THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEA N U 19 3 4UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGODINNER PLATESSECOND EDITIONMade of English Spodeware, in color. Either a soft greyor an old blue, with Gothic tower border and twelvedifferent views of the University in the centers of theplates. Priced at $15 the dozen. Delivery prepaidwithin the United States. Thirty-four Alumni bought platesduring December.The Alumni Council5750 Ellis Ave., Chicago, III.I enclose $1 5 for a set ( one dozen ) of the University of ChicagoCommemorative Spode Plates. NAME -Color desired ADDRESS 1434 SetsAlready on theTables ofChicago AlumniTHE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED BY THE A LUMN I COUN CILCharlton T. Beck, '04 Ruth C. E. Earnshaw, '31Editor and Business Manager Associate EditorFred B. Millett, PhD '31, William V. Morc en stern, '20, JD '22, John P. Howe, '27,Contributing EditorsMilton E. Robinson, Jr., 'n, JD '13, Ethel Preston, '08, AM 'io, PhD '20, Donald Bean, '17,Editorial BoardON OUR cover we bring youone of the entries to the Residence Halls for Men, from aphotograph by John Mills, Jr., '33.During the past few months therehave been innumerable rumors relative to a proposed affiliation ormerger between Northwestern University and the University of Chicago.Inspired by inaccurate press reports,some) few alumni have believed sucha merger imminent, if not actuallyassured. To correct this impressionand to give a clear understanding ofthe present situation as it relates tothis hypothetical merger, we printthe address delivered by PresidentHutchins at the stijdent convocationin December. The prevailing attitude of alumni, including membersof the Council, seems to be one ofsuspended judgment, awaiting moredefinite information of plans andproposals before arriving at any decision as to the wisdom or desirability of any such consolidation.•George Sherburn has been a member of the University faculty fortwenty years. Widely recognized asan authority on Alexander Pope, healso teaches courses on the Englishdrama, and, if rumor is to be credited, gets the ultimate in satisfactionfrom his annual course in literarycriticism. Be that as it may, Professor Sherburn believes that thereare mistaken aspects in the program IN THIS ISSUEfor the Arts College as outlined inour November issue by PresidentRainey of Bucknell— and points themout in The Shakespeare Industry.•Milton S. Mayer is a Chicago newspaperman. Within the year he hascontributed articles to The Forumand The Century, to Vanity Fairand The Chicagoan. In collaboration with John Howe he wrote Stepsin the Dark, published in 1931. InThe Great Merger Mystery he offersa combination of the admittedly imaginative, the suspected apocryphaland the alleged historical, the likeof which has never before appearedin any alumni Magazine.Wallace W. Atwood contributesthe third of our series of articles byTABLE OF CONTENTSJANUARY, 1934PAGEAll About Consolidation,Robert Maynard Hutchins 91The Shakespeare Industry,George Sherburn 96The Great Merger Mystery,Milton S. Mayer 99Guides Versus Teachers,Wallace W. Atwood 102A Man's Job, Jean Henry Large 105Who's Afraid of the Professional Athlete? John Stalnaker 109In My Opinion 112Chicago Alumni in the CurrentMagazines 113News of the Quadrangles 114Athletics 119The Board of Trustees, John F. Moulds. 122News of the Classes 128Undergraduate Trends 136 college presidents— alumni of theUniversity. Internationally knownas a geographer and geologist, he hasbeen president of Clark Universitysince 1920. A member of the National Parks Advisory Board, president of the National Parks Association, President of the American Association of Geographers, he is theauthor of many a book and is theeditor of Economic Geography.In this issue Jean Henry Large, asister of Mrs. Herbert Hoover, makesher contribution to that most interesting "autobiographical biography" of Katharine Bement Davis.•John Stalnaker is a member of theUniversity's Board of Examiners.Three years ago he served as Directorof Attitude Measurements for thespecial committee on Physical Education and Athletics at the Universityof Minnesota.Through its entire history, theUniversity has been exceptionallyfortunate in its trustees. Amongthe alumni too little is known ofthese men who labor so unselfishlyin the interests of Chicago. We areoffering you this month personalsketches of the men who make upthis governing body by none otherthan John F. Moulds, the Secretaryof the Board.The Magazine is published at iooo Sloan St., Crawfordsville, Ind., monthly from November to July, inclusive, for The Alumni Council of the Universityof Chicago, 58th St. and Ellis Ave., Chicago, 111. The subscription price is $2.00 per year; the price of single copies is 25 cents.Entered as second class matter December 10, 1924, at the Post Office at Crawfordsville, Indiana, under the Act of March 3, 1879.A COLD, COLD DAY ON THE QUADRANGLESVOLUME XXVI THb UNIVERSITy OF NUMBER 3CHICAGO MAGAZINEJANUARY, 1934ALL ABOUT CONSOLIDATIONAn Address To The Undergraduates• By ROBERT MAYNARD HUTCHINS, President, The University of ChicagoSOME weeks ago I agreed to appear today todestroy the hallucination that I do not exist. I was much flattered by your interestin my existence. During my four years in collegeI did not see the President and did not want to.My policy with the President was live and letlive. As long as he didn't bother me I was contentnot to bother him. Still I admit that I havebothered you a good deal by assisting in disturbing your educational calm through such things aswhat is still called the New Plan. I had intendedto give you your revenge today by presenting anexhibition of a University president trying toexplain what his educational policy is. Unfortunately, however, the newspapers have selected mysubject for me by presenting to your startled gazevarious versions of our discussions with Northwestern University. I congratulate you on thecomposure you have displayed, which comparesvery favorably with the hysteria manifested bycertain other groups.The questions in your minds I cannot hope toanswer today. Instead I hope to leave you merelywith a knowledge of what the real questions are.Almost nothing can positively be asserted aboutthe proposed consolidation because the negotiations are in such a preliminary stage. I can saydefinitely, however, that certain things are nottrue. In the first place it is not true that the col-*ege On the Midway would be discontinued. Thatcollege has already made a cSntribution to eduction of tremendous importance and influence.We have never thought of abandoning or remov-lng it. In the second place it is not true thatr9>earch in medicine would be discontinued onfee McKinlock Campus or that clinical workwould cease on the Midway. All that has ever been suggested is that professional medical education might be emphasized down town andmedical research emphasized out here. Even asto this no commitments have been made by anybody.In the third place it is not true that the University's interest in this plan results from a desireto increase its tax exemption. I have recommended to our committee that the Universitywaive any additional benefits of this sort.In the fourth place it is not true that we havein mind wholesale reduction of the teachingstaff. Neither University has met the financialemergency by this method up to the present time.There is no ground for thinking that it will inthe future. Any readjustments in the teachingstaffs would be gradual and would not work hardship to members of the faculty.In the fifth place it is not true that our primaryinterest in these discussions is financial. If it werewe might have planned the abolition of the college on the Midway, and of medical research onthe McKinlock Campus; wre might be seekingways to enlarge our tax exemption, and we mightbe plotting drastic reductions in the teachingstaffs. In all our discussions financial considerations have been secondary. No proposal will everbe accepted by our Board if it alters the essentialcharacter of The University of Chicago. If anyproposal is ever approved by our Board it willbe because we are convinced that the plan willenable the University to do a better educationaland scientific job.In the sixth place it is not true that this consolidation is imminent or that it is assured. Committees of the two Boards have been examiningthe question with extreme deliberation since last9192 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMay. Neither one has reached any conclusion.Our Board as a whole has never even discussedthe matter. It is therefore clear that there is notthe slightest foundation for the suggestion thatwe shall wake up some morning and find oneuniversity where two grew before. Nothingwill be decided until everybody who is entitledto an opinion has had an opportunity to express it.At the moment there is very little to expressan opinion about. The single fact which is indisputably true is that the University and Northwestern are considering some form of cooperation, affiliation, or consolidation. Nobodyhas decided yet that the two institutions would notbe better off as they are. We have not yet madethe inquiry into the financial position of the twouniversities which must be completed before thatquestion can be answered. Nobody has yet decided whether all the presumed benefits ofconsolidation cannot be achieved through cooperation. Co-operation would leave the twouniversities separate entities, but would dividevarious activities between them. On the otherhand it may be that from the standpoint of theuniversities, the community, and the educationalsystem as a whole, consolidation would be a greatforward step.Even assuming that the Board were to agreethat consolidation was desirable, and they are yetfar from agreeing to any such proposition, theform of the consolidation would remain uncertain. Any statements that have been made or published on this issue have been either erroneousor misunderstood. The Presidents were asked tosuggest what might conceivably be done. Theysubmitted to their committees an answer to thesequestions which did not commit them or anybodyelse to doing those things, or to doing them inany particular order. Those statements have beenmisinterpreted as proposals of the Presidents andhave even been referred to as a memorandum ofagreement between the universities. That thereis no agreement between the universities must beentirely clear from what I have already said.Ouestions to Be ConsideredSince the only fact in the situation is that theuniversities are discussing some form of cooperation, I cannot give you more facts today. AllI can do is to indicate what issues in addition tothose I have already mentioned must be settled before consolidation can be effected. I shall beginwith the least important ones. In the first place, wemust be satisfied that the program will strengthen and not weaken the financial position of the universities. The two institutions, like all others inthe country, have suffered materially in the depression. They have economized. Both of themhave reached or passed the point where theseeconomies cease to be beneficial. Much that theyhave done has damaged them. Almost any furthersavings will damage them still further. They haveexhausted the possibilities of that type of economy which promotes efficiency. If they are compelled to save more money, they will, as at presentorganized, become less and less effective.'Closely related to this question is another. Howmany great universities will this community support? And more particularly, how many greatschools in any given field will the communitysupport? Study may show that this area cannot beexpected to finance two great endowed institutions of higher learning; that it cannot be expected to finance two great professional schoolsof law, medicine, business, and education; that itcannot handle two competing systems of adulteducation; and that two great graduate schoolswill be one too many for it. If then boom timesare not soon to return, damaging economies willbe necessary and mediocrity will be visited uponone or both of the universities and upon theircompeting schools.Is There Duplication?This raises at once the educational question asto whether there are schools in the two universities that actually do duplicate each other inmethods and in aims. If investigation shows thereare none, the universities will not be consolidated. The most superficial investigation has revealed that the two colleges are pursuing entirelydifferent courses. Our college is devoted to understanding collegiate education. The Northwesterncollege is devoted to administering it. We thinkof course that in the process of trying to understand college education we are administering thebest in the world. We think our college studentsare profiting greatly by such things as the NewPlan, which is one of the first fruits of our effortto discover what a college education ought to be.It is clear at any rate that the two colleges aredifferent, that both have important contributionsto make, and that both should be preserved. Wesee too that the medical school on the South Sidediffers materially from the Rush Medical Collegeand the Northwestern Medical School. All thi^eeare engaged in professional education. All threeare engaged in research. But the South SideTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 93School emphasizes research as a method of instruction and as an object of the staff to an extentwhich neither of the others has contemplated.Whereas it might be possible to argue that theRush Medical College and the Northwesternschool were attempting much the same thing inmuch the same way, that cannot be suggested ofthe South Side School. Therefore, we have neverconsidered combining that school with any otherin such a way as to alter its fundamental character. Nor have we any thought of altering thefundamental character of the Rush Medical College or the Northwestern Medical School.When we look at other activities of the universities, however, the case is not so clear. It doesnot appear that there is any marked difference inthe aims of the two institutions in adult education. Nor does it appear that our obligations tothe community necessarily demand continuationof two extension divisions. If one such divisionwould be more economical and more effectivethan two, there is no obvious reason why weshould not consider consolidating our effort inadult education.When we examine the schools of education,business, and law we must reach our conclusionsby the same sort of analysis. Are they fundamentally different? If not, does the country need twoof them? Will the community support two ofthem on a basis consistent with university standards? We can see that students on the Evanstoncampus would have to have access to courses ineducation which would qualify them to be teachers under state laws. Is there any obvious reasonwhy the graduate work in education should notbe consolidated on the South Side?This leads us into the whole subject of graduatework. This is the most expensive work a university does. Very small classes are the rule. Studentsand faculty require the most elaborate libraries,laboratories, and research facilities. Two universities engaged in graduate work are clearly tryingto do the same thing; they are trying to advanceknowledge. They may not be doing it equallywell, but the object of their effort is identical.We are here brought face to face with the sameold question: does the country demand twograduate schools in Chicago? Can they be supported? If it appears that all candidates for thePh.D. could be educated on the South Side without spending more money on them than the University of Chicago spends on those it has; if itdevelops that the libraries and laboratories onthe Midway are adequate to accommodate them, are there obvious reasons why an attempt shouldbe made to maintain another graduate school inEvanston?In our speculations as to the consequences ofduplication and competition we must considernot only the present situation, but also the onethe future may bring us if the universities remainseparate. The casual interest of donors, the ambitions of faculties, graduates, trustees, or presidents may any or all of them tempt either university at any moment to imitate on its owncampus what is already being done next door.The fact that it is being done next door insteadof leading to refusal to do likewise often seemsto add zest to the undertaking. I have difficulty inbelieving that such competition is beneficial tothe community, to the nation, or to the higherlearning.The Educational IssuesUp to this point I have been dealing withfinancial questions and questions that maybe called both educational and financial. Wepass now to issues purely educational. I omit suchobvious matters as the ability of the combinedand strengthened universities to attract the greatest scholars and the best students. I assume youcan see already that there are not enough fineteachers and scholars in the United States to goround. I shall not refer to the effect on educationand research of uniting the efforts of the members of each faculty. I wish to discuss the relationof this proposal to the manifest destiny and thepeculiar mission of The University of Chicago.Mr. Rockefeller thought he was establishing asmall Baptist college in the Middle West. Mr.Harper knew better. Mr. Harper knew, and soonMr. Rockefeller agreed with him, that he wasfounding a great university to give tremendousnew impetus to education and scholarship in theUnited States. That he succeeded is patent toevery one. The consequences are visible on everyhand. I think it is fair to say, for instance, thatthe state universities of the Middle West couldnever have reached their present pitch of eminence without the inspiration and example of theUniversity of Chicago. The University of Chicago came into the West to establish a great community of scholars, to strike out new paths, andto make what was at that moment the vital contribution that American education required. Itsappearance here changed the whole educationalscene. It is the greatest single fact in the last halfcentury of American education.94 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPerhaps it is impossible for your Alma Materto supply once more the leadership she has givenin the past. Perhaps this particular proposalis not one she can or should adopt. Perhaps thisventure is surrounded by such legal, sentimental,and financial difficulties that however meritoriousit may be in principle the University cannot putit into practice. If this turns out to be the case Ihope two other universities may set the examplefor the country, for it is an example the countryneeds now as never before.Education as a whole is passing through themost serious crisis in our history. At the sametime the naive faith our ancestors had in it hasbeen shaken. Such a faith cannot survive enormous expansion of facilities followed by dreadfuleconomic collapse. A more reasoned confidenceis needed to support the structure in times likethese. And yet the educational world has givenlittle evidence that it is ready to present reasons. It wants to remain as it is and receive thesame old support in the same old faith. The mostauthoritative proposals for Federal aid to publiceducation call for a per capita distribution ofFederal money to the schools of the country. Anysuch arrangement would perpetuate all the weakness and waste of the present system. And that iswhat most educators want. They do not want tobe disturbed, or improved, or changed; theywant to be supported. Some great institutionsmust show that they are ready to adopt a saneorganization and ready to clarify their aims. Ifsome great institutions will provide the leadership, intelligence may yet prevail in Americaneducation.Too Many CollegesOur forefathers sprayed colleges all over thiscountry, establishing one in almost every villageand hamlet. Most of them have served a usefulpurpose to this day. Now, however, the development of transportation and the cooling of denominational differences have deprived many of themof a reason for existence. Still they continue toexist, most of them by paying little or nothing totheir faculties. Their pertinacity is amazing. Thereasons for it are wholly irrelevant to their educational excellence. They exist chiefly because ofsentiment and local or denominational pride.If two outstanding universities, founded by different churches and enshrined in the hearts oftheir friends and graduates, can actually cometogether because they believe it is in the bestinterests of education and research, somethingmay happen in American education. And that something must happen before this country canhope to make effective use of its educational resources.American education needs not merely a reduction in the multiplicity of its units; if it is todeserve public support it must make itself clear.I defy you to give an adequate definition of anelementary school, a high school, a junior college, a college, a professional school, or a university. The University of Chicago has been workinghard on these definitions for the past three years.We think we have made some progress. But wecannot claim to know the answers to all the questions in all these areas. It will be extremely difficult for us to work out some of them in ourpresent situation.The Merger and the CollegeIn the undergraduate field we are trying towork out the problems of college education. Ourcollege is therefore different from most others.We think it is better; we must admit it is different. The American passion for uniformity is suchthat we are under constant pressure from all sidesto make it just another college. It is possible thatif the combined universities had another collegein Evanston, the pressure on the college heremight be relieved, thus permitting the institutionto maintain there an excellent four-year collegeof liberal arts and here to foster the new development which seems to hold such great promise.It is conceivable that the college in Evanstonmight be better off if graduate work were transferred to the South Side. During an experimentwhich attracts national attention it is possibleto keep first-class teachers in collegiate work evenif there is a graduate school on the same campus.But the standard college of liberal arts suffersperhaps from some handicaps in a university.The prestige, promotions, and the best salariescustomarily go to the research men. It becomesincreasingly difficult to hold the college teachersin college work. And if the research faculty dominates the college, the situation may become stillmore serious. The graduate faculty is sometimestempted to fill teaching positions in the collegewith research assistants and graduate students.It is sometimes tempted to regard the collegemerely as a training ground for graduate work.It is conceivable that a standard college of liberalarts associated with a university so that studentsand faculty may meet and hear great scholars mayhave a better chance of doing a good college jobthan one controlled by research men.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 95When we look at the state of professional education and of scholarship in professional fieldswe are forced to doubt whether training and research can receive equal emphasis from the samefaculty. Where this effort has been made it hasnot been uniformly successful. The course ofstudy and the personnel seem to tend in one direction or the other, and that direction is usuallytoward professional training. The pressure of theprofession, of the students, and of the public hasforced many professional schools to confess andfinally to boast that their primary object is totrain men for the profession. Scholarship undersuch conditions sometimes tends to be an incidentof such training and is frequently investigationof a very practical type designed to promote theprofessional work of the student and the teacher.Undoubtedly the universities in the United Statesmust assume the obligation of professional training. Investigation may show, however, that scholarship in professional fields has suffered becauseit was remitted to men who have felt that theymust devote themselves to preparing people tobe doctors, lawyers, preachers, teachers, and business men.If the proposed consolidation is ever approvedit may be that we could establish a great centerof professional training on the McKinlockCampus. The departments on the South Sidemight be devoted chiefly to the advancement ofknowledge. This might help to make clear theobligations of each. Research would, of course, continue on the McKinlock Campus, but theemphasis there might be on working, out the bestmethods of giving the highest type of professionaleducation.With emphasis in Evanston on undergraduateeducation, on the South Side on research and onimprovements in collegiate education, and downtown on professional education and communityservice, we might have sometime the three strongest centers in these three areas in the world. Wemight also perhaps succeed in retaining for thethree groups the advantages of membership in auniversity and at the same time prevent themfrom hampering the development of one anotherthrough the confusion of their aims. It is possiblethat some such arrangement might give Americaneducation the clarification that its future development urgently demands.All these things are possible. None of them iscertain. Since no definite plan has yet been proposed all we can do is preserve an open minduntil we see what can be worked out. Open-mindedness under such circumstances is, I amtold, one of the principal objects of universitytraining. At any rate it is the attitude that I commend at the moment to the constituency of thisUniversity. The whole proposal may prove to beimpractical, inexpedient, and impossible. If itdoes I shall shed some natural tears, for the conception is a grand one, and one that is consonantwith the high traditions and the glorious pastof your Alma Mater.A glimpse of towers from the WestTHE SHAKESPEARE INDUSTRYA Reply to President RaineyBy GEORGE SHERBURN, PhD '15, Professor of EnglishI HOPE some abler person may find time toreply to President Rainey's suggested program for "The Arts in the Arts College.,,But too often nowadays such pronouncementspass without comment on the part of interestedpersons; and, as is well known, when an executivehas suggested a program two or three times without opposition, he concludes, and sometimes announces, that all the world has applauded it.Hence some one should point out mistaken aspects of Rainey's program.We shall all agree that there is a problem tosolve. It seems likely that the solution must beenvisaged in terms of mass education. The smallclass for undergraduates is a thing of the past;for now administrators and professors of education have agreed that a large class learns as muchas a small -one; and so now the professor is expected to make two brains sprout where only onegrew before. This may apply only to the gardenvariety of professors and not (at least at first) tothe extra-special type of which President Raineyhas hopes. The problem in question seems further to involve an agreement (gladly accorded)that the present study of the arts— at least ofliterature— is too historical. While moderatelyimportant, such study is no substitute for an analytical approach such as might eventually givethe student a just sense of values in the arts. Personally, however, I can hardly agree with Raineythat a professor (of no matter what quality) canin any system of mass education communicateappreciation. We in such a system have to be content with trying to communicate an understanding of masterpieces; and if we do this, we put thestudent on the high road to appreciation: he mustproceed (and perhaps it is well that he should)to that goal by himself.Rainey is naturally obsessed by "publicityvalues.,, His program is NEW; it has never beentried. That is an essentially false assumption atthe start. Again, his choice of causes for presentevils is popular but unsatisfactory. His Puritan(borrowed from the American Mercury) is a nonexistent fiction: Massachusetts in its most Puritanical period (1620-1776) showed more skill in creating art of whatever sort th^n any otherAmerican colony, and it didn't do at all badlyconsidering frontier conditions. If by "Puritans" Rainey means Methodists and Baptists, hispoint is more arguable; but in that case his useof terms is deplorable. His remarks, similarly,concerning classical literature (that of Greeceand Rome) embody the popular but stereotypedideas of the present-day educational theorist.Those of us who are not classical scholars, it maybe well to tell him, value the classics, not primarily as a linguistic discipline but rather as acivilizing influence. Sp far as occidental culturegoes, no other literatures have ever been a tenthpart so stimulating as the literatures of Greeceand Rome. This has been the case now for twothousand years.With regard to science the thinking is muchlike that concerning Puritanism. Not all theseambiguities can be argued briefly. It is prettycertain, however, that the materialism that hascorrupted all education (education in the "liberalarts" has probably suffered less than other fields)does not primarily emanate from science butfrom pseudo-science. The chief mark of this materialism is the idea that education should trainthe educated person to do something rather thanto be something. Functional ideals, training foreconomic utility, seems to have quite supplantedin the eyes of educational theorists the humanistic ideal of education as the formation of character. One judges that Rainey believes thecountry needs to create art rather than to createintelligence to appreciate art. The latter can bedone in schools; the former is not possible in anysystem of mass education. My own feeling is thatAmerica at present is doing a marvelous "job"in creating masterpieces of architecture, painting,music, and literature; that to improve furtherwe should see to it that the artist gets less unintelligent appreciation and more really competent appreciation. The moving-picture industryis a glaring example of what happens (but to aless extent, in other cases) to the arts in America.Brilliant work is being done in Hollywood; butthat work is usually hampered and even cor-96THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINErupted not merely by the excessive commercialism of Hollywood itself but also by the lack ofintelligent appreciation of the better films. Theworst things usually succeed best. The same issometimes true in music and literature.A Worthy AimThe present objective of the arts curriculumis to increase the critical intelligence of the community: that objective is intangible, and it isnatural that any one should doubt if it is being-achieved; but should we urge the one agencymaking an honest attempt towards this objectiveto drop it and instead to work for quite differentends? The present aim is surely not unworthy,and it surely involves work enough for all theprofessors in arts faculties no matter howT strenuous their efforts."The American liberal arts colleges havenever sponsored the arts." What truth is therein this first journalistic .sentence of Rainey'sarticle? "Sponsored" is a large word, which lendsat first a coloring of truth. As Rainey goes onto say, however, the arts have been sponsored inprofessional schools, of which there have been areasonable number. One imagines that teachersin these schools that sponsor the arts have usuallyfound it possible to live on moderately goodterms with liberal arts faculties. In fact, in mostcolleges such "professional" schools are reallyadministered practically as "departments" ratherthan as "schools," and if they are changedto be departments of the arts faculty only uninteresting administrative modifications are likelyto result. Few people seem to care whether onestudies the piano in a "school" or in a "department." The difference is that "school" is morealluring as publicity ("Institute" is an administrative term now going strong!), but a "department" would probably cost less!In the field of literature, however, there havebeen few "schools"— journalism excepted. I sympathize heartily with Rainey in his desire thatliterature and English composition should bepresented in a more vital fashion to undergraduates. Rainey can hardly say, however, that departments of English have never sponsored theart of writing. It may be true, as he says so pathetically, that there are arts colleges over fifty yearsold that have "not one creative writer amofigtheir alumni." (There are also colleges, doubtless, that have produced no distinguished scientists—and has any college produced a completelytrustworthy political economist?) Rainey's state ment tempts me to dare him to name one of thesecolleges. If Ida M. Tarbell is to be rated as acreative writer, I suspect that almost every college in the country over fifty years old can pointwith pride to a comparable genius. There are,however, as Rainey knows, a fair number of colleges in America; and even under the rosiestconditions of unprecedented fecundity my ownprivate fear is that the colleges will never be ableto produce the hundreds upon hundreds ofGeniuses (bona fide!) that would give each ineffectual arts college its ewe lamb. I have neverknown an English department unwilling to produce a Shakespeare: there are doubtless a greatmany departments that go about the Shakespeareindustry in the wrong fashion.Is the right fashion the addition to the facultyof recognized creative geniuses? The productionof artists through organized schooling has beenattempted for centuries in communities as cultivated as is the arts college, and the general conclusion of artists themselves (particularly painters) is that such efforts have seldom justifiedthemselves. It is the old problem of the apprentice system as opposed to the "academy," and onesuggests that Rainey read the history of this controversy—beginning perhaps with the commentsof William Blake on the work of Sir Joshua Reynolds in the English Royal Academy. If thePresident of Bucknell can provide his collegewith a half-dozen creative writers who each cansit down with and encourage a small group ofstudents as his or her "apprentices," Bucknellmay be able to turn out (at a generous estimate)one reputable creative writer every year. But sofar the experience of institutions desiring to addreal artists to their staffs has not been such as toencourage the idea that this "apprentice" systemcan be used within colleges very widely. Raineyprobably was unfortunate not to see Miss Cornell play in Alien Corn! A nice quiet genius whowill do as he is told may at times be marvelouspublicity for an institution; but many artists arepeople of independence both intellectually andsocially, and all college presidents know how important it is to avoid the wrong kind of publicityin these cases.Creative Writing— If AnyDozens, if not hundreds, of English departments have sponsored creative writing. If anyonewill go through the catalogues of American colleges and examine the offerings in English, he willeventually be slightly embarrassed at finding how9§ THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEpretentious is the work of Podunk College, Si-wash College, and all the rest of them, in whatthey fatuously call "creative writing." Furthermore, Rainey goes wrong historically when heregards as new the use of "born" geniuses as supervisors of this work. Chicago did not invent thissystem, and at Chicago Thornton Wilder issimply the latest appointee of this sort to the department of English. He makes a very charmingand valuable addition to the staff, and doubtlesshe will be successful, as were Professors Moodyand Herrick, in leading students to write notmerely effectively but beautifully. It is no criticism of the efforts of these creative artists (onedoubts if any college in America has had theirequals as writers on its staff in recent years) tocall attention to the fact that in encouraging thecreation of literature two professors in the lastquarter of the century have been preeminentlysuccessful: George P. Baker, whose Harvard College students have more than once achievedfame as, dramatists, and Robert, Morss Lovett, towhom goes the almost undivided credit for encouraging the many Chicago alumni of whosesuccess as poets and novelists we are justly proud.Neither of these professors would probably callhimself a "creative writer," though most collegepresidents would bestow the .title upon at leastone of them. But both without much of theglamour that attends personal literary successhave done more for "creative writing" than thedozens of tame geniuses who have taught as wellas "created." The obvious moral is that the bestperformer— whether in football or in poetry— isnot necessarily the best coach or teacher. And amediocre performer is eventually an embarrassment.Another utterly false implication is found inthe sentence where Rainey asserts that "the industrial and business world often call [sic!] uponthe scientific departments of colleges and universities for help and guidance, but one neverhears of a creative writer asking for aid from thedepartment of literature." The ears of collegeGertrude Stein, in Autobiography of Alice B.Toklas,—"Minz (Loy) brought Glenway Wescott,'21, on his first trip to Europe. Glenway impressedus greatly by his English accent; Hemingway explained. He said, 'When you matriculate at theUniversity of Chicago you write down just what ac- presidents hear only headlines. As a matter offact hardly a month goes by without at least ahalf-dozen such requests coming to the department of English at the University of Chicago,and there is no reason to believe our situationpeculiar. Again President Rainey shows unaccountable ignorance of the facts that he shouldhave mastered before writing on such a subject.This ignorance has so prejudicial a turn that onemust suspect that in his pretended interest in theliberal arts he is merely (if he knows what I mean)a Greek bearing gifts.To conclude: Possibly colleges A, B, and C,may be able occasionally to corral and subdue toacademic purposes a real genius who will inspirehis students. Possibly they ought to do so whenthey can. Colleges D to Z, however, can hardlyhope to do so unless all our extant geniuses are,so to speak, to be taken out of circulation anddeposited in colleges. The idea is clearly not feasible; nor is it in many ways desirable. A manfamous for creating literature is better publicityfor a college than a mere professor of literaturewho seldom makes the front page. As a matter offact, however, professors in the arts colleges seemnot to have done badly in stimulating studentsto become reputable poets, dramatists, and novelists. If the public demanded better poems, plays,and novels— to say nothing of moving pictures—the artists could and would produce them. Thecrucial matter is not lack of "man-power" sofar as the geniuses are concerned: it is a lack ofcritical intelligence on the part of the public,and that lack the arts college is eager to remove.I agree with Rainey that there is much to be doneso far as method goes. This is the age of "shortcuts" and "bright ideas" in the administrationof government and of education; but it is doubtful if there is any single "bright idea" that canturn the trick in this particularly complex anddifficult problem. We shall hardly get far so longas administrators keep their eyes glued to thelevel of the front page, and are thinking in termsof Shakespeares— and Ida M. Tarbells!cent you will have, and they give it to you whenyou graduate. You can have a sixteenth centuryor modern, whatever you like.' "... "There wasalso Glenway Wescott, but Glenway Wescott atno time interested Gertrude Stein. He has a certainsyrup but it does not pour."NOTED IN PASSINGTHE GREAT MERGER MYSTERY• By MILTON S. MAYER/29I WAS sitting in the sitting room of mywinter home near Nootka Sound one nightjust the other week, and a telegram camefrom Carl Beck, the alumni secretary of the University of Chicago. I had not heard from CarlBeck for twenty years. I read the telegram andsat there for a long while, gazing moodily, if I may coin aphrase, into the dying embersof the fire. The telegram said:NEWSPAPER REPORTS ALMAMATER TO , MERGE WITHNORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITYOF EVANSTON ILL STOP KNOWYOUR DISTASTE FOR WRITINGBUT AS YOU ARE OLDEST LIVING GRADUATE OF OLD UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAKEBOLD TO ASK YOU FOR RECOLLECTIONS OF PREVIOUS RUMORS OF MERGER OF ALMAMATER STOP YRS RSPY CARL.Carl was right about my distaste for writing, especially about the University.I have always felt that it would be like telling talesout of school. But I couldn't refuse Carl. NotCarl. Our friendship goes back too far for that.His uncle, also a Mr. Beck, and my greatgrandfather, Lieut.-Gen. Ferenc Strudel, had wonundying fame together in the Revolution. Theywere, at that time, in the shoe business in Punxa-tawney, Pa., under the name of Beck & Strudel.(Later, after great-grandfather's death, Carl'suncle took in a man named Jonathan Call and thefirm name was changed to Beck & Call.) Greatgrandfather Strudel was not actually a general,but everybody called him "Gen'l," as was thecustom in that part of the country, and he finallyforged his commission as lieutenant-general inthe Revolutionary Army. All his descendants(female) have been members of the D.A.R.Mr. Beck and Great-grandfather Strudel havepassed into history because of their valorous deedin the dead of the winter of 1777, I think it was,when the Revolutionary Army was stationed atValley Forge. Mr. Beck and great-grandfatherloaded 2,000 pair of their stoutest shoes on a dray,closed their store and hung out a sign readingThe Rev. Mayer, sitting in his sitting roomWE DO OUR PART and set out for ValleyForge. When they got there, it was ungodly cold,the snow was three feet deep, and there was nota pair of shoes left in the camp. They wereushered into General Washington's presence.They offered to sell the shoes to the army at$15.00 a pair. General Washington said the army had nomoney, so Carl's uncle andGreat-grandfather Strudeldrove back to Punxatawneyand held a sale the followingSaturday, and cleaned out theshoes at $1.65 a pair, withextra laces.After the war, Carl's uncleand Great-grandfather Strudelwere tried for treason, and acharge of forgery was lodgedagainst great-grandfather on account of the lieutenant-general's commission. But likethe Cabots, the Becks and theStrudels had made a great deal of money profiteering during the war, and they were able to convince the jurymen, individually, of the unwisdomof the allegations. So they were discharged. Butthe jurymen had been hard to convince, andCarl's uncle and Great-grandfather Strudel wereleft penniless. As great-grandfather remarked toCarl's uncle, they might as well not have takenpart in the War for Independence at all.That ended Carl's hope of inheriting hisuncle's fortune and he decided to be an alumnisecretary for universities. The last I heard, hehad worked up quite a string of them. My ownfamily disinherited great-grandfather, changedthe family name to Veepings and went into theministry, partly, I suppose, to atone for what theyregarded as great-grandfather's peccadilloes. Imyself retired from the pulpit twenty years ago,but people still speak of the "Rev. Mayer," the"Rev." clinging to me like Vermont clung toHoover.That, in a word, is why I could not refuseCarl's request for some of my reminiscences ofmergers in which our common alma mater camewithin a hair's breadth of participating. The fact99ioo THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEis that there was only one occasion in the historyof the University when a merger was almosteffected. Of course there were those three incidents that occurred after my time that gave riseto the cry of "Merger! Merger!" One was in 1889,when John D. Rockefeller decided to merge hiscigarette money (he didn't smoke himself) witha high-minded project for uplift and educationin the New West. The second was in 1923, whena merger of the University of Chicago and theStock Yards, which had become the city's leadinginstitution, was contemplated. The merger wentas far as the award of the chairmanship of the"U. of C", as it was called, and the "S.Y.", as itwas called, to the same individual, but the plantswere kept separate and eventually all thought ofa complete merger was dropped. The third incident was in 1929, when the University passed,while nobody was looking, into the hands of ayoung man named Hutchins, and for severalmonths he was reported planning a merger withthe Communist Party, which, too, was never consummated.I speak not of these three occasions. I speakof an earlier one, one which, I think I may say, isrecorded here for the first time.The winter of 1859-60 was one of the coldestthis part of the country ever experienced. Fewnow alive recall it very distinctly. My own recollection of its terrors, however, is vivid, and I havedevoted the last twenty years, since my retirement to maintaining a correspondence with a lotofdanged old fools who have given interviewsto the newspapers on the Blizzard of '86. Thatblizzard was in '59-'6o, and they are all suchdanged old fools that they cannot keep their datesstraight. But I guess I ought to know. My familywas in reduced circumstances that winter (andstill is, seventy-four years later), and I was wearing Great-grandfather Strudel's old Army overcoat. Great-grandfather Strudel was a Lieutenant-General in the Revolutionary Army, andserved at Saratoga, Trenton, and Guilford CourtHouse, as well as at several Sunday night churchsuppers at Pontiac, Mich. His Army coat had seenextensive service and had been perforated onseveral occasions by the fire of the Hessians andthe fathers of farmers' daughters throughout theMohawk Valley. By the time it came down tome, the winter of '5g-'6o, there was nothing leftbut the epaulettes. That's how I know how toughthe winter of '5g-'6o was.I was a sophomore at the old, or the old, old,as it was known at that time, University of Chicago. The University was located on the west side of Cottage Grove Avenue, north of Thirty-fifthStreet. The land had belonged to Senator Stephen A. Douglas, as did all the land around there.The wrong people had been moving into theneighborhood, and Senator Douglas decided todonate it to somebody. He offered it to the Presbyterians, who declined it because of the Senator'spersonal habits, and then he offered it to theBaptists, who accepted it for the same reason. Ithas always been the custom to discover in a manwho has real estate a latent capacity as an educator, and Senator Douglas was elected chairmanof the board of trustees of the old, or new, as itwas then known, University.There were four saloons, since there were onlyfour corners, at the intersection of Cottage andThirty-fifth. Senator Douglas frequented oneowned by a Dutchman named Beethoven. Indifferent chapters of his autobiography, MeinKampf, the Senator places "The Dutchman's" oneach of the four corners. He did this, on occasion,during his lifetime, too. I am not sure myselfwhich corner "the Dutchman's," or "Dutchy's,"occupied. If it comes to a showdown, Beethovenprobably held forth on all four corners at onetime or another, since he had opened severalsaloons at that intersection. The one that wasrunning the winter of '5g-'6o was No. 5 of his career, and was known among the old-timers as"Beethoven's Fifth." A song was written aboutit several years later and is still popular.The reason I go on at such length about theseverity of the winter and my own lack of furnishings with which to head it off, is that if ithadn't been for those phenomena I should neverhave learned about the near-merger which I amnow revealing. "The Dutchman's" had a stove ofthe isinglass front type, and I was accustomed tospending my evenings sitting behind the stove,with my books, keeping warm. I was there everynight that winter, but my chair was between thestove and the back room of the saloon, and Idon't suppose any of the customers ever saw me.I know Senator Douglas didn't. If he hadknown I was there, he would never have talkedthe way he did. He used to stand at the bar untileveryone had left, which was not hard for him todo, and then he would open up on Beethoven,with his merger scheme. He would say in a beguiling tone:"Now, Dutchy, you and I are pretty goodfriends, aren't we?"The Dutchman did not understand muchEnglish, but he did catch the beguiling tone, andto the Dutchman that always meant one thing.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 101He would get redder in the face and say:"Mein herr Douglas, you are a great man andI would yust so soon trust you as mein own brud-der. But mein own brudder did me out of hisboard bill, und I don't trust nobody no more. Icangiff you no more credit."He would then point to a sign above the cashregister which some one had told him read, ALLSALES CASH but which read, actually, IF YOUSPIT ON THE FLOOR AT HOME, SPIT ONTHE FLOOR HERE.His tendency to think that the Senator wasalways talking about credit was not unfounded.Douglas was slow in paying his bills, since he hada $60,000 Presidential campaign coming due thefollowing November, and he was accustomed tousing his prestige as a U. S. Senator to put off hiscreditors. Whenever the Dutchman broached thesubject of no more credit, the Little Giant woulddraw himself up to his full height of 5 ft. 4 in.and thunder, as he thundered at the old lady inthe London boarding house:"Sir, I am an American sovereign."The Dutchman would misunderstand Douglasand think he was offering to pay his bill in Britishsovereigns rather than U.S. dollars and he wouldsay, pleasantly enough:"Mein herr Douglas, I take your money anyvay you vish to giff it to me. Your credit mitme is so goot like golt so long you pay mitcash."Douglas would then lose his temper and frothlike the U. S. Senator he was, and the ensuingdialogue would be very funny. Sometimes I wasafraid that my laughter, with which Iwas doubled up, would discover me, but I havesince learned that a U. S. Senator never hears anything.The night that Douglas brought up the mergerwas either the 21st or the 22nd of December, Iforget which. Whichever of those two nights wasthe colder, that was the night. There was no onein the saloon all evening but Senator Douglas,and, of course, me with my books. That night,the Senator managed to convince the Dutchmanthat the beguiling tone had nothing to do withthe subject of drinks, and the Dutchman listenedwhile the Senator outlined his plan for a merger of the University of Chicago with Beethoven'sSaloon.Douglas argued that the saloon was a goinginstitution, while the University was having abad time of it. He offered a hundred and onearguments and worked himself up into a finefrenzy. He pointed out that the University's heating plant was on the fritz, while the Dutchman'sstove worked like a son-of-a-gun. He remarkedon the congeniality of the saloon and its attractive features as against the frigid character ofthe University. But the Dutchman did notunderstand him after all, and came to the conclusion by the end of the evening that the herrSenator wanted more credit. When, about 2 a.m.,he interrupted Douglas' oration with a remarkabout his own brudder and the board bill, theSenator slammed on his silk hat and stamped outinto the night.The next day Mr. Douglas was called to Washington on advice from his advisers that there was apeace movement going on and if he did not hurryto the Capital City the war might fall through.Since the Little Giant was more interested inorganizing the war than he was in merging theUniversity with the Dutchman's, the matter wasnever reopened. On June 3, 1861, Chicago'sone statesman died at the Tremont Hotel, atLake and Dearborn Streets. They say that he decided, months before, against continuing to urgethe merger on the Dutchman, on the groundsthat the saloon was all right as it was. The University, already sorely afflicted as a result of thepanic of '57, lost most of its students to the UnionArmy, and the fire of '71, the panic of '73, andthe fire of '74, brought its career to a dolorousend. The Dutchman's flourished for many years,and is still in operation. But they tell me it haschanged hands and I would not know the oldplace.That is the story of the nearest the old, old,University of Chicago ever came to merging. Itmissed its golden opportunity, in my opinion,when Senator Douglas' successors failed to presshis plan for a merger with the Dutchman's. It isnow reduced to the awful extremity of mergingwith Northwestern University, according to CarlBeck, and I am sorry to hear it.GUIDES VERSUSA Parable From GuatemalaTHE boat-train climbs slowly from the seacoast to an upland surface 4,000 feetabove tidal waters where Guatemala Cityis located. A score or two of tired, dusty, studentshurry to the appointed hotel, find the rooms thathave been assigned to them, and in due time appear for dinner. In the group there are a numberseeking credit for their Bachelor of Arts degree. *Plans are made for them to see something ofthe ancient capital city of Antigua and to visitcertain of the points of interest near Lake Atitlanwhere records of the very old Mayan culture maybe examined.Early next morning the sight-seeing party assembles and the college professor who is in general charge leads the group to one place afteranother. He tells the members of the party whatthey are to see, shows them how to see it, and latertells them what they have seen. He is zealous andvery industrious in his efforts to point out everything which he deems of interest. During yearsof class-room experience he has acquired the artof weaving a vast amount of data into his lecture.The students in the group are active in absorbingand recording in their notebooks just as much asthey can of all the knowledge which the professor pours forth. They too are following habitsformed in the college class rooms.It is clear that this professor has devoured theliterature on his subject and amassed a vastamount of information. He presents that information in a vigorous way and at times withstentorian tones. The eyes and even the mouthsof some of his sponge-like listeners are open ashe proceeds. They are astounded by the learning and the so-called scholarship of their leader.As this sight-seeing group is hurrying from oneplace to another and listening to well-prepared,definitive descriptions of all they see, another butsmaller group of students is spending the entireday at just one of the localities of historic interest.They have established a camp in the Highlandsof Guatemala and are prepared to spend severalmonths in field studies. Each one in this groupis actively engaged in searching for a bit of newevidence that may solve a problem. Some are HERS• By WALLACE W. ATWOOD, '97, PhD'03sketching details of the architecture of an ancienttemple. Others are faithfully reproducing somecolored decorative features. A group with surveying instruments is laying out on paper thegeneral plan of an ancient Mayan citadel. Drawings are being carefully made of the hieroglyphicsthat appear on huge stone stela p Bits of ancientpottery are being labeled and classified.The leader of this small group of students isinconspicuous. He makes few remarks; he is atwork with the others, trying to unravel one of thegreatest mysteries in the Western World. He hasexplained the problem to his student associates.They are aware that for more than a thousandyears a secret has been hidden in the Highlands ofCentral America, that long before the Birth ofChrist a community of Mayan people, variouslyestimated up to three million in numbers, inhabited these highlands and for some unknownreason most of them left this region during thecentury which elapsed between about 500 and600 A.D.One evening, at an informal seminar conducted at the camp fire, the leader of this exploring party explained the calendar which theancient Mayan people devised. It was basedupon remarkably accurate observations of theperiod occupied by the earth in traveling aboutthe sun. The observations were so accurate thatthe Mayan people knew that the journey aroundthe sun did not equal exactly 365 and \/± days.The adding of one day each fourth year did notsatisfy them. They recognized that twenty-fivedays added in 104 years was much more nearlyaccurate. Their calendar was superior to theJulian and nearly as accurate as the Gregoriancalendar which was adopted by the people ofWestern Europe in 1582.Visitors to the camp told of the great sun dialthe largest in the world, which the Mayans erectedthousands of years ago at Copan and of an altarfrieze in that city on which is portrayed a congress of astronomer priests that presumably assembled for the rectification of the calendar. Atone of the seminars the following quotation wasread from Dr.Spinden's Old and New Empire Art:102THE UNIVERSITY OFBase of a temple in the midst of a Mayan citadel, Huehuetenango"The Maya produced one of the few reallygreat and coherent expressions of beauty so fargiven to the world, and their influence in Americawas historically as important as was that of theGreeks in Europe. . . . The consequences of theoverthrow of the first American essay at civilization in that territory variously known as the OldEmpire and as Xibalba may have been analogousto those produced by the collapse of Rome.There probably took place the destruction or dispersal of such organized skill and documentedknowledge as were never again available to thepre-Columbian nations, though on the fragmentsof the destroyed culture were built the magnificent barbarisms of Toltec, Aztec, and Yuca-tecan Maya."From a recent newspaper clipping comes thefollowing astounding report: Dr. Robert Hensel-ing, a German astronomer, supported by determinations made by Dr. Hans Ludendorff,Director of the Astrophysical Institute of Potsdam, asserts that in the Mayan inscriptions he hasdiscovered a chronology which goes back to theyear 8498 b.c.It is possible that both groups of students arefamiliar with these facts regarding the ancientMayans, but the exploring party is guided by onewith vision and a true research spirit. He makesno grand-stand exhibition of his knowledge. Hestresses the amount that is unknown and the needof more accurate data. His small group studiesthe same objects viewed by the sight-seers, but ineach object they see much that is not understood.They are imbued with a spirit of investigation.They sense the importance of careful observations and are thrilled by the possibility of finding some clue which will unravel a story of aremarkable civilization on the western continent.They ask themselves the question: which scientific discipline will force from this upland landscape the answer to the riddle? Perhaps the cor- CHIC AGO MAGAZINE 103rect explanation of the great exodus of the ancientMayan people from the highlands may be foundby a botanist who examines the rings of the greatforest trees of this upland country. Such a student may detect a record of a long period ofdrought such as caused the abandonment ofdwellings in the southwestern part of the UnitedStates. It is possible that the rhythm, discoveredby astronomers, in the recurrence of abundantsun spots and the correlation of that rhythm withthe climatic cycles recorded in the rings of thegiant Sequoia trees may prove to be helpful.Perhaps the student of the modern religiouscustoms of the Mayan people may throw light onthe problem. Perhaps the philologist who becomes familiar with the various languages of thenative groups of today will help. Who knowshut what there is hidden in the ruins of someancient citadel a key like the "Rosetta Stone"that will make it possible for an archeologist toread the written records of the ancient Mayanpeople? Is there a scroll or a parchment buriedin the debris about the ancient temples? Is thesecret hidden in some city buried beneath hundreds or thousands of feet of volcanic ash? WillAn ancient Mayan Stela at Quiriga, Guatemala104 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELake Atitlan in the Highlands of Guatemalaa careful study of the late physiographic historyof the Highlands of Guatemala, where vulcanismis still active and where there are at least 3,000feet of volcanic ash, lead to the discovery of a"Pompeii" or "Herculaneum" in the WesternWorld?Far off from the capital city in the back countryof this highland region the modern Mayan culture is as simple as could well be imagined amongany agricultural people. The modern Mayanfarmers depend chiefly upon the cultivation ofcorn. They live much as their ancestors musthave lived. They do most of their farm work byhand. They carry great loads of food crops tomarket on their backs. Many carry produce tomarket on their heads. Their pottery is handmade. Their clothing is of home-spun yarn and home-woven cloth. Their cabins are of verysimple construction and almost without furniture. Perhaps a modern geographic study willthrow light on the adjustments which the ancientMayans must have made in this environment andhelp to complete an accurate picture of theancient communities.To the critically minded student almost everyobservation made in the natural, social, and economic environment in the Highlands of Guatemala is meaningful. He sees the possibility ofpushing forward the frontiers of knowledge. Inhis work he has the spirit of the adventurer. Heis engaged in a search for the truth.At the end of the day each member in the exploring party led by the investigator is exhausted.So are those in the sight-seeing group. But inwhich group has there been added an incrementof power? Which group has received training inthe development of intellectual independence?In which group has education been truly goingon? "The very best kind of education is obtained in doing things one's self under competentdirection and with good guidance" (Charles W.Eliot). We have in our modern class rooms inthe colleges and universities of this country toomany gazetteer-like professors who are servingconscientiously as guides of sight-seeing tours andpouring forth vast amounts of second-hand information, and too few who are inspiring leadersof exploring expeditions.Alumni Fiction Writers Non-Fiction Writers jMargaret Wilson, '04Frank R. Adams, '04 (Magazine articles, Essays, Criticism andPopular Exposition)fames Weber Linn, '97 Carl Van Vechten, '03Maude Radford Warren, '94, PhM '96 Bernard Sobel, '1 1Elizabeth Madox Roberts, '21 Cyrus LeRoy Baldridge, '11Alan LeMay, '22 Nathaniel Peffer, '11Carl Grabo, '03 Bernard I. Bell, '08Donald Richberg, '01 Tucker Brooke, '04Helen Rose Hull, '12 Maurice Lesemann, '24Mary Synon, '01Elizabeth K. Van Deusen, '23 Elsie Weil, '10Donald C. Peattie, '20Ruth Russell, '12Janet Ayer Fairbank, '03 Edgar J. Goodspeed, DB'97, PhD'98Edward S. Ames, PhD'95James T. Farrell, '29 Milo Quaife, PhD'08Susan Glaspell, '02Glenway Wescott, '21Lucy Stone Terrill, '15 Maynard O. Williams, '11Milton Mayer, '29Gertrude Emerson, '12Roy J. Snell, AM'17 Donald Plant, '25Vardis Fisher, PhD'25 Vincent Sheean, '211 Note: This list makes no claim to be inclusive of all alumni engaged in literary work.A supplement to the Magazine would be necessary if we attempted to publish the names ofall those contributing to the literature of professional and scientific fields who have takenwork at the University of Chicago. It is our hope that upon reading this list the observantalumnus will note our oversights and send in additional information.A MAN'S JOBKatharine Davis, PhD '00, Commissioner• By JEAN HENRY LARGETHE motive underlying the appointmentof Dr. Katharine Bement Davis as Commissioner of Correction for the City ofNew York, the first woman to be offered a com-missionership in that city, will probably never beknown. Some held that the astute young Mayor-elect, realizing that woman-suffrage was about tobecome a fact, with a look to the future decidedto have a woman on his staff. Be that as it may,Mayor-elect John P. Mitchel is quoted as saying,"Dr. Davis has been requested to come into theadministration, not because she is a woman, butbecause she has the training, the experience, andthe point of view that I desire for the Commissioner of Correction."When it was announced that Mayor Mitchelintended to appoint Dr. Davis as Commissioner,the Times could find no adjective to describe itssurprise and alarm short of "appalling." TheTimes undoubtedly voiced the opinion of thousands in the metropolis. "Handling the hardenedcriminal," said the Times "is a man's job."The Brooklyn Eagle gave its approval, stating,"The appointment of Dr. Davis as Commissionerof Correction is not a chivalric or quixotic efforton the part of Mayor Mitchel to recognize theinterest which women have in City Government,nor is it a tribute to the capacity of the sex ingeneral. It is the appointment of a prison executive, who has conspicuously 'made good' inher own field, to larger opportunities. It is aneffort to secure the application of modernmethods of our city-prisons and reformatories inplace of the medieval system which has broughtabout the scandals in the Tombs and in Black-well's Island during the past year."We seem to be at the door to a period of prisonhouse-cleaning as soon as Dr. Davis has had timeto learn her new job. No administrative change ismore needed than this."When finally reporters found her at a NewYork hotel, Commissioner Davis's first statementto them regarding her proposed work in the department was characteristic: "My first step willbe to study all the laws which concern my position. I want to find out just where I stand. Having determined my legal status, I shall then be able toact accordingly. After that I shall take up a studyof the financial end of my work. I shall have to goover the budget and make it clear to myself justhow my funds will be apportioned. The financesof such a position are of the utmost importance."This statement quite agrees with the one, "I havea statistical mind that always has to count nosesbefore I draw a conclusion."She also acknowledged that she hoped to makethe department one of "correction" rather thanmerely a department of jails.The Feminine TouchOn the day she took control of the Department,Dr. Davis found her office popular with newspaper reporters. Apparently, in spite of all theyhad read and written about her, she proved asurprise to them, because she lacked the aggressive and austere appearance that one might wellassume that a woman taking this position wouldhave. Most of the city papers noted her veryfeminine appearance, her direct glance, and herquick little manner of patting her hair in place,as a couple of clippings attest. "Dr. Davis andher office look something alike, Both are pleasant,sunshiny, business-like, and arrayed for work incomfortable, practical accoutrement. There is ahome-like air about them both."After swearing Burdette Lewis into office as herdeputy— earlier in the day, she, with the othermembers of the cabinet, had been invested withDavis Hall, Reception and Classification Building at Alderson,W.Va.105io6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEoffice by the Mayor— the first job the new Commissioner undertook was to go over the plans forthe detention home for women with PresidentMarks of the Borough of Manhattan and thearchitect. Several years previous, Miss Anne Morgan had invited Dr. Davis with others who mightbe interested in the project to a dinner, at whichtime the possibility or erecting such a detentionhome was discussed, in order that women shouldno longer have to be sent to the district prisons.Miss Morgan and those she had interested, including Dr. Davis, spoke at the meetings andaroused public opinion for the need of betteringconditions for women prisoners to such an extentthat in time the City Council made a small appropriation, engaged an architect to draw upplans for the building, and placed the responsibility for its erection with the President of theBorough of Manhattan. President Marks realizedthat the Department of Correction was the department which should undertake the draftingof a design containing the most modern ideas inpenology. Hence the first official hours of Dr.Davis were spent in going over the initial draft.That was on January 2, 1914.Dr. Davis with her experience in building atBedford had many changes to suggest; subsequently other officials had also. Although this wasa project after her own heart, when, four yearslater, she resigned as a city official, only the plansstood as evidence of her interest. A little overfourteen years later she was invited to the openingof the New York City Detention Home forWomen, which took place on March 29, 1932.This incident might stand as a monument to citygovernment inefficiency and delay.Changing the Zebra's StripesFollowing the interview with President Marksand the architect, Dr. Davis accompanied by herdeputy, Mr. Lewis, and an escort of reporters,made her first official visit to the penitentiary. Asthey neared the dock of the Island, busy black andgrey striped figures were to be seen scramblingover a coal barge which was being unloaded.With characteristic serio-comic mien, Dr. Davisturned to her neighbor and quoted:When first he saw the zebraThe donkey wagged his tail."Good gracious," was his comment,"That mule has been in jail."Quickly becoming serious, Dr. Davis said: "I believe strongly in the psychology of clothes. As fora woman, she always has more self-respect when she has on her best clothes. Half the degradationand sullenness of the prisoners is a result of theirhideous stripes and shapeless garments. I shallorder the women prisoners' clothes to be made ofneat, pretty gingham. You cannot reform awoman who is wearing bedticking."Within a few days the newspapers printed:"Convict stripes are going to be abolished as soonas Commissioner Davis can get rid of 1 8,000 yardsof stripes."This reform brought forth the comment: "NewCommissioner to eliminate the prison stripe andgive women clothes cut in modern styles. Excellent! Why not substitute the hobble for the balland chain?"Unwilling to undertake reform before beingfully acquainted with actual conditions, Dr. Davishad two of her investigators get themselves arrested for joy-riding and sentenced to three weeksin the Tombs. They encountered a series of smallblackmail that would be astonishing had it notbeen for a long time a whispered scandal.They paid for the privilege of not being put inthe negro tier of cells; got for cash the best cellsin the prison; their money enabled them to obtain special food at prices which would bring theblush of shame to the most hardened restaurateuralong the White Way. For $5.00 they boughtplaces from which they could observe the smuggling of drugs and liquor to other prisoners. Graftwas so rampant that no money was too small to betaken. The prisoner with only a nickel handed itover to get a nickel's worth of privileges.As a result of this investigation the order wentout that all prisoners in the Tombs— wealthy andpoor alike— were to be treated similarly.This change of policy produced much newspaper comment: "Miss Davis sends C — - to acommon cell. If this be feminism, let us havemore of it.""Going to prison in Gotham will be a moreserious proposition than it has been for many along day."Another order regarding the administration ofthe Tombs was issued from the office of the Commissioner. Henceforth the Tombs was to be closedto sightseers. "No longer shall the prisoners therebe gazed upon as wild beasts in cages," statedDr. Davis.Fighting the Drug TradeVery shortly another order went forth— thatprisoners in the Tombs would have to eat prisonfare. No more food or tobacco could be sent intoTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 107the Tombs "from the outside." The chief reasonfor this drastic ruling regarding the food supplyof the prisoners was the unearthing of the scandalous traffic in drugs taking place in the variouspenal institutions of the city.The ways of smuggling drugs into the penitentiary were both novel and ingenious. Ofcourse, food and clothing proved a wonderfullyfruitful way. Later, when rules became morestringent, large headed hatpins became a favoritedecoration for women friends— the top could unscrew and be filled with dope. One shoemakerhad a lucrative business until discovered makinga hollow in the heels of the shoes which he madeand repaired for the prisoners. Magazine readingbecame popular until it was found that an interesting way of laying a thin layer of dope over apicture in a magazine and carefully pasting overit a similar picture, provided a simple way of getting drugs into the penitentiary.There had never been segregation of drugvictims. Now, Dr. Davis arranged that they shouldbe treated as subjects of disease and have specialcare, thus at the same time placing them out ofreach of other prisoners who might be corrupted.Although there were various contributing factors, the cutting down of the drug supply was theimmediate cause for the outbreak on Blackwell'sIsland, which occurred in the summer of 1914.Dr. Davis would probably lay some of the blameon the depression of 1914. This proved a fine yearfor the development of I. W. W. sentiment. Anumber of I. W. W.'s were sentenced to Black-well's Island. Many of them were drug addicts andthey became frantic with desire for drugs when their supply was cut off. A few of these men, withothers, were working in the prison yard and oneof them managed to slip about a dozen unstampedletters into the nose-bag of a horse left standingin the yard. In these letters the prisoners told theirfamilies and friends that all the usual ways ofgetting drugs into the prison had been found outand that new ways must be devised. The presumption had been that the contractor wouldfind the letters, stamp the envelopes and mailthem. Unfortunately for the prisoners, a guardin some way had become suspicious of that nosebag. While the prisoners were at lunch, he confiscated the letters and sent them to Dr. Davis.A few days later it became known that theletters had miscarried and the prisoners, franticfrom lack of drugs, were furious. When the guardentered the big dining-room, some men from acouple of tables hissed at him.The Warden rather stupidly demanded "Whodid that hissing?" Naturally there was no response.The Warden fumed. "The men at these tableswill be punished if they do not tell."That afternoon these groups of men were leftin their cells. In one of the shops a young I.W.W.leader, brilliant in mind if erratic in his youthfulspirit, sprang to his feet and advised revolt. Beltswere slashed, machinery broken. The riot was on.Riot CallOn that day, July 8, 1914, Dr. Davis had beenattending a meeting of the Political Equality Association, held at the invitation of Mrs. O. H. P.Belmont, at her estate in Newport. The DuchessLeft to right: Supt. Lewis E. Lawes, Deputy Commissioner Burdette G. Lewis, John P. Mitchel, Mayor of New York City, CommKatharine B. Davis— Taken at the breaking of sod for the first permanent building of the N. Y. C. Reformatory. issionerio8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof Marlborough shared honors with Dr. Davis,though Dr. Davis was the acknowledged hit of theconference. By her keen wit and incisive commentshe kept the audience laughing. She said, "InNew York, we have penitentiaries in which noone is penitent, reformatories which do not reform, and houses of correction which do not correct." She charged that New York's penal systemwas one hundred years behind the times.Returning from this gathering as the boatpassed Blackwell's Island, she heard cat-calls andshrieking. It was evident that something unpleasant was up. Landing from her pleasure trip,she made haste to the penitentiary, which nodoubt accounts for the statements in the variouspapers that the Lady Commissioner had donned *her best dress, seized her parasol, and gone forthto quell the riot on Blackwell's Island! (Dr. Davisdisclaims having carried a parasol.)When Dr. Davis approached the cell blockthere was hooting and bad language, but as shecame in sight of the cells, "Sh!" came the warning,"the Commissioner." From some of the cells camethe united voices of fifteen to twenty men: "Wewant food. We want food.""You'll get food when you obey the rules ofthe institution," Miss Davis called back in a clearvoice."Lots of us are innocent," yelled a prisoner."So it has been from the beginning," repliedthe Commissioner. "When there is general wrongdoing, the innocent suffer with the guilty."On taking office, Dr. Davis had ordered that theprisoners kept in their cells for punishmentshould have all the drinking water they wished,but that their meals should be limited to breadand water.The first whole hearted cheers that any keeperin Blackwell's Island could remember havingheard from the convicts followed Miss Davis asshe went through the building announcing herplans to the fourteen hundred convicts. She askedthem to call out from behind the bars the numbersof the men they would like to have as their spokesmen to discuss their affairs with her. The eight onthe list who had the most votes were selected.During the unrest on the Island, Dr. Davismoved her desk temporarily to the warden's office.She said she would stay until she got to the bottom of the insurrection, and would stop it evenat the cost of calling out the militia. Of course,she was warned of the 'danger of being in theprison, but insisted that she would stay with hersubordinates, not being willing to ask anyone to meet a danger which she herself would hesitateto face.Quiet finally descended upon the prison. Thefirst time they went to the dining room, she stoodby the door with Warden Hayes, in spite of hisprotests and looked each one in the face as hepassed. No one made a remark. The first weekend, Dr. Davis herself conducted the services inthe Protestant faith and presided at the Jewishand Catholic ones. This gave her an opportunityto deal with smaller groups and put over to themen, in a manner that did not bore them, homelytruths which they could all comprehend.At' this time, Dr. Davis explained to the "outsider" her attitude towards the prisoners. "Criminals are not merely like bad boys. They are badboys. They are strong individualists. So are children. . . . Social consciousness is asleep in thecriminal as it is in the child. In both it must beawakened, and after it is awakened, trained." Sheadded, whimsically, "The only thing I did nottake to Blackwell's Island was my slipper."Acknowledging SuccessAs time went on, skeptics as well as friends weregladly forced to acknowledge that Dr. Davis wasmaking a success of managing her department.The New York Tribune for June 27, 1914, reporting the services accomplished during the firsthalf year, enumerated the following:"Savings in administration; improvement inprisoners' diet and in sanitation in spite of savings; new policy in the treatment of keepers andorderlies of benefit to them as well as theircharges, and an unfaltering and highly successfulwar against the drug habit and the drug tradewithin the institution walls."Women officials to work for the women prisoners, and a consistent regard for the prisoner asa human being instead of mere world's waste."It is a good work which Miss Davis has done;and if the mayor had to go to a woman to get itdone, his judgment in doing so and his choice ofthe woman to do it are to be highly commended."The Union Advertiser of July 1st states:"Katharine Bement Davis is giving a very notable exhibition of how a municipal departmentshould be managed and those who believe thatthe franchise should be extended to women haveevery reason to point to her with pardonableNote: It is as much a source of regret to the editors of the Magazine as it will be to the readers that it is impossible to publishmore of the fascinating story of Dr. Davis' career. It is a compensating pleasure, however, to look forward to the publication ofher "Autobiographical Biography" in the near future.WHO'S AFRAIDOf the Professional Athlete?ANEW deal in sports is an old cry. Butperhaps now when many new deals arebeing considered, if not actually put intopractice, a new-deal in amateurism might be suggested. Peglerian sports writers and easterncolumnists have said many times that professionalathletes are not wicked, even if they are attending college, and some of these articles have beenwidely syndicated. The so-called quality magazines, as well as magazines of lesser quality, havedevoted space to a disparaging discussion ofamateurism; Tunis, Metzger, Whicker, Paddock,Schoonmaker, and others have written sucharticles. But most people who have read thesearticles at all have done so warily. The CarnegieFoundation, on the other hand, spent half a million dollars (or was it more?) to prove that moneyruins college sports, and that only true amateursshall enter the athletic heaven. A perusal of theirreports convinces one that almost everybody connected with college athletics is just a little bitcrooked, and that sinister alumni are lurkingaround every corner waiting to lure the innocentathlete into the depths of covert professionalism.I have been told by envious investigators that theexpense accounts of the paid Carnegie investigators give proof that they understood the amateur spirit in its most modern sense! Theirconclusions, which were widely publicized, thatsports should be deflated and de-commercialized,caused much comment, but the total effect doesnot appear to have been great. At the presenttime, college administrators are concerned notwith de-commercializing athletics, but ratherwith increasing attendance at the games. Likewise, amateur tennis, boxing, and many othersports are striving now, more than ever before,to attract a larger gate.The comment on the Carnegie report wasvoluminous, and consequently some variation inopinion was almost inevitable. But virtually nowriters dared to suggest that the whole amateurconcept, held up by the Carnegie investigatorsas sacred and inviolate, is wrong, rather than theathletes. The excitement was caused, rather, byproof that some rough-neck was being paid ten • By JOHN M. STALNAKER, '25, AM '28dollars a month by an alumnus, in return forwhich the youth was playing an excellent gameof football for the glory— and the profit— of dearold Siwash. This uncovering of the minor subsidizing of athletes seemed to many persons tobe devastating. One college president— praise hishonesty— is credited, on being presented with theCarnegie facts, with the remark that he felt thatvery good material was being obtained for suchlow prices.What is professionalism, and what is amateurism, and how do they differ? Immediately troubleis experienced, for the technical definitions ofamateurism change not only for various sports,but also for the same sport in various sectionsof the country, and in various countries of theworld. Let us assume that these technical changesare trivial, which they definitely are not. Whatin general is an amateur? An amateur, accordingto one writer, is a lover of work or play that hedoes "on the side" and for the fun of it; it is amatter of no consequence whether he is paid ornot. Mr. Tunis would have us believe that theamateur spirit is the thing, and the amateurspirit is the spirit that motivates anything worthyand fine. The professional spirit, conversely, isdegrading. The amateur spirit is an attitudetoward life. Money has nothing to do with it. Acritic says that the effort of Tunis "to arrogateto amateurism all the virtues of disinterestedness,breaks down of its own weight. It would be fartruer to say that these virtues attach to the trueprofessional code." One commonly heard definition of amateurism is that it is the act of condescension by which a gentleman steps down fromhis lofty station to engage in play. As gentlemenmust be wealthy, of course they would not tolerateany money being connected with their sports.They do not need money; they are members ofthe aristocracy. President Brundage of theAmateur Athletic Union of the United States,who should have the authority to speak, says:"But the connotation of 'amateur athlete,' doubtless from the old English definition, is sportsmanand gentleman." A gentleman is one whose fatherleft him ample money. But President Brundageno THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEfinally says that the real distinction between the"pure amateur" and the professional is spiritual.He confesses that the two may be equal in sportsmanship, they may be physically and mentallyand even socially equal, but spiritually theamateurs have the advantage. And he is discussing "pure amateurism, that precious somethingthat exists in the heart and not in the rule book."The recourse to spiritual values is frequentlytaken by the supporters of amateurism. Of course,not one solid bit of evidence can be produced toshow that the spiritual value of professionalsports is one iota less than that of amateur sports.The frequently noted reference to "true" and"pure" amateurism gives evidence of the impossibility of classifying athletes as amateur or professional.This same advocate of amateur sports goes onto say that we attain a level of democracy on thesport field seldom attained in other lines of endeavor. Consider the case of a promising tennisplayer who is without funds. He cannot leavehis work to devote the necessary hours of practiceto becoming really first rate. He refuses offers ofmoney, because he wants to retain that spiritualvalue which is held exclusively by those who donot mix business with sport. He competes againsta wealthy opponent who devotes all his time, anda great deal of his^ father's money to tennis,and against another opponent who uses histennis fame to sell insurance or to make a livingon the stage. What chance has our honestamateur? Is this the high level of democracyspoken of?Many, possibly most, officials of the amateurunions are wealthy or socially prominent men.In general, the attitude of those dispassionateofficials— men who are not profiting throughamateur sports, through salaries or businesspreference or other indirect means— their attitude is that unless one can afford to engage insports without any thought of money or loss oftime from work, he has no right to play. Play isfor the aristocracy. Even granting this point, wemust note that proficiency in most sports todayrequires consistent training and practice; championship winners must train, practice, and work.No tennis player of Davis Cup caliber considerstennis as an interesting pastime regardless of hisincome. It is a serious task, not by any means allplay. Mrs. Moody, an amateur tennis player,recently defaulted in the final round of the national tennis match and was subsequently subjected to caustic criticism. Pegler writes, and Ithink rightly, "Viewing the pretty lady's quit from the standpoint of pure amateurism, I wouldhold that the critics were entirely out of orderand not any too well up in their manners. Theprofessional amateur, meaning by this latterclassification those amateurs who make a vocation of, a game and sweat their amateur reputations for all the perquisites which their fame isgood for, is in a different status."The elaborate maze of conflicting interpretations and general meanings given to the termamateurism forces us to take as the only legitimate definition of amateurism that given us bythe rule books. There is no other way out. Thenwe must admit that amateurism varies with time,and, during any one period, with the sport andthe geographic location. At one time, an amateurwas paid the same amount he would have earnedhad he remained at his regular work. Todaysuch a procedure would professionalize theman.In spite of the mixup of definitions and rules,and of the antiquated theory on which the concept of amateurism is based, it is none the less aconcept held close to the hearts of the great publicwhich supports amateur contests with cash. Evenadults like occasionally to indulge in make-believe: it is more fun than dull, sordid, coldreality. That amateurism is good and that amateurs are wonderfully aloof from commercialism,even if the various athletic unions do see thatsomeone profits from that God-given ability ofthe athletes, is a case of make-believe. Prohibition,as Raymond Pearl has pointed out, is anotherexample of the same phenomenon. Laws provethat we cannot obtain liquor; speakeasies see thatwe can. Still another illustration is found in therigid censorship laws which demonstrate ourpurity by barring from the country masterpiecesof art and literature because they are suggestive;at the same time, salacious "art" magazines andsuggestive cinemas are available even in thesmall towns. While we are dispensing with theprohibition make-believe, we are still clingingto the amateurism delusion.In an elaborate athletic survey, conducted in1930-31 at the expense of the University of Minnesota, the results of which have been largelysuppressed, an effort was made to find out whatsome ten thousand persons thought about amateurism. Other matters were considered in thissurvey, but no one topic caused the extensivevoluntary comment that the amateurism issuedid. And the bulk of this comment consisted ofprotests against the current amateur rules.One person, typical of the group, wrote:THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"Does it make a great deal of differencewhether the college profits by an athlete'sability or whether the athlete himself makesa little?"How any coach has the nerve to stand upand argue against professionalism when inaddition to drawing down an inordinatesalary, he is guilty of using his position topeddle soap over the radio, sell insurance,write syndicated articles for the press, or sellhis name to grace a "comic" strip, is beyondme. While this is happening, the men whoseefforts have placed the coach in a position toreap such 'amateur' rewards, are spendingtheir all for the 'dear old Alma Mater.'Absurd!"The survey also brought out the fact thattwenty-five percent of the students, a slightlysmaller percentage of the general public, andeven twenty percent of the parents of athletes,admittedly believe that athletes at the Universityof Minnesota are subsidized. Again, one-fourthof the faculty and half of the students feel thatpreferred treatment is given athletes. The facultyconfess that they have felt pressure to give athletes special consideration. If you feel that thesefew athletic youngsters who earn a large amountof money for the University deserve some specialconsideration, then you are unaware of the rulessurrounding college athletics. Perhaps you donot understand the amateur spirit.The conclusion of the survey, as far as amateurism is concerned, is that the groups surveyeddemand that amateur athletics be retained. Theword "amateur" is a magical one in the minds ofthe people, synonymous with good, upright,honest, pure, decent, and clean, and even if football players are given, not paid, small amountsof money, helped in various other ways, and permitted to play summer baseball for money, theymust remain amateurs in football. Ridiculous,you may say, but you are thereby showing a lackof appreciation of the wishes of the public.Gradually, the attitude of the public must changeand must force changes in the athletic policiesof colleges. Amateurism, as we now understandit in college athletics, will die as certainly as allmake-believe notions eventually die as the children grow up. But on the basis of the survey, theprediction is made that the name "amateur" willbe the last thing to go.Suggested new deals for college sports haveproposed to do away with highly paid coaches,to charge no admission to the games, etc. Suchproposals are ridiculous, because the collegesneed the money; and as long as they need it and can get it through athletics, they will do so. Anynew deal to be acceptable must fit into the commercial civilization in which we live.A more feasible new deal would be the discarding of all amateur rules. Amateurism is adistinction based on hypocrisy and is thoroughlyout of place in a democracy. Allow the amateurdistinction to be one of spirit, not of rule books.Obviously, any change must be gradual, but thischange could readily be made by changing therules, but retaining the word amateur. Pay theplayers nothing if you like, but let all the alumniwho wish support good football men. Even encourage them to do so. After all, the attempt toeducate the minds of boys of unusual physicaland general athletic ability is a worthy one. Openwide the gates. Let all legitimate college studentsin good scholastic standing play. As the chiefvalue of amateurism is said to be a spiritual one,rules or lack of rules cannot hurt its value. Theamateur spirit may still be kept by some. Theprofessionalism of others will be openly admitted.If we assume that honest confession is good forthe soul, these professional players too will gaina spiritual advantage. I fail to see that anyonewill suffer unless it be those parasites who nowprofit from the amateurism of others, and thoseprofessional amateurs who "sweat their amateurreputations for all the perquisites which theirfame is good for." These two classes deserve nosympathy.Were such a change made in college athletics,alumni financial activity would probably be nogreater than it now is. In fact, the secrecy Hownecessary for an alumnus to aid the athlete probably stimulates such activity. Remove the restraining laws and it may die out.If, by some magical means, the whole amateurmyth could be wiped out of all sports, a greatstep forward would be made. Then those personswho want commercialized sports could havethem, and those who wish to play for the fun ofit could do so. No one would sneak around investigating, trying to prove that this person orthat is a professional. No petty rules would benecessary to differentiate between the amateurand the professional.The amateur myth will disappear in time, butthe educational process is a slow one, and make-believe is fun. We can admit now, at least, thatwe are not afraid of the professional athlete, andexpress the hope that more of the boys in thecommercial sports racket, such as college football,amateur tennis, and the like, will see the lightand help to bring about the needed changes.IN MY OPINION .• By FRED B. MILLETT, PhD '31 Associate Professor of EnglishTHE contemporary English short-storydoes not show anything like the fecundityand the ingenuity of the American short-story of the same period.* Neither does it exhibitthe mechanization distressingly apparent in theAmerican commercial product. In consequence,it is not possible to observe in serious Englishwriting in this genre the struggle against mechanization evident in the work of the seriousAmerican short-story writers of our time. Thecontemporary British short-story has escaped, oralmost entirely escaped, the threat of mechanization, primarily, because the English magazinemarket for short-stories is far more restricted thanthe American magazine market, and, therefore,there is not so great a demand for incessant andvoluminous production. Such magazines as existare not paralyzed by the taboos on material andstyle that devitalize any but the most frankly experimental American magazines. Moreover, theEnglish short-story has escaped the disastrous influence of O. Henry, who, more than any othersingle writer, is responsible for the rigid and mechanical nature of most American commercialwriting in this form. Even Kipling, whose earlywork has something of the pointedness and smartness of O. Henry, was prevented from being arestrictive influence by his own development towards subtlety and indirection. In consequence,English short-story writing has preservedthroughout the period we are considering an individuality absent from much American shortprose-fiction; there is nothing like common agreement as to proper length, subject matter, treatment, or tone. Moreover, the limited market forshort-stories in England has unquestionably hadnot a little to do with the fact that very few contemporary British writers have restricted theirwriting to the short-story form. Most of the writerswhose work deserves consideration are novelists,primarily, and short-story writers, only incidentally. Thus it is that, while the quality of short-storywriting is admirably high, the quantity of it, in contrast to the production of novels, is relatively smalland has a rather winning effect of casualness.At the head of the short-story writers of theolder generation stands the sturdy figure of Rud-*The following remarks form part of a critical survey to appearin the forthcoming edition of Manly and Rickert's ContemporaryBritish Literature. yard Kipling. It is impossible for younger readersto recover the sensation caused by the appearanceof such classic volumes as Plain Tales from theHills and Many Inventions. Here was fresh material from Kipling's Anglo-Indian experience,presented briskly, brittlely, pointedly. But thejournalistic sprightliness of his youthful workgave way to the rich sensory descriptive style andthe tender wisdom of the Jungle Books, and tothe subtlety and the atmospheric suggestivenessof Traffics and Discoveries and Puck of Pook'sHill. Parochially British in his political views,Kipling as a short-story writer has control over anunlimited range of material and effect, and a style,now inordinately vivid and precise, and againelusive and subtly connotative, that may well bethe despair of the aspirant to fame in this form.The novels of Kipling, with the single exception of Kim, are negligible, but other writers ofhis period served the novel steadily and the short-story and tale occasionally. In the career of H.G. Wells, short-story writing was a limited episode, but, brief as it was, his work has a tersepointedness reminiscent of O. Henry, while hisuse of science and pseudo-science as material betrays his modern background and educationalexperience and preoccupations. In the ratherconsiderable number of Galsworthy's short-stories, the qualities which one associates with hisnovels re-appear: the fine sense of form, thetender humanitarianism, the unobtrusive style.Trembling now and again on the verge of sentimentality, he contrives to elude the doctrinaireand allegorical effects that sometimes make hisnovels and dramas rather bloodless exercises inabstract morality. To some readers the tales ofConrad seem more approachable than his moredifficult novels, for the restrictions of the formprevented his use of the involved retrospectivemethod, and, without it, one is free to admire thetropical lushness of his style, his firm grasp oncharacter, and his incomparable sustaining ofsuspense in such masterpieces as "Heart of Darkness" and "End of the Tether."Like survivors from a vanished world seem theshadowy figures of Arthur Machen, LeonardMerrick, and Saki. Machen's cultivation of thetale of macabre horror is definitely ninetyish,and Merrick's work, especially in its continental112THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE "3and theatrical phases, has something of the pre-ciousness and elegance of such a forgotten figureas Henry Harland. Like the short-stories of Merrick, the fictions of Saki have enjoyed a belatedrevival, but, despite their wit and urbanity, despite the ingenuity with which he creates fantastically improbable comic situations, the intellectual implications suggest that only a by-gone stateof Tory culture and leisure made possible thefree play of aristocratic insolence.As individual in his treatment of prose fictionas in his way of life and his views of man is theunwarrantably neglected work of CunninghamGraham. His tales and sketches have no air ofconscious invention; they seem rather to be fragments from the full and adventurous life of anhumanitarian hidalgo, contemptuous of mostbourgeois virtues and of the degeneracy of themodern world from the full-blooded adventure-someness of the Renaissance. But his work in thisvein is not merely of interest andvalue as a medium for his unconventional views and experience. Despite occasionallooseness of form, it has a directness and sharpness of observation, a passion for exotic detail,and a style that is rich, exact,deeply rhythmic, and highlypictorial.As Kipling is unquestionablythe leader of the older generation of short-story writers, soKatherine Mansfield leads theyounger post-war writers inthis genre. Applying to her workthe highest standards of self-criticism, she evolved an individual style and form that haveinfluenced younger writersdeeply. Her method is franklyimpressionistic; she is concerned, not with plot in the conventional sense, but with theindication of the maximumamount of meaning attainablethrough the fastidious selectionof the most revealing details.Her stories are usually built upto the intensification of a singleemotion,— pity, irony, or cruelty,and the details are painstakinglyselected so as to initiate and intensify this emotion. Much ofher beautiful effectiveness is due Chicago Alumni in the CurrentMagazinesAmerican Mercury— December:Sunday, James T. Farrell, '29Books Abroad— Fall issue:As Others See Us, Howard Mum-ford Jones, AM' 15Chicagoan— December:"Let's Wreck Roosevelt,'* MiltonS. Mayer, '29; Chicagoana, DonaldC. Plant, '25; The Score at theHalf, Kenneth D. Fry, '28Child Life— December:The Five Little Bears Go toSchool, Sterling North, '29Collier's— December 2 and following:Thunder in the Dust, Alan Le-May, '22National Geographic Magazine—December:Afghanistan Makes Haste Slowly;A Kingdom of Many Tribes— bothby Maynard O. Williams, '10New Republic— November 22:The Third Reich Votes, FrederickSchuman, '24, PhD' 2 7Scientific Monthly—December:Home Economics Research by theFederal Government, Louise Stanley, '06Scribner's Magazine— December:I Can Count on Myself, MarthaBensley Bruere, '04Vanity Fair— December:Chancellor Dollfuss; Fly- WeightChampion of Europe, John Gunther, '22 to the brilliant precision of her observation, themarvelous freshness of her phrasing, and thedelicate implication of attitude and emotion,especially in women and children. Her exquisitely controlled impressionism has had a very considerable effect in encouraging younger writersto escape from the restrictions of the conventional short-story, and in freeing them then to riseat will to a climax in a pointed observation, atwist of emotion, or sudden shock of feeling.Several of the major Georgian novelists havefound the short-story a satisfactory medium ofexpression. Indeed, some critics are of theopinion that the short-stories of Lawrence andHuxley and Joyce are more satisfactory and enduring than their novels. There is no doubt thatthe short-story exercised a wholesome restrainton Lawrence, whose sense of form in extendedfiction was not especially acute and who in thenovel was inclined to indulge in the expository presentation of his theories. Hisshort-stories, though more objective than his novels, succeedin projecting his intense VanGogh-like feeling of the vibratory life of animate nature andhis uncanny insight into circuitous emotionality. A somewhatsimilar effect the not too severelyenforced restraint of the short-story has had on Aldous Huxley,whose novels violate most ofthe canons of plot-making. Here,too, there is a submergence ofthe personality and an elimination of ideational material,without any loss of his temperamental coolness and irony.Joyce's adventure with the formin question, restricted to a singlevolume, Dub liners, is a triumphof restrained realism, the objectivity of which is a world awayfrom the subjective abysses ofUlysses.Individual, too, are the contributions to the short-story ofThomas Burke and Lord Dun-sany. Variously, into thepredominant realism of theshort-story, such writers haveintroduced an element of romanticism. Burke's romanticismhas a solider foundation in(Continued on page 118)NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES• By JOHN P. HOWE, *27PRESIDENT HUTCHINS, in this issue ofthe Magazine, discusses at length a proposed consolidation between the University of Chicago and Northwestern. Beyond a fewrandom remarks little can be added to his statement. To Chicago alumni who are proud of theirUniversity— and most of them feel that it is a verysuperior place— the idea of merger comes as ashock, and a threat to the noble integrity of theMidway.Last August the merger proposal was foreshadowed in this place in a statement that Chicago and Northwestern had agreed to explore thepossibilities of cooperation. The fact that consolidation developed as a possibility during thecourse of this exploration "leaked" by way ofsome one opposed to the idea, and was publishedto the accompaniment of considerable anvil workby the rumorsmiths.May we predict that next August the proposalwill still be in the exploratory stage? Everybodyconcerned, we think, will have plenty of time tomake a reasoned judgment, and possibly to arriveat an orientation which overviews the total situation of the two universities rather than the consequences of merger to either. At present theadministrative heads of both universities appearto believe and hope that merger is feasible. In noother quarters has a mature, informed reactioncrystallized. Problems of policy and detail involved are thousandfold.Between the present time and the arrival of adisinterested orientation, more or less ardentalumniac feelings will throb in many a breast,including this one. The University of Chicagotrains its students to be critical and objective, butremarkably enough, loyalty for and pride in theUniversity itself have grown rather than sufferedin the process. Therefore President Hutchins'statement that no proposal will be consideredwhich alters the essential character of the University of Chicago is reassuring, at least to thisalumnus.An examination of the most complete form amerger would be likely to take, as among thepossibilities described or implied by the President, is comforting to us loyalists, especially afterthe first reaction to the word itself has subsided,and after the various rumors have been denied. At most, merger apparently would change theMidway scene very little, even over a period ofyears. If the basic principle were demonstratedto be sound and important, and the multiformproblems solved, it would mean that severalhundred graduate students previously at Evanston wojild study at the Midway; and that someseveral hundred students in one or two of the professional schools on the Midway would transfertheir formal work to the McKinlock campus. TheUniversity College, the downtown evening division of the University, would also move to McKinlock campus. This latter step would notaffect the Midway scene, and the only objectionwe have heard has to do with transportation.Everybody participating in the discussions hasdeclared and reiterated that there is no intentionto abandon undergraduate work on the Midway.Such statements were necessary to scotch therumors, but to us they seem to put too negativea face on the matter.Under a merger, even with the Evanstoncampus devoted exclusively to a "standard four-year college of liberal arts," there seems to be noreason that undergraduate work should not growand flourish on the Midway, as it has in the pastand under the New Plan, in point of numbers,selectivity, tradition, curriculum, facilities,method and every other factor that goes into itsmakeup, including athletics. The same reasonsthat impel undergraduates to attend the University now— its reputation, its challenging NewPlan, its opportunities for contact with greatminds, its facilities, or its proximity— would impelthose of the future to choose the Midway campus.Merger might even dramatize the difference between the two approaches to undergraduate education, and since we are prejudiced, we inclineto the belief that the keener students would pickthe Midway. And students are keen these days.Labelling Chicago's college as " experimental' 'is merely to say that it has sought continuouslyand courageously to improve its methods and toset an example for the nation. It has been experimental since 1892, and its New Plan, probably its boldest and best experiment, puts it yearsahead of most of its contemporaries. And theNew Plan has attracted more students than it hasfrightened away, incidentally.114THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE "5As for changes in faculty, our humble guesswould be that merger would keep on the Midway all the great scientists and scholars for whichit is famous, and perhaps in future years add tothis strength; that since the Midway effort inundergraduate education would have as its distinctive feature the improvement of collegiateeducation, its staff would include great teachersin appropriate numbers. Some members of thestaffs of professional schools would doubtless betransferred to the McKinlock campus. Mr.Hutchins has specifically said that the South SideMedical School, which has a unique research approach to the teaching of medicine, will remainon the Midway, and has suggested that all professional work in education might be centeredon the South Side. A suggestion has been madethat if any other schools should transfer theirpractical training to McKinlock campus, academic departments devoted to scholarship inthese fields might be set up in the upper divisionson the Midway.As for the administration of the consolidateduniversities, one must believe that a union whichseeks to improve education would certainly establish its policies in the best tradition and with thebest intelligence.Thus the Midway scene, at best or worst, doesnot seem to be headed toward any drastic change.After This, the Open MindWe have remarked above that Chicago alumniare proud, perhaps prejudiced, about the greatness of their University, and may require timebefore they attain the overview which makesclear the undoubted advantages of a merger toeducation at large, to the cause of scholarshipand research, and to the financial welfare of thetwo institutions. Students, alumni, faculty andfriends of the University all have reacted to theproposal with creditable open-mindedness. Mostof these, including this alumnus, would feel happier, we think, if before the conversations go anyfurther, they could state courteously and clearly,once and for all, their firm conviction that theUniversity of Chicago is a greater university thanNorthwestern University. After that, the openmind. So here is one man's try:Two ways of judging the worth of a universityare through its contributions to the advancement°f knowledge and through the achievements ofthose it has educated. On the first score therels no question about the relative records. Chicago need not defer to any American universityln this respect, and to few anywhere. One ex ample will suffice: of the eight Nobel Prizesgranted to American scientists, four have beenawarded for work accomplished at the University of Chicago. Every disinterested study ofAmerican universities we know of which toucheson this subject has rated Chicago at or near thetop. Nor can such accomplishment be dismissedas "good graduate work." The advancement ofknowledge is the task which distinguishes a trueuniversity from a college or from a college plussome professional schools.On the second score, one convenient test is afforded by Who's Who. One in every nineteenpersons listed in the current issue of this compendium is a former Chicago student, 1,628 Chicagoans in all. Chicago students have no specialadvantages of wealth or background. Can Northwestern or any other university west of the easternseaboard equal this record? A livelier pictureof the work of Chicago alumni is presented atthe moment in Washington, if any further comparisons are necessary.Another point of comparison seems to be thecharacter of undergraduate work. Chicago people have never felt that any particular rivalryexisted at this level, except in athletics (and thatonly during the past ten years, and in threesports, football, basketball, and swimming). Chicago's approach has been consistently more advanced and mature, and its New Plan seems certain to be widely copied. In addition, no Chicagoundergraduate escapes stimulation by its greatscholars. Chicago's entrance requirements havebeen somewhat higher. Both confer about thesame number of bachelor's degrees, Northwesternadmitting more freshmen, Chicago admittingmore undergraduates with advanced standing.In professional work the aims of the two universities have in general been different, withChicago stressing the scholarly approach andNorthwestern the training of practitioners foreffective practical work. A question may existas to which approach is better in the long runfor practitioners, but the records of Chicago menin the professions are notable. Chicago has notbeen interested in certain fields cultivated byNorthwestern, including journalism, speech,dentistry, instrumental music and engineering.Northwestern has not developed such Chicagofields as social service administration and libraryscience.Northwestern does more work in the field ofadult education through its downtown eveningclasses. Chicago does more through correspondence study and radio.n6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEIn physical facilities and endowment Chicagois in much the stronger position. The total assetsof the University of Chicago are slightly above$110,000,000; those of Northwestern slightlyunder $50,000,000. Surely much of Chicago'ssupport has been deserved. In beauty and adequacy, Chicago's plant is clearly superior. Chicago's library contains about four times as manyitems as that of Northwestern. The generalsalary level at Chicago is higher. Also, by wisefiscal management Chicago during the currentdepression has avoided direct salary cuts exceptin medicine, while Northwestern has had one ormore general cuts.In fertility and exchange of ideas, it is our impression that the flow has been unidirectional-northward. Many of Northwestern's best facultymembers are Chicago graduates. In strength ofconvictions, such as the importance of academicfreedom, and in general influence on the nation'seducational progress, social ideology, scientificand cultural progress, it is our belief that Chicagois superior.•V- «3£- ?3&-%- tF wNow that that is settled we can revert to themerger with clearer decks. President Hutchinsproposed the merger idea. The pooling of educational, research and financial assets of the twouniversities has obvious benefits to the mergedinstitution, if it is feasible, and sets a valuableexample to the nation.Professor LaughlinThe University mourned the death last monthof one of its most distinguished faculty members,Professor-emeritus J. Laurence Laughlin, chairman of the department of economics at the University from its opening year, 1892, until his retirement in 1916. Professor Laughlin, who was83 years old, died Nov. 28th at his home inJaffrey, New Hampshire.Probably the outstanding academic economistin the Middle West during his 25 years of serviceto the University, Dr. Laughlin trained a hostof men and women now prominent in the economic field. He played a large role in formulating and bringing to enactment the Federal Reserve Act of 1913.Before being called to the Midway in 1892 tojoin the eminent group of scholars Dr. Harperbrought to the University, Professor Laughlinhad served on the faculty of Harvard for tenyears, as president of the Manufacturers MutualFire Insurance Co., for two years, and as professor of economics at Cornell University for two years. At Harvard he taught economics to manymen later prominent in national affairs, chiefamong them Theodore Roosevelt.His former students at Chicago who won thedoctor's degree include two prominent membersof the Columbia University faculty, Wesley C.Mitchell, who served with Prof. Merriam of Chicago as head of the Hoover Social Trends Commission and H. Parker Willis, authority on banking; Katharine Bement Davis, prominent writerand social service worker; Stephen Leacock,famous humorist and professor of economics atMcGill University; Earl Dean Howard, deputyadministrator of the NRA; Harold G. Moulton,President of the Brookings Institution, Washington, and Edwin G. Nourse, Director of the Institute ofEconomics of the same Institute; Harry A.Millis, present head of economics at Chicago; O.D. Skelton, Undersecretary of State for ExternalAffairs, Canada; D. A. McGibbon, Canadiangrain commissioner, and S. J. McLean, assistantchief commissioner of Canadian railroads; GeorgeA. Stephens, economist of the Federal TradeCommission; W. J. A. Donald, head of the American Management Association; and a number ofprofessors, including department heads at McGill,Emory and New York Universities and the Universities of Saskatchewan and Chicago.At Chicago he also taught Arthur R. Robinson,now U. S. Senator from Indiana and Herbert Gaston, secretary of the Farm Board.Former students and colleagues of Dr. Laughlin describe him as an exacting but kindly andpainstaking mentor. A lucid exponent of the"classical" economics, Prof. Laughlin disagreed,however, with the quantitative theory of money.He was an outstanding advocate of "soundmoney" and during the 1890's a vigorous opponent of free silver. He had many contacts withpractical men and headed the National Citizens'League for the Promotion of Sound Banking, in1911-13.Chief among Dr. Laughlin's many writings are"Elements of Political Economy" (1885) ; "History of Bi-Metallism" (1892); "Facts AboutMoney" (1895); "Industrial America" (1907))"Principles of Money" (1903); "Banking Re*form" (1912); and "Credit of Nations" (i9l8)'His magnum opus, "A New Exposition of Money,Credit and Prices," in two volumes, was published by the University of Chicago Press in 1931;His last volume, "The Federal Reserve Act,was published a few months ago. Dr. Laughlmfounded the Journal of Political Economy at theUniversity in 1892 and has been an editor since.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 117Born April 2, 1850 in Deerfield, Ohio, Dr.Laughlin earned the bachelor's degree and doctor's degree at Harvard. His home in Chicagowas at 5747 University Ave., a building whichlater became the Alpha Delta Phi fraternityhouse.Frank Vanderlip, prominent New York bankerand former Midway student, described Dr.Laughlin in an article published in the University Magazine last year as one of the two most inspiring teachers in his experience. 'HenryBruere, president of the Bowery Savings Bank,New York, and recently identified with the national recovery program, also studied economicsunder Laughlin at Chicago.Beer"Three-point-two" beer was pronounced non-intoxicating in a report made public last monthby Dr. Anton J. Carlson, chairman of the department of physiology at the University, at the conclusion of an extensive series of experiments.The beer made legal last April, tests at the University have determined, will not cause intoxication in quantities which can be consumed withcomfort.The repeal of the 1 8th amendment would seemto give this finding only academic interest, but itmust be remembered that the majority of statesare still dry, and that those states which remaindry will be interested in a definition of intoxication.During the past four months, Dr. Carlson disclosed, tests have been run on more than fiftymen and women, drawn from many walks of lifeand comprising a representative cross section ofthe population. The subjects ranged in agefrom 19 to 60 years, and in weight from 100 to233 pounds. Under carefully controlled conditions these subjects drank from two to sixteen 12-ounce bottles of beer, during periods rangingfrom fifteen minutes to sixteen hours, and theywere tested in three ways, as follows:(1) Determinations were made of the changing amount of alcohol in the blood, and thesefigures were compared with the amounts presentin the blood of people judged intoxicated inpolice courts; (2) records were made of the performance of the subjects in six types of mentaland physical tests, including reaction time tolights and sounds, standing steadiness, sensitivityto pain, hand steadiness, and speed in namingcolors and arranging playing cards in suits; (3)general behavior of the subjects was noted by theexperimenters during and after drinking. Six different quantities and rates of drinkingwere studied: 2 bottles in 15 minutes, repeatedwith and without food; 4 bottles in 30 minutes,with and without food; 2 bottles an hour for 8hours; 1 bottle every 40 minutes for 8 hours; 1bottle an hour for 16 hours; and a forced drinking rate of 8 to 14 bottles, in which subjectswho volunteered were urged to drink as fastas they could, without regard to their own comfort.3 Commenting on the conclusion, Dr. Carlsonsaid today: "It was discovered that people had tobe forced to drink sufficient beer to exhibit themarked changes of behavior which are classed asintoxication. The forced drinking of largequantities was accompanied by such discomfort,nausea, and vomiting, as to make it highly improbable that the people would consume similaramounts voluntarily. Control tests were given,using near-beer, and similar effects of discomfortwere produced."Our general conclusion that 3.2% beer is non-intoxicating cannot be properly understood without reference to definitions of intoxication uponwhich the conclusion was made. The definitionused is as follows: materially abnormal mentalor physical condition manifesting itself in theloss of the ordinary control of the mental orphysical functions to such a degree of impairment of mental and physical capacities, or both,as to render a person's actions actually or potentially a nuisance, or, under circumstances, adanger to others."This definition of intoxication was derivedafter consideration of the definition of intoxicating liquor established by the Judicial Committeeof the United States Senate: An intoxicatingliquor is a liquor intended for use as, or capableof being used as, a beverage, and which containsalcohol in such proportion or per cent that whenconsumed in a quantity which may practically bedrunk by the ordinary man, or in a quantitywhich the human stomach will ordinarily hold,will produce a condition known as intoxicationor drunkenness."Associated with Dr. Carlson in the experimentwere Dr. F. C. McLean and Dr. Nathaniel Kleit-man of the University of Chicago and Dr. C. W.Meuhlberger of the Scientific Crime DetectionLaboratory of Northwestern University. Theexperiment was undertaken by the Universityof Chicago at the invitation of the United StatesBrewing Association, members of which contributed a fund to defray expenses. The fundwas accepted by the University with the stipula-n8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtion that the results should be open for publication, regardless of the findings, and the methodof conducting the experiment should be entirelycontrolled by the University. Subjects were paid$1 to $3 a day, depending on the time consumed.The beer used was a standard brand, tested toinsure 3.2% alcoholic content.The "performance" tests were designed tomeasure types of behavior commonly noticed inintoxication and having a bearing on practicallife. The average normal reaction time of sub-'jects to sounds (such as an auto horn) was foundto be 0.18 of a second before drinking. Afterconsuming 2 to 4 bottles of beer the average reaction time of the group was 0.19 of a second.Reaction times to red and green lights, whichsimulated stop-lights, were 0.32 of a second before drinking; 0.32 of a second after drinking 2to 4 bottles; and 0.35 of a second after drinking8 to 14 bottles.Devices to record steadiness of standing andsteadiness of the hand showed no significant differences before and after drinking 2 to 4 bottles,though a noticeable difference was apparent after"forced" drinking.The average alcoholic content of the blood percubic centimeter after two bottles was found tobe 0.31 of a milligram (a milligram is a thousandth of a gram); after 4 bottles, 0.6 of a milligram, after 8 to 14 bottles of forced drinking, 1.3milligrams. The standard of intoxication accepted by the Alcohol Investigation Committeeof the British Medical Research Council sets theaverage minimum for intoxication at 1.5 milligrams. Police court tests in the United Statesand Sweden place this minimum somewhatlower. The Chicago experimenters found widevariations in different subjects between the alcohol content of the blood and their behavior reaction to it.During continuous drinking, one bottle perhour, over a period of as much as 16 hours, theexperimenters found that the average blood alcohol was .7 of a milligram at peak concentration.Eating of food was found to diminish the concentration in most cases. In the opinion of theobservers, 17% of those who volunteered for theforced drinking (8 to 14 bottles in %i/2 hours)were judged intoxicated according to the definition.The average blood alcohol of entire forceddrinking group, at peak, was 1.3 milligrams. Theexperimenters emphasize that these last resultswere obtained when the subjects drank more beerand drank it faster than they wanted. ("In My Opinion" continued from page 113)actuality; indeed, with some readers, his sketchesof life among the quays of East London, wouldpass for realism touched with sentiment. Butboth the pleasant and the unpleasant aspects ofthat life are flavored with the exoticism which,whether benign or sinister, belongs to the worldof imagination rather than to the world of fact.Lord Dunsany's romanticism, acrid and ironicalas it sometimes is, is essentially fantastic in nature. Despite some traces of Celticism, his artis sui generis. His somewhat bare primitive worldis peopled with kings and slaves with unrecognizable names, whose allegorical significance isincomparably less interesting than the flora andfauna of his neo-romantic universe.Somewhat nearer the mode of Miss Mansfield'simpressionism, if not directly stimulated by it,is the work of such writers as A. E. Coppard,T. F. Powys, Liam O 'Flaherty, and Henry Williamson. Of these Coppard is the most steadilydevoted to this genre. His range in material andtone is wide, from phantasy to naturalism, fromlyricism to cynicism, but everywhere there isevidence of a fastidious and poetic spirit. Powys,whose interest in formal plot has never been profound, finds it easy to pass gracefully from oneform to another, and to carry over into the short-story the lusty naturalism and the compassion forsuffering that are the characteristic notes of hislonger fiction. O'Flaherty has devoted himselfmore steadily to the novel than to the short-story,but the sensitive objectivity and the deft impressionism of his short-stories and sketches of ruraland animal life are worth attention. Such sketchesas O'Flaherty's come more naturally from the penof Henry Williamson, whose best work is on theborder between natural history and folklore.Like much writing of our time about beasts, birdsand fishes, Williamson's does not always escapethe charge of that sentimentalizing about naturethat is the curse of many uncontrolled romanticists.To QuoteThe Chicago Tribune, in June Provines' column, November 8— "The University of ChicagoMagazine celebrates its quarter centennial by achange in format. The new number is larger, andan interesting photograph of President RobertMaynard Hutchins, in academic gown, decorates itshandsome henna cover. T^ie other day when newcopies were delivered to a magazine distributingagency the agency manager glanced at the pictureon the cover and commented:" 'Is that fellow the head of his class?' "ATHLETICSScores of the MonthFootballChicago, o; Illinois., 7Chicago, 39; Dartmouth, o fBasketballChicago, 17; North Central, 29Chicago, 22; Armour, 27Chicago, 30; Bradley, 22CONCLUDED with the massacre of Dartmouth, Chicago's football season hascreated a belief that the Maroon athleticfortunes are on the mend. This attitude persistsdespite the fact that Chicago won no games inthe conference, and that next year brings a brutalschedule of six conference games that obviouslyasks too much of any football team. The satisfaction that remains from the season is not based atall on the trouncing of Dartmouth, but on theconsistent and evident improvement of the teamweek by week. Chicago this year played courageous football, but it also played brisk and competent football.The defeats by Purdue and Michigan did notdiscourage either Coach Shaughnessy or theplayers, nor did the disappointing failures to winthe later games in the Big Ten stop their progress. At Illinois, the team put up its most brilliant effort, clearly outplaying the Illini, andsurging back time after time after chances to winhad been lost by eagerness and inexperience. Inthe Dartmouth game, the Maroon team hadarrived. It had achieved poise and it had becomea unit. Against the certainty and finish of its play,Dartmouth had no chance. That game demonstrated that the season had hammered out a teamwith power and confidence that will achieve results next year— until the wear and tear of thosesix Big Ten games blunts the players. This business of regaining position is slow and discouraging, but the hardest part of the uphill fightwould seem to be achieved.There will be fewer handicaps next year.Coach Shaughnessy does not yet know everythingabout the conference teams he meets, but heknows a lot more than he did this autumn. Hewill start out with a team that is largely intact,with seasoned reserves, and with valuable addi- By WILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN, '20, JD '22tions from the freshman squad. From his varsitysquad, he will have back some twenty men, practically all of whom had experience in big games,who know his game, and know each other's play.Perhaps the most encouraging result of theyear was that Jay Berwanger found himself completely in the Dartmouth game. He had been astrong player, but against Dartmouth, when hefinally shed his tenseness and played naturally,he was as great a player as Chicago has had infifteen years. In three plays of a series he demonstrated his greatness. First he threw a long passoff an end run formation for a touchdown. Whenthat was called back, he went wide again, floatingalong until he saw a gap into which he cut backwith a sprinter's burst and driving knee actionthat knocked Dartmouth sprawling. Again hewent wide, and simply outran the Dartmouthsecondary for a touchdown.Berwanger was named by both his teammatesand the Order of the C as Chicago's most valuable player, an honor which he clearly merited.Although Capt. Pete Zimmer and Vinson Sahlin,mainstays of the offense for three years, willgraduate, there is no worry about the attack nextyear, so long as Berwanger is himself. He playedevery minute of every conference game, doingpractically all the kicking, and averaging 35.8yards for all the eight games of the year. In thoseeight games he carried the ball 184 times, averaging 3.7 yards a play. His defensive work wassuperb.Ell Patterson, the 170 pound center, waselected captain of the 1934 team at the footballdinner of the Chicago Alumni Club on December 7. Patterson played with Pete Zirrfmer at LaGrange, and then had a year at Lake ForestAcademy. His work this season, particularly inhis energetic backing up of the line, was strikinglyprominent in every game. He directed the defensive tactics of the team, and in several gamescalled the .signals on offense. Patterson is a typicalChicago athlete; intelligent, young, with nogreat physical endowments, but plenty of determination, and an individual with interests andabilities directed to more valid occupations thanfootball.The Order of the C, and the Chicago AlumniClub joined in awarding plaques at the football"9120 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEbanquet to four players: Berwanger, as the mostvaluable player; Vinson Sahlin, as the bestblocker; Bob Deem as the best tackier, andWalter Maneikis, as the player of greatest valuewho received the least recognition. CoachShaughnessy likewise received a plaque in testimony of the alumni support while Judge WalterSteffen, president of the "C" men, was reachinginto his bag.Held for the first time after the season, theAlumni Club party was a rational and dignifiedaffair, for which President William Gorgas received merited appreciation. In past years, whenthe dinner was held in mid-season, before animportant game, the party had elements of thehysterical that offended many alumni. This year'sdinner, in contrast, was improved by its tone ofrestraint, although there was convincing demonstration of alumni interest and support for thework of the team and the coach. Speakers wereLawrence Whiting, Judge Steffen, PresidentGorgas, Director Metcalf, Coach Shaughnessy,Assistant Coach Kyle Anderson, Harry Swanson,and President Hutchins. Mr. Swanson, whohitherto had only a local reputation as the WillRogers of the quadrangles, presented the viewpoint of the LaSalle St. coaches toward the proposed Northwestern merger in a speech thatought to produce a broadening of his repute.President Hutchins limited his speech to onesubject, that the disposition of the wild reportthat if the merger with Northwestern were everconsummated, Chicago would eliminate itsundergraduate work. "There has never been anythought of eliminating the College at Chicago,"he said. "That possibility had never been considered. The University of Chicago will neverabandon its college work on the Midway. Fortwo more years you will see Mr. Berwanger riding to glory on Stagg Field. And thereafterthrough the far distant future we shall see hissuccessors gallivanting across Stagg Field beneatha Maroon flag." That many-lived report, whichnever has had any foundation, has risen up foryears with such persistence that its origin scarcelyseems spontaneous. Buried by the "New Plan"and its great benefits to the College, the reportarose again in connection with the maze of rumors that have attended the discussion of thedesirability of the merger. The missionary effortsof every alumnus in scotching this canard wouldbe of service to the immediate future of the College, which is likely to suffer somewhat in enrollment if the misinformation is believed.Coach Shaughnessy announced the award of major "C's" to the following twenty men: Ends—John Baker, Chicago; William Langley, Dallas,Tex.; Rainwater Wells, Long Beach, Cal.; JohnWomer, Oak Park; Tackles— M err itt Bush,Robert Deem, Long Beach, Cal.; John Rice,Dallas; Guards— Walter Maneikis, Robert Perretz, Chicago; Wayne Rapp, Long Beach, Cal.;Center— Ell Patterson, Western Springs, III.;Backs— William Berg, Oblong, 111.; Jay Berwanger, Dubuque, la.; Ed Cullen, Wilmette,111.; Tom Flinn, Redwood Falls, Minn.; EwaldNyquist, Rockford, 111.; Vinson Sahlin and Robert Wallace, Chicago; Barton Smith, Long Beach,Cal.; Capt. Pete Zimmer, LaGrange, 111. Eightof the twenty previously had won letters: Zimmer, Sahlin, Maneikis, Rapp, Wallace, Flinn,Patterson, and Womer. The first five of thesewill graduate, as will Berg, who ended three seasons of unrecognized work by getting into theDartmouth game and intercepting a pass for atouchdown.Twenty-three of the freshmen won numerals,and the majority of them can be most useful nextyear. They were: Ends— William Gillerlain, Chicago, 178; Rand LeFevre, Elkhart, Ind., 173;Henry Miller, Chicago, 180; Allen Riley, Chicago, 175; John Webster, Hinsdale, 170; Tackles—Thomas Giles, Tulsa, Okla., 230; AndrewHoyt, Kansas City, 195; Thomas Kelley, OakPark, 175; Harmon Meigs, Evanston, 198; Clarence Wrighte, Clinton, la., 217; Guards— PrescottJordan, LaGrange, 180; John Scruby, BeverlyHills, Cal., 205; Elbert Thomas, Evanston, 215;Sam Whiteside, Evanston, 205; Center— KennethShaw, Elgin, 175; Backs— Ned Bartlett, Glendale, Cal., 170; William Bosworth, Oak Park,190; Robert Martin, Dallas, 190; William Runyan, South Haven, Mich., 162; Adolph Schues-sler, Alton, 111., 148; Robert Shipway, Chicago,158; Warren Skoning, Elgin, 178; Paul Whitney,Chicago, 165. Everett Braun, Long Beach, whowas injured in the first week of practice, wasgiven honorary numerals, and twenty-two othermen received honorable mention. Spring practicewill develop several of these. Both Meigs andScruby are sons of "C" men, and will live up totheir fathers' reputations. This freshman teamhad much more concentration of strength in theline than did last year's team, but will providesome men to join with Berwanger.Though football gives promise of real improvement, basketball at the present time offersno encouraging aspects. Coach Norgren is struggling with a job lot of reserves who have goodintentions, but who have been beaten in theirTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 121two games by such outposts as North Central andArmour. William Haarlow, who is to basketballwhat Berwanger is to football, has passed twocomprehensives, but is stymied by his Englishexamination. Haarlow, who may perhaps behandicapped by inadequate preparation in highschool, is a hard working and intelligent student,but when he is confronted with an examination,he loses the certainty that characterizes his workon a basketball floor. He has one more shot leftbefore the season opens. Leo Oppenheim andBob Pyle, the two other good men on the team,will be unable to compete until the winter quarter opens, for they are not now in residence. BartPeterson, the sophomore center, who looks as ifhe might become pretty good, is still unused tothe game, for he was occupied with football.Coach Ned Merriam is already at work withhis track team. In the 6o-yard dash he has PeteZimmer, speed man of the football team. Berwanger and Barton Smith are low hurdlers ofsufficient ability to do well in dual meets, andwith Phelps, a transfer from Washington and Jefferson, they also will run the high hurdles.Capt. Ed Cullen is the best man in the 440, butthere are several other possibilities, includingPerlis, Sills, Smith, and Phelps. The 880 has nostriking talent, Maynard, Nicholson, and Fair-bank being the best. Whether there is a milerwho can finish before the pole vault is concludedremains to be seen. Berwanger, who is a greatprospect as a decathalon entry, although he is notquite good enough to beat the conference specialists in any individual event, will be prettymuch the whole team in the field events, occupying himself with the pole vault, shot put, highjump, and broad jump. John Roberts, who oughtto do 13 feet or better in the pole vault,and Eugene Ovson, who can put the shot out45 feet, are the two other important field eventmen.The complete football schedule is as follows:Sept. 29— Carroll College; Oct. 13— Michigan;Oct. 20— Indiana; Oct. 27— Missouri; Nov. 3—Purdue; Nov. 10— Chicago at Ohio State; Nov.17— Chicago at Minnesota; Nov. 24— Illinois."A Cold, Cold Night on the Quadrangles"THE BOARD OF TRUSTEESWho's Who, What's What and Why• By JOHN F. MOULDS, '07, Secretary of the Board"A man of knowledge; one who subscribes to theUniversity motto: 'Crescat Scientia; vita excolatur,' Letknowledge grow from more to more, so be human lifeenriched'; one who is anxious to promote study and research; whose sympathies and interests are catholic,which means that he is both a progressive and a liberal;who is steadfast in upholding his own principles; whois broad and open-minded and sympathetic to the otherfellow's point of view; who is generous— not only inmoney but in services; who holds the man above thedollar; who is far-sighted and has vision and can formulate plans for growth in usefulness and service; who isenergetic and a worker and who believes that onlythrough hard, cooperative effort can the Universityreach the highest point of development; who has a winning personality— the sort which makes him a person ofstanding in the community,— well liked, well known, andrecognized as a person of substance; who gives of himself unsparingly."IN SUCH terms did the President of the Board o£Trustees once describe the "ideal Trustee." Theoccasion was one of those delightful annual dinnermeetings of the Faculties and the Trustees. For the pastfourteen years the members of the Board have beenhosts to the Faculty at this annual dinner. These meetings have afforded an opportunity for both groups tobecome better acquainted, both with one another andwith the problems with which each is concerned. Following the dinner, talks are given, one by a member ofthe Faculty, one by a Trustee, one by the President of theUniversity, the President of the Board acting as Toast-master.It must be admitted that the quoted description of theideal Trustee sets up specifications not easy to fulfill, asall of these characteristics are rarely to be found in anyone person. The quality of the members of the Board,both past and present, indicates that some such yardstick must have been used by the nominating committeesthroughout the University's history. It has always beentraditional at this University that membership on theBoard is not a sinecure. Individuals are not encouragedto accept election as Trustees merely to bask in theglory of a world famous institution. They acceptmembership only on the definite understanding thatit carries with it duties and responsibilities as well aspleasant associations and in the main it means a quantityof good hard work of which few persons not associatedwith the Board are aware.Since the University was incorporated, September 10,1890, eighty-one persons have served as Trustees, ofwhom thirty-seven are deceased. The average periodof service of those whose membership on the Boardhas terminated, through death or otherwise, is 1334years. Under the original terms of the Articles of Incorporation the management of the Corporation wasvested in a Board of twenty-one Trustees of whom it was required that two-thirds ° should be members ofregular Baptist churches. This section of the Articlesof Incorporation has been thrice modified, the presentprovision being that the Board shall consist of thirtymembers of whom at all times not less than three-fifthsshall be members of Christian churches and of thisthree-fifths a majority shall be members of Baptistchurches, and at no time shall the number of Trusteesbelonging to any other denomination exceed the number of Baptists upon the Board. In 1930 the Boardestablished the office of Honorary Trustee through theenactment of By-Law VIII, which reads as follows:"The Board of Trustees may elect Honorary Trustees at any regular meeting by an affirmative vote of notless than thirteen members. Any member of the Boardof Trustees who shall attain the age of seventy years inany calendar year in which he has served as Trustee, orshall have attained such age, prior to June 12, 1930,shall become an Honorary Trustee at the expiration ofhis term of office. Honorary Trustees shall not be members of the Board of Trustees, shall not have the privilege of voting or of holding any office which is filled byelection or appointment from among the members ofthe Board, but may attend and participate in the regularmeetings of the Board of Trustees and of its standingcommittees."Thus far no Honorary Trustee has been elected whohad not previously served as an active Trustee. Atthe present time there are three Honorary Trustees.Eli B. Felsenthal is one of the two surviving membersof the original Board of Trustees (Mr. Charles W. Need-ham, the other survivor, serving during the first year,1890-91). A successful and well-known lawyer ofChicago, Mr. Felsenthal served forty-one years as anactive Trustee until in 1931 he became an HonoraryTrustee; Mr. Deloss C. Shull, a lawyer of Sioux City,Iowa, well known throughout the Baptist denomination, was an active Trustee from 1922 until 1932 whenhe became an Honorary Trustee. Hon. Charles E.Hughes, Chief Justice of the United States, served asan active Trustee from 1914 until 1932 when he becamean Honorary Trustee.Brief sketches of the present active members of theBoard are given below:Sewell Lee Avery was elected a member of the Boardon December 9, 1926. He was born in Saginaw, Michigan, November 4, 1874; was graduated from the University of Michigan in 1894, and is a member of theDelta Tau Delta Fraternity. Since 1905 he has beenPresident of the U. S. Gypsum Company. For thepast two years he has been in charge of the affairs ofMontgomery Ward %z Company, effecting a highlysuccessful re-organization of that company. He is aTrustee of the Museum of Science and Industry, and ofHull House, and has served as Vice-President of theUnited Charities and as a member of the ChicagoCrime Commission. In addition to serving as Director122THE UNIVERSITY OFof several large corporations of Chicago, he has, during the past few years, been called upon for a largeamount of public service in connection with the reorganization of the city government and the reorganization of public utilities. He has endowed a distinguishedservice Professorship which bears his name.Charles F. Axelson, a graduate of the University, waselected Trustee on November 8, 1923. He was bornAugust 20, 1881, in Princeton, Illinois; was graduatedfrom the University in 1907; is a Baptist, and a memberof the Delta Tau Delta Fraternity. He is a special representative of the Northwestern Mutual Life InsuranceCompany. During the World War he served as Personnel Supervisor in the War Department in chargeof the Eastern and Northeastern Division and was commissioned a Major in the Adjutant-General's Department. Since his graduation, Mr. Axelson has alwaysbeen active in alumni affairs and served a two-yearterm, 1922-24, as President of the College Alumni Association and Chairman of the Alumni Council. Since1925 he has been a member of the Board of Trusteesof Rush Medical College. He is especially interested inthe relations of the University with alumni and thepublic.Harrison B. Barnard, a graduate of the University,was elected Trustee on February 10, 1927. He was bornin Seville, Ohio, July 17, 1874; was graduated fromthe University in 1895; is a Baptist, and a member ofthe Delta Tau Delta Fraternity. He is a well-knowncontractor and builder of Chicago, and is President ofthe Builders and Manufacturers Mutual Casualty Company. He is a member of the Society of MayflowerDescendants, the Society of Colonial Wars, Sons of theAmerican Revolution, and of the Order of Foundersand Patriots of America. He has given unusually fineservice to the University as a member of the committeein charge of buildings and grounds especially throughthe contribution of his knowledge and experience inconnection with the many new buildings which havebeen added in recent years.Laird Bell, a graduate of the Law School of the University, was elected Trustee January 10, 1929. He wasborn in Winona, Minnesota, April 6, 1883; was graduated from Harvard in 1904, and received the J.D. degree from the Law School of the University in 1907. Heis a member of the law firm of Fisher, Boyden, Bell,Boyd, and Marshall. He is a Director of the PersonalLoan and Savings Bank, and of the Chicago Lying-inHospital and Dispensary. Since 1932 he has been ThirdVice-President of the Board of Trustees.W. McCormick Blair was elected Trustee February12, 1931. He was born in Chicago on May 2, 1884;was graduated from Yale University in 1907; is a Presbyterian, and a member of the Psi Upsilon Fraternity.He is an investment banker, having become a partnerof Lee, Higginson & Company in 1922. Mr. Blair isdirector of several corporations in Chicago, and is rendering a splendid service to the University on account ofhis knowledge and experience in the investment field.William Scott Bond, Second Vice-President of theBoard, was elected Trustee June 20, 1922. He was bornin Chicago on May 9, 1876; was graduated from theUniversity of Chicago in 1897, and from the Kent College of Law in 1899. He is a member of the real estatefirm of William A. Bond & Company and has been real CHICAGO MAGAZINE 123estate loan representative of the Northwestern MutualLife Insurance Company since 1912. He has rendereda considerable amount of public service and is a member of several civic organizations. Mr. Bond has alwaysbeen much interested in athletics having won a "C" incollege as a member of the tennis team for four years,and captain for two years. He was Western Intercollegiate Champion in doubles in 1894-95-96-97, andWestern Inter-collegiate Champion in singles in 1897.He has served as President of the College AlumniAssociation and as Chairman of the Alumni Council.Because of his special knowledge with respect to realestate loan investments he has rendered invaluable service to the Trustees' Committee on Finance and Investment of which he is now Chairman. He has alwaysbeen one of the hardest working members of the Boardand has served effectively on a great many special committees.Thomas E. Donnelley, First Vice-President of theBoard, was elected a Trustee February 16, 1909. Hewas born in Chicago, August 18, 1867; was graduatedfrom Yale University in 1889; is a Baptist and a member of the Psi Upsilon Fraternity. Since 1899 he hasbeen President of R. R. Donnelley & Sons, printers.His special interests on the Board have been the University Press and the buildings and grounds affairs ofthe University. He is Chairman of the Committee onBusiness Affairs where his excellent judgment andsplendid executive ability have been of outstandingservice to the University. Mr. Donnelley has rendereda great amount of public service in the city of Chicago,particularly as Chairman of the Landis Award Committee. He is the senior member of the Board of Trusteesand is now completing his twenty-fifth year as a Trustee.James H. Douglas, Jr., the youngest member of theBoard, was elected a Trustee July 13, 1933. He wasborn in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, March 11, 1899. Aftermoving to Chicago he entered the Elementary Schoolof the University, was graduated from the UniversityHigh School in 1916, from Princeton University in1920, and from the Law School of Harvard UniversityJames H. Douglas, Jr.124 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEin 1924. Upon his admission to the Illinois Bar hebecame associated with the firm of Winston, Strawn,and Shaw; he left that firm in 1929 to engage in theinvestment banking business with Field, Glore & Company, of which firm he became a partner in 1931. Mr.Douglas resigned as a partner of this firm in February,1932, to accept the post of Assistant Secretary of theUnited States Treasury. As an appointee of PresidentHoover, he was requested by the Roosevelt administration to continue in office during the banking emergency,later resigning the Treasury post in June, 1933. Mr.Douglas is a Presbyterian; is much interested in philanthropies in Chicago, and is giving a large amount oftime to unemployment relief in this city.Cyrus S. Eaton was elected Trustee November 14,1929. He was born in Nova Scotia, December 27, 1883;was graduated from McMaster University of Torontoin 1895. ^e is a Baptist; a Trustee of Dennison University, of the Case School of Applied Science, of theCleveland School of Natural History, of the ClevelandYoung Men's Christian Association, and of HiramHouse, Cleveland. Since 1915 he has been a partnerin Otis 8c Company, one of the well-known bankinghouses of this country, and has served as an influentialdirector of twenty-one important industrial and banking corporations. His home is at Cleveland, Ohio, andhis summer home, "Acadia Farm" is at Northfield, Ohio.Well-known in the Baptist denomination himself, Mr.Eaton is a nephew of Dr. Charles A. Eaton, a well-known Baptist minister, formerly pastor of churches inNew York and Cleveland, and lately member of Congressfrom New Jersey.Max Epstein was elected Trustee October 8, 1931.He was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, February 6, 1875;was graduated from the College of the City of NewYork in 1891, and has been a resident of Chicago sincethat year. He is Chairman of the Board of the GeneralAmerican Tank Car Corporation and the directinghead of its many subsidiary companies in the UnitedStates and Europe. Although his duties in this largecorporation have been many, he has always found freetime to serve efficiently in such useful positions asTrustee of the Art Institute, Director of the ChicagoChapter of the American Red Cross, and of the MichaelReese Hospital, as well as of several other philanthropicinstitutions and societies. Although interested in manyphilanthropies, his liberality has been most noteworthyin his contributions to the alleviation of human suffering and to making art "a living and inspiring force."His donations have made possible the Max EpsteinClinic for Out-Patients in connection with the University Clinics, as well as those which bear his name intwo institutions associated with the University of Chicago—The Chicago Lying-in Hospital and Dispensary,and the Provident Hospital.Harry B. Gear was elected Trustee June 12, 1924. Hewas born in Marietta, Ohio, March 6, 1872; was graduated from Marietta College in 1892, and received thedegree of M.E. from Cornell College in 1895. He is aBaptist, a member of the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity,and an electrical engineer in the capacity of Assistant tothe Vice-President of the Commonwealth Edison Company. Since 1921 he has been a Trustee of MorganPark Military Academy and is a member of the Boardof Trustees of the Baptist Theological Union. He is especially interested in the scientific work of the University and has been exceedingly helpful in the manyeducational and engineering problems.Charles Barnett Goodspeed was elected TrusteeOctober 10, 1932. He was born in Cleveland, Ohio,February 8, 1885; was graduated from Cornell University with the degree of M.E. in 1908, and is a memberof the Alpha Delta Phi fraternity. During the WorldWar he served as Captain in the Ordnance Departmentof the United States Army. He is a member of theBoard of Managers of the Presbyterian Hospital, and ofthe Committee of Management of the Victor LawsonDepartment of the Young Men's Christian Association.In recent years he has devoted an enormous amount oftime to public welfare work and especially in the pastyear in connection with unemployment relief.Arthur B. Hall was elected Trustee July 14, 1939.He was born in Mount Vernon, Ohio, March 27, 1881;was graduated from Yale University in 1902; is a Presbyterian; a member of the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity,and of Phi Beta Kappa. Since graduating from collegehe has been in the real estate business in Chicago. Heand his partner, of the firm of Hall 8c Ellis, specialize inthe management of office buildings and other downtown business properties. He is a Director of theHarris Trust and Savings Bank, and of the La GrangeState Trust and Savings Bank. He lives in La Grange,Illinois, where he serves as a member of the Board ofEducation of the Lyons Township High School, as wellas on the Park Board. He is a member of the Church Extension Board of the Chicago Presbytery, a member ofthe Board of Managers of the Chicago YMCA, Chairmanof the Committee of Management of the Central Department of the Association, a Trustee of the ChicagoOrchestral Association, and a Trustee of Carroll College. His familiarity with real estate values will undoubtedly prove of especial service to the Universitysince so large a portion of its assets are invested in realestate or in loans on business property.Charles R. Holden was elected Trustee May 21, 1912.He was born in Chicago, January 9, 1871; was graduated from Yale University in 1892, and is also a graduateof the Northwestern University Law School. He is aBaptist, a member of the Board of Trustees of theBaptist Theological Union, a member of the Board ofManagers of the YMCA, a Trustee of the YWCA;an ex-president of the Chicago Crime Commission; amember of the Senior Council of the Chicago Association of Commerce, and a life member of the Art Institute. He is Vice-President of the First National Bankof Chicago, and a member of the law firm of Kraus,Holden, 8c Lawless. He has been a member of theBoard for over twenty-one years, and has rendered especially valuable service in connection with its Committee on Finance and Investment.Samuel C. Jennings was elected Trustee June 14,1923. He was born in Hillsboro, Texas, January 28,1867; is a Baptist; is President of the Board of Trusteesof the Baptist Theological Union, and has been activein Baptist denominational work in the Chicago area.Mr. Jennings is President of the Columbian BanknoteCompany of Chicago. He has been especially interested in the work of the University Press.Frank H. Lindsay was elected Trustee July 12, 1923-He was born at Fox Lake, Wisconsin, January 14, 1868;THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 125is a Baptist, and a member of the Board of Managementof the YMCA of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where helives. He has served as a member of the Board ofTrustees of the Northern Baptist Convention, and as amember of its Finance Committee, and has, for a number of years, been President of the Board of Trustees ofWayland Academy at Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. He isconnected with the firm of Lindsay Brothers of Milwaukee, wholesale distributors of farm implements andmachinery.Frank McNair, a graduate of the University, waselected Trustee February 10, 1927. He was born inGreenvillage, Pennsylvania, January 28, 1881. Immediately after receiving his PhB from the University in1903, he entered the employ of N. W. Harris & Company, later incorporated as the Harris Trust and SavingsBank. Since 1920 he has been Vice-President and Director of this bank. He is a member of the Delta KappaEpsilon fraternity, is a Trustee of Rush Medical College, a member of the Board of Directors of the Homefor Destitute Crippled Children, and is Vice-Presidentof the Board of Trustees of the Country Home forConvalescent Crippled Children. Mr. McNair has beenactive in the alumni organization ever since his graduation, having served as President of the College AlumniAssociation and Chairman of the Alumni Council fortwo years, 1918-20. Probably his finest service for alumniwas his leadership of the effort which resulted in securing more than $100,000 for the Alumni Fund.Dr. Wilber E. Post, a graduate of the University, waselected Trustee June 10, 1919. He was born in Lowell,Michigan, March 20, 1877; was graduated from Kalamazoo College in 1898, from the University in 1900,and received his MD from Rush Medical College in1903. He has practiced medicine in Chicago continuously since his graduation; is Clinical Professor of Medicine at Rush Medical College, and Attending Physicianat the Presbyterian Hospital. He is a Baptist, and a member of the Delta Upsilon fraternity. Dr. Post was a member of the special mission sent to Russia by the AmericanNational Red Cross in 1917, and in 1918 was a memberof the American Persian Relief Commission of whichPresident Judson was Chairman. His prime interest isin the educational work of the University and he hasbeen remarkably helpful in the development of theUniversity's medical program.Ernest E. Quantrell, an alumnus of the University,was elected Trustee January 10, 1929. He was born inUnion Center, Indiana, May 8, 1881. He was a memberof the Class of 1905; was active in many student enterprises and as a member of the Track Team he wasawarded a "C." He is a Baptist, and a member of thePhi Delta Theta fraternity. During the DevelopmentCampaign Mr. Quantrell served as District Chairmanmost effectively. For many years he was eastern managerof Halsey, Stuart &; Company of which firm he was aVice-President and Director. In 1928 he resigned, andestablished an investment business of his own in NewYork City. Among his special interests are the development of undergraduate work and relations of the University with alumni and the public. He serves effectivelyas a representative of the University in the East, and isactive in alumni work in New York.Paul S. Russell, the newest member of the Board, waselected Trustee December 14, 1933. He was born in Oak Park, Illinois, May 10, 1893, and was graduatedfrom the University in 1916, following an outstandingcareer in undergraduate activities. Since graduation hehas been active in the alumni organization, was President of the Chicago Alumni Club in 1924-25, and isnow President of the College Alumni Association, andChairman of the Alumni Council. During the WorldWar he spent two years in army service, fifteen monthsof it in France in action with the Fifth Division onPaul S. Russellthe western front along the Vosges Mountains to St.Mihiel in the Argonne. He emerged from the war a captain of infantry, one of the two officers left in his battalion. Since 1916 he has been associated with the HarrisTrust and Savings Bank of which he is now a Vice-President. Mr. Russell is recognized as one of the greatfootball players in Maroon athletic history; won a "C,"as quarterback of the team for three years including theConference Championship Team of 1913, and was football captain in 1915. He is a member of the Delta KappaEpsilon fraternity, and in his senior year was the winner of the William Scott Bond Prize for proficiencyin athletics and scholarship. He is a member of theBoard of Governors and Treasurer of InternationalHouse.Edward L. Ryerson, Jr., was elected Trustee November 8, 1923. He was born in Chicago, December 3,1886; was graduated from Yale University (SheffieldScientific School) in 1908, and from the MassachusettsInstitute of Technology in 1909. He is an Episcopalian,and has been actively identified with philanthropies inChicago for many years. As Chairman of the Governor'sCommission on Unemployment Relief during a difficult period he rendered this community an invaluableservice. Since 1909 he has been identified with Joseph T.Ryerson & Sons, Incorporated, iron and steel manufacturers, of which firm he is now the President. He is aDirector of the Northern Trust Company, and of theQuaker Oats Company; President of the Council ofSocial Agencies of Chicago, a Trustee of Chicago Commons, of the Chicago Plan Commission, and of the126 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGlenwood Manual Training School. During the WorldWar he served as captain, RMA Air Service, USA.Although not related to Martin A. Ryerson, his soundjudgment, his breadth of humanitarian interests and hisenergetic service for the University well qualify him asa successor under the Ryerson name.Robert L. Scott was elected Trustee May 21, 1912. Hewas born in Ottawa, Illinois, May 26, 1873. In 1892 hebecame connected with Carson, Pirie, Scott 8c Companyof Chicago; was admitted to partnership in 1907, andhas been Treasurer and Director since its incorporationin 1919. Mr. Scott is a Baptist; is a member of the Boardof Trustees of the Baptist Theological Union and aTrustee of the Country Home for Convalescent Crippled Children. In Evanston, Illinois, where he lives, hehas served as a Director of the Evanston Public Library,and of the Evanston Hospital Association, and has formany years been active in Evanston YMCA havingserved successively as Director, Vice-President/ andPresident. For ten years Mr. Scott was a Vice-Presidentof the Board of Trustees and has been extraordinarilyfaithful in attendance upon meetings of the Board andof its committees where his sound judgment and highideals have helped to guide the destiny of the University through the twenty-one years during which he hasserved as Trustee.Albert W. Sherer, a graduate of the University, waselected Trustee June 20, 1922. He was born in Chicago, August 10, 1883; was graduated from the University in 1906; is a Baptist and a member of the DeltaKappa Epsilon fraternity. Since graduation he has beenengaged continuously in the advertising business, during the period from 1924 to 1928 he was Managerof the Chicago office of the Curtis Publishing Companyand since October, 1928, Executive Vice-President ofLord 8c Thomas. He is a Director of the Committee ofFifteen, and a Trustee of the Chicago Sunday EveningClub. In 1915 he was elected President of the CollegeAlumni Association and Chairman of the AlumniCouncil. As Vice-Chairman of the Committee on Development in 1925-26, Mr. Sherer was largely responsible for the successful outcome of the developmentcampaign. He is at present Chairman of the TrusteeCommittee on Instruction and Research, and is alsoChairman of the Special Committee on UniversityClinics. He is a member of the Board of Trustees ofthe Baptist Theological Union; a Trustee of the Country Home for Convalescent Crippled Children, and aDirector of the Illinois Home for Destitute CrippledChildren.George Otis Smith was elected Trustee January 10,1929. He was born in Hodgdon, Maine, February 22,1871; was graduated from Colby College, receiving thedegree of AB in 1893; AM in 1896; LLD in 1920;the degree of PhD from Johns Hopkins University in1896* and ScD from Case School of Applied Science in1914. Mr. Smith is a Baptist, and he lives in Washington, D. C. He has had a long and distinguished career asa geologist, having served (except during 1922-23 whilea member of the United States Coal Commission) as Director of the United States Geological Survey from 1907to 1930, when he resigned to become Chairman of theFederal Power Commission. He is a Trustee of ColbyCollege, a Trustee of the National Geological Society,and an honored member of numerous scientific so cieties, chiefly those identified with geology and engineering. He has served as President of the AmericanInstitute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, andhas been a frequent contributor to scientific and economic publications.Eugene M. Stevens was elected Trustee February 10,1927. He was born in Preston, Minnesota, February i,1871; is a Methodist, and has been engaged in the banking business, from 1901 to 1917 in Minneapolis, andsince 1917 in Chicago. He has served successively as Vice-President of the Illinois Merchants Trust Company,1917-27; President, 1927-29; President, Continental Illinois Bank and Trust Company 1929-30; and Chairmanof the Board of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicagoand Federal Reserve Agent since January 1, 1931. Mr.¦¦ Stevens is a Director of several large corporations; isPresident of the John Crerar Library, and a Trustee ofthe Chicago Memorial Hospital. His active service onthe Finance Committee of the Board has been conspicuously helpful.James M. Stifler was elected Trustee June 13, 1929.He was born at Alton, Illinois, February 10, 1875; wasgraduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1896,and from the Crozer Theological Seminary in 1899.He received the degree of DD from Dennison University in 1913, and from Brown University in 1925; is aBaptist; a Trustee of the Baptist Theological Union,and a member of the Psi Upsilon fraternity and of PhiBeta Kappa. From 1899 to 1909 he served as pastor ofthe First Baptist Church of Roselle, New Jersey, andfrom 1909 to 1931 as pastor of the First Baptist Churchof Evanston, Illinois. He has been a member of theBoard of Education of the Northern Baptist Convention since 1912; has been President of the Central Association of Evanston charities; has written several books,and is an authority on the religious life of BenjaminFranklin. Since 1931 he has devoted all of his time tothe affairs of the University as Chairman of the TrusteeCommittee on Development.John Stuart was elected Trustee November 13, 1924.He was born in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, May 23, 1877; wasgraduated from Princeton University in 1900, and sincethat time has been connected with the Quaker OatsCompany of which he is now the President. He is aCongregationalist, a member of the Advisory Committee of the Chicago YWCA, and has been active inmany civic affairs. He is a Trustee of Princeton University, of the St. Luke's Hospital, and is a Director inseveral corporations of major importance, including theNorthern Trust Company, the Chicago Daily NewsCompany, and the Chicago and Northwestern RailroadCompany. Mr. Stuart has borne an increasing share ofthe problems of the Board particularly of a financialand business character.Harold H. Swift, a graduate of the University, President of the Board of Trustees, was elected Trustee October 27, 1914. He was born in Chicago, January 24,1885; was graduated from the University in 1907 afteractive participation in many student organizations, andis a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity. Hewas awarded the honorary degree of LLD by BrownUniversity in June, 1933 in recognition of his outstanding service to education. He has been a Trustee of theJulius Rosenwald Fund, is a Director of the UnitedCharities, a member of the Rockefeller Foundation andTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 127a member of the General Education Board of NewYork City, a Director of the Harris Trust and SavingsBank, and Vice-President and Director of Swift 8z Company, packers. He was a member of the American RedCross Mission to Russia in 1917, and also during theWorld War served as Captain in the Adjutant-General'sdepartment. Ever since graduation Mr. Swift has keptactively in touch with student affairs as well as havingparticipated constantly in alumni affairs. He was thefirst alumnus of the University elected to membershipon the Board of Trustees and in 1922 when Mr. MartinA. Ryerson resigned as President of the Board Mr. Swiftwas unanimously elected to succeed to the office. Hisremarkable service for the University and his generoussupport of it during all of these years cannot be evenbriefly described in the limited space here available.John P. Wilson was elected Trustee November 13,1930. He was born in Chicago, October 7, 1877; wasgraduated from Williams College in 1900 and receivedthe LLB degree from Harvard in 1903. He is a Congre-gationalist and a member of the Alpha Delta Phi fraternity. Since 1903 he has practiced law in Chicago, amember of the firm of Wilson 8c Mcllvaine. He is President of the Board of Directors of the Children's Memorial Hospital, and a Trustee of the Newberry Library. He is a Director of International HarvesterCompany, Marshall Field 8c Company, First NationalBank of Chicago, Harris Trust and Savings Bank, andthe United States Trust Company of New York City.His advice on legal and financial questions since hiselection as Trustee has been an outstanding contribution to the University.It will be noted from the foregoing sketches that theBoard includes in its membership ten graduates of theUniversity. Other colleges and universities representedon the Board are as follows: As to occupation the Trustees are classified as follows:YaleHarvardPrincetonCornellMichiganMcMaster (Toronto)College of the City ofNew York . 5 Marietta College 13 Massachusetts Institute2 of Technology 12 Colby College 11 Pennsylvania 11 Williams College 1Of the Trustees who are members of college fraternities, three are members of Delta Tau Delta, four ofPsi Upsilon, two of Phi Gamma Delta, four of DeltaKappa Epsilon, two of Alpha Delta Phi, one of DeltaUpsilon, and one of Phi Delta Theta.The Board includes fourteen Baptists, three Presbyterians, one Episcopalian, one Methodist, two Congre-gationalists and eight non-members. Bankers 1 Capitalist 1Lawyers 4 Electrical Engineer 1Manufacturers 4 Physician 1Merchants 3 Advertising Executive 1Real Estate 2 Geologist 1Printers 2 Clergyman 1Insurance 1 Packer 1Contractor 1Data as to place of birth shows that two Trustees wereborn in Michigan, five in Ohio, two in Minnesota, eightin Chicago, four in Illinois outside of Chicago, two inIowa, one in Nova Scotia, one in Texas, one in Wisconsin, one in Pennsylvania, one in Indiana, and onein Maine.The greater amount of work of the Board is donethrough its committees, standing and special.E)uring the year 1933 there were thirteen meetingsof the Board and fifty-five meetings of standing committees in addition to a considerable number of meetings ofspecial committees and sub-committees. Actions of theBoard and its standing committees for the year 1933are recorded in 748 pages of minutes. The period ofservice of the present members of the Board ranges allthe way from one month for the newest member totwenty-five years for the senior member, the averagebeing eight and one-half years. The average age of thepresent Trustees is fifty-five years and seven months.Ideal service from an ideal Trustee is well describedin the following excerpts from the tribute to Martin A.Ryerson which was adopted by his fellow Trustees whenin 1922 he withdrew from the presidency of the Boardafter thirty years of service in that office:"The knowledge and zeal which he brought to bearupon the work seemed ever to expand with the increasing importance of the labor which he had assumed.During all of the years he gave to his duties unfailingattention. His sound judgment on all matters of business, his keen insight into the implications of every planproposed, his exact knowledge of educational policies,his great taste in questions of art as applied to architecture, as well as to all forms of beauty, his full understanding of legal relations— these and other unusualqualities gave exceptional value to the unstinted services which he rendered to the University. . . . Hisopinion on all questions met with unfailing respect.Taking pains never to interfere with the educationaladministration of the University, yet his judgment onany educational question brought to the Board was ofconclusive value in the eyes of the whole educationalstaff. His generous and wisely planned beneficenceswere of inestimable help to the development of the University. Under his wise administration the Institutiongrew from its small but ambitious beginning in 1892 tobe one of the foremost in the land— equal to any as aneducational force, equalled by few in adding to humanknowledge by research."128 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPROFESSIONALDIRECTORYDENTIST NEWS OF THE CLASSESDR. GEO. G. KNAPPDENTISTWoodlawn Medical Arts Bldg.Suite 304 1305 E. 63rd StreetPhone Plaza 6020OPTICIANSNELSON OPTICAL CO.1138 East63rd StreetHyde Park5352Dr. Nels R. Nelson, OptometristOSTEOPATHYDOCTOR H. E. WELLSOsteopathic Physician and SurgeonPhysio-Therapy — X-RayLight Treatments6420 Cottage Grove Ave.Phone DORchester 6600Hours 9 A. M. to 9 P. M. Home Calls MadeSCHOOLSBEVERLY FARM, INC36th YearA Home, School for Nervous and BackwardChildren and Adults220 Acres, 7 Buildings, School Gymnasium, Industrial and School Training Given, Departmentfor Birth Injury CasesGroves Blake Smith, M.D. Godfrey, III.Practical Business TrainingBusiness Administration, Executive-Secretarial14 Other Practical CoursesTrain for Assured Success 77th YearCollege Grade Courses Write for CatalogBryant & Stratton College18 South Michigan Ave.Randolph 1575-% HUETTLART SCHOOLCartooning - DrawingPainting - EtchingArt Materials1546-50 E. 57th St. Plaza 2536 COLLEGE1898Charles P. Cary, who was StateSuperintendent of Public Instruction, for the State of Wisconsin, isno longer in that office, but is devoting his time to literary work andeducational addresses.1899 ~George H. Sawyer writes fromOsage, Iowa, where he is superintendent of* schools, that he is quitedelighted with the new Magazineand has passed it around among hisfriends.1902Paid C. Wilson is concerned withthe Municipal Bureaus of New YorkCity.1903Hubert S. Upjohn is city superintendent of schools at Long Beach,Cal.1904Henry Stead Davidson is a real estate agent and appraiser at Gary,Ind. He has been interested in writing articles on finance and economicsubjects lately.1906Inghram D. Hook is practicinglaw in Kansas City, Mo. ## CoraJohnson is a member of the Board ofEducation of Osage, Iowa. She represented the Board at the conferenceof boards of education this fall atDes Moines, in connection with themeeting of the Iowa State Teachers'Association.1907Grace Lyman, psychologist on thestaff of Pelman Institute Correspondence School of Applied Psychology,spends her winters in Florida andher summers in the mountains ofNorth Carolina.1908Herbert E. Gaston, assistant to theSecretary of the Treasury, has received much publicity lately in connection with his official post as contact man for the Press, representing the Treasury. There has been muchopposition on the part of the papersto the policy of Mr. Morgenthau incentralizing the source of news. #*V. C. Finch, chairman of the department of geography at the Universityof Wisconsin, is vice president thisyear of the National* Council ofGeography Teachers, and candidatefor 1934 for the vice presidency ofthe Association of American Geographers. ## May B. Day is librarian ofthe Museum of Science and Industryin Jackson Park, Chicago.1909W. N. Beverly is in the lumberand coal business in Michigan, headquarters at Watervliet, residence atColoma. He reports that his son isnow at the University of Chicago, inhis freshman year.1910Harry S. Richards writes us that heis "waiting for the economic revolution to end."1913Lon Payne is a life underwriter,and lives in Phoenix, Ariz. *# William Hugh Erskine, AM'21, is a minister at Uhrichsville, Ohio.1914Eileen Mulholland is professor ofEnglish at the State Teachers Collegeat Buffalo, N. Y.1916Miles D. Sutton, AM'33, nead o£the Business Department of DenfieldHigh School, Duluth, is president ofthe Duluth Teachers' Associationthis year. He reports, "I succeededin securing the payment of teachers'salaries here after they were a monthand a half overdue, by starting suitfor my own salary. Succeeded in themaintenance of the salary schedulewith but an 18% reduction insteadof a 25% reduction last year. Weare hoping to get back completelyto the regular scale by next year."Sutton teaches business law, personalefficiency and retail selling. **Rumana McManis, whose "HiddenBook Shop" is located underneath120 Broadway, has changed her address to 49 Grove St., New York.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 129Many University of Chicago alumnihave found her bookshop most attractive.1917Edith A. Kraeft, SM'24, secretaryof the Los Angeles Alumni Club reports a meeting at dinner on November 23, given by the "C" men uponthe occasion of Mr. Stagg's visit withhis team.1918Ruth Siefkin is food consultant forthe J. Walter Thompson Co., Chicago. ## Ruth Falkenau, hotel promoter, has moved north to RogersPark, where she reports that life onthe lake shpre is very pleasant. *#Burton Confay, AM'20, is head ofthe Catholic Junior College at GrandRapids, Mich.1919Lael Ray Abbott is a representative of Cameron and Company ofChicago. ## Julia McCormick (Mrs.John Griffen) teaches in TuleyHigh School, Chicago, but makes herhome in DeKalb, 111., when notteaching. ## Edna B. Liek is withScott Foresman Publishing Company of Chicago, doing some writingwork. Her book of "Art Stories"and "Guidebooks to Elson BasicReaders" have been published.1921Jessie R. Mann is teaching biologyand chemistry at Northern IllinoisState Teachers' College at DeKalb.Combined with her educationalwork, she carries on a successful business venture in the joint ownershipand management of two modernapartment buildings. #* Mary M.Rogers teaches English at LindblomHigh School.1922Douglas L. Hunt, AM'23, is thisyear on sabbatical leave from hisAlbert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago535 Fifth Ave., New York415 Hyde Bldg., SpokaneA general Placement Bureau for men andwomen in all kinds of teaching positions.Large and alert College, and State Teachers' College departments for Doctors andMasters; Critics and Supervisors for Normals. Also many calls for Special teachersof Music, Art, Home Economics, BusinessAdministration^ Correspondence Teaching.Fine opportunities in Secondary Schools. .A host of best Suburban patrons for gradeand High School teachers. Read our booklet. Call. position as associate professor of English in Birmingham-Southern College, Alabama. He is now a Fellowin the Department of English, Vanderbilt University. He and Mrs.Hunt (Mary Winthrop Fassett, '26)and their son, Robert, are living inNashville, Tenn. (204 ReidhurstAve.) ## Leland C. Colvin is instructor in English and geography at DeKalb Township high school. He isalso business advisor for the schoolpublications.1923H. H. Core is District CommercialManager of the Alton District of theIllinois Bell Telephone Co. He reports that he "likes the new gallonsize magazine." The Decatur alumninote with sorrow the transfer of thepresident of their club, and the St.Louis Club may well rejoice in theaddition of so active a member as Mr.Core. ** Amy W oiler, AM'24, (Mrs-Preston McClelland) and her husband, Preston McClelland, MD'31,are spending the winter in Munichand Vienna, studying, during Mrs.McClelland's sabbatical leave fromthe University of Southern California. She is chairman of the department of Fine Arts there, in theCollege of Architecture; Dr. McClelland is practicing in Los Angeles.They plan to return in February. **Clarence W. Jackson is executivesecretary of the Denver EmergencyRelief Committee, Denver, Col.1924Elizabeth Miller is supervisor ofthe laboratory school of the NormalCollege at Ypsilanti, Mich. #* Mrs.Jennie A. Rice is head of the mathematics department of the junior andsenior high schools of Marinette,Wis.1925Ted T. Ray spent four and a halfmonths in Raleigh, N. Car., this lastyear, serving his first term in the StateLegislature. He is with the WorldBook Company now. ## Mari Bach-rach is working with the Committeeon Foods, American Medical Association.1926Seward Covert writes of the newUniversity Magazine, "I like it immensely and know you'll be glad tohear that it has clicked in this little BUSINESSDIRECTORYARTISTS SUPPLIESEDWARD C. BUNCK4645-47 South ParkwayPAINTS — GLASS — WALL PAPERArtist's MaterialsALL PHONES OAKLAND 0845Deliveries to All Parts of Chicago SuburbsAWNINGSPhones Oakland 0690— 069I— 0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.,INCAwnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueAUCTIONEERSWILLIAMS, BARKER &SEVERN CO.Auctioneers and AppraisersPublic auctions on owner's premises or at oursalesroomsAccept on consignment the better quality of furniture, works of art, books, rugs, bric-a-brac, etc.We sell on commission or buy outrightOur specialty liquidating estates, libraries, etc.229 S. Wabash Ave. Phone Harrison 3777AUTO LIVERYCHICAGO PETERSENMOTOR LIVERYLINCOLNSWith Experienced Chauffeurs5548 Lake Park Ave. MID way 0949AUTO SERVICE STATIONSWASHINGTON PARKSERVICE STATIONWe Appreciate Your Patronage560I-7 Cottage Grove Ave.Phone Dorchester 7II3BOOKSKrochs BookstoresBooks On All SubjectsIn Every LanguageAsk for Catalog, stating special interests206 N. Michigan AvenueCHICAGOi3° THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBROKERSClark G. (Skee) Sauer '12WithJames E„ Bennett & CompanyStocks — Bonds — Grain — CottonMembers: New York and ChicagoStock Exchanges, Chicago Board ofTrade, All Principal Markets.332 So. LaSalle St Tel. Wabash 2740 CATERERSJOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900 Tel. Sup. 0901Quality and Service Since 1882CHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, 12B. R. Harris, '21Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285 COALQUALITY COAL PRICED RIGHTLESTER COAL CO.4025 Wallace St., at 40th PlaceAll Phones: Yards 6464RIDGE FUEL & SUPPLY CO.GqqI — fjustless CokeFireplace Wood — CannelI633 W. 95th St. BEV. 8205CONTRACTORSRALPH RENWICKBuilding and Genera! Alterations540 PhoneN. Michigan Ave. Sup. 4072 CUTLERYKRAUT & DOHNALHIGH GRADECUTLERYWe Grind Anything that NeedsAn Edge325 S. CLARK ST.PHONE WEBSTER 7360 (College continued)corner. Being an editor myself, myappraisal has been based on morethan just general observation. Ihope we can have more pictures—particularly campus activities. I ammanaging editor of 'The BystanderMagazine' Cleveland's pictorial towntopics publication." ** Charles R.Morris is English master and juniormaster at Forbes House of MiltonAcademy, Milton, Mass. #* M. LucileHarrison, AM'33, *s associate professor of kindergarten-primary education at Colorado State Teachers College, Greeley, Col. ## Adelaide Amesis studying psychology at the University of Berlin. *# Stanley M.Croonquist is sales manager for theStanford University Press, Cal. **Milo L. Wood is a lecturer for theBoston Library, and lives in Cambridge, Mass. *# Cecilia R. Jonkman(Mrs. Albert Van Erden) has beenappointed official tutor in Germanfor Dartmouth College.1927George D. McConnell is with theWholesale Department of MarshallField and Co., Chicago. ** J. NormanSmyth is practicing medicine in Chicago (841 E. 63rd St.). #* Ruth E*Fizdale is a psychiatric social workerin Chicago.1928Catherine Boettcher (Mrs. Anderson Owen) reports that a sonata forpiano and violin which she wrotewas played at a composers' programof the Musicians' Club of Womenthis December. She is busy with herclasses in piano, and is giving occasional piano programs. #* FlorenceSpencer is critic teacher of the 7thgrade of Glidden Training School atDeKalb, 111. ## Mary M. Sullivanteaches English at Greeley Branch ofLake View High School, Chicago.1929Dorothy Carter is conducting aseries of radio cooking schools intwenty cities in the northeast. **Grace J. Gowens, junior physicistwith the Bureau of Standards atWashington, was one of three torepresent the Bureau at the Centuryof Progress in Chicago last summer.** Mabel F. Rice won her master'sdegree from the University ofSouthern California this year. Sheis an assistant instructor in charactereducation in the school of philosophy there. ## Richard E. Vollertsen is associated with Charles Sincere andCompany, in their bond and unlistedsecurities department (Chicago). **Dorothy E. Willy is managing editorof the magazine Childhood Education. ## Bertha Vermilya teaches social sciences in Robinson JuniorHigh School, Toledo, Ohio. **Helen C. Williamson, AM'33, an~nounces the opening of her kindergarten for children from 4 to 5 yearsof age, at the South Shore Community Church, Chicago. #* MarionLaird is supervisor of health teaching for Schuyler County Tuberculosisand Public Health Committee, N. Y.1930Fred Llewellyn Marx is privatesecretary to Harold L. Ickes, Secretary of the Interior. ** Helen Mc-Dougall, instructor in home economics at DeKalb Township highschool, manages the school cafeteriaand is sponsor for the home economics club as well. She has hadseveral articles published in homeeconomics magazines. ** Leo R.Werts is vocational director for theUnemployment Relief Service, CookCounty, 111. ** John E. Montgomery is teaching social scienceat Glidden Training School, DeKalb,111. **Selma Jacobson is teaching inpublic school, living in Evanston. **Blair Plimpton is organizing and directing employed boys' club programs for the St. Louis YMCA. **Florence C. Stowell is an instructor inlanguages at All Saints School, SiouxFalls, S. D. ** Ameda Metcalf (Mrs.Harold Gibson), writes from Jacksonville, 111., "I like your new set-up ofthe Magazine much better— it seems100% more interesting just from thechange of size and content." Shefurther reports that a daughter,Marjorie Cristine, joined the Gibsonfamily in July, 1933.1931Margaret Shannon is instructor insociology and librarian for theAmerican Junior College for Womenat Beirut, Syria. She received anM.R.E. degree from the BiblicalSeminary of New York City in June,19SS- ## Jewel Leitzman is assistantdirector of the Memorial HospitalSchool for Nurses at Albany, N. Y. **Alex Coutts is a caseworker for Unemployment Relief Service, CookCounty, 111. *# Meredith Moulton isa commercial dietitian with theTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 131Heinz Co., of Pittsburgh, Pa. **Anna Durning is teaching socialscience at Roosevelt Junior HighSchool in St. Paul. *# Mary M. Learning is teaching French and Spanishat Great Falls, Montana. ## Lawrence Zeitz is associate vocational director in the Unemployment ReliefService for Cook County, 111. **Hannah Halperin is head dietitian atEpworth Hospital in South Bend,Ind.1932William W. Dyer is a chemist forthe Pure Oil Company at Pensacola,Fla. Mrs. Dyer was Julia V. Igert,1933Thomas Elder is with the IllinoisRelief Commission in Chicago. **Everett Gilmore is Boys' Work Secretary in the YMCA of Wheeling,W. Va.MASTERS1903Dora A. Scribner, AM, has retiredfrom teaching, and is living at OceanPark, Maine.Alumni Club MeetingsThe following clubs have held meetings with University speakers during thefall quarter:Fort Wayne — President HutchinsIndianapolis — President HutchinsMilwaukee — President HutchinsLouisville — President HutchinsCedar Falls — Dean WorksBoston — Professor LemonBuffalo — Dean BoucherJoliet — Vice President WoodwardPeoria — - Dean SpencerTampa — Dean FilbeyPhiladelphia — Dean SlesingerWashington — Secretary of the InteriorIckes, Jerome Frank, '12, JD'12,General Counsel to the A. A. A.DeKalb — Professor RedfieldChicago Alumni — Annual FootballDinner, President HutchinsChicago Alumnae — World's Fair Party 7Christmas Shopping Luncheon for Professor Emeritus Elizabeth Wallace 1907Ernest G. Ham, AM, is in his ninthyear of service as Superintendent ofSchools of Springfield, Vt.1910Claude Anderson Phillips, AM,is director of the University Elementary School and has charge ofgraduate studies in elementary schoolsupervision at Columbia, Mo.1915Grace Warren Landrum, AM, isdean of women and professor ofEnglish at the College of Williamand Mary.1916Mary Gertrude Still, AM, (Mrs.Charles J. Richey) is living in DesMoines, Iowa, where her husband ishead of the history department atDrake University.1920Mary E. Owen, AM, is associateeditor of The Instructor, at Rochester, N. Y.1921William Pellowe, AM, is pastor ofthe Jefferson Ave., M. E. Church ofSaginaw, Mich., and a trustee of Albion College. #* Ira Jenks, SM, isprofessor of chemistry at theTeachers' College at DeKalb, wherehe lives with Mrs. Jenks, and thethree little Jenks, Herbert, 14, Martha, 8, and Warren, 7.1924Loeva Pierce teaches mathematicsat the San Angelo Senior HighSchool, San Angelo, Tex. ** William H. Burton is professor of education at the University of SouthernCalifornia.1925Mary I. Fagin is doing homeeconomics extension work for theUniversity of California. ## Cloy S.Hobson, AM, has been superintendent of schools at Genoa, 111., forthe last seven years. He has recently contributed several articlesto educational journals. ## AllanBlackmer, AM, and Mrs. Blackmer(Josephine Bedford, '26) are livingat Andover, Mass., where Mr. Blackmer is a member of the faculty ofPhillips Academy. DECORATINGIt will pay you to haveour estimate and expert adviceNATIONALDECORATING SERVICEHart Bros. System, Inc.4035 S. Michigan Ave. Boulevard 9700ELEVATORSReliance Elevator Co.PASSENGER AND FREIGHTELEVATORSFor Every Purpose2I2 W. Austin Ave. ChicagoFISHJ. A. DAVIS FISH CO.Specialize in Supplying Hotels,Restaurants, Hospitals, Institutions.Fresh Caught Direct From the Fisherman2II N. Union Ave.Phone Haymarket I495FLORISTSHOMER LANGE A. LANGEEst. I887FLOWERSCharge Accounts and DeliveryFLORIST*/63 E. Monroe Central 3777^ IIL ^CHICAGO®&p Established 1865Qj*jr FLOWERSPhones: Plaza 6444, 6445I63I East 55th StreetFURSELLIOTT FUR CO.DESIGNERS OF HIGH GRADEFURSREPAIRING and REMODELING36 Years of DependabilityTax Warrants AcceptedStevens Bldg. 17 N. State St.CENTRAL I678 SUITE I000FOODS'tafflsap*FOODPRODUCTSfoffELDOF^I li Durand-McNeil-HornerCompany25I to 3I5E. GrandAve.' Chicago, III.Superior956013* THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEFRUIT AND VEGETABLESCOHEN and COMPANYWholesaleFruit — Vegetables — Poultry211 South Water MarketPhones Haymarket 0808 to 0816GARAGEUniversity Auto GarageCo.16 Years of Dependable ServiceWe Call For and Deliver Your CarTelephone Hyde Park 4599II69 East 55th StreetHOTELS"Famous for Food"Dancing and EntertainmentNightlyCircular CRYSTAL Barthe BREVOORT hotel120 W. Madison St. ChicagoPARKLAND HOTELFacing Jackson Park1550 East 63rd St.300 Rooms — Private BathFrom $5 WeeklyFolder with details of rates and services will besent on request.LAUNDRIESADAMSLAUNDRY CO,2335 Indiana Ave.Superior Hand WorkOdorless Dry CleaningTelephoneCalumet 3565THEBEST LAUNDRY andCLEANING COMPANYALL SERVICESWe Also DoDry Cleaning — Shoe Repairing4240 PhoneIndiana Ave. OAK land I383Standard Laundry Co.Linen Supply — Wet WashFinished WorkI8I8 South Wabash Ave.Phone Calumet 4700 1926Earl F. Zeigler, AM, is dean of thePresbyterian College of ChristianEducation, Chicago. He is busy writing up curriculum materials for thePresbyterian Board of Christian Education. Ohio Northern University,his college Alma Mater, honored himwith the degree of Doctor of Divinitylast June. ## E. C. O. Beatty, AM, isinstructor in social science at theTeachers' College at DeKalb.1929 -Philip M. Hauser, AM'33, is aninstructor in sociology at the University of Chicago. ** Mrs. Ethel R.Nelson, AM, is chairman of theBoard of Education of Anacortes,Wash. ** A. L. Spohn, AM, is principal of Hammond High School,Hammond, Ind.1930Victor H. Evjen, AM, is intakesupervisor of the Unemployment Relief Service of the Cook County, 111.,Bureau of Public Welfare. ## MarthaM. Hunter, SM, is executive secretary of the Mercer County Emergency Relief Committee, under theIllinois Federal Emergency ReliefCommittee. Her headquarters are atAledo, 111. ## Feme Bowman, SM, ishousehold arts teacher and managerof the cafeteria of the Cristobal HighSchool, in the Panama Canal Zone.1932Richard M. Page, SM, is assistantto the personnel manager of theBoard of Water Commissioners ofDenver, Col. ** May Kennedy, SM,is associate director and director ofpedagogy at the New York HospitalSchool of Nursing, associated withCornell University. She was formerly connected with the IllinoisState Department of Public Welfare,as Director of the Illinois StateSchool of Psychiatric Nursing in Chicago.1933Sophie M. Meebold, AM, is a relief worker with the Federal Unemployment Relief at Chicago. She istaking some work at the Universitytoo. #* Billie Mathews, AM, teacheslanguages at Genoa High School, 111. DOCTORS OF PHILOSOPHY1903Wallace W. Atwood, '97, is candidate for the presidency of the Association of American Geographers.1904Robert J. Bonner, chairman of theDepartment of Greek at the University of Chicago, was recently made acorresponding member of theAcademy at Athens.1905Hermann I. Schlesinger, '03, addressed the Visual Instruction Section of the Northwestern OhioTeachers' Association at Clevelandthis fall; he also discussed "Hydridesof Boron" at the meeting of theAmerican Chemical Society at Urbana (Illinois Section) in November.** Carleton J. Lynde is professor ofphysics at the teachers college of Columbia University.1906James W. Lawrie, '04, has resignedhis position as Director of Researchwith the A. O. Smith Corporationin Milwaukee to accept an appointment with the Schlitz Brewing Co.Dr. and Mrs. Lawrie have left tospend three months in Europe.1912Dean R. Wickes, '05, is with theAmerican Board Mission, Tehchow,Shantung, China.1915Harry D. Kitson is professor ofeducation and Latin at the TeachersCollege at Columbia.1918Holly Estil Cunningham ispresident of Alfred Holbrook Collegeat Lebanon, Ohio.1919Kisaburo Kawabe is professor ofsociology at Waseda University andKomazawa University at Tokyo,Japan.1920Robert S. Platt, associate professorof geography at the University ofChicago, has been treasurer of theAssociation of American Geographers for the last four years, and willcontinue in that capacity for 1934.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 1331921Willis L. Uhl, Dean of the Schoolof Education at the University ofWashington, is co-author with Francis F. Powers of Psychological Principles of Education. (The CenturyCompany, 1933) *# Christen Jensenheads the department of politicalscience and history, and is dean of thegraduate school at Brigham YoungUniversity, Provo, Utah.1922Frederick Walter Stanely, SM'iy,is on the technical sales force of theFirestone Tire and Rubber Company at Akron, Ohio.1923Roy Ivan Johnson, AM'18, isteaching at Stephens College, Columbia, Mo. He is co-author of theDaily Life Language Series, whichwill be published in January, 1934.1926James T. Carlyon, professor of OldTestament Literature and Religionand acting president of Iliff School ofTheology, Denver, is a popularspeaker before church and clubgroups in the Denver district.1928Frank P. Goeder was honored byappointment to a Fellowship in theAmerican Association for the Advancement of Science this year. Suchfellowships are given only to thosewho have contributed to the advancement of science by the publication ofan outstanding work. Dr. Goeder'spaper was in the field of molecularphysics. He is associate professor ofphysics at Colorado AgriculturalCollege. ## William Bernhardt, ofIliff School of Theology of Denver,is a frequent contributor of reviewsand articles to religious journals andedits the Iliff Bulletin for its alumni.** Henry N. Harkins, '25, SM'26,MD'31, is now engaged in postgraduate study in Edinburgh, Scotland, where he is doing research workon the pharmocological effects ofburned tissues in an attempt to determine the nature of shock in severeburns. He spent three months inLondon before going to Edinburgh,working with Dr. Gordon Holmes ofthe National Hospital. In Edinburgh he is collaborating with Dr.D. P. D. Wilkie. 1930Carl M. Marberg, '27, has receiveda grant from Armour and Co., for research work during the year 1934.He has been connected with theSprague Institute since receiving hisdoctorate at Chicago. ** Charles E.Montgomery, * 13, heads the biologydepartment at the Teachers' Collegein DeKalb, 111. Mrs. Montgomerywas Frances Snyder, '22. They havethree daughters. *# Daniel A. McGregor is secretary of the departmentof religious education for the national council of the Protestant Episcopal Church.1931C. L. Christensen, '24, has been appointed as technical adviser on thelabor provisions of the AgriculturalProducts, Processing and MarketingCodes. He is on leave of absencefrom Indiana University, where heis an assistant professor of economics.** Sidney B. Sperry, AM' 26, is assistant professor of religious education at Brigham Young University,Provo, Utah.1932Rosalind Klaas has accepted a position as technician in biochemicalanalysis with Dr. T. E. Friedemannat Billings Hospital. ** Glen H.Morey, '29, SM'30, is with the Phillips Petroleum Research Laboratoryin Bartlettsville, Okla. He was withthe Century of Progress this summer.*# Joseph C. Harwell is with theHoffman-LaRoche Company inNutley, N. J.1933Charles Schwartz, '31, has accepteda position with the Hall Laboratories, Inc., of Pittsburgh, Pa. Heand his wife, Ruth ManningSchwartz, '31, have been research assistants in chemistry to Dr. BengtHamilton in the Department ofPediatrics.RUSH1880/. A. Badgley, MD, writes that heis most interested in his work at theDeKalb County Tuberculosis Sanatorium, where he is Medical Director.1884Ernest Mammen, MD, is in consultation practice at Bloomington,111. LITHOGRAPHINGL C. Mead '2l E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing725 So. LaSalle St.Wabash 8I82MUSIC PUBLISHERSMcKINLEY MUSIC CO.I50I-I5 E. 55th St. CHICAGOPOPULAR AND STANDARDMUSIC PRINTERS AND ENGRAVERSMusical Settings — Compositions ArrangedPublishers of McKinley Edition of 20 cent MusicSTANDARD - CLASSICAL - TEACHINGORIENTAL RUGSWe sell to all Universities andtheir associates at ourWholesale PricesEastern Carpet and Rug Co.5 South Wabash Av., ChicagoJohn Moloney DearbornSales Manager 7024PAINTINGGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3I23 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3186PAINTING AND DECORATINGEMIL C. ERICKSEN & CO.Painting and DecoratingDraperies — UpholsteringFurniture Refinishing6830 Cottage Grove Ave.Phones Dorchester 3584-5PLATINGYou Wreck 'em We Fix 'emMcVittie Plating & BrassRefinishing Works, Inc.Expert Metal Platers and RefinishersChromium — Nickel — Copper — Silver — GoldBrass — Bronze — All Antique and Modern FinishesWe plate or refinish anything made of metalWe specialize in silver plating tableware1 600-02-04 S. 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Owen, MD, says he is "meditating in the 'jungle of modern uncertainties' regarding the trend ofnational, district, and individualwelfare." ## /. /. Looze, MD, is practicing in Wisconsin Rapids, thesame city where Dr. C. A. Boarman,MD'8y, is located.1899Joseph Raycroft, '96, MD, has recently completed a study of injuriesto athletes for the National Collegiate Athletic Association. A largepart of such injuries are preventable, in the opinion of the researchcommittee which Dr. Raycroftbeaded. Their findings have beenpublished in a pamphlet entitled,''Prevention and Care of AthleticInjuries." ## F. X. Pomainville, MD,has been practicing in WisconsinRapids ever since his graduationfrom Rush.1901Alvin Keller, MD, is in generalpractice at Bloomington, 111.LAW1916H. Nathan Swain, JD, has servedfor the past four years as chairmanof the Democratic County CentralCommittee, in Indianapolis. He ispracticing law in that city.1921Roswell F. Magill, JD, has been appointed chief tax adviser of the Department of the Treasury by Mr.Morgenthau. Magill is professor oflaw at Columbia University; andtaught at the University of Chicagofor a while before going east. Hewas special attorney and chief attorney for the Treasury Departmentunder Secretary Mellon between1923 and 1925, and adviser to the taxcommission in Porto Rico in 1928-1929. ** Leonard A. Hammes, '19,JD, is practicing at Omaha, Nebr., asa member of the law firm of Frost,Hammes and Nimtz. ** Cletus V.Wolfe, '16, JD, is chairman of theAcademic Affairs Committee of theBoard of Directors of the Universityof Toledo. He is senior member ofthe law firm of Wolfe and Rogers,married and has, three daughters,and one son, not to mention his position as president of the Toledo University of Chicago Alumni Club. 1922Frank J. Madden, '20, JD, to Virginia Tingle, of Evanston.1923James William Robinson, JD,Representative to the United StatesCongress, from Utah, is a member ofthe Board of Regents for the University of Utah.1925Robert K. Murakami, LLB, ispracticing law in Honolulu.1926James W. Vest, '23, JD, is claim attorney for the Hartford Accident andIndemnity Co., at Omaha, Nebr.1927Morton John Barnard, '26, JD, ispracticing law independently, withoffices at 127 W. Madison, Chicago.1928William Garland Davis, JD, having resigned as special assistant tothe attorney general of the UnitedStates has entered into the generalpractice of law at Indianapolis, Ind.#* Josef L. Hektoen, '25, JD, announces the opening of offices for thegeneral practice of law at 1004 HarrisTrust Building, Chicago. *# HymenS. Gratch, LLB, has moved his lawoffice to 33 N. LaSalle St., Chicago.*# Campbell Dickson, '23, JD, isspending his second year with thePrinceton football squad, workingas coach of ends under Fritz Crisler.1929M. Ray Doubles, JD, "spent thesummer in research of 'CriminalProcedure in Virginia' and has compiled the decisions and statutes ofthis state into a mimeographed casebook, which he is using to teachfrom in his class at the University ofRichmond Law School, pendingpublication in permanent form. Justnow he is recuperating from theannual ailment of all law schooldeans, viz. 'matriculationitis.' "1930Frank John Ferlic, JD, is an attorney practicing in Chicago. Lastyear he acted as an assistant PublicDefender.1932Albert W. Elliott, '30, JD, is withPackard, Barnes, McCaughey andTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 135Schumacher, attorneys, at 517 FirstNational Bank Building, Chicago.** Edward J. Barret, JD, is engagedin a general practice of law at 228 N.LaSalle St., Chicago.1933Wilbur Boand, LLB, is "notes andrecent cases editor" of the Universityof Chicago Law Review. He is practicing in St. Louis, Mo., at present.EDUCATION1920Maurine E. Thompson, cert., ishead of the vocal department of SanJose State College, Cal.1923Sarah McGill Hennen is living inZionsville, Indiana, having retiredfrom teaching.1925Alda F. Kensinger is principal ofNettleton and Salter Schools inDuluth, Minn.1929Estelle Darnall is teaching inAurora, 111.DIVINITY1897A. R. E. Wyant, DB, has recentlypurchased a new home in BeverlyHills, 2023 W. 101st St., Chicago.1907William F. Rothenburger, DB, waselected president of the InternationalConvention of the Disciples of Christfor 1934.1912John W. Stockwell, '08, DB, writesthat the tenth anniversary of the*'First Undenominational RadioChurch" was recently celebrated.This project has been under Mr.Stockwell's supervision and ministersfrom several denominations havebeen his assistants. The distinguishing feature of this broadcast is thatit originates in the studio, is designedfor radio listeners, and is not a pickup of a service from a church.1933Earl Truman Sechler, AM'20, BD,is president of the Third DistrictMissionary Board of Missouri, andpastor of the Red Top, Mo., Church. ENGAGEDJean Edwina Stellman, '33, to JohnElwes Duffield of Oxford.MARRIEDMaurice E. Cooper, '25, MD'30, toElizabeth Fyfer, July 2, 1933, Columbia, Mo.Seward A. Covert, '26, to Jane W.Stockwell of Cleveland, Ohio, October 20, 1933. At home, 2924 E. •132nd Street, Cleveland.Jeanette E. Butler, '29, to CarloForello, August 3, 1933; at home, 737Leamington Ave., Chicago.Stephen E. McPartlin, Jr., '29, toYvonne Breaux, August 29, 1933,Chicago; at home, 718 Grace Street,Chicago.Ida Snyder Epps, '30, to ThompsonBlackburn, 1933. At home, 1224Isabella St., Wilmette, 111.BORNTo Leonard A. Hammes, '19,JD'21, and Mrs. Hammes, a son,Donald Lee, 1933, Omaha, Nebr.To Mr. and Mrs. Harry E. Miller(Olive Dobbyn, '22) a son, RichardHarry, July 26, 1933, Windsor, Ontario, Canada.To Reuben E. Almquist, '24,MD'28, and Mrs. Almquist, adaughter, September 21, 1933, Gary,Indiana.To Mr. and Mrs. Albert VanErden (Cecilia Jonkman, '26) adaughter, Gwendolyn Anne, September 2, 1933.To Charles A. Werner, AM'28, andMrs. Werner, a son, Charles AugustJr., November 17, 1933.To Lewis J. Ferrell, MD'30, andMrs. Ferrell, (Myrtle Branoron,AM'30) a son, Philip, September 25,1933, Everett, Wash.DIEDFrank E. Shaykett, MD'94, November 8, 1933, Brandon, Wis. Dr.Shaykett had lived and practiced inBrandon for over forty years and waspresident of the village.Lucy E. Keith, '02, November 1,Francis Landacre, PhD'14, September, 1933, Columbus, Ohio.Mrs. Caliope S. Cangios, ex'29,November, 1933, Chicago. Mrs.Cangios was considered one of theleading Greek scholars of Chicago.Alice Evelyn Pratt, November 6.,1933, Chicago. SMELTINGU. S. WANTS GOLDDiscarded Old Jewelry, Dental Gold, BrokenWatches, etc Redeemed for Cash, Dependable and Courteous Service. Management of42 years' experience Old, established andresponsible Bring or send direct. Don't sellto strangers. WE EMPLOY NO SOLICITORS.U. S. SMELTING WORKS(The Old Reliable)39 So. State St., Cor. Monroe, 4th Fl oorSTOCKS AND BONDSP. H.Davis, 'II H. I. Markham, 'Ex. '06R. W. Davis, 16 W.M.Giblin, '23F. B. Evans, IIPaul H. Davis & Co.MembersNew York Stock ExchangeChicago Stock Exchange37 So. LaSalle St. Franklin 8622TEACHERS AGENCIESTHE YATES-FISHERTEACHERS AGENCYEstablished 1906PAUL YATES, Manager616-620 South Michigan Ave.ChicagoUNDERTAKERSBARBOUR &GUSTINUNDERTAKERS4141 Cottage Grove Ave.PHONE DREXEL 0510LUDLOW-SCHNEIDERFUNERAL DIRECTORSFine Chapel with New Pipe OrganSEDAN AMBULANCETel. Fairfax 28616110 Cottage Grove Ave.UPHOLSTERINGDERK SMIT & CO,Interior DecoratorsFurniture and DraperiesUPHOLSTERINGand Refinishing6830 Cottage Grove Ave.Phones Dorchester 3584-5-6VENTILATINGThe Haines CompanyVentilating Contractors1929-1937 West Lake St.Phones Seeley 2765 -2766 -2767UNDERGRADUATE TRENDS• By CHARLES TYROLER, 2nd, *35This Merger BusinessUNDERGRADUATES are gradually becoming aware of the fact that the talk ofa Chicago-Northwestern merger is nomere idle gossip. The matter is quite obviouslyreceiving the careful consideration of the powersthat be of the two institutions and it is more thana long shot possibility that the merger will reacha speedy enactment.Undergraduates, as a whole, are rather indifferent to the proposition but they are not definitely opposed to it as has been the case withsome of the Evanston students.We feel that the proposed merger is worthy ofthe consideration given it; quite obvious advantages would accrue to both Northwestern andourselves in the event of 'a consolidation. Weanxiously await all developments.Breaking into TimeJohn Barden, editor of the Daily Maroon, hasfollowed an intelligent and valuable editorialpolicy in regard to the merger. He received hisreward in a December issue of Time when oneof his stirring indictments of the Chicago Tribune's narrow-minded policy, since modified, inregard to the proposed merger was quoted atsome length. Time characterized his utterancesas "the bitterly righteous indignation of an eloquent undergraduate.' ' Barden may well feelproud; breaking into Time constitutes a tributethat comes but rarely to the editor of a studentnewspaper.The President Gives Us a BreakPresident Hutchins addressed the student bodyat the chapel on December 12th. He is also contributing occasional columns on undergraduateaffairs to the Daily Maroon. In fact, he was evenseen taking lunch informally at a fraternityhouse!Pledging DeferredThis is the second year of the operation of deferred fraternity rushing. Under this system,rushing luncheons are permitted each fraternityonce every two weeks for the first quarter. Thenbeginning the sixth week of the winter quarter,one week of intensive rushing takes place. Theactual pledging is done by the Dean of Students after a system of preferential bidding in whichthe freshman lists three fraternities in the orderof his preference and the fraternity sends in a listof freshmen that it will accept. The lists are thencompared and official pledgings announced.Too LongWe can see the faults with the former processof hit-or-miss rushing but we now believe thatthe period of deferrment is too long.A fraternity can be of value toi a man early inhis first year. Under the present system a freshman is denied friendships with fraternity men byoft-broken rules which forbid other than extremely informal contact.We believe that there are a great many men infraternities whom it would be a distinct advantage for a freshman to know during his firstfive months of school. Under the present system,he is denied those associations.Predicting Slow DeathThere are twenty-four national fraternities oncampus at this writing; but we are willing topredict that by the end of this academic year, orat least by the end of next the number will besmaller.Chicago cannot support twenty-four fraternities and by the reduction of that number, theremaining fraternities will become stronger andbe in a better position to weather the tryingperiod that is before them, a period of readjustment of ideals and aims.A Good JobThe revived Cap and Gown is coming alongnicely. Over six hundred and fifty subscriptionshave already been sold and the year book isdefinitely to be published.The staff, headed by and mainly composed ofnew plan juniors, is to be commended on a difficult job well done.Still AroundGirls' clubs are still on campus, but one onlyhears of them incidentally.They give occasional parties to the favoredfew of a not very socially-minded campus; butaside from those parties, they are apparentlyinactive.136j\adi<to puts CRIMEon ill, SPOT!Police Radio enables police to strikewith lightning speed ... to catchcriminals on the spot ... to makethousands of arrests otherwise impossible. In many cities, headquarters now broadcasts the alarm viaWestern Electric apparatus . . . instantly radio patrolcars are racing to the scene of the crime!Naturally police insist upon equipment that is de pendable day and night, year after year. And they getit in Western Electric Police Radio — backed by 50years of making Bell telephones.Western Electric has also pioneered in manufacturing equipment for radio telephone broadcasting,aviation radio, talking pictures, sound amplifying anddistribution, aids for the hard-of-hearing. This Company has steadily maintained its leadership in thefield of sound transmission.Western ElectricLEADERS IN SOUND TRANSMISSION APPARATUS$"ft&^rr:a &r me they're me they TASTE BETTER© 1934, Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co.