'. .a-jjuw-s."'* (VIA^ ^B WooVOL. XXV MAY, IP33 NUMBER 7THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINESketched by Wallace Morganin the "Club Leviathan" ~tk*imartest supper club afloat:Ml too~Smm ^ssssaaw•'"^"Tff—each glorious day on the LEVIATHAN"The end of a perfect day" —how delightful to discover aday that's perfect from start tofinish... how doubly delightfulto know that there's anotherday ahead that will be as fullof gay good times! On theLEVIATHAN, as on all UnitedStates Liners, you will findtravel that's joyously different— good times that are plannedin the American manner, byAmericans — and enjoyed withfellow Americans. You'll find on the ships that flyyour own flag swift, understanding service by stewards whospeak your own language . . .delicious treats prepared bychefs who know how to suityour own exacting taste. Yes, onUnited States Liners you'll findevery privilege any ship canoffet,plus the enjoyment of theAmerican standard of living.For full information see yourlocal agent. He knows travelvalues. Services to GERMANY,Ireland, England and FranceLEVIATHAN — America's largest shipMANHATTAN WASHINGTON*The modern "Yankee Clippers."Fastest Cabin Liners in the world.*Maiden voyage May 10President ROOSEVELTPresident HARDINGAnd four staunch American Merchant Liners . . . one class only . . .very moderate rates.CONSIDER THISEighty-five cents of the dollar paidfor freight and transportation onAmerican ships is spent in America. . . It's "good business" to have thefunoftravelingunderyourownflag.FOLLOW THE TREND TO AMERICAN — ^ U. S. LINESiTT"""/ AMERICAN MERCHANT LINES^"— ' "~— \k>Swt/ ROOSEVELT STEAMSHIP CO., Inc.-Gen. Aaentt^- -^ No . 1 Broadway , New York Agents everywhereTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 297When You Visit ChicagoYou will enjoy stopping at Hotel Shoreland.Make your home at this distinguished addresswhether you return for a reunion, come for anathletic contest or merely visit Chicago on abusiness or pleasure trip.You will find an atmosphere of true culture andrefinement . . . spacious and luxurious rooms,suites and apartments - furnished in good tastewith every modern appointment.A location as secluded as a beautiful countryestate yet but 10 minutes from the "Loop" viathe Outer Drive or Illinois Central Electric.Your inquiry cordially invited.The Accepted Center of Social ActivitiesHotel Shoreland is privileged to serve noteworthy gatherings — banquets,dinners, dances, teas and luncheons of some of the most prominent of theUniversity of Chicago groups. A wide variety of the most unusual privateparty rooms — a service and cuisine that leaves nothing to be desired.Fifty-Fifth Street at the Lake CHICAGOTHE ALUMNI COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOChairman, Paul S. Russell, '16Secretary & Editor, CHARLTON T. Beck, '04The Council for 1931-32 is composed of the following delegates: Te'rm expiresI9SS' Frank McNair, '03 ; Herbert I. Markham, '05 ; Renslow P. Sherer, '09 ; Mrs.Margaret Haass Richards, '11; John A. Logan, '21; Arthur C. Cody, '24. Termexpires 1934: Harold H. Swift '07, Helen Norris '07, Chester S. Bell '13, J.D. '15,Donald P. Bean '17, Lyndon H. Lesch '17. Term expires 1935: Paul S. Russell, '16,Elizabeth Faulkner, '85, Willoughby G. Walling, 'oo, Henry D. Sulcer, '06, MiltonE. Robinson, 'n, Harry R. Swanson, '17.From the Association of Doctors of Philosophy, D. Jerome Fisher '17, S.M. '20,Ph.D. '22; Edwin E. Aubrey, A.M. '21, D.B. '22, Ph.D. '26; Herbert E. Slaught,Ph.D. '98 ; Chester N. Gould, Ph.D. '07.From the Divinity Alumni Association, Franklin D. Elmer, Jr., D.B. '30, J. H.Gagnier '08, D.B. '15, A. R. E. Wyant, D.B. '97.From the Law School Alumni Association, Charles F. McElroy, J.D. '15; CharlesP. Schwartz, '08, J.D. '09; Dwight P. Green, J.D. '12.From the School of Education Alumni Association, Harold A. Anderson, '24, A.M.'26; Paul M. Cook, A.M. '27; Robert C. Woellner, A.M. '24.From the Commerce and Administration Alumni Association, Earle W. English,'26 ; Henry G. Hulbert, '23.From the Rush Medical College Alumni Association, William A. Thomas, M.D.'16; Clark W. Finnerud, M.D. '18; Edward Stieglitz, '18, S.M. '19, M.D. '21.From the Association of the School of Social Service Administration, Olive HullChandler; Eleanor Goltz '29, A.M. '30; Robert Beasley.From the Chicago Alumni Club, William C. Gorgas, '19; Frank J. Madden, '20,J.D., '22, Harvey Harris, '14.From the Chicago Alumnae Club, Mrs. Portia Carnes Lane, '08; Gladys Finn, '24;Dr. Marie Ortmayer, '06, M.D. '17.From the University, John F. Moulds, '07.Alumni Associations Represented in the Alumni CouncilThe College Alumni Association: tion: President, Aaron John Brum-Pre'sident, Paul S. Russell, '16, 11 1 West baugh, A.M. Ji8, Ph.D. '29, UniversityMonroe Street, Chicago; Secretary, of Chicago; Secretary, S. Lenore John,Charlton T. Beck, '04, University of A.M. '27, 6009 Kimbark Avenue]Chicago. Chicago.Association of Doctors of Philosophy: Commerce and Administration AlumniPresident, Herbert E. Slaught, Ph.D. '98, Association: President, Earle W.University of Chicago; Secretary, D. English, '26, 5240 Kenwood Avenue',Jerome Fisher '17, S.M. '20, Ph.D. '22, Chicago; Secretary, Margaret E. Knox]University of Chicago. '28, 6116^ Kimbark Avenue, Chicago!Divinity Alumni Association: President, Rush Medical College Alumni Associa-Clarence W. Kemper, A.M. '11, D.B. tion: President, Charles A. Parker,'12, Charleston, W. Va. ; M.D. '91, 7 W. Madison St., Chicago;Secretary -Treasurer, C. T. Holman, Secretary, Carl O. Rinder, 'n, M.D.D.B. '16, University of Chicago. '13, 122 So. Michigan Ave.' Chicago.Law School Association: President, Association of the School of SocialDwight Green, J.D. 12, 33 N. LaSalle service Administration: President,St Chicago; Secretary Charles F. Mrs. Edwina M Lewig , *'»£S'ThJ^ 5' "9 E' 55th Street> Ch*ca^ Secretlr'y-Street, Chicago. Treasurer, Elizabeth Wade, A.M. '26,School of Education Alumni Associa- 718 Simpson St., Evanston, 111.All communications should be sent to the Secretary of the proper Association or to the AlumniCouncil,# Faculty Exchange, University of Chicago. The dues for membership in any one of theAssociations named above, including subscription to The University of Chicago Magazine are$2.00 per year. A holder of two or more degrees from the University of Chicago may be a memberof more than one Association; in such instances the dues are divided and shared equally bv theAssociations involved. *The Magazine is published at 1009 Sloan St., Crawfordsville, Ind., monthly from Novemberto July, inclusive, for The Alumni Council of the University of Chicago, 58th St. and Ellis AveChicago, 111. The subscription price is $2.00 per year; the price of single copies is 25 cents ''Entered as second class matter December 10, 1924, at the Post Office at Crawfordsville Indianaunder the Act of March 3, 1879.298tEfje SUmbersttp of Cijtcaso iftaga?meCharlton T. Beck, '04 Ruth C. E. Earnshaw, '31Editor and Business Manager •> Associate EditorMilton E. Robinson, 'ii, J.D. '13Chairman, Editorial BoardFred B. Millett, Ph.D. '32, William V. Morgenstern '20 J.D. '22, John P. Howe, '27Contributing EditorsI AJ T H I ^1 ^ry a cJames Pinckney Pope, LL.B. 09, Democratic Senator from Idaho, sends the Magazine a bulletin from the front line trenchin the form of comment on the legislationwhich has been dazzling the country sinceMarch 4th. Senator Pope is an adoptedcitizen of Boise, Idaho, and was mayor ofthat city before his election to the Senate.Both Senator and Mrs. Pope (PaulineHorn, '07) have been interested membersof the Boise Alumni Club.*****Milton S. Mayer, Jr. ex '29, offers freshevidence that his professors were right inpredicting a career of letters for him. In"To the Brave Belongs the Fair," Mr.Mayer tells a lot of the things we have allwanted to know about A Century ofProgress and tells them with delightfulhumor and vivacity. Readers of VanityFair (to whom we are greatly indebted forpermission to reprint this article) and ofThe Chicagoan are familiar with Mr.Mayer's work.ik. &. 2l£. XC J&.7f? TfT 7fT TT* 7[CJohn B. Holt, '31, is a familiar contributor to the Magazine. In this issue, he discusses some of the agricultural and economicproblems facing the present German government. Mr. Holt has spent the last twoyears in Europe, studying at the Germanuniversities and spending a good deal oftime visiting farms in different parts of thecountry, so that he has personal experienceof farm-life to back up his study of economic theory. Otto Struve, Ph.D. '23, Director ofYerkes Observatory, answers the questionthat arises inevitably in response to a particularly provoking bit of Fair publicity,"Just exactly what is Arcturus to do forthe Exposition?"Afe ?l> SL% Atfr £{£It is certainly unnecessary to introduceShailer Mathews, Dean of the DivinitySchool and valued friend of a great armyof alumni. We are fortunate in being ableto reprint from the University Record hisspeech to the assembled faculties and members of the Board of Trustees upon the occasion of their annual dinner.Ruth C. E. Earnshaw, '31, herein comments on her impressions of InternationalHouse, after living there for three quarters.3f£ **t> ^iv 71$" 7ftAttention of our readers is called to twovery important items in this issue — announcements of reunion activities and College Association elections. This is the lastreunion calendar to be issued, so keep iton hand. And don't forget to mark yourballot and get it to the Alumni Office before noon, June 9.* * * * *The cover this month shows a cornerof Hutchinson Court and Mitchell Tower.It is hoped that it will cause sufficient heim-weh to bring you back for the UniversitySing on June 10.299iiii- •->R*mtT=i -JLaa f zdThis shaded walk in Wieboldt Court is one of many delightful places for the returning alumnusto visit on June 10.Vol. xxv No. 7Umbersittp of Cfncago4Waga?meMAY, 1933-H : - ¦ ; ¦ {-Asides of a New SenatorJames P. Pope, LL.B. '09United States Senator from IdahoALTHOUGH a new Senator is sup-f-\ posed to be seen and not heard for a-*- -^ time, I will beard this tradition tothe extent of exposing some views in printat the request of the Secretary of ourAlumni Association.Events of the greatest importance arecrowding upon each other so rapidly thatany comment may be without interest bythe time it is published. I venture to saythat at no time in the history of our nationhas there been more significant action takenthan during the brief period of the presentadministration. On the 4th of March ournation was facing a crisis as great as anyin its history. The crisis was as serious asthat of the Civil War period. The menaceto our institutions and our form of government was fully as great as was the menaceto the Union during that period. Facing a nation-wide collapse of our bankingstructure, a problem of unemployed millions, and the relentless progress of deflation, the administration had a task of unprecedented magnitude. It was pledged torebuild confidence in our institutions ofcredit, to restore parity between commodityprices and the inflexible items in the eco nomic equation, to find work for the unemployed millions, and to reestablish favorable trade relations for American goods inworld markets.The question in everybody's mind is"what is being done about it?"My observations are made on the basisof facts known to every reader of thismagazine as reported in the press. Theonly advantage, or disadvantage, I maypossess is that I sit in committee conferencesand Senate debates where these questions arebeing met with a frankness and vigor withbut few parallels in our nation's history.Things have been happening since March4 but we still have a long road ahead.The nation was electrified by the firstact of Congress giving the President wartime power to meet the national bankingemergency. The bank holiday declared byexecutive order ended a period of bankfailures which had given the nation achronic case of the "jitters." The quick,decisive and thorough way in which thePresident reopened the sound banks of thenation was symbolic of a clearly definedprogram of national rehabilitation. Thebank conservation act is temporary legisla-301302 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtion and must be followed by further enactments to place the banking system of thecountry on a sound basis. We have playedfast and loose with the depositors' moneyuntil throughout the entire nation thepeople have lost confidence in our bankinginstitutions. I am convinced that we musthave some form of federal guarantee ofbank deposits. This, I believe, is fundamental.Then came the enactment of the economymeasure. The drastic economies beingmade under this act are cutting deep intothe economic and social fabric of the nation.It was no easy task to cut salaries and withdraw soldiers' benefits. The act is adeflationary measure designed to maintainour national credit through a balancedbudget and to ease the burden of federaltaxation. Its passage bespeaks a fine patriotism that knew no political lines. Ifpermitted to stand alone, this act wouldfurther reduce our purchasing power andadd thousands to our army of unemployed.It should be considered in the light of thePresident's entire program for national rehabilitation as a firm stride toward a trulybusiness administration of the government.Lest I tire you with the mere recital ofcongressional enactments with which youare already familiar, permit me to jot downa few observations on pending legislation.A measure designed to relieve the existingnational economic emergency by increasingagricultural purchasing power, and refinancing mortgage indebtedness of thefarmers, is now pending in the senate. Thiswill be enacted into law before this copyreaches the composing room of your Magazine. I have grave doubts about the workability of some of the features of this bill,but I have utmost confidence in the abilityof President Roosevelt and his advisors toset up a program under the authority ofthis measure that will bring beneficial re sults to agriculture which today lies prostrate beneath a burden of debt.I have just come over from the SenateChamber where the most vital question ofthe present emergency is being discussed — ¦inflation or reflation. The newspapers areheadlining "Off The Gold Standard" andeditorials discuss currency inflation pro andcon. As I see it, here is the crux of thewhole problem. We have gone on foryears with an ever increasing disparity between commodity prices and the fixed valueof the dollar until we have all but wreckedthe economic structure of the nation. Foreign manufactured goods have poured intothe country in what amounts to a tidalwave. Our exports have dropped almost tothe vanishing point. Our farmers and ourmanufacturers are unable to sell their products and goods in countries with so-called"debased" currency.While this deflation in the UnitedStates has been going on, England, Australia, Sweden, Italy, Japan and sometwenty or thirty other nations have adopteda policy of controlled currency inflation.They have answered the question as towhether inflation can be controlled. Whatthese nations have done the United Statescan and must do. It should have beendone months ago and the ruin of thousandsof banks and other business institutionsavoided. That our country is now moving rapidly to meet this national emergencyis gratifying to the masses of our people.All of this has been characterized asthe "New Deal." Precedents are beingbroken with an alacrity that startles conservative minds, programs are being inaugurated which approach the magnitudeof war time mobilization, a new spirit ofinternational cooperation permeates Congress and under the bold, humane leadership of President Roosevelt the nation hastaken new hope.To the Brave Belongs the FairBy Milton S. Mayer, ex, '29PRIOR to that fateful October day in1929, Chicagoans to the number ofone hundred and ten thousand hadmade it known in spot cash that they wanteda World's Fair in their town. In thecourse of a campaign for, funds suggested by a substantial citizen named SamuelInsull, exactly that many Windy Citizenshad ponied up with $5.00 apiece for a setof ten admission tickets to "A Century ofProgress" — -then five years away and noteven on paper. Its World's ColumbianExposition of 1893 was scarcely cold in itsgrave, but Chicago had tripled its size inthree decades and was ripe for another Fair.The world read the newspapers andthought of Chicago as America's problemchild, but Chicago looked in the mirrorand thought of itself as the Indian-riddenvillage of 1833 that had been destined totake a precipitate place among the centersof industry, finance, education, the arts,even. One hundred years had done a miraculous job. The last thirty alone hadseen a complete transformation. Chicagono longer had to be good-humored about itsfactories and stockyards and slums ; it couldpoint serenely now to its magnificent skyline, its unparalleled park system, its crisscross of handsome boulevards bordered byfirst-class hotels for half a million guests;it had, too, a pair of great universities, acollection of priceless museums, a majoropera company and a notable symphonyorchestra, a towering "gold coast" and afringe of rich men's suburbs.Besides, the gangsters, after a ten-yearheyday, were finally on the run, Big BillThompson and his pickpockets still heldcourt in the City Hall, but plans had already been laid to put the skids under them.Chicago was ready, at long last, to invitethe rest of the world over to see a centuryof progress as was a century of progress.After a few false starts the affair was formally launched, and offers of support andcooperation came cascading into the officeof the president, Rufus Dawes. The citywas on its toes. Its patriarchs and patri cians came into the fold. The NationalResearch Council and the nation's scientistswere enlisted and became enthusiastic. Theprosperous powers of three other continentspromised cooperation in a lavish way. Ifthe city-at-large was not wild about the idea,at least it had no qualms regarding the success of the undertaking. Chicago could doanything. Chicago was going to have oneswell Fair in 1933.That was in 1929 — The Golden Age.Let us look at the scene as of 1932 — threeyears later. Things are changed. For Chicago and for the rest of the world thecentury of progress died, aetat ninety-six,on October 17, 1929. LaSalle Street iscold and wormy — no one has been there fora long time. For two years the citizenshave been sullen and cynical. The civicleaders are bankrupt, dead or in Greece.The merchants are standing in line for theCounty Home. The inquiring reporter isgreeted with, "World's Fair? Waddayamean, World's Fair ? Go on wid yez." Theenthusiasm has gone up the flue. No onewants a World's Fair. But the Dawesboys aren't going to quit. The world askedfor a Fair, and, by golly, it is going to getone.That was 1932. The going had beenpretty rough. Dissension within the organization had made the Democratic partylook like the Sistine Choir. There were asmany theories of a World's Fair as therewere individuals interested. Edward N.Hurley, local manufacturer and war-timechairman of the U. S. Shipping Board,wanted the exposition to center around a$35,000,000 hospital. Frank LloydWright, the bedeviled saint of modernarchitecture, wanted the Fair to be housedentirely in a single skyscraper. Dr. AllenD. Albert wanted it to be devoted exclusively to science and industry. CharleyDawes, who had been responsible for hisbrother's selection as president of the exposition, came home from the St. James'Infirmary to run the R. F. C. and insistedon floating a ten million dollar bond issue3033<H THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEto supersede Insull's $5.00 subscriptionscheme. James Simpson of Marshall Field& Co., demanded that the name bechanged from "Chicago's Second World'sFair" to "A Century of Progress" and thatthe Exposition be postponed two years ; theFair's trustees agreed to change the name.In addition there were the unhappy developments of the depression. Constructionbegan with a bang, but the storm brokewhen only three buildings were up, and formonths the citizens looked at the lonelytrio of freak structures and said, "Well,well, well — it's a small World's Fair afterall." The "Tower of Water and Light,"which was to be the gaudy feature of theexposition, had to be abandoned for lackof financing. One by one the foreign governments sent regrets and cancelled theirpromises. After the exposition had spent$165,000 on "Radio Hall" which was tobe paid for and occupied by the two broadcasting chains (according to verbal agreement), the chains announced that they weresorry they could neither use the hall norany of the space in it. Wrigley and Rosenwald, two of the "best friends" the Fairhad, died. Insull went — in the paradoxical vernacular — boom, and with him thecity's great grand opera. The city itselfwas on its hambones — broke.And that wasn't all. Hand in hand withthe deepening depression there arose thegeneral conviction that even if God wasback in his heaven by June i, 1933, stillthere would be one vacant Fair. The dayof fairs is done, modern showmen insisted,and the public at large took up the cry.The very advancement in industry andscience which A Century of Progress setout to commemorate is responsible, they be- Agricultural Building at theWorld's Fair — here will befound exhibits of food industries and agricultural implements.lieved, for the blight that has overtaken theancient fair spirit. People don't want to"get together" as they once did; they arenot isolated in the course of daily life asthey used to be. When fairs were smallerand people slower, the fair was always amonumental success. The whole countryside looked to it as the one magnificent eventin the uneventful year. As cities grew andthe farmer was able to hop into his lizzieand zoom over to town three or four timesa week, fairs became more lavish and lessintimate — and less successful. One dolorous item with which the general publicwas not conversant was that no great fairof the past fifty years — Chicago in '93, St.Louis in '04, San Francisco in '15, andPhiladelphia in '26, has paid off.Finally the skeptics and the scofferstossed their last and best dead cat right intothe lap of the Fair's administration. Whatkind of a World's Fair did they think theywere putting on, anyhow? Instead of being devoted to pageantry and whoopee, asfairs have been since the Middle Ages, ACentury of Progress was going to review,in a decorous sort of way, one hundredepochal years of adventure and advance inscience and industry. The howlers protested that this Dawes plan was too noblefor its own good. People come to World'sFairs for decerebration, not for elevation."Do you think," they asked each other — ¦for the officials of the exposition would notlisten to them — "do you think that a lifesize periodic table of the ninety-two chemical elements will interest the placid Italianfisherman, munching his salami on the Bayof Naples? Do you think the miracle oftelevision will get a rise out of the Navajoselling his Navajo rugs in front of the sta-TO THE BRAVE BELONGS THE FAIR 305tion at Albuquerque ? Do you think thelife story of electro-magnetic induction willset the boys agog in the Rathauskeller atDinkelsbuhl?"You can see the invention of the electriclight and listen to the world's largest turbine motor in this week's news reel at theBijou Palace in Glad Tidings, Neb. Whatyou come to a World's Fair for is to shakehands with the snake charmer and ride theFerris wheel. It's all very dandy to havea million volt lightning streak running fromone electrode to the other in the courtyardof the Electrical Building, but what's amillion-volt lightning streak compared withthe Diving Venus they showed us on theMidway in '93?"That was, as I have said, 1932. Thisis 1933- They tell us there's a ray of lightup ahead. Perhaps. But the year thatwe've just put into the moth balls has notbeen a good one. Happy days are far frombeing here again. What has happened toChicago's World's Fair since this montha year ago? Here is what has happened.Thirty-two buildings of bewildering formand hue are strung in sensational arrayalong the strip of "manufactured" land onthe city's lake front. These structures include every one that appeared in the artist'sconception of the exposition published threeyears ago. They represent, roundly, an investment of $24,800,000. How much ofthis is the people's money — the taxpayer'smoney, as the politicians like to say? Exactly $800,000. And even this figure doesnot represent an extraction of funds fromthe public trough. The $800,000 repre sents the proceeds, (with interest) of the$5 ticket sales campaign of four years ago —for which each contributor holds ten admission tickets to the Fair.The rest of the $24,800,000 comes fromsources hitherto untapped in the stagingof great expositions. The Dawes regimewas opened by the flotation of a $10,000,-000 bond issue, secured by 40% of the gatereceipts and guaranteed by a small groupof men, Chicagoans and non-Chicagoans,whose names have never been revealed. Ofthese bonds, $7,000,000 is outstanding, theexposition having received cash for thatamount. Of the $3,000,000 unissued, $2,-000,000 is subscribed to, and the balanceis being absorbed by manufacturers and contractors desiring to deliver materials andservices in exchange for the bonds.With the proceeds of these bonds, thebuildings of A Century of Progress havebeen set up— and not a pile has been sunkthat wasn't paid for. In addition, severalcorporations have preferred to erect theirown buildings, in architectural harmony —if there is any such thing in this mad panorama — with the Fair's own structures.To date, private firms have invested, inthe erection of their own buildings and inthe purchase of exhibit space, $6,000,000 —General Motors, for instance, has sunk acool $1,250,000 into a model assemblyplant, and Sears Roebuck, Firestone, Johns-Manville, American Radiator and Chryslerare among the exhibitors erecting individualbuildings. Contracts to the tune of $5,-000,000 have been made with concessionairesThe Sky Ride — one of thethrills of the Fair. Rocketcars will carry passengersfrom one tower to the otherover cables at the 200 footlevel.3°6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEfor the rights to furnish transportation,public conveniences, amusements, entertainments, and refreshments. The Federalgovernment has appropriated $1, ooo,ooofor its own exhibit and individual states areunder contract, for a total of $2,000,000.That is the audit of the $24,800,000 exposition. It includes no probabilities, suchas the money to be spent by individual statesnot yet under contract and the uncertainamount of participation by foreign governments. The bank balance of A Centuryof Progress Exposition has never fallen below $1,000,000.Every concessionaire and exhibitor haspaid in advance. Nearly every rankingAmerican corporation has signed up foranything from a booth to a building.Twenty-six states have already formallyannounced their intention to participate,and eighteen more are considering the reports of special legislative committees anddebating the amount of their appropriationsfor exhibits. Although Great Britain, Germany and several erupting republics ofSouth America have not yet seen their wayclear to come in, fifteen other foreign nations (if, through the rockets' red glareChina and Japan are still there) havedefinitely accepted President Hoover's invitation to take part in the shindy.Behind the hullabaloo that attends allsuch institutions, lies a program of hard,cold business. No one believes that Chicago, with only a trail of bubbles to markthe spot where its corporate credit wentdown, can throw a World's Fair. Fewrealize that it isn't Chicago's Fair at all.It is a private enterprise, privately endowed.It is a closed corporation — perhaps theonly closed corporation that was ever incorporated not for profit. Even the site ofthe exposition isn't part of Chicago, butstate land. Proud Chicagoans are behindA Century of Progress, survivors of biggerand better depressions than this — -Armour,Cudahy, Downs, Epstein, Fairbank, Getz,Gorman, Hines, Hurley, Hutchins, Kelly,Lamont, McCormick, Meeker, Mitchell,Palmer, Peabody, Reynolds, Scott, Simpson,Sprague, Stevens and Swift. There are nografters in on this show. The city's willing corps of politicians, racketeers, and sly oldboys are on the outside, dolefully watchingthe pickings go untouched.Bigger corporations than A Century ofProgress have gone to the wall since thelong long night closed in on the worldthree years ago. Clearly there must besome A-No. 1 business genius running thisaffair. There are, of course, the Dawesboys. The Dawes boys are a canny lot.Charley's bank almost went under withouthis presence, but he has been picking winnersfor too many years to be impeached on thatcount. There is no hell-and-Maria aboutRufus, but he held down the presidencyof nine utilities companies before he tookhold of the Fair, and he is the one man onearth who can talk to Charley Dawes.But down in the bowels of the exposition ishidden the little man who kept A Centuryof Progress in the black.His name is Lenox R. Lohr. Like mostof the executives he is an army man, selectedby General Dawes. Major Lohr is generalmanager of the exposition. He served inthe S. O. S. — Service of Supply — withCharley Dawes in France. Four years agohe was editing The Military Engineer. Thesneering citizenry wondered for a long timehow men who could shoot guns could runWorld's Fairs, but Charley Dawes wasn'tissuing any explanations. Lohr was justanother one of Charley's winners. It washe who devised the unique financial programof the exposition : ( 1 ) paying builders, contractors, and employees either partially orwholly in bonds, and (2) persuading privatecorporations to erect their own buildings.There is another feature of the financialsetup of A Century of Progress that marksan amazing departure from the traditionsof world's fair banking. For the first timein history a world's fair is being staged without the assistance of municipal, state, orfederal subsidy. It has been the custom offair administrations to ask and receive asubstantial sum, generally $5,000,000 fromthe city and a like amount from the Federaltreasury. Occasionally the state tosses inanother five million, as at San Francisco in19 1 5. Chicago's Fair asked for no handouts — not even when times were high.TO THE BRAVE BELONGS THE FAIR 307"Owing to our contracts for sale of exhibit space," said finance chairman CDawes, three years ago, "it will probablynot be necessary to make an additional solicitation of funds from the public." "A Century of Progress will not lay any part ofthe burden of its expense upon the taxpayer" said President R. Dawes, a shortwhile ago. The taxpayer's stake in thisExposition will be voluntary and it will beexactly fifty cents — the price of admission.The citizenry likes to refer to the mid-night-blue-and-silver Administration Building of the Fair as"army headquarters" because of therank profusion ofcaptains, majors andcolonels and the entire absence of old-time showmen regarded as indispensable to world's fairs.But there is still another exotic profession represented inthe executive offices.This is the academic world. Dr. HenryCrew, Northwestern University's physicist,is director of the physical sciences division.Prof. Fay-Cooper Cole, distinguished University of Chicago anthropologist, is incharge of the social science exhibits, aidedby Dean Donald Slesinger of the Universityof Chicago's social science department.But the "key" job is held by an unclassified gentleman, neither, so to speak, maid,wife nor widow. His name is F. R.Moulton. His title is Director of Concessions. Dr. Moulton is not an army man.He is not a showman. And he is not connected with a university. Although he hascharge of the distribution of pop and hot-dogs and penny arcades he is best known asthe co-formulator of the planetesimalhypothesis of the creation of the solar system. If you have a snake-charmer or ahula-hula dancer to install at the World'sFair you will have to do business with theauthor of New Methods in Exterior Ballistics, Celestial Mechanics, and PeriodicOrbits. If you want to dispense three shots at the nigger-baby for ten cents or thelargest and coolest glass in town for anickel, you will have to consult a Fellow ofthe Royal Academy of Sciences, Fellow ofthe American Academy of Sciences, Associate of the British Association for theAdvancement of Science, Associate of theCircolo Matematico di Palermo, Fellow ofthe American Philosophical Society. If youwish to swallow swords or tie yourself intoa knot you will have to present your cardto the former chairman of the AstronomyDepartment of the University of Chicago.This is — all of these,in fact, are — Dr.Moulton.Rufus Daweswanted an able andan incorruptible manto superintend thedelicate job ofconcession - peddling,and he found thatman in his friend,the eminent Dr.Moulton. And Dr.Moulton was willing. In the Administration Building of ACentury of Progress he is far removed fromthe cloistered halls of academic life wherehe became a great scientist. He tradedastronomy for public utilities a few yearsback and infused some of his brilliance intoHarley Clark's power and light enterprises.Dr. Moulton likes his new job. He hasestimated that 500 tons of popcorn will beconsumed at the Fair.But the consumption of popcorn is contingent upon the number of faces on hand toabsorb it, and the old question keeps ringingin the ears of the Exposition's executives:"Where will the people come from?" Byway of reply they point out that the 1893Fair in Chicago was attended by 16 timesthe population of the city, that the 1904Fair in St. Louis drew twenty times thelocal population, and that thirty times thenumber of people in San Francisco passedthrough the gates of its 19 15 Exposition.Taking ten as the minimum figure, Chicago'smetropolitan population of 4,500,000 presages an attendance of 45,000,000. As forThe Travel and Transport Building3o8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe unhappy state of the Union at this time,the Fair officials remind the skeptics thatglamorous vacations in Europe and Canadawill be replaced by inexpensive excursionsto a 50 cent World's Fair and that cheapautomobiles and railroad excursions canlaugh at hard times. If the argument ispresented that people do not go to fairsfor scientific exhibits but for merry-go-rounds, the record attendance at Antwerpin 1930 and at Paris in 1921 is referred to.More than 600,000 people paid a dimeapiece simply to see the grounds of A Century of Progress during the summer of1932.The pessimistic wonder what the worldwill think of the departure from the traditional cold and classic marble and placidswans and gilt Statues of Liberty to thefantastic, futuristic architecture of A Century of Progress. The Brothers Dawes andtheir battered little band have been pointingwith peptonic pride to the fact that this isto be a "different" World's Fair. That itis going to be different is as plain as a pikestaff. At first the architects of the Fairwere wont to remind the public that thefrenzied temples of A Century of Progresswere "essentially functional" and not crazyat all, and the solid citizen would take onelook and utter a laconic, pontifical "Nuts."But the public is getting used to the spectacle. It is not such an eye-sore after youget used to it. And it has aroused in thecareworn Chicagoans a genuine interest,a great deal of speculation, and no end ofcontroversy as to just what it all means.These architectural apparitions that constitute the shell of Chicago's World's Fairare widely blamed on that impresario ofthe impossible, Frank Lloyd Wright. ButMr. Wright, devotee of steel and glass,would not be seen dead in a ten-acre fieldwith them. He will have nothing to doThanks are due to Vanity Fair for permisits April issue. with the men who have designed these semipermanent halls.The Century of Progress buildings arebuilt close to the ground, like Chaplin's feetand they sprawl. In these two respects theyperhaps, and perhaps only, derive from Mr.Wright. But they are windowless and hollow and inarticulate. Some are angularand stark, some are sylphlike and flossy, andsome are sloppy and elephantine. They arepainted like a new saloon — for those whoremember what a new saloon is painted like.After four or Rve raucous pinks and greenshave been thrown at the uncomplainingwalls, the painters see what they have leftin the way of conflicting hues, and theseare applied in the form of demure stripes,about three feet wide. Buttresses, — flying,kneeling, and turning handsprings — dauntthe eye of the hurrier-by with their owncacophonies of color. A prospectus tells thegrisly story: ". . . the building will bepainted in white, yellow and English red,accentuated with gold and blue, silver andblack. ..."Taking one thing with another, the exclusive right to describe the physical aspectsof this "different" Fair belong to the realisticgentleman who first saw the Trocadero asan old hag lying on her back and elevatingher spindle shanks toward the sky. And heis not here to undertake the job.The Exposition will open May 27 at 9o'clock in the morning. A beam of lightwhich left the star Arcturus at the openingof the World's Columbian Exposition fortyyears ago, will reach Chicago, havingambled through space at the approved rateof 186,000 miles a second, in time to befiltered through a photo-electric cell and setA Century of Progress in motion. TheMessrs. Dawes, Lohr, Moulton, et al. havehitched their wagon to a star in more waysthan one.ion to reprint this article which first appeared inReconverting German Farmers intoPeasantsBy John B. Holt, '31ur~ | *HERE are Rve million German farmI families that we must reconvert into-*- peasants," states the Director of theBaden State Chamber of Agriculture inGermany. Expressing in this short statement his plan to save German agriculture,Herr Direktor von Engelberg revealed adisillusionment in technical progress insofaras it means a continued rise in the standardof living for all economic groups. This disillusionment may be only temporary. Itobviously has only practical implications,for the gist of Herr von Engelberg's program is the salvation of German agriculture by social reorganization rather thanby technical improvement.To an American who is suddenly presented with a point of view contrasting sostrongly with his own, three questions immediately arise. First, how can one justify"condemning" five million peasant families,almost a third of Germany's population, toa static peasant existence? Second, howwill this aid German agriculture ? Third,how can it be done? The Director answered these questions one by one as heunfolded his plan.Anyone who has seen the desertedfarms, the gaunt empty farm buildings, theneglected orchards, and the weeds andgrass grown fields of southern Vermontcan appreciate what is happening in certain naturally less favored farmlands ofThueringen and the Black Forest Hills inGermany. And whoever has read of orseen good farmers deprived by foreclosure,forced sales, and public auctions of theirgood farms in our west can appreciate whatis happening to> the sturdy farm proprietorsin Germany from Schleswig-Holstein tothe Bavarian Alps.In Germany the farm population is fighting a losing battle. And in Germany onemust reckon with a national economic andcultural spirit that does not shrug itsshoulders and say, "Well, tough luck forthe farmers." Germany did not go through the War without realizing again what"manpower" means and from whence itcomes. Germany has not watched her industries swell and expand without seeingthat industries and big cities "eat" menand without realizing that unless Germanyis to run the danger of "Polanization" (Before the War Germany's cheap labor, industrial as well as agricultural, came fromPoland) she must care for her own manpower sources.Thus with economic and cultural reasonsthe Director justified his projected peasantreclamation plans and rationalized somewhat afterwards with a reference to- Oswald Spengler's differentiation betweencivilization and culture, suggesting thatculture, spiritual and intellectual life, iswhat we are all looking for, not civilizationin its form of a raised standard of living."There is culture in peasant life andcustoms," he said.This point of view rests, of course, uponthe proposition that the peasant reclamation project will restore healthy farm lifein Germany, and to follow Herr von Engelberg's argument we must summarize theagrarian situation in Germany. A third ofthe population produces food for the othertwo thirds. Because of the higher production costs and less favorable climatic andsoil conditions, and finally because of lesswell organized marketing, the Germans cannot compete successfully with Polish hograisers, Canadian and Argentinian wheatand rye growers, American and Yugoslavian corn growers, American meat packers,and Dutch, Finnish, and Danish butter,egg, and cheese producers. But today sucha thing as open, natural competition is outof the question anyway, and Germany, alongwith other countries retaining the goldstandard, must protect herself from de-valuated products from countries with depreciated currency and subsidized trade advantages. Thus soaring tariffs, contingents,and valuta embargos help the attempt to309310 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEreserve the German food market for German farmers. Except in dairy productsand a few others, Germany not only supplies her depression demand but has over-supplied it, and is now desperately engagedin disposing somehow of her surplusses tokeep prices up. The farmers' price shearsrefuse to shut in spite of valiant attemptson the part of the government. Industryprices remain above farm prices, and farmers are paying taxes out of "substance" instead of income.This is the situation the directors ofGerman chambers of agriculture face, andfor which Herr Direktor von Engelbergproposes his peasant reclamation plans. Torelieve the price sinkers, he intends to relieve the market of the "oversupply" pressure, — to hold the "last straws," so tospeak, from the market. Instead of lettingthe hoe of competition weed out by bankruptcy the necessary number of farmers,he proposes to convert excess farmers intopeasants. According to his definition, afarmer is an agricultural producer producing for the market, regulating his production according to prices, while a peasantproduces first of all for himself, letting hissurplusses flow to the markets, receivingenough for these surplusses to keep him in"salt and clothes." By taking 5,000,000families out of the farmer class, theDirector hopes to have the oversupply consumed at home and the prices on the national market kept reasonable for theremaining farmers. This is how peasantreclamation should help the German agricultural situation.Aside from the question as to how onecould keep a peasant a peasant, producingfor himself, when a favorable market existsfor him, one must ask how the farmer isto be reconverted into a peasant. Heretaxation plays the principal role. It isvon Engelberg's thesis that the peasants became farmers chiefly because they had increasing taxes to pay. The government,laden with Reparations, the inflation, andsocial municipal, and state expenditures,had to levy ever increasing taxes, in order tomeet demands. To pay taxes the farmers(or then the peasants) had to sell. To sell they had to produce for the market. Themore they produced and sold the more theywere met by falling prices, and the morethey had to produce and sell to pay thesame taxes. Those farmers who lived indistricts favored by good soil and climatecould shift from crop to crop according toprice conditions, but the brothers in theBlack Forest and Thueringen districtsfound themselves whipped by falling pricesinto producing more, which further depressed the prices, which acted as anotherwhipping to produce more. "A farm is nocapitalistic industrial plant which can beshut down at any marginal price-cost relationship," Herr von Engelberg pointedout."The solution?" said the Director."Relieve the farmer of the obligation topay, of the obligation to sell. Convert histax obligations into labor obligations to thecounty and state. Make his land inalienable, providing he works it well. Makehim produce for himself and his family.In short, separate, insulate him from theprice dictatorship of a capitalistic marketsystem with which he cannot get along.Capitalistic market production is not hisgame. Make him play his own game. Thealternative to living a healthy peasant's lifein Germany is living an industrial hand'slife in the city."Herr von Engelberg's Plan is rough inits outline. There is a whole line ofthought and planning in it to be furtherdeveloped, if indeed its further development is possible. It is best regarded perhaps under the question, "How can thepeasant be assured of a market for his surplusses which will return him enough buying power to pay for necessities and luxuries,a buying power which Herr von Engelbergin my opinion seems to minimize?Typical of every situation in which thesocial welfare has demanded entrance ofthe political into the economic, here alsoone interference demands another. To assure the peasant a market for his surplussesof poultry, meat, and dairy products, hemust be protected from stock feeders andchicken farmers, and from large dairyconcerns. Two alternatives are at disposal,RECONVERTING GERMAN FARMERS INTO PEASANTS 3nabolish them or restrict their market tothe big city populations, so that the peasantmay supply his local market. The questionof organization and the arbitrary stipulations involved present a huge difficulty.In the application of this plan, however,we find an interesting example of howpractice may be more plausible than theory.There is little simpler, provided one canmanage politics, than cutting the tax obligations of the German small farmer,when he cannot pay taxes anyway. Enoughtraditional feeling for the inalienable rightsof the farmer to his land, the non-capitalisticconception of land exists in Germany perhaps, to deed a farmer's land to him withinalienable rights by law as long as he usesit well. Without mortgages and taxes, thereis less pressure to sell and to produce tosell. With less pressure to sell on an unprofitable market, there is less inducementto get into debt. Herr von Engelberg andhis staff have begun with the "smallest"farmers. Whether he will be able to reconvert five million farm families intolargely self-sufficient peasants is a problematical question which does not disturbhim as long as he has practical "jobs" before him and practical success as he advances.National socialism may have as many definitions as communism. It probably existsin a much more extensive degree in itslargest sense than either communism orsocialism. There is no communism in thepure Marxian or any other sense today,and there is no socialism that is not national. But national socialism exists in fact,if not in recognized form in Russia andItaly, and prevails increasingly in Germany, though it may have nothing to do withHitler.There are two important ideas in national socialism. First, that the economicunit today is a national unit, that the welfare of the individual depends upon thewelfare of the nation, that if he is to experience economic welfare he must enterinto a social-economic contract that willenable the group interests to have precedence over his own. Second, — the moresocialistic idea, — the group ownership ofthe means of production. In Russia bothideas are in practice. In Italy and Germany, more especially the former, ofcourse, the first idea of social welfare isaccepted, while the government ownershipis displaced by government control of private enterprise.When Germany reaches the stage whereland becomes alienable and where the peasant population is nurtured and favored bysuch methods as Director von Engelbergsuggests, agricultural national socialism willhave been achieved. Although Herr vonEngelberg smiled and remarked that hisplan had no practical advantages for conditions as they are in the United States, I,as I read the reports of changing Americanfarm policies, wonder at the parallels in thedevelopment of agrarian legislation inGermany and the United States. How arewe going to attack the final problem ofmaking the adjustment between a capitalistic system, which is developed to serveindustrial enterprise, and our agriculture,which because of different economic featurescannot be made to feel healthy and at homeunder the industrial capitalistic conditions ?Last Minute News for 18The Class of 191 8 will meet for dinner Friday, June 9, at 6 130 o'clock, atIda Noyes Hall. Make reservations with Mrs. Geo. N. Simpson, 5842 StonyIsland Ave., Chicago, 111., (Midway 3100).Arcturus and the Century of ProgressBy Otto Struve, Ph.D. '23,Director, Yerkes ObservatoryON THE evening of June 1, 1933,the 40-inch telescope of the YerkesObservatory will be pointed towards the bright star in the eastern part ofthe sky in the constellation of Bootes, namedArcturus. The feeble rays of light fromthis star will fall on the objective, will becollected at a point called the focus, at thelower end of the big tube, 62 feet away. Adelicate instrument, the photo-electric cell,will be attached at the focus, so that thelight will fall upon its sensitive surfacemade of potassium.It is one of the properties of potassiumthat it converts light into electric currentand consequently in our experiment on thefirst of June the light from Arcturus will beconverted into electricity. This methodhas been known for some time and has beenused for scientific research. However, thiswill be the first time that electric energygenerated by a star will be put to use forpractical purposes.The current is, indeed, very small, beingonly about a millionth of a millionth ofthe size of the current flowing through anordinary electric light. The problem is tobuild a harness for this tiny current so thatwe can put it to work. The apparatus willbe similar to a radio receiving set whichtakes the feeble electric current from theantenna and amplifies it until it is sufficientto operate the loud speaker. Especially constructed detecting and amplifying tubesfrom the General Electric Company areemployed and the output from this amplifier will be transmitted over the WesternUnion telegraph lines to the Century ofProgress grounds in Chicago where it willoperate the switch turning on the greatlight in the Hall of Science. While the practical value of this experiment is not great, it demonstrates vividlythat our earth is receiving vast amounts ofenergy from the sun and from the stars.The impulse of light which will be used byus corresponds to the area of the telescopeobjective. Every square inch of the surfaceof the earth receives the same amount oflight from Arcturus and if all of it couldbe converted into mechanical energy the result would indeed be enormous. The totalamount of heat derived from Arcturus isequal to that received from a single candleat a distance of 5 miles. In reality Arcturusis one hundred times as bright as the sun,but its great distance makes it appear muchfainter.Arcturus is the fourth brightest star inthe northern hemisphere. Light travels 40years between the star and the earth. Consequently the beam of light which will beutilized to light the Century of Progresswill have left the star at the time of theColumbian Exposition in 1893.The idea of lighting the Fair in this manner was suggested by the retired directorof the Yerkes Observatory, Dr. Edwin B.Frost, and in recognition of this fact hehas been invited to make a brief addressjust prior to the flashing on of the signal.The telescope will be operated on June 1,by Dr. C. T. Elvey. In case of cloudyweather several other observatories havebeen invited to keep their telescopes inreadiness, so that they may substitute forthe Yerkes Observatory refractor.The Yerkes Observatory is open forvisitors, during the summer, on everySaturday afternoon from 1 130-4. Thephoto-electric apparatus will be on displayafter June 1.312Shailer MathewsFortyIN BEHALF of my colleagues of thefaculties, I wish to express our appreciation of the co-operation and support shown by the Trustees during theseyears of stress. The relations between thefaculty and the Trustees have always beena matter of congratulation. In few institutions has there been less friction betweenthe two bodies, or greater willingness ofeach to let the other perform the tasks whichwere peculiarly its own. The last fewyears can hardly be said to have been Utopian, but the University is not without experience in facing financial difficulties. Thedeficits of the early years were of all butannual occurrence, and the loyalty and generosity of the Trustees have been repeatedlyevinced. For, unless I quite mistake thespirit of the University, the relations offaculty and Trustees have always beenthose of co-operation in a single task — tomake the University of Chicago a leaderin the educational life of America.The Spirit of a Young FacultyThe spirit of a university is not impersonal. It is the collective mind of a groupof men, who as Trustees and as faculty,have contributed their own personalities tothe larger personality of an institution.We rightly honor the names of those distinguished men who, at the beginning ofthe University, had already won distinction,and whose co-operation here on our campusinevitably set the highest standard of research and scholarship. They were indeedOlympians. But I look back also upon thatgroup of young men, some of them barelythirty, whose growth and achievement havebeen so much a part of our history. Someof them are still with us ; others have passedinto that empyrean atmosphere in whichdwell the presidents of foundations anduniversities; others are dead; still othersare partaking of a meteorological last sacrament in the climate of California. Tothem was given the opportunity of contrib-^his is Dean Mathew's address to the mdelivered at their annual dinner. Looks Back OverYears*uting their own growth and spirit to thecollective growth and spirit of the University. Hopefulness, like optimism, is thechild of inexperience, and that hopefulnesshas been shared by the succession of youngmen that have followed in the steps of theirelders. To them as they have maturedevery addition to knowledge has been afrontier to be extended. Their sense ofmission, one might almost say in ecclesiastical terms, of vocation, has given to ourUniversity a quality which older institutions so often lack. A sense of an uncompleted task has always been with us. It hasfaced us in the prophetic brick walls ofbuildings waiting for additions. It facedus in the very crudities of our early surroundings.It is true that in early days we attemptedto remedy the newness. We felt profoundlythe need of traditions. And we set aboutmaking them. We had a sharply definedsocial hierarchy of fellows, docents, assistants, associates, instructors, assistant professors, associate professors, professors, andhead professors. We organized studentstunts and sang songs about them. But,above all, we wished the benediction of age.For a number of years an enterprisingphotographer and his daughters herded suchstudents as they could find upon Haskellsteps and took their picture, while anyonewho could find the notes and the words ledthose still present in singing about "OldHaskell Door." I have been told that thefirst time the song was sung, one of thesingers got stuck in the varnish on the olddoor.The Spirit of the UniversityIt is of the development of this spirit ofleadership, with all its resulting responsibilities, that I venture to speak tonight. Ifat the end of nearly forty years' association with the University my mind becomesreminiscent and, it may be, too appreciativeof the past, the responsibility is not mine,rubers of the faculties and the Board of Trustees,313314 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEbut that of the almanac. Senescence andreminiscence are all but synonymous.There is risk as well as satisfaction in being an ancestor. There is a zest in givingform and character to an institution thatcan hardly be shared by those who inheritwhat others have created. Institutions havecharacter and spirit which make them individual. Such characteristics are not set byprograms and resolutions, but by the cooperative action of those who form theinstitution. The spirit of a genuine university is different from that of a commercial house. The members of its faculty,with possibly a few more or less unfortunateexceptions, have deliberately chosen a sortof life in which the attempt to accumulatewealth is quite abandoned. Their motivesare not economic, and if an institution is tobe worthy of its name, its spirit will be setby ambitions peculiarly its own. The capital which the scientist and the scholarcontribute to society is not to be measuredby a sliding scale of prices. The universityhas its own ambitions, its own services, itsown adventures as a university.Our Experiments in EducationIt has been the privilege of some of usto watch and have a part in the development of a spirit which has made for leadership in University affairs. As I recall theprocess of the years I am impressed withthe independence and sometimes adventureof the University's young president andfaculty. In 1890 the educational world ofAmerica was only beginning to break fromthe conventional ideals of the Americancollege. Graduate study outside the professional schools was just beginning to bemade possible in Johns Hopkins and Harvard. Many of the older men of the facultywere products of theological seminaries,although they were ready to forget the pitfrom which they had been dug. The University of Chicago deliberately undertookto embody the principles and practiceswhich were, in the very nature of the case,experiments. To read the first bulletinsof Dr. Harper is to find one's self in themidst of educational projects and novelties which make even the reorganized University of today appear almost conservative.There was little in the conventional educational organization of the day that wasnot scrapped or modified. The Universitywas to be kept open the year round. Semesters and terms were to be replaced by quarters. Such an unheard-of novelty musthave seemed to threaten the very foundations of academic self-content. The summer was to be devoted to University activities of the same level as the rest ofthe year. Instead of an educational tabled'hote of one-hour and two-hour courses, thestudent was to take two courses, a majortwo hours a day, and a minor one hour,during six weeks. Instead of diffusion, therewas to be concentration in study, with theminds of the students centered rather thandistracted by a variety of interests.Intercollegiate athletics had been regardedby most educators either as a sort of pro-phylactio against student disorder or as ameans by which students were kept together while the faculty sprayed them witheducation. Our University undertook tomake physical culture a phase of actual university life, and, to the amazement of theeducational mind, made the director ofphysical culture a member of the faculty,and put the control of athletics in thehands, of professors instead of students andalumni.The University was not to be a college,but was to include a college. At once theproblem of curriculum and organizationtook new form. The junior college cameinto existence on our campus and, so faras I know, our institution first of all daredto break across the established educationalrespectabilities of college "years" and miscellaneous electives by sharply distinguishing between the types of study of the juniorcollege and the senior college. From thatday to this, it is the senior college — thatis to say, the last two years of college education — that has perplexed American educators. Here at Chicago we have beensingularly independent and adventurous inattempting the adjustment between the educational courses which lay the foundationfor intellectual life and research coursesSHAILER MATHEWS LOOKS BACK OVER FORTY YEARS 3i5which extend the range of human knowledge. The entire history of the Universityhas been marked by experimentation in thisfield. Indeed, if there has been one characteristic of these years,it has been the belief thatthe University of Chicago was something morethan one universityamong many. It has beena place where the natureand administration ofeducation itself has beenan object of study andof tentative experiment.Thus, through the far-sighted policy and sympathetic attitude of theTrustees, the institutionhas dared to run the riskof making educationalmistakes in the interestsof educational progress.It is this freedom for institutional introspection,criticism, and reorganization that has made the University ofChicago an influence in American educationall but unique. We have been the laboratory where educational experiments havebeen made. Our experience has been placedat the disposal of the institutions of thenation.Nor has this sense of the obligation toexperiment in the organization of educational procedure been limited to the collegeyears. When the University was founded,there was an academy at Morgan Park.In the course of time there was establisheda School of Education with the Experimental practices of the elementary school.Members of the faculty furnished much ofthe human materials for its study. And itis with special pride that those of us whoare now grandfathers recall the fact thatour children were a part of the research material from which so much of modern educational induction was drawn. If they werenot taught to spell, they were taught torecapitulate human progress, and many auniversity faculty over the country hasamong its members those who here wereDean Mathewstaught to live like primitive men in orderthat at the end they might become university professors.The same sort of spirit extended into thefield of Universityfinances. The early yearsof the University, aseveryone knows, wereyears of daring on thepart of President Harper and the institution,and of long-sufferinggenerosity on the part ofthe Founder. But therecame a time when suchopportunism demandedsystematization, and thegenius of Trevor Arnettand N.CPlimptonmadethe financial management of the institutionan experiment in university finance. The influence of the Universityin this regard has beennation-wide. Here, forthe first time, a philosophy and a techniqueof university financing were so developedas to become the model which has beenadopted by innumerable institutions.I do not need to mention the other novelties of university organization with whichthe University has dared to experiment.It will be enough to mention the UniversityPress, today generally recognized as themost significant publishing agent which isactually and officially a part of the University life.Utilizing Our MistakesIt could not have been possible for allthe experiments which we have made inthe field of education to be successful. Thevery fact that we were free to proceed tentatively made it possible for us to abandonplans and institutional policies which werefound upon trial to be unsatisfactory. Inthe early days the University maintained avery elaborate system of university extension. No other institution gave to extensionsuch an elaborate trial. The course ofyears showed that the methods needed re-316 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEorganization. Extension later ceased tohave a place in the organization of the University, and became a peripatetic loquacityin the search of what Paul Shorey in hisnever-to-be-forgotten convocation addressdeclared to be fff a m e — fifty and my expenses!" But from this early experiment inadult education there has developed theUniversity College and the Home-StudyDepartment, which have placed the servicesof our University at the disposal of thousands of persons who could not be uponthe campus.In the early days, too, there was theexperiment of affiliation, the idea being thatthere should be associated with the University a number of colleges under its general direction whose graduates might receivea degree from the University of Chicagoupon a quarter's residence. As an experiment, this served to bring the Universityinto touch with various schools, but it wassoon seen to involve too many complications,and it was replaced by the system of recognition of work done in other institutionsso carefully scrutinized as to make it possible for great numbers of students to enter the last two years of our colleges, andespecially to come to the University foradvanced work in research as graduatestudents.We once had a Congregation. It wasan educational experiment intended to bringinto the general participation in the University life not only all members of thefaculty but the doctors of philosophy andothers. This Congregation was held regularly for a number of years, but was foundnot to accomplish its desired ends, and itdisappeared, if I remember rightly, in aneloquent speech by myself as vice-president,when we took into its membership the distinguished German professors who werehere at the great celebration in 1905! Tomost of us who were members of the body,I think, however, the chief recollection isthat of the discussions which had to dowith reformed spelling. For then was debated with great earnestness, if not passion,the morality of spelling through"t-h-r-o-u-g-h" instead of "t-h-r-u" ! Facing CriticismThese various adventures in the reorganization of the higher education of Americawere by no means without debate on thepart of ourselves, or free from criticismfrom without. Some of us can well remember the heated discussions over the matter ofthe segregation of the men and women students in the courses of the junior college.There, gentlemen, was indeed a cyclone inthe educational teapot! I do not understand even yet just why there was so muchconcern over the matter, but some of theleaders of the intelligentsia in the city undertook to tell us how to organize our institution, and for a few months the excitement was intense. I don't remember justwhat the outcome was, but at all events itwas "a famous victory."And then there was a long and learneddiscussion over the Latin question. In thisdiscussion the faculty came as near to taking sides and organizing conflicting groupsas over any subject in the history of theUniversity. Most of the details have escaped my memory, and the outcome isto be read in the successive language requirements of the curriculum with whichwe have experimented. There does remainin my mind, however, the classic argumentof one of the greatest scientists that Americahas produced. In the presence of that groupof empirical educational experts, a parent-teacher association, he argued that Latinwas no proper study for children sincethe study of genders was not the trulyscientific approach to the understanding ofsex!The world's criticism of the University'sdaring to break with convention and to experiment in more effective self-organizationhas ranged from bitter attack to allegedhumor. I remember that one of the leading journals of the East, with that fine spiritof detachment from the American spiritthat characterizes the outposts of Europeanculture of the Atlantic Coast, prophesiedthat soon the output of doctors of philosophyin the University of Chicago would rivalthe output of pigs in the Stock Yards. Themost familiar form of humor, however, wasto refer to our institution as a continuationSHAILER MATHEWS LOOKS BACK OVER FORTY YEARS 3i7of the Midway shows, or "Harper's Three-Ring Circus."But neither satire nor opposition stoppedour attempts to give order and outlook toeducational reconstruction. It served aspublicity which increased our friends andour enrolment. A reformer whom nobodycriticizes is no reformer. It is better to bedamned than to be ignored. And as onelooks back over these forty-odd years ofconstant reorganization and experiment inwhich we dared face the champions of conventionality in the interests of larger efficiency in educational processes, it is plainthat it was this institutional daring thatmade us a ferment in the educational world.Academic FreedomFor freedom of thought and speech hascertainly been ours. As one looks back overthe years, it is easy to realize how vital wasthe issue of academic freedom for the spiritof research. As far back as 1895 PresidentHarper enunciated the principle, and to thelasting credit of the Board of Trustees andthe Founder, despite their dislike of manythings that were said, especially in the fieldsof economics and religion, the faculty hasbeen free to express its views. And it isalso a tribute to those who were given thisfreedom that they did not turn it intolicense. The University has suffered fromonly a few men with rhetorical halitosisborn of ill-digested omniscience. It is truethat some of our number have resorted toepigrams that found journalistic publicity,and an epigram is a half-truth so expressedas to irritate people who believe the otherhalf-truth. But freedom bore its sense ofresponsibility.Freedom of speech, with all its dangers,is indispensable for freedom in research. Unless one dares face unexpected and, itmay be, undesired results of research in anyfield, such research is impossible. For thosewho in all fields of thought are scientificallyminded, there is the abiding conviction thatgood methods in the hands of honest peoplewill correct false conclusions; develop intellectual independence; evoke a cautious,tentative presentation of conclusions; andarouse the conviction that youth is not merely the inheritor of the achievementsof its elders, but fellow-seeker for reality.For those of us who have lived throughthese creative forty years of the University,its material expansion is the outward signof an inward growth. We are not yet complete, but an institution can hardly be saidto be unsymmetrically developed in whicha student may begin life in a Lying-in Hospital and, without leaving the campus except for food and sleep, emerge as a Doctorof Philosophy. The same expansion is tobe seen in the relations of the members ofits faculty with the life outside the academicwalls. We have never been subjected to therepressions which would make a universityinto an institution detached from the lifeof society. There have been few of themajor surveys in which some member ofthis company of young men growing intomaturity has not participated. There arefew organizations in the field of the naturalsciences, of sociology, or of religion in whichwe have not been represented. We havebeen free to carry whatever abilities we mayhave developed into the field of politics andreform. Into all these extra-university interests the scientific and constructive spiritof the University has been carried. Thatfreedom which has been ours we havegranted others. Subject to criticism on thepart of friends and opposition on the partof enemies, we have not joined in controversy. If we were convinced, we admittedour mistakes; if we were unconvinced, weendeavored to persuade. But our deep-seated conviction that the Universityexisted to extend knowledge has meant theenrichment of life. We have dared to takerisks in education and research because webelieved facts warranted and demanded experiment. Had there been less freedomthere would have been less experimentation,and if there had been fewer experimentsthere would have been no leadership.Our VocationTime and again the temptation has cometo us as an institution to be content withwhat has already been accomplished and tojoin the company of self-satisfied institutions which had no ambition to test that3i8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEwhich was new. Where other institutionshave built stadia, we have built laboratories. Where other institutions havechecked freedom of discussion under the alleged excuse that youth is to be preservedfrom mistaken ideas, we have believed thateducation includes an understanding of howto face frankly and judge all sorts of proposals, from the nature of living organismsto proposals for ending the depression ;from discussions on cosmic rays to the existence of God.It is this spirit of open-minded search forreality by trustworthy method that hascharacterized these forty years and still isours. The conviction that research is asacred duty has been shared by Trusteesand faculty alike. We have had no itchingfor scientific wars of aggression, but we havenot been content to remain as a service ofsupplies in the rear of the fighting line.We have tried to turn negative results ofexperiment into new construction. And itis this spirit of the entire institution that hasbeen the warrant of its success. Men have trusted us with vast sums because they believed that an institution that was not hidebound in its methods or timid in experimentwas calculated to make new contributionsto the welfare of our day. Without thisfreedom of research and courage to experiment and determination never to be contentin a changing world with educational convention, the University of Chicago wouldhave been merely one more institutionamong many of its sort. Its sense of mission and of a great cause has become thespirit of creative leadership.Rudyard Kipling, in his tribute to thespirit of Walter Balestier, pictures his friendseated with his companions in some heavenly market place, and as they sat there:Ofttimes cometh the great Lord God, master ofevery trade,And tells them tales of the sabbath day, and ofEdens newly made.And they rise to their feet as he passes by,gentlemen unafraid.So has it been and so shall it be with us — inthe presence of God and man, a Universityunafraid !Last Call for the Ph. D. Association MeetingThe annual dinner of the Association of Doctors of Philosophy will be held at 6 p.m. inJudson Court, 6oth Street and Ellis Avenue, on Saturday, June ioth. The cost will not exceedone dollar per plate. We are very fortunate in securing Dean Shailer Mathews to address uson "The Scholar in an Age of Transition." It is hoped that President Hutchins can be with usfor a portion of the evening. Come back and renew old acquaintances under such pleasant conditions ; greet President Slaught, the guiding spirit of our association these many years. Youwill be able to see and hear the latter part of the Sing if this is your desire. As no announcementwill be sent through the mail, please obey that impulse and notify the undersigned now by postalto reserve a place for you. In any case, reservations must be in by noon, June ioth.D. J. Fisher, SecretaryThe Brahms FestivalMUSIC patrons of the city will findon the campus of the University ofChicago in May one of the majormusical events of the year when Universitystudents and eminent guest artists unite topresent a three-day Brahms festival in observance of the hundredth anniversary ofthis great composer's birth. This is the onlyBrahms festival to be given in the city thisspring.Claire Dux, soprano, who has just returned from a most successful tour of Germany, and Egon Petri, pianist of worldfame, will be the outstanding figures ofthis Brahms Festival, which will also fea-tu r e theh u n dred -piece University ofChicagoS y m p honyOrchestra,the UniversityChoir, andthe StudentChorus.On Thursday, May 25, the opening concert of the Festival will be given in MandelHall at 8:30, the program including"Tafellied" (Chorus of Homage), sung bythe University Chorus; "Liebeslieder-Walzer" (Love Song Waltzes), offeredby the Midway Singers and the UniversityMadrigal Group; "Rhapsody," afterGoethe's "Harzreise im Winter" sung bythe University Choir and Chorus, accompanied by the orchestra; and "Schicksals-lied" (Song of Fate), featuring chorus andorchestra.Egon Petri will play with the UniversitySymphony Orchestra on Friday night, May26, in Mandel Hall, presenting the PianoConcerto B in Flat Major, as the mainfeature of the evening's program. Theorchestra will offer "Variations on a Themeby Haydn" and the "First Symphony."Evans BrickenIn the great University Chapel on theMidway the Festival will be brought to aclose Saturday evening, May 27, with ClaireDux singing the Brahms "Requiem," assisted by the University Choir, Chorus andSymphony Orchestra. Carl Bricken, professor of Music at the University, willdirect the Orchestra during the Festival,while Cecil Smith and Mack Evans of theUniversity Department of Music facultyare to lead the chorus and choir.Tickets for the Brahms Festival are nowavailable by mail from the Department ofMusic, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. For the first concert Thursday evening,May 25,they arepriced :Main Floor$1, balcony$0.50. Friday evening,May 26 ,Main Floorseats areSmith $i<50 andbalcony $1.There will be no charge for the "Requiem" in the University Chapel Saturdaynight, May 27 ; each patron will be givenas many tickets for this concluding performance as he orders by mail for another concert of the Festival.The Brahms Festival, coming at the endof the Department of Music's second yearat the University of Chicago, culminates aperiod of crowded activity and astonishinggrowth of this new University department.In October, 193 1, Carl Bricken, chairmanof the department, issued a call to all students interested in playing in a symphonyorchestra. So enthusiastic was the responsethat before the end of the year ProfessorBricken was able to present the Orchestrain a full-length symphonic program. Sincethat time, the Orchestra has presented fourconcerts in Mandel Hall.319320 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1933 Alumni Reunion ProgramWednesday, June 76:30 Social Service Administration Dinner, International House.Thursday, June 83 :30 Alumni Varsity Baseball Game, Greenwood Field.6:30 "C" Banquet, Hutchinson Commons.6 130 W. A. A. Dinner, Ida Noyes Hall7 :oo Phi Beta Kappa Annual Dinner, Judson Court Dining Room.Friday, June 99:00 Alumni Conference, Judson Court Lounge.2 :oo Campus Tours, Informal.2:00 Class of 1908 Headquarters Opening, Swift Hall Commons Room.2:30 Class of 1908 Specially Conducted Campus Tours.6:30 Class of 1908 Dinner, International House Theatre.6:30 Class of 19 13 Dinner, International House, Second Floor.6:30 Class of 1918 Dinner, Sunparlor, Ida Noyes Hall.6:30 Class of 1923 Dinner, International House, Tiffin Room.6:30 University Aides Dinner, Ida Noyes Hall.8:30 Alumni Assembly, Mandel Hall.10:30 Alumni Reception (informal), Reynolds Club.Saturday, June 109:00 Alumni Conference, Judson Court Lounge.1 1 130 Alumnae Breakfast, Ida Noyes Hall.12:30 1916-1917 Luncheon, Hutchinson Cafe.1 :oo Class of 19 13 Luncheon, Old Heidelberg, Century of Progress.1 :oo Class of 1930 Luncheon, International House.2 :oo Registration, Circle.2:00 Campus Tours, Starting from Circle.2:00 1916-1917 Baseball Game, Campus.4:00 Reunion Revue, Mandel Hall.5:30 Alumni Dinner, Hutchinson Commons.6 :30 Association of Doctors of Philosophy Annual Dinner, Burton CourtDining Room.7:30 Band Concert, Hutchinson Court.8 :00 University Sing, Hutchinson Court. Fraternity Marches. Inductionof Aides and Marshals. Presentation of "C" Blankets. Alma Mater.Sunday, June ii1 1 :oo University Religious Service, University Chapel.2:00 Class of 1908 Party, Palos Park.2:00 Class of 1913 Party, details will be mailed to class members.4:00 Musical Vesper Service, University Chapel.Monday. June 12Rush Medical College Clinics, See Page 333 for Details.Tuesday, June 136 :30 Law School Association Dinner, Congress Hotel, Florentine Room.6:30 Rush Medical College Dinner, Congress Hotel.Wednesday, June 148 :oo School of Social Service Administration Breakfast, Hotel Statler,Detroit, Michigan.Fortieth Annual Alumni ReunionJune 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13BEGINNING with the annualI Alumni-Varsity Baseball Game onThursday, June 8, and ending withthe annual dinners of the Law School Association and Rush Medical College on thefollowing Tuesday, the Fortieth AnnualAlumni Reunion will include a wide varietyof interesting events and entertainment.Members of the Order of the "C" aremaking special arrangements for their annual banquet, as it will be a testimonial toCoach Stagg, who retires in June afterforty-one years of service. A permanent organization, to carry on after Mr. Staggleaves, has been effected, and its plans andpolicies will be divulged at this annualgathering.The third annual Alumni Conferencewill include two official meetings, in addition to informal sessions. Delegates fromall parts of the country will be present,and officials of the University and associated organizations will describe the progress and plans of the University and itsalumni.The general program on Saturday afternoon and evening will begin with classluncheons, followed by registration in theCircle, the Reunion Revue under the direction of Frank Hurburt O'Hara, theAlumni Dinner in Hutchinson Commonsand the University Sing. It is expected thatthe dinner will start promptly at 5 130, inorder to have sufficient time to finishthe speeches before the beginning of theSing.Several of the five-year classes have already completed plans for special affairs tobe held in conjunction with the generalschedule. The Class of 1 908 is stagingthree days of celebration — Back-to-CampusDay on Friday, group participation in the regular reunion on Saturday, and a privateparty on Sunday. A complete descriptionof the program was printed in the Aprilnumber of the Magazine. Any special information may be secured by communication with the Alumni Office. Mrs. GeorgeE. McKibbin is in charge.The Class of 19 13 is having a privatedinner on Friday at the InternationalHouse, a luncheon on Saturday at OldHeidelberg at The Century of Progress,and a party on Sunday. Hiram L. Kennicott is chairman of the Committee. Hisaddress is 335 North Linden Avenue, Highland Park, Illinois.The Class of 1923 will hold a dinneron Friday night in the Tiffin Room of theInternational House. Egil E. Krogh, 7613East End Avenue, is making the arrangements.The Classes of 19 16 and 19 17 will holda joint luncheon on Saturday in Hutchinson Cafe, followed by the annual baseballgame on the Campus.The Class of 1930 will celebrate a thirdreunion party by having a luncheon at theInternational House on Saturday.Other classes are perfecting arrangementsand will communicate with class membersby special letter in the near future.This year affords the unusual opportunity for out-of-town alumni to combinetheir reunion activities with a trip to TheCentury of Progress Exposition on thelake front within five minutes' ride fromthe University neighborhood. It is anticipated that this attractive combination willbring an unusual number of alumni back tothe Midway.The reunion is under the managementof a committee headed by Harry R. Swanson, of the Class of 19 17.321Has Brotherhood Prevailed?By Ruth C. E. Earnshaw, '31I AST September I arrived at International House, bag and baggage, at-** the end of a long hard vacation, intent upon joining my fate for a year withwhat looked to me like a truly noble experiment. "That Brotherhood may prevail" — those are high sounding words witha ring of challenge in them, and even onthat hot September night in the chaos ofunpacking I felt that I was embarking onan enterprise of some significance.Now, after three quarters of that enterprise, stock-taking is in order. Such anevaluation as this is undoubtedly subjective,and, indeed, therein lies its value. A list ofnames, nationalities, social events and organizations has little bearing in this case,compared with the weight of such intangibles as atmospheres and impressions.International House is a very easy placein which to live. Having tried various typesof institution, housekeeping and rooming, II feel that I can say with conviction thatthe physical arrangements for living at theHouse are superior in comfort and convenience to anything available to studentsin the community at comparable prices.The daily frictions of living are reduced toa minimum and one may exist as blithely asthe lily of the field. Only the unreasonably luxurious and painfully unphilosophi-cal can find cause for complaint in the actualliving conditions.It is unfortunate that the combination ofcomfort, low prices and the depression havehad a tendency to make Americans of theUniversity community look upon the Houseas just a good hotel. It is unfortunate buttrue that a good number of the residentshave continued there, enjoying the physicalcomfort and economic ease of the House,passively accepting gobbets of internationaldoctrine, but contributing very little to thelife of the community in time or in effortto make friends with the other members.This is not a criticism of these residentsas people, but their presence is undoubtedlya deterring factor in the accomplishment ofthe aims of the House. It may be that when and if the financial situation improves anda larger proportion of foreign students arein Chicago this unfortunate condition willbe remedied. As it is, the inertia of an uninterested group of Americans, whose rentchecks are undoubtedly necessary to thefinancial safety of the enterprise, endangersthe success of the more important aspectof the House. Having been one of theseAmericans I feel free to speak.One of the most startling features of International House is its beauty and itsluxury. The very novelty of it made itsfirst months of life uncomfortably public,and the residents have been subjected morethan once to the museum stares of thedowagers who pinch the upholstery, bounceon the furniture and gaze at the simpleAmerican resident washing her stockingsin the laundry in the hope that she willbreak into a native song and dance beforetheir bulging eyes. However, the firstbloom of newness is wearing off now, andone is comparatively free from this nuisance.The almost excessive luxury remains, however, making some of us feel that we are ina decidedly anomolous position.It would be difficult to feel that one'ssurroundings were too beautiful. The dailyjoy of finely proportioned rooms, lovely rugsand hangings, harmonious furniture andglorious architecture cannot be denied. Iknow of few more delightful memories Ishall carry from International House thanthose of the fountain in the sunlight, fillingthe courtyard with music, of the glint ofmoonlight on the crystal chandelier in thelounge, of the warmth and beauty of thewalls of the Home Room. No, one wouldnot want the House to be less beautiful.At the same time though, there is a stiffness of self respect that gives one pause atthe thought of living infinitely beyond one'smeans on the bounty of wealthy benevolence.It is a thin souled person who enjoys athrill of vicarious possession under thesecircumstances. And it is a persistent andnagging question as to the soundness ofliving beyond one's earning power. To the322HAS BROTHERHOOD PREVAILED? 323student, perhaps, this is not an issue. Heis, supposedly, preparing for a career thatwill make him sufficiently useful that societywill be able to afford such a bountiful living for him. This is not a very realisticway of looking at it, but it is permissible, —after a fashion. One can afford to acceptwith the prospect of repaying. But there issomething subtly binding in the mind tocontinue in the position of the patronized,regardless of the object of the patron.Then, too, the knowledge of hunger andsordid existence in the grip of poverty,within five blocks, gives bitterness to breadeaten under a million dollar roof.However these ethical questions mayaffect others, they appear to me to be inherent in the consideration of the functionof International House. Whether the endjustifies the means may depend, perhaps, onthe degree to which the end is attained.I believe that an unprejudiced examination of the program of the House, its formalactivities and officially provided opportunities for social life and hobby-riding, will indicate that everything has been done toencourage the interchange of thought andthe formation of friendships that any groupof normal human beings can ask. Therehas been an excellent variety of cultural andsocial events for House members, and thereis no reason, save a pathological shyness, toprevent any member from meeting othermembers if he or she will take the troubleto do so.There has been criticism from outsidethe House regarding the administration ofthis program, but to an average Housemember such criticism sounds unreasonable.The residents of such an institution are supposedly adult iri their ability to get alongwith other people and it should not benecessary for the administration to assumeresponsibility for their conduct of personalaffairs.Time and again, the comment, sometimesjoking, sometimes rueful and sometimesbitter, has come to my ears, "I haven't met aforeign student yet." The very statementinfers an attitude which would tend to preclude the meeting of a foreign student's everdeveloping into a friendship. It is true that the proportion of students from othercountries is smaller than is desirable. Butto those who seek friends it is not impossibleto make delightful and valued contacts.The mere fact that your neighbor comesfrom Bulgaria or China is not sufficientbasis for friendship, heaven knows. And arelationship based upon a naive assumptionof differences is not too promising. SomeAmerican residents reveal a childish inclination to put brackets around all thosewhose speech still is reminiscent of anotherland, regardless of the fact that most of usare second generation immigrants.On the other hand, there has been morethan one case where the informal and breezyovertures of Americans have met with afrigid reception from those unaccustomedto western ways. It is no more fun tobe snubbed by a Japanese than by anyoneelse. I think that many of those disappointed by their crop of foreign friendsstarted with a rather superficial idea offriendship, ignoring all past experience insocial relationships, assuming that peoplewould be different when met under theaegis of the four clasped hands.There has been one unique feature ofInternational House that has been responsible for much of the clouded discussion ofits success as a peace-maker. It is the onlyinstitution of its kind where House membersare employed by the House in clerical, orother capacities. The administration of astaff composed of a choice mixture of nationalities requires the nicest judgment andclearest understanding at all times. Butin a case of this sort, where the man whobrings your soup in the dining room sitsnext you in class in the morning, the personnel problem becomes a delicate one indeed. Questions of working hours, pay,open shop, and personalities call for the wisdom of Solomon. It has proven impossible,apparently, to combine in the persons neededfor this difficult job of management thetechnical experience and knowledgerequisite for efficiency, with the sympathy,tolerance, and understanding of the purposeof the House necessary for a satisfactoryadministration of the people involved.There is much to be said on both sides324 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof this question of employed students.From the point of view of the employerthey are not the most satisfactory of help.It frequently happens that the most ardentstudent of the sanctity of contracts betweennations will have not the most rudimentarygrasp of his obligation to be on hand at6 p.m. to cut bread when he has sold toan employer the use of his time for thatpurpose. It is, also, a common fault ofstudent labor that an employed student feelsthat the world owes him a living, nay, more,a special crown of martyrdom for his hard,hard work to advance himself in learning.Having washed dishes and licked stampsand done divers other odd jobs as an undergraduate myself I know to just what anextent one admires her own strength ofcharacter under the circumstances.Do not let this be taken as a reflectionupon the efficiency of any part of the Housepersonnel. My own experience with peopleworking in the House has impressed me consistently with their good nature, pleasantness, and willingness to help.Some complaint has been made at theHouse about the scarcity of jobs and the injustice of permitting American students tohave paying positions when foreign studentsneed them, and vice versa, with equal wrath.The attitude of a student who feels thatthe world owes him a living simply becausehe is willing to study is unjustifiable in myopinion. In no other walk of human experience is employment put on such a basis.The self-confidence that assumes that societyis getting a break in being permitted tosupport a student who has never actuallyproduced any evidence of his value is overwhelming. I do not believe that the pathof the student should be made hard, in orderto deter the unworthy and strengthen the souls of those who follow it. Far from it.But I do view with sorrow the attitude ofcomplacent acceptance of material favors soeasily acquired by those who start out onscholastic ventures without adequate fundsto see them through.I have touched on a number of theunsolved problems existent in InternationalHouse. Because they are unsolved todayby no means discourages me as an internationalist. To place a large, mixedgroup of nations, races, and creeds in a newand untried plant, subject them to a hardwinter where the communal problems areaugmented by individual strains and worriesto a degree unprecedented since the waryears, and to be disappointed because felicityand friendship do not blossom like theflowers of spring is simply to ignore the realachievements of the institution. Are theremany ordinary families that have undergonesuch strains and emerged with brotherhoodprevailing and no scars?In the course of the past winter the residents of International House have just begun to map out the problem which they aresincerely trying to solve. They realize thatinternational brotherhood cannot be floatedto security on tides of tea, nor cultures bemore than suggested by casual contacts.Any plan so emotionally convincing asthat of the House sounds so necessary ofsuccess that even partial failure or slowachievement is shockingly disappointing. Inthe brief history of Chicago's InternationalHouse, brotherhood has not wholly, prevailed. There is unrest, there is dissatisfaction, there is conflict. But there is alsohonest realization of the magnitude of thething attempted, which offers a more solidhope for ultimate success on a significantscale than would a pretense at solution at sopremature a time.in *nv opinionBy Fred B. Millett, Ph.D., '31Associate Professor of English4T THE height of my enthusiasm for/-% the theatre, I once succeeded inX -*- crowding .eleven shows into eightdays: four in Russian by the Moscow ArtTheatre, one in Yiddish (Andreyev'sAnathema by Maurice Schwartz' JewishArt Theatre), and the rest in nondescriptAmerican. Now that my interest in thetheatre is moribund, five performancesseemed quite enough for one week in NewYork recently.Miss Le Gallienne, I discovered, hadabandoned her hideous shack of a theatrein Twelfth Street, and moved her companyinto the grandiose spaces of the NewAmsterdam, haunted for me by shades of thepre-war Follies and of Mitzi in Sari. Hereshe was dividing the week between Alicein Wonderland and The Cherry Orchard.I have never been ecstatically amused byAlice, yet I could not but be moved toadmiration by the ingenuity with which thisdifficult (not to say, impossible) materialhas been transferred to the stage. Bythe aid of a moving panoramic back-drop,most of the major scenes of the original arestaged, and, since the designer, IreneSharaff, has attempted to bring the Tennielillustrations to life, the production has anamazing cleverness and grotesque beauty.Thus the familiar forms of the MadHatter, the Dormouse, the Duchess, andthe royal court of Hearts strut and fretbefore us. Most brilliant of all is thepuppet show of "The Walrus and theCarpenter," with a dancing chorus ofbooted oysters, consumed before one's veryeyes.With fairly vivid memories of the Moscow Art Theatre's mellow performance ofThe Cherry Orchard, there was some risk,I felt, in seeing in English this play ofdelicately modulated moods. The greatest disappointment was Donald Cameron'sLopakhin, which was far short of the crudebut generous spirited vitality of Moscow'sLeonidoff. Peter, the tutor, was madetouchingly threadbare and ineffectual byHarold Moulton, and one of the mostpoignant moments in the play was his firstencounter with Madame Ranevsky, whenhis altered aspect brings sharply to herheart the realization of the passage of yearsand the loss of her little son. Nazimova,whose performance Woollcott finds "themost glamorous experience offered by thepresent season," conveys excellently themore pathetic aspects of the role, but quitemisses the fluttering absurdity whichMadame. Tchekoff embodied beautifully.The play, whether seen in Russian orAmerican, is the best of Tchekoff, and,therefore, among the best of modern plays.Despite repetitions of some of his pet devices and motifs, despite touches of sentimentality in the treatment of one or another figure, the play is one of the mostsensitive and evocative of dramas. Andits greatness is apparent in the fact that,though the situation and its accompanyingemotions are specifically and limitedly Russian, Tchekoff contrives to imply themesof universal interest : the love of familiarhousehold things and places, the lonelinessfrom which the isolated human soul struggles to escape, the pathos of misspent andfutile but generous lives, the end of gentility, and the rise of robust boorishness.S. N. Behrman's Biography, though notone of the Theatre Guild's more solemn offerings, is a justifiable encouragement toa not too weighty American dramatist.The comedy, witty and light of touch asit is, becomes something more than trivialthrough its deft manipulation of the conflict between codes of personal and pro-325326 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEfessional behavior. The particular codesin conflict are those of the provincial politician, the embittered young radical, andthe emancipated artist. The "stuffed shirt"of an office-seeker is held up to vigorousridicule; the young radical is presentedsympathetically but honestly. To theartist, as we might expect, the dramatistgrants the greater share of wisdom. Theresolution of the conflict leaves a littlesomething to be desired, but at least Behr-man had the courage to let idea triumphover emotion in his avoidance of a happyending.The casting is inspired. Jay Fassettendows the politician with just the rightdegree of stupid pomposity, Charles Rich-man enlightens the third act with adeliciously satirical portrait of a sappySouthern financier, and Earle Larrimore issurprisingly intense as the young radical.But, of course, the acting triumph of theplay is Ina Claire's who, despite an occasional succumbing to the temptation to becute (at her age!), is splendidly resourcefulin her high-comedy technique. She playsscenes of quiet intimate comedy with aseeming naturalness that is more compelling than any amount of theatrical trickery.My dramatic explorations were completed by visits to the visible works ofSidney Howard. His Alien Corn is justanother excuse for an exhibition of thepicturesque agonies of Katherine Cornell,a vehicle less nauseous than DishonoredLady and less nostalgic than The Age ofInnocence. It stages the ancient antagonism between the provincial academic andthe creative artistic temperament. Thebanality of the theme could be forgiven, ifHoward had seen it freshly. But even ina college for women "a few hours westof Chicago," I should wager that thereis just as much intellectual emancipationamong members of the faculty as in anyfamily of musicians existing anywhere.The claim of the artist to be subsidizedbegins to seem excessive. On the stage, asfrequently in life, he is unwilling to playthe game according to the rules and equallyunwilling to accept the consequences ofbreaking all the rules. Howard asks us to see this infantilism as tragic. It is in factpathetic.Miss Cornell's production goes a verylong distance in concealing the inadequaciesof the play. The single setting is plausibleand comely, and, although the lighting is alittle romantic, it does not falsify greatlythe atmosphere of a small college in ruralAmerica. The acting is almost perfect.James Rennie is a trifle too slick and glossyfor a minor college president, but the restare admirable. One of the best bits isCharles Waldron's Professor Skeats, a creation whose pomposity and futility are aworld away from his terrifying VictorianWilson-Barrett. Siegfried Rumann'sportrait of the ruin of a volcanic temperament, is appropriately violent and apoplectic. To the part of the daughter, stifled inacademic stuffiness and yearning to take thelong road to success or failure as a concertpianist, Miss Cornell brings more talentthan the role deserves: her strange andtragic beauty, her richly suffering voice,and an almost classic posture and movement.Howard's Americanization of Fauchois*play, The Late Christopher Bean, convincesone that in the future he would do wellto have all his plays written by a Frenchdramatist. Though perfectly and divert-ingly localized in rural New England, theplay retains something of French lucidityand adroitness in its ironical presentationof the struggle for the possession of thecanvases of a painter, whose genius has beendiscovered only after his death. Thestruggle plays itself out between people ofvarying degrees of integrity and of aestheticignorance. The protagonist, a "work-girl," is a person of the greatest integrityand humanity and of almost complete critical ignorance. Lightly and wittily the playwright touches off the chicanery of art-dealers and critics, yet treats with tenderness and pathos the artist's nature and histouching response to the servant's untutoredperception quickened by love.The production approximates perfection.There are minor triumphs in the kindly artcritic of Ernest Lawford, and in the charlatans of George Coulouris and ClarenceAlumni Club AffairsTHIS has been a year of gratifyingactivity on the part of our alumniclubs. Almost all of the sixty-sixorganizations have reported one or moremeetings. Clubs have been organized andrevived in Terre Haute, Racine, Waukegan, and Gary. Faculty representativeshave given generously of their time to carrynews from the quadrangles to the alumnigroups of the country, and where University representatives were not available theclubs have risen to the occasion by staginghome talent programs. Among those fromthe campus who have appeared beforealumni clubs are: President Hutchins atColumbus, Grand Rapids and Minneapolis;Dean Mathews at Philadelphia and MasonCity; Dean Judd at Minneapolis andLouisville; Dean Spencer at Kansas City;Dean Works at Milwaukee ; Dean Boucherand Dean Gilkey at Washington, a recordthat proves that presidents and deans aremore than administrative officers. Amongthe professors Mr. Stagg has visited NewYork, Detroit and San Francisco, Mr.Compton has addressed the New York andWashington Clubs, Mr. Lyman has beenin Des Moines, Mr. Linn in Milwaukee,Mr. Lemon in New York, Mr. T. V.Derwent. Beulah Bondi contributes asharply etched portrait of the doctor's wife,mean-spirited and worldly. Walter Connolly's country doctor is so rich in humanity,so fine in feeling that one is actually dismayed by his deterioration. But the crowning performance is Pauline Lord's. Her Smith in Minneapolis, Mr. Grabo inHouston and Mr. Gideonse in GrandRapids. Dr. Stifler, of the Board ofTrustees, has spoken before the New Yorkalumni and Mr. Rollin Hemens, AssistantManager of the Press, has met withthe alumni of Wichita, Stillwater andDallas.Kenneth Rouse, '28, Assistant to theSecretary of the University, and CharltonT. Beck, Executive Secretary of theAlumni Council, have covered more thaneight thousand miles since the middle ofJanuary in a brand new Ford, loaded withmoving picture equipment, spare parts,clean shirts, and a, plentiful supply of University literature. They have collaboratedin staging a series of academic varietyshows — to the number of 56 — beforealumni groups and high school audiencesin the following cities : Bloomington, Danville, Decatur, Peoria, Springfield, Waukegan, Beaver Dam, Kenosha, Milwaukee,Racine, Cedar Rapids, Des Moines, SiouxCity, Omaha, Kansas City, St. Louis,Topeka, Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Conway,Little Rock, Memphis, Louisville, Elkhart,Hammond, Indianapolis, South Bend,Terre Haute, Detroit and Cleveland.Abby is a masterpiece of inexpressiveness,revealing by implication and indirection thefine sound nature within. One tremblesfor her fate, not because the plot threatensdefeat, but because she is a splendid humanbeing, almost encompassed by fraud andgreed.In My Opinion — continued327NEWS OF THEQUADRANGLESBy John P. Howe '27THE heroic effort of the Universityadministration to avoid reducing faculty salaries continues, after more thana year of drastic cost-cutting in the non-academic operation of the University, to beheroic, and the battle is not yet lost. Ageneral reduction of executive, administrative and clerical salaries, however, ranging from ten to twenty per cent, went intoeffect May 1st.Although faculty salaries have not beenreduced by direct action, the income of thefaculty as a whole will be seriously affectedby certain measures of economy that havebeen adopted. Heretofore members of thefaculty have been able substantially to supplement their regular salaries by extra teaching during the Summer quarter, or in theUniversity College downtown, or in theHome Study department. This will nolonger be possible, for all the teaching inthe University will hereafter be includedin the regular program of the faculty andwill be done without extra compensation.Spreading the teaching duties of thefaculty to include the Summer Quarter,University College and Home Study hasof course increased the teaching load ofeach department. Heretofore faculty members have been required to teach two coursesa quarter for three quarters, a total of sixcourses a year. Extra teaching, as in thefourth quarter or in the extension work, involved extra compensation ; and as manyas seventy-five teachers were brought infrom outside to round out the Summerstaff.Under the economy program faculty members are responsible for three courses aquarter, or nine courses a year, thoughliberal interpretation of the new rule permits the substitution of other activities, suchas serving as departmental counselor, forthe third course in each quarter. The administrative and clerical staff have not suffered financially by the reorganizationreferred to, and the present reduction intheir salaries will substantially eliminate theinequality.First among the policies outlined by President Hutchins when he took office was theraising of the faculty salary level. A goodstart had been made on this program whenthe depression began to eat into the University's income. The professor's dollar, ofcourse, gained in purchasing power as pricesdeclined, and this, in effect, has been araising of real income. But professorseverywhere have always, wisely or not, beengiven part of their pay in terms of thesecurity their positions afford ; they reap noprofit from speculative booms; they shouldbe protected so far as possible from downward swings of the business cycle. TheUniversity has also felt, by reason of itsposition of leadership, a responsibility toeducation in general to check by force ofits example a tendency toward wholesaleslashes in educational expenditures throughout the country.The University's expenditures during thecoming year will be as much as 25 % belowthe figure estimated for the current yearwhen the original budget was made earlylast spring. Savings have been effected ina variety of ways, ranging from the rearrangement of faculty teaching schedules tothe wholesale removal of faculty telephones.Replacements of faculty positions left vacant by retirement, resignation or deathhave been few. A reserve fund, built upfrom small annual surpluses for just suchan emergency as now exists, has been usedto underwrite deficits.Though the University's investments havebeen wisely handled, income from studentfees has held up better than income fromendowment funds. Partly for this reasonthe University is making the most systematic effort in its history to attract applicants,328NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES 329an effort which includes, for the first time,a canvass of the June graduates of juniorcolleges. The University's physical plant iseasily adequate, and the New Plan and therearranged teaching schedule sufficientlyflexible, for the accommodation of 2,000more students per year. More than 20,000inquiries have been received concerning theimpending summer quarter, most of themreplies to circulars. This is in part, nodoubt, due to the Century of Progress.Applications for admission to next autumn'sfreshman class are also above last year'smark.Tj^ 7^ "^C 7JC ¦$(£¦Almost by definition the direct influenceof university faculties on public affairs hasbeen restricted to advice and consultation.Within the last year, however, at least sevenUniversity of Chicago social scientists havebeen drafted for more direct types of service. Professor Charles E. Merriam, Chairman of Political Science, was conspicuousin the activities of the Citizen's Committeeappointed by the late Mayor Cermak, anddrafted, at the committee's request, a planfor consolidation of local governments.Professor Leonard D. White of the PoliticalScience department served as one of thethree members of the Chicago Civil ServiceCommission. Professor Simeon Leland ofthe Economics department was appointed byGovernor Horner to be one of the threemembers of the state tax commission. Professor Harry A. Millis, chairman of Economics, served for a brief period as a memberof the state unemployment commission.Professor A. W. McMillen of the School ofSocial Service Administration has directedthe R. F. C. relief administration for asector of the country. John Landesco, research associate in sociology, one of themost colorful figures in the University,whose investigations have given him remarkable knowledge of the structure andpersonnel of organized crime in Chicago, wasappointed to the State Board of Pardons andParoles by Governor Horner last month.And Professor Harry Bigelow, Dean of theLaw School, has accepted appointment asreceiver for the huge Insull Securities Cor poration. All of these men retain theirpositions in the University.*****Meanwhile, University of Chicago scholars and scientists continue to be honoredby their colleagues in other universities.During the past few months ProfessorRollin T. Chamberlin of the Geology department has been elected vice-president ofthe Geological Society of America and chairman of the geology and geography section ofthe A. A. A. S. for 1933. Professor EdsonS. Bastin, chairman of Geology andPaleontology, has been elected president ofthe Society of Economic Geologists. Dr.W. H. Taliaferro, associate dean of theBiological Sciences division, has been chosenpresident of the American Society ofParasitologists. Professor Julius Stieglitz,chairman of Chemistry, has been elected atrustee of the National Health Foundation,a government research institution. And Dr.Arno B. Luckhardt, of the Physiology department, has been re-elected president ofthe American Physiological Society, whichcarries with it the presidency of the Federation of American Societies for ExperimentalBiology.Jl* *fe, *V, *1» Mtvfr y[z Tfc yfc yjp:University of Chicago freshmen, as agroup, are among the brightest beginningcollege students in the country, results ofa nation-wide examination indicate.The Chicago freshmen ranked fourthamong 205 colleges which submitted scoresmade by their freshmen on the standardpsychological examination prepared by theAmerican Council on Education. Scores forthese 205 colleges, which have an aggregateof 43,384 freshmen, were published lastmonth in "The Educational Record."Chicago's score, representing the medianfor its 679 freshmen, is 218.78, whereas themedian for the entire group of 43,384throughout the country is 163.72. Theexamination, given every year during thepast six years, has been proved to have ahigh value in predicting scholastic ability.No college with so large a freshman enrollment achieved so high a score as that ofChicago. The first ten are ranked as follows: Haverford College, Haverford, Pa.,33Q THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE91 freshmen, 249.55; Antioch College,Yellow Springs, Ohio, 129 freshmen,234-33; Wells College, Aurora, N. Y., 71freshmen, 223.57; University of Chicago,679 freshmen, 218.78; Oberlin College,Oberlin, Ohio, 295 freshmen, 217.05 ; Bow-doin College, Brunswick, Me., 156 freshmen, 214.12; University of Rochester,Rochester, N. Y., 336 freshmen, 210.42;Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H., 634freshmen, 210.22; Trinity College, Hartford, Conn., 140 freshmen, 210.00; Im-maculata College, Immaculata, Pa., 43freshmen, 207.50.A 36 year old Chicago freshman, LintonKeith, achieved the highest individualscore ever reported during the six years thetest has been given. Keith's score was 365.The median score for the Chicago freshmangroup was 17 points higher than the scoremade by the Chicago freshmen last year.*****Appointment of Associate ProfessorMalcolm P. Sharp of the University ofWisconsin Law School as Visiting AssociateProfessor of Law at the University of Chicago was announced recently. ProfessorSharp's appointment, which fills the vacancycreated by the death of Professor ErnstFreund last autumn, becomes effective October 1st.Professor Sharp received the A.B. degreeat Amherst in 19 18, the M.A. in economicsat the University of Wisconsin in 19 19, andthe LL.B. and Doctor of Legal Science degrees at Harvard University in 1927. Hewas assistant in economics at the Universityof Wisconsin in 1920, was admitted to thebar in New York in 1924, where he practiced with the firm of Root, Clark, Howardand Ballantine, became assistant professorof law at the University of Iowa in 1925,and has been at the University of Wisconsinsince 1927.At Chicago he will teach the law ofcredit transactions and of business units.During the current year he has publishedthree articles on Supreme Court adjudication in the Harvard Law Review. He hasalso aided the governor of Wisconsin inmatters of law relating to the Wisconsintimber conservation project. Dean Harry A. Bigelow of the LawSchool has been awarded the John P. WilsonChair of Law, left vacant last autumn bythe death of Professor Freund.*****Professor Bernadotte Schmitt has beenappointed Chairman of the Department ofHistory, succeeding Professor William E.Dodd, who gave up his administrative dutiesin the department in order to devote moretime to research and writing. ProfessorSchmitt's major opus, "The Coming of theWar — 19 14," which was awarded thePulitzer Prize several years ago, presentscopious data on the controversial issue ofwho started the war, and places more blameon Germany than many historians would.*****Leading scholarly representatives of thesix great religions will meet this summer atthe University of Chicago under theauspices of the Haskell Foundation Instituteto consider the general theme of "ModernTrends in World Religions." The Institutewill be held July 25th to 28th, inclusive.Preceding the Institute Dr. Hu Shih, professor of philosophy, National University ofPeiping, will give a series of Haskell lectures on "Cultural Trends in China," sixlectures between July 12th and July 24th;and following the Institute Mr. K.Natarajan, editor of "The Indian SocialReformer," will give a series of six Haskelllectures on "Social Movements in ModernIndia," July 31st to August 7th. Dr.Shailer Mathews, retiring Dean of theDivinity School, will give the Barrows lectures in India and Burma this winter.*****Inflation, the talk of the hour as this iswritten, was urged exactly one year ago ina memorandum drawn up for a Congressional committee by University of Chicago economists. The Chicago economists,pending President Roosevelt's decision, aremuch concerned about how inflation is to beaccomplished.A week before the inflation program wasdecided upon, and before President Roosevelt's informal discussions with foreignemissaries, three members of the UniversityNEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES 33ifaculty gave their analyses of "The Stateof Nation" in a public symposium.President Roosevelt's program of internalmeasures for attacking the depression, asit has so far been revealed, is "on the wholesound and helpful, but insufficient for itspurpose," Professor Jacob Viner of thedepartment of economics said."Thanks to a new and courageous leadership in Washington we have successfullyemerged from a panic of threatening proportions," Professor Viner said. "The renewed courage and hope it has engenderedwill not survive long, however, unless it issoon fed by concrete evidence of genuineimprovement."The program of internal legislation already disclosed at least makes clear that wecan rely on the administration for somethingmore than exhortations. But its underlyingeconomic logic has not been revealed."The present emergency consists primarily of a wide discrepancy between pricesand production costs, which appears to benarrowing only very slowly if at all. Thegovernment economy measures, the measures tending to reduce mortgage interest,and the proposals for railroad reorganization will contribute something to lesseningthis discrepancy."Though the agricultural relief bill mayraise agricultural prices, it is not a recoverymeasure but an extraordinarily ill-designedscheme for shifting some of the burden ofthe depression from the over-mortgagedand over-taxed farmer to the unemployedand under-employed city-dweller. Thebanking program guarantees no relief fromthe suicidal process of credit deflation andso far has succeeded chiefly in speeding upthe process of weeding out from the systemthe less expert deflators."If recovery is to be sought by means ofdeflation of production costs to a level consistent with the present level of prices, theAdministration must embark upon a campaign for speedy and drastic reduction offreight rates, utility rates, interest rates,state and local taxes, such wages as are stillundeflated, and the frozen prices of someof the monopoly industries."If on the other hand recovery is to be sought through price inflation, the Administration should say so, should reveal which ofthe many possible procedures it intends toadopt, and should indicate just how far itplans to go in this direction."It is a plausible theory that the Administration relies largely upon the results of theWorld Economic Conference to carry usback to prosperity, and is reluctant to embark upon unpopular and politicallydangerous internal deflationary measures orpopular but economically dangerous internalinflationary measures as a last resort. Thismay well be the path of wisdom, but delayis itself dangerous, and the difficulties inthe way of a satisfactory outcome of theWorld Economic Conference seem formidable."Minimum results which must be producedby the Conference, in addition to the restoration of international confidence, are asfollows, Professor Viner said:"First, the weight on debtors and on theinternational monetary mechanism of theburden of international debts, private aswell as public, must be lightened either bya writing down of the amount of thesedebts, or by substantial reduction of thebarriers to world trade, or by concertedinternational action to raise price levels, orby some combination of these."Second, there must be general and substantial reduction of tariff barriers, in orderthat trade may revive, currencies bestabilized, and productive resources be employed in those directions in which they aremost productive of real income."Third, a stop must be put through international agreement to the process of deflation which has been progressively puttingan end to business activity by rewarding itwith losses instead of gains. Now that weare off the gold standard, we should evenbe receptive to proposals for a world-wideregulated inflation until a world price-levelhas been established at some specified levelabove the present one, and then for a generalrestoration of the gold standard, managedon an internationally cooperative basis."Fourth, the restoration of internationalcapital movements should be facilitated, butunder regulation to check improvident and332 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEdishonest borrowing and the disproportionate flow of international capital into short-term investments subject to call atinconvenient moments."Professor Merriam took exception toGeorge Bernard Shaw's recent remark thatPresident Roosevelt's measures have been"unconstitutional." "Shaw may be a greatwit," Prof. Merriam said, "but he hasn'tread the American Constitution. The President has acted wholly within his constitutional authority; in fact, he could go along way further, with congressional sanction, in centralizing authority; and thereare plenty of checks if he should overstepthe bounds."The democracy of the next period willconcern itself seriously with such problems as minimum standards of life, including education, housing, health, leisureand recreation ; and with the stabilization ofemployment, social insurance and industrial security.""The United States," Professor SmithANNUAL DINNERThe Annual Dinner of the LawSchool Association will be held onthe evening of Convocation Day,Tuesday, June 13, 1933, in theFlorentine Room, Congress Hotel,Chicago.A surprise program will be on tap.Guests of Honor — -Harold L.Ickes, Secretary of the Interior ; JamesPinckney Pope, United States Senatorof Idaho; and Miss KathrynO'Loughlin, Congresswoman fromKansas.BE THERE! said, "is at present midway in its passagefrom the ethics of freedom to the ethics ofcooperation. Historically, we have stoodfor the ethics of freedom. So long as therewas free land for the poor last century andeasy money for the bankers and brokers thiscentury, freedom constituted a worthyethics. Misfortune, however, has broughtpoor and rich alike to face another ethics — ¦that of cooperation."How to renounce that sturdy independence which misfortune has rendered obsolete, without breeding too many romanticregrets; and how to accept enforced cooperation without fretting under a sense ofthraldom — these are the pressing moralproblems of our time."We have been so busy with externalsthat now when we are thrown back exclusively upon internals, we find ourselveswithout insides. It is perhaps a reassuringsign that we are withstanding adversitybetter with Roosevelt than we withstoodprosperity with Coolidge."RUSH COMMENCEMENTSpecial clinics are being arrangedfor Monday, June 12, and Tuesday,June 13, for Rush Alumni and theirmedical friends. These clinics willbe given by all departments of RushMedical College.The Convocation exercises will beheld on Tuesday, June 13, in thechapel at the University of Chicago.The Rush Alumni Association willhold its annual meeting at five o'clockat the Congress Hotel, preceding theannual Faculty and Alumni dinnerat 6:30, June 13.Alumni Clinics, 1933 — Rush MedicalCollege, ChicagoMonday, June 12thMedicine Drs. Post & Brown io-n . . North Amphitheatre, Senn HallNeurology Dr. P. Bassoe 9-10. . South Amphitheatre, Senn HallPediatrics Dr. A. H. Parmelee 10-11 . . South Amphitheatre, Senn HallSurgery ........ Dr. A. D. Bevan 11-12. . North Amphitheatre, Senn HallDermatology . . . Dr. O. S. Ormsby 2-4. . North Amphitheatre, Senn HallOtolaryngology . Dr. D. B. Hayden 2-4. . South Amphitheatre, Senn HallOperations, Presbyterian Hospital, 9-12 a.m., Monday and Thursday, June1 2th and 13th. Program to be announced.Tuesday, June 13thMedicine Dr. R. T. Woodyatt. ... 9-10. . North Amphitheatre, Senn HallMedicine Drs. Irons & Kelly 10-1 1 . . North Amphitheatre, Senn HallSurgery Drs. David & Gatewood. 11-12. . North Amphitheatre, Senn HallScores of the MonthBaseballChicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago, 2;8;o;6;n;3;13;21 ;4; Armour, 3Wheaton, 4Armour, 7Notre Dame, 5Lake Forest, 5Wisconsin, 15Notre Dame, 1Lake Forest, 15Northwestern, 16American Coll. Phys. Ed., 7TrackChicago, 69; No. Central, 61Armour, 24 TennisChicago, 6; Elmhurst, oChicago, 5 ; Elmhurst, 1Chicago, 5 ; Iowa, 1Chicago, 6 ; Crane Jr., oChicago, 6; Northwestern, oChicago, 6; Elmhurst, oChicago, 3; Western State, 3GolfChicago, 1 1 ; Loyola, 7Chicago, 5%; Iowa, 12^Albert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago535 Fifth Ave., New York415 Hyde Bldg., SpokaneA general Placement Bureau for men andwomen in all kinds of teaching positions.Large and alert College, and State Teachers' College departments for Doctors andMasters; Critics and Supervisors for Normals. Also many calls for Special teachersof Music, Art, Home Economics, BusinessAdministration, CorrespondenceTeaching.Fine opportunities in Secondary Schools.A host of best Suburban patrons for gradeand High School teachers. Read ourbooklet. Call. Western ElectricManufacturersPurchasersDistributorsSince 1882 for theBell System333William V. Morgenstern, '20 J.D., '22THE introduction of the new footballcoaching regime to the squad hasproved highly satisfactory on bothsides. If Coach Clark Shaughnessy canplace on the field next autumn the team withwhich he has been working for the pastmonth, Chicago will be a real factor in theconference. But as has already been remarked, the Board of Examinations is goingto have more to do with the football teamthan the coach. Recognizing this fact, Mr.Shaughnessy has wisely concluded to curtail spring practice, despite the many thingshe still has to accomplish, and have theyoung men devote themselves to preparation for the examinations. An unfinishedtackle who is eligible is a better asset thanan All-American back who is ineligible, andMr. Shaughnessy is too shrewd an individualto overlook such an obvious truth. Scholastic achievement of the freshman athletes inthe past two quarters has been promisingand it is not unreasonable to expect a satisfactory outcome on the comprehensives.The attitude toward Mr. Shaughnessybefore he came here was cordial, and in themonth that he has worked with the squad hehas achieved a genuine popularity. He convinced the players that he knew football,and his sympathetic and friendly relationswith the men increased their regard. "Getit into your head that we're playing football to win," he told the squad on the firstday. "It's more fun to win than it is tolose. We are going to be beaten all right,but we are not going out on the field looking for a beating at any time." There is astrong and confident morale in the squadnow, and there will be next autumn, forthe players firmly believe in Shaughnessyand they believe in themselves. The practice sessions were systematically organizedand vigorously executed, without any wasteof time. The new coach had to give the squad a comprehensive idea of his offensivesystem, and he succeeded in acquaintingthem with an amazing number of plays. Hehas given the players five formations withseveral hundred plays, and though the menhave not mastered them in detail, they havethe basic features well in mind, and have aclear conception of the general plan. Eachpractice was concluded with a class roomperiod, in which Coach Shaughnessy outlined plays. The members of the squad keptnotebooks, and they can learn the plays thissummer, so that progress will be rapid nextautumn. One phase of football that the newcoach stressed, much to the satisfaction ofthe sideline coaches, who are his most enthusiastic supporters, was blocking and tackling.Although formal practice has been concluded, Mr. Shaughnessy expects to workwith his quarterbacks, explaining his theoriesof tactics for he is insistent that imaginationand resource in that position will do moreto win games than anything else.The squad was the largest in years, withsixty men listed, and an average of fiftywere out every afternoon, a bigger numberthan has been on the varsity in many seasons.It is apparent that the hope of the teamrests largely with the freshmen, and forthat reason the matter of scholastic moralityassumes its usual importance. There arethree men who are essential to the team:Jay Berwanger, 195 pound halfback fromDubuque; Ewald Nyquist, 191 pound backfrom Rockford, and Merritt Bush, 225center from Long Beach, Cal. Berwanger,a fast, powerful runner with all the tricks,able to kick and pass, is a great footballplayer. Nyquist is a blocker such as Chicago hasn't had since the dim ages; he hitslike a sack of lead. Bush is 6 feet, 5 inchesin height, and a fine anchor on which totie a line. So far as can be judged frompractice, the first team would be something334THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 335% /THE SUBURBS] /THE #.1*THE OFFICE/ \* %r %/»* 4'^L THE SUBURBSOWAP IT ALL FOR THISYou're in it! He's in it! We're all in it! What? A rut. The great American rut.Get out of it for a few weeks this summer. Europe is many dollars nearer now.Low steamship rates. Low living costs in Europe . . .We've written a book aboutit. It tells how "to afford" Europe this year. Dollars and cents details. Jit's free.This message sponsored byTransatlantic SteamshipLines: Anchor line, CanadianPacific Steamships, CosulichLine, Cunard Line, FrenchLine, Hamburg- American Line,Holland America Line, ItalianLine, North German Lloyd,Red Star Line, United StatesLines, White Star Line. Transatlantic Steamship Lines, 80 Broad St., New York.N.Y.Gentlemen:— Will you please send me, withoutobligation, your free booklet "This Year of All Years."1 NAME-IADDRESS-336 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINElike this : Center — Bush ; Guards — RobertPerretz, 182 pounds, and John Rice, 225pounds; Tackles — Robert Deem, 195pounds, and Walter Maneikis, 198 pounds;Ends — Ralph Balfanz, 177 pounds, andBarton Smith, 176 pounds; Quarter — Vinson Sahlin, 165 pounds; Backs — Berwanger,Capt. Pete Zimmer, 188 pounds, andNyquist. Maneikis, who has played guardfor two seasons, and Smith, who broke aleg in the Yale game, are the only membersof previous squads in that line, and Sahlinand Zimmer are the only backfield veterans.This list is not by any means the roster ofall the good players, but it is enough of asample to justify the belief that an effectiveteam can be produced.Coach Shaughnessy's assistants duringspring practice were Nelson Norgren, OttoStrohmeier, Sam Horwitz, Kyle Anderson,and A. A. Stagg, Jr. Because of the necessity of teaching his plays quickly, Mr.Shaughnessy brought up one of his oldTulane quarterbacks and former assistantat Loyola, Julian Lopez, who could handlea backfield without assistance. The Chicago assistants naturally knew as littleabout Shaughnessy's offense as the players,and time was too short to teach them all thedetails during the month. That offense istricky and interesting, stressing the "open"game which delights spectators, and whichcarries the possibility of big gains. TheChicago team will be highly spectacular inaction.The baseball team, lacking the consistentpitching which means so much in collegeball, has had a rather good record in practice games, but has been soundly thumped inits two conference games so far. Theplayers can not hit good pitching and theyare wobbly in their fielding, faults that cannot be avoided in a young team that has hadbut little real experience in a game thathasn't much appeal to the high schools from which most Chicago students come. Thetrack team has a few strong men, particularlyJohn Brooks, who won the Drake Relaysbroad jump with 24 feet, 3 inches, and is agood all-around entry in the dashes andlow hurdles of dual meets. John Robertswho has been improving in the high jumpand pole vault, tied for third place atDrake with 13 feet. In the absence ofA. A. Stagg, no one can recall any Chicagoathlete who previously achieved that height.Ed Cullen, who has been practicing bothin track and football, has recovered fromthe pulled muscle that kept him out of theconference 440, and may get in among thefirst four in the conference meet. Thetennis team swept through all its matcheseasily enough until it met Western StateTeachers, and was tied. But it has a strongchance of winning some of the conferencetitles. The golf team, having lost CaptainBob Bohnen, has no particular prospects.The Order of the C, the first athletic-letter club ever formed, has, after nearlythirty years, achieved a permanent organization. Director Stagg conceived the ideaof the association in 1 904, and like so manyother of his innovations, the club was copiedby other universities. While the Old Manwas here there was never any formal organization. Director Metcalf cordially approved plans to organize and worked witha committee of "C" men composed of FrankTempleton, '09, acting-chairman; W. J.Boone, '06, Charles Higgins, '19, WilliamMacklind, Jr., ex, '27, John Schommer, '09,and Lawrence Whiting, '13. At the alumniwelcome to Mr. Metcalf and Mr.Shaughnessy on May 2, the "C" menadopted by-laws and elected officers. Mr.Stagg was made honorary president forlife; Judge Walter P. Steffen, '10, J.D.'12, president; John F. Hagey, '99, vice-president, and Harvey Harris, '14,secretary-treasurer.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 337The Painless# . . High up under the dome of Boston's Massachusetts General Hospital, far removed from the wardsso that the screams of sufferers under the knife willnot horrify the ward patients, is the Hospital's famedoperating amphitheatre. Many a medical studentdreads the operations he is privileged to watch, frequently faints. But one day last week Dr. John C.Warren, Boston surgeon, led a group of surgeonsand students (class of 1847) up the long stairs, eager,hurrying.For there beckoned an interesting experiment —surgery without pain. Dr. William Thomas GreenMorton, 27-year old Boston dentist, thought it possible, had experimented to that end with ether, avolatile, pungent chemical compound capable of producing insensibility. He had tried it on animals, onhimself, then on his patients while extracting theroots of decayed teeth. Finally he had obtained permission from Dr. Warren to let him test his drugbefore an audience. One Gilbert Abbott, with a tumoron his neck, was to be the first trial.At 11 a.m. the last privileged student hurried intothe amphitheatre. Experimentee Abbott, fidgeting onthe operating-table, looked anxiously at the clock.Casual talk ceased, sudden silence prevailed as theminute-hand crawled past the hour, and Dr. Mortondid not appear. "He and his anesthetic! Humbugsboth, no doubt!" mumbled a doctor. It became fiveminutes past eleven, ten, then a quarter after. Thepatient stirred uneasily, Dr. Warren selected an instrument, advanced to the table — useless to delay proceedings any longer. As his knife poised for the incision, Dr. Morton, breathless, apologetic, rushed in.He held in one hand a curious globe-and-tube apparatus.m In eager concentration, tensely expectant, the waiting group of surgeons and students watched while thenewcomer — a charlatan perhaps, a genius possibly —adjusted his peculiar inhaling apparatus to the patient s mouth and with tense composure administeredCultivated Americans, impatient withturn increasingly to publications editedtions, fair-dealing, vigorously impartial,in the sense that they report what they his anesthetic. Veiled skepticism revealed itself whenthe patient reacted suddenly in wild exhilaration, butthis exuberance subsided, relaxation took its place,then unconsciousness. Skepticism was routed, amazement paramount. Said Dentist Morton to SurgeonWarren: "Your patient is ready."Dr. Warren began to operate, proceeded quickly, infive minutes had finished. From the patient came nocry of pain, no agony of distress, only slight movements, mumbled words as from one who stirs on theborderland of sleep ...."This, gentlemen," exclaimed Surgeon Warren, "isno humbug."Awake, Gilbert Abbott said, "I felt no pain."So, in part, had TIME been published inOctober, 1846, would TIME have reported thefirst public demonstration of ether as a surgical anesthetic. So, too, would TIME havereported how one Dr. Crawford WilliamsonLong, of Georgia, came forward later sayingthat he had used ether four years previous, hadgiven it up as impractical .... So, too, wouldTIME have reported the bitter persecution thatcame to Dentist Morton when he patented hisdiscovery as "Letheon" ; the seizure of "Letheon" by the U. S. Government for its own uses ;the claims of Dr. Charles T. Jackson, the Boston chemist from whom Dentist Morton hadobtained his ether; the division of the ParisAcademy of Medicine's 5,000 franc MonthyonPrize for 1852 between these two, with Mortonproudly refusing his share ; the long Congressional investigations resulting in nothing, andDentist Morton's death in poverty in 1865.cheap sensationalism and windy bias,in the historical spirit. These publica-devote themselves to the public wealsee, serve no masters, fear no groups.TIMEThe Weekly NewsmagazineYEARLY SUBSCRIPTION $5 : 205 EAST 42nd STREET, NEW YORK CITY : 15 CENTS AT ALL NEWSSTANDSThe Sleuth Tells AllAS PROMISED in the last issue of theMagazine, we here reveal the hor-• rid details of the private lives ofthe candidates for offices in the CollegeAssociation. Also, as promised to the candidates, those who failed to report onthemselves will find their delinquenciespunished by the editorial imagination.Harold T. Moore, J 16, running for theposition of first vice president, has turnedthe energies that once went into Blackfriars and Owl and Serpent to the manufacturing of auto springs, relieved byholidays spent in golf and sailing. He hasone wife and two children and lives inHinsdale.Miriam Libby Evans, ' ' ij ', his rival,College Aide and Nu Pi Sigma, varies heroccupation (which she claims is "servingthe Penates") with a great variety of civicand educational activities. As far as wecan discover, the Penates include one husband, James, and three daughters, Muriel,12 and Eleanor and Elaine, twins, aged 7.The four candidates for positions on theExecutive Committee are Ruth Allen Dickinson, '15, Helen Condron McGuire, '22,Thomas Mulroy, '27, J.D. '28, and Still-man Frankland, '32.Ruth Allen Dickinson, Ji$, president ofthe Undergraduate Council, Aide and NuPi Sigma, has, since college days, been aspecial agent of the U. S. Children's Bureau, a District superintendent for theUnited Charities, and, since marriage, amember of the Hinsdale School Board.Her family consists of one husband, twosons, two daughters, one dog, one cat, fourturtles, two lizards and two goldfish.Helen Condron McGuire, '22, aB.W.O.C. in the class of '22, maintainsdiscreet silence about her post-graduationactivities, but we can tell you that she ismarried to Charles McGuire, '22, and livesin the village of Oak Park.Thomas Mulroy, "26, authorizes us toomit freely from his staggering list of undergraduate activities, which includedmembership in all honor societies, managership of the Daily Maroon, and presidency of his law class. He is now an attornevwith Defrees, Buckingham, Jones andHoffman, and has acted as assistant legisla.tive Counsel to the U. S. Senate. DorothyReiner, ex '31, is soon to be Mrs. MulroyStillman Frankland, '32, the runawaypolitician of the Class of '32, is now aninvestigator for the Securities Division inthe Office of the Secretary of State, Stateof Illinois. He was an active worker forGovernor Horner in the recent state election.The ten candidates for positions on theAlumni Council will now step briefly intothe limelight.Harry D. A bells, 'gj, a leader of his classpast president of the College Associationand delegate to the Alumni Council, hasmaintained a continuous interest in theUniversity, both through his alumni workand his position as head of Morgan ParkMilitary Academy and parent of analumna of '32.Frank McNair, Joj, now a trustee ofthe University, of Rush Medical College,of the Country Home for ConvalescentWomen and Children, and of the Homefor Destitute Crippled Children, is abanker by profession. For the last threeyears he has served on the Alumni Councilas Chairman of the Alumni Fund.Herbert I. Markham, Jo6, retiringChairman of the Finance Committee of theCouncil, is a partner of Paul H. Davisand Company ; he has served the Universityand the alumni organization loyally sincethe days when he was business manager ofthe Daily Maroon.Barbara Miller Simpson, Ji8, (Mrs.George N. Simpson) retiring member ofthe Executive Committee of the CollegeAssociation, is just as active in the civicaffairs of Hyde Park as she was in theCollege as an Aide and class officer. Shehas been President of the Hyde ParkLeague of Women Voters and women'stennis champion of the South Shore CountryClub.Frances Henderson Higgins, J20, (Mrs.Charles G. Higgins) has transferred the in-338Professional DirectoryART GALLERIES57TH STREET GALLERIESMaria Remahl — DirectorWorks of Leading Chicago Artists at prices withinreach of the average person. Galleries open dailyincluding Sunday from 10 A. M. to 6 P. M.1541 E. 57th Street PUBLISHINGYour Book Length ManuscriptPUBLISHEDWrite for Booklet and TermsMEADOR PUBLISHING CO.470 S. Atlantic Ave. Boston, Mass.ARTISTGERDA AHLMExpert Restorer of FinePAINTINGS and MINIATURESSuite 1701 Telephone56 E. Congress St. Wabash 5390 SCHOOLSBEVERLY FARMINC.36th Year A Home, School forNervous and BackwardChildren and Adults220 Acres, 7 Buildings, School Gymnasium, Industrial andSchool Training Given, Department for Birth Injury CasesGroves Blake Smith, M. D. Godfrey, 111.DENTISTDR. GEO. G. KNAPPDENTISTWoodlawn Medical Arts Bldg.Suite 304 1 305 E. 63rd StreetPhone Plaza 6020MUSIC PUBLISHERSMcKINLEY MUSIC CO. 1501-15 E. 55thSt., CHICAGOPOPULAR AND STANDARDMUSIC PRINTERS AND ENGRAVERSMusical Settings — Compositions ArrangedPublishers of McKinley Edition of 20 cent MusicSTANDARD— CLASSICAL— TEACHING PRACTICAL BUSINESS TRAININGBusiness Administration, Executive-Secretarial14 Other Practical Courses- Train for Assured SuccessCollege Grade Courses 77th Year Write for CatalogBRYANT & STRATTON COLLEGE18 South Michigan Avenue Randolph 1575CHICAGO SCHOOL OF SCULPTUREVIOLA NORMAN, DirectorLife Modeling — Life DrawingAbstract Design — CompositionWrite for Catalog Studio 1011 Auditorium Bldg.Telephone Harr. 3216 Fifty-six East Congress St.OPTICIANSNELSONOPTICAL CO.1138 East 63rd StreetHyde Park 5352Dr. Nels R. Nelson, Optometrist HUETTLART SCHOOLCartooning - DrawingPainting - EtchingArt Materials1 546-50 E. 57th St. Plaza 2536OSTEOPATHYDOCTOR H. E. WELLSOsteopathic Physician and SurgeonPhysio- Therapy— X-Ray— Light Treatments6420 Cottage Grove Ave.Phone DORchester 6600Hours 9 A.M. to 9 P.M. Home Calls Made MacCormac School of CommerceBusiness Administration and Secretarial TrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESEnter Any Monday1 1 70 E. 63rd St. H. P. 2130POEMS WANTEDPoems WantedTHE POET (Monthly)St. Louis, Mo. THE MIDWAY SCHOOL6216 Kimbark Ave. Tel. Dorchester 3299Elementary Grades J unior High PreparationKindergarten French, Dancing, Music and ArtBus ServiceA School with Individual Instruction and Cultural Advantages339340 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEterest that once went into being Presidentof the Y. W. C. A., vice president of herclass, a member of the swimming, hockey,and basketball teams, and an Aide, to thework of an acting superintendent of MaryCrane District in the United Charities ofChicago.Glenn Harding, J2i, after being president of practically everything on the campus,now turns his attention to the secretaryshipof the Chicago Society of Alpha Delta Phi,his family and what he calls the "de-present situation." The family consists ofMrs. Harding, nee Esther Anderson, Murray Allen, 5, and Harold Reading, 3.B. Brower Hall, J22, "C" man and classleader, is now appraiser for the Fort Dearborn Mortgage Company of Chicago. Hehas served as a member of the ExecutiveCommittee of the College Association forthe last two years, and reports that he "hasThe Chicago Alumnae Club is happy toannounce that the well known professorBernard Fay will speak at the annual Alumnae Club Breakfast in Ida Noyes Hall at11:30 A. M., June 10. Professor Fay,who is visiting professor in the departmentof history at the University this summer,holds the Chair of American Civilizationin the College de France. He will speakon "Sidelights on French and AmericanWomen." The following are the newofficers of the Chicago Alumnae Club:President, Ethel Preston, '08, A.M.,'io, Ph.D. '20. Vice President, ElsieSchobinger, '08, A.M. '17. Secretary,(Mrs.) Esther Cooke Pease, '27. Treasurer, (Mrs.) Ruth Stagg Lauren, '25.Delegates to Alumni Council: GladysFinn, '24. (Mrs.) Portia CarnesLane, '08.Ethel Preston was not satisfied with threedegrees from the University. She alsoearned a diploma from the Chicago Musical practically no wives, husbands or children."Alfred Brick man, J22, another "C" manand leader of '22, now occupies himselfwith the work of vice president of the Illinois Meat Company, and maintains anavocational interest in alumni and Unirversity affairs.Lucy Lamon Merriam, '26 (Mrs. JohnF. Merriam) senior Aide, and active participant in class affairs, has turned her executive ability since marrying John Merriam, to the work of a housewife who alsocarries very capably the responsibilities ofcommittee work and Board membership ina number of civic and philanthropic enterprises on the South Side.This concludes our parade of politicalmaterial. Turn now, immediately, to thelast page where you will find a ballot foryour use, mark it and mail it to the AlumniOffice, Cobb 403, University of Chicago.College, studied at Columbia School ofMusic, and recently spent three summersas a pupil of Wanda Landowska at Saint-Leu-la-Foret in France. At the present timeMiss Preston is a member of the French andPiano Departments of Roycemore School,Evanston. As co-editor with Elsie Schobinger in the University of Chicago Italianseries she assisted in editing "Scampolo"and "Fra le Corde." The Century Company has just published George Duhamel's"Confession de Minuit" edited by SuzanneRevellin Cros and Ethel Preston. MissPreston is past president of the EvanstonFrench Club, and a member of the Evanston Music Club, the Cordon Club and theCollege Club.Wanted: for the summer, in northern Illinois or southern Wisconsin, room and boardon a farm for two adults and three children.Address inquiries to The University ofChicago Magazine.Alumnae Club NewsBy Ruth Browne MacFarland, '21, a.m. '22THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESCHOOLS — Continued 34iSTARRETT SCHOOL for GIRLSA Boarding and Day School for High School andJunior College StudentsFully AccreditedA Refined and Stimulating School Environment4515 Drexei Blvd. Drexei 0521 TEACHERS AGENCIES — ContinuedTHE YATES-FISHER TEACHERSAGENCYEstablished 1906PAUL YATES, Manager616-620 South Michigan Ave. ChicagoOrthogenic School of ChicagoAffiliated with the University of ChicagoBoarding and Day School forRetarded and Problem ChildrenCatalog on Request1365 East 60th Street MID. 7879 UNDERTAKERSTEACHERS AGENCIES LUDLOW * SCHNEIDERFUNERAL DIRECTORSFine Chapel with New Pipe OrganSEDAN AMBULANCETel. Fairfax 2861 6110 Cottage Grove Ave.F# 'M TeachersI.S.K. Agency 28 E. Jackson Blvd.CHICAGOOur Service is Nation Wide SKEELES - BIDDLEFuneral DirectorsFairfax 0120 Sixty-Third Street and Evans Ave.Business DirectoryAUTO LIVERYCHICAGO PETERSENMOTOR LIVERYLINCOLNS With Experienced Chauffeurs5548 Lake Park Ave. MID way 0949AWNINGSPHONES OAKLAND 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHYDE PARK AWNING CO., Inc.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueBOYD & GOULD, Inc.5813-15 Wentworth AvenueARTCRAFTAWNINGS AND CANOPIESPhones Wentworth 2450-2451BROKERSClark G. (Skee) Sauer '12 C. P. (Buck) Freeman '13WithJAMES E. BENNETT & COMPANYStocks — Bonds — Grain — CottonMembers: New York and Chicago Stock Exchanges,Chicago Board of Trade, All Principal Markets332 So. LaSalle St. Telephone Wabash 2740CHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, '12EPSTEIN REYNOLDS and HARRISConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4286 CEMETERIESOAK WOODS CEMETERY1035 E. 67th St. at Greenwood Ave.Fairfax 0140Irrevocable Perpetual CharterCrematory — GreenhousesCOAL5900 STEWART 3952AUBURN COAL & MATERIAL CO.COAL- COKE- BUILDING MATERIAL7443 So. Racine Ave. ChicagoELEVATORSRELIANCE ELEVATOR CO.PASSENGER AND FREIGHTELEVATORSFor Every Purpose212 W. Austin Ave. ChicagoFENCESANCHOR POST FENCE CO.Ornamental Iron Chain Link Rustic WoodFences tor Campus, Tennis Court, Estate, Suburban Home orIndustrial plantFree Advisory Strvict and Estimates Furnished646 N. MICHIGAN BLVD. SUPERIOR 1367FISHJ. A. DAVIS FISH CO.Specialize in Supplying Hotels, Restaurants, Hospitals,Institutions. Fresh Caught Direct From the Fisherman.211 N. Union Ave. Phone Haymarket 1495NEWS OF THE CLASSESAND ASSOCIATIONSCollege1895Joseph Leiser, who was the second man tomatriculate at the University of Chicago, sendsthis account of his recent activities, "I have hada play accepted by the Little Theatre Leagueof Augusta, Ga., and it is now being rehearsed.The title is "Daybreak" and it is a comedy inthree acts, with sevencharacters. Not athesis play — intendedsolely for amusement.This is one of severalfull length plays Ihave written. One ortwo have been produced. I have alsowritten a number ofone act plays, severalof which have beenproduced on the stageand given over the air.I have written considerable verse in thelast few years, whichis now being printed,with very flattering comments."MarriagesAvis Freeman Meigs, '21, to Edward ErnestPaxton, March 15, 1933, Long Beach, Calif.;at home, 359 E. Louise Street, Long Beach.Rollin D. Hemens, '22, to Betty Kirk of Oklahoma, March 28, 1933; at home, 54.13 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago.Helen Tieken, '24, A.M. '29, to Maurice Patrick Geraghty, April 15, 1933, Chicago; at home,11 Scott Street, Chicago.Robert S. Lamon, '30, to Jean Keefe, ex '24,February 18, 1933, Chicago; at home, The Megiddo Expedition of the Oriental Institute,Haifa, Palestine.BirthsTo Mr. and Mrs. H. Earl Hoover (DorothyHiggs, '16) a son, H. Earl Jr., April 18, 1933,Glencoe, 111.To H. C. Witherington, '20, A.M. '25, Ph.D.'31, and Mrs. Witherington, a son, Paul Henry,April 14, 1933, Bowling Green, Ohio. Mr.SOCIAL SERVICE ALUMNIBREAKFASTThe Alumni of the School of SocialService Administration will meet atbreakfast, June 14, Wednesday, at8:00 A.M., at the Hotel Statler inDetroit. This reunion meeting is being held in Detroit at this time inconnection with the National Conference of Social Workers there.Witherington is assistant professor of education at Bowling Green State College.To Roland E. Little, '22, J.D. '27, and Mrs.Little, a daughter, February 8, 1933, Chicago.To Mr. and Mrs. Willard W. Strahl (HelenMcPike, '24) a daughter, Margaret Anne, April3, 1933, Greeley, Colo.To John M. Ashen-hurst, ex '17, and Mrs.Ashenhurst (BeatriceLovett, '24) a daughter, April 24, 1932,Chicago.To Felix Caruso,'25, and Mrs. Caruso(Dorothy Willis, '25)a son, April 26, 1933,Chicago.To Tom D. Paul,'27, M.D. '32, andMrs. Paul, a daughter, Lisbeth, December 30, 1932, Evanston, 111.DeathsEmanuel Northup, D.B. '83, January 4, 1933,McMinnville, Oregon.Pearson McPherson, M.D., '86, April 6, 1933,Chicago.Robert Lee Hughes, '95, A.M. '00, November5, 1932, California.Clara M. Hitchcock, 97, April 11, 1933, Cleveland, Ohio.Eleanor Prescott Hammond, Ph.D. '98, February 21, 1933, Boston, Mass. Miss Hammondwas a scholar of rare distinction in the field ofliterature, and had taught at the University ofChicago and at Wellesley College.Annie Laurie Renshaw Frazeur, '02, A.M. '08,April 25, 1933, Chicago. Mrs. Frazeur was adistinguished and much beloved teacher in theChicago schools for many years, a veteran ofthe World War, and a traveller and lecturerof note. She was the valued friend of hermany students and of a great number of alumni.Mrs. Chester H. Fox (Kathryn Woolfolk, ex'23) March 27, 1933, Oak Park, 111.Flavia Tiffany Barenscheer, '26, March, 1933.Thomas Leiper Kane, '28, M.D. '32, AprilJ3> 1933, Chicago.342NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONSFILLING STATIONS PLASTERING 343ROSCOE LAYMANFILLING STATION92nd Street and So. Chicago Ave.PHONE SO. CHICAGO 1163FLOWERS80*" CHICAGOESTABLISHED 1865FLOWERSPhones: Plaza 6444, 6445 1631 East 55th StreetGARAGESCapacity 350 Cars FireproofFairchild Garage Co.5546 Lake Park Ave.Thru to Harper Ave.PHONE HYDE PARK 1275Dependable Service Howard F. NolanPlastering, Brick and Cement WorkRepairing a Specialty1111 East 55th St. Dorchester 1578-1579RIDINGMidway Riding Academy6037 Drexei AvenueExpert InstructorsBeautiful Bridle Path and Good HorsesUniversity of Chicago Riding HeadquartersMidway 9571 Phone Dorchester 8041ROOFINGGROVEROOFINGCO.(Gilliland)Old Roofs Repaired New Roofs Put On22 Years at 6644 Cottage Grove Ave.Lowest Prices — Estimates Free Fairfax 3206INSURANCEC. F. AXELSON, >07Chartered Life UnderwriterREPRESENTINGThe Northwestern Mutual Life Ins. Co.209 So. LaSalle St. Tel. State 0633LAUNDRIESFidelity Morgan Service, Inc."Better Laundry Work"Branch 1015 East 61st StreetPhone Calumet 1906LITHOGRAPHINGL. C. MEAD *2i E. J. CHALIFOUX '**PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing7*5 So. LaSalle St. Harrison 36*4MONUMENTSPhone Monroe 5058 Established 1889C. CILELLA & SONMONUMENTS AND MAUSOLEUMSRock of Ages and Guardian MemorialsWe Erect Work Anywhere 723-25 W. Taylor StreetPAINTINGEstablished 1851 Incorporated 1891Geo. D. Milligan CompanyPainting and Decorating Contractors2309 South Parkway Tel. Cal. 5665 SADDLERYW. J. WYMANManufacturer, Importer and Dealer inHigh Grade Saddles, Polo Goods, Etc.Chicago Riding Club Building, 628 McClurg CourtLake Forest Store— 210-212 Westminster Ave., EastTelephone Superior 8801U. S. WANTS GOLDDiscarded Old Jewelry, Dental Gold, Broken Watches, etc., Re-• deemed for Cash, Dependable and Courteous Service. Managementof 42 years' experience. Old established and responsible. Bring orsend direct. Don't sell to strangers. WE EMPLOY NO SOLICITORS.U. S. SMELTING WORKS (The Old Reliable)39 So. State St., Cor. Monroe, 4th FloorSHIPPING AND STORAGEMOVING — STORAGE — SHIPPINGPacking and Baggage TransferSTROMBERG BROTHERS1316 East 61st StreetPhones Dorchester 3211 and 3416VENTILATINGTHE HAINES COMPANYVentilating Contractors1929-1937 West Lake St.PHONES SEELEY 2765 - 2766 - 2767Alumni: MentionThe Magazine whenYou Patronize Our AdvertisersTEAROUTTHISsHEET Official BallotCollege Alumni Association, University of ChicagoFOR FIRST VICE PRESIDENT(2 years)(Vote for one) FOR SECRETARY-TREASURER(2 years)[ ] Charlton T. Beck[ ] Harold Moore '16 COUNCIL[ ] Miriam Libby Evans '17 (3 years)FOR EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE (Vote for six)(2 years) ; ] Harry D. Abells ><" ] Frank McNair ><{Vote for two) ] Herbert I. Markham '<[ ] Ruth Allen Dickinson '15 ~ ] Barbara Miller Simpson '~ ] Frances Henderson Higgins '[ ] Helen Condron McGuire '22 ] Glenn Harding \[ ] Thomas Mulroy '27, J.D. '28 ] Alfred Brickman \] B. Brower Hall[ ] Stillman Frankland '32 ~ ] Lucy Lamon Merriam ' 0497'03'06'18}20'21'22'22'26Only members of the College Alumni Association are eligible to vote in thiselection.All Bachelors or Masters in Arts, Literature or Science, and any non-degree holderswith a minimum of nine majors of undergraduate credit in Arts, Literature orScience — always provided that they are Life Members of the Association, or holdannual memberships through the payment of annual dues, are members of the CollegeAlumni Association.MAILIT Such members are urged to vote.Candidates are listed in the order of seniority, — where in the same class, they arelisted alphabetically.Your ballot will be kept secret, but all ballots must be signed, and must be received at the Alumni Office prior to Friday, June 9.Mail or deliver ballots to: The Alumni Office, Cobb 403, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.NOw NAME. .CLASS „ADDRESS.344-A Selection ofCHOICE HOMESFor Your Stay in Chicago® Listed here is a selected group of attractive and reasonable hotels and apartment hotels close to the University and to swift transportation to Chicago's loop.Endorsed by scores of University people, we recommend them to you, thealumni, as ideal homes during your next stay in Chicago.• THE VERSAILLES 53rd and DorchesterHere you can get the finest service combined with the quiet atmosphere of a privatehome. Close to the University and to transportation. The Versailles offers perfectaccommodations for transient or permanent guests.Hotels Rooms $45 to $70. 2-3 Room Kitchenettes $60 to $95. Mr. Shea, Mgr.Phone Fair. 0200• THE BROADVIEW HOTEL 5540 Hyde Park Blvd.Beautiful Jackson Park is just a block away with its yarht harbor, tennis courts andbridle paths. This is one of the most modem and up-to-date hotels in Chicago. Excellent dining room.Room with Private Bath $8 Weekly. Mr. Lineaweaver, Mgr. Fair 8800• CORNELL TOWERS 5346 Cornell AvenueJust a block from Hyde Park Boulevard and from the 53rd Street I. C. Station. Acomfortable hotel apartment where you can enjoy the most complete service and thebeauties of Chicago's famous south shore.2-3 Room Kitchenettes $75 to $175. 4 Room Apartments $165 and up.Mr. Olson, Mgr. Plaza 5400• TUDOR MANOR 7416 Phillips AvenueThis delightful apartment hotel is about a mile and a half from the University but tosee it is to want to stay there. A large solarium adds to your comfort and enjoymentand the service offered is unexcelled.Hotel Rooms $45. 1-2-3 Room Apartments $55 to $95. Mrs. Blair, Mgr.Phone Reg. 1620ometkintf to Uajm?f /z/st sat/mp' someffi/tmA friend of CHESTERFIELDwrites us of a salesman whohad "something to say":"I dropped into a little tobacco shop, and when I askedfor a pack of Chesterfieldsthe man smiled and told meI was the seventh customerwithout a break to ask forChesterfields. 'Smoker aftersmoker,' he said, 'tells methat Chesterfields click ... Isell five times as many Chesterfields as I did a while back.'"Yes, there's something to sayabout Chesterfields and ittakes just six words to say it— "They're mild and yet theysatisfy."© 1933, Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co.