentioned (22%) wrote 80% of the Aexaminations, 60% of the A and B examinations, and7.3% of the F examinations.Though we do not offer junior-college courses in theSummer quarter, last summer we had over a hundredstudents who came regularly each week to the CollegeLibrary to withdraw books by the armful. Some of thesestudents had failed one or more examinations in Juneand were preparing to take them again in September.A more significant group of considerable size, however,had passed a full quota of examinations in June andwere "working up" new fields, without attending courses.Most of these students (from our best group) passedthe examinations with distinction. One mother told methat after observing that her son and two of his friendshad worked faithfully on the physical science field during part of June and all of July and August, preparingto take the examination late in September without attending the course, she insisted that her son go withher to their camp in the northern woods for the firstthree weeks in September, prior to the examination.It was arranged that the two friends should join themtwo or three days later, after camp was put in order.She was astonished to -observe, when she and her sonmet the two friends at the station many miles from278 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEcamp, that the largest items of luggage were bundles ofbooks brought in compliance with a conspiracy to avoidhaving their work interrupted by the vacation in un-academic surroundings.There are no regulations regarding attendance atclasses by students. Under the old plan, with requiredattendance, most students seemed to think it necessaryto take a standard number of "cuts" to preserve theirself-respect. Under the voluntary attendance plan theattendance at many classes has been better than underthe old plan. Students are visiting courses for which theyare not registered more frequently than formerly. Attendance now seems to be in direct ratio with the extentto which the students think the class period profitableto them; there was no such correlation under the oldplan when a course credit was at stake.Though we have not raised our admission requirements, the new plan has produced a higher degree ofself selection among our applicants for admission asfreshmen. Last year over 40% of our entering freshmenranked in the upper tenth of their graduating high-school classes, and approximately two-thirds were inthe highest quarter. For many years we have given theAmerican Council on Education Psychological Examination to all entering freshmen. Our medians in termsof the national standard deviation and adjusted nationalmedians for the years 1928 to 1933, inclusive, were .83,.83, .81, .98, 1.04, and 1.14 respectively. Our medianCommerce— MayNew Highs and Lows of Finance and Business, RoyalF. Munger, '18Frontier and Midland— MayThe Scarecrow, Vardis Fisher, AM'22, PhD'25Harper's Bazaar— AprilCarnival, Vincent Sheean, '21 gross score is higher than the national adjusted mediangross score by 1.14% of the standard deviation of thenational distribution of gross scores in 1933. 1.14 for1933 is a 38.5% increase over the average of .823 for1928-29-30, the last three years of the old plan. Onestandard deviation above the national mean representsa point below which 84.13%, and above which 15.87%,of America's college population is found in regard to itsability as measured by the American Council Psychological Examination.Since the new plan was introduced in the Autumn,1931, with an entering freshman class and has workedupward year by year with this first group of new-planstudents, this is the first year of the operation of thenew.plan in the upper divisions. Whether developmentscomparable with those reported in this paper for thelower division will follow in the upper divisions remainsto be seen. Results to date, however, seem to indicatethat our first crop of initiates to Phi Beta Kappa undeithe new plan will be more significantly selected andhence as a group will be more worthy members of thesociety than were many elected under the old plan onthe course grade-point average.Several phases of the new plan in operation that arenot discussed in this paper have been presented in otherpapers and reprints may be had upon request to thepresent writer.Harper's Bazaar— MayFinland Is a Chance, Ernestine Evans, '12Red Book— JuneThe Temporary Legacy, Frank R. Adams, '04Real America— JuneThe Klan Rides Again, Milton S. Mayer, '29Chicago Alumni in the Current MagazinesFLAG AT HALF MAST?YES, as seen at the beginning of May, but thespiritual element in the event would have put itat the peak in triumph, for there had passed awayon May first at Pasadena, California, one of the bravest,most victorious souls that ever inhabited the form ofwoman. Annie Marion MacLean had been released fromdecades of ceaseless pain. And who was she? O, oneof our alumnae, Ph.D. in 1900, a teacher of sociologyin the Home-Study department, and author of severalbooks. Yes, and what in particular about her? Let answer be gathered from a few sentences picked outfrom a magazine article entitled "This Way Lies Happiness." She called it "a simple story of how one personfound the road to happiness when the gates seemedclosed.""Some years ago all the seemingly desirable things oflife were wrested from me by disease. After theparoxysms of the first months had passed and thehope of restoration vanished, I saw myself a derelict bythe roadside. The present was a time of horror, thefuture black despair. Death was not to solve the problem,my sentence was life servitude in suffering. With therealization of the full import of this situation therefinally came to me a practical knowledge of the powerof the human will to control one's outlook on life.Physical wreckage is sad, but a broken spirit beatingagainst the iron bars of circumstance is a sorrier sight.My moment of illumination came when I realized thata broken life could have its satisfactions. Dejection isthe lot of a sodden soul and has little to do with physicalconditions or material things. Contact with the cool • By FREDERICK J. GURNEYearth is for others; projection of a spirit along gladpaths is mine because I will it so. Happiness is everywhere for the taking. There are those who tread far forhappiness when, if they only knew, it is just around thecorner, often hidden in the trivial. Real happiness liesin garnering glory from the commonplace. The enchantment of distance enthralls us, but it has no more ofwitchery than the wayside paths. My friend on pleasurebent is chasing the ever receding horizon in his highpowered car and overlooks my joys, and these joys arestill mine even though my tortured body writhes at thejolts whenever I ride. If I am the captain of my souland direct its course, if I gather happiness from thelittle things that lie along my path, if I find joy infriendship, and if a small task exalts my spirit, is myhappiness thereby complete? No, I am constrained toadd the recognition of a purpose in creation. Lifecame from chaos but it proceeds to order. All thingshave their place in the scheme of the whole. The body,though crushed by disease, doubtless fills its niche.I passed through my Gethsemane to find some guiding principles to carry me over the hard places, and Ifound these sure milestones on the road to happiness. Now as I look about, I see clearly that the thingswhich have brought me calm will bring peace to anytraveler."This was surely a successful and triumphant life. Awoman who through many years of racking pain couldcarry on her work, could study and teach, and couldachieve for herself so fine and noble a philosophy ofthe great art of living, was no ordinary person.IDA NOYES HALL FROM THE AIR279TRUE CONFESSIONSOf An Alumni SecretaryTO BE sure it was held on St. Patrick's Day. Butthe seventeenth of March is five full days beforethe spring equinox, and the weather man didhis part by staging just about the coldest, blowingestsnow storm of the season. So at this late date we weresafe in saying that the Fourth Midwinter Assembly hadbeen successfully staged, and the Alumni Secretaryfound himself with nothing in particular to do save collect dues and help get out a Magazine and arrange forclub meetings and answer correspondents and do countless other routine tasks until the June Reunion loomedin the offing.Therefore, it was decided that he should take a joyousjourney into the southland, equipped with movingpicture projector, an amplifier, eight reels of film, aliberal supply of summer announcements, three hundredsample copies of a well known Magazine, besides aplentiful stock of matriculation blanks, scholarship applications, and all the other sales equipment of a liveand aggressive university. For the Secretary was goinga-hunting. He was to track down several hundreds ofalumni who had heard no voice from the quadranglesfor many a year; he was to interest and perhaps enthusesundry high school students in the great college on theMidway; he was to dilate upon Chicago as an academicparadise in summer; he was to search out state librarians and custodians of public documents and prove tothem that the University Libraries deserved free copiesof all state publications; he was even to trail summerschool directors to their lairs and offer them a summer'sprogram of talking moving pictures— not to be presented by the Secretary, but by an operator almost asgood— and at a price that was practically negligible.There were other duties and other instructions butthe brief outline given above will bear out the contention that this was not intended as a protracted loafingspell, nor did it prove to be one. But it was one of themost delightful vacations that any secretary ever had.There were a very few disappointments for the Secretary and, in all probability, countless more were felt bythose who were forced to listen to him, but those southerners are not only most gracious and hospitable butthey are adept at hiding their feelings and made thevisitor feel that he was among friends.Disappointment number one came at Madison, Indiana, where the Secretary had hoped to see Dr. J. W.Milligan, Rush '89, and visit the state hospital overwhich he presides, but upon calling his office it was announced that Doctor Milligan was himself confined toa hospital in Indianapolis. Madison was not a scheduledstop. Since this is to< a degree a confessional, it might aswell be admitted that the Secretary spent the night atClifty Falls, on the outskirts of Madison, en route toFrankfort.It was at Frankfort that the first alumni meeting was • By CHARLTON T. BECK, *04held, with a hundred per cent attendance. Clifford E.Smith was his name. A graduate of the Law School in1923, he is now engaged most successfully, to all appearances, in the practice of law, after serving severalyears as assistant to the Attorney General. After a shortsocial session, the Secretary explained to Clifford thathis second good reason for being in Frankfort was tomake contact with the state librarian and suggested thatBrother Smith act as contactor. No sooner said thandone. In fifteen minutes, Doctor Beck of the Universityof Chicago had been presented to a most delightful andattractive custodian of public documents and withintwenty-four hours thereafter a generous collection ofassorted documents was on its way to the Universitylibraries.Then, on to Berea, where nine Chicago alumni aremembers of the faculty of Berea College, and wherethe hospitality of Joseph Hollingsworth and the delightful appointments of the Boone Tavern made a lastingimpression.The next stop was Knoxville and Judge Webb—"Dan" to his friends and everyone in Knoxville is hisfriend— had arranged a most delightful meeting at theAndrew Johnson, attended by some thirty of the faithful.At Chattanooga came disappointment number two.The moving picture machine developed every knowncomplaint and exhibited three brand new symptoms.As a result, the show was a flat failure, and the Secretary's fondest hope is that he can some day go back tothe same fine audience and prove to the sponsors ofthe meeting that the pictures are really worth seeing.Mrs. Z. Cartter Patten (Elizabeth Bryan, '29), togetherwith Misses Tommie Duffy, '19, and Eula Jernegin, '19,and Spencer J. McCallie, '04, had arranged this meeting and the thanks and apologies of the operator areonce again extended to them.Three busy days- were spent in Atlanta. Miss BessPatton, '17, SM'24, had arranged four high school meetings and Robert McLarty, JD'20, had taken enoughtime from his law practice and electric sign business topromote a city wide alumni gathering. Dr. Charles T.Nellans provided medical attention, and the movingpicture outfit behaved so beautifully that the Secretaryalmost forgot his Chattanooga experiences.Birmingham was the next stop and Clifford Spencer-brother of Dean Spencer of the School of Business wasresponsible for a most delightful dinner meeting heldin the Activities Building of Birmingham SouthernCollege. Then on to Tuscaloosa, where the Universityof Alabama is located, with its impressive delegationof Chicago alumni, holding faculty positions.Jacob Geffs, JD'29, a member of their law faculty,took the Secretary in charge. After a delightful dinnerat the Geffs' home, with Paul W. Terry, thD'20, A. B.280THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 281Moore, PhD'21, J. B. Sanders, PhD'28 and Wade H.Coleman, an evening session was held in Graves Hall,of the University, where many students and facultymembers came to see the science pictures produced bythe University.According to the office records, Montevallo was thehome of just seven Chicago alumni, but Arthur W.Vaughan proved himself a remarkable man of research and produced nearly a score of former Chicagoans now teaching at Alabama College, and a delightfully intimate meeting was held at the College.Harry Colson Heath of Montgomery holds three Chicago degrees, and the Secretary is in favor of giving hima fourth for the very successful meeting that he sponsored^ the Y. W. C. A. Hut of the Woman's College ofAlabama. The College grounds were all a-bloom, theaudience was receptive, the projector was under perfect control, and a most successful meeting was theresult.At Tallahassee, Miss Rowena Longmire, '24, AM'32,was chairman of the committee that arranged a mostcharming dinner meeting at the Dutch Kitchen, withplace cards and immense bowls of maroon verbena,many delectable southern dishes and a most cordialcrowd of alumni.The next day there was a meeting with the Chicagoalumni of the Florida Agricultural and MechanicalCollege. Dean Eugene P. Southall acted as personalguardian, guide and - friend. To the surprise of theSecretary it was discovered that President Lee of theCollege counts Chicago as one of his Alma Maters,having attended several summer sessions in the latenineties.A most pleasant half day was spent with the statelibrarian, whose office was just across the hall fromthat of the state superintendent of public instruction,where William S. Cawthon, '06, directs the educationalprogram of Florida's public schools. On the floor aboveis the governor's office, where Doyle Carlton, '09, heldforth for the four years preceding 1933.In passing, it might be stated that Florida's librarianwas the fourth to be visited and failure to mentionthe gracious courtesy of Alabama's Mrs. Owen and thevery effective cooperation of Alabama's Peter Brennanwould be nothing short of a major sin of omission.After this digression, we once again find the Secretaryback in Florida, headed toward Jacksonville and analumni meeting arranged by J. Douglas Haygood,AM'32. The interest of the local alumni was most encouraging, and it is with a bit of regret that the Secretary learned that Jacksonville will lose the Haygoodsat the end of the present school year, when Doug joinsthe faculty of the University High School at Gains ville.Charleston is a city in which one should spend a fortnight, or a month, or a life time, and the exigencies ofthe schedule put a twenty-four limit on the Charlestoninterlude. But Dr. John Van deErve, 'io, MD'11, forgothis duties as head of the physiology department in theState Medical College, and eke his responsibilities aspastor of the Old Huguenot Church, and became theofficial greeter and guide to the city. In a single afternoon, he conducted a most comprehensive sightseeing tour that ended at the parish house of the Unitarian Church, where he and the pastor, J. Franklin Burkhart, had arranged for one of the most successfulmeetings of the entire trip, with nearly one hundredin attendance.On to Columbia and its state library, taking in oldSt. Andrew's Church, the Magnolia Gardens and beautiful Summerville en route. Then up and away for Greenville and a well attended alumni meeting sponsoredby Sumner A. Ives, professor of botany at Furman University. Interest ran so high that the Piedmont AlumniClub of South Carolina was organized, with PrestonEpps as President.Dr. and Mrs. Harry Winkler arranged a most enjoyable dinner meeting at Charlotte and Life on the Quadrangles and science films were shown to most of thealumni of that section, after which a question andanswer session lasted until almost midnight.At Greensboro, another botanist, Earl H. Hall of theNorth Carolina College for Women, was the master ofceremonies. A delicious dinner was served in the HomeEconomics Building of the College, after which theassembled alumni enjoyed the pictures and suffered theSecretary for more than two hours. Not only wereGreensboro alumni out in force, but a delegation,headed by President Binford and Professor Perishodrove over from Guilford College.After brief stops at Chapel Hill and Durham, theSecretary arrived at Raleigh, which is not only thestate capital, with a state librarian, but an alumnicenter of importance. A dinner meeting was held in theMary Ellen Tea Room, with artistic place cards andbeautiful floral decorations, and fine food, just as onemight expect at a dinner arranged by Louise DuncanCarson, '27, and Ellen Black Winston, AM'28, PhD'30.Then there was a high school meeting at the Brough-ton High School, with more than 300 upperclassmenin attendance and take it, by and large, the Raleighvisit was a most successful venture.None of the Richmond Chicagoans was inspired toarrange a meeting of the local elect, so after an afternoon visit to the state library, both the alumni and theSecretary had an evening of rest and relaxation.At Washington the Secretary attended the monthlymeeting of our capital city club, the livest organizationin our entire galaxy of local organizations. In theabsence of President Beale, who is back at Chicago,teaching American history during the Spring Quarter,the vice president, Miss Ruby Worner, presided mostgracefully and some seventy Washingtonians ate Sundayevening supper together and elected officers for thecoming year.And now for the homeward trip, with a luncheon atCharlottesville and an off night at Lynchburg, wherePresident Jack of Randolph-Macon College had beenobliged to call off the meeting planned for that city.Then came Charleston, West Virginia, where HarryEmbleton, '14, took time from his family and his coalmines and his golf course to not only stage a festive feastfor the local alumni at the Daniel Boone Hotel, but toguide the Secretary to the final state capitol on hisscheduled tour.Huntington held its meeting in the Science Hall ofMarshall College, where John B. Shouse, the chairman of the meeting, holds the deanship in their school(Continued on page 292)IN MY OPINION• By FRED B.BAD taste is so pervasive an element in our literaryculture that it deserves, I am sure, far closer' scrutiny than it usually receives. Customarily dismissed with a sneer or a smile, it merits searching dissection in the literary laboratory. The recent coming tohand of some significant evidence on this score promptsme to a tentative consideration of the phenomena ofbad taste.The Institute of Arts and Sciences has published latelya list of the sixty-five books which American readershave liked best, or at least purchased most avidly, since1 875. In this hierarchy of literary banalities, Gene Strat-ton Porter's Freckles ranked second, The Girl of theLimberlost, fourth, The Harvester, fifth, and Laddie,sixth. The first of these books, it is estimated, has soldtwo million copies; the last, a million and a half.Harold Bell Wright's Winning of Barbara Worth attained seventh place on the list, with a million and ahalf copies. Of the first nineteen books on the list, theonly ones with any assured literary value are MarkTwain's Tom Sawyer (6th) and Huckleberry Finn(16th), and Stevenson's Treasure Island (18th). Theseprominences are obviously due to the good taste ofjuvenile readers, and not to the bad taste of adults.Further evidence of the strong infusion of bad tastein our literary culture comes to me from an undergraduate, Clement Caditz, until recently the owner ofa dozen rental libraries. His findings are so illuminating,and the implications so far-reaching, that I am temptedto quote at some length from his report:"In the mind of a rental library operator, books fallinto five classes: 'good' books, love stories, Westerns,mysteries, and 'dirty' books. Every rack has a selectionfrom all five groups, the percentage depending on theneighborhood served."In the Northeast, Hyde Park, South Shore, andbetter residential districts, books by authors as good asCather, Galsworthy, and Huxley and as bad as KathleenNorris and Warwick Deeping are the most popularrenters. These constitute about 30% of a rack inthis type of neighborhood. As rental material, theyhave a life of about six or seven months, with somenotable exceptions like the Magnificent Obsession andthe Good Earth. Another 30 or 40% are love stories;the rest are Westerns, mysteries, or risque fiction. Theseare about the only neighborhoods in which the rentalrack does not rely heavily on the risque type of book."The largest percentage of readers in these sections ofthe city are women. They live, mostly in small apartments, and, never having indulged in children, haveplenty of time to keep up with the 'best seller' lists ascompiled by the Tribune and the Daily News. The influence of favorable reviews can not be overestimated.Readers like what they are supposed to like. The mysteries and Westerns are consumed mainly by the men,with an occasional woman fan."In the Southwest, Northwest, and in other 'bungalow'types of neighborhood, love stories find their best mar- MILLETT, PhD '31, Associate Professor of Englishket. Mysteries rent as well as Westerns, but, unless'dirty' books are on the rack, they are not asked for.Perhaps it is a case of mass bashfulness."What reviewer in the Atlantic or even the ChicagoTribune could combat the sentiment, so simply expressedby a customer as he returned a couple of books by JackWoodford, 'Them was good books'?"* Though these facts, strikingly presented, may shockus into an unaccustomed attentiveness to the prevalenceof bad taste, there is no occasion for an enduring astonishment. The facts, after all, are about what one wouldexpect, once he turned his attention to the problem.Any book that reaches an enormous audience must,ipso facto, have some value for that audience, and theonly values to which an enormous audience is responsiveare obviousness, simple-mindedness, crudity of emotion,technical conventionality, or brash erotic excitement.Purveyors of literary slops to the millions do every thing-possible to diminish the reader's labor by using the mostreliable of rubber stamps for plots, characters, and styleso that the timid reader will never be dismayed by theflicker of a fresh epithet or affrighted by the intrusionof an unfamiliar incident.Mass values have, of course, their sociological significance; culturally, they are significant only as theymay prevent the development and spread of higherand finer values. The most pressing problem is unquestionably that of the source of this engulfing andinundating badness of taste. I am inclined to believethat the source of most bad taste is the unsound motiveswith which the reader approaches literature, and thatmass reading is done under the stimulus of motivesthat are aesthetically, though not psychologically, unsound. It is obvious that the motive, whatever it is,must be reasonably potent in order to justify the sheerlabor of letting one's eyes pass over the pages of a lifeless book.Of the more potent personal motives with whichreaders approach books, the desire for a literary soothingsyrup is perhaps the most prevalent. The peculiarlynauseating moral insipidities characteristic of the worksof Mrs. Porter and Mr. Wright could find responses onlyin readers in quest of an anodyne for the bruising realities of a prosaic and ethically confusing world. Forthose whose hurts go deeper, literature that caters directly to wish-fulfilment is an easily accessible and inexpensive dream-creating drug. The most popular ofplots will on inspection be found rich in wish-fulfilmentvalues for those too impotent to realize their visionsin a disheartening world. Another motive of an intenselypersonal sort arises out of one's perfectly normal curiosity about himself, a curiosity which, when weightedwith an excess of egotism, turns literature into a mirrorin which one can study those especial allurements andsubtleties to which the rest of the world is somehowcuriously inattentive.Less personally but more socially potent motives arethose which I should describe as "keeping up withTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHIC AGO MAG AZ IN E 283j-fte Joneses" and "staying at the Ritz." A great deal oftjie reading of most of us is done in order to evade thesense of inferiority we easily get from not having readwhat everybody else in our social group is reading. Itis only by the cultivation of a proudly anti-social attitude that one can feel guiltless about not reading theAnthony Adverse or the Good Earth of a particular year.There is, moreover, no easier way to achieve a sense ofcultural superiority than by staying at some literaryRitz, too remote and rarefied for the vulgar ever topenetrate.Such motives as these are likely to produce bad taste,because they develop in us the habit of looking forveritably illegitimate satisfactions in literature: sentimental solaces, extravagantly romantic ecstasies, devicesfor self-glorification, drug-ridden and unrealizablephantasies.Probably the least dangerous motive with which toapproach literature, or, in fact, any of the arts, is whatmight be called a passion for exploration and discovery.Literature, as we have indicated, is one of the mostserviceable means to self-discovery. The disinterestedquest for discovery and exploration will lead one to anextension of his own experience through his identification with the inaccessible heroes and consummate roguesof literature, with classical and romantic sublimities andnaturalistic wallowings and degradations. It will lead,too, to the most searching scrutiny of all that techniqueand artistry contribute to the effective presentation ofthe creator's intention. It will, finally, if properly encouraged and developed, keep one's senses alert, hisresponses eager, and his critical powers unhampered bythe allurements of wishful-thinking or the rationalistic rigidities of a critical theory dedicated to aesthetic absolutism.But, it will be asked, what excuse is there for discouraging an approach to literature with improper intentions. What objection is there to allowing people wholuxuriate in bad taste to wallow in their aesthetic sties?The answer is that there are valid objections to a policyof critical laissez-faire, to rugged individualism in aesthetic judgments, to the insidious equalitarianism ofthose who pipe up with "I know nothing about art, butI know what I like." Bad taste is socially and culturallydangerous because it is more contagious than good taste.A highly conventionalized and standardized society ispeculiarly susceptible to epidemics of bad taste, becauseit has built up no resistance to mass suggestions ofvulgarity and sentimentality. The vogue of Mae Westis just such an epidemic. The recrudescence of the finde siecle prostitute is harmless so long as it is regardedwith a mixture of nostalgia and ribaldry. It is only whenthe creature is allowed to set styles in clothes and moralsthat she becomes a menace to decency.But bad taste is bad on the most narrowly self-regarding of grounds. It is bad, because, unlike goodtaste, it does not bring in repeated returns on one'saesthetic investments, since it is the nature of the inferior and the obvious to have only a momentary effectiveness. Unlike good taste, moreover, it makes fora progressive coarsening of one's responses and' sensibilities. One recital of "Gunga Din" leaves a permanentpsychic scar. One reading of Freckles has a debilitatingeffect that is never entirely lost. One perusal of theSaturday Evening Post lays a flagstone in the pathwayto aesthetic babbitry.COLLEGE ELECTIONSPresident — Donald Trumbull, '97Second Vice President — Helen Adams Self ridge, '17Executive CommitteeWilliam C. Gorgas, '19 Ethel Preston, '08, AM'10, PhDf20Delegates to the Alumni CouncilRuth Manierre Freeman, '16 Helen Norris, '07Thomas Mulroy, '27, JD'28 Harold Swift, '07Howell Murray, '14 Donald Trumbull, '97NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES• By JOHN P. HOWE, '27FROM time to time this department of the Magazine has mentioned the connection of variousmembers of the University faculty and staff withthe national administration in Washington. A complete list, so far as we know it, of those who have servedthe government (the great majority of them without pay)at one time or another since the inauguration of President Roosevelt is herewith presented.William E. Dodd, Professor of History, as Ambassadorto Germany.Jacob Viner, Professor of Economics, as Special Assistant to the Secretary of the Treasury.Paul Douglas, Professor of Economics, as member ofthe Consumers Advisory Board, NRA, and Director ofEconomic Information, in charge of organizing consumers committees in all counties.William F. Ogburn, Professor of Sociology, as memberof Consumers Advisory Board, NRA.Floyd Reeves, Professor of Education, as Directorof Personnel, the Tennessee Valley Authority.Sophonisba P. Breckinridge, Professor-emeritus ofPublic Welfare Administration, as U. S. delegate to thePan-American Congress at Montevideo.Robert M. Hutchins, President of the University, aschairman of the advisory committee for SecretaryPerkins' federal employment service; as chairman ofthe Regional Labor Board; and as chairman of a commission privately supported but sanctioned by PresidentRoosevelt to study the nation's foreign policy with regard to economic implications.Simeon Leland, Professor of Economics, as chairmanof a committee appointed by Secretary Morgenthau topresent the financial plight of the cities to the TreasuryDepartment, and to make recommendations. (He isalso a Tax Commissioner for the state of Illinois.)Harlan H. Barrows, Chairman of the Department ofGeography, as member of the Mississippi Valley Board.Leonard D. White, Professor of Public Administration, as United States Civil Service Commissioner.Harry A. Millis, Chairman of the Department ofEconomics, as vice-chairman, the Regional Labor Board;member of the advisory committee of the CWA inChicago.Frederic Woodward, vice-president of the University,as vice-chairman, the Regional Labor Board.'William H. Spencer, Dean of the School of Business,as member of the Regional Labor Board.A. Wayne McMillen, Associate Professor of SocialEconomy, as director of federal relief, Southweststates.Stuart A. Rice, Visiting Professor of Sociology, 1932-33, as Assistant Director, Bureau of the Census.Samuel Nerlove, Associate Professor of Business Economics, as deputy economist for the NRA.Edward A. Duddy, Professor of Marketing, as assistant, Division of Subsistence Homesteads, Departmentof the Interior.Louis R. Wilson, Dean of the Graduate Library School, committee in charge of organizing research projects for the CWA in Chicago.Marshall Dimock, Associate Professor of Public Administration, to survey the operation of the PanamaRailroad Co. for the War Department.Emery Filbey, Dean of the Faculties, as member of theRegional Labor Board.Tneodore Yntema, Professor of Statistics, as memberof* the Division of Research and Planning, NRA.James L. Palmer, Professor of Marketing, as codeauthority for four industries.Charles H. Judd, Dean of the School of Education,as member of various special committees advising theFederal Commissioner of Education.Carl Huth, Dean of University College, as memberof the committee in charge of the Civil Works Educational Service for Chicago.James M. Young, Professor of Advertising, as memberof the Committee on Arts and Crafts of the Bureau ofIndian Affairs.Kenneth Rouse, Assistant to the Secretary of the University, as Manager of Public Services for the TVA townof Norris, Tenn.Helen Wright, Associate Professor of Social Economy,as member of a statistical committee advisory to Secretary Perkins, relating to the pay of government employes and the cost of living in Washington.In addition to those named, several members of thefaculty have been serving the government more or lessindirectly, among them John Cover, Professor of Statistics, who is a member of a privately supported committee helping to reorganize the government's statisticalservices; Raleigh Stone, Associate Professor of IndustrialRelations, who is adviser to the Illinois public employment service, which works closely with the federalemployment group; Lewis Sorrell, Professor of Transportation, who has been consulting with the RailroadBusiness Association preparing for the TransportationConference which is to make recommendations toFederal Coordinator Eastman; Henry C. Simons, Assistant Professor of Economics, who has advised the SenateBanking and Currency Committee; and Mollie Carroll,head of the University Settlement, who has been frequently in Washington working with the AmericanFederation of Labor. The informal influence of suchmen as Merriam and Millis is of course much greaterthan that indicated by their committee memberships.As for alumni in government service the number isestimated at between one hundred and two hundred.Among the latter are such New Dealers as HaroldIckes, Donald Richberg and Jerome Frank, contraposedto such anti-New-Deal alumni as Senators Robinson ofIndiana and Fess of Ohio.The Fair AgainThe University again lends its talents and materialsto the more serious exhibits of A Century of Progress.284THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 285fhis year one of its principal contributions is theLincoln display in the Illinois Host House, which isdrawn principally from the rich Lincoln materials recently acquired by the University Library. LlewellynRaney, director of the libraries, has personally installedthe exhibit. The University has had much to do, inone way or another with the exhibits in the Hall ofScience and the Social Sciences building. Carey Croneis,Associate Professor of Geology, is in charge of the Hallof Science; and some of the exhibits, including manyof those in geology, are designed by University of Chicago people. The orthopedic division of the UniversityClinics has a large display relating to the rehabilitationof crippled children. The Social Science building exhibits, many of which are shown again this year, wereprepared last year under the direction of Fay-CooperCole, chairman of the University's department of Anthropology, and Donald Slesinger, Associate Dean ofthe Social Sciences division. This year the SocialSciences hall includes an exhibit from the OrientalInstitute.ScholarshipsThis is a season crucial to many a young man andwoman eager for education but unable to find all ofthe necessary funds. The University's committees onfellowships and scholarships at the various levels havebeen meeting this spring selecting from a vast numberof applicants those it deems most worthy of such aidsas are available. First to be announced was the listof 211 graduate fellowships and scholarships for thecoming year. The awards are valued at a total of$78,800. The recipients, nearly all of whom are seekingthe Ph.D., were chosen from among 1,237 highly qualified applicants. All academic departments and threeprofessional schools, divinity, library science and socialservice administration, were represented in the elections. Of the 211 awards, 109 were regular Universityfellowships, 21 were specially endowed fellowships and81 were service scholarships. The fellowship group includes graduates of 89 different American and Canadian universities and colleges and of 7 foreign institutions. Advanced awards in law, medicine and businesswere yet to be made.Something more than 100 entering freshmen willreceive scholarship aid. Among the first of the freshman scholarships to be awarded were those based on theUniversity's annual prize scholarship examination.This year the examination was held in 18 cities andwas taken by 894 especially able seniors from 109 highschools. To this group the University awarded 25 fullone year scholarships and 22 half scholarships. Thirty-two young men of high scholarship and of exceptionalcharacter will be able to attend the University throughthe generosity of a donor who has set up two-year honorentrance scholarship awards. And another group ofhigh school seniors, both men and women, will be ableto attend because of the University's regular one-yearhonor entrance awards. There are hundreds of applicants for these honor entrance awards, nearly all ofthem of exceptional caliber. For upper class undergraduates there are approximately 20 regular University scholarships in each class, plus a limited number ofspecially endowed awards. As a depression measure, theBoard of Trustees has established a number of half- tuition grants, for cases where the students need thatmuch aid to enter or remain in the University.So great is the demand for these aids that the University last month made an appeal to its friends for anincrease in "The Scholarship and Aid Fund for Self-Supporting Students." "Never before in the history ofthe University were there so many capable and promising young men and women who earnestly desired tocontinue their education but were unable to pay thenecessary expense," said Dr. Stifler. "The chief obstacleto the realization of their ambition is the tuition feeof $300 a year. The University has strained its resourcesto the limit in the effort to help them. In 1933-34 itappropriated $70,000 from endowment income forscholarships. In 1934-35 it will provide $110,000 fromthe same source. In addition it has loaned $150,000to students. But these sums are utterly inadequate."Of 2,417 applicants for scholarships this past year,the University has been able to assist only 319. Remember that the young men and women to whom werefer are far above the average in ability and aptitude.Their eagerness for an education is at once inspiringand pathetic. The immediate need is for 1,000 scholar- -ships of $300 each. As evidence of the University's faithin the cause, it will match contributions on a three toone basis. That is to say, for three scholarships contributed by others, the University will contribute one fromits own funds."New Test for DrunkennessA new and comparatively simple test for alcohol inthe body tissues and body fluids is being used by assistant professor Theodore E. Friedemann, of the Department of Medicine at the University of Chicago. Thetest is regarded as being helpful in the movement tomake the diagnosis of drunkenness more certain.Dr. Friedemann has found that the concentration ofalcohol in saliva parallels that in the blood, and canbe used as an index of the amount of alcohol in thebody. After alcohol has been consumed, its concentration in both the saliva and the blood rises steadily fora period of from one to two hours, then levels offfor a period of about half an hour, his experimentsshow. *^Samples of saliva can be obtained much more readilythan samples of blood or urine, Dr. Friedemann pointsout. Samples as small as one-tenth of a cubic centimeterwill suffice. A fairly accurate test can be made withoutdistillation within a few minutes, and a scientificallyaccurate test can be made in about one hour.Police judgments as to intoxication are based, in theUnited States, almost entirely on the opinion of thepolice office or police surgeon, Dr. Friedemann pointsout. The symptoms observed might be confused withthose of other ailments, such as concussion or apoplexy,and since the fact of intoxication is often an importantissue in court, the diagnosis should be more scientific."Accurate alcohol tests are easily learned by anyqualified public health laboratory worker, and theyshould be available to every citizen," Dr. Friedemannsaid yesterday. Although there is no law in the UnitedStates requiring any such tests, Dr. Friedemann believesthat the average person would not object to the salivatest. All that is required for a sample is that the subject~ (Continued on page 289)ATHLETICS• By WILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN, ,20/JD'22BaseballChicago, 4 Lake Forest, 6Chicago,Chicago,Chicago, 915 Armour, 2Iowa, 4Iowa, 3Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago, i3764 , Louisiana Poly, 6Louisiana Poly, 6Purdue, 10Illinois, 7Chicago, 13 Wisconsin, 10Chicago, 2 Indiana, 3Chicago, b Northwestern, 3Chicago, 13 Northwestern, 11TrackChicago, 69 1/2; Knox, 44; Monmouth, 27Scores of the MonthChicago, 72; North Central, 34Chicago, 47; Purdue, 84Chicago, 45; Northwestern, 81TennisChicago, 4; Wisconsin, 2Chicago, 3; Iowa, 3Chicago, 5; Armour, 2Chicago, 4; Northwestern, 2Chicago, 4; Illinois, 2GolfChicago, 16; Armour, 2Chicago, 3; Purdue, 14 1/2Chicago, 3; Notre Dame, 15Chicago, 8 1/2; Northwestern, 91/2CHICAGO'S clean sweep of the Big Ten tennistitles was the most important athletic development of the month so far as the Maroon performances go. The team coached by A. A. Stagg, Jr., wonthe team, singles, and doubles championships in theannual tournament, which was held on the Chicagocourts. Capt. Max Davidson, runner-up to CharlesBritzius of Minnesota for the singles championship lastyear, smashed through all his opposition in straight sets,defeating Seymour Siegel of Michigan in the finals, 6-3,6-3. Davidson was clearly the best player in the tournament, and he had his hard driving game under finecontrol all the time. The Chicago captain and his teammate, Trevor Weiss, retained their doubles championship by defeating Paul Scherer and Roy Huber ofMinnesota, 6-3, 6-8, 6-3. The team championship wasbased on points awarded for each round won, by the fourmembers of the squad. Max's singles championshipmeant 5 points; the doubles, another 5; first round singlesvictories by Patterson and Weiss added two more points,and the doubles victory of Patterson and Tyroler in thesecond round counted two points. Michigan was therunner-up, with 11 1/2 points.This championship brought the Chicago total for theyear to four, gymnastics, fencing, and water polo beingthe other three. Davidson in dual meet competition wasdefeated only once, losing to Capt. Earl Tetting ofNorthwestern on an off day. Trevor Weiss finished hissecond year of Big Ten dual competition undefeated asthe No. 2 man. He moves up to No. 1 next year, and ifhe develops the determination that Davidson has displayed in the pinches, will be hard to beat. The teamlost no matches this season, but was tied by Iowa. TheHawkeyes had not determined their players' individualratings, and their better men defeated Chicago's twolowest ranking players in both singles and doubles.The baseball team is well toward the bottom of theconference, having so far won 3 and lost 5. Pitching hasnot been good enough to rise above some very bad fielding and a lot of mistakes that can't be tabulated in the box score but are costly nevertheless. On the whole, theteam has hit well against average pitching, but hasn'tbeen able to touch the few really capable hurlers it hasfaced. Ralph Wehling and Dave Levin, outfielders, havedone the best hitting and generally deported themselvesas real ball players. The rest have been erratic at batand afield, and have done some astonishing things whenthe baseball came their way.Jay Berwanger has composed most of the track teamoutdoors, being the leading scorer among Merriam'smen in both the few dual meets and in the Big Tenchampionships. In the latter meet, he placed second inthe low hurdles by dint of sheer effort rather than form,and he got a tie for third in the broad jump, with 22feet, 11 1/4 inches. The second place man, Adams ofIllinois, beat him and Duggins of Northwestern bythree-eighths of an inch, which is rather nice measuring.Berwanger has put the shot out 47 feet, 5 inches thisspring, but he fouls himself out of most of his best efforts.Jay has competed in the 100, both hurdles, the broadjump, shot put, and discus throw in dual meets thisspring and scored in all of them. His performance in theBig Ten meet automatically wins him the William ScottBond medal, awarded to the Chicago athlete scoringthe most points. The efforts of Berwanger made 6 1/2points; Harold Block got a point for fifth in the 220,and John Roberts scored 2 points, with a tie for fourthin the pole vault and in the high jump. Block's performances in the 220 were one of the better featuresof the team's outdoor season. In one dual meet he madethe fast time of 0:21.7.Those Chicago football prospects for next season weresomewhat too good to be true, and already the team hashad a serious blow in the loss of Bob Deem, WilliamLangley, and John Rice. Deem, a great tackle, is outbecause of the freshman and sophomore competition hehad in a Pacific Coast junior college, and Rice, anotherregular tackle, and Langley, regular end, get caught on avariation of that rule. Both took high school work in a(Continued on page 288)286a Salle rz/oC' ^c^-^as??^cZvc£j/ dz*r- ozcaSOf all the new motor cars introduced this year, none has so thoroughly captured the imaginationof men and women who love the fine and beautiful as the sensational streamlined La Salle. Itis as new as tomorrow's headlines . . . yet perfectly attuned to the tastes of today. It is the supremeexpression of streamline design . . . yet the most beautiful car of 1934. The bodies are exclusively by Fleetwood — the custom division of the Fisher Body Corporation! The chassis is exclusivelyby Cadillac! And the new prices are $1595 and $1695, at Detroit — almost a thousanddollars less than last year. Is it any wonder that with each passing week this lovely streamlinedLa Salle adds to its reputation as the car that set a new style and a new value overnight?La Salle — the newest car in the world — brings you everymodern feature of comfort, convenience and safety, including Knee-Action wheels . . . Safety Glass in windshield andall windows . . . latest type Hydraulic Brakes . . . Cadillacdesigned and built Syncro-Mesh Transmission . . . and theFisher No Draft Ventilation System. We suggest that yousee and drive the new La Salle before buying any motor car. $1595$1695(Equipment other than standardatslight extra cost)NEWS OF THE CLASSESCOLLEGE1898George MacDougall, DB'05, writesfrom Glasgow, Montana, that "as apreacher, he seems to be rated as afirst class canoeman." A recent article of his, "Down the Salmon River,"appeared in the March issue of Fieldand Stream.1902Egbert Robertson is practicing lawwith the firm of Robertson, Croweand Spence, Chicago.1903Livonia Hunter is a Latin instructor at Monmouth (111.) High School.1908Fred M. Walker is president ofthe Berwyn Church Athletic Association program for this summer. Thisorganization puts on an extensiveprogram of athletic events for thecommunity.1913U. L. Light is superintendent ofschools at Barberton, Ohio.1917Charles F. Allen was elected president of the department of SecondarySchool Principals at the Clevelandmeeting of the NEA. He is superintendent of secondary education andprincipal of the West Side JuniorHigh School of Little Rock, Ark. 1918Wells Martin, ex, is president ofthe Lake Shore Protective Association of Chicago.1919Ruth Mueller is teaching socialscience and Spanish at Santa Ana,Calif.1920 ,Marion Rubovits (Mrs. Milton J.Rettenberg) has been playing in themusical comedy hit, "Roberta," inNew York, all season. Her stage nameis Marion Ross.1921John D. Morrison is a certified public accountant, and manager of theMorrison Audit Company of Marquette, Mich.1922John P. Whittaker is registrar ofAtlanta University and MorehouseCollege. ## Fredericka Blanckner,AM'23, we*l known poet andauthority on Italian literature, received an award from the NationalLeague of American Penwomen, inthe National Book Contest for1932-34.1923Leonard F. Nelson, ex, has beenappointed advertising and publicitymanager of the Oklahoma Gas andElectric Company. ## Ruth Freegardwas in charge of 121 EmergencyNursery Schools under the FERA thiswinter. She is state supervisor of home economics education for Michigan.1924Harold A. Anderson, AM'26, willteach education at the College ofCharleston, S. Car., this summer.1925William D. C. Riggall is office manager of the Roanoke Gas Light Company, Roanoke, Va.1927Alma G. Rice is teaching at theState Teachers College at SlipperyRock, Pa., and supervises history andgeography in the junior high schoolof the training school.1929Paul E. Crowder is living at Alta-dena, Calif. (85 E. Foothill Boul.)## Isaac H. Miller is in charge of thedepartment of education and directsthe extension teaching of Livingstone College.1930William J. Blackburn, ex, has spentthe past year directing researchstudies on slum elimination for theCity Planning Commission. He is doing this work in Columbus, at OhioState University.1931Willard R. Sprowls is now locatedwith the duPont Company in Wilmington. ## Blossom Lane (Mrs.Henry Thomas) reports that she isliving in Union Springs, Alabama,and that her young daughter, RosaMiriam Mildred, is thriving.(Athletics, continued from page 286)military school, and played on a mixed team of highschool and junior college students. According to the conference interpretation, that constituted junior collegecompetition. At the meeting of the faculty representatives the middle of May, an unsuccessful effort wasmade to clarify the rule. The team can get along without these three, of course, but Chicago's squad never yethas seen the day when it could lose three of its bestplayers and not feel the effects.The 1935 and 1936 conference football schedules weredrawn up at the May meeting. Notable is the absenceof Michigan, one of Chicago's best opponents, and thecontinuation of the Ohio State game for the two years.There is considerably more interest in Michigan thanOhio hereabouts and the absence of the Wolverines willbe noticeable. Wisconsin is back again, after a year's interruption in the series. The schedule for 1935 is asfollows: Oct. 19— Purdue at Chicago; Oct. 26— Wisconsin at Chicago; Nov. 9— Ohio State at Chicago; Nov. 16—Indiana at Chicago; Nov. 23— Chicago at Illinois. The1936 lineup: Oct. 18— Purdue at Chicago; Nov. 1— Chicago at Wisconsin; Nov. 8— Chicago at Ohio State; Nov.15— Indiana at Chicago; Nov. 22— Illinois at Chicago.Notes: H. O. ("Fritz") Crisler, the Maroon athletewho has been teaching Princeton and the East how toplay football, will return to the Midway on June 7 topitch for the alumni baseball team against the varsity.George Wrighte, conference all-around champion ingymnastics for two years, has been awarded the BigTen medal at Chicago for proficiency in athletics andscholarship. Nelson Metcalf, athletic director, will awardthe "C" blankets at the Sing this year, continuing thetradition established by A. A. Stagg.288THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 289(News of the Quadrangles, continued from page 285)rinse his mouth, then chew a piece of paraffin. Thesample could then be sent to the laboratory and areport made in a day or less.Definite symptoms of drunkenness appear only whenthe alcohol concentration passes one milligram percubic centimeter of blood, Dr. Friedemann said, citinghis own and other investigations. A concentration ofmore than two milligrams per cc. usually indicatesdrunkenness.The Chicago biochemist has also introduced chemicals of greater sensitivity in the alcohol tests, and hasperfected the laboratory technique.NotesListed among the non-fiction best-sellers of the lastmonth is "You Must Relax," by Dr. Edmund Jacobson,assistant professor of physiology at the University. Dr.Jacobson has been working for more than a decade onthe problem of physiological tensions and has developedrelaxation techniques of considerable practical andclinical significance. He has also been engaged in workof great theoretical importance in making delicate analyses of the relation of thoughts and sensations withthe musculature. . . . Dr. Alfred S. Romer, Professor of Vertebrate Paleontology, who is regarded as oneof the most promising younger men in his field, hasaccepted appointment as Professor of Zoology at Harvard University, in charge of Harvard's work in paleontology. He will remain at the Midway through the first term of the Summer Quarter. . . . Arthur G. Bovee,a member of the faculty for 25 years, was awarded the"Palmes Academiques" by the French government May18th. He is assistant professor of the Teaching ofFrench, head of the French staff at University HighSchool, former president of the Modern LanguageTeachers Association, and baton-wielder for the localchapter of Alpha Delta Phi since the University Singbegan back in 191 1. . . . James Henry Breasted, manof many honors, was honored once again last month, onMay 16th, by the American Institute of Architects, withthe Institute's Fine Arts Medal. . . . Two hundredmembers of the Settlement Board dined together at theSettlement May 18th, observing the 40th anniversary ofthe founding of the institution. . . . Opening night ofthe "Cascades," night-life center now occupying the oldAuditorium theater, was a benefit for the ChicagoLying-in Hospital, which is closely affiliated with theUniversity. ... Dr. Melchior Palyi, German economist displaced from his position by the Nazis becauseof his liberal views, and now a Visiting Professor atthe University, has been re-appointed for another year.He will undertake a history of banking in the Chicagodistrict. . . . There are those who hold that thenational government will eventually be removed to theMidway. First step in that direction was the removallast month of the staff of the Retail Price Analysisbureau of the NRA from Washington to the secondfloor of the West Stand of Stagg Field. Professor JohnCover of the School of Business directs the enterprise.Ape You Seeking Employment?HERE is a demand, at this time, for those qualifiedby education or experience in various lines.If you are interested in securing employment of the bettertype, either temporary or permanent, we invite your application.EXECUTIVE, SALES, TECHNICAL AND OFFICEMALE AND FEMALECall and Register at Your Convenience Without Charge or ObligationWABASH 0227EXECUTIVE SERVICE CORPORATION64 E. Jackson Blvd. Room 920NOREGISTRATION FEE NO ADVANCEPAYMENT REQUIRED290 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEVERSATILE SERVANTIt speeds the news of opportunity and good fortune.It keeps friendships alive.It summons help in emergency. Able and ready toserve you in countless waysis your Bell Telephone.Albert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago535 Fifth Ave., New York415 Hyde Bldg., SpokaneA general Placement Bureau for men and ¦women in all kinds of teaching positions.Large and alert College, and State Teachers' College departments for Doctors andMasters; Critics and Supervisors for Normals. Also many calls for Special teachersof Music, Art, Home Economics, BusinessAdministration, Correspondence Teaching.Fine opportunities in Secondary Schools.A host of best Suburban patrons for gradeand High School teachers Read our booklet. Call.PROFESSIONALDIRECTORYDENTISTDR. GEO. G. KNAPPDENTISTWoodlawn Medical Arts Bldg.Suite 304 * 1305 E. 63rd StreetPhone Plaza 6020ELECTROLYSISLOTTIE A. METCALFEELECTROLYSIS EXPERT13 YEARS' EXPERIENCEHair Removed from Face, Neck and BodyFacial Veins, Warts, Moles Permanently RemovedGraduate NurseSUITE TELEPHONE17 N. State St. FRANKLIN 4885 1932John Mills, Jr., is a photographerfor the Washington Post, Washington, D. C.The following men have been assigned to the State Geological Survey under CWA, to carry on research in the mineral resources of thestate. They are particularly interested in finding new uses for theseresources.Paul H. Dunn, PhD'32Perle H. Keller, '21Walter G. Moxey, '32-George H. Otto, '31.. /Ogden K. Smythe, '32Edward B. Espenshade/31, AM'32Alfred J. Holenberg, '28Jack E. Appel, '33Robert W. Beck, '32Frank E. Egler is studying at theUniversity of Minnesota. ## JohnTeter will be with the Federal Electric Company at the World's Fairthis summer. ## Iola Reed Storm isteaching in Joliet, 111. ** Eileen Fitz-patrick is secretary to the Secretaryof Commerce and Industry of theState of Michigan, at Lansing.1933Margaret E. Kullander is teachingEnglish and civics at Thornton Fractional Township High School in Calumet City, 111. ## Harold Rigney,SM'33, is teaching botany and zoology at Sacred Heart Mission House,Girard, Pa. *# Erik Wahlgrew andG. Elwood Johnson have gone intopartnership as agents for BealeTours, Inc., of Chicago, and are atwork organizing a group of Chicagostudents and alumni for tours of thecity and the Fair this summer. *#George Boyd has been appointed toone of the Titanium Pigment Company, Inc., Fellowships, in the department of chemistry. He is workingunder Dr. Harkins. *# Basil Bilderis inspector in the laboratory of theGeneral Petroleum Corporation atHuntington Park, Calif.MASTERS1898Lolabel House, AM (Mrs. RobertA. Hall), writes that she is head ofthe economics department of BayRidge High School, Brooklyn. Mr.Hall, '06, PhD' 07, has retired, due towar disabilities. The son of the family, Robert, Jr., who studied at theUniversity of Chicago last year, is SCHOOLSBEVERLY FARM, INC37th YearA Home, School for Nervous and BackwardChildren and Adults220 Acres, 7 Buildings, School Gymnasium, Industrial and School Training Given, Departmentfor Birth Injury CasesGroves Blake Smith, M.D. Godfrey, III.Practical Business TrainingBusiness Administration, Executive-SecretarialStenotype and 14 Other College Grade Courses78th YearTrain for Assured Success Write for CatalogBryant & Stratton College18 S. Michigan Ave. Randolph I575MacCormac School ofCommerceBusiness Administration and SecretarialTrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESEnter Any MondayII70 E. 63rd St. H. P. 2I30NORTH PARK COLLEGEFully AccreditedJunior College: Liberal Arts and Pre-ProfessionalCourses.High School: Language, Scientific and VocationalCourses.Conservatory: Public School Music and otherCertified Courses.High Standards of ScholarshipBeautiful Campus, Athletics and Social ActivitiesExpenses LowFor catalog write to the presidentNorth Park College Foster and Kedzie Aves.The Mary E. Pogue SchoolFounded 1903For Children and Young People NeedingIndividual InstructionSpecial Training, Medical Supervision,Trained Nurses, College Trained FacultyHome Atmosphere 25-Acre EstateMany Students Have Continued inAcademic SchoolsWheaton, III.BUSINESSDIRECTORYL APARTMENTS ¦CLOSE TO U. OF C. ^HApartments — All SizesProfessional OfficesProperty Investments— Insurance —ACKLEY BROS. CO.1447 E. 63rd St. HYDE PARK 0100THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 291now at the University of Rome, ona fellowship from the Italian Government, studying Italian and linguistics.1912Walter M. Smith, AM, is principalof the high school at Exeter, Calif.;he served as president of the ExeterKiwanis Club in 1933.1914Grant J. Richard, AM, is presidentof Ouachita College, Arkadelphia,Ark. Until 1931 he was president ofArkansas Polytechnic College. ##George B. Clay comb, SM, heads thedepartment of biology at Southwestern Louisiana Institute. ** MinnieFrost, SM (Mrs. R. D. Rands), wasawarded first prize in NationalDrama last summer by the League ofAmerican Penwomen, for her Javanese comedy, "The Slamatan," published by Walter Baker Co., ofBoston. She is the mother of fourchildren and lives at Washington,D. C.1917Margaret C. Going (Mrs. EdwardJ. Woodhouse) is personnel directorfor the Women's College of the University of North Carolina.1918John G. Lowery, AM, is servinghis second term in the State Senate ofOhio. He is director of the divisionof teacher-training at MuskingumCollege, Ohio, and is in charge of thesummer school.1921F. E. Vestal, SM, is supervising geologist for the Tennessee Valley Authority. He may be reached at StateCollege, Miss. ## Wendell S. Brooks,AM, is president of IntermountainUnion College, Helena, Mont., whichis now an accredited four-year collegein the Northwest Association.1922W. S. Dearmont, AM, is Dean ofthe College of Education at Southwestern Louisiana Institute, not tomention being professor and head ofthe department of psychology.1923Sophy D. Parker, AM, is a professor at Upper Iowa University, Fayette, la. ** William J. Cribbs, SM, is now located at the Forest Experiment Station, Globe, Arizona.1924Lawrence W. Hartel is with thePhysics Department of Kansas StateAgricultural College, Manhattan,Kansas. ## Raymond White, AM, issuperintendent of schools of Douglas,Wyoming.1925John Duncan Brite, AM, is atUtah State Agricultural College,teaching history.1926William Paul Carter, AM, is atElmhurst College, 111. ** John F.Latimer, AM, has been teaching atDrury College, Springfield, Mo., thisyear, as an associate professor. ^#Lilly Elnora Kohl, SM, manages thecafeteria in addition to instructingher classes in home economics atEastern Kentucky State College. **Robert D. Gregg, principal of La-Fayette and Chopin Schools in Chicago, will be the special assistantsuperintendent of schools of Chicago.This is considered a key position inthe Chicago system, as it entails theassignment and transfer of teachersand principals, adjustment of salaries,and distribution of text and librarybooks.1927James M. Bradford, AM, is a part-time instructor at George WilliamsCollege, Chicago.1928W. Homer Teesdale, AM, is withPacific Union College, in the department of history.1929/. B. Stout, AM, is superintendent?of schools, at Shabbona, 111.; he is acandidate on the Republican ticketfor County Superintendent ofSchools. He has three daughter's,Alice, Janet and Phyllis. #* Jacob M.Hofer, AM, is an instructor in historyat Chicago Junior College. #* Caroline W. Coleman, AM, is assistantsupervisor of physical education forwomen at the University of California.1931May Mackintosh, SM, is a teacher ARTISTS SUPPLIESEDWARD C. BUNCK4645-47 South ParkwayPAINTS — GLASS — WALL PAPERArtist's MaterialsALL PHONES OAKLAND 0845Deliveries to All Parts of Chicago SuburbsAWNINGSPhones Oakland 0690— 069I— 0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.,INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueAUTO LIVERYCHICAGO PETERSENMOTOR LIVERYLINCOLNSWith Experienced Chauffeurs5548 Lake Park Ave. MID way 0949AUTO SERVICE STATIONSJor Economical TrontporiaHo*SALES ^CHEVROLET, SERVICEParts — Passenger Cars — TrucksMODERN SERVICE STATIONORME CHEVROLET CO.5200 Lake Park Ave.USED CARS FAIRFAX 0825BOOKSKrochs BookstoresBooks On All SubjectsIn Every LanguageAsk for Catalog, stating special interests206 N. Michigan AvenueCHICAGOBROKERSClark G. (Skee) Sauer '12WithJames E. Bennett & Co.Stocks — Bonds — Grain — CottonMembers: New York and Chicago StockExchanges, Chicago Board of Trade, AllPrincipal Markets.332 So. LaSalle St. Tel. Wabash 2740P. H. Davis, 11 H. I. Markham, 'Ex. '06R. W. Davis, '16 W.M. Giblin, '23F. B. Evans, 'IIPaul H. Davis & Co.MembersNew York Stock ExchangeChicago Stock Exchange37 So. LaSalle St. Franklin 8622292 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECATERERSJOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900—0901Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882CHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, '12B. R. Harris, '21Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285COALQUALITY COAL PRICED RIGHTLESTER COAL CO.4025 Wallace St, at 40th PlaceAll Phones: Yards 6464 ,RIDGE FUEL & SUPPLY CO.Coal — Dustless CokeFireplace Wood — CannelI633 W. 95th St. BEV. 8205COFFEE AND TEAW. S. Quinby CompanyIMPORTERS AND ROASTERSOF HIGH GRADECOFFEES AND TEAS417-427 W. OHIO ST.-CHICAGOPhones Superior 2336-7-8DECORATINGIt will pay you to haveour estimate and expert adviceNATIONALDECORATING SERVICEHart Bros. System, Inc.4035 S. Michigan Ave. Boulevard 9700EMPLOYMENT— POSITIONS —VACANCIES FOR4 COMPETENT WORKERSOffice — Technical — SalesMale — FemaleCall and Register - Free - NowEXECUTIVE SERVICE64 E. Jackson Blvd. of home economics at Aitkin, Minn.*# Richard M. Cain, AM, is an associate professor at Augustana College,Sioux Falls, S. D. ** Lun Lo, AM,is professor of education at the National Wu Han University, Wuchang, Hupeh, China.1932Wilbert L. Terre, SM, has resignedhis position with E. A. Seebel andCo., to accept a place with the DittoCompany of Chicago. ## Beatrice M.Graham is teaching in an Americanschool in Paris, and lives at 43 rueGazan.1933James I. .Br own has been a professor of English at Monmouth College, Monmouth, 111., this year.DOCTORSOF PHILOSOPHY1908Robert E. Buchanan is director of(True Confessions, continued frompage 281)of' education. Many faculty membersand some undergraduates were invited by the alumni to see the University's science pictures and therewere no apparent disappointments.Lexington, the night before theDerby, is no place for an AlumniSecretary, unless he has taken timeby the forelock and reserved a quietroom on the court. This Secretarywas fortunate in having such a roomand since the alumni meeting washeld on the University of Kentuckycampus, the entire evening wasreminiscent of life on the quadrangles. Claibourne G. Latimer aspresident of the local club wassuccessful in getting out a very representative delegation of Chicagoanswho did their part in making the lastmeeting of the trip a great success.The next day the Secretary headedfor home and his little cubicle on thetop floor of Cobb Hall, richer inmemories and far richer in friendships as a result of his pilgrimagethrough the southland. And whosebusiness is it whether he traveled byU. S. 25 through Cincinnati or cutacross the blue grass section by way ofChurchill Downs and Louisville ingetting back to Chicago? His onlyadmission is that his total mileagefrom Chicago to Chicago was just4673- ELEVATORSReliance Elevator Co.PASSENGER AND FREIGHTELEVATORSFor Every Purpose212 W. Austin Ave. ChicagoFISHJ. A. DAVIS FISH CO.Specialize in Supplying Hotels,Restaurants, Hospitals, Institutions.Fresh Caught Direct From the Fisherman211 N. Union Ave.Phone Haymarket 1495FLORISTSHOMER LANGE A. LANGEEst. 1887Charge Accounts and DeliveryFLORIST^63 E. Monroe_ Central 3777 ,^CHICAGOff&r Established 7865QJj^ FLOWERSPhones: Plaza 6444, 64451631 East 55th StreetFURSELLIOTT FUR CO.DESIGNERS OF HIGH GRADEFURSREPAIRING and REMODELING36 Years of DependabilityTax Warrants AcceptedStevens Bldg. 17 N. State St.CENTRAL 1678 SUITE 1000FOODS,. FOOD^products Durand-McNeil-HornerCompany251 to 315E. Grand1 Ave.' Chicago, III.Superior9560FRUIT AND VEGETABLESCOHEN and COMPANYWholesaleFruit — Vegetables — Poultry211 South Water MarketPhones Haymarket 0808 to 0816THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe Iowa Agricultural ExperimentStation, at Ames, as well as professorof bacteriology. His son, Joseph, isa freshman at the University of Chicago Law School.1911Lloyd L. Dines is professor andhead of the department of mathematics at Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh.1912Lester W. Sharp, professor of botany at Cornell University, has a thirdand revised edition of his Cytologyjust off the press. ## Melvin A. Bran-non has been in Chicago this winter,working on certain problems of thephysiology of algae in the laboratories of the botany department.1914W. /. Donald is now managingdirector of National Electrical Manufacturers Association. In the courseof the last year he has been executivevice president of the Packaging Machinery Manufacturers Institute andof the Packaging Machinery Code Authority. He has been Code Counselorfor the Industrial Safety EquipmentAssociation, the Paper Box Machinery Industry, and the Can Labeling and Casing Machinery Industry.*# Edward M. Harvey is investigating the physiology of the rinds ofcitrus fruits, at the Experiment Station at Pomona, Calif.1915Arthur G. Vestal has been electedsecretary-treasurer of the EcologicalSociety of America.1917Earl E. Sherff, SM'12, of the Chicago Normal College, has in arecent issue of the Botanical Gazette,his ninth article on "New or Otherwise Noteworthy Compositae." **Henry R. Kraybill, SM'15, *s yicepresident of the American Societyof Plant Physiologists.1925Howard Copeland Hill is teachingat the University of Hawaii this summer. He is well known for his recentpublication, "Our Economic Societyand Its Problems," written in collaboration with Rexford Guy Tugwell.** Charles H. Behre, Jr., '18, is chairman of the department of geology and geography at NorthwesternUniversity. He was recently electedvice president of the Geographic Society of Chicago; he is president ofthe Illinois Academy of Science.1928Constance E. Hartt, SM'25, is inHonolulu, dividing her time betweena Research Fellowship in the Hawaiian Sugar Planters Associationand an assistant professorship at theUniversity of Hawaii. She is alsosecretary of the Hawaiian BotanicalSociety.1929Elbert L. Little, Jr., SM'29, *s atechnician for the U. S. Forest Service. He is stationed at Jornada Experimental Range, at Las Cruces,New Mex. ** W. H. Gray, AM'26,is associate professor of psychology atKansas State Teachers College, Emporia.1930Ralph Stob, AM'27/ is presidentof Calvin College in Grand Rapids,Mich.1932Olivia Dorman, AM'25, professorof classics at Florida State College forWomen, was honored by Randolph-Macon Woman's College, by electionto that chapter of Phi Beta Kappa,as an honorary member.1933Gordon H. Stillson, '30, has accepted a position with the GirdlerCorporation of Louisville.LAW1908C. Arthur Bruce, '06, JD, is locatedin Washington, D. C. (986 NationalPress Bldg.), where he continues inthe hardwood lumber business.1909Paul O'Donnell, '08, JD, has become affiliated with the law firm ofPeaks, Topliff and O'Donnell, at 105S. LaSalle St., Chicago.1912Walter H. Chambers, LLB, is practicing law in Chicago with the firmof Thompson, Chambers and GARAGESCARSCALLED FOR AND DELIVERED64th STREET GARAGETowing At All Hours6341 HARPER AVE.PHONE HYDE PARK 1031University Auto GarageCo.16 Years of Dependable ServiceWe Call For and Deliver Your CarTelephone Hyde Park 45991169 East 55th StreetHOTELS"Famous for Food"Dancing and EntertainmentNightlyCircular CRYSTAL Barthe BREVOORT hotel120 W. Madison St. ChicagoHARPER SURF HOTEL5426 Harper Ave.Beautifully Furnished Home-LikeRooms, Private Bath and Shower$5 and UpPHONEPLAZA 3900 Miss MonsellMgr.PARKLAND HOTELFacing Jackson Park1550 East 63rd St.300 Rooms — Private BathFrom $5 WeeklyFolder with details of rates and services will besent on request.LAUNDRIESADAMSLAUNDRY CO2335 Indiana Ave.Superior Hand WorkOdorless Dry CleaningTelephoneCalumet 2346THEBEST LAUNDRY andCLEANING COMPANYALL SERVICESWe Also DoDry Cleaning — Shoe Repairing4240 PhoneIndiana Ave. OAK land I383*94 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELAUNDRIES— continuedStandard Laundry Co.Linen Supply — Wet WashFinished Work1818 South Wabash Ave.Phone Calumet 4700LITHOGRAPHINGL C. Mead '21 E. J. Che ilifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing725 So. LaSalle St.Wabash 8182OFFICE FURNITUREPruitt's rebuilt office machines give theappearance and service of new equipment — carry a full guarantee — yet, saveyou as much as 50%.PRUITT, Inc.172 N. La Salle St. ChicagoOLD GOLD BOUGHTCASH FOR OLD GOLDJewelry, watches, gold teeth, plated articles,diamonds, silver, etc. We always pay the propercash value.Established 1900Chicago Gold Smelting Co.5 SOUTH WABASH, 5TH FLOOR(Mailers Bldg., Room 515)Members Chicago Ass'n of CommercePAINTINGGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3I23 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3 1 86PAINTING AND DECORATINGEMIL C ERICKSEN & CO.Painting and DecoratingDraperies — UpholsteringFurniture Refinishing6830 Cottage Grove Ave.Phones Dorchester 3584-5 PLATINGYou Wreck 'em We Fix 'emMcVittie Plating & BrassRefinishing Works, Inc.Expert Metal Platers and RefinishersChromium — Nickel — Copper — Silver — GoldBrass — Bronze — All Antique and Modern FinishesWe plate or refinish anything made of metalWe specialize in silver plating tableware1 600-02-04 S. State St. Calumet 2646-7-8 Thompson. ## Alfred Beck, 'u, JD,has moved to Suite 864, ContinentalIllinois Bank Building, Chicago.1915Chester S. Bell, '13, JD, is assistantto the receiver of the Bain Banks ofChicago.1917Arthur C. Wetterstorm, LLB, ispracticing at 135 South LaSalle St.,Chicago. ## Clay Judson, JD, is withthe firm of Wilson and Mcllvaine,at 120 West Adams St., Chicago.1920Harry X. Cole, '18, JD, is servingas Worthy Grand Patron of the Orderof the Eastern Star of Illinois. ##Earl B. Dickerson, JD, is an assistant attorney general of the Stateof Illinois.1925Anna A. Krivitsky, '22, JD, is practicing law at Tampa, Fla. ## JohnSkweir, JD, is a candidate for thePennsylvania State Legislature. *#Orville D. Buckles, JD, is with Hethand Lister, at 1 N. LaSalle St.,Chicago.1929Leon M. Despres, '27, JD, is opening law offices at 11 South LaSalleSt., Chicago. ## Bernard Epstein, '27,JD, has moved his law offices to 134N. LaSalle St., Chicago.1930Frank C. Bernard, '29, JD, is practicing law with the firm of Sonnen-schein, Berkson, Lautmann, Levisonand Morse.DIVINITY1886James H. Garnett, DB, is Dean ofthe American Baptist TheologicalSeminary at Nashville. He has occupied this post for the last tenyears.1887Christian A. Broholm, DB, is aminister and is living in Des Moines,Iowa.1906Naotaro Otsuka, DB, has beenteaching English in Waseda University since 1906. PHOTOGRAPHERSMOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF DISTINCTION30 South Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C ALUMNI PLUMBINGESTABLISHED 42 YEARSW. M. MclNERNEY624 EAST 63 rd ST.PLUMBING andHEATINGPHONE FAIRFAX 2911RADIO— PLUMBINGA. J. F. Lowe & SonI2I7 East 55th StreetPlumbing — Refrigeration — RadioSales and ServiceDay Phones Mid. 0782-0783-Night Phones Mid. 9295-Oakland II3IRESTAURANTSChicago's Most Unique RestaurantBANZAI'SWhere Stars and Celebrities Meet6325 Cottage Grove Ave.American and Oriental CuisineOrders Delivered Hot at No Extra ChargeA Steak at Banzai 's IS a SteakPhone DOR. 09l7Luncheon — Tea — DinnerGreen Shutter Tea Shop5650 Kenwood Ave."Remember it's smart to dineat the Green Shutter —It's Different"The Best Place to Eat on the South SideCOLONIAL TEA ROOM6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone Hyde Park 6324ROOFINGGrove Roofing Co.(Gilliland)Old Roofs Repaired— New Roofs Put On24 Years at 6644 Cottage Grove Ave.Lowest Prices — Estimates FreeFairfax 3206THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 2951907William F. Rothenburger, DB, ispresident of the International Convention of 1934 of the Disciples ofChrist.SCHOOL OFBUSINESS1920Joseph A. Allen is investmentanalyst and statistician with Haskell, Scott and Geyer, Chicago.1928William H. Perkins is now withSwift and Company, in the beef cutting department.1929James T. Allen, AM, is assistantprofessor of business administrationat Virginia Polytechnic Institute. *#George Buchy is vice president ofthe Chas. G. Buchy Packing Company of Greenville, Ohio.1930James McPherson is doing researchin vital statistics under the CWESin the department of sociology, atthe University of Chicago. ** JohnPals edge is assistant to Mr. Boyer,CWES administrator in Chicago.1932Carl A. Scheid is chief of the Correspondence Division of the FederalDeposit Insurance Corporation atWashington. He reports that he hasfound the meetings of the Washington D. C. Alumni Club both interesting and well attended.1933/. Frank Thomas is selling accounting machines for the Remington Rand Company, Chicago. *#Stephen Straske is with the sales division of the Visking Company. *#Warren Bellstron is a salesman of icecream for Swift and Company, Chicago.ENGAGEDMorris L. Kilmnick, '27, JD'28, toJeannette Eisenstein.MARRIEDReuben Ratner, MD'28, to RoseButler, July 2, 1933, Beverly Hills,Calif.; at home, 1850 Gough St., SanFrancisco.William H. Perkins, '28, to FrancesCosby White, of Evansville, Indiana, November 24, 1932. The Perkinsfamily now lives at 6514 HarvardAve., Chicago.Alice Carlson, '32, to Jack LuinHough, '32, May 4, Thorndyke Hilton Chapel. The Houghs will spendthe summer at Woods Hole, Mass.Ivar Eugene Dolph, MD'32, toHelen Soneral, Chicago, October 21,1933. At home, Manito, 111.Esther Ann Maretz, '33, to MyronBenedict Golber, February 1, 1934,Chicago; at home at 7538 KingstonAve., Chicago.BORNTo Lester E. Garrison, '19, MD'21,and Mrs. Garrison, a son, WilliamHenry, II, June 10, 1933, Chicago.To Earl B. Dickerson, JD'20, andMrs. Dickerson, a daughter, Diane,May 13, 1934, Chicago.To Milton Gerwin, '26, JD'28, andMrs. Gerwin (Dorothy Grosby, '26),a son, Richard Alan, March 13,1934, Chicago.To Dr. and Mrs. George A. May(Mildred Scheirich, SSA'27), adaughter, Ellen Parr, April 10, 1934,Louisville.To Mark Williams, MD'32, andMrs. Williams, a son, Mark, Jr.,February 28, 1934, Hettinger, N.Dak.DIEDBurton Clark, MD'94, April 18,1934, Oshkosh, Wis.Charles D. Center, MD'94, March31, 1934, Quincy, 111.Henry G. W. Reinhardt, MD, May9, 1934, Muscle Shoals, Ala.Annie Marion MacLean, PhM' 97,PhD' 00, May 1, 1934, Pasadena, Calif.Dr. MacLean had been an extensionassistant professor of sociology at theUniversity of Chicago since 1903.Edward S. Naffz, MD'93, April 15,1934, Chicago.Cathryn R. Goble, '17, AM'19,March 17, 1934, Des Moines, Iowa.Elbert D. Ho, PhD'26, December2, 1933, Honolulu, Hawaii.Thomas J. Conley, MD'85, May13, 1934, Chicago.Bernard C. Hess, PhD'96, April23, 1934, New York, New York.Emma J. Heurmann^ '23, March25, 1934, Oak Park, 111.Maude Anna Latchaw, '33, March21, 1934, Chicago.Arthur Franklin Riser, AM'32,May 5, 1934, Opelika, Alabama. RUG CLEANERSHAAKER & HENTSCHORIENTAL -:- DOMESTICRug and Carpet CleanersUpholstering and Refinishing5165 State St. Oakland 1212STORAGEPhone MID way 9700 HYD e Park 0452Peterson Fireproof Storage Co.Chas. A. Peterson, Pres.Moving and ExpressingPacking and ShippingForeign ShipmentsBranch: 8126 Cottage Grove Ave.55th Street and Ellis Ave.TEACHERS' AGENCIESTHE YATES-FISHERTEACHERS AGENCYEstablished I906PAUL YATES, Manager6I6-620 South Michigan Ave.ChicagoUNDERTAKERSBARBOUR & GUSTINUNDERTAKERS4I4I Cottage Grove Ave.PHONE DREXEL 05I0LUDLOW-SCHNEIDERFUNERAL DIRECTORSFine Chapel with New Pipe OrganSEDAN AMBULANCETel. Fairfax 286I6II0 Cottage Grove Ave.UPHOLSTERINGDERK SMIT & COInterior DecoratorsFurniture and DraperiesUPHOLSTERINGand Refinishing6830 Cottage Grove Ave.Phones Dorchester 3584-5-6VENTILATINGThe Haines CompanyVentilating ContractorsI929-I937 West Lake St.Phones Seeley 2765-2766-2767UNDERGRADUATEWE have come to the time when we are quiterightfully expected to reminisce over the pastyear, to bury ourselves in retrospection, to recall, perhaps joyously, the varied activities of undergraduates during the past three quarters. This is noeasy task.We shall start with the educational end of things.This, the third year of the new plan, was rather uneventful from the point of view of change. The new planis still too much in its infancy to wTeather changes successfully. As President Hutchins put it in his tradition-forming address to undergraduates at the Daily Maroonbanquet at the end of the spring quarter: "We aremerely clearing the way for things to happen. Nothinghas really happened as yet. We are still trying to find outwhat a general education really is." Perhaps the temporary curriculum resorted to by the faculty in connection with the new plan is beginning to "jell," but thatis merely a part of the normal cycle that must usuallybe reckoned with before additional changes can bemade.The position of the faculty in this matter of "jelling"is quite apparent. They have no particular desire toadapt themselves to new conditions so soon now thatthey have just barely acclimated themselves to the presentset-up, however temporary it was agreed to be upon itshasty installation. This does not mean that we havereached our ultimate aim in education, although aspresident Hutchins says: "We have the best system ofeducation of any university in the United States." Weare not resting with satisfaction upon laurels which weconsider complete and perfect; we are merely pausingin consideration of the need for slow adjustment to allchanges. Then, when we have become adjusted to thealready installed revisions, and only then, will the stagebe set for still further change and revision.ActivitiesPublications, Dramatics and Athletics among othersclamor for attention at this point. Probably the undergraduate activity that has aroused the most interest,both faculty and student, this year has been the DailyMaroon under the editorship of one John P. Barden, anew plan junior. The Daily Maroon was a competentstudent newspaper during the first quarter, but withlittle to distinguish it aside from the fact that it becamehighly columnized. Then at the start of the secondquarter when the campus had become resigned to "justanother Maroon and just another Maroon editor," Editor Barden started forth on an editorial policy embracing the aims of education in general and applying theseaims as a measuring rod to the new plan with the endin view of calling public attention to its faults, and ofstifling the reactionary complacency that had already permeated a great portion of the administration in regardto it. The Maroon ended its quarter of fiery idealismwith an extra-size issue containing a review of each ofthe four general courses, each of which were for the most TRENDS• By CHARLES TYROLER, 2ndpart "revealed to be inaccurate and mis-informing." Itwas an engaging quarter of Maroons and faculty rankwas disregarded in the editor's bold and sweeping commentary on educational methods engaged in on theMidway.The Cap and Gown was published again this yearafter a dormancy period of one year brought about bystudent lethargy. The book is original and refreshing inboth makeup and content and furnishes the Cap andGown with a worthy entree back into campus favor.Everett Parker, Waldemar Solf and William Watson, allof whom are new plan juniors, are to be heartily commended for actually accomplishing a feat in the truetradition of Frank Merriwell; they won out with thecards, and lots of them, stacked high against them.Comment, the University's literary and critical quarterly, made two appearances this year and bids fair totake its place on the campus as an official and regularpublication. Plans are in the process of formation whichwill provide for six appearances of the magazine nextyear. The Phoenix, the monthly humorous publication,was headed by Milt Olin, noted Blackfriar and DramaticAssociation performer. It was a worthy publication withan exceptional literary content for a magazine of itsprofessed nature. In all ratings of American collegiatehumor publications, the Phoenix was found well upamong the leaders.The Dramatic Association, headed by ChairmanFrank Springer, conducted its season admirably. Undueconservatism, one serious charge made in respect tothe Association, appears no longer to apply to the character of its endeavors. Although the spring revival,Mirror, Playfest and the freshman plays, comprisingover half of the Association's schedule still lemain, anup-to-date and modern note may be detected in the atmosphere and even substance of Mr. O'Hara's productions. This breaking away from the stodgy conservatismthat was found necessary in the early years of the Association when it was in the process of establishing itselfon the campus is taken by a writer to signify a healthyand spontaneous change of policy.Blackfriars this year, in line with its noble and change-resisting tradition, produced "Merger for Millions" byHuntington Harris, Delaney Terrett and Henry Reese.It was, as the title suggests, a satire on the proposedNorthwestern-Chicago merger which was the subjectof so much discussion during the early part of theyear. The book was in the style of Gilbert andSullivan and furnished a most enjoyable evening's entertainment, having some of the best tunes and dancingheard and seen in a Blackfriar show for many a moon.Athletics at the University the past year were highlysuccessful, what with four of the teams, (Tennis, WaterPolo, Gymnastics and Fencing), holding uncontestedconference championships.So the year is gone now. And the many memories areours to share and carry with us always. It's been fun and,what is perhaps more important, we have profited.Your Campus Record In BronzeIndividualityPermanenceDignityArt¦HIMUON ,J, MYMOUWIM'I UW 1 010The actual size of your plaque will be 6 in. x 9 34 Ancient Roman Bronze,to endure through the ages,FOR YOUR NAME HERECcst of the same kind of bronze as was excavated from the ruins of Rome All embodied in this plaque containing the distinguishedCOAT OF ARMSof your university - to grace the wal Isor fireplace of your home or office.Legally protected against cheapimitations!You would appreciate such aplaque handed down to you by yourancestors. Your posterity will likewise appreciate such an act of yours.Mail this coupon today!To The Alumni Council,University of Chicago,Chicago, III.Enclosed is $7.50 for which pleasemail me postpaid a plaque made ofancient Roman Bronze, bearing the Coatof Arms of the University of Chicago,my name, class years, school anddegrees.Print NameStreetCityNOTE - Lines must not exceed 20letters. Where lines exceed 20 letters,punctuation included, in length, the useof abbreviations is herewith granted.PRINT below: class years, school anddegrees.