FERIOnifcBfVOL. XXV APRIL. 1933 NUMBER 6THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINESketched by Wallace Morganin the " Club Leviathan' '—thesmartest supper club afloat.—each glorious day onr^tke LEVIATHAN"The end of a perfect day" —how delightful to discover aday that's perfect from start tofinish. . .how doubly delightfulto know that there's anotherday ahead that will be as fullof gay good times! On theLEVIATHAN, as on all UnitedStates Liners, you will findtravel that's joyously different— good times that are plannedin the American manner, byAmericans — and enjoyed withfellow Americans. You'll find en the ships that flyyour own flag swift, understanding service by stewards whospeak your own language . . .delicious treats prepared bychefs who know how to suityour own exacting taste. Yes, onUnited States Liners you'll findevery privilege any ship canoffer, plus the enjoyment of theAmerican standard of living.For full information see yourlocal agent. He knows travelvalues. Services to GERMANY,Ireland, England and France-LE V1ATHAN — America's largest shipMANHATTAN WASHINGTON*The modern "Yankee Clippers."Fastest Cabin Liners in the world.*Maiden voyage May 10President ROOSEVELTPresident HARDINGAnd four staunch American Merchant Liners . . . one class only . . .very moderate rates.CONSIDER THISEighty-five cents of the dollar paidfor freight and transportation onAmerican ships is spent in America. . . It's "good business" to have thefun of traveling underyour ownflag.FOLLOW THE TREND TO AMERICAN SHIPS ™Sl£SG^^U. S. LINESAMERICAN MERCHANT LINESROOSEVELT STEAMSHIP CO., Inc -Gen. AgentsNo. 1 Broadway, New York Agents everywhereGfljje ©ntoerstrp of Cfncago jWagajmeRuth C. E. Earnshaw, '31Associate EditorCharlton T. Beck, '04Editor and Business ManagerMilton E. Robinson, 'ii, J.D. '13Chairman, Editorial BoardFred B. Millett, Ph.D. '32, William V. Morgenstern, '20, J.D. '22, John P. Howe, '27Contributing Editors~UI Al T H II c/^ LI COn our cover we show the cloister connecting Swift Hall with Bond Chapel. ard Oil and went to India as a member ofits foreign legion.Six hundred alumni heard the addressof President Hutchins at the Winter Assembly in Chicago. We print it in thisissue for the benefit of the thousands ofalumni who were unable to get to theDrake Ballroom.Arthur R. Robinson is serving his secondterm as a United States Senator. He isone of two Chicago alumni in thataugust body. A veteran of the WorldWar, where he attained the rank of major,his chief interests in the Senate have hadto do with veterans' legislation and insularaffairs. He has served as Chairman ofthe Committee on Pensions and holdsmembership on the powerful Foreign Relations and Judiciary Committees.In his undergraduate days, AndrewJackson Johnson was business manager ofThe Phoenix. After a year of post graduate work he joined the forces of Stand- Czarna Moecker "looks upon her modestdiploma (1929 model) with mortificationand chagrin" and raises a challenging cry.*****The most stimulating address deliveredat a recent meeting of alumni secretarieswas that of the president of the Universityof Cincinnati. We offer you some interesting extracts.Eric O. May, for many years a superintendent of schools in Illinois, is spendingthe year in residence at the Universitywhere he has made a thorough study ofmany phases of the new plan of education in the College.Mrs. Martin Schutze is president of theRenaissance Society, one of the most activeand influential cultural groups in Chicago.She presents a brief account of its workin this issue.The Magazine is published at 1009 Sloan St., Crawfordsville Ind., monthly from Novemberto July, inclusive, for The Alumni Council of the University of Chicago, 58th St. and Ellis Ave.,Chicago, 111. The subscription price is $2.00 per year; the price of single copies is 25 cents.Entered as second class matter December 10, 1924, at the Post Office at Crawfordsville, Indiana,under the Act of March 3, 1879.249When Professor James Henry Breasted left Chicago in February, bound for theNear East, he forgot to lock one of the doors of his new Oriental Museum. The alertcameraman for the Magazine has snapped three wandering members of Blackfriarsin the act of hatching the IQ33 'Friars show, which is called "Gypped in Egypt," and hasto do with Dr. Breasted's current adventures in the land of the Nile. With characteristic nonchalance, the Friars are drawing their inspiration from the Museum's GreatStone Bull, which happens to be Assyrian. The show will be produced in Mandelhall May 12th and 13th, igth and 20th.250Vol xxv N o . 6Unfoersttp of Cfncago48foga?ineAPRIL, 1933To the AlumniBy Robert Maynard Hutchins,PresidentIN VIEW of the array of talent whichhas already been presented, there is,you will be relieved to learn, verylittle left for me to say. In Mr. Staggyou have observed a man so valuable thatwhen he retired we had to get two mento fill his place.I take this opportunity to express theUniversity's gratitude for Mr. Stagg's longand distinguished service, our regrets thathe is leaving us, and our best wishes to himin his new post.In this period I shall dispose of twotrifling subjects, education and finance.When last we met, I attempted to outlinewhat is still called the New Plan, and totell you what the reasons for it were. Ieven ventured to predict what the resultsmight be. They were four: education inindependence, a more intelligent curriculum, wider opportunity for the student andthe adjustment of the institution to the individual. Although I do not claim tobe even a minor prophet these predictions,I am happy to say, have in the last twoyears been largely confirmed. Apparently the students have thrived on independence.They have attended classes with a religiousfervor quite unknown in your day. Asmaller number of them have fallen by theway than fell from your company. Someof them have taken advantage of the NewPlan to be more deliberate in their progressthrough the higher learning. Others havetaken the examinations earlier than wethought they could.Thirty-nine freshmen during the firstyear of the Plan presented themselves forexaminations in subjects which they hadstudied by themselves, without benefit ofinstruction. They all passed, and passedwith an average higher than the generalaverage of the class. Now I do not conclude from this that the faculty should beabolished, but rather that students differfrom one another in preparation and ability.The New Plan makes provision for thesedifferences. It has attracted more students; it has attracted better students, forthe University has moved from ioth to4th place in the American Council Psychological Test given to freshmen in 175 colleges.251252 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEClearly, too, the Plan has, in the College,done far better than before what the College ought to do — and that is to give ageneral education. The four lecturecourses which are at the heart of the curriculum are not professional; they are cultural. And this is true even in the sciences.The object is not to load the student upwith vast quantities of miscellaneous information, but to help him to understandthe principal ideas in the principal fields oflearning. The object is to help him to become intelligent.The labors of the faculty of the Collegein providing this new curriculum and inproducing the general examinations havebeen enormous and continue to this day.We do not claim that we have finally solvedall educational problems. We do claimthat we are closer to their solution thanbefore. New ideas and new methods arebeing constantly introduced with a viewto still further improvement. The talkingmotion pictures which you will see tonightare the latest effort to improve one important type of teaching, the demonstrationlecture.Because of the widespread interest in theNew Plan, the administration, examiningand teaching staffs of the College will giveduring the coming summer quarter, sixcourses covering all phases of the scheme.To those of you who would like to knowwhat is actually going on at the quadrangles, I commend these courses as awholesome antidote to presidential addresses on the subject.Our experience with the program islimited to a year and a half of waving itin the faces of freshmen and sophomores.Everything that is said about its applicationto levels lower or higher is in the realmof legislation, not experience. But some ofthe legislation is of importance. Generalexaminations will be given for the bachelor's degree in all divisions and schools.Credits are abolished as the qualificationfor this degree. The student graduatingfrom the college may enter either a divisionor a professional school. He continues under the auspices of the division or school ofhis choice through the bachelor's degree to the Ph.D. or to the highest professionaldegree. We shall thus attempt to introduce into the junior and senior yearsa scholarly and professional atmosphere;and I should not be surprised if this turnedout to be the greatest contribution of theNew Plan.At a lower, but no less important level,an action taken by the Trustees on the recommendation of the faculty on January 12,is of some significance. The Board votedto incorporate the last two years of theUniversity High School in the College.The opportunity is thus presented to develop an integrated program of generaleducation covering four years, a programwhich eliminates the duplication whicheverywhere afflicts the last year of highschool and the first year of College. Acurriculum looking in this direction hasnow been prepared, and was submitted tothe College faculty today. If and whencomplete integration can be effected, thecourse of study will be one which must havethe most profound influence on collegiateeducation in this country. As it is, the organization, with the college and the lasttwo years of the high school under one administration and one faculty, will havesome effect inside and outside the University. Inside the University it will clarifythe function of the College and the Divisions by establishing the principle that thisfour year unit is devoted to general education, and that the divisions are devoted toadvanced study and research. Outside theUniversity it shows high schools and juniorcolleges how they may revise their schemein the interest of economy, efficiency, andenlightenment.These developments would be reasonablycreditable to a university operating underideal conditions. But they have been carried through in the worst financial crisisthe University of Chicago has ever experienced. They take on an added interestin the light of this crisis, because they showthat even in times of financial distress it ispossible for us to direct some attention toour main task, the advancement of education and research. Eighty-five per cent ofthe University's expenditures are devotedTO THE ALUMNI 253to the general budget which supports our0ld and established schools, to the southside medical departments, and to the clinics.Since the adoption of the original budgetfor last year those expenditures have beenreduced by $1,329,000, and will be stillfurther reduced by the end of the fiscalyeV. These reductions have been madepossible by cutting the costs of operating theplant to a minimum, and by the sacrificesof the faculty. Until this year, the members of the faculty received extra compensation for teaching in the summer quarter, in University College, and in HomeStudy. This year, all such extra compensation was withdrawn, and this work isnow done as part of the regular schedule ofthe staff. This has led to an increase inthe normal teaching load of 50%, and hasproduced an average reduction in the income of the staff of approximately 15%.Faculty salaries have not been reduced. Faculty incomes have. The Board of Trustees has maintained the salary scale firstbecause it could do it. Because of the excellent fiscal management which the Boardhas given the University, we have someaccumulated reserves. Upon these theBoard will draw heavily this year to meetthe deficit that we shall have even in spiteof the large savings to which I have referred. Second, the Board has maintainedsalaries because of the tremendous influence of the University throughout theMiddle West. The University has performed a service to higher education bythrowing that influence against the widespread movement to wreck the universitiesthrough hasty and indiscriminate reductions.How long the Board will feel that itcan continue to perform this service mustdepend on economic conditions and on thefurther savings that we are able to effect.In the meantime, however, those of youwho subscribed to the Alumni Fund andthe Development Fund should be gratifiedto learn that the object for which you gaveyour money, increasing faculty salaries — has been largely achieved. And all of youshould be proud that the Board of Trusteeshas so well handled the funds of the University that your Alma Mater has been ableto reward the efforts of the staff and toexert again a high degree of leadership inAmerican education.Although student enrollment has heldup remarkably well, — there are 131 morestudents in the University than there werelast year at this time — income from students has declined, though not so rapidlyas endowment income. This year for thefirst time in the history of the University,income from student fees will exceed income from endowment. This seems to meto suggest the means which the Universitymust employ to maintain its financial andtherefore its educational position. The peakin our attendance was reached in 1925-26.This year we shall deal with 2000 fewerdifferent students than we had then. Atleast that number of new students can nowbe accommodated without any material increase in our expenditures. The censusshows that 38% of the people of collegeage in the United States are located within500 miles of Chicago. All of us wouldagree, I suppose, that the University ofChicago is the greatest institution ofhigher learning between the Atlantic seaboard and Japan. Under the circumstancesit is clear that the University should desireand should expect to increase the number ofqualified students by all legitimate means.In this effort the graduates of the University can be of the greatest assistance. Inany activity in this direction in which theymay choose to engage, they will receivethe enthusiastic cooperation of the University administration.Having thus disposed of education andfinance, I come to the really importantpart of my remarks, which consists ofthanking you on behalf of the Universityfor your loyal interest in its welfare. Thedevotion you have always shown renewsour faith and revives our hope for the continued greatness of your Alma Mater.Relationship between Business andPoliticsBy Arthur R. Robinson, '13U. S. Senator from IndianaPOLITICS has been defined as thescience of government. It mattersnot, therefore, what the form, of government may be, it is controlled by politics.And of course there can be no "Business"in the proper sense without orderly government.In this country, a Republic, we have arepresentative system as distinguished froma pure Democracy.And in America, almost from the beginning, and certainly for the past seventy-fiveyears, we have followed a two-party system of control. That is to say, eitherthe Republican or the Democratic Partyhas been commissioned by the voters tomanage the government.Each State a SovereigntyOur method is further complicated bythe fact that each of the 48 states is considered a sovereignty, and under the constitution is guaranteed a Republican formof government, — is indeed, in a sense, aminiature Republic.We have, therefore, a national sovereignty and 48 state sovereignties, thepowers of each of which are rather looselydefined in the basic law of the land.In addition to those complexities thereis the further fact that both state andnational sovereignties are divided into threedepartments, viz : — Legislative, Executiveand Judicial. A president is the nationalexecutive and each state has its own governor, elected by its own citizens.Forty-eight legislative bodies enact lawsfor the several commonwealths and theCongress is the source of federal legislation.Each of the states, as well as the nation,also has its own judicial machinery.All sovereignty, therefore, embracingthe vast police power and regulatory authority of a community of 120,000,000 people, is exercised by the various unitsof government as briefly outlined above.There are, in addition, many other localand lesser units of government whichthough important are not necessary tonotice in detail in the subject now underdiscussion.Business Closely RelatedTo this vast and complex mechanism ofgovernment, the thing called "business" isof course most intimately related.First of all there must be a nationalmedium of exchange — money, currencywith the stamp of authority upon it, andwith us this is managed and controlledentirely by the federal government. Thekeystone of the financial structure is therefore the U. S. Treasury with which theFederal Reserve banks work in closest harmony ; and they co-operate as far as possiblewith the many financial institutions distributed throughout the land.Here, then, begins the close relationshipbetween government and business. Ideallyprosperous conditions demand that thepeople have confidence in the banks, thecurrency of the country and, above all, inthe Government itself.Without such confidence, hoarding onthe part of individuals begins, money iswithdrawn from circulation, banks fail,credit becomes narrowly restricted, fundscannot be obtained for legitimate commercial and industrial enterprise, businesscloses down, men are laid off and depression holds sway.National banks are all under control ofthe Federal Government, while the several commonwealths exercise control overthe state financial institutions within theirborders.But while state and federal governmentsregulate and control our banking system254RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BUSINESS AND POLITICS 255the individual institutions are all underprivate management, organized with private capital.Citizens deposit their money in thebanks and the latter loan these funds toindustry, commerce, agriculture, and individuals generally for business development.Back of all these activities is government — politics — law and order — withoutwhich everything wouldnecessarily come to astandstill.Commerce LawsImportantUnder the InterstateCommerce clause in theconstitution the Federalgovernment regulates allcommerce between theseveral states and withforeign countries.Within the states (intrastate) the National Government does not concernitself, but in the largerfield of interstate operation, all shipping is regulated directly by theNational authority andthe Interstate Commerce SenatorCommission has been set up by Congressas an independent administrative unit toexercise that authority.All Railroads and Steamship lines, therefore, plying between the several states, comeunder its control and must submit to its regulation. They are indeed, privately organized corporations and carry on their operations for profit, but the business transacted, even to the shipping and transportation rates charged, is all done under theclose scrutiny of government.The Railroads not only carry passengersand commodities of all kinds to all partsof the country, but their securities (bondsand stocks) are widely held by Insurancecompanies, trusts, corporations and individuals. Their operations, therefore, tie intomany other lines of business. In fact Railroad activities are so vast in scope and so far reaching in extent that one of thebest barometers of business conditions isthe table of statistics compiled from dayto day on car loadings throughout thecountry.All lines of insurance (life, fire, etc.)are closely regulated and inspected byagencies of government, either state ornational, and insurance commissioners,under one title or another, are found inthe several states. Furthermore, as has beenstated, large amounts oftheir reserve funds areinvested in railroad securities so that they andthe millions of people insured with them are vitally interested in thewelfare of the rails.This is true of the vaststeel companies likewise,for among their bestcustomers are the Railways and Steamshiplines. Steel, too, is animportant barometer ofbusiness, going in largequantities as it does toAutomobile factories,which in turn use greatsupplies of rubber andthe many products of other lines that enterinto motor industry.It follows, accordingly, that all businessis interconnected and interdependent andall of it is most closely related to' the manifold ramifications of government.Many illustrations might be cited of theGovernment's interest in the all-importantbasic industry of agriculture.Farm Aid Efforts CitedFirst of all, of course, is the great Department of Agriculture managed by amember of the President's Cabinet. Createdmany years ago, it has expended more thantwo and a half billion dollars in its efforts to assist the farmers of the land. TheFederal Government's most recent ventureinto this field was through the creation byRobinson256 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECongress of the Federal Farm Board, withan appropriation of a half billion dollarsto be used in an effort to stabilize the pricesof farm commodities. The results havethus far been decidedly unsatisfactory andother more effective methods are beingdiligently sought by the Congress at thepresent moment.The Secretary of Commerce in thePresident's Cabinet manages a vast department of government for the sole purposeof improving American commerce and business both at home and abroad.At the time of the financial crash inOctober, 1929, our ocean borne commercehad become as great in volume as that ofGreat Britain, our only serious rival, andthis had been made possible largely by theactive interest the Federal Government hadtaken in the matter. Not only does theCommerce department foster our trade withother lands but the Department of State,through its diplomatic representatives inpart, but especially through the consularservice, contributes tremendously to the upbuilding of our commerce abroad.Then the Army and Navy are of courseever ready to defend American sovereigntyin any emergency, and without a stablesovereign authority, all business wouldlanguish and die.To safeguard the interests of labor aportfolio has been established in the cabinet.It is only a truism to say that withoutlabor there could be no business. One ofGovernment's most useful provinces is toexert its great influence at all times to bringabout as close cooperation as possible between capital and labor. Many illustrations could be cited to show that it hasbeen exceedingly helpful in this field.P. O. Department Links AllThen there is the Post Office Department entirely managed and controlled bythe Government. It bears the closest connection with the business of the country.Indeed many lines of commercial activityare almost entirely conducted by mail, andthe parcel post and postal savings banksare helpful in divers directions.Finally, business pays taxes to the Gov ernment for its support, both State andNational, and the power to tax is, naturally, the power to destroy. Since adoptionof the Income Tax amendment to theConstitution, by far the greater part ofour federal revenue has come from thatsource. The government, therefore, is decidedly anxious to see that all legitimatebusiness may prosper. Not only becausesufficient revenue for its operations is readilyavailable without causing hardship or individual sacrifice, but for the even moreimportant reason that in prosperous timesthe people of the country are happy andcontented, and confidence in the Government itself is universal.Business Dependent on GovernmentIn times like the present the dependenceof business on government is especially emphasized. After more than two years ofdepression thousands of banks had failed,railroads were in a bad way, insurancecompanies were facing difficulties and business generally was travelling an exceedingly rough and hazardous road.At this juncture, in January, 1932,Congress created the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, with a capital of twobillion, subsequently increased to three anda half billion dollars, to make loans tobanks, railroads, insurance companies, andother lines of business. This undoubtedlysteadied the situation and if some suchaction had not been taken a thoroughlychaotic condition would have undoubtedlyensued.In the same session of Congress theFederal Reserve Act was amended to provide for the release of more than a billiondollars worth of gold in the National banks,to the end that the strain of remaining onthe gold standard might not be too severe,and to loosen credit. At that time therewas much hoarding, large quantities ofgold were leaving the country and businesswas finding it impossible to secure sufficientcredit to carry on.The results sought to be accomplishedundoubtedly were attained, partially atleast. The situation was critical in theextreme and some action by the Govern-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BUSINESS AND POLITICS 257ment was absolutely essential to avoid chaosin the business world.Employment Only RemedyFinally, in that same session, Congresspassed the Home Loan Bank law to bolsterup the hundreds of building and loan associations throughout the land and facilitate matters as far as possible for manythousands of small home owners and builders who were in desperate straits. Justhow effective this legislation will be remains to be seen, but it is devoutly to behoped it may be the means of saving manyhomes for the owners.Conditions are still tragic and the Government is besieged on all sides for additional relief. What the end will be noone can foretell with certainty. One thingis sure, there can be no permanent improvement until means are found for placingback in gainful occupations the millionswho are unemployed through no fault oftheir own, and who are ready and anxiousto work.At the same time an effective way mustbe found for improving agriculture. Thisis the one basic industry. The farmer produces the food to feed the world and everyeffort possible must be put forth for hisrelief. Under present conditions the prevailing prices paid for his commodities arefar below the cost of production. Thisis of course intolerable.There is a trite saying, much heard inrecent years: "More business in govern ment and less government in business."This has a good sound but the truth isthat under our system government andbusiness are so closely related that it ispractically impossible to separate them.The prosperity of both is necessary in orderthat the people may prosper. If businessis good there is little unemployment, andwith our people gainfully employed, criticism and discontent are reduced to a minimum.Since the principal function of government is to assure the welfare of those whosupport it and live under it, obey its lawsand submit to its authority, it naturallyfollows that it must do its utmost to seethat business may continue on a healthfuland wholesome basis. That means prosperity for all the people.In this country there is the closest possible relationship between government andbusiness and, in the larger sense, government is entirely controlled by politics.Must Take Interest in PoliticsIt becomes the duty of everyone then,to take an active interest in politics. Theman who thinks he is too good to participate therein is not only shortsighted —he is either ignorant of its true meaning orhe is deliberately shirking the highest dutyof true citizenship.That government may be conducted ona high plane, it is enormously importantthat all American citizens be profoundlyinterested in the politics of the country.College Boy's Primer of IndiaBy Andrew J. Johnson, '28THIS is a brief resume of the life ofthe white man in India prepared especially for those who approach theclose of their senior year with a feeling thatthey would like to get away from it all.India is a country about three-quartersthe size of the United States with a population of approximately three hundred andfifty million. The usual approach to India ismade by way of Bombay. This is an important point. If you approach Indiathrough Calcutta, you may expect to wearall black dinner clothes; if by way of Colombo in Ceylon, you may expect to wearblack trousers with a white coat. But if youenter by Bombay you will wear the moreusual black coat with white trousers.Though this may seem inconsequential, youwill probably abide by it. Sufficient fortitude to buck tradition in British India seldom appears. Anyhow it is too hot tobother.The assumption is that you come with acontract from some great American corporation and a three to five year term ahead ofyou. If you are a tourist off a round-the-world boat, you may disregard all this. Doas you please ; drink gin on the steps of theTaj Mahal. No one will bother you. Youare white, a "Sahib" securely protected byyour pigmentation from minor police restrictions. Your only duty is to impresseverybody you meet with the high carnivalspirit of the American tourist on parade.White prestige, however, is falling.There was a time when the little strip ofsandy beach where the white man took hisSunday morning sun bath and swim was inviolate to the native and none were to beseen for hundreds of yards around. Nowthey come close and mingle in with thebathers and squat where they please and inspect the anatomy of the local white womenas casually as they choose.And again, it is an old custom that theIndian clerks in an office wear their pug-gerees or turbans while in the office to indicate their respect for their superiors. Of late there has arisen a spirit of daring; aflaunting of shaven black heads about theoffice as late in the morning as the braveones dare.The reasons for this are many. An important reason is the American movie. Adynamo run by a Model T Ford engine anda sputtering movie machine showing a third-rate gangster picture to an audience seatedin the yard of a shut-down rice mill fiftymiles back in the mofussil from the nearestrailroad, can do a lot of harm. Anotherreason is the young Indian who has beenout of the country, who has been to England and America to be treated with equality, or perhaps adulation, and has returnedhome. He is going to resent the old orderof things. And another is that with thegradual development of the country andwith the sending forth of thousands morewhite men, many that go do not measureup to the old standard of a Sahib. Thepolitical unrest isn't so much a cause of falling white prestige as it is a result of it.Possibly it is better that the white manlose his prestige and be eventually ousted,as he most surely will be without it. However, for those that have put up with theheat and the dirt, the bad food and the disease, the isolation and the mosquitoes, it ispleasant to regard the old order of things.The compensations one receives for livingthere are few after all.The tourist can look down from the deckof his departing boat at all the young fellows under their khaki topees on the dockand feel quite pleased. They are all jealousof him. They are noticing the soft face ofthe girl standing next to him and the smoothclothes she wears. The women they knoware mostly hard-bitten, matter-of-fact andtoo indifferent to bother about such longlost qualities as charm and personality.Also the boys on the dock are thinkingabout the food on the boat. They eat beeffrom bullocks as tough as shoe leather.Their breakfast eggs are half the size of theeggs on the boat because the hens they coma258COLLEGE BOY'S PRIMER OF INDIA 259from are hungry. Their milk is eitherboiled and blue or powdered, and a can ofpowdered milk costs as much as a bottle ofwhiskey. They spend hours sitting aroundtalking about who they'd date and wherethey'd go for dinner and what they'd eatif they were back home.The man that has come to stay will probably take quarters in a boarding house or become a "payingguest" with somefamily. That is thenice way the Englishhave of speaking ofa boarder. If theincome in a familyis under five thousanddollars a year, theywill probably keep apaying guest. Thearrangement is quiteprevalent. The paying guest's room maybe on the groundfloor. Upon enteringit, he is likely to stepon a toad. A squashedtoad makes a nastymess. However, hemust get used to thatand be careful aboutthe toads. There being no plumbing inthe adjoining bathroom, there is a hole inthe wall at the floor level. His bath tubis filled by hand by the gardener or molliein the morning and afterwards simplydumped, the water running out through thehole. That is where the toad entered. Occasionally snakes enter by that hole too tolie in the cool by the bath tub. This canbe dangerous if the snake be a cobra orviper.Also he will notice several lizards on thewalls and ceiling. These little fellows hewill become friendly with in time. Theyare harmless except that they leave a largered blotch where they occasionally fall onyou. But it breaks the monotony of a hotsummer evening to lie on the bed underneath the slowly revolving fan and watchthem. Watch them as they sit motionlessfor minutes and then dart, quick as a flash, maybe two feet or more to capture somemosquito that rested on the wall. Sometimes they fall to the floor with such acrack that they knock their tails off. Theyimmediately run back up the wall to sit andlook ridiculous without their tails, whichquiver and twitch on the floor for manyminutes afterwards.The day's work ( ten to five, time out forlunch and tea) finished, something inthe way of recreationis in order. Practically all life outsideof business centersaround the club.Consequently thechokra — that meanssmall boy and is applied to all men theirfirst term out — is soonput up for one orseveral clubs. Andthat is where the ladfrom these abstemiousUnited States findsthat he has his handsfull. Before he isvoted on for a clubhe must meet thecommittee and thecommittee, usually composed of ten ortwelve members, has one unvarying placeof meeting the candidates. That is in thebar of an evening before committee meeting. "Jones, this is a new man in ourcompany that I am putting up for theclub. Jones — Hooker.""Mighty glad to meet you even if thisold reprobate is putting you up. What willyou have to drink?"There is no point in debating the issuesherein involved. The boy wants to beelected to the club. He is expected by hiscompany to establish for himself a certainsocial position in the community as well asdo his work. Everywhere around him thecustomary drink is whiskey and soda. Theystill joke around the bar of the GymkhanaClub in Madras about the American Consul, up for the club two years ago, who replied, "No thanks, I never drink except aNative Industry — Crushing Rockby Hand26o THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINElittle water occasionally with my meals."The probability is that the candidatetakes himself back to his bungalow abouteight-thirty, which is dinner time and timefor everybody to go home from the club,thoroughly potted. In time he learns certain defenses ; he learns that they don't comeas fast out on the lawn where the ladiessit and hope for a cool breeze, as they do inthe bar. He can order pow whiskeys whichare half the size of chotta pegs and still bea good fellow. But, unless he seclude himself among the missionaries, whiskey willremain either a problem or an item in hisdaily life while he is in India.One doesn'tgo home fromthe club ; onegoes back to thebungalow. Go-i n g homemeans, in mostcases, goingback to England. The placewhere one'sdaily life isspent is just thebungalow. The average colonial willspend half his life in that bungalow or asimilar one and never consider it more thana temporary shelter. All his plans centeron his next leave or the more distant datewhen he can retire and return home to stay.And, when that time comes, he goes home tofind that he has nothing left in commonwith the people at home and life for himis centered in India. Whereupon he returns to India to spend his last remainingdays as possibly the secretary of some tea-planter's club back in the interior.Since no one feels permanently attachedto the country, the same shallownessand artificiality exist in friendships andhuman relations in general, that exist abouta summer resort or on a steamer voyage.There being small probability of anybodybeing called to a reckoning, everybody swaggers and puffs his importance to the burstingpoint. One woman that had been out forten years neatly commented on this point."I'm the only married woman in India that doesn't have an independent income."A bit of swagger, gracefully done, is notaltogether displeasing; a slight suggestionof, "knock me over if you dare." The swagger about an Indian club is not gracefullydone, however. To illustrate with a verycommon occurrence :A peon, lacking all formal education yetbetter acquainted with English than theaverage Englishman is with Hindustani,will be taking orders for a round of drinks,possibly eight to ten individual orders. Infilling the order he brings one man WhiteLabel Whiskey instead of the White HorseWhiskey that was ordered. The injuredparty tastes it,assumes a dourface, and delivers a lectureto the peon thatwill take perhaps five minutes to complete. It willbe delivered ina voice loudenough to disturb the conversation of anybody sitting within a radiusof ten yards. If this occurs in the bar, he'llcall the peon a bloody fool ; if out on thelawn, a stupid fool because bloody isn't anice word. This little drama is repeatedover and over again every evening in everyclub in India.And again, the smart thing is to arrivewith your dinner party at the movie aboutfifteen minutes late, to clatter upstairs intothe "dress-circle" with much talk andlaughter. "We don't give a damn aboutyou or about this movie. We've been having a dinner party and we think we're justthe wittiest and cleverest people in town.Don't you think so too?"Of course, once an attitude has beenstruck, it must be maintained day by day.India is the place where "keeping up withthe Joneses" breaks down into a flat-footedrace. The result is that everybody is indebt. They keep a car and a driver, wear ablue-banded topee to indicate that theybelong to the Hunt and ride to the houndsPotato Merchants in the BazaarCOLLEGE BOY'S PRIMER OF INDIA 2610n Sunday mornings, and make every purchase on credit awaiting their next paycheck.India always has two words linked to it,mystery and romance. These qualities probably exist for the tourist. The tourist usually finds what he wants or gets ThomasCook & Son to point it out. Some touristshave even found romance in the two rupeeTurkish Baths at Delhi.But the mystery and romance won't bethere for you — boy with a three year contract. Mystery and romance come to a relaxed and contemplative mind. India ismuch too close to you for you to contemplateit, and the irritations too numerous. Youare irritated because it is the fourteenth dayin a row that the temperature has reached107 ; because the duck clothes that the Indian tailor made and copied from your bestfitting suit never do feel comfortable; because breakfast coffee never tastes the wayyou remember breakfast coffee ought totaste ; because for the second time this monthyou are having dysentery ; because the timeis going so slow before your leave comesdue.Also, your daily life and its routine experiences keep you tense and set. Yourtime is spent in the streets of an Indian townand your business is the matter of fact business of making a living. In those streetsyou will be accosted by a beggar, perhapssix years of age, with nothing but a largeblack hole where his nose should be, therest eaten away by leprosy. You will see abeggar digging into a garbage can, eatingas he goes, while thedogs watch him. Youmay see a babu,walking along in thehard sunlight withhead uncovered, suddenly drop and liethere writhing inan epileptic fit, thewhile no one paysany attention tohim. You will haveto walk aroundbodies lying on thepavement ; they may Coming Down be asleep or they may be dead — you don'tcare. The people you pass with an arm ora leg missing, you take no notice of; theyare too numerous.You may pass a funeral. There is a loudblowing of reed instruments and beating ofdrums. The corpse passes, sitting upright ina canopied chair, his neck wreathed in garlands and his head nodding in rhythm withthe step of his pall bearers. You know he ison the way to the burning ghat; there willbe a tedious squabble while the relatives andthe wood merchant bargain about the price.The corpse will finally be placed, face downward, on top of six tiers of wood and twomore piled on top. A bit of fire will be purchased from the holy man, the pyre lighted,and the fire attended by the closest of kinuntil it has burned itself out.You will pass a snake-charmer in the center of a circle of sailors. He is staging hisfight between a cobra and a mongoose. Thecobra is old and dull and uninterested ; themongoose is only a baby and full of fight.He poses in front of the cobra, whose angeris slowly increasing, until he spreads hishood and hisses fiercely. Finally he strikes.Quick as light, the mongoose jumps aside,to dodge the strike, and jumps back againto grab the prostrate cobra by the lip beforehe can straighten. He hangs on doggedlyuntil the fakir pulls them apart. Then theperformance is repeated and so on indefinitely.You know a better stunt than that. Atthe shoe factory just outside of town onThursday afternoons they purchase snakeskin. They alwayspurchase it alive.The trapper bringshis snakes in a gunnysack on top of hishead. He draws thesnake from the bagand his wife who accompanies him fixesits attention with alarge white sheetwhile it is stilldrowsy from thedark bag. Then thethe Madras Road trapper holds the262 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEsnake by the tail and bargains with thebuyer. The trapper is safe because the snakecannot strike backward. If the snake triesto turn, the trapper turns with him the whilehis wife again catches the snake's attentionwith the sheet. After the sale is complete,the trapper runs his hand up the back of thesnake, catches him at the throat and forceshis mouth open with his finger and thumb.He then drops into the mouth a pinch ofsnuff which soon suffices to kill the snakeand cause it to unwind its coils from aroundthe trapper's arm.This beats the snake-charmer's tricks.Of course it lacks the snake-charmer's ballyhoo. And India is a country where ballyhoocounts for more than it does in the UnitedStates. Suppose Gopal Menon goes to college, which he does if he possibly can. Hegraduates. Thereafter wherever he writeshis name, on a sign in front of his shop, inhis signature to letters, he writes it GopalMenon, A.B.Suppose Gopal Menon's father does a bitof money lending, is careful never to collect the principal but always collectshis interest of thirty-six per cent peryear, and becomes wealthy and decides tosend his boy to school in the United States.On the son's return home, he will sign hisname Gopal Menon, A.B. (U. S. A.). Butsuppose the son does not do so well inschool. Suppose he fails his final examinations. With perfect aplomb, thereafter, hewill write his name Gopal Menon, A.B.(failed). This notifies the world that he has been 'to college ; even if he couldn'tmuster sufficient ability to graduate, heexpects to be treated better than theboy that never was exposed to higherlearning.However, for ballyhoo raised to the nthpower, ballyhoo removed to the ridiculouswhere it furnishes a laugh, a cure for allthe gripes outlined above, there is one unfailing source, the patent medicine man.He thrives in India in a luxuriance unknowneven in his heartiest days in the UnitedStates. He has full range for the poetry ofhis art. Here is a transcription from thecatalog of J. W. Wilson & Co., Ltd.;Madras :WEAKNESSWEAKNESS in India is due to manycauses: Follies, the Dreadfull Heat,Excess Fevers, Malaria, etc. Weakness is the bane of all classes of bothsexes in the East.The Greatest Specific — F a m o u sThroughout the East for Strengthening the Weak IsName "Vimo" RegisteredThe Tonic-Food SpecificCures Debility — Loss of flesh — KidneyWeakness Melancholia — PrematureDecay— Loss of Memory — NervousTremblings— Noise in the Head —Sleeplessness — Spermatorrhoea — Result of Errors, Excess of Follies — Loss. of Appetite — Palpitation Hysteria —Dyspepsia— Paralysis — and all otherailments due to weakness.A Word to the TitansBy CZARNA H. MOECKER, '29, A.M. '3 1DEAN BOUCHER'S report uponthe progress of the new systemcauses us, the archaic models of'29, '30, '31, to look upon our modest diplomas with mortification and chagrin. Itbecomes apparent that getting a degree isdecidedly like buying a new automobile;one barely has time to bestow a proud smilehere, an arrogant, condescending glancethere, when that deceitful, selfish manufacturer puts out a new model, and one takesa toboggan-slide down to the nether realmswhere one's rapidly aging vehicle begins tobe ignobly described as "the old bus" andceases to induce the admiration even ofthe little boys on the street. This is thenadir of one's experience with automobilesand degrees.This trying comparison between the earlyand late models of degrees would probablynot suggest itself so painfully to a societywhich had not been accustomed to thinking of degrees so exclusively in terms ofmarket value. The earlier models wereconferred upon those who survived consecutive periods of exposure to .the bacteriumof education, and were Jtheri promptly carried to market and used as decoys for jobswith comfortable salaries attached. Themarket wanted college graduates; the colleges accordingly put on new men, workedovertime, stocked up heavily on materials,extended plant, turned out the article inmass production; prices rose. The marketbecame glutted, and, as in other cases ofunhappy memory, there was a crash — inCollege Graduates, Preferred. Before this,the educational plan seemed ideal to all buta few ne'er-do-wells who were never satisfied with anything; commercially, it wasideal as long as jobs showed a dispositionto be decoyed. But this idyllic progressionof affairs was destined for a reverse just atthe time that certain ones of us were firstpresenting ourselves to public attention.Public attention being otherwise occupied,we began to din the story of our degrees inits ears. It soon became evident that the old, magic Open Sesame would no longerfunction. The code-word had been changedin the night.And now, while we, the moulding, repressed product of the years of prosperity,are groveling about in the morass of overproduction and deflation, eyeing our vainlypromissory diplomas with murderous intent,we hear happy tidings of a new and superior race about to issue forth to competewith us in the hard bargaining places ofthe world — a race which will be distinctlymore attractive than we to the steely-eyedemployers we fawn and hang upon andwho want us not ! Worse yet, if these Titans themselves should be refused upon theauction block, there will, presumably, beno debacle in their morale as there is inours, no disastrous collapse from high-minded, busy ambition to the disconcerted,shell-shocked bewilderment of fruitless inactivity and waiting. Trained in thescience of self-education, they will knowhow the leisure of unemployment may beutilized to advantage; they will welcomethe opportunity to extend the broad fieldof their knowledge, and they will flout thetopsy-turvy world of commerce and administration. Because they never looked upona job asi earth's highest benefit, and becausethey never believed implicitly in a degreeas the piece de resistance of all job seekers,they will feel no sudden sense of defeat,frustration, and futility if a job is not forthcoming and if a degree is made to waitcoldly outside on the doorstep.How different the condition of the holdersof the old Utility degrees ! I have forgottennow the glib statistics by which it wasproved that college graduates received employment more remunerative by an impressive percentage than that secured by thecommon run of humanity. The financialadvantages were quoted more widely andmore often than the cultural; as elsewherein the world, returns on the investmentwere held to be important factors in thematter. We dallied with the finer, more263264 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEillusory qualities of the collegiate experience,but ever our beaming eyes were fixed on thefuture. There were murmers even in thosedays — I believe Matthew Arnold waschiefly responsible for them — to the effectthat it was better "to be" than "to do." Butwith visions of heaps of shining gold pilingup, with dreams of offices in the 1 N. LaSalle building, the scions thought MatthewArnold pretty stodgy and antique.But after the Utility victims had repeatedtheir qualifications often enough to enoughdifferent people in enough different situations and been refused often enough, theircredulous optimism began to turn to brittlepatience, to doggedness, then to doubt, andfinally to scathing and denunciatory disillusionment. With the bottom knocked outof the market for Philistines and no sweetness and light in their souls, they wanderlonely as a cloud, a lost, anomalous race.Their sales appeal, alas, has vanished, andthey are grown fat and lazy in their idleness. Matthew Arnold, with the gallingvengeance of a prophet unheard, has risenup to taunt them with a triumphant, "Itold you so!"Unemployed, the Utility holders torment themselves with the thought of the relentless passage of time and the humiliatingabsence of visible accomplishment; the pastraises its long, accusing finger. Childrenof the New Era, they still feel the stigmaof inactivity, however enforced and inescapable it may be. Practical results in dollars and cents still determine the real worthof their lives. A job, however commonplaceand routine, is still the only path to self-respect and a feeling of equality. Destructive, negative habits of thought, growingconvictions of inferiority, defeatism, anddespair gain upon their souls. They cannot believe in the validity of their own labors toward self-culture, self-education, andself-expression through creative effort — excuses, vain excuses all for that other typeof work which all the world recognizes, applauds, and rewards. In school yes, working toward those ends was fitting andadmirable, but to prolong this sort of interesta couple of years after the day of exit is toremain too long an apprentice. On! Out into the world, where things are doing,where the toil is hard and the stakes big!This malformed philosophy illustrates againthe wreckage wrought by the economists ofthe Manchester School. How fortunate ifit could suddenly become as extinct as theirtheories and their absurd sideburns !But to continue with the comparison. Inlooking forward to the rather grim prospect confronting Titans and Utility holders alike, it seems inevitable that some ofthem, in the absence of regular opportunity,are going to be forced to accept a lowerstation in life than that to which theirhopes and their former position in societypointed. A recent observer has suggestedattractive, new openings for ambitious andenquiring minds in the field of country-grocery stores and semi-professional photography; in such an environment, the Titanswill again have the advantage over theUtility holders in that their college workwas intended primarily for home consumption, while the industry of the latter hadalways a weather eye open for commercialexploitation. The home-consumption varietywill be of decidedly greater value in alonely country grocery where there is timeto work out a problem in calculus betweencustomers' calls. The education of a WallStreet baron will not serve to make a peaceful and contented country gentleman.Courses in business administration or theteaching of English grammar by the unitmethod will have lost a little of their twangwhen there is no one to talk to but thecanny potato farmer and the "FourCorner Bridge Club." There is a seriousquestion, of course, whether any kind ofuniversity training would facilitate relations in such an incongruous group andwhether the potato farmer would not inthe end greatly prefer his own society. Atany rate, a highly specialized, how-to-do-something type of education, unless it hadblossomed into interesting actual experience,would provide very little to equal in localinterest the annual depredations of potatobugs and the heaviness of the spring rains.In other words, it would not aid in enriching the new mode of life but would,in the main, have to be packed away withA WORD TO THE TITANS 265class notes and grade cards in the dustyfiling cabinet and forgotten. If all theworld did go back to the lonely regions fora livelihood, a high-pressure utility education would seem like just another of thoseunbelievable luxuries of the gay years, asuseless now as the electric egg beater andthe football pennant.How morosely we would look back andsigh, "Oh, how I used to cram for old — !"or, "When I think of that term paper Iwrote for — !" When we sat in our chillyparlors and thought of the library shelveswe might have filled in those fat years, wewould regret all the more the time passedin studying the bony structure of theAmerican school system and the nature ofthe "apperceptive mass." Already^ thememory of it seems a little grotesque.The scene ahead from whatever angle itis viewed promises a richer, more satisfying, a less frustrated life for the Titansthan for the Utility holders. How fortunate for the former that at the moment theworld has so little to offer them, so littlewith which to deceive them or to enticethem! Mundane, practical values mayhonestly and conscientiously be disregarded,and something of its former significance bereturned to the old concept of a "collegeeducation." With nothing out in the worldto bend or sway or undermine the will ofthe University, with a veritable chosenrace in the crucible, it seems that at lastle race, Vepoque, et le moment have combined to produce great men.But a disquieting doubt arises concerning their place in the world as it is. Ifunemployment is to continue even amongcollege people, they will, of course, bebetter able to resist its disentegrating influences than their predecessors; the secretof living wisely, fruitfully, and withmethod, will most probably be theirs. Butthe world does not permit many to livesimply for the pleasure of living. Moneyand income, to speak a truism, are requisite even to the most scholarly and retired life.Self-culture cannot go on without it. Willthey not, after all, be almost as weak, helpless, and unproductive as ourselves whenthey finally are severed from the ideal conditions about the University and strike thehard, rough edges of life as it really isnow?Such a thought cannot, of course, concern the University. The task of remaking an educational system does not involvea reform of the whole social and economicstructure. The Titans, perhaps, will becalled upon for this larger project. Amore intelligent ordering of society witha wiser alignment of values can best beachieved by men whose education has felta proper sense of balance and who have notemphasized almost to the point of tragedythe grosser aims set up in the era of "prosperity." In retrospect, the foolish hopefulness of the '2o's seems like an incredible,incomprehensible, shiny bubble whose bursting has dampened us all considerably. Perhaps some of us have exaggerated thedisaster and felt its shafts too keenly; perhaps we feel too permanently out of things,too definitely defeated, and hover too closeto the brink of resigned mediocrity inthought and effort; perhaps we are wrongto believe that our great strategic momenthas been lost. The Titans, it seems certain,will never feel themselves quite so dashedand forlorn, or so misplaced.The real test of their mental trainingwill come long after the last examination hasbeen passed; if they will have the stabilityand wisdom to maintain a sane viewpointin the face of forces which drive othersto quick despair, and to stand off that earlypessimism which to observers seems so ostentatious and theatrical, then the new system has performed a broader functionwhich the old barely acknowledged. Ithas succeeded in designing super-adultswhere the old produced only that patheticobject, the overgrown adolescent.Does Higher Education Pay?By Raymond WaltersPresident, University of CincinnatiCOLLEGE and university training,despite certain exceptions, hasproved a profitable investment forthe individual student and likewise forsociety which ultimately pays the bills forstudents and institutions. More than everin the era upon which we are entering,the scientific method of the university willbe essential to solve our economic and industrial problems and the liberal cultureof the college will be valuable to direct theleisure of our lives into avocations and recreations at once satisfying and worthy.We are all aware of the fallacy of claiming for collegiate training the advantagesdue to other factors, such as the family andbusiness connections of graduates whoselarge incomes have been averaged in classreports. The shallowness of this earlieremphasis on financial rewards is revealedright now, when college graduates are nomore exempt from the effects of the depression than are other good people.What about the broader aspect ? Willit pay society to grant to three quarters ofa million or more young men and womenfour years of freedom from economicallyproductive work for their higher education ?Statistical studies indicate that increases inthe wealth of this nation from 1790 to thepresent had been preceded by correspondingincreases in high school and college enrollment and in publications by educated men.There is evidence that ideas always precedematerial progress.Now that the ideas of science and theirpractical application have brought aboutthe material comforts of our industrialcivilization, it becomes the province of theuniversity to apply the methods of thephysical sciences to the field of the socialsciences. We must learn how to distributeincome and the material comforts morewidely among the whole population. The present puzzle must be solved not emotionally but scientifically. And that means thehigher education which the university supplies.There are specific examples of such scientific direction. One instance is the service performed by the economists of the stateuniversities of Australia who, upon invitation of the federal and state parliaments, balanced the Australian budget. Inour own country the State of New Jerseyhas recently "asked Princeton University tostudy and plan a new financial system forthe state.Has the investment in the liberal artscollege been profitable? I would quotein answer the tribute paid by ProfessorGeorge Herbert Palmer to college graduates in America who lead in all idealisticmatters, serving as trustees of libraries,museums, galleries and schools. "Thispublic-minded class," said Professor Palmer,are "true aristocrats, keeping our precious democracy wholesome." The spreading of this code of public service is oneof the ways in which higher educationcan yield increasing dividends in the decadesto come.I need not amplify the doctrine that theliberal culture of the college will be ofinestimable value in supplying material foroccupation in the leisure which the industrial age will afford. My own thought isthat, in addition to literature and science,the fine arts and music should become anintegral part of the college curriculum inorder to add to the cultural richness ofcollege students. With such resources forthe middle years and for old age, life possesses zest, dignity and the beauty of artand of the spirit. If higher education cando this for us, is there the slightest doubtthat it does pay in the true meaning ofthe word?266The "Guinea Pigs" ReturnedBy Eric O. May, A.M, '27<TAS"AST year's freshman class furnishedthe 'guinea pigs' for an educational' experiment that has proved extremelyexhilarating to those of us conducting theexperiment and to the* 'guinea pigs' aswell. . . . We began our second year withmany of our fears and reservations eliminated," said Dean C. S. Boucher in theJanuary number of The University ofChicago Magazine.One of the "fears eliminated" was aresultant of the return of these freshmenas sophomores at the opening of the autumnquarter of the second year for more ofthe "experiment" of "exhilarating" qualities. The administrative authorities recognized that, however sound may be the basicprinciples upon which any plan of collegeinstruction and administration is founded,it can be successful only in so far as it holdsits students.Under this new college plan as administered last year, the number of freshmenwho for various reasons did not return atthe opening of the autumn quarter of thesecond year was reduced below the averageof previous years approximately five (5)per cent. This reduction is one of thesignal successes of the new college plan.It is particularly a success since it wasachieved during a year of unusual economicdistress throughout the nation.In attempting to appraise the new college plan, the administrative officers believed that it would be of some value toknow why those students, who did not return for the work of the second year, decided not to return. During the autumnquarter, therefore, an inquiry was addressedto each student who had not at that timereturned. Of these inquiries sent, 70 percent was returned and the data whichfollow are based upon these returns.On the inquiry sheet sent each studentwere listed 17 statements that describedfactors that were believed to include thosemost commonly causing withdrawal. Since the investigation was planned primarily todetermine if the new college plan contributed to withdrawal, statements that gavethe student an easy opportunity to be criticalof the plan were included near the top ofthe list. An opportunity was given for thestudent to write in aditional factors, andeight were found in the returns. Twocolumns were arranged for checking andthe following instructions were given:Place a cross (x) in the first columnafter the one item that was the chieffactor that made it impossible for youto return and a cross (x) in the secondcolumn after other items that werecontributing factors.The inquiries seem to have been checkedwith care. Each one received was sochecked that it could be used. Many explanatory comments were added. Spacedoes not permit recording and discussingthe statements checked as contributingfactors. They help somewhat in an analysis of individual cases but they do not appreciably alter the general results herewithreported. Financial difficulty was given asthe chief factor in causing the withdrawalof 62.2 per cent of the students reporting;the new plan, 16.9 per cent; desire for aspecial type of curriculum, 4.0 per cent;miscellaneous factors, 16.9 per cent; andsocial life, 0.0 per cent.The high percentage of withdrawals dueto financial difficulty is what might be expected when the general financial conditions of the nation at the present time areconsidered. Previous studies made duringrecent years in colleges and universitieslocated throughout the United States haveshown that the percentage of students whogave "financial difficulty" as the chief factorin causing withdrawal averaged approximately 31 per cent. The percentage (62.2)of students in this study who gave "financial difficulty" as the chief factor in causing withdrawal, therefore, is approximately267268 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEdouble that found by earlier investigators.In making the inquiry it was believedto be of some value to know what kindof financial difficulty may have contributedto the withdrawal. Accordingly, ninetypes of financial difficulty were listed forthe student to check and an opportunitywas given for others to be written in.Of the total number of checks against theseitems each received the following percentage: business failure, 3.7; bank failure,12.5; unemployment of yourself, 16.2; unemployment of your father, 10.5; failureof family business collections, 7.9; generallypoor business conditions, 26.5 ; failure toreceive a student loan, 2.1; unwillingnessto accept conditions of a student loan, 3.1 ;and failure to receive a scholarship, 14.5.Each of the following was written in andchecked by one student: father a CookCounty employee, no pay ; father a Chicagoteacher, no pay; salary cut of patron; andimmense tuition.That 16.2 per cent of the financial difficulty items checked was "unemploymentof yourself" indicates that a considerablenumber of these students were dependentat least in part upon their own employment for funds with which to defray theircollege expenses. The problem of studentemployment thus becomes an importantfactor in retention and is a source of assistance with valuable possibilities.Ten (10) students checked "failure toreceive a student loan" and "unwillingnessto accept conditions of a student loan." Acheck of the records in the office of thebursar shows that applications for loansby these students were not followed up bythe students, indicating that factors otherthan a loan must have operated to preventtheir return. Four of them stated thatthe size of the loan obtainable was not sufficient to carry them through the year.Twenty-eight (28) students checked"failure to receive a scholarship." It atfirst appears that these students might havebeen kept in school if the university couldhave awarded them scholarships. Therecords show, however, that 17 of these28 students had one-third year to two-yearscholarships for 1931-32. Only 3 of the entire 28 made marks high enough according to present standards to be awardednew scholarships or to hold scholarshipspreviously awarded, and the records do notshow applications from these three. Hence,marks below present standards for scholarships were the reasons for the failure of25 students to receive scholarships. Thethree, whose marks were high enough forscholarships, had scholarships during 193 1-32. Each of these checked "financialdifficulty" as the reason for not returningwhich, added to the fact that they did notapply for a scholarship, indicates that theyprobably would have been financially unable to remain in school even if their scholarships had been renewed.The records show that of the 127students who held scholarships of sometype as freshmen, 40, or 31.5 per cent,did not return for the second year of work.The special honor scholarships show a lossof 42.9 per cent; one-year honor, 40 percent; competitive examination, 33.3 percent; and two-year honor, 23.7 per cent.Previous studies have shown that studentswho have received scholarships by competitive examinations and who have continuedin the university have made better recordsthan any other groups of students. Tolose one-third of this excellent group before the second year seems an undesirableloss. That the two-year honor scholarship students do not show so heavy a lossmay indicate that the continuance of thescholarship during the second year may helpa larger percentage of these students tocontinue their work.The present financial stress is such thatscholarships and loans need to be administered with great care. With only limitedfunds' available it seems that they should beso placed as to encourage continued effortson the part of capable students. It is notenough to award a scholarship to a freshmanto encourage him to enter the university andthen to have him leave it before beginninghis second year of work. The loss of holders of scholarships last year was the samepercentage of loss (31.5) as that for theentire freshman class. If the purpose ofscholarships and loans is to aid capableTHE "GUINEA PIGS" RETURNED 269students to do college work, it seems thatgreat care will be required of those whoadminister the awards if students are tobe selected in these times of financial stresswho are able, even with such help, to continue their work successfully.In order to have a more detailed checkupon the kind of activity of the new planthat was criticized by the student whosaid that he left because of dissatisfactionwith the plan, eleven specific items werelisted for the student to check and anopportunity was given for others to bewritten in. The result showed one itemadded and that 32 students had checked oneor more of those listed. The percentage ofchecks made by these 32 students againsteach of the items listed as undesirable wasas follows: lectures too technical, 4.2; toomuch freedom in class attendance, 5.3;little or no help from the discussion groups,15.9; course readings too extensive, 16.8;new plan unsatisfactory, 16.8; indefinite-ness in requirements, 11.6; work too technical and detailed, 4.2; too much workrequired, 8.4; failure of faculty adviserto be of assistance, 2.1 ;. comprehensive examination schedule unsatisfactory, 5.3;too much detail in comprehensive examinations, 8.4; and one especially critical andcandid student wrote in "no intelligenceshown by the examining board."If "course readings too extensive" (16.8per cent) be combined with "too muchwork required" (8.4 per cent), one-fourth(25.2 per cent) of the criticisms made bythese 32 students are charged against quantitative requirements of the plan. "Newplan unsatisfactory" (16.8 per cent), asomewhat indefinite statement, and "littleor no help from the discussion groups"(15.9 per cent) each receive heavy criticism. Since "failure of your adviser tobe of assistance" (2.1 per cent) receivedthe lowest percentage of checks of theentire list, it may be assumed that thesestudents who left school were not verycritical of the work done by the advisers.Although some of these criticisms areclearly defined and candidly offered, it mustbe remembered that they are made by only16.9 per cent of the total group who re ported since only that small percentage ofthose reporting were critical of the newplan.Desire for a special type of curriculumthat leads directly to professional or semi-professional work was indicated by sixstudents. Five of these six students arenow enrolled in institutions in which thework is clearly of an occupational type,and the sixth is not in school. Carefulanalysis of the reports from these studentswho have indicated dissatisfaction with thenew college plan shows that some of themhave transferred to institutions in whichthe work is definitely occupational. Thesereturns indicate that the dissatisfaction maynot be due to the "plan" by which thework is presented but that it may be attributed to the fact that the work is designed for general education rather thanfor specific occupational training. Thesestudents seem to be so anxious to seek employment that they do not sense the needof spending two college years in seeking abroad, general education as a foundationfor the more specialized training whichshould follow later. The criticism is notof the "plan" but of the curriculum offerings.The lack of opportunity for participation in social and extra-curriculum activities on the campus seems not to be asignificant factor in causing withdrawal.Six specific statements were included on theinquiry sheet. None were checked as chieffactors in causing withdrawal and theyreceived but 20 checks as contributingfactors. These statements were (1) opportunity for participation in social affairs too limited, (2) no sororities in theinstitution, (3) opportunity for participation in fraternity life unsatisfactory, (4)living conditions unsatisfactory, (5) opportunity for participation in extra-curriculum activities too limited, and (6)extra-curriculum activities required toomuch time. However, the fact that thesestatements were checked by a few students as contributing factors indicates thatthey should not be completely overlookedin their relation to certain individual cases.Twenty-five students checked 13 miscel-270 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINElaneous statements as the chief factor incausing withdrawal. These were as follows: ill health, 7; adverse home conditions, 3 ; offered a desirable position, 1 ;deceased, 1 ; race prejudice, 2 ; death in thefamily, 1 ; went to Germany, 2 ; moved toanother city, 3 ; friends in another university to which transfer was made, 1;admitted to an eastern woman's college,1 ; study for priesthood, 1 ; and homesickness, 1. The difficulty of the present dayemployment situation is indicated by thefact that but one student left school because of a "desirable position." That position was doing a dance for a travelingtheatrical company. The same economiccondition may be reflected also in the factthat but one student was married. Of thetwo students who went to Germany, onewent as a missionary. The student whogave "homesickness" as the reason for leaving, left during the first quarter.Of the total group of students who leftthe University of Chicago, 54 had enrolledin other educational institutions. Fivestudents reporting did not name the institution in which they had enrolled. The49 who named the institutions in which theywere studying named 36 different institutions. The state university, a Chicago lawschool, and a downtown business college,with three students each, top the list. Twostudents are doing post-graduate work incommerce in their home high schools, sixinstitutions have two students each and26 institutions have one each. These institutions are distributed from the east tothe west coast, although the major portionare located in the north central states.A check of the home address of thestudent transferring and the address ofthe institution to which he transferredshows that 35, or 68.4 per cent, of thesestudents are attending institutions located in the city in which they reside. Only 14students are attending an institution solocated that they must live away from homewhile in attendance. The large percentageof students who transferred to institutionslocated in the city of their residence emphasizes again somewhat the effect of theprevailing economic condition since it is awell-known fact that a student may live athome and attend college with less expenditure of money than if he lives away fromhome.Does the new college plan hold its students?The present study does not answer thisquestion definitely "yes" or "no." It canhardly be stated positively that the studentswho left the university did so because ofcomplete dissatisfaction with the new planany more than it may be stated that thestudents who returned did so in order thatthey might work under this plan. Manyother factors, such as finance, employment,residence, vocational interest, parentageand social interests cannot be isolated entirely from the new plan methods.With the new college plan in operationfor the first time during the college year1931-32, the study does show that thenumber of freshmen who did not returnfor the work of the second year is approximately five (5) per cent less than that forprevious years, that financial difficulty as afactor in causing withdrawal has increasedgreatly in importance, that less than 17per cent of those reporting name someitem in the new plan as a chief factor incausing withdrawal, that approximatelyone-half of those who withdrew say thatthey expect to enroll in the university atsome future date, and that the administration of scholarships, loans and student employment is a valuable factor in aidingretention.The 1933 Alumni AssemblyNOTWITHSTANDING financialdisasters and moratoriums all overthe place, on March 16, five hundred and ninety-five alumni gathered at theDrake Hotel for the 1933 Alumni Midwinter Dinner and Assembly. All of whichshould indicate beyond any question thatthe loyalty and interest of the membersof the Alumni Association goes even deeperthan their personal concern in these indubitably parlous times.Not only did five hundred and ninety-five appear, eat, and applaud a delightfulround of speeches but they came in thebest of spirits, so that the friendly and informal atmosphere made everyone, fromthe newest Class of ^3 Ph.B. to the mostvenerable, feel cordially welcome.At the reception before the dinner, groupsgathered for conversation with faculty andalumni friends. There was no receivingline to limit talk to "How do you do, I'msure" and the guests appeared to approveof the informality.In the Gold Ball Room where the banquet was spread, Harry Swanson's famedone dollar dinner was consumed with anappreciation, not to say avidity, which surelymust have repaid him for hours spent inresearch over the items of the menu, andhis many consultations with the chef andhis interpreter.Following the dinner came the promisedexhibition of faculty brains and beauty, withPresident Paul Russell, acting as toast-master, revealing many hitherto unsuspected facts about the speakers as heintroduced them. In short informal talks,the faculty guests each presented a pictureof his or her work and its relation to theUniversity. Dean Laing added to his already impressive reputation as a charming speakerwith his contribution anent the humanities. Dean Lillie told the alumni somethings they hadn't known before about theorganization and work of the Division ofBiological Sciences. Everyone was keenlyinterested in hearing Mr. Ogburn's ownaccount of his work with the Hoover Commission on Social Trends after some of thefantastic versions broadcast through thepress. Under the spell of Mr. Compton'senthusiasm for his work everyone caughta new vision of the vast implications ofthe research of the physicist. Miss Breckinridge's comment on the work of theSchool of Social Service Administrationgave a new concept of the great work beingdone in the important field of social welfareat the University and her charming greeting to the alumni made everyone gladthat she was a member of the alumnifamily. Mr. Stagg's reception from theAssembly could leave no doubt in his heartas to his place in the affections of thealumni.After presenting thus briefly a samplingof the faculty Mr. Russell introduced thespeaker of the evening, President Hutchins.His speech is published on another page inthis issue of the Magazine for the benefitof those who could not be present at theAssembly.One of the talking pictures in the physicalsciences concluded the program, showing the alumni one of the newest developments in education. "I feel as if I hadcomprehensively examined the University"commented one alumnus afterwards, andtherein voiced the feeling of his five hundred and ninety-four neighbors.271272 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEItiout tfje 1933 aiumm Reunion - - - -On the opposite page is a tentative program for thefortieth annual Alumni Reunion, to be held on June 8, 9,and 10 on the campus. Law and Medical School affairswill, as usual, be held in downtown Chicago.It is too early to give complete and definite details, butthey will appear in the May issue of this Magazine. Inaddition to the general program, many classes, particularly those celebrating five-year reunions are makingspecial preparations. The Class of 1908 has already announced its program, as shown on the next page and in aspecial article.This year offers an unusual opportunity to alumni livingoutside the Chicago region, for they can combine theirreunion activities with visits to The Century of ProgressExposition, located but a few minutes' ride from the University, and which will be open on and after June First.Your attendance is most earnestly solicited.1933 aiumnt Eeunton CommitteeTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 2731933 aiumnt ReunionWednesday, June 76:30 Social Service Administration Dinner, International House.Thursday, June 83 :30 Alumni-Varsity Baseball Game, Greenwood Field.6:30 "C" Banquet, Hutchinson Cafe.Medical School Clinics.*7 :oo Phi Beta Kappa Annual Dinner.Judson Court, — Dean Mathews, Speaker.* Starting Thursday, June 8, and continuing through Wednesday, June 15.Friday, June 99 :oo Alumni Conference, Judson Court Lounge.2:00 Campus Tours, Informal.2:00 Class of 1908, Headquarters Opening, Swift Hall Commons Room.2:30 Class of 1908 Specially Conducted Campus Tours.6:30 Class of 1908 Dinner, International House.6:30 University Aides Dinner, Ida Noyes Hall.8:30 Alumni Assembly, Mandel Hall.10:00 Alumni Reception (informal) Reynolds Club.Saturday, June 109:00 Alumni Conference, Judson Court Lounge.1 1 :30 Alumnae Breakfast, Ida Noyes Hall.12:30 Class Luncheons and Reunions, campus, as arranged.1 :30 Registration, Circle.1 :30 Officially Conducted Campus Tours, starting from Circle.1:30 1916-1917 Baseball Game, Circle.1 :30 Interscholastic Track and Field Meet — Stagg Field.4:15 Reunion Revue, Mandel Hall.6:00 Doctors of Philosophy Dinner, Judson Court.6:00 Alumni Dinner, Hutchinson Commons.8:00 University Sing, Hutchinson Court. Induction of Aides and Marshals. Presentation of "C" Blankets. Alma Mater.Sunday, June ii1 1 :oo University Religious Service, University Chapel.4:30 Musical Vesper Service, University Chapel.Tuesday, June 136:30 Law School Association Dinner, Congress Hotel.6:30 Rush Medical College Dinner, Congress Hotel.The Renaissance SocietyBy Eve Watson Schutze, President of the SocietyFOR the alumni of the Universitywho are interested in knowing howthe Renaissance Society is continuingto extend its connections along with theexpanding life of the University and of itsgrowing relations with the city about it,a brief account of its progress is presented.The fall program opened with one ofthe most beautiful exhibits we have everheld: paintings selected from the privatecollection of Martin A. Ryerson, commemorative of Mr. Ryerson's great influence inart and education.The Renaissance Society Collection ofFine Prints (for the use of students of theDepartment of Art) was initiated last yearby Mr. Robert Allerton. An exhibitionwas held in the fall of the prints and ofthe illustratedbooks and monographs from theRenaissance library. A list ofprints and contributors will besent to membersif desired. Another remarkableexhibition wasSome Caricaturesand SatiricalDrawings fromthe XVIIIth,XlXth andXXth centuries.In January camethe Laura CBoulton Collection of MusicalInstruments, andother objectsgathered by Mr.and Mrs. Boultonin remote partsof Africa. Mrs.Boulton gavetwo lectures onnative dancing Madonna Enthroned — Segna BuonaventuraMartin A. Ryerson Commemorative Exhibition in Room205, Wieboldt Hall.and music illustrated by motion picturesand sound-records. The exhibition of PureLine Drawing from the Greek to thePresent Time excited much interest andpleasure. Mr. Daniel C. Rich's illustrated lecture showing the Greek influence on modernline drawing was illuminating as usual.A Mexican Fiesta was a dinner accompanied by Mexican songs and dancesat International House in honor of MissElizabeth Wallace, followed by her talkon "What I Found in Mexico." ACarillon Tea was given in honor of Mr.Cyril Johnston and M. Kamiel Lefevere,at the time of the dedication of the bells.Mr. Carl E. Bricken gave a piano recitalat the annual meeting and a compositionof his was played by the University StringQuartet as agreeting to VicePresident Woodward before atalk about histrip to the orient.Mr. Mortimer J.Adler delivereda most valuablelecture dealingwith meaningsand terms inArt and Aesthetics.The strikingnew feature ofthe year has beenthe weekly presentation by theRenaissance Society and International House,of foreign talkingmotion pictures,three showings ofone film on eachTuesday. It hasproved a greatsuccess, thanks tothe unremitting274THE RENAISSANCE SOCIETY 275Interior of Greek Vase Used by DanielC. Rich in Lecture on the Greek Influenceon Modern Line Drawing.work of our treasurer, Mr. Donald P.Bean. The showings will be continuedthrough the summer.In April and May we are showing inthe gallery enlarged photographs of someof the pictures to be in the Century ofProgress Loan Exhibition of Paintings.Through the instrumentality of Mrs. InezCunningham, the Chicago Herald andExaminer had enlargements made especiallyfor the Society. This valuable gift madethe exhibition possible. Mr. Daniel C.Rich gave, in connection with this exhibit,the first of his series of illustrated lectureson the great "Loan Exhibition." TheSociety plans to carry on a series of talkson the subject in May as a part of its program.During these difficult times it has beennecessary to suspend publication of our illustrated bulletins. The libraries of theArt Institute, the Smithsonian Institute,Washington, and the New York PublicLibrary are asking for it for their files.The cost of the bulletin was provided fora year by an alumnus of the University,Mr. Howard Cunningham, a member whosedeath is a great loss to the Society.Membership has steadily increased during these trying years. We are convincedthat a large membership is most valuable in extending the usefulness of the Society.The dues are therefore kept very low,graded from $3 to $25 annually, $100 forlife membership. This carries the overheadexpense, but not the cost of exhibits andof lectures, which are provided for by giftsand subscriptions from members. Thereare several ways by which alumni can keepup connection with the University throughthe Renaissance Society: through memberships, or subscriptions to the funds forexhibitions, lectures, library, art collection,or the bulletin. During the last few yearsimportant exhibitions have been arrangedfor the benefit of summer students. Thisyear also a special one is planned. We hopethat the alumni will keep in touch with theSociety and avail themselves whenever possible of what it has to offer.White Lekythos—sth Century B.C.Martin A. Ryerson Collection, ArtInstitute. Exhibition of Pure LineDrawing from the Greek to thePresent Time.in *nv opinionBy Fred B. Millett, Ph.D. '30Associate Professor of EnglishTHE most vociferous controversyin contemporary American criticismhas arisen out of the claims of thesociological critics that American literatureought to deal, directly and consciously, withthe most pressing social problems of thetime. This claim was sounded blatantlyin Michael Gold's ill-natured attack on thefiction of Thornton Wilder. It createswhatever significance may be attached tothe recent public avowal of allegiance tothe Communist party of such literary figuresas John Dos Passos, Theodore Dreiser, andEdmund Wilson, not to mention suchcamp-followers as Em Jo Basshe and Granville Hicks. It appears most recently inthe New Republic correspondence stimulated by Archibald MacLeish's attack onthe assumption that it is the poet's firstduty to wave the red flag above the barricade of the social revolution.But the social interpretation of American literature appears in more permanentand telling forms. From an interpretation of American literature primarily interms of sexual inhibitions, V. F. Cal-verton, in The Liberation of AmericanLiterature, has passed to an economic re-interpretation of American literature, ingood set Marxian terms. The results areas grotesque as might be expected, for,while it is obvious that economic considerations play some part in every artist's life,economic self-consciousness is so rare andso new a phenomenon in American literarypsychology that it is hardly fair to invokeit as a major force in periods when it didnot exist. Calverton's demands for a proletarian literature in America indicate perhaps as complete a misunderstanding ofthe contemporary American mind as can befound ; America is far more likely to produce a literary dictator than a literary proletariat. Ludwig Lewisohn's Expression in America is sociological criticism ofa somewhat higher sort. Even a casual investigation of Lewisohn's book will showthat his critical measuring rod is social andnot aesthetic in nature. For the literature of which Lewisohn approves is, inthe main, that which reflects a spirit, expansive, unconventional, sexually uninhibited and free in the rather naively bo-hemian sense of the word. But, even asa social critic, Lewisohn is limited by hisintellectual arrogance and his violent prejudices. Surely a critic approaching American literature from the social point ofview should be able to face the Puritan influence on life and literature without dangerof apoplexy. But though Lewisohn oughtto know better, he gives to Puritanism itsmost trivial and distorted meaning, andblinds himself to its passion for perfection,its spiritual complexity, its almost Hebraicenthusiasm for right conduct. In consequence, his portrait of the American spiritis contemptuous caricature.Paradoxically enough, when we attempt to understand the predominance ofthe social point of view in American criticism, we find it to arise in that very seriousness with regard to life-values, that earnestness of attitude, that passion for rightbehavior that is one of the most ineradicable elements in the Anglo-Saxon nature.Like their Puritan forebears, the literarycommunists are moralists on the rampageamong works of art. Their rejection ofliterature that does not serve the proletarian cause imposes upon the artist andhis work a censorship almost as stupid asthat of Anthony Comstock or his nit witprogeny. The literary communists' condemnation of all economic creeds save theirown resembles the spirit of the Puritan276IN MY OPINION 277reformer at his worst, and not at his best.There is, however, a modicum of justicein the contentions of the literary sociologists. Every critic of whatever sort wouldadmit that there is an inevitable connection between a work of art and the agein which it is produced. The artist whoignores the major economic and philosophical problems of his age runs the risk ofbeing flaccid and esoteric. No writer,whether serious or commercial, can, withimpunity, close his eyes to the fundamentalintellectual phenomena of his time. Buteven a modest acquaintance with literatureand the history of literature reveals theunsoundness of the sociological emphasis.In the first place, it is almost axiomaticthat works written primarily to support asocial program, to attack social abuses, orto defend a sectarian view of life, are ofinferior literary quality. In American literature, the most notorious example isUncle Toms Cabin, for which no onewould be bold enough to claim literarydistinction, whatever historical importanceit may once have had. In English literature, the efforts of Charles Kingsley andMrs. Gaskell to present social problemsin the guise of fiction are, similarly, ofhistorical, and not of literary interest.There is a touch of irony in the fact thatonly Mrs. Gaskell's unproblematical Cranford can be said to survive as literature.And there is further irony in the fact thatserious controversial works like Pilgrim sProgress or Gulliver s Travels have cometo be admired for their literary charm andnot for their doctrinal soundness, or havedescended to the status of innocuous readingfor the child-mind.In the critical field, perhaps the mostconspicuous illustration of the absurdityof the primarily ethical approach to literature is Tolstoi's What Is Art. Here wehave the appalling spectacle of one of theworld's great literary artists rejecting mostof the world's masterpieces of art and literature because they did not inculcate theparticular virtues he had come to regardas the most important socially and spiritually. His condemnation of his own greatworks was an entirely logical consequence of his fundamentally illogical position.For Tolstoi and the modern sect of proletarian critics err alike in mistaking aminor approach to literature for the major.Interpretations of literature are manifold,but most of them can be seen, upon inspection, to belong to one of three categories:the sociological, the historical, the aesthetic,and of these the sociological approach isprobably the least significant.The approach to literature that particularly commends itself to the academicmind is the historical, which utilizes literary and allied material for the study ofliterary history and its problems. Thisattitude toward literature was apparent inthe earliest attempts to write the historyof literature, but in the nineteenth centuryit attained systematization and, in someminds, pre-eminence.Since then, in emulation of the physicalscientists, students of literary history haveattempted to develop and apply objectivemethods and techniques to the solution ofliterary-historical problems. And, despitethe logical impossibility of treating suchhighly subjective phenomena as works ofliterature with the complete scientific objectivity possible in the research laboratory,the academic mind is so enamoured of thename of science, so dazzled by the glamorous apparatus of research, that it all toofrequently forgets that literature has anyother excuse for existence than to furnishraw materials for the laborious construction of dissertations, securely buttressed byfootnotes.The historical treatment of literature involves, of course, the biographies of authorsand the relationship of a work of literature to the life-experience of the authoror his literary contacts and enthusiasms.It investigates the influence of the social,economic, and intellectual conditions of theage on the literary works it produces, andthe counter influence of literary works uponthe ideas and institutions of the age. Ata still further remove from specificallyliterary values are such problems as theimpingement of the dominant or sub-dominant ideas of an age upon a work ofliterature or the contribution of a work278 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEto the history of ideas. At the farthestremove from literature itself are such extraneous but illuminating concerns as thehistory of vagaries of literary taste, a studyin which the historical and aesthetic approaches to literatures tend to converge.But, though the sociological critics mightfeel some sympathy for the historical interpretation of literature, they are usuallyviolently opposed to the most legitimateof interpretations, the aesthetic. This approach is not less significant, because it isthe most difficult to define, and the mostproductive of nonsense passing itself offas criticism. At least, it is obvious that itconcerns itself, not with social or historical,but with literary values, that is, with valuesthat reside in a work by reason of its beinga work of art, and not a legal document,a pink sunset, or an emotional orgy. Themost precise of these values are technical:values of structure and style, of form andmethod and manner, which separate theworld of actual experience from that ofliterary representation or creation. But torestrict specifically literary values to themerely technical is to desiccate and devitalize both literature and criticism.For literature is something more thantechnique; it is also substance, and thatsubstance is the stuff of actual or imagined life. Indeed, it is more than substancegiven form. It is significant substancegiven as nearly perfect form as the artistcan achieve. The significance is primarilythe artist's : what he finds valuable and admirable, what he finds abominable and despicable, these he shapes into alluring orhorrifying forms. It is the function of theaesthetic critic, not merely to study, with allavailable ingenuity, the technical aspectsof the work of art, but to distinguish, as precisely as possible, the set of values that theartist has embodied in his work. Finally,and most significantly, it is his exciting andexacting task to estimate, not merely thedegree of perfection of the artist's craft, butthe validity of his ultimate values.The temptation of the historical studentof literature is to ignore its aesthetic values ;the error of the sociological critic is thathe regards its economic and political valuesas primary. He insists that it is more important that an artist should be a communist or a republican than that he shouldbe wise or sensitive or sane. He ignoresthe exceptional complexity of the artisticpersonality and of the process of creation.It is enough for him that an artist votesthe right ticket, and inevitably he is outraged by the discovery that most artistsnever vote at all.The Association of Doctors of PhilosophyThe Association of Doctors of Philosophy will hold its annual homecoming dinner on Saturday evening, June IO, 1933. The attendance lastyear gave sufficient evidence of abiding interest in this annual gatheringto warrant its continuance. We are exceedingly fortunate to be ableto announce that Dean Shailer Mathews will be our guest speaker. Weall know that he always hits the high spots on such occasions, and hencewe shall all want to be at the meeting. A postal card to the Secretary,Dr. D. J. Fisher, will insure a place at the table. There will be nooff -campus letters sent out this year.University of Chicago Herbert E. Slaught, Ph.D. '98PresidentNEWS OF THEQUADRANGLESBy John P. Howe '27THE NEW Plan, if it can still becalled new after two years, now appears less labyrinthine and moresimple than the old. So far as the College is concerned, everyone understands itsformal pattern, which is as follows: Everybody gotta pass seven exams.By June nearly all of those students whoentered in the fall of '31 as the originalNew Plan freshmen will have completedthe requirements for a College certificate,most of them thereby passing into one ofthe upper divisions or professional schools.Of the seven examinations, five representknowledge and ability which the wholegroup will have achieved in common: oneexamination in English and one comprehensive in each of the four major fields ofknowledge, the Humanities, the PhysicalSciences, the Biological Sciences and theSocial Sciences. The other two examinations are based upon whatever second-yearsurvey or subject-sequence courses thestudent has elected to take.Because no examinations were offeredbefore the end of the first year of the NewPlan, due to the involvements of setting upa Board of Examinations, only one studentqualified for the College certificate shortof two years. More than fifty, however,passed one or more examinations withoutbenefit of a full course of preparatory instruction, and in the future many able andambitious students will complete the College program in less than two years. TheCollege certificate, incidentally, will notbe awarded at Convocation; a formalstatement will be mailed to all recipients;if they prefer it — for five dollars — onparchment.* * * * *All of which brings up the question ofhow the New Plan works for studentswho have completed the College program,and seek the bachelor's degree. Gradua tion from the College, or the satisfactorycompletion of two or more years of workelsewhere, is the general requirement foradmission to one of the four upper divisions.Three of the divisions list specific additional requirements for admission, all ofwhich, however, could readily be met during the College period. Admission to theBiological Sciences division, for example,requires that the student have completedthe second year of College work in biology,and chemistry up to and including organicchemistry, though provisional admissionmay be granted to superior students whohave not met these specific requirements.Each of the four upper divisions setsits own requirements for the bachelor'sdegree. Normally, two years of work atthe divisional level (equivalent to the 18majors of the junior and senior years underthe old plan) will prepare the student forthe bachelor's examinations. Each divisionhas prescribed that the student must complete at least one academic year of residence in the division before taking thedegree. Each has decided that the distribution of the student's time shall be approximately as follows: one-third withinthe department in which the student ismajoring; one-third within the related department or departments; one-third (sixone-quarter courses) elective.The completion of the first two-thirdsof the program (the work within themajor department and within the relateddepartment or departments) will be measured by comprehensive examinations. Thework in the six elective courses will beaccredited in any way the individual instructors choose to certify it.During the past two years quarterly examinations have been used in the Collegeonly for purposes of keeping the instructorand the student informed of their respectiveprogress. Comprehensive examinations279280 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEhave been the only criteria of qualificationfor the certificate, with the exception of afew marginal cases, in which personnel ratings were referred to. This plan nowapplies to the four upper divisions as well.Since quarterly examinations have thusbeen minimized, the old quarterly examination schedule has been abolished. Theinstructor may give quarterly examinationsduring regular class periods, if he chooses;the student may choose not to take them(unless the courses happen to be electives,and the instructor uses that method ofcertifying). Only three grades are used,S — for Satisfactory; U — for Unsatisfactory; and R — Registered, but not takingthe examinations.The Social Sciences division, for example,has developed a uniform core of work forall its beginning students. A comprehensive examination based on new "201"courses in Political Science, Sociology, Education, History, Economics and Anthropology, will be offered as the "related departments" test, and will be taken presumably at the end of the first divisional year(the old junior year) ; the examination inthe major department will be taken presumably at the end of the fourth year.Personnel ratings, far more informativethan the old ABC system of marking, willbe used, with the examinations, to determine the award of honors and scholarships.In connection with all this, the LawSchool has been authorized to acceptstudents directly from the College and toadminister a pre-legal course of one year,preparatory to entrance into the Lawcourses proper. The Law School's essential three-year curriculum remains unchanged, as do its admission requirements.It will henceforward offer a four-year curriculum, with the object of broadeninglegal education. The first year will comprise nine courses — one-third prescribed bythe Law School, one-third in the Divisionof the Social Sciences, and one-third elective. Entrance to this first year will begranted those who have successfully completed the work of the College, or have had equivalent work elsewhere. On recommendation of the Law School, the University will grant the A.B. degree, at theend of the second year, partly on the basisof comprehensive examinations. Qualification for other law degrees, the LL.B.,the J.D. and the J.S.D., will be as before.* * * * *In order to render more effective theUniversity's training of teachers, a University Committee on the Preparation ofTeachers has been set up, charged withthe responsibility of organizing and supervising, in consultation with departments,courses and programs for prospectiveteachers. The School of Education, asan administrative unit, is discontinued,and the Department of Education isfreed to concentrate its attention on instruction and research in its special fields.This means that the academic departmentswill be more intimately involved in thetraining of teachers for their respectivesubjects, and in some cases, may mean thetransfer of a faculty member from theDepartment of Education to an academicdepartment.* * ¦& 0 *Radio's development as an educationalmedium is strikingly demonstrated in theannouncement of the University's springradio schedule. The University is nowon the air over three Chicago stations,WMAQ, WJJD, and KYW, with eighteen different programs for a total of thirty-three periods a week.Critics of radio a few years back wereloud in their denunciations of jazz music,advertising, and the "fourteen year oldmind" appeal, but the evolution of programs to their present broad range, providing diversified appeal for all types ofaudiences has passed largely unnoticed.Remarkable progress has been made in putting educational material on the air, bothby universities and such organizations asthe National Advisory Council on Radioin Education.The present program of the Universityof Chicago is in contrast to the modestbeginnings of its pioneering in educationalNEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES 281broadcasting. The University first wenton the air on Nov. 28, 1922, when Prof.Forrest Ray Moulton gave a fifteen minutetalk on "The Evening Sky" over WMAQ.By 1926, the University was on the airthree times a week.AH of the earlier broadcasting was doneover WMAQ, which cooperated in developing educational material suitable forradio. A few months ago, Universitybroadcasts were added over WJJD, andthe spring quarter brings KYW as thethird of the Chicago stations carrying educational features from the Midway.Two courses in literature are broadcastdirectly from the classroom, ProfessorLinn's course on English Literature fromCarlyle to Shaw, over WJJD at 10o'clock, and Associate Professor Millett'scourse on Contemporary English Literature,at 1 1 o'clock on WMAQ. A short versionof another campus course is given in music,and lessons in French, German, and Spanish are broadcast as well. The Universityof Chicago was the first to broadcast classroom lectures, and these courses have provedhighly popular.Another type of broadcast is the discussion of various contemporary problemsand developments in business, economics,government, and society, by prominentmembers of the faculty. The "RoundTable" series discussion, which offers informal but authoritative exchange of viewson questions of current interest, continuesover WMAQ, and the School of Businesshas three series on the air, one of whichbrings all its experts in specialized fieldsbefore the microphone at one time or another during the quarter.A series on "Schools and the PresentCrisis" has been arranged in cooperationwith the Illinois Congress of Parents andTeachers, and is broadcast over KYW eachWednesday afternoon at 2:15 P.M. o'clock.The complete schedule, as arranged byMr. Allen Miller, '26, the University'sradio director, is as follows:STATION WMAQContemporary English Literature, Associate Professor Fred B. Millett, 11 A.M., Tuesdays to Fridays, inclusive.Intermediate Spanish, Associate Professor Carlos Castillo, 11 A.M., Mondays.Marching Events, Associate ProfessorHarry D. Gideonse, 2:30 P.M., Tuesdays.University Chapel Religious Services,visiting preachers and Dean Charles W.Gilkey, 11 A.M., Sundays.Round Table, members of faculty insocial and political sciences, 2:30 P.M.,April 9; beginning April 16, at 2 P.M.News from the Quadrangles, 8 : 30 A.M.Saturdays.Professor at the Breakfast Table, 9A.M., Saturdays.STATION WILDEnglish Literature from Carlyle toShaw, Professor James Weber Linn, 10A.M., Tuesdays to Fridays, inclusive.Advanced Spanish, Associate ProfessorCarlos Castillo, 3:15 P.M., Mondays andThursdays.Elementary French, Instructor Leon P.Smith, Jr., 3:15 P.M., Tuesdays and Saturdays.Elementary German, Instructor WilliamKurath, 3:15 P.M., Wednesdays and Fridays.Money Talks, Associate Professor StuartP. Meech, 6:45 P.M., Thursdays.Depressions, Past and Present, Associate Professor S. H. Nerlove, 7:30 P.M.,Fridays, starting April 14.Books and the Stage, Professor PercyHolmes Boynton, on Contemporary Booksand Authors, and Associate Professor FrankH. O'Hara, on Contemporary Plays andActors, alternating at 6:45 P.M., Tuesdays.Music in the Modern World, InstructorAlfred Frankenstein, 6:45 P.M., Mondaysand Fridays.Hour of Inspiration, Members of theDivinity School, 12 noon, Mondays to Fridays, inclusive.STATION KYWSchools and the Present Crisis, membersof the department of education, 2:15 P.M.,Wednesdays.282 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEInterpreting Business Events, membersof the School of Business, 7 -.30 P.M., Mondays and Thursdays.*****Evolution, survey courses in education,"Buy American," immigration quotas, andthe conflict between science and religionwere just a few of the modern issues whichwere old stuff in Athens more than twothousand years ago. Athens also had itspolyphonic prose long before Amy Lowellrediscovered it, and feared the corruptionof morals that would follow jazz music.At least Plato, the leading Athenian ofhis time, around 400 B.C., was discussingall these problems, according to ProfessorPaul H. Shorey of the University of Chicago, who is the leading Platonist of theworld in 1933 a.d. Professor Shorey'sbook, What Plato Said, just publishedby the University of Chicago Press, indicates that the great philosopher, were hearound today, would be familiar withpretty nearly everything that the worldis worrying about.Plato anticipated Freud with a discussion in which he said that man's lower,subconscious soul reveals itself in the lawless fancies of dreams when the highersoul is asleep and off guard, and shrinksfrom no crime.Corruption of music, Plato remarked onanother occasion, always brings in its traindegeneracy in manners and morals andpolitics."The tenth book of the Laws is theearliest, the most influential, and, a Platonist would say, still the best extant treatiseon natural religion," Professor Shorey saysin the book. "It anticipates everything essential that has been said on this themeby the Stoics, Cicero, Plutarch, Epictetus,Marcus Aurelius, Raimond de Sabond, Herbert of Cherbury, Leibnitz, Berkeley,Pope's Essay on Man, Joseph de Maistre,Tennyson's In Memoriam, Tayler Lewis'Plato Against the Atheists, Martineau,and their successors down to the presentday.""There can be no cure for the ills ofsociety and we shall never have good government unless our rulers are our most intelligent and highly educated men, anduntil we forbid them to hide their investments in private safe-deposit boxes not opento inspection," Plato said.The Athenian had his own Social TrendsReport, in which he remarks that "Somedrones have stings — others are stingless —the one become criminals, the other paupers.Wherever beggars are in evidence criminalslurk concealed."Long before Darwin, Plato said that thestarting point of the study of man and ofsociety is the thought of the infinity of pasttime and the endless changes of life thatit has witnessed, in the course of whichplants and animals have undergone allmanner of transformations and men havepracticed every conceivable custom fromcannibalism to vegetarianism.The Athenian, though objecting totariffs, nevertheless wanted imports limitedto necessities which the country did notproduce.Why, Plato wanted to know, and economists and political scientists have echoed himsince, does the Athenian Assembly consultprofessionals only in matters of architectureand shipbuilding, while it allows butcherand baker and candlestick-maker to pop upand advise it on affairs of state?Plato, a believer in disciplinary coursesin education, had no particular belief in"survey" courses. He represents an educator promising the sponsor of a youththat "every day in every way the boywill be bettered by his instruction." Socrates is represented as objecting that thiswould be true of any teacher, and Protagoras, the educator, forced to be specific,says that he will not, like some others,thrust his pupils back into the disciplinaryand technical studies of the schoolroombut will teach broadly good counsel, theart of life, efficiency in speech and action,the management of public and privatebusiness, good citizenship — virtue in short.Socrates thinks this is a fine program, buthe doubts that "virtue" can be taught.Professor Shorey, who has devoted hisscholarly life to the study of Plato, explains in his preface that his book is asummary of Plato, with no idea omitted,NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES 283and none misrepresented. By this method,the Chicago scholar has reduced the ideasof Plato, with all their coloring and background, to the limits of one volume.Though his method makes the Platonicwritings intelligible to the general reader,an appendix of notes and marginal linecitations to the standard text make checking by professional students of Plato possible.* * * * *Failure of the impending World Economic Conference on monetary stabilization and the reduction of trade barriersis certain unless the war debts are firstsettled, Harry D. Gideonse, associate professor of economics at the University predicts in War Debts, fourth of theUniversity's series of Public Policy pamphlets, which was published last month.Without adjustment of the war debts amajor deflationary force will continue tooperate in the world to continue the depression, Professor Gideonse says.The World Economic Conference aimsto arrest the definite trend of currenciesoff the gold standard and to restore thosecountries which have gone off. GreatBritain, Professor Gideonse holds, is thekey to the situation, and cannot undertaketo stabilize its currency on a gold basisuntil given guarantees that withdrawals ofgold for debt payments will be limited. Awar debt settlement is therefore, in his belief, essential to any prospect of monetarystabilization and lowering of trade barriers.Debtor nations cannot market issues offoreign bonds to obtain credits, nor canthey hope to ship enough gold to pay theirdebts, for the debts exceed their total supply of gold, Professor Gideonse says.Their recourse is to obtain dollar exchange,by selling directly to the United States orto another country, which in turn sells itsgoods to this, country, or by curtailingpurchases of American goods and services.In either event there is increased pressureon American trade.The amount of exchange for paymentof war debts must be in addition to thatrequired for normal trade and services of creditors, and it is not enough, ProfessorGideonse says, that there should be an increase of 400 million dollars if the debtpayments require such an amount, but anincrease sufficient to pay also for raw materials and services used in the productionof goods exported to build up dollar credit."In other words," Professor Gideonsecontinues, "debt payments of the type involved in the financial liquidation of theWorld War will make it necessary tobroaden the scope of trade considerably,and this in a period of lower price levelsonly will be possible with a sharp reductionin the present trade barriers, particularly increditor countries."The present insistence in certainAmerican circles that America must somehow gain larger export markets from thedebt negotiations is therefore beside thepoint. An international debt is not paidby creating markets for the creditor'sproducts in the debtor's markets, but ratherby opening the creditor's markets to worldtrade."If we are really interested in additionalmarkets for our exports and in debt payments as well, then such a double objectivecan only be obtained by a still lowertariff in the United States enabling ourdebtors to acquire not only sufficient quantities of dollar exchange for debt paymentsbut also an additional purchasing powerfor American exports.""Much of contemporary discussion seemsto assume that we would be better off if wecould isolate ourselves completely from the'foreigner' and a great deal of nonsenseis proclaimed about the fact that we areafter all only involved in the world's commerce to the extent of about ten per centof our total trade. The assumption ismade that we could confidently expect toget on with the other ninety per cent oncewe had written off the troublesome ten,"Professor Gideonse says."It is little understood that the formerdepends to a large extent upon the latter.Thus the price of a mass production articlemay have to be increased to the domesticconsumer if the marginal foreign consumer no longer buys. It is more signifi-284 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEcant, however, to remember that the tenper cent figure is an average. Somebranches are dependent on the export market for the sale of from fifty to sixty percent of their output, for instance, cotton."The isolationist policy would thereforeannihilate the prosperity of the cotton growing area and consequently destroy its sharein the purchases of American goods in allother branches. In other words, the ninetyper cent would dwindle because the tenper cent had disappeared. A 'self-contained' economy could only be purchased — if at all — at the price of markedlylower standards of living than those weenjoy at present."The combination of the debt paymentsand American high tariffs is leading allcountries to strive for independence ofAmerican exports, both agricultural andindustrial, Professor Gideonse contends,citing foreign experiments in cotton growing, the German grain surplus, and theOttawa agreement as examples of measures to which the pressure for dollar exchange is forcing the debtors.Payment of the debts is likely to bemore costly to the United States than reduction, even though the American taxpayer must make up the amount that iscancelled, Professor Gideonse believes.Athletic ScoresBasketballChicago, 24; Purdue, 50Chicago, 16; Wisconsin, 28TrackChicago, 62; Northwestern, 29 "If the payments are made, we shallhave set into operation powerful and continuous deflationary forces at home andabroad," he says. "In a time in whichwe are barely achieving a new price equilibrium by all sorts of costly reflationarydevices, it is likely that our relatively smalldebt collections will be purchased at adisastrously high price."The curtailment of our exports, the increase of our imports, the depreciation ofdebtors' currencies and the resulting decrease of our debtors' export prices, will alloperate in the direction of lower prices andlower nominal incomes. With lowernominal incomes there will have to behigher income tax percentages to collectthe same amount of revenue to cover budgetary needs. In other words, it is morethan likely that payment will result inhigher taxes to American taxpayers."On the other hand rapid revision of thedebt settlements will remove a major deflationary force from the world market andwhile it is by no means certain that it wouldlead to recovery by itself, it will certainlyremove one of the principal influences making for continued depression. It will alsoremove one of the chief obstacles on theroad toward renewed monetary stabilizationand the reduction of trade barriers."of the MonthWrestlingChicago, 14; Michigan, 16FencingChicago, 8; Washington U., 9GymnasticsChicago, 1075; Illinois, 1021.5; Minnesota, ion.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 285Across the milescomes a WELCOME VOICEIt may be the voice of a son or daughter away atschool. Of a mother or father in a distant city.Of a friend or neighbor who is wondering howyou are. Of a business associate upon whosewords some great decision rests.Across the miles, the telephone brings thosevoices to you and carries your voice in answer.A bell rings and you reach out your hand, knowing that somewhere — near or far — another handis reaching toward you.The telephone enlarges the lives and opportunities of all who use it because it enlarges thepower to communicate through speech. Contacts with people, ideas exchanged, words spoken— by these are our minds stimulated and the entire business of living made more pleasantand productive.Because the telephone is so important to somany people, the Bell System strives to makeits full usefulness available to every one, everywhere, at all times. Always it tries to emphasizethe close contact between each telephone user andthe unseen men and women who make good service possible. Always it aims to serve with courtesy, dispatch and sympathetic understanding.Your telephone offers you the service of afriend. At any hour of the day or night, you havebut to turn to it to command as many as youneed of the Bell System's army of carefullytrained workers.« AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH COMPANYWilliam V. Morgenstern, '20 J.D., '22THAT brightest period of the Chicago football season, spring, is nowat hand, and Messrs. Shaughnessyand Metcalf, the new coach and director,respectively, shortly will be among thosepresent to start theirwork. Mr. Shaughnessy will get a goodstart, for he has thecooperation and goodwill of everyone, andhe will muster the biggest and best squadseen in these parts forthe "last ten years."By the time that therobins which are nowhopping around inHarper Quadrangle engaged with the Buildings and Grounds grassseed harken to the callof the south, however,Mr. Shaughnessy'sstatus in regard to material may not be sosatisfactory. A largepart of his hopes arepinned on his freshmen, and the impersonalBoard of Examiners is going to be a biggerfactor in the football season than springtraining. The winter quarter advisorygrades are not yet in, but there is reason tobelieve that most of the key men among thefreshmen are progressing well enough to beable to pass the essential three examinations.Some of those who did not do very well inthe autumn are gaining ground and if theywill keep their morale and effort up theyshould take the examinations in stride.In that event there should be a decided improvement in the effectiveness of the teamnext autumn.There already are forty men who haveCoach Shaughnessybeen issued equipment for the spring training period. That number includes aboutten of the men who should be regularsnext fall. The response among the players to the appointment of Mr. Shaughnessy has been very enthusiastic, which is afortunate state ofaffairs. He has to become acquainted withthe abilities of hismen, and they haveto learn his methods and theories. Thespring period thereforeis vitally important tosuccess in his first campaign and the presenceof practically a fullsquad will enable himto accomplish a greatdeal. As the squadshapes up now, theknown players of ability include these experienced men : Ends —Smith, Baker, Ayres,Berg ; Tackle s —Walter, Lindahl ; Guards —Patterson, Rapp, Wolfenson,Center — Hilton ; QuarterbacksWallace, Flinn ; Half-backs —Mahoney ; Fullback — Cullen.prospects of prospective varsityBalfanz, Langley, Wells;Bush, Rice, Bart Peter-Womer,Maneikis,Spearing ;— Sahlin,Zimmer,Freshmanclass are: Ends-Tackles — Deems,son, Marynowski ; Guards — Perretz, Gold ;Center — Gordon Peterson; Quarterback —Nacey ; Halfbacks — Berwanger, Alesanskas,Seiss, Watrous ; Fullbacks — Nyquist, Glab-man. Not all of the veterans are reportingfor spring practice, but a large number ofthem are, including Capt. Pete Zimmer,who has abandoned his baseball aspira-286THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 287&*kUetnr Ma&hHAl>.. QUA?* *wait * UTTL£ ,,o CAP /V r//r ,. -cv\t PONT£ ^Cri.\SS ' ^O/Vf . ..H\tf ^ •• %/> OUT tf*1 %To help you decide. . . Sent FREE. this year of all years!Europe and You! Get together this year! It's just a matter ofdollars and sense, and we've written a book that tells why, full offacts and figures that prove there's a Europe at your price this year.Just for instance . . . many a good hotel room, $1.50 ... acabine at some of the smartest beaches, only about 25^ a day... a good seat for the finest opera, about $1.50 .. .a gondola for 4 people, about 85^ an hour... butlet our book tell you the whole story. This couponbrings it free! EUROPE? . . . Of course you can go. RoundTrip$18400Tourist ClassThis message sponsored by the following Transatlantic Steamship Lines : Anchor Line, CanadianPacific Steamships, Cosulich Line, Cunard Line, French Line, Hamburg-American Line, Holland-American Line, Italia Line, North German Lloyd, Red Star Line, United States Line, White Star Line.TRANSATLANTIC STEAMSHIP IJI^s780^rMd^trTe~^wTo7k7NTY— "'Gentlemen: — Will you please send me, without obligation, your free booklet "This Year of All Years."NAME ADDRESS 288 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtions and also forsaken track, in whichsport he would be a good dash man, particularly over the 220 distance. Zimmer should be one of the country's greatbacks this year, as he certainly was oneof the best in the Big Ten last season.Cullen, who needs defensive work, is remaining with the track squad, and Baker,who gave fine promise at end last year,is the baseball team's leading pitcher.Coach Shaughnessymay have some problems at end because ofeligibility, but his linewill be big and fast andhis backfield, with Sahlin, Zimmer, Berwanger, Nyquist, Cullen,Flinn and Wallace,will have just abouteverything.While Shaughnessyis working with thefootball team, H. O.Page will be attempting to rebuild his shattered baseball club.Roy Henshaw, theleft-handed pitcher,who was a sensation asa sophomore, butdidn't do so well last Mr. able. John Baker, Tom Reul, Bob Lang-ford, Edward Beeks and Julius Eisenbergare the pitchers. Baker has the most stuffright now, but Reul, a senior in the medicalschool, who was persuaded to put on auniform, has exceptional ability, althoughhe lacks experience. Langford was coming along last year, and if he gets confidence, will be a winning pitcher. Beekswas used in a number of games, but mustovercome his wildness.Eisenberg is the onlyleft-hander on the staff.The squad is a largeone, and Page hasscheduled a number ofpractice games in whichhe intends to workthree different teamsto try out the men incompetition.The track teamprobably will be relatively weaker whenit gets into outdoorcompetition. JohnBrooks, the leadingbroad jumper of theconference last season,is the only man whowill add points in theMetcalf extra events. He alsoyear, is now with the Chicago NationalLeague team, and apparently is good enoughfor the major leagues. "Junie" Page, anoutfielder and pitcher, has left for Oklahoma ; Frank Howard, catcher ; JoeTemple, third base, Eugene Buzzell andHarold Wilkins, outfielders, have graduated ; John Lynch, outfielder and ClairJohnson, shortstop, have been unableto return to college because of finances.The only senior is Bob Mahoney, secondbaseman and outfielder, who has a badknee. But the team may do very well, fornew material will plug some of the holes,and if the pitchers come through, there willbe no particular weakness. Ashley Offil, asgood a catcher as there is in the conference,and a heavy hitter, will relieve Mr. Pageof worry as to that half of the battery.James Lewis is another good catcher avail- can run a fairly fast race in the low hurdles for dual meets, but Capt. Ted Haydonwill be less effective over the longer highhurdles distance.As usual, the only conference titleachieved at the end of the indoor season wasthat won by the gymnastic team, which triumphed for the fourth successive year andmade its record twelve championshipsin the last sixteen years. Although Capt.George Wright won first place in threeof the five events, the horizontal bar, theside horse, and the parallel bars, placedsecond in the flying rings, and won theall-around championship, the victory wasmore of a team performance than usual.Martin Hanley, 96 pound gymnast whois the lightest athlete in Big Ten competition, won a third in the side horse event;Harold Murphy placed second to WrightTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 289End of Homestead StrikeIn the summer of 1892, while financial panicswept the U. S., the most bitter and bloodylabor dispute of U. S. history focused publicattention on the Homestead steel mills, nearPittsburgh. There Amalgamated Association,powerful steel unit in six-year old AmericanFederation of Labor, clashed in a finish fightwith labor's Number One Enemy, CarnegieSteel's Henry Clay Frick.Rejecting all of the Union's demands, tycoonFrick declared a general lockout in the Homestead mills, next day found the town an armedcamp in the hands of the workmen. Afterseveral pitched battles between strikers andstrike breakers, militia men were ordered in,established martial law. Newspapers filledwith stories of strikers privations fanned public sentiment against Frick and Carnegie SteelCompany to white heat. Weeks dragged by,mills remained idle, and iron fisted Frick wasforced to play a waiting game.As TIME, had it been printed three weeksafter the first outbreak, on July 28, 1892, wouldhave reported subsequent events:For weeks screaming headlines have focused popular attention on the Homestead Strike, battle between organized steel workers and individualisticHenry Clay Frick. Nowhere throughout the U. S.had the newspaper headlines screamed louder thanin a small ice-cream parlor in Worcester, Mass.There the owners, two dark haired excitable anarchists, Emma Goldman and thin slavic AlexanderBerkman, awaited impatiently each new dispatchfrom the strike center. In each new outbreak they pictured the growing pains of an impending socialrevolution, itched to lend a helping hand.Impulsively they started for Pittsburgh, ran out offunds in New York. Emma Goldman unable to raisemoney soliciting on the streets, begged, borrowedBerkman's train fare to Pittsburgh. As all negotiations between strikers and Frick collapsed, Berkmanappeared at the Carnegie Steel offices, describinghimself as the representative of a New York employment agency.Five times last week Berkman tried to interviewScot Frick. Five times he was refused audience.The fifth time, starting to leave the waiting room hewheeled suddenly, pushed past the colored attendant, marched straight into the private office of Carnegie Steel's Chairman. Grizzled, unimaginativeFrick rose from a conversation with one of his assistants, turned towards the door.Berkman took two steps forward, drew a pistolfrom his pocket, fired point blank. As Frick fell tothe floor, like a flash his assistant grappled withBerkman. More shots, cries for help, brought attendants running to find Frick shot twice in the neck,stabbed several times with a poisoned file.Frick, streaming blood, braced himself against adesk. As Berkman rode off to jail, he continued towork until an ambulance arrived. Immediately hewired to Scotland — sojourning Carnegie. "I am stillin shape to fight the battle out."Later in the afternoon Homestead strikers weredazed by the news of the terroristic act in whichnone of them had any part. Said Hugh O'Donnell.leader of the workers, "The bullet from Berkman'spistol went straight through the heart of the Homestead Strike."Meanwhile the U. S. public, partial to all martyrs,read new screaming headlines making Frick a newhero, turning public opinion against strikers.TIMEThe Weekly NewsmagazineYEARLY SUBSCRIPTION $5 . . 135 EAST 42nd STREET, NEW YORK CITY.. 15 CENTS AT ALL NEWSSTANDS290 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEin the parallel bars, and won the flyingrings; Sumner Scherubel was fourth inthe parallel bars and flying rings competition. Chicago had only a moderatemargin, with 1051.45 points to Minnesota's 1034.25, and Illinois' 934. Thefencing team scored six points for secondplace in the championship competition,Burt Young winning one of the threeevents, the epee. Three of the wrestlersgot into the championship semifinals, MaxBernstein, 118 pounder, being second inhis division; John Heide placing third inthe 155 pound class, because an injuredknee forced him to forfeit in his final match,and Edwin Bedrava finished second in the165 pound division. Capt. Ted Haydonwon the only point the track team scoredin the big meet, and in so doing lived upto his reputation as a real competitor.John Brooks qualified in the dash, butran a poor race in the final. RobertMilow, a sophomore, ran a very nice race,under 4:30, to qualify in the mile, andDexter Fairbank, half miler, who didn'tplace in his heat, also showed considerablepromise. Ed Cullen, who should haveplaced in the 440, pulled a muscle in histrial heat of the dash, and was not ableto run. The swimming team scored fourpoints, to finish behind Michigan, Northwestern, Illinois, Minnesota and Iowa.Charles Dwyer was third and Dan Glomset fourth in the breast stroke, and JohnMarron took fourth in the fancy diving.A bad final dive cost Marron third position, and probably second place.Twenty-one "C's" and 17 large OldEnglish letters as well as a number of moreminor emblems and five numerals to freshmen were awarded members of the teamsfor their work in the season justclosed. All are from Chicago except asindicated. Six members of the swimming team wonmajor letters, and eleven the minor "C."Those receiving the major letters were:Stanley W. Connelly, Searing W. East,Captain, water polo; James L. Goodnow,John W. Marron, Captain, swimming;John H. Elam, Indianapolis; and DanGlomset, Des Moines. John P. Barden,Winnetka; Donald E. Bellstrom, CharlesThomas Dwyer, Albert Helland, Rowland E. Jones, James W. Marron, FrankNahser, George A. Nicoll, Oak Park, 111.;Phillip J. Stein, Joseph G. Stolar, andHubert L. Will, Milwaukee, received theminor award.The championship gymnastic team hadfour major "C" awards: Sumner E.Scherubel, George H. Wrighte, EdwardA. Nordhaus, River Forest, 111., and HaroldG. Murphy, Wichita, Kan.Six major letters were given in wrestling to: Marvin A. Bargeman, Los Angeles; Edward J. Bedrava, Berwyn, 111.;Max M. Bernstein, John J. Heide, Anaheim, Calif.; Bion B. Howard, Captain,and Archie H. Hubbard, Jr., LaGrange,111. Edwin Zukowski was given the majorOld English emblem.Five members of the basketball squadreceived the "C" : Byron D. Evans, Frankfort, Indiana; Thomas E. Flinn, Redwood Falls, Minn.; Keith I. Parsons, Davenport, Iowa; James W. Porter, Topeka,Kan.; and Harold J. Wegner, LaPorte,Ind. The minor letter was given toRobert W. Eldred, Harold T. V. Johnson, Robert E. Langford, Charles W.Merrifield, and Ashley W. Offill.The only numerals so far recommendedfor freshmen were in swimming, five menreceiving them: Horace E. Bridges, William B. Hebenstreit, William W. Mc-Laury, Ray W. MacDonald, and L. Mer-ritt Bush, Fullerton, California.Nominations for the June Elections of the CollegeAlumni AssociationSecond Vice President:Harold Moore, '16Miriam Libby Evans, '17Members — Executive Committee-Ruth Allen Dickinson, '15Helen Condron McGuire, '22Thomas Mulroy, '27, J.D. '28Stillman Frankland, '32Delegates to the Alumni Council:Harry D. Abells, '97Frank McNair, '03Herbert I. Markham, '06Ralph W. Davis, '16Barbara Miller Simpson, '18Frances Henderson Higgins, '20Glenn Harding, '21 B. Brower Hall, '22Alfred Brickman, '22Lucy Lamon Merriam, '26Official ballots for the 1933 election ofthe College Alumni Association will beprinted in the May issue of the University of Chicago Magazine. All members of the College Association who desireto vote for officers of their Association willbe expected to mark the ballot as printedin the Magazine^ — tear out the sheet andmail it to the Alumni Office.Additional nominations may be made bypetition signed by twenty-five members ofthe Association, filed at the Alumni Officeprior to May 1. A brief outline of theachievements of each of the candidates willbe printed in the May issue.Business and Professional DirectoryBROKERSClark G. (Skee) Sauer '12 C. P. (Buck) Freeman '13WithJAMES B. BENNETT & COMPANYStocks — Bonds — Grain — CottonMembers: New York and Chicago Stock Exchanges,Chicago Board of Trade, All Principal Markets332 So. LaSalle St. Telephone Wabash 2740CHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, '12EPSTEIN REYNOLDS and HARRISConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4286INSURANCEC. F. AXELSON, '07Chartered Life UnderwriterREPRESENTINGThe Northwestern Mutual Life Ins. Co.209 So. LaSalle St Tel. State 0633LITHOGRAPHINGL. C. MEAD '21 E. J. CHALIFOUX %%%PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing7*>$ So. LaSalle St. Harrison 3614 RADIOWMAQOfficial Broadcasting Station ofThe University of ChicagoWilliam S. Hedges, '18 Mgr.TRAVELFor Reservations/ Tickets, All Steamship Linesand Travel OrsanizationsLESTER F. BLAIRTravel Service Bureau— University of Chicago5758 Ellis Ave. Phones Midway 0800 and Plaza 3858ARTISTGERDA AHLMExpert Restorer of FinePAINTINGS and MINIATURESSuite 1701 Telephone56 E. Congress St. Wabash 5390AUTO LIVERYCHICAGO PETERSENMOTOR LIVERYLINCOLN'S With Experienced Chauffeurs5548 Lake Park Ave. MID way 0949291What 1908 Is PlanningFOREMOST among the classes inplanning reunion activities this springis the Class of 1908, which willcelebrate its twenty-fifth anniversary in astyle truly appropriate to so great an occasion. For weeks, the interested and enthusiastic members of the Class Committeehave been thinking up entertaining and delightful things for their classmates to enjoy when the ninth, tenth and eleventh ofJune come round.Norman Barker, class president, has putfull authority in the hands of Mrs. GeorgeE. McKibbin, Chairman of the ReunionCommittee for the Class; Mr. Barker isliving in California and cannot plan tobe in Chicago before the middle of June.The following class members are workingtoward the success of the reunion: WalterMcAvoy, Franklin McLean, Mrs. HazelKelly Manville, Ethel Preston, ElsieSchobinger, Althea Ricker, Henry Roney,Charles P. Schwartz, Adelaide Spohn, Mrs.Hortense Stumes, Mrs. Phoebe Terry, Mrs.Gertrude Dickerman Van Fleet, Mrs. LoisKaufman Markham, Mrs. Harriet WilkesMerriam, Mrs. Frances Nowak Miller,James H. Mitchell, M. Eleanor Moore,Paul Harper, Marc Hirschl, William F.Hewitt, Harry Hoffman, Jose WardHoover, Vesta Jameson, Mrs. BerthaHenderson Jones, Ivy Hunter DodgeWillis, Karl Dixon, Lucy Driscoll, Mrs.Thurlow B. Essington, Gertrude Green-baum Frank, Anna Montgomery Barnard,Paul Buhlig, George Cassell, DelphineCorkell, Leo DeTray, William Kixmiller,Thomas Miller, Walter Pond, MaxRichards, Theodore Rubovits, FrankTempleton, Mrs. Ethel Pick, Fred MitchellWalker, Alice Greenacre, Mrs. PortiaCarnes Lane, Helen Gunsaulus, EdwardG. Felsenthal, Wellington D. Jones,Arthur Goes, and Alvin Kramer.The following program has been workedout especially for the class.Friday, June Q2:00 — Class Headquarters at Swift HallCommons Room will be opened. Class members are urged to makethis their meeting place.2 :30 — Special tours of the campus, starting from Class Headquarters.From 2:30 to 4:00 FranklinMcLean, '08, will take groupsthrough the medical buildings.From 4 :oo to 5 :oo, JohnMoulds, '07, will escort visitorsabout the main campus, showingthem the sights of the OrientalInstitute, the Chapel Tower andCarillon, Field House, etc. Thosewho wish to see libraries, chapels,or laboratories may make upspecial tours and guides will beprovided for them. From 5 :ooto 6:00 the new Education building will be the goal. This tourwill end up at InternationalHouse with a view of this buildingpreceding the Class Dinner.6:30 The Class Dinner at InternationalHouse. Reservations ($1.00) arebeing taken at the Alumni Officenow. Families of the Class welcome. No speeches — just conversation and letters from absentmembers; a screen review of 1908styles.8 :30 — At the Alumni Assembly the Classof 1908 will have reserved seats.Saturday, June 101 1 130 — At the Alumnae Breakfast therewill be a 1908 table.4:30 — Reunion Revue — reserved seats forthe Class.6 :oo — Alumni Dinner — reserved seats forthe Class.Sunday, June 1110:45 — University Religious Service — reserved seats for the Class.Afternoon — Alice Greenacre has invitedthe members of the Class to spendthe afternoon at her home in PalosPark. Supper will be providedand transportation furnished toand from the University.292THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 293AWNINGSPHONES OAKLAND 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHYDE PARK AWNING CO., Inc.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueBOYD & GOULD, Inc.5813-15 Wentworth AvenueARTCRAFTAWNINGS AND CANOPIESPhones Wentworth 2450-2451CEMETERIESOAK WOODS CEMETERY1035 E. 67th St. at Greenwood Ave.Fairfax 0140Irrevocable Perpetual CharterCrematory — GreenhousesCOAL5900 STEWART 3952AUBURN GOAL & MATERIAL CO.COAL- COKE- BUILDING MATERIAL7443 So. Racine Ave. ChicagoELEVATORSRELIANCE ELEVATOR CO.PASSENGER AND FREIGHTELEVATORSFor Every Purpose212 W. Austin Ave. ChicagoFENCESANCHOR POST FENCE CO.Ornamental Iron Chain Link Rustic WoodFences tor Campus, Tennis Court, Estate, Suburban Home orIndustrial plantFree Advisory Service and Estimates Furnished646 N. MICHIGAN BLVD. SUPERIOR 1367FISHJ. A. DAVIS FISH CO.Specialize in Supplying Hotels, Restaurants, Hospitals,Institutions. Fresh Caught Direct From the Fisherman.211 N. Union Ave. Phone Haymarket 1495FILLING STATIONSROSCOE LAYMANFILLING STATION92nd Street and So. Chicago Ave.PHONE SO. CHICAGO 1163 FLOWERS~ AM CHICAGOgmumS^ ESTABLISHED 1865Vjir FLOWERS^^ Phones: Plaza 6444, 6445 1631 East 55th StreetGARAGESCapacity 350 Cars FireproofFairchild Garage Co.5546 Lake Park Ave.Thru to Harper Ave.PHONE HYDE PARK 1275Dependable ServiceLAUNDRIESFidelity Morgan Service, Inc."Better Laundry Work"Branch 1015 East 61st StreetPhone Calumet 1906MONUMENTSPhone Monroe 5058 Established 1889C. CILELLA & SONMONUMENTS AND MAUSOLEUMSRock of Ages and Guardian MemorialsWe Erect Work Anywhere 723-25 W. Taylor StreetOPTICIANSNELSONOPTICAL CO.1138 East 63rd StreetHyde Park 5352Dr. Nels R. Nelson, OptometristPAINTINGEstablished 1851 Incorporated 1891Geo. D. Milligan CompanyPainting and Decorating Contractors2309 South Parkway Tel. Cal. 5665PLASTERINGHoward F. NolanPlastering, Brick and Cement WorkRepairing a Specialty1111 East 55th St. Phones 1878 - 79PUBLISHINGYour Book Length ManuscriptPUBLISHEDWrite for Booklet and TermsMEADOR PUBLISHING CO.470 S. Atlantic Ave. Boston, Mass.NEWS OF THE CLASSESAND ASSOCIATIONSCollege1900 1914Lora H. Robie manages the Robie Book Shopat 406 S. 5th Street, Springfield, 111.1907Susan A. Green, A.M., is professor of biologyat Maryville College, Maryville, Tenn.1908Paul C. Stetson, '08,superintendent o fschools, Indianapolis,is president of theDepartment of Superintendence of the National Education Association, elected atMinneapolis at thewinter meeting.1909R. J. Dinning, ex,artist, is studying inFrance. His addressis Villa Alsace, Routede Vence, Cagnes surMer, A.M. France. ***Mrs. Frederick Dracass (Carrie E.Tucker) writes thatshe and her husbandare enjoying the beautiful city of St. Petersburg,Florida, where they have made their home.1912Mrs. Phillip C. Jones (Elizabeth Burke) andher husband are living in Short Hills, N. J.,after spending some years abroad. *** Mary A.Riley, A.M. '15, is principal of the Irving ParkSchool, Chicago.1913Essie Chamberlain, A.M. '24, is to teach atthe summer term in the University of Pennsylvania. *** Mrs. William K. Farrell (ElizabethJones) is living in East Orange, N. J., andwrites that her son is at Phillips Exeter, preparing to enter Yale in the fall. *** A. C. Kellyis the new district sales manager in Chicago forthe B. F. Goodrich Company. He has beenwith this concern since 19 15. 1913 CLASS REUNIONMembers of the Class of 1913 willhave every opportunity to celebratetheir 20th Anniversary at the specialclass dinner that is being arranged for6: 30 P.M. Friday evening, June Q,at International House. HiramKennicott, 335 N. Linden Avenue,Highland Park, Illinois, is takingcare of arrangements. Address inquiries and reservations to him or tothe Alumni Office. Send in namesand addresses of Ji3ers and non-degree holding members of the class.Walter Zachary Lyon is regional retail manager for Montgomery Ward and Company ofChicago. *** Harry Comer is editor of a trademagazine in Los Angeles. *** F. L. Hutsler iswith the Los Angeles branch of the United StatesRubber Co.1915Andrew P. Juhl, A.M., is teaching Germanand mathematics atRoosevelt High School,Fresno, Calif.1919Mildred Buck, A.M.'26, is an instructor inthe sociology department at the Universityo f Washington,Seattle. *** George D.Josif, A.M., has beentransferred from Rangoon, Burma, to Rou-mania, where hisaddress is No. 35,Strada de Jos, Cohalm,Judetul, T i r n a v aMare, Transylvania.1920Joseph John Day ispartner in the electrical department of Steinfeld's DepartmentStore, Tucson, Ariz.1922May Hill (Mrs. Charles Arbuthnot) is associate professor of education at Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. *** Washington S. Dearmont, A.M., is dean of the collegeof education and head of the department ofpsychology at Southwestern Louisiana Institute.1924Berenice Davis Fligman, A.M., is now associated with Celia Sturm, interior decorator,at 116 East Oak Street, Chicago. *** Mildred M.Arnold is with the Children's Service League,Springfield, 111. *** Mrs. David Burford (Elizabeth Davis) A.M. '26, is living in Plainfield,N. J., and writes that she is a "regular housewife" and that she does volunteer social workpart time. Mr. Burford is now assistant mer-294NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONS 295RIDINGMidway Riding Academy6037 Drexei AvenueExpert InstructorsBeautiful Bridle Path and Good HorsesUniversity of Chicago Riding HeadquartersMidway 9571 Phone Dorchester 8041ROOFINGGROVEROOFINGCO.(Gilliland)Old Roofs Repaired New Roofs Put On22 Years at 6644 Cottage Grove Ave.Lowest Prices — Estimates Free Fairfax 3206 SCHOOLS— continuedOrthogenic School of ChicagoAffiliated with the University of ChicagoBoarding and Day School forRetarded and Problem ChildrenCatalog on Request1365 East 60th Street MID 7879STARRETT SCHOOL for GIRLSA Boarding and Day School for High School andJunior College StudentsFully AccreditedA Refined and Stimulating School Environment4515 Drexei Blvd. Drexei 0521SADDLERYW. J. WYMANManufacturer, Importer and Dealer inHigh Grade Saddles, Polo Goods, Etc.Chicago Riding Club Building, 628 McClurg CourtLake Forest Store—210-212 Westminster Ave., EastTelephone Superior 8801SCHOOLSPRACTICAL BUSINESS TRAININGBusiness Administration, Executive-Secretarial14 Other Practical Courses - Train for Assured SuccessCollege Grade Courses 77th Year Write for CatalogBRYANT & STRATTON COLLEGE18 South Michigan Avenue Randolph 1575 SHIPPING AND STORAGEMOVING — STORAGE — SHIPPINGPacking and Baggage TransferSTROMBERG BROTHERS1316 East 61st StreetPhones Dorchester 3211 and 3416TEACHERS AGENCIESTC*« T| TeachersM. 1SK Agency 28 E. Jackson Blvd.CHICAGOOur Service is Nation WideCHICAGO SCHOOL OF SCULPTUREVIOLA NORMAN, DirectorLife Modeling — Life DrawingAbstract Design — CompositionWrite for Catalog Studio 1011 Auditorium Bldg.Telephone Harr. 3216 Fifty-six East Congress St. THE YATES-FISHER TEACHERSAGENCYEstablished 1906PAUL YATES, Manager616-620 South Michigan Ave. ChicagoUNDERTAKERSHUETTLART SCHOOLCartooning - DrawingPainting - EtchingArt Materials1546-50 E. 57th St. Plaza 2536 LUDLOW * SCHNEIDERFUNERAL DIRECTORSFine Chapel with New Pipe OrganSEDAN AMBULANCETel. Fairfax 2861 6110 Cottage Grove Ave.MacCormac School of CommerceBusiness Administration and Secretarial TrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESEnter Any Monday1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 2130 SKEELES - BIDDLEFuneral DirectorsFairfax 0120 Sixty-Third Street and Evans Ave.THE MIDWAY SCHOOL6216 Kimbark Ave. Tel. Dorchester 3 299Elementary Grades J unior High PreparationKindergarten French, Dancing, Music and ArtBus ServiceA School with Individual Instruction and Cultural Advantages VENTILATINGTHE HAINES COMPANYVentilating Contractors1929-1937 West Lake St.PHONES SEELEY 2765 - 2766 - 2767296 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEchandise manager in the New York Office ofMontgomery Ward and Co.1925John Theodore Geiger, ex, is with the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in NewYork.1926Arthur H. Hert is secretary manager of theRetail Merchants Association of Texas. *** H.G. Caldwell, A.M., is economic statistician forthe Bell Telephone Company in Canada, andlives in Montreal. He entered this work afterspending some time as economist and statisticianin Canadian food product industry mergers. ***Rhoda Lowenberg is secretary to the executivedirector of the Cleveland Social Service Bureau.1927W. E. Lewis, A.M., is in the education department of Doubleday Doran and Co., Inc.,Garden City, New York. *** F. B. Wittmer,S.M., is head of the chemistry department atBlackburn Junior College, Carlinville, 111.1929Paul L. Hollister, S.M., is head of the biologydepartment at Blackburn Junior College. ***Mrs. Ross Lucas, (Ruby E. G. Smith) is livingin Morocco, Indiana, where her husband is afarmer. *** Joseph Howard Bramson is creditmanager for Levin Bros., Inc., of Minneapolis.*** Elmer C. Ohlert is teaching at ThorntonTownship High School, Harvey, 111.1931Dorothy L. Benson is assistant director of thenew public educational unit sponsored by SearsRoebuck and Co., "The Sears Clinic of Household Science." It is in the Chicago loop store.MarriagesJanet D. Lowenthal, '31, to Bowen E. Schumacher, January 19, 1933 ; at home, after May1, Highland Park, Illinois.Francis M. Parker, Ph.D., '32, December 24,1932; at home, 6104 Woodlawn, Chicago, Illinois.1930 LUNCHEONThe Class of 1930 will celebrateits third reunion with a luncheon atInternational House, 1 :oo p.m.Saturday, June 10. The followingCommittee Members are at work onreunion plans: Harold Haydon,Katherine Madison Riddle, NormanEaton, Catherine Scott, NormanRoot, Susanne Kern, Louis Engel,Manota Marohn Mudge, ElmerFriedman, and Marcella Koerber. BirthsTo William F. Hewitt, '08, M.D. '12, andMrs. Hewitt, a daughter, Frances Beauvell,October 4, 1932, Chicago.To Harry O. Rosenberg, '13, J.D. '15, andMrs. Rosenberg, (Helene Flexner Baldauf, '23)a daughter, Gertrude Flexner, November 5,1932.To John H. Davis, M.D. '27, and Mrs. Davis,a son, Dean Harlan, January 31, 1933, BelleFourche, N. Dak.To Mr. and Mrs. Dale Querfeld (Alice L.Carter, '27) a son, March 29, 1933, Blooming-ton, 111.To Mr. and Mrs. Charles T. Brewster (Frances M. Holt, '28) a daughter, Deborah, March26, 1933, Chicago Lying-in Hospital.DeathsHenry I. Bosworth, '76, March 19, 1933,Elgin, Illinois.Clarence Theodore Lindley, M.D. '85,. September 25, 1932, Davenport, Iowa.Clarence J. McCuster, M.D. '03, December24, 1932, Portland, Oregon.Mrs. Charles S. Jones, (Margaret H. Young,'06) August, 1932, Albany, N. Y.Barinka Neuhaus, '06, February 18, 1933, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Miss Neuhaus had taughtfor twenty-three years at the West DivisionHigh School of Milwaukee, and had manyfriends there and in Chicago.Harry Terrill Watts, ex, '07, March 23,1932.Celia Mary Chase, '09, October 13, 1932,Omaha, Nebraska.Ralph W. Stansbury, '14, March 6, 1933,Miama, Florida, of influenza. Mr. Stansburyserved in the 10th Field Artillery as a lieutenant in the war.Frank A. Chapman, M.D. '14, March 12, 1933,Chicago. Dr. Chapman was a major in theAmerican Army Medical Corps in Italy in thewar.Albert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago535 Fifth Ave., New York415 Hyde Bldg., SpokaneA general Placement Bureau for men andwomen in all kinds of teaching positions.Large and alert College, and State Teachers' College departments for Doctors andMasters; Critics and Supervisors for Normals. Also many calls for Special teachersof Music, Art, Home Economics, BusinessAdministration, CorrespondenceTeaching.Fine opportunities in Secondary Schools.A host of best Suburban patrons for gradeand High School teachers. Read ourbooklet. Call.A Selection ofCHOICE HOMESFor Your Stay in Chicago• Listed here is a selected group of attractive an d reasonable hotels and apart-ment hotels close to the University and to swift transportation to Chicago's loop.Endorsed by scores of University people, we recommend them to you, thealumni, as ideal homes during your next stay in Chicago.• THE VERSAILLES 53rd and DorchesterHere you can get the finest service combined with the quiet atmosphere of a privatehome. Close to the University and to transportation. The Versailles offers perfectaccommodations for transient or permanent guests.Hotels Rooms $45 to $70. 2-3 Room Kitchenettes $60 to $95. Mr. Shea, Mgr.Phone Fair. 0200• THE DORCHESTER 1401 Hyde Park Blvd.Situated on exclusive Hyde Park Boulevard, the Dorchester has one of the choicestlocations of any apartment hotel in Chicago. Each apartment has free electric refrigeration in addition to complete hotel service.2 Room Dinette $65 up. 3 Room Kitchenette $100 up. Roof Bungalow $125.Mrs. Thatcher, Mgr. Phone Dor. 91 00.• THE BROADVIEW HOTEL 5540 Hyde Park Blvd.Beautiful Jackson Park is just a block away with its yacht harbor, tennis courts andbridle paths. This is one of the most modern and up-to-date hotels in Chicago. Excellent dining room.Room with Private Bath $8 Weekly. Mr. Lineaweaver, Mgr. Fair 8800• CORNELL TOWERS 5346 Cornell AvenueJust a block from Hyde Park Boulevard and from the 53rd Street I. C. Station. Acomfortable hotel apartment where you can enjoy the most complete service and thebeauties of Chicago's famous south shore.2-3 Room Kitchenettes $75 to $175. 4 Room Apartments $165 and up.Mr. Olson, Mgr. Plaza 5400• TUDOR MANOR 7416 Phillips AvenueThis delightful apartment hotel is about a mile and a half from the University but tosee it is to want to stay there. A large solarium adds to your comfort and enjoymentand the service offered is unexcelled.Hotel Rooms $45. 1-2-3 Room Apartments $55 to $95. Mrs. Blair, Mgr.Phone Reg. 1620y the way, you knowfriends sometimes offer meChesterfields, and about theonly thing they say is,"I believe you'll enjoy them!"— tke Cigarette that's Alildertke Cigarette that Tastes Better© 1933, I-iGGETT & Myers Tobacco Co.