VOL. XXV NUMBER 2DECEMBER, 1932THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEA Selection ofCHOICE HOMESFor Your Stay in Chicago• Listed here is a selected group of attractive and reasonable hotels and apartment hotels close to the University and to swift transportation to Chicago' s loop.Endorsed by scores of University people, we recommend them to you, thealumni, as ideal homes during your next stay in Chicago.• THE VERSAILLES 53rd and DorchesterHere you can get the finest service combined with the quiet atmosphere of a privatehome. Close to the University and to transportation. The Versailles offers perfectaccommodations for transient or permanent guests.Hotels Rooms $45 to $70. 2-3 Room Kitchenettes $60 to $95. Mr. Shea, Mgr.Phone Fair. 0200• THE DORCHESTER 1401 Hyde Park Blvd.Situated on exclusive Hyde Park Boulevard, the Dorchester has one of the choicestlocations of any apartment hotel in Chicago. Each apartment has free electric refrigeration in addition to complete hotel service.2 Room Dinette $65 up. 3 Room Kitchenette $100 up. Roof Bungalow $125.Mrs. Thatcher, Mgrr Phone Dor. 91 00.• THE BROADVIEW HOTEL 5540 Hyde Park Blvd.Beautiful Jackson Park is just a block away with its yacht harbor, tennis courts andbridle paths. This is one of the most modern and up-to-date hotels in Chicago. Excellent dining room. '¦**¦Room with Private Bath $8 Weekly. Mr. Lineaweaver, Mgr. Fair 8800• CORNELL TOWERS 5346 Cornell AvenueJust a block from Hyde Park Boulevard and from the 53rd Street I. C. Station. Acomfortable hotel apartment where you can enjoy the most complete service and thebeauties of Chicago's famous south shore.2-3 Room Kitchenettes $75 to $175. 4 Room Apartments $165 and up.Mr. Olson, Mgr. Plaza 5400• TUDOR MANOR 7416 Phillips AvenueThis delightful apartment hotel is about a mile and a half from the University but tosee it is to want to stay there. A large solarium adds to your comfort and enjoymentand the service offered is unexcelled ¦¦*Hotel Rooms $45. 1-2-3 Room Apartments $55 to $95. Mrs. Blair, Mgr.Phone Reg. 1620THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 57= A Giftthis yearthat representsgood valuefor your moneyCommemorativeSPODE PLATES$15.00 a dozen12 views — gray toneOrder your set nowfrom theU. of C. BOOKSTORE5802Ellis Ave. == ItsSevenStepsfrom the livestock and produce onthe farm to the products on the retailer's counter.Here they are:1. Financing — Producers arepaid cash; company funds aretied up until the products aresold and collections made.2. Assembly and Grading — Thisis done in about 40 packingplants and over 100 Swift produce plants.3. Man ufact ure — There must becomplete sanitation, skill, modern machinery and efficientmethods.4. Transportation — A hundredmiles or a thousand, the finishedproduct rides to good demand.5. Refrigerating — Perishablefoodstuffs must be kept constantly under refrigeration.6 . Ass ump tion of Risk — Swift &Company does not know whatit will receive next week for thelivestock bought today; thatmeat and other items must besold fresh at a price consumers— through retailers — will pay.7. Selling — Swift 85 Companysalesmen, selling meats and produce at the same time, cut thecost of selling both.To operate a national marketmeans performing intricate serviceseconomically. Swift 85 Companyperforms this service, and over aperiod of years profits averagedless than half a cent a pound of allproducts sold.Swift &, CompanyPurveyors of fine foodsTHE ALUMNI COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOChairman, Paul S. Russell, 'i6Secretary Jsf Editor, CHARLTON T. Beck, '04The Council for 1931-32 is composed of the following delegates: Te'rm expires1033: Frank McNair, '03; Herbert I. Markham, '05; Renslow P. Sherer, '09; Mrs.Margaret Haass Richards, 'n; John A. Logan, '21; Arthur C. Cody, '24. Termexpires 1934.: Harold H. Swift '07, Helen Norris '07, Chester S. Bell '13, J.D. '15,Donald P. Bean '17, Lyndon H. Lesch '17. Term expires 1935: Paul S. Russell, '16,Elizabeth Faulkner, '85, Willoughby G. Walling, '00, Henry D. Sulcer, '06, MiltonE. Robinson, 'n, Harry R. Swanson, '17.From the Association of Doctors of Philosophy, D. Jerome Fisher '17, S.M. '20,Ph.D. '22; Edwin E. Aubrey, A.M. '21, D.B. '22, Ph.D. '26; Herbert E. Slaught,Ph.D. '98; Chester N. Gould, Ph.D. '07.From the Divinity Alumni Association, Franklin D. Elmer, Jr., D.B. '30, J. H.Gagnier '08, D.B. '15, A. R. E. Wyant, D.B. '97.From the Law School Alumni Association, Charles F. McElroy, J.D. '15; CharlesP. Schwartz, '08, J.D. '09; Dwight P. Green, J.D. '12.From the School of Education Alumni Association, Harold A. Anderson, '24, A.M.'26; Paul M. Cook, A.M. '27; Robert C. Woellner, A.M. '24.From the Commerce and Administration Alumni Association, Earle W. English,'26 ; Henry G. Hulbert, '23.From the Rush Medical College Alumni Association, William A. Thomas, M.D.'16; Clark W. Finnerud, M.D. '18; Edward Stieglitz, >i8, S.M. '19, M.D. '21.From the Association of the School of Social Service Administration, Olive HullChandler; Eleanor Goltz '29, A.M. '30; Robert Beasley.From the Chicago Alumni Club, William C. Gorgas, '19; Frank J. Madden, '20,J.D., '22, Harvey Harris, '14.From the Chicago Alumnae Club, Mrs. Portia Carnes Lane, '08; Gladys Finn, '24;Dr. Marie Ortmayer, '06, M.D. '17.From the University, John F. Moulds, '07.Alumni Associations Represented in the Alumni CouncilThe College Alumni Association: tion: President, Aaron John Brum-Prdsident, Paul S. Russell, '16, in West baugh, A.M. '18, Ph.D. '29, UniversityMonroe Street, Chicago; Secretary, of Chicago; Secretary, S. Lenore John,Charlton T. Beck, '04, University of A.M. '27, 6009 Kimbark Avenue,Chicago. Chicago.Association of Doctors of Philosophy: Commerce and Administration AlumniPresident, Herbert E. Slaught, Ph.D. '98, Association : President, Earle W.University of Chicago; Secretary, D. English, '26, 5240 Kenwood Avenue,Jerome Fisher '17, S.M. '20, Ph.D. '22, Chicago; Secretary, Margaret E. Knox,University of Chicago. '28, 6u6J^ Kimbark Avenue, Chicago.Divinity Alumni Association: President, Rush Medical College Alumni Associa-J. W. Bailey, D.B. '01, Ph.D. '04, Ber- tion : President, Charles A. Parker,keley Divinity School, Berkeley, Cal.; M.D. '91, 7 W. Madison St., Chicago;Secretary -Treasurer, C. T. Holman, Secretary, Carl O. Rinder, 'u, M.D.D.B. '16, University of Chicago. '13, 122 So. Michigan Ave., Chicago.Law School Association: President, Association of the School of SocialDwight Green, J.D. '12, 33 N. LaSalle Service Administration: President,St., Chicago; Secretary Charles F. Mrs. Edwina Meaney Lewis '26, 1755McElroy J.D. '15, 29 South LaSalle E. 55th street, Chicago; Secretary-Street, Chicago. Treasurer, Elizabeth Wade, A.M. '26,School of Education Alumni Associa- 718 Simpson St., Evanston, 111.All communications should be sent to the Secretary of the proper Association or to the AlumniCouncil^ Faculty Exchange, University of Chicago. The dues for membership in any one of theAssociations named above, including subscription to The University op Chicago Magazine, are$2.00 per year. A holder of two or more degrees from the University of Chicago may be a memberof more than one Association; in such instances the dues are divided and shared equally by theAssociations involved."The Magazine is published at 1009 Sloan St., Crawfordsville, Ind., monthly from Novemberto July, inclusive, for The Alumni Council of the University of Chicago, 58th St. and Ellis Ave.,Chicago, 111. The subscription price is $2.00 per year; the price of single copies is 25 cents.Entered as second class matter December 10, 1924, at the Post Office at Crawfordsville, Indiana,under the Act of March 3, 187,9.58W$t ©mbergttp of Cfjtcago jWaga?meCharlton T. Beck, '04 Ruth C. E. Earnshaw, '31Editor and Business Manager Associate EditorMilton E. Robinson, '11, J.D. '13Chairman, Editorial BoardFred B. Millett, Ph.D. '32, William V. Morgenstern, '20, J.D. '22, John P. Howe, '27Contributing Editors1 Al T H I cX~1 c/y a cArthur E. Holt teaches social ethics inthe Divinity School, directs surveys onreligious education or missionary activities,and heads the Section on Religion of theNational Sociological Society. He is theauthor of Social Work in the Church, Christian Fellowship and Modern Industry, andother notable works in his field.* * *Samuel H. Nerlove has been on thefaculty of the School of Business for thepast decade and now holds the position ofAssociate Professor of Business Economics.He spent the academic year of 1930-31 inwork for the Federal Treasury Department and his article in the March, I93i>Magazine, on The Finances of Our FederalGovernment aroused much comment.* * *Morris Fishbein not only edits theJournal of the American Medical Association and the magazine, Hygeia, but holdsthe position of Associate Clinical Professorof Medicine in Rush Medical College. Aprolific writer, he is the author of Mirrorsof Medicine, The New Medical Follies,Doctors and Specialists, and half a dozenother widely read volumes.* * * ,Frederic Woodward was called to Chicago in 19 1 6 to accept the Professorship ofLaw. For more than fifteen years he wasthe close associate and warm personal friend*of his colleague, Professor Ernst Freund, whose recent death cast a shadow over theentire University community.* * *Shirley J. Case has been a member ofthe Divinity School Faculty since 1908.He edits the Journal of Religion and hascontributed much to the knowledge of thehistory of Christianity. Among his widely .read books are The Historicity of Jesus,The Social Origins of Christianity andJesus Through the Centuries. He spentlast year in the Orient, as Chairman of aChurch History Commission to the FarEast.* * *Otto Struve joined the staff of YerkesObservatory in 192 1, as an assistant. During the following years he rose to a fullprofessorship in astrophysics, and upon theretirement of Edwin B. Frost this pastsummer, he was made Director of theObservatory.* * *George Bobrinskoy teaches Sanskrit andwrites with authority of archeological discoveries in India.* * *As an avocation, J. Barton Hoag presidesover the Chicago Chapter of the Instituteof Radio Engineers, but he takes evengreater interest in teaching physics to undergraduates.m * *Edwin T. Mitchell is a Chicago Ph.D.and holds an associate professorship inphilosophy at the University of Texas.59AN IMPRESSION OF THE NEW UNIVERSITY CARILLON, CAUGHTBY THE CAMERA OF JOHN MILLS60Vol. xxvWbt No. 2Umbersttp of CfricagoJWaga^meDECEMBER, 1932Is Debt Paying Moral?By A. E. Holt, Ph.D. '04Professor of Social EthicsWESTERN moralists have an enthusiasm for debt paying : A manwho does not pay his debts is considered a moral outcaste : Eastern moralists have generally declared the man wholoans money to be a moral outcaste. Allthe western Asiatic religions declared moneylending a sin. "O you who believe: do notdevour usury, making additions again andagain:" says the Quran. "If thy brotherbe waxed poor and his hand fail with thee— thou shalt not give him thy money uponinterest, nor give him thy victuals for increase," says the law of Leviticus. Ourmoralists have taken the point of view ofthe money lender and have exalted him bydemanding that all obligations to him beperformed upon penalty of social ostracism.Now it probably is not possible to defendthe point of view of the Eastern moralistbut it may be worthwhile to put a questionmark before the enthusiasm of the westernmoralist. Let us turn first of all to thiswestern enthusiasm for debt paying as itoperates in the Orient. Dr. Paul Harrison, a physician of note in Arabia, says thatthe areas of greatest poverty in that country are those where the British have enforced a rigid western regard for debt pay ing. In India prior to the great famine of1 87 1 the Indian villager was in debt butif the money lender pushed the peasant toohard the village fathers had a way of declaring a moratorium. The British Government, however, loaned money to theIndian money lender and during one of thegreat famines, government law and policepower were put back of the "Bania" andhe achieved a new status. His numbers increased from 52,263 in 1868 to 193,890in 191 1. He became the new wealthy manand the new power in politics. M. L.Darling thus describes the new Indianmoney lender :"For centuries he was nothing but aservile adjunct to the Muhammadancultivator, who despised him as muchfor his religion as for his trade. Forbidden to wear a turban, and allowedto ride only on a donkey, and often theobject of 'unmentionable indignities',sufferance was the badge of all histribe ; but when British rule freed himfrom restraint and armed him with thepower of the law, he became as oppressive as he had hitherto been submissive.'Shylock,' says Mr. Thorburn, Vas agentleman by the side of Nand Lai,6162 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEkirar, as Shylock, though he spoiled theGentiles, was yet a man of honour.Nand Lai has none, commerciallyspeaking. His greed for gain, theshameless effrontery with which headds 50 per centto a debt, callsthe total principal,causes his debtorto execute a bondfor that principalwith interest at 36per cent per annum more, a yearor two afterstrikes a balanceagainst his debtorand cajoles orwearies him intomortgaging to himan ancestral plotof good land orits produce, onthe understanding, carefully excluded from thedeed, that themortgagor is toremain in cultivating possession, haveentirely alienated the sympathies ofdistrict officers from men of his calling.Such hard business qualities make himfeared, hated and despised by the agricultural classes.' "So much for the debt paying enthusiasmin the Orient — let us turn to its operationin the Occident.On a recent trip into Iowa I found farmers in a last desperate attempt to preventforeclosure paying 42 per cent interest.Of course no farmer could do this and thesheriff and auctioneer were at the gate.The list of chattels in one sale were:6 iron beds1 oak buffet with mirror3 oak dining chairs5 oak rocking chairs9 painted dining chairs1 oak swivel chair1 Singer sewing machine1 Freshman radioAll bed and table linens Professor HoltOut into the world went one good American farm family stripped even to the bedlinens because all the banks had failed andthe only source of credit was a moneylender who charged 3^ per cent a month.If this farmer werebeing punished forprivate sins the incidentwould not merit notice,but there is goodevidence that he wascaught in a vicioussystem over which hehad little control. Acompetent authoritysays:"The effect ofthe deflation since1929 has been toincrease publicand private debtsin this country (interms of commodities) by $8o,0OO,-000,000. On thepresent price level,when we havepaid off our debtson the basis of what those debts wereworth in terms of commodities in1926, we shall still have $80,000,000,-000 more to pay. Even the mostavaricious loan shark never dreamedof legalized robbery in such terms asthat."A dollar would buy 45 per centmore goods in November, 1 93 1, on theaverage than in 1926. The 1931 dollar, in terms of what it will buy (andthat is all that dollars are good for) isworth $1.45. That means that if weborrowed a dollar in 1926 we mustpay back (in terms of goods) $1.45at the price level of November, 1931.Every dollar in taxes, interest andother fixed expenses has become $1.45."The farmer is even worse off, forhis prices have dropped more than theaverage. The farm-price index hasdropped to 58 and the farmer's dollarof debt and taxes has become $1.70."When we borrow money we expectIS DEBT PAYING MORAL? 63to pay it back, but we do not expectt6 pay back $1.45 for each dollar weborrow. Most of us cannot do so.The debts of this country and of theworld, public and private, cannot bepaid back in $1.45 dollars."Now all this condition rests back not onlaw but on an unsocial conception of thedebt paying obligation. If our westernconscience were as sensitive to the waypeople are gotten into debt as it is about theobligation to pay debts the money lendingpowers in America would have to provetheir case before they could collect $80,-000,000,000 from the American peoplewithout giving value received.We need a more social interpretation ofthe debt paying obligation by western moralists. If we are to keep alive the debt paying obligation we must with equal seriousness scrutinize the methods by which thedebtor has his debts increased. It doesnot do to listen forever to the needs of thewidows and orphans and university trusteeswho have money invested. The rights ofthe investing class must be respected butthe rights of the debtor class must also berespected. Has not the time come for theCatholic and Protestant moralists to reread some of their ancient teaching on unjust usury. Richard Baxter thus definesthe sin of unjust usury: You are practicing unjust usury"When you uncharitably exact thatwhich your brother is disabled utterlyto pay and use cruelty to procure it (beit the use or the principal). "When you allow him not such aproportion of the gain as his labor,hazard or poverty doth require; but,because the money is yours, will live atease upon his labors."When in case of his losses yourigorously exact your due without thatabatement, or forgiving debts (whetheruse or principal), which humanity andcharity require. In a word, when youare selfish and do not as, according totrue judgment, you may desire to bedone by, if you were in his case."The burden of proof is here shiftedfrom the debtor to the debt collector. Itmay be the creditor class which is worthyof social ostracism.But some one will say these things arematters of law, why bother moralists?Moralists have a service to render as interpreters. There is evidence enough thatwe are entering a period when we willwitness wide spread revolts among thedebtor class. When the revolt takes placetwo kinds of interpreters will come forward — one will speak for the rights of thecreditor class, the apologists for this classare always numerous. On the other hand,there will be those who see the rights of thedebtor class — the apologists for this classare not so abundant. It might be thefunction of college trained leaders to develop a more social conscience about thewhole debt paying process, in order that apetty morality may not be the occasion ofa great social wrong."— and What About the Safety of LifeInsurance Companies ? "¦By S. H. Nerlove, '22, A.M. '23,Associate Professor of Business Economics inthe School of BusinessSINCE the autumn of 1929 we have onmany occasions wondered about our"investments." For many months wewere asking the question: "What is going tohappen to the stock market?" As the depression grew worse, we were forced toask: "What about the banks?" And nowwe are interested in the question: "Whatabout the safety of life insurance companies ?"It is obvious that any answer to this lastquestion cannot be applied for an unlimitedperiod of time. All that can be attemptedis an answer that will cover the situationfor, say, the next decade. Furthermore,a general answer cannot possibly coverevery one of the approximately 350 lifecompanies in this country. It can applyonly to the larger companies that have beenoperating satisfactorily for say, about twodecades. And, finally, all that can be donein the present discussion is to deal with themajor factors involved.My answer to the question, with theselimiting conditions in mind, is that thelarger life insurance companies of thiscountry are safe. They are financially wellequipped to meet their existing cash obligations on policies and even if these currentobligations markedly increase they still willbe in a position to pay them without difficulty. Any economic force that will throwthese organizations, on a wholesale scale,into bankruptcy would have to be powerfulenough to annihilate the present capitalisticsystem. *Here is the evidence. Excluding, for thetime being, policy-loans which in realityreduce the liabilities of life companies, theannual total aggregate disbursements (in cluding cash surrender values on lapsedpolicies) of all life companies has variedbetween 62 per cent and 75 per cent of theirtotal aggregate income between 1904 and1 93 1. For a twenty-eight-year period,then, life companies as a whole were in aposition to meet policy claims and expensesof operation from their current incomewith at least a twenty-five per cent marginof safety.What is even more striking is that theannual total aggregate premium income, i.e.the income less investment earnings, hasusually outrun the annual total aggregatedisbursements. The annual total aggregateexpenses and policy claims of all life companies have varied from 80 per cent to10 1 per cent of the total aggregate premiumincome for the same 28-year period between1904 and 1931. The high ratio of 101per cent occurred for the influenza-epidemicyear, 19 18. Since then up to 1932 the rangehas been between 81 per cent and 96 percent.Is the income and disbursement relationship as satisfactory as the above for eachone of the life companies in this country?Obviously, no. But the relationship asindicated is a conservative estimate of whathas been happening to the larger companies. They have been able to meettheir current obligations arising out of allclaims and expenses of operation from theirincome. But will they continue to be ableto do so? A considerable amount of lightcan be thrown on the answer to this question by indicating what has been happeningrecently to premium collections and to investment earnings. Even during the firsthalf year of 1932, the premium collections1 It is assumed throughout this discussion that Insurance Commissioners twill not create difficulties for life insurance companies by insisting on "market-valuation" of assets. So far th<fre issufficient evidence to indicate that they will not do so and that they will^ continue to evaluate theassets of these* companies on a basis which will emphasize long-run "ultimate -values" rather thanshort-run "market-values."64THE SAFETY OF LIFE INSURANCE COMPANIES 65did not decline sufficiently to make anyserious dent on the favorable income anddisbursements relationship enjoyed by thelarger life companies. The record of 44companies reporting to the Association ofLife Insurance Presidents shows that for thefirst quarter of 1932 as compared to thesame quarter of 1 93 1, the decline in premium collections was approximately 1.6 percent ; and for thesecond quarter,around 5.8 per cent.The rate of interestearned on the invested funds has sofar, also, not shownany significant decline. For the year,1 93 1, the rate ofinterest earned onthe mean investedfunds of one hundred life companieswas reported to beslightly over 5.2 percent as compared toapproximately 5.3per cent earned in1930.Now, how aboutthe increased obligations arising out ofthe need of meetingpolicy-loan requirements? Some indicationof the increase of these obligations can beseen by looking at the policy loans andpremium notes held by life companies. InAugust, 1929, forty life companies, reporting to the Association of Life InsurancePresidents, had outstanding approximately1.7 billions of dollars in policy loans andpremium notes. By August, 1930, this itemincreased to 2 billions of dollars. ForAugust, 1 93 1, they reported another increase to 2.4 billions. And for August,1932, they reported almost double the 1929total, or approximately 3 billions of dollars.The larger life companies were able tomeet this added drain easily. To a considerable extent they met it from the excess ofcurrent income over current disbursements.In many instances they enlarged this excess by reducing their disbursements through cutting their dividend schedules on participating policies. In addition, maturities ofcertain mortgages and bonds owned affordedcash which could have been used to meetthe increased payments. And seldom was itnecessary for life companies to have to resort to borrowing.Here is a conservative picture of how thelarger life companies were able tomeet the increasedpolicy loans duringthe year 1931. Forthis purpose let ustake all the companies operating inthe state of Connecticut. To meeta net increase inpolicy loans andpremium notes of approximately $349,-000,000 over 1930,it is conservativelyestimated they hadthe following cashresources: (a) theexcess of incomeover disbursementswas over $632,000,-000 in 1931 ; (b) ifwe assume thatabout 2 per cent of their bond holdingsmatured, the cash receipts from this sourcewere approximately $77,000,000; and (c)if we assume that about 5 per cent of theirmortgage holdings matured, the cash receipts from this source were about $180,-000,000. According to this estimate, cashreceipts of around $889,000,000 were available to meet a net increase of $349,000,000in policy loans and premium notes duringthe year 1 93 1. It certainly was meetingadded obligations with a wide margin tospare.Unfortunately, the data for 1932 are notyet available. The above figures for 193 1,however, show clearly that the larger lifecompanies were easily able to handle the increased obligations during 1932. And evenif the demand for policy loans increases stillProfessor Nerlove66 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEfurther in the near term future, these companies will be able to meet them withoutdifficulty.A rough test of the difficulty involved inmeeting the added drain during recent yearsis afforded by the data on the borrowings oflife companies. A life insurance companyborrows only to avoid selling securities in anunfavorable market. That the companieshave not been seriously affected by presentconditions is indicated by the fact that nocompany with admitted total assets of lessthan $300,000,000 borrowed at all during1930 and 1 93 1. Those that did borrowduring 193 1 were the smaller companies;and their increased indebtedness relative totheir total assets was. insignificant. So farduring 1932, 94 loans aggregating approximately $72,000,000 have been made to 79insurance companies by the ReconstructionFinance Corporation. Let us assume forour purposes here that all of these companiesare life insurance carriers and compare thisaggregate loan to the total admitted assetsof all companies, approximately 20 billionsof dollars. It is less than 0.4 per cent oftheir total admitted assets. Conservativelyestimating that the surplus and contingencyreserves of all companies is 5 per cent oftheir total admitted assets, about $1,000,-000,000, the borrowings were only slightlyover 7 per cent of this margin-of-asset-safety.The evidence clearly shows that at leastthe larger companies that have been operat ing satisfactorily for approximately twodecades will continue to be able to meetall of their obligations even if greateramounts are drawn out in the form of policyloans. The larger life companies are ina strategic position primarily because theirincome outruns their outgo by a considerable margin. When obligations becomeheavier, they are in a position to increase theexcess of income over outgo by reducingdividend allowances. As a whole they havea large amount of excellent securities intheir portfolios. These come due periodically and so far have considerably supplantedthe cash receipts from premium collections.Some of these securities, such as their holdings of Federal Government bonds, highgrade public utility bonds and railroadbonds, have a high degree of liquidity. Ithas been estimated in a study of 27 companies that, if these companies had usedall their cash resources and sold theirFederal Government bonds during 1930,they could have increased their policy loansand premium notes approximately six-foldduring that year over their holdings of these"assets" at the end of 1929. This furthersubstantiates the conclusion that the largerlife companies should be able to meet alltheir obligations even though economic conditions grow much worse than they are now.And unless there is a decided change inpresent economic order these larger lifeinsurance companies will continue to operateeffectively.Dr. Frank BillingsBy Morris Fishbein, 'ii, M.D. '12,Editor, Journal of The American Medical AssociationDR. FRANK BILLINGS will always be remembered primarily asbuilder of medical institutions andorganizations, as a leader of medical men,and as the inspiration of innumerable youngphysicians. More than a quarter of acentury of association with Rush MedicalCollege and with the University of Chicago gave him opportunity for contact asteacher with students, internes, nurses,clinical clerks, and the members of themedical staffs of many hospitals and schools.More than a hundred physicians rememberhim as their medical godfather.Dr. Frank Billings was a big man — bigphysically, big mentally, and big in thescope of his medical and civic interests. Inthe building of local and national medicalorganizations devoted to the advancementof scientific knowledge he was recognizedas a great leader. The! Chicago PathologicSociety, the Chicago Neurological Society,the Chicago Society of Internal Medicine,the Institute of Medicine of Chicago, Central Society for Clinical Research, theAssociation of American Physicians, theNational Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis are all organizations in which he played a leading part ininitiation, in development and in fulfilment.In most of them he served as president fora term of years, and in practically all ofthem he was at one time or another amember of executive committees or boards.In every combat for civic improvementin Chicago and also in the State of Illinoishe took a significant part. When appointedas chairman of a committee to investigateand correct conditions relating to the treatment of the insane in Illinois, he led a fearless drive on those guilty of outrages.Cruelty to prisoners was discontinued,housing of the insane was benefited, newdivisions were added to the Cook CountyHospital, including a building for the careof the tuberculous. The details of thateffort are best related by Doctor Billingshimself: "In 1 901, there existed at Dunning, Illinois, the county hospital for the insane andan infirmary for poor and aged people. Theadministration of these two institutions bygrafting politicians was medieval. Backedby the daily press I was requested by aself-appointed committee to become chairman of a committee, the members of whichI should appoint, to investigate and attemptto correct the cruel, inhuman and inefficienttreatment of these people at Dunning."I finally accepted this position on thecondition that the committee's life shouldbe coincident with that of the terms ofoffice of the Board of County Commissioners and that the Board of CountyCommissioners would welcome a report ofthe committee at every one of its officialmeetings."For nearly two years the committeevisited Dunning not less than every twoweeks and often every week and by themoral force created in the public mindsecured the consent of the Board of CountyCommissioners to listen to the report ofthe committee at each official meeting andto act on suggestions made by the committeefor improvement at the Dunning institutions. In addition to the two institutionsnamed at Dunning there had been erecteda few years before a pavilion for the care ofpatients suffering from an incurable pulmonary tuberculosis. Here with inadequate medical care and nursing, and withbadly prepared and an inefficient amount offood, forty per cent of the patients diedannually."Much of the work of the Committeeand its reports to the Board of CountyCommissioners was published in the dailypress from time to time. It resulted in anaroused public protest and this moral support was of great aid in securing the reforms at the Dunning institutions. As aresult, a large bond issue was voted at theelection of 1903 which enabled the Countyto erect a pavilion for patients with advanced pulmonary tuberculosis and a part6768 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof the County Hospital and also to erecta pavilion for children suffering from contagious diseases, also at the County Hospital. Civil service was adopted for allemployees at Dunning and a nursing schoolwas established there. This resulted in theabolishment of physical restraint of theinsane people and the institution of occupational therapy in bedridden patients andoutdoor occupations for those able to beabout. Hydrotherapy for violent patientsand the abolition of the use of narcoticdrugs to quiet patients were established."In 1906, Governor Deneen, who hadbeen in office for two years, requested meto accept the chairmanship of the StateBoard of Charities. The State Board ofCharities under the law had the right tovisit and inspect all state institutions forthe care of the insane, feebleminded, etc.,and to make reports to the Governor withrecommendations for correction of abusesin the institutions. I declined to accept thechairmanship of this Board and when askedwhy, I said up to that date the membersof the Board of Charities were made upof the representatives of each of the majorpolitical parties, the representatives of theProtestant churches, of the CatholicChurch, and of some others wh6 were appointed for political reasons. Up to thatdate the Board of Charities had not ac->complished anything in the correction ofthe bad conditions in the state institutions.At a later date, a body of citizens, men andwomen, called upon me and requested thatI reconsider my action and to accept thechairmanship of the Board of Charities.I made a bluff that if the Governor wouldappoint a new Board entirely, selectingmen and women from ten or more nominations that I would make to him and if hewould also give the new board the powerto select its own secretary, that I wouldaccept the position. My bluff was calledand I was in for a new job."During the next six years every memberof the Board of Charities worked diligentlyand unceasingly in the attempt to correctthe existing bad condition in the state institutions. First a survey was made of thephysical properties and many were found to be fire-traps, making it unsafe for thelives and physical well being of the patients.THere was a remnant of a training schoolfor nurses at Kankakee Hospital which hadbeen instituted by Dr. Richard Deweymany years before. Such nursing care asthe insane patients and feebleminded received was from political appointees, manyof them ignorant and a majority of themwithout sympathy for their charges. Physical restraining was employed everywherefor unruly or so-called violent patients.Narcotic drugs were used freely to inducequiet and sleep. The state legislature wasopposed to carrying out suggestions made tothe Governor by the Board and resentfulbecause they, declared the work of the committee to be mischievous. In less than ayear, however, the committee won over thelegislature who welcomed our reports andcooperated in the improvement of the physical properties, in the establishment ofschools for training nurses to become qualified for the insane and feebleminded, in theaddition of hydrotherapy to each institutionand the addition of infirmaries for thetreatment of those physically ill. Here, asin the County institutions, vocational therapy was instituted which included the useof land owned by each institution or rentedby its authorities, in establishing truckgardens, dairies, henneries and other workfor inmates who were in a condition to carryon. The result of these changes had developed within four years the abolition ofall physical restraint and of narcotic drugs.The institutions of Illinois became knowneverywhere and many people coming fromabroad visited the Illinois institutions,which were pronounced the best conductedhospitals for the insane in the country."At the session of the legislature of 1908,at the suggestion of the State Board ofCharities, the name of which had beenchanged to the Charities Commission, theGovernor had introduced into both housesof the legislature a bill which created acentral board of control or administrationfor all the state institutions. This resultedin great economy in the purchase of supplies for the institutions. It also establisheda research institute for insanity at KankakeeDR. FRANK BILLINGS 69Hospital under the direction of Dr. DouglasSinger. This institute was mainly for thepurpose of establishing a postgraduatemedical school to which members of thestaffs of the state hospitals could go forstudy for a month or more to improve themand better qualify them for their work."Doctor Billings had hardly graduatedfrom medical college before he began to takean active part in efforts for the advancement of medical science. He organizedthe anatomical demonstrators into a movement which resulted in securing eventuallythe right to dissection of human bodies forwell established medicalschools in this state.He became, hardly morethan ten years after hisgraduation, President ofthe Chicago MedicalSociety.He was associated firstwith the Chicago Medical College, his AlmaMater, but in 1898 accepted a position withRush Medical Collegeand with the Presbyterian Hopsital. From thattime on he worked ceaselessly for the advancement of the Universityof Chicago and of RushMedical College, leading finally to the development of the greatinstitutions on the Midway. The development of the plans for building the medicalbuildings of the University of Chicagodoes not begin to express the personal devotion that Doctor Billings rendered tothis project. Night after night he spokeat public meetings, day after day he sat inconferences, and hour after hour he spentwith philanthropists and leading physiciansof Chicago in an effort to raise the fundsto bring this project to a successful completion. He himself aided in the selectionof the faculty and in the organization of theplans for teaching. Dr. Frank BillingsWhen it was proposed to endow amedical clinic to be known as the FrankBillings' Medical Clinic, an enthusiasticresponse came from the trustees of the University, from the faculty, from graduates,from medical students, and from the hundreds of personal pupils of Doctor Billings.He gave his time unsparingly. He contributed largely of his own funds, and thesuccessful outcome of the effort was due tohim more than to any other person.After Doctor Billings grew old he didnot falter in his efforts for the advancement of all that is right and good in medicine and in life generally.I have seen him of recent years seated in conferences listening carefully to all that wasbeing said, and, like asmoldering volcano,gradually rumbling to anexplosion which sweptaside an opposition to thepath that he consideredthe right way to successful accomplishmentof the effort for whichthe conference had beencalled.The death of DoctorBillings removed a towerof strength from education in medicine. Themost significant aspect ofhis career is a long record of battles waged for the best in medicine, in civic affairs and in all human relationships. He was devoted to his patients,to his friends, to his associates, and to hisfamily, and he was greatly beloved by all ofthem. His philosophy of life was a recognition of the opportunity that it offered forservice and accomplishment. He greetedeach new day with enthusiasm because itmeant to him new opportunities for humancontacts and for achievement. Life itselfseemed to him so glorious that he had nofear of death. His favorite poem, read atthe funeral service by the Reverend John7o THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETimothy Stone, was called "Emancipation.'Why be afraid of Death as though your lifewere breath?Death but annoints your eyes with clay. 0 gladsurprise!Why should you be forlorn? Death only husksthe corn.Why should you fear to meet the thresher ofthe wheat?Is sle'ep a thing to dread? Yet sleeping, you aredeadTill you awake and rise, here, or beyond theskies. Why should it be a wrench to leave your woodenbench —Why not with happy shout run home when schoolis out?The dear one's left behind! 0 foolish one andblind.A day — and you will meet. A night — and youwill greet!This the death of Death, to breathe away abreathAnd know the end of strife, and taste the deathless life.And joy 'without a fear, and smile without atear,And work, nor care to rest, and find the lastthe best.Ernst Freund— A Tribute*By Frederic Woodward,Vice President, The University of ChicagoPROFESSOR ERNST FREUND,one of our greatest scholars and oneof our noblest men, died in the Billings Hospital on October 20, 1932, of acoronary occlusion after an illness of littlemore than a day. The tragedy of his deathwas intensified by the fact that his wifewas at the time a patient in the hospital,recovering from a serious eye operation, andwas unable to see him.Professor Freund was born in New YorkCity in 1864 and was educated largely inGermany, studying successively in Dresden, Frankfort, Berlin and Heidelberg.From the University of Heidelberg he received the degree of J.U.D. in 1884, andfrom Columbia University in New York thedegree of Ph.D. in 1897. The honorarydegree of LL.D. was conferred on him bythe University of Michigan in 193 1. Hepracticed law in New York City from 1886until 1894. His professional career as ateacher of public law opened at Columbiain 1892 and he joined the faculty of political science in the new University of Chicago in 1894 as instructor in Roman lawand jurisprudence. Rising rapidly to therank of associate professor of jurisprudenceand public law, he became a full professor in the law school in 1902. In 1916 hemarried Harriet Walton. Two daughtersalso survive him.When President Harper was makingplans for the establishment of the lawschool, Professor Freund was his influentialadviser. Dr. Harper was inclined to setup something in the nature of an institutefor legal research, but Professor Freundwas instrumental in convincing him that themore urgent need was for a professionalschool of high standards and that emphasison research would naturally develop in suchan institution. The first faculty of thenew school soon became one of the strongestgroups of scholars in the history of American law schools. Hall, Freund, Whittierand Mechem were all extraordinarily stimulating teachers, and they attracted to theschool a body of students which becamefamous for alertness and independent thinking. Visiting professors in the SummerQuarter were often surprised, and sometimes chagrined, by the vigor and persistence with which their views werechallenged.From the beginning Professor Freundwas a striking figure in the school. Histhorough training and his continuing inter-* Written for the University Record. Advance publication is by courtesy of J. Spencer Dickerson, editorof the Record.ERNST FREUND, A TRIBUTE 7iest in the Continental systems of law enabled him to make a distinctive contributionto the discussion of legal problems, hiscourses gave breadth to the curriculum, andhis marked individuality added a delightful tang to his teaching. No law smoker oralumni meeting passeswithout reminiscences ofhis conscious or unconscious humor and attempts to imitate hisengaging mannerisms.He held a high place inthe respect and affectionof all who studied underhim.But he was far morethan an original and effective teacher. An activeintellect, a habit ofthoroughness and a clarity of literary stylecombined to make him aproductive scholar ofhigh rank. He chose ashis field the borderlandbetween law and political science and beginning as a pioneer herapidly became a widely recognized authority, particularly in what may be called thescience of legislation. The Police Power ;Public Policy and Constitutional Rights(1904), and Standards of American Legislation (191 7) are his best known treatises,the latter winning for him the James BarrAmes Medal of the Harvard Law School.He was also the author of AdministrativePowers over Persons and Property (1928),and within the past year he completed, underthe auspices of the Commonwealth Fund,a work on Legislative Regulation whichdeals with the technique of effectuating alegislative policy in statutory form. Inaddition to these, major products of hisscholarship he was a steady and highlyvalued contributor not only to the law reviews but to various journals, both technicaland popular, in the fields of politicalscience and social welfare. His preeminencein scholarship was fitly recognized by theUniversity when he was appointed the firstErnst Freundholder of the John P. Wilson Professorshipof Law in June, 1929.It was one of the great qualities of Professor Freund that without neglecting hisfield of specialization he took an active andextremely helpful interest in neighboringareas. A member of thefirst board of the Immigrants' Protective League and for some yearsits president, he draftedthe act which created theIllinois State Immigrants'Commission. For manyyears a conspicious member of the Commissionon Uniform State Laws,he gave freely of his skillto reduce the uncertainties and confusion ofAmerican statute law.He was frequently consulted by judges, bylegislative committees andby other public officers,who recognized not onlyhis mastery of the lawbut his understanding ofsocial problems and theof his service — disin-for his sympathy withthe underprivileged and his passion forjustice.Of his personal qualities it is difficult fora friend to write without creating an impression of exaggeration. He was generous in thought as well as in action, modestto the point of self depreciation yet courageous in the expression of his views anddetermined in advocating their adoption,shyly demonstrative but never unreserved,charming in manner, ardent in spirit, irreproachable in the conduct of his life.The wide range of his reading and of hisinterest in human beings made him a delightful member of any company. Hisunique talents made him a leader in his profession and in the intellectual life of theUniversity. The integrity of his characterand the constancy of his affections madeand kept for him a host of friends.disinterestednessterested exceptReligion and PatriotismBy Shirley Jackson Case,Chairman, Department of Church HistoryRELIGION and patriotism representtwo closely related types of loyalty.u Each demands allegiance to theinterests and ideals of a group. Botjiorganized religion and organized patriotismgive short shrift to an aggressive individualism. The church anathematizes orburns its heretics and the state incarceratesor executes its anarchists. Frequentlyin the course of the evolution ofcivilization the ranges of interest thatreligion and patriotism, respectively, havesought to conserve have been practicallyidentical. At other times they have beenmore or less widely at variance. And sometimes they have been in sharp conflict.Where culture emerged within wellmarked boundaries, and groups that wereshielded by natural barriers from disturbing external contacts developed a homogeneous civilization, religious and politicalinstitutions operated harmoniously to attain a common end. The deities belongedto a specific territory and ministered toone, and only one, all-inclusive group. Adistinction between sacred and secularactivity was hardly known, much less wasthe possibility of a conflict perceived. Suchwas the situation in the old Greek states,in the society of the early Romans, andamong the ancient Hebrews. Religion andpatriotism were then essentially identicalin their interest. They demanded coinciding loyalties, and there was no urgefrom either quarter to safeguard a distinctive set of values. The sacred andthe secular activities of society were directed toward a common end.In more advanced stages of social evolution, where people with different racial andcultural heritages intermingled, the breachbetween religion and patriotism graduallywidened. In this respect conditions withinthe Roman world in early imperial timesresembled the. situation prevailing todayin the United States of America. A greatvariety of people, representing different racial strains and varied cultural interests,tended to cultivate a type of religion thatnaturally stressed individualism. Patriotism, on the other hand, centered about adesire to unify a large territory embracinga great variety of peoples under one government. Loyalty to the state consequentlytook on the character of universalism, whilereligious loyalties restricted themselves tomore limited areas. Worship was renderedto one or another of the many deitiesrevered by different groups embracedwithin the total population of the politicallyunified Roman world.Allegiance to the Roman state did notnecessarily involve a violation of one's religious loyalty, but under the circumstancesconflicts might easily emerge. Since thestate was the more comprehensive and all-embracing entity, the guardians of its welfare quite naturally assumed that all religions should submit themselves to thehigher authority of patriotism. From thepolitical point of view, it seemed altogetherproper for the state to take action againstthe cult of Bacchus, or the worshipers ofIsis, or the members of a Jewish synagogue,or the advocates of Christianity, wheneverany one of these religions was thought tomenace the welfare of the state. Religion,since it represented only the interests ofone or another of the numerous groupsthat went to make up the whole of thesocial order, was compelled to bow to thedemands of patriotism whose ideal was alleged to be the welfare of the whole.Probably the best known historical illustration of the conflict between religionand politics, is the persecution of Christianity that was carried on by the Romanauthorities during the first three centuriesof the Christian era. This situation wasinevitable under the given social conditions.The attempt that was being made to unifythe whole known world around a centralimperial authority required that patriotismshould be an all-embracing loyalty, withthe imperial prince at the center of the73RELIGION AND PATRIOTISM 73circle. Any type ofreligion refusing torecognize that the stateexisted by divineauthority and approval,inevitably introducedinto the situation a discordant note. Therejection by Christiansof the gods who werepopularly believed to bethe supernatural guardians of the Romanstate, Christian unwillingness to pay divinehonors to the emperor,were attitudes that, inthe eyes of the government, could not beregarded as other thananarchistic. A recalcitrant religious groupmust be made to bowto the demands ofpatriotism.After years of struggle between Christianity and the Romanstate, the political authorities made thisreligion the only legal one for the empire,and thus religion and patriotism again became concentric circles. They were but twosides of the same coin, the church representing the interest of heaven in the welfareof the state, and the political order representing the human counterpart of thedivine dispensation. The older elements ofconflict in the situation still remained present in society, but now they took on thenature of a strife between the establishedchurch, backed by the political power ofthe state, and minor groups regarded asheretics. They were enemies of both churchand state. It was still the imperialistic conception of the social order that made possible, indeed made inevitable, this state ofaffairs.New social alignments in the development of European history in the sixteenthand subsequent centuries brought about achange in the relationship between patriotism and religion. Gradually the imperialistic psychology gave way to the na-Professor Case tionalistic, and thischange resulted in anew conception of whatconstituted true loyaltyin the realm both ofreligion and of politics.Patriotism itself wasno longer universal,since the political institutions that now demanded allegiance didnot pretend to safeguard the welfare ofthe total population ofthe known world. Itwas religion that contended for the moreuniversalistic outlook,while politics were concerned with the narrower range of interestrepresented by a national unit. The struggle of the medievalpapacy to maintain itssupremacy over thenew political powers that arose in differentcountries of Europe is well known. Andthe outcome was defeat for the church.Patriotism again triumphed over religion.In those Protestant countries where astate church was established, religion andpatriotism became once more coincidinginterests. In the territory ruled by theLutheran princes, in England under HenryVIII, and in Geneva under Calvin thereexisted a condition of society in whichpatriotism and religion became virtuallyidentical in their operation, and served aclosely related set of interests. Religioncalled for loyalty to a deity who in theorymight be the god of the universe, but whoin practice was the unique protector ofa specific social group. That group was anation, not an empire. When, in thehistory of Europe, circumstances broughtabout a condition of affairs where thesenational units engaged in bitter conflictwith one another, as in the World War,each found in the national church fullauthority and approval for the actions ofthe rival states.74 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEA new divorce between religion andpatriotism was brought about by the riseof that social interest commonly termed"democracy." The character of this socialdevelopment meant, again, a further emphasis upon the ideal of individualism.Even the state church was no longer ableto control its own subjects. Nonconformist groups formed themselves intoseparate societies to cultivate their distinctive types of religion. And as theirfreedom came to be recognized by the state,religious loyalty was concentrated upon amore restricted area than that of the state.With the development of denominational-ism, allegiance to a particular church became a highly cherished ideal. In a socialsituation like that which rapidly emergedin America, religionists rather welcomed theidea of complete separation between churchand state. Patriotism and religion did notcome in conflict because now the areas ofinterest which concerned each were keptquite distinct in thought. Secular andsacred were sharply differentiated, the latter becoming primarily an individual matterand the former an affair of the total groupoccupying the territory known as a stateor a nation. Patriotism, thus separatedfrom religion, represented a wider rangeof loyalties to which the members of eachseparate denomination or religious sect, asindividuals, pledged unconditional allegiance; and, in return for this liberty conceded to the state, the latter conferred uponeach religious group complete internalautonomy.In modern times, especially withinProtestant circles in countries like theUnited States, religious loyalties becamealmost exclusively an affair of individualattitudes and responsibilities to ecclesiastical groups. But a growing interest on thepart of religious bodies in the welfare ofsociety has been slowly underminingProtestant individualism. Restrained bythe traditional ideal of the separation between church and state, Protestantism hasbeen hesitant in carrying its social activitiesinto the arena of politics. Dreading anyreturn to medieval conditions, where oneparticular ecclesiastical institution attempted to dominate all affairs of state, Protestantgroups, themselves lacking religious unity,have thought it necessary to maintain arigid separation between religious and political activities. And, conversely, it hasbeen supposed that politics should be keptout of the church and should not be participated in by the clergy as such.This way of interpreting the ideal relation between church and state has been anatural consequence of making religionprimarily an individual and institutionalaffair. With the gradual disappearance,which is already in evidence, of devotion toinstitutionalism as a primary function ofreligion, the problem of the relation betweenreligion- and patriotism takes on a new aspect. In other words, religious people arebeginning to feel the urge once more toexpand the range of their loyalties beyondmere concern with the conscience of the individual, or with loyalty to a particularecclesiastical body, or even with loyalty toa specific national group. Religionists areasking whether they should not extend theirloyalties to embrace the whole of humanity.Is it not the business of religion to make aslarge and forceful a contribution as possibleto every form of social activity that has todo with the highest welfare of humanbeings, not alone in their own church ortheir own nation, but throughout the entireworld ? When religion becomes thus international and inter-racial in its outlook, andsets the bounds of its loyalty within nonarrower limit than that of the total humanrace dwelling in all parts of the globe, itopens up anew the problem of the relationbetween religion and patriotism.Patriotism also is feeling a fresh urge toredefine the scope of its loyalties. Everymove toward the elimination of warfareamong nations, like every effort to institutemore friendly and stable relations amongraces, tends to undermine older definitionsof patriotism and calls for new vision in theformation of its ideals. If the purposes of anorganized government are no longer to bedefined exclusively as an effort to serveseparate and isolated peoples and nations atthe expense of all others, then many of theolder forms of patriotic thought and actionRELIGION AND PATRIOTISM 75will have to be radically revised. There isa demand now, more or less urgent, thatour patriotism should acquire a new universal vision that will make it possible forthose who organize and administer governments to realize that they are called uponto serve, not only their local constituents,but at the same time the entire family ofnations and the best interests of the wholehuman race.Under modern world conditions it is becoming increasingly evident that both areasof interest — that represented by religionand that represented by patriotism — willpresently have to take a very thorough re-accounting of stock. The range of themodern man's religious loyalties involvesnot only living true to his own conscience,but educating his conscience sufficiently tomake him include in his thinking and interests his neighbor, as a man of everyrace resident in every part of the inhabitedearth. Loyalty to a particular religiousinstitution, a loyalty which heretofore hasoften fed upon hatred of a rival communion,is giving way slowly to a sense of brotherhood among denominations. While denominational lines may be preserved as aconvenience, they are losing their force asideals. Similarly in the area of patriotism,men of broader vision in affairs of state arecoming to realize that loyalty to the interestsof a local community are more likely to bepoisoned than properly nourished by cultivating the spirit of hatred among nations.When this temper of universalism has cometo prevail anew in both state and church,then patriotism and religion may find themselves once more dealing with coincidingareas of thought.The Chicago Theological Seminary is a center of interest for many religious workers inthis part of the countryThe Chicago-Texas Astronomical ProjectBy Otto Struve, Ph.D. '23,Director of Yerkes ObservatoryTHE astronomers at the Yerkes Ob- and revised by him and Mr. Fairweather ofservatory have long realized that the Legal Department of the University.while the 40-inch telescope is the most The regents of the University of Texas havepowerful instrument in the world for cer- just voted their acceptance of the projecttain lines of astronomical research, a new and a similar vote has been passed by ourreflecting telescope would be needed in order own Trustees.to develop modern work in the field of The present plan involves the construc-astrophysics. For a number of years Pro- tion of a concave mirror of 80 inches aper-fessor Frost has investigated the possibility ture. When this is finished it will be theof obtaining a large concave mirror, having second largest of its kind in the world, sur-an aperture of 60 inches, for the Yerkes passed only by the 100-inch of the Mt.Observatory. Unfortunately the financial Wilson Observatory. The mirror will becrisis of the past few years has made it silvered on its top surface and will be in-impossible to follow up this matter and stalled in a substantial steel mounting. Thenothing definite was accomplished until the light from the star will fall upon the mirrorspring of 1932. and will be reflected from it, coming to aLast April President Hutchins and Dean focus 27 feet above the mirror. The newGale asked me to make a report on the telescope will be as powerful as the Mt.needs of the Yerkes Observatory. After a Wilson 100-inch for the photography ofthorough discussion in Chicago of the en- faint nebulae and distant universes. Atire situation it was decided that a power- number of novel features will be embodiedful reflecting telescope would be constructed in its design and will make it the most inland installed in one of our southern states, portant telescope in the world for certainSince the University of Texas was known special kinds of work. It is not, however,to be contemplating a similar project, Presi- our intention to surpass the remarkable per-dent Hutchins decided that it would be an formance of the Mt. Wilson telescope, butadvantage to the University of Chicago, as rather do we hope to supplement it and towell as to the University of Texas, to pool develop such features which, for one reasonour resources and to build one very large or another, are omitted at Mt. Wilson. Ittelescope in the place of two instruments of is our desire to make our work supplemen-moderate power. The construction of a tary to that of other institutions and tolarge astronomical telescope involves heavy avoid duplication of any sort.expenditures so that the future development The type of mounting will be similar toof astronomy over the whole world will that of the 72-inch of the Dominion Astro-doubtless demand closer and closer co- physical Observatory at Victoria, B. C. andoperation between observatories. to that of the 69-inch of the Perkins Ob-The University of Chicago and the Uni- servatory at Delaware, Ohio. It will dif-versity of Texas Project is the first attempt fer from these instruments in permitting thein this direction: One large telescope is to light from a star, irrespective of its position,serve two institutions, thus avoiding the to pass into a closed room of constant tem-wastefulness incurred in the duplication of perature, where a small physical laboratoryinstruments. will be located, and we shall therefore corn-President Benedict of the University of bine the advantages of an observatory withTexas expressed keen interest in this proj- those of a physical laboratory,ect when I went to discuss the plan with The problems which we shall take uphim in Austin. A preliminary agreement with this new telescope will include thewas submitted by me to President Hutchins study of the chemical composition of the76THE CHICAGO-TEXAS ASTRONOMICAL PROJECT 77atmospheres of the stars, the study of theproperties of matter exposed to temperaturesranging from 3,000 degrees to 50,000 degrees or more, the study of distant universes,which involves a test of the Einstein theory,the study of the composition of gaseousnebulae, of comets, planets, etc.The question of the location of the Observatory is a very important one and incooperation with the University of Texaswe sent an expedition to» Texas during thispast summer. The atmospheric conditionsin various places were carefully studied.This expedition was headed by Dr. C. T.Elvey, a member of the Yerkes Observatorystaff and he was assisted by Mr. T. G.Mehlin. They made a large number ofobservations with two telescopes, one belonging to the Mt. Wilson Observatoryand the other to the Yerkes Observatory.The results of the tests are now being discussed, but it seems probable that with theapproval of the Regents of the University ofTexas, the new observatory will be locatedon a peak in the Davis Mountains. TheState of Texas is building a scenic drivethrough this part of the country and isopening several state parks. The observatory will probably be located within easyreach of this drive and near one of theseState Parks. According to Mr. Elvey theconditions of "seeing" in these mountainsare unsurpassed and the proportion of clearnight sky is two or three times greater thanat the Yerkes Observatory.The plan provides that the director of theYerkes Observatory will be the director ofthe new institution which will bear thename of the McDonald Observatory of theUniversity of Texas. This name is in commemoration of the late William J. McDonald of Paris, Texas, who died in 1926and who bequeathed to the Regents of theUniversity of Texas a fund which is nowslightly in excess of $840,000 "to be usedand devoted by said Regents for the purposeof aiding in erecting and equipping an as tronomical observatory to be kept and usedin connection with and as a part of theUniversity for study and promotion of thestudy of astronomical science."The McDonald Fund will be used forthe construction of the telescope and of thenecessary buildings and will also providefor a part of the yearly expenses. The observatory will be the property of the University of Texas, but will be operated by astaff the salaries of which will be paid bythe University of Chicago. It is expectedthat an assistant director, two assistantsfor observations, an engineer and a janitorwill reside permanently at the site of theobservatory. Other astronomers of theYerkes Observatory, as well as guests fromother institutions, will make frequent tripsto the McDonald Observatory in order totake advantage of the excellent opportunities for astronomical research.The final form of the agreement provides that definite recommendations for theconstruction, etc. be made by the director tothe Regents of the University of Texas.The design of the instrument will be carriedout at the Yerkes Observatory with thehelp of Doctors Van Biesbroeck, Ross,Elvey, Moffitt, Crump and Morgan, andit is hoped that a definite contract for themirror and for the mounting will be placedbefore the end of this year.The success of the outcome of our negotiations with the University of Texas hasdepended primarily upon the enthusiasticattitude of President Benedict of the University of Texas, President Hutchins, Acting Vice-President Filbey and Dean Galeof our own, University. We have also hadthe advice and support of many leadingastronomers, especially of Dr. George E.Hale, the organizer of the Yerkes Observatory and its first director, now honorarydirector of the Mt. Wilson Observatory,and of Director Emeritus of the Yerkes Observatory, Edwin B. Frost, in making arrangements for this union.What Price a Ph.B. fThis month we offer a few selectionsfrom the questions given the freshmen inthe examinations on the physical andsocial sciences. They may be easy forthe freshmen, but we wonder.Physical ScienceIn each of the following, mark with a cross(X) the one word or phrase which correctlycomple'tes the statement:I. The angle of elevation of the sun is 45'when the shadow cast by a smokestack is 75feet. How high is the smokestack? .100 feet -—75 f<?et &7feet so feet2. A mathematical theory has been found togive a satisfactory explanation of certainphenomena. Then: no other mathematical theory willsatisfactorily explain these phenomena.____ only a limited number of other mathematical theories, which will satisfactorily explain the phenomena,exist. an infinite number of mathematicaltheories, which will satisfactorilyexplain the phenomena, exist.3. At a distance of 5 centimeters in air anorth magnetic pole of strength 5 will attracta south pole of strength one with a force ofhow many dynes?-— .2 ..... -5 — / 5 254.. The' distance between layers of atoms inall crystals which have been investigated isapproximately equal to the: wave length of visible light: wave length of X-rays: wave'length of wireless radiation: wave length of cosmic radiation.5. The spectrum of the sun is a: continuous spectrum: brightline spectrum: dark line spectrum: emissionspectrum.6. We may expect that the nucleus of an atomof element number 87, the discovery of whichwas recently announced, will have a positivecharge of , and will be surroundedby planetary electrons. The firstlevel of planetary electrons will contain — . electrons and the second levelelectrons. The outmost level willcontain how many ele'etrons? Social SciencesMark each of the following terms or phrases:I. — if it applies more to manorial Englandthan to modern economy in the UnitedStates.2. — if it applies more to modern economy inthe United States than to manorial England.3. — if it applies to neithe'r. production for use stability change experimentation -..contract relation status relation mobility of labor slaves villeins patricians clan and tribe relation production for market —competition capital accumulation self-sufficiency interdependence speculative production money economy wage earning class Entrepreneurs .- concentration of population social control by tradition government as a service institution -..tools not owned by workersIt is a pleasure to announce thewinners of the competition for lastmonth. All the contestants entered intothis examination entirely in the spirit ofthe New Plan, — opportunity, not compulsion, was their battle-cry.We are being kind this time and willnot publish any comparison of scoreswith those of Freshmen, although it is asore temptation. Since the competitorsentered the lists in the spirit of goodclean fun, though, we will not embarrassanyone, either by naming names or quoting answers.The prize for November goes to NielsP. Paulsen, M.D. 07, of Logan, Utah.Second place was won by Dorothy A.Brand, 30, of New Rockford, N. Dak.The winners are herewith congratulated,and invited to come to the AlumniOffice to collect their prizes.78A Forgotten Civilization inNorthwestern IndiaBy George V. BobrinskoyAssistant Professor of SanskritiL S LATE as ten years ago, very littleZJk was known concerning the history ofX -A^India before 500 B.C.; and virtuallyall we knew was derived from the hymnsof the Vedas, which had been composedby the priests of the invading Aryan tribesin a period presumably between 1500 B.C.and 1000 B.C. The rather miscellaneousinformation gleaned from the Vedic hymnsseemed to indicate that the invading Aryansencountered in India only barbaric tribes —the dark-skinned Dasyu's, who rapidly succumbed to the mighty sword of the Aryans.These Dasyu's apparently dwelt in villagesof a primitive type and were on a muchlower plane of civilization and culture thanthe Aryans themselves. Archaeological evidence available until 1921-22 seemed to corroborate such a conclusion; as until thatdate nothing had been found in India whichcould be dated before 400 B.C. Thus itseemed exceedingly probable that India hadto be regarded as a comparatively youngcountry from the archaeological point ofview, and that she had not produced anancient civilization at all comparable withthose of Mesopotamia and Egypt.But in the season of 1921-22 excavationsundertaken by the Archaeological Surveyof India under the leadership of the brilliant archaeologist Sir John Marshall atMohenjo Daro on the lower Indus and atHarappa in the Punjab (not far fromLahore) have altogether changed our former notions concerning ancient India andhave opened up a field of study from whichwe can confidently expect much new lighton the history of the development of ancient mankind.The ruins uncovered at Mohenjo Daroand Harappa permit us to conclude definitely that we have to deal here with acivilization fully as highly developed andprobably contemporaneous with those ofMesopotamia and Egypt. Moreover, the civilization of the Indus valley presentsmany analogies especially with ancient rivercities of Mesopotamia, although at the sametime it possesses many important characteristic traits of its own. So, for example,much money and thought were spent inEgypt and Mesopotamia on the building ofmagnificent temples for the gods and onthe palaces and tombs of kings ; the restof the people having to content themselveswith insignificant dwellings, most frequently built of mud. In the Indus valley,on the other hand, the picture is reversedand the finest structures are those erectedfor the convenience of the citizens. Temples, tombs and palaces there may of coursehave been, but if so, they are either stillundiscovered or so like other edifices asnot to be readily distinguishable from them.Be this as it may, we are justified in seeing, in the roomy and serviceable houses ofMohenjo Daro, with their ubiquitous wellsand bathrooms and elaborate system ofdrainage, evidence that the ordinary townspeople enjoyed here a degree of comfortand luxury unexampled in other parts ofthe then civilized world.Equally peculiar to the Indus valley areapparently its art and religion. Nothingthat we know of in other countries at thisperiod bears any resemblance, in point ofstyle, to the miniature faience models oframs, dogs, and other animals or to the intaglio engravings on the seals, the best ofwhich, notably the humped and short-hornedbulls — are distinguished by a most remarkable breadth of treatment and feeling forplastic form. Nor does it seem possible,until the classic age of Greece, to match theexquisite modelling of two human statuettesfrom Harappa. In the religion of the Indusvalley there of course are many parallelsto developments of other countries. Yetthis religion seems to be so characteristicallyIndian as to be hardly distinguishable from798o THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEEastern Retaining Wall of Great PlatformWith Drains Near Its Footcertain aspects of the still living Hinduism — more precisely with the aspects boundup with animism and the cults of Shivaand the Mother Goddess. One of the remarkable results of the excavations is thewell-nigh certain discovery that Shaivismhas a history going back to the Chalcolithicage or perhaps even further still, thus making it the most ancient living faith in theworld.What is the general picture one gainsfrom the discoveries made so far? TheIndus people of the fourth and thirdmillenia B.C. are found in possession of ahighly developed culture in which no vestigeof Indo-aryan influence is to be found apparently. The Indus country like the restof Western Asia, is still in the Chalcolithicage, when arms and utensils of stone continue to be used side by side with thoseof copper and bronze. Their society isorganized in cities ; their wealth derivedmainly from agriculture and trade, whichappears to have extended far and wide inall directions. Wheat and barley are cultivated as well as the date palm. Thehumped zebu, buffalo and short hornedbull are domesticated, besides the sheep,pig, dog, elephant and camel ; but the catand very probably the horse are unknown.For transport, vehicles yoked with oxen areavailable. There seems to have been anabundance of skilful workers in metal witha plentiful supply of gold, silver and copper.Lead, too, and tin are in use, but the latteronly as an alloy in the making of bronze.With spinning and weaving the peoples ofthe Indus valley are thoroughly conversant. The use of cotton textiles at MohenjoDaro is definitely proved. The weaponsof war and of the chase are the bow andarrow, spear, axe, dagger and mace. Thesword has not yet been evolved, nor isthere any evidence of defensive bodyarmour, a circumstance which inevitablywould react to the disadvantage of theIndus population in a conflict with a betterarmed foe, such for instance, as the mail-clad Aryan of the Rig- Veda period. Amongother implements, hatchets, sickles, saws,chisels, and razors are made of both copperand bronze ; knives and celts sometimes ofthese metals, sometimes of chert or otherhard stones. The domestic vessels are commonly of earthenware turned on the wheeland not infrequently painted with encausticdesigns; more rarely are they of copper,bronze and silver. The ornaments of therich are made of copper or precious metals,sometimes overlaid with gold, of faience,ivory, carnelian and other stones; for thepoor they usually are of shell or terracotta.The knowledge of writing is widely diffused, as attested by the very large numberof inscribed seals and amulets, both atMohenjo Daro and Harappa. A script isused, which though peculiar to India, isevidently analogous to other contemporaryscripts of Western Asia and the nearerEast. To the extent here briefly summarized the Indus culture corresponded inits general features with the Chalcolithiccultures of Western Asia and Egypt. Wehave seen, however that it also possessesimportant characteristics of its own.Marshall and his coworkers, on the basisof many striking similarities of the IndusThe Great Bath From the North, ShowingRooms and Fenestrated Wall AroundA FORGOTTEN CIVILIZATION Siculture to the so-called second predi-luvian culture of Elamand Mesopotamia,date the excavatedareas of MohenjoDaro from 3250 B.C.to 2700 B.C. This general conclusion isstrongly supported bythe discovery inMesopotamia of sevenseals of unmistakable "Indus" pattern.These seals all found in different sites, mustbe, in two cases at least, definitely assignedto the pre-Sargonic period and no case canbe referred to a later date than the third mil-lenium B.C. These finds point directly tocommercial intercourse between Mesopotamia and the Indus valley.Most recently, during the excavatingseason of 1931-32, the expedition of theOriental Institute of the University ofChicago at Tel Asmar (sixty miles northeast of Bagdad) found a very interestingengraved seal depicting a religious procession composed of elephants, rhinoceri andcrocodiles. There can be no doubt at allthat this seal came from the Indus valleyand probably from the very site of MohenjoDaro. Other objects pertaining to theIndus valley civilization were also discovered at Tel Asmar.In spite of valiant efforts no progresshas been made so far in the reading of thenumerous inscribed seals. The difficultiesare, of course, quite obvious. It is not impossible, however, that a bilingual inscription will be eventually found, in which caseThe Great Bath, Seen From the South-west the task of deciphering will be greatlyfacilitated.As far as we canjudge at the presentmoment, the civilization of the Indusvalley must haveantedated by manycenturies the Aryaninvasion of India; forall available evidenceindicates that the Aryan tribes did notarrive in India before 1 500 B.C. Thusthe discovery of the ruins at MohenjoDaro forces us to push back the beginningof historic civilization in India by at leastfifteen centuries. Only guesses are possibleat present as to the racial identity of thepeoples inhabiting the ancient cities of theIndus valley. Anthropological evidence,both at Mohenjo Daro and Harappa, isextremely confusing, as several distincttypes of skulls have been found. The decipherment of the seals will undoubtedlyhelp us in this matter too. Right nowthe most plausible hypothesis is thatMohenjo Daro and Harappa were inhabited by representatives of the Dravidianrace, which is still found at the present daychiefly in southern India, but some tribesof which still inhabit the immediate vicinityof Mohenjo Daro.All these conclusions, however, may haveto be revised in the light of future excavations, which appear highly desirable andwhich will undoubtedly furnish most valuable information concerning the history ofIndia and ancient mankind.Freshman FuturesDURING Freshman Week this year,an inquiry blank concerning vocational selection was submitted tothe incoming Freshmen class. It was hopedthat their replies to the questions wouldplace the University in a position to offervocational counseling to those who indicateda need and a desire for such assistance. Re turns were received from approximatelyninety-five per cent of the Freshmen. Thefollowing is a summary of the findings ofthe survey.(1.) Approximately one-third of theFreshmen had made no vocational decision,and about the same number desired vocational counseling.82 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE(2) Of those who had decided upon acareer, approximately fifty per cent hadchosen one of the three major professions,Law, Teaching, and Medicine. Some ofthese students may find it necessary tochange their plans later, and may then seekvocational advice.(3.) Proportionately less women thanmen had decided upon a vocation.( 4. ) Proportionately less of the youngerFreshmen than of the older ones had madevocational decisions.(5.) A larger percentage of the Freshmen who had received vocational information had made a vocational choice than ofthose who had received none.(6.) Reading was a source of vocationalinformation for approximately fifty percent of the Freshmen, exceeding the nextsource in point of frequency by about fourteen per cent.With this information in hand, the University has prepared to meet the needs ofthe students in a number of ways. The following letter was sent to all the Freshmenwho expressed a desire to receive help indeciding their future work."During the year 1932-33, the Universityof Chicago makes available a number ofavenues of assistance to those who have notdefinitely decided upon their vocations. Youare invited to use any one or all of thesesources of information.1.) Published material, — (a) VocationalGuidance Series No. 1. This series, at present, consists of thirteen leaflets, each oneof which deals with the vocations relatedto specific subject matter fields such as chemistry, mathematics, English, et cetera.These leaflets are on file in the offices ofthe Board of Vocational Guidance andPlacement, Room 215, Cobb Lecture Hall.(b) Lectures on Business Vocations. Aseries of mimeographed lectures which weregiven before the student body during thelast two years by alumni of the University.A very valuable body of up-to-date material on business vocations, (c) The ReadingRoom of the Board of Vocational Guidanceand Placement (Cobb Hall, Room 215)contains many books dealing with vocationsinteresting to college students. All studentsare privileged to read these books.2.) A course in vocations. This courseis designed to assist students in the selection of their vocations by giving them anappreciation of (a) standards for evaluatingvocations, (b) methods of analyzing individual abilities and interests, (c) methodsof determining opportunities, (d) procedures in seeking employment, and (e) theelements of vocational success. Supplementing the course, a committee of thealumni will present a series of talks onopportunities in specific vocations. Thiscourse is open to all students of the University and will be given during the WinterQuarter, 1933, in the School of Business,Haskell Lecture Hall.3.) Opportunities will be given for conference with your Adviser. You may consult your Adviser for guidance in helpingyou to decide upon a vocation, and to planyour college course in preparation for workin that particular field.4.) In special cases where further guidance is needed, students may seek counselwith the Board of Vocational Guidance andPlacement, Room 215, Cobb Hall. Theoffice hours for students seeking conferencesconcerning vocational guidance or placement are 9:30 to 12 and 2 to 3.It must be realized that the selection ofa vocation is an individual responsibility.No science, to date, has given one man orgroup of men the ability to select the vocation best suited to the abilities and tastesof another person. The University makesavailable every opportunity to assist thestudent to clarify his thinking regardingthe selection of his vocation. You are invited to take advantage of these opportunities. Their value cannot be overemphasized.Book ReviewPhilosophers in Hades. By T. V. Smith.University of Chicago Press. Pages xviito 299. Price, paper cover, $1.00.Most philosophers rate Hades; Heracli-tus, on account of his gloomy disposition,naturally sinks to hell or Avernus; Plato,because of his love of beauty, dwells at hisproper level in Elysium. The Earthling,being a Chicagoan, could hardly be expected to rise to Elysium, nor, exuberantand irreverent spirit that he is, would hesettle into the depths of hell. After hisairplane accident, which unfortunately forestalled an urgent mission to Will- Rogersregarding a presidential candidate, he issurprised to find himself anywhere at all.Actually he is drifting in the ether and isamused at the experience of getting alongwithout a body. Arriving in Hades — he isglad that it is not the Christian hell — hedisplays his usual enterprise and socialingenuity to such good effect that he soonsecures interviews with the notables of theplace, and even arranges to have the dialogues relayed by Plutophone to the earth.He is fortunate in encountering Socratesalmost as soon as he arrives, for Socratesis still the friend of enquiring youths, actsas guide and counsellor, and also uses hisinfluence to summon Plato from Elysiumand Heraclitus from Avernus. The Earth-ling expected to meet some of the gods, butis surprised to learn that not even Pluto, theoldest inhabitant, has ever seen one. Theirvery existence is a matter of speculation, andPluto expresses his belief that they are creatures of the imagination compensating manfor his failure to realize his own highestideals— friendship, fellowship, comradeship, "the finest ships that ever sailed anysea." Wearying one day of the society ofHades the Earthling beguiles Pluto intocatching three of his University! of Chicagocolleagues, Shailer Mathews, ThorntonWilder, and A. J. Carlson, when theirspirits happened to stray from their bodies,and materializing them in Hades. Earthling has some goodnatured fun at their expense, and recounts it with glee to Socrates.One is a little disappointed at finding that residence in Hades has evidently not beenconducive to philosophic growth in ourold friends of classical renown. Most ofthem, too, are still deplorably lacking in asense of humor, Earthling's spritely satireand flippant wit being met for the most partwith serious directness. The breath offresh air, however, which Earthling bringswith him, seems to revive some of them.When informed of conditions on earth andthe opinions of men today they bring theirold philosophy to bear with telling effect.Socrates is astonished at the childish notionof temperance which underlies our prohibition laws; Thales is shocked to learn thatin spite of the progress that has been madein science his beloved field of astronomy isbeing exploited by modern astrologers;Zeno has a chance to discuss the ethics ofsuicide; Thrasymachus is disgusted to findhow thoroughly his own philosophy ofmight is being applied in politics; and Platofears that the evil plight of modern democracies will lead to the over-population ofHades.Plato is still the divine philosopher, theonly one in whose presence Earthling standsabashed. Aristotle seems even more confused than he was when he wrote his"Metaphysics," and he certainly "ridesBucephalus for a fall" when Earthling taxeshim with the basic contradiction in, his philosophy. The gardens of Epicurus inHades, however, captivate our friend fromChicago. He seems to feel that here is apersonality who has seldom been adequatelyappreciated, and a philosophy for which theearth is not yet great enough. Epicurus receives with enthusiasm his suggestion thatthere are new and unexplored delights to beenjoyed by exploiting the much neglectedsense of smell. On this note the dialoguescome to a close.A delightful, scintillating book whichimproves both in philosophic and literarypower as it progresses. Characterizationand dialogue reach a high degree of excellence in some of the later chapters.Quoting the comment of Socrates on DeanMathews, I would say, "The fellow clearly84 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEgot better the further he went. If he hadbegun where he ended, I think the fellowmight have made rather a good speech."But I would go much further and assertthat had all the dialogues been at the levelof the last chapter, "A Garden in HadesFit for the Gods," the book would havebeen a masterpiece of its kind. The enterprise which began as a popular series of radio programs, half serious and half facetious, developed into a project of realliterary and educational value as the possibilities of the technique unfolded.In paper cover with futuristic design suggestive of Hades (I do not mean that itlooks like hell ) it is more than good value atthe depression price of one dollar.Edwin T. Mitchell, Ph.D. '23Trouble-Shooters and SpecialistsBy J. Barton Hoag, Ph.D. '27,Assistant Professor of PhysicsIS IT difficult for you to study, to startthe mental wheels rolling smoothly?Is it hard for you to drop your workand completely forget your serious self inorder to turn with a free mind to theworld of play? Then you are perfectlynormal. You are experiencing the inertiaof the mind, a quantity difficult to measurebut well known to the teacher. Everypedagogue worth his salt has his bag oftricks, a multitude of devices for gettingthe mind started,— both his own and hisstudents'. Such schemes involve premiumsin the form of grades and scholarships,praise, blame, intensive and vital interestin both subject matter and the student,side lights on the private lives of great menin the field, an honor system or a New Educational Plan.Would it interest you to hear of two ofmy schemes? Then read on. Since studentslove to torment each other and competitionis a powerful motivating force, I have eachlaboratory group shift to the apparatus ofa neighboring group, with full permission todemoralize the other fellows' equipment.Their ingenuity is a revelation, to say theleast. Wires connecting pieces of apparatusare slipped out of their coverings. Connections inside closed boxes are carefully unsoldered. Additional batteries, resistances,condensers and coils are added to circuitsat innocuous looking places. While tryingto devise trouble for their fellow sufferers,they learn more about how to find and.remedy practical difficulties in their ownexperiments than they would ordinarily acquire in a month of routine procedure. Trouble-shooting day in the laboratory isone of great interest and excitement.Last Spring I taught a course in highfrequency alternating currents and vacuumtubes, popularly known as radio. Since thissubject changes rapidly, it is one which ishard, but also fun, to teach. I did nothave enough of the newer equipment topresent the course in an up-to-the-minutefashion, so I hit upon a scheme which, inmy enthusiasm, I called My New Plan.The students all became specialists. Theystudied one particular branch of radio moreintensively than the rest of the course.They worked out of class hours competingwith each other. Each pair of studentsdevised an experiment to demonstrate themain features of their hobby. When everything was ready, all of the students weresent into the laboratory. Each day, oneof a group, self-trained in his special field,was responsible for the instruction of twoother students. Meanwhile, his partnerstudied under the tutorship of a differentspecialist. And so they alternated, firstteaching, then studying, until each grouphad explained its particular field to all therest as well as studying under the guidanceof the remaining specialists. All had practice teaching and some experience in connecting up equipment, but it is a weak pointof this system that none of them had thefull experience. However, we covered moreexperiments with less time and equipmentthan ever before. My part in the programwas that of advisor, moving around fromgroup to group, correcting, suggesting andadding to the work of the specialists.Teaching is fun.in my opinionBy Fred B. Millett, Ph.D. '32Associate Professor of EnglishI IKE most cultists, the Proustians are, inthe main, no great credit to the object— ' of an enthusiasm largely compoundedof ignoble elements. Of these elements, oneof the largest is an almost inevitable ignorance of the master's text, since acquaintancewith it involves patient application and conscientious devotion. Equally important inthe cultists is the element of affectation, forthe magic phrase, "What about Proust?"is both a defense and a challenge to almostany collection of semi-literate diners-out.The tremendous snobbery of the cult, Prousthimself would be the first to recognize andexploit. Theirs is the easy snobbery ofbeing informed on a topic forever caviar tothe general, and the more subtle snobbery(which Proust himself grew fat on) ofintimate knowledge of the most inaccessiblesummits of French society and of the satisfaction of being superior, morally at least,to most of the demigods on this socialOlympus. Inevitable, too, is the naturalbut rarely acknowledged appeal of Proust'sexploitation of the phenomena of sexualpsycho-pathology. Prurience plus ignorancemust account for the relatively large sale ofthe innocent volume entitled The Captive,all too easily confused with Bourdet's playof the same name.But, despite the cultists, any attentivereader of Proust must find him eminentlyworthy of critical consideration, if not ofuninformed adulation. Yet even a cursorystudy of Proust reveals grave limitations inthe art and matter of the master. In a workof portentous dimensions, there is an inevitable unevenness that can not be explained by Proust's desperate illness duringthe composition and revision of the latervolumes. After the magnificent study ofSwann's jealousy in Swanns Way, the in terminable probings into the same emotionthroughout The Captive seem uncontrolledand morbid, and The Sweet Cheat Gone,not only treats time's obliteration of thememory of Albertine with disproportionatebrevity, but is actually unpolished and fragmentary. Moreover, it is not merely one'sconventional assumptions as to the virtuesof French clarity and simplicity that makeone feel an excessive and idiosyncratic complexity in Proust's style, an exuberantorientalism that is tedious and tasteless.More serious for Proust's ultimate reputation is his almost complete lack of moralsensibility. When Mrs. Wharton scoldedProust for his moral blind spots, she erredin generosity. The fact is that, for all hisaffectation of moral indignation, his scrutinyof the specimens under his microscope is aslacking in morality as a scientist's must be,but as no artist's can afford to be. It is notmerely that he constitutes himself a specialstudent of abnormal behavior, but that,despite his pretense of dismay and horror,he reveals himself ( for one inevitably identifies the narrator and Proust) not only aslacking in elementary decency but as oneof the most unscrupulous cads that haveever drawn admiring portraits in a mirror.For neither his air of moral indignation northe impersonality of his observation concealsthe fact that he is a victim of emotions of theugliest sort. In a sense, the whole work is amasterpiece of revenge, a stealthily venomous poisoning of all the springs of admiration for the aristocracy to which he toadied.The sneers and snubs, the embarrassmentsand discomfitures that are the inevitableportion of an abnormally sensitive, abnormally snobbish person attempting to crashsociety are repaid a thousand fold by thecruelist exposures, the most damaging vilification and' denigration.8586 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAnd yet, if Proust does not prove to bea novelist of the first rank, he seems likely tobe at the forefront of the second. For,despite his serious weaknesses and limitations, he has talents perhaps greater thanthose of any novelist of our time. Proustis a master of the social panorama, andmerely as social history, Remembrance ofThings Past is a document of transcendentimportance. His insatiable curiosity, thepatience and delicacy of his sense-perceptionsserve him magnificently in the recording ofthe manners and customs, the speech and theclothes, the amusements and the morals,not only of the bluest-blooded of Europeanaristocrats, but of peasants and professors,of the provincial and Parisian nobility andbourgeoisie. And the same powers, coupledwith an unsurpassable refinement of feeling, invest his recreation of places, — Cam-bray, Balbec, the sea, the Champs Elysees,the streets and faubourgs of Paris, even hisslight sketch of Venice, with the intensestobjective and subjective reality.The ineffable delicacy of Proust's notations of feeling is apparent, not only in hiscreation of places, but in his searching representation of prolonged sequences of kaleidoscopic emotions. Almost certainly therehas never been a study of jealousy moreoverpowering than that Odette invokes inSwann, nor more horrifying than that inwhich the equivocal Albertine involves theequally equivocal narrator. Likewise memorable are the accounts of the narrator'slove for his mother and his grandmother, hisadolescent suffering over Gilberte, and hisadoration for the far-off Duchess de Guer-mantes. Crudest of all perhaps is his relentless account of the process by whichAlbertine, once the centre of his undeviatingattention, is, when dead, inevitably forgotten.But the novelist must do more than record shades of feeling, even though he record them more subtly than they have everbeen recorded before. It is his enviable taskto create character, and in this task Proustis extraordinarily successful. There are, tobe sure, failures. Despite the tremendousspace devoted to Albertine, she is probablyhis major failure in characterization. We see her in a thousand postures; we knowevery idea and emotion she is capable ofinspiring in the narrator and the endlessself-torture she induced in him, but, likehim, we learn too late what her characterreally was, for then, like him, we are morethan willing to forget her. With the otherwomen, Proust is much more successful.For enduring vitality, Francoise, the peasantservant, is perhaps his masterpiece, lovinglybut objectively wrought. The others, — themother, the grandmother, Gilberte, theDuchess de Guermantes, are always seenthrough the thick veil of the narrator's complex feelings about them. They are enormously successful, but they do not havequite the independent vitality of Francoiseor of Madame Verdurin, the eternal aesthetic snob. Of the men who receive majorattention, Saint Loup is at first vividly realized, but, in the end, is sacrificed to Proust'sfrenzy for vilification. If Swann, sensitive,witty, fastidious, tragic, dominates theopening of the series, Baron de Charlus ultimately dominates the whole series, if anyone character can be said to dominate somassive a structure. De Charlus is certainly one of the great characterizations innovelistic literature. He is seen from everyangle ; he is revealed in every light. UnlikeSaint Loup, he is his own, and not theauthor's victim. This bluest of blue-bloods,he is a tremendous personification of themoral rottenness which Proust delights inrevealing in his most aristocratic patrons.But he is more. He is a colossal figure oftragi-comedy in a world beyond morals.Perhaps the greatest of all Proust'sachievements is the philosophical framework of the whole work, the philosopicalinterpretation of life and art, which, explicitly stated, constitutes a magnificentfinale to the Gotterdammerung of Europeanaristocracy. Proust's work is an encyclopedia of egotism, for to Proust, as to Dela Rochefoucauld, the eternal motive ofall conduct is self-love. Self-love, self-approbation, self-esteem, — these are thedynamic forces, and no subterfuge is toodevious, no device too vile to secure enhancement of these emotions. But egotismcan not flourish unopposed. Egotism isIN MY OPINION 87the ground of an eternal conflict between Time and Memory. For Memorywhich cherishes love and hate, snubs andvictories alike, must succumb to theambivalent operation of Time, the agentof oblivion. For if Time destroys love, italso destroys hate. If Time mars youthand beauty, it likewise deadens pain and un-SAY what you will, the University ofI Chicago's tradition, in our time andbefore, has been an austere one.True, the undergraduates have always hadtheir fraternities and their sports and theirsocial activities. The faculty has had itsQuadrangle Club, and the faculty wivestheir Dames Club. But the characteristicpicture has been that of a solitary scientist,handicapped with inadequate facilities,struggling with the powers of darkness, anddoing it with a certain abstruse success.During the past few years, however, certain pleasant variations have intruded themselves upon the traditional theme ofhard-bitten, earnest effort. Such quiet menas Sewall Wright, Ralph Lillie and A. J.Dempster continue to be the stanchions ofthe University's reputation, despite the factthat their laboratories are now adequate.But somehow the life of the quadrangleshas become less stern and more humane.The erection of the Chapel, perhaps,marked a turn. All high words of purposeto one side, the Chapel has actually beena center of engentlement. Lately, thegrowth of music has contributed to softening the local rigors. For many years theUniversity Orchestral Association has beenbringing Frederick Stock's Chicago Symphony Orchestra to the campus. Now theUniversity has, in addition, a flourishingMusic Society, which not only sponsors the happiness. From Time's relentless operation, there is only one escape, — into theworld of Art, a world from which Time isforever banished. Thus, this great workbecomes an illustration of Proust's ownclimactic discovery, that only in a work ofart is it possible to recapture and hold thepast.concerts of the University's own SymphonyOrchestra but has also undertaken to bringguest artists to the quadrangles. At thelast count the University Symphony had120 candidates for the 90 available chairs.The first string varsity gives promise ofbecoming the second best orchestra in town.The core of the season's first program,scheduled for this month, was to be thedifficult Brahms second, with the premiereof Professor Carl Bricken's own Suite asan introductory number.Four energetic and likable young men,Bricken, Cecil Smith, Alfred Frankensteinand Howard Talley, now comprise theUniversity's year-old Department of Music.In addition to their formal courses in thehistory and theory of music, and their workwith the orchestra, they have found time toorganize a series of daily phonograph concerts, given in the Social Sciences Assemblyhall and well attended, to lay plans for aBrahms festival in the Spring, and to dallywith the thought of a series of symphonyconcerts for Stagg Field next summer.* * *A further gracious and musical bit ofausterity- relief emanates from the Chapeltower these days. On Thanksgiving Daythe giant new Laura Spelman Rockefellercarillon pealed its music out over the Midway for the first time. They say that50,000 people were there — all four drivesBy John P. Howe '2788 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof the Midway jammed motionless withcars for nearly a mile. Dr. Glenn DillardGunn, music critic of the Chicago Heraldand Examiner, wrote of the event as follows:"For many blocks around the listenersstood on the streets, in the parks of Midway, and in all open spaces to hear theprogram played by Kamiel Lefevere, caril-lonneur of the Riverside Church, NewYork, who brings this ancient Netherlandish art to the new world."They heard an eerie music, strange,pervasive, seemingly without point oforigin, descending from the bright wintersky on the keen lake breeze. It was arresting in its completeness. For the melody,which usually represents the limit of a musical performance upon chimes, was filled outwith supporting harmonies, and even embellished with countermelodies."The quality of the tone was sweet, yetsharp. Modern mechanics achieve someastonishing effects. The usual explosiveand percussive tone is absent. Likewisethe customary lack of expressive inflection.On this carillon it is possible to producevolume of ethereal softness or to increaseit until the sky above and the earth underfoot seem to tremble with its reverberation.In consequence, M. Lefevere's performancetook on all the aspects of an artistic event."He played first a grand old seventeenthcentury German choral, 'Now Thank WeAll Our God,' stately, solemn, yet full ofgood cheer. Then came a rare piece ofHandelian counterpoint, a lyric prayer fromthe opera-oratorio 'Rinaldo' that oftengraces the programs of recital or symphony.There followed a Scotch folksong, 'AnnieLaurie,' and a Welsh folksong, 'TheMissing Boat,' and the dedicatory recitalclosed with an ancient hymn of the Netherlands."James O'Donnell Bennett, most famousof Tribune reporters, wrote of it :"The seventy- two bells swaying and vibrating two hundred feet above the headsof the worshipers caught up their prayerand wafted it over the square mile of quadrangles and professorial residences, waftedit to the spires of neighboring churches and theological seminaries, wafted it to the sunlit morning of Thanksgiving day, and sentit echoing along gray vistas of cloisters,the music now of a silver poignancy, nowof the pomp and clangor of bronze, and nowof golden mellowness."The spires spoke back in gentle echoesto the chapel, and the organ within thestructure that is adorned with carvings bythe men of Oberammergau joined in thefar-flung antiphonal."It was a noble scene set to a majesticaccompaniment."Carillon listening is essentially an outdoor sport, and the new bells will thereforebe used sparingly until late next spring.The present program calls for half-hourrecitals at 4:30 on Wednesdays and at 3on Sundays, to be played by Mr. HaroldSimonds, carillonneur of St. Chrysostom'sChurch, Chicago, pending the appointmentof a University carillonneur.The Alice Freeman Palmer chimes inMitchell Tower (which consists of tennotes, struck on cylinders rather than onbells) will continue to sound the hours andto mark noon and 6 p.m. with melodiesand 10:05 p.m. with the "Alma Mater."The Rockefeller carillon is the secondlargest, and probably the finest, set of bellsin the world, according to Mr. CyrilJohnston, president of the Gillet andJohnston bell-founders of Croydon, England, where the Chicago bells were cast.The largest set is in the tower of the Riverside Church in New York, and like theUniversity's set, contains 72 bells, thoughsome of its larger bells outweigh Chicago'sheaviest. Both carillons are gifts of JohnD. Rockefeller, Jr., both are memorials tohis mother, and both were cast at Croydon.Incidentally, Mr. Johnston, who has revived and improved upon the once lost art ofcasting and scraping bells until they are intune with themselves through £.v& overtonesof the original note, arrived in Chicago forthe dedication full of jovial scorn for Chicago's criminal reputation, only to have hisrestaurant held up as he sat at Thanksgiving dinner.The 72 bells include every note, at halftone intervals, over six octaves. TheNEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES 89largest, the bourdon bell, weighs eighteenand one-half tons, the smallest weighs tenand one-half pounds. The cost, includinginstallation and duty, was well above$200,000.Five of the largest bells can be swung,and these, when played as a peal, can beheard in mellow thunder for a distance ofseveral miles. When the bells are played"as a carillon" however, the set comprisesan instrument of great delicacy, with theclappers moving only a few inches. Whena composition is being played the best distance for a listener is about one block fromthe Chapel.The complicated task of installing thecarillon, which, with its framework, weighs,537,000 pounds, was begun last July. Thebells are hung in three chambers, three ofthe largest in the lower chamber, elevenintermediate bells in the central chamberand fifty-eight smaller bells on racks above.Wooden shutters to protect- them from theweather, which are removable for recitals,have been installed in the tower openings.The carillon is played from a clavierlocated 180 feet above the street in themidst of the bells, in a room electricallyheated. Though the clappers of the largestbells (the largest clapper weighs nearly aton) are moved with the assistance of pneumatic pistons and the smaller clappers moveon ball bearings, the force with which thecarillonneur strikes the keys and pedals ofthe clavier determines the volume of thenote or chord. All but five of the bells arestationary, the five swinging bells beingcontrolled by two motors each.*****Not to forget the comfort and convivialityof the new Residence halls for men, southof the Midway, new since our time, theUniversity's long-delayed indulgence inpleasantness has been greatly enhanced bythe opening of International House, whichhas been wildly popular with all sorts ofpeople, as a place to live, or to eat, orjust to foregather. Just one example :With the University's Renaissance Society(which, by the way, now holds art exhibitsalmost continuously in Wieboldt hall)International House now holds weekly showings of the best of foreign talking motion pictures.*****One cannot help noting, in connectionwith the rather tenuous trend mentionedabove, that far more people are now cominginto direct contact with the Universitythan at any time before. The Chapel attracts more than 1,500 people to its Sundayservices, many of them non-University folk;the carillon dedication brought some 50,000citizens to the Midway, and promises to bea perennial focus of attention. Many newthousands are brought into the most directkind of physical contact with the Universityeach year, through the University Clinics.Since its opening last December the OrientalInstitute has averaged 7,000 visitors amonth. Even the augmented programs ofpublic lectures, concerts and programs ofthe University Dramatic Association havewon a growing share of interest in the townat large.In a less direct way the University hasbeen extending its influence through theaddition of New Plan courses to the curriculum of the Home Study Department,and through the project for distributingeducational sound motion pictures based onthe New Plan courses. For budgetaryreasons, a contemplated expansion of theUniversity's radio programs has been postponed, but that will come eventually.* * * * *Two events of recent months stand outas unusually significant. One of them wasthe announcement of the project for erectingan astronomical observatory in the DavisMountains of Texas, as a cooperative enterprise of the University of Chicago and theUniversity of Texas, which is discussedelsewhere in the Magazine by Dr. OttoStruve. The other was the showing ofthe first two units of the series of eightyeducational sound films to be made as a cooperative enterprise between the Universityof Chicago and the Erpi Picture Consultants, Inc.* * * * *New light on an old question, the relative importance of heredity and environment, was disclosed last month by Dr.90 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHoratio H. Newman, Professor of Zoology, in a report of his recent research workon twins. Professor Newman's report wasgiven as one of the Spencer Trask lecturesat Princeton University.Human twins furnish the best, if not theonly, material well adapted to a scientificinvestigation of this problem, Dr. Newmansaid. During the past five years he andhis associates have studied one hundredcases of twins reared together, and ninecases of identical twins reared apart. Thelatter twins were discovered only afterintensive search, and furnished the crucialcomparative data. Only one set of identical twins reared in different environmentshad hitherto been discovered and studied."There are two kinds of twins," Professor Newman said, "identical andfraternal. Identical twins are the productof the early division of a single embryo intotwo parts, each of which then developedinto a whole individual. Fraternal twinsare the result of the simultaneous fertilization of two eggs by two sperms, andhence they are related exactly in the sameway as are ordinary brothers and sisters.Identical twins are identical in theirheredity. Fraternal twins have only halfof their identity in common."Nature has thus performed a controlledscientific experiment for us. Each pair offraternal twins, of which we studied 50pairs, consists of two individuals rearedunder the same environment, but differingin heredity. Each pair of identical twinsconsists of two individuals with identicalheredity. A group of fifty pairs of identicaltwins reared in the same environment wasused as a control. A group of nine pairsof identical twins reared in different environments constituted the experimentalgroup. Any greater differences found inthe experimental group than in the controlgroup may safely be attributed to differences in the environment."Dr. Newman and his associates analyzedall 109 pairs with regard to numerousphysical characteristics, mental characteristics, as measured by standard intelligencetests, and temperament-emotional characteristics.Presenting brief analyses of the nine cases of identical twins reared apart, Dr.Newman said, "In every one of the ninecases where there is known to have been apronounced difference in some one or morefeatures of the environment of the twins,one finds an appropriately pronounced divergence in the kinds of characters thatsuch differences in environment might beexpected to produce. Similarly, wheneverthere has been no pronounced differencein the environment, even though the twinshave been long separated, there is found nogreater divergence in any characters thanmight have been expected had the twinsbeen reared together."On the basis of this study one may bejustified in saying: (1) that environmentaldifferences produce differences in certainhuman traits directly in proportion to theextent of the environmental differences involved ; ( 2 ) that minor differences do nothave sufficient intensity to transcent thethreshold of stimulation, and therefore haveno effect; (3) that mental characters,temperament-emotional traits, and somephysical characters such as body weight,condition of teeth, and general health, seemto be about equally effected by pronouncedenvironmental differences, and to be equallyunaffected by slight environmental differences."Including the one set of identical twinsreared apart studied by Dr. Mueler in hisfigures, Dr. Newman compared the 10 setsof identical twins reared apart with the 50sets of identical twins reared together."The average difference in body weight in50 pairs of identical twins reared togetheris 4 pounds, that for 10 pairs of identicaltwins reared apart is 10 pounds, or exactlythe same as that for 50 pairs of fraternaltwins reared together."The average difference in I. Q. in 50pairs of identical twins reared together isa little over 5 points, that in 10 pairs ofidentical twins reared apart about 9 points,while that in 50 pairs of fraternal twinsreared together is about 10 points. Temperamental-emotional differences are not soeasily reduced to figures, but it seems quiteclear that the same relations hold good asfor body weight and I. Q."This roughly equivalent effect of natureNEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES 9iand nurture as determinants is not quitetrue for people in general, Dr. Newmanpointed out, since fraternal twins, used toprovide a base line in the statistics, havehalf their heredity in common."A rather crude way of putting thetentative conclusions from these facts is thatwith regard to mental, temperamental and certain physical characteristics, the actualdifferences in heredity have been twice aseffective as the actual differences in environment. What I have just said is not at allthe equivalent of the statement that heredity is twice as important in determining aperson's total individuality as is environment."William V. Morgenstern, '20, J.D. '22Scores of the MonthFootballChicago, 13; Indiana, 7Chicago, 7; Illinois, 13Chicago, o; Purdue, 37Chicago, o; Michigan, 12Chicago, 7; Wisconsin, 18THE last of the Stagg-coached football teams has finished its season, andits record on the whole is a creditable $one. It won three games, lost four, andtied one; it scored 95 points to its opponent's 94. In the conference, Chicagowon one game and lost four. The othervictories were in the early October gameswith Monmouth and Knox, which werechronicled last month, as was the tie withYale.Largest factor in the row of defeats inthe conference in the last four games wasthe small size of the squad. Never havingmore than about 30 men, the group was atsome times during the late November weeksreduced to a scant 23. The players werenot particularly big on the average and theschedule required sturdiness. The Indianagame took a heavy toll, and there wereinjuries in later games, so that it was notuntil Wisconsin ended the season that Chicago had anything approximating its fullstrength. There wasn't the necessary back- *Cross CountryChicago, 19; Loyola, 36Purdue, 19; Chicago, 41; Northwestern,_ 69Chicago, 32; Purdue, 23' Chicago, 36; Illinois State Normal, 19Chicago was eighth in the conference meet*Winner is determined by lowest totalof pointsfield reserve strength, and as a result, theinjuries took the drive out of the offense.Particularly damaging was the loss of PeteZimmer, whose knee was hurt in the Indianagame and who could not reach anything approximating his form again until the Wisconsin game. Capt. Don Birney, H. O.Page, Jr., and Allan Summers, who managed to play most of the time, had theirefficiency impaired by injuries during a largepart of the season, because of their inabilityto participate in practice. In many of thegames the blocking was perfunctory andfutile, partly because the injuries necessitated shifting of assignments among thesurvivors, partly because there was someelement of personal rivalry, and partly because the technique was poor. The generalship of the team in several games couldhave been better; there seemed to be toomany quarterbacks when the team wentinto the huddle. The line had more adequate replacements than the backfield andso its efficiency was not as greatly impaired92 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEby injuries. It played generally effectivedefensive football, but on offense did not doso well.Far and away the peak of the Chicagoseason was its magnificent play againstIndiana, a team that had overpoweringpersonnel as compared to that of the Maroon squad. But Chicago went into thegame with whirlwind drive, and whenToigo recovered Jones' fumble on theIndiana 1 2-yard line, Pete Zimmer immediately went around his right end for a touchdown. The second Chicago touchdowncame with another flashing drive, Zimmermaking two passes, to Birney and Toigo,for thirty-seven yards. Then Pete droppedanother pass of thirty yards to Birney acrossthe goal line. Indiana scored in the thirdquarter, with Edmunds' fifty yard passto Lyons. But that was the only Hoosierplay that clicked against a fiery Chicagodefense and an attack that gained consistently around and through Indiana's bigline. That victory classified as an "upset."The victory was costly, however, for Zimmer was lost in the game, and when theteam came up against Illinois the next weekit was handicapped not only by his absencebut by the fact that Summers had been inthe hospital all week with an infected foot.There wasn't a back who knew the positionleft vacant by Zimmer, and this uncertaintylimited the offense. But Chicago pushedover a quick touchdown at the start of thegame, when Sahlin broke through tacklefor a 29 yard run, and it looked like arepetition of the Indiana game. Twice inthe second quarter Chicago had first downinside the Illini 10-yard line, but complacently didn't put the ball over. In thewaning moments of the third quarter Capt.Gil Berry of Illinois took charge, his passesbringing a touchdown in quick order. ThenBerry received the kickoff and ran eightyyards for the decisive touchdown. Naturally, Chicago didn't have a chance afterthat ; although there was one opportunityto win late in the game. Keith Parsonsintercepted a pass, and Birney, coming upon the outside, shouted for a lateral, whichwas made perfectly. If Birney had beenhalf a step faster he would have had atouchdown, but crippled by bad arches, he was pulled down by the last Illinois manwithin reach. This game was depressing,for it was one that Chicago should, andcould, have won.Still crippled by the absence of Zimmer,Chicago met Purdue the next Saturday. ¦Purdue was one of the great teams of thecountry, and it had overpowering speed andweight. At the start of the game a patchedMaroon backfield fought inside of Purdue's5 -yard line, but couldn't decide on a touchdown play. Again at the start of the secondhalf, the Chicago team was within a fewyards of a touchdown, this second marchbeing staged despite the fact that the scorewas 18 to O against them. Notwithstandingthe score, Stagg's team played good football, making 10 first downs to Purdue's 14,and if that first touchdown had been scored,as it well might had Zimmer been in thereto bolster the attack, the score certainlywould have been much closer.Against Michigan, Chicago played a finedefensive game, faltering on two plays only,but those two were enough for the Wolverines. Once in the first quarter threeMaroon players, charging down a wet field,slid by Harry Newman, who took a punton his 2 5 -yard line and ran for a touchdown. In the final minute of play, a substitute line let Newman fake a pass andrun another thirty yards for a touchdown.Outside of those two plays Michigan wentnowhere, but neither did Chicago, whichgave a sad exhibition of blocking all throughthe game.Against Wisconsin the team played hardfootball, but it beat itself. It let Wisconsinrehearse a long pass that failed by an inchor two, and then come right back with thesame play for a touchdown. That was inthe first quarter, but in the second, afterCassels had blocked a Wisconsin punt onthe Badgers' 29-yard line, Zimmer, Summers, and Sahlin got the ball across, andPage's place-kick gave Chicago a one-pointlead. Wisconsin immediately scored again,and in the third quarter Sahlin's fumbleof a punt near the Maroon goal gave Wisconsin the setting for its third score. Inthe fourth quarter, Pete Zimmer made abrilliant run back of a punt from his own18-yard line, twice reversing the field.A light forever burning . . .A voice that is never stilledNight comes on and spreads a blanket ofdarkness upon sleeping cities and towns.Here and there a lone policeman. In thedistance a clock tolling the hour.In the dark silence of the night, there isone light forever burning . . . one voicethat is never stilled. That light is the lightin the telephone exchange. That voice isthe voice of your telephone.A city without telephones would be acity afraid — a city of dread.For the telephone brings security. Itsvery presence gives a feeling of safety andnearness to everything. In times ofstress and sudden need it has a valuebeyond price. In the business and social activities of a busy day it is almostindispensable.The wonder of the telephone is not theinstrument itself but the system of which itis the symbol . . . the system which linksyour own telephone with any one of eighteen million others in the United States andthirteen millions in other countries.Every time you use your telephone youhave at your command some part of acountry-wide network of wires and equipment, and as many as you need of a greatarmy of specialists in communication.There are few aids to modern living thatyield so much in safety, convenienceand achievement as your telephone.AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH COMPANY9394 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEFinally, with but one Wisconsin man infront of him, he cut back again to get clear,but he stumbled and broke his stride, finallytumbling on the Wisconsin 28-yard line,and, under the new rules, automaticallybeing down. Wisconsin made a lot ofyardage by smashing straight through theChicago line, but even so, had Chicagoplayed heads-up football, it could have won.During the season, Bill Cassels, whosefather was a member of the first championship Chicago team, in 1899, was the outstanding player in the line. He playedeffective and consistent football, in 429 outof the 480 minutes of the season, the highesttotal of any member of the team. Thesquad voted him the "most valuable" player,and there was no question as to his meritingthat honor. Zimmer was one of the greatrunning backs of the Big Ten, and he wasthe best Chicago passer. His loss during solarge a part of the season hurt; with him,Chicago probably would have won theIllinois game, and had it won that one, itwould have been hard to beat the rest ofthe way. Vinson Sahlin was another verystrong ground gainer; a battler and a confident young man, he played a good gameevery Saturday. Allan Summers, who hadno prep experience, was pretty much un-honored, until his steady work won recognition. Summers was a fine defensive back,and a hard hitting back who wasn't usedas often as he should have been. With another year of experience, Summers wouldbe a star of the first rank, particularly whenhe got his passing under control. He ledthe backs in length of play, despite the factthat he spent a large part of the practiceweek either in the hospital or on the sidelines with a persistent infection. TomFlinn, a little sophomore, was an elusiverunner and a giant on defense, and Capt.Birney, a first rate captain, was a good all-around man, despite the handicap of weakarches that slowed him up badly. Thejunior Page, who was troubled with a badankle, didn't have as good a season as hewill next year.Zimmer was elected captain of the 1933team by the twenty-three men who receivedmajor letters. They were: Capt. Don Birney, GrandIsland, Neb.; William B. Cassels, Hinsdale, 111.; Keith Parsons, Davenport, la.;Raymond Zenner, Riverside, 111.; AllanSummers, Chicago; Vinson Sahlin, Chicago; John Spearing, Milwaukee; PompeoToigo, Benld, 111.; Pete Zimmer, LaGrange, 111. ; and Hugh Mendenhall, TerreHaute, Ind., previous letter winners. Ofthese, all but Sahlin and Zimmer graduate.Mendenhall was highly unlucky ; he workedenergetically for two quarters to becomeeligible, a process requiring eight "B's,"but played only twenty minutes of theseason. He was in the Illinois game justfor a minute or so, because he did not knowthe plays. He started against Purdue, andstarted well, making the tackle on the kick-off, and then intercepting a Purdue pass.But he was knocked out while reaching fora pass, and never was used again.Warren Bellstrom, H. O. Page, Jr., CarlGabel, Walter Maneikis, Robert Shapiro,Bernard Johnson, George Mahoney, GeorgeSchnur, and Frank Thomson, all of Chicago; Wayne Rapp, Long Beach, Cal. ; Ell-more Patterson, Western Springs, 111. ; TomFlinn, Redwood Falls, Minn.; JohnWomer, Oak Park, 111., were the thirteennew "C" men. Bellstrom, Gabel, Shapiro,Schnur, and Thomson, who received theletter for three years of service, will be lostby graduation.Old English letters were awarded JohnBaker, Edward Cullen, Barton Smith,William Berg, LeRoy Walter, and CasparHilton, and the small minor emblem wasgiven LeRoy Ayres, Frank Spearing, andEdmund Wolfenson.Twenty-nine members of a stalwart andaccomplished freshman squad were givennumerals. A large number of these mencan make the varsity if they are eligible;the freshmen were probably the best firstyear group in a decade. The time to talkof them, however, will be after they havepassed three comprehensive examinations.Few figures in national life, and certainlynone in the controversial field of sport, havewon the sincere respect and admiration ofthe country as has Mr. Stagg. The announcement of his retirement brought theATHLETICS 95universal regard into focus, and there waspresented the unusual sight of rival universities awarding him their own varsity insignia, a tribute that no one before hasreceived. Illinois started it, by giving the"Old Man" an "I" blanket just before thestart of the game ; Purdue gave him notonly a blanket, but an inscribed boiler-maker's hammer, and made him MemberNo. I of the Order of Boilermakers, a brandnew and mythical organization. Michiganintroduced a variation, with a silver service ;Wisconsin gave him both a blanket and aplaque. Mr. Stagg originated the idea offorming all lettermen into an organization,and granting varsity blankets on graduation,and so the presentations of blankets weremost appropriate. Outside organizationsalso honored Mr. Stagg; the Fifty-fifthStreet Business Men's Association made itsannual football dinner a tribute to him.At this dinner the players and assistantcoaches gave Mr. and Mrs. Stagg "coachingjackets." The Rotary Club of Chicagoheld a huge luncheon in his honor, at whichMajor John L. Griffith, conference commissioner of athletics, was chairman, ,andLieutenant-Colonel Henry Breckinridge ofNew York, former Assistant Secretary ofWar and President of the National Amateur Athletic Federation, was chief speaker.From the Rotarians as a memento came anelectric clock, with chimes, and a plate inscribed : "To Amos Alonzo Stagg, a greatleader of youth and exemplar of character."Regard for Mr. Stagg was shown also inreverse fashion, by various newspapers andpress services, which thought to do him aservice by representing an ungrateful University as suddenly and without warning removing him from the position he has heldso long. Mr. Stagg was the first to objectto that picture ; he has said, and continuesto say, that his life work is coaching, andthat he intends to coach, whether at Chicagoor elsewhere. But with the principle of retirement at 70 he has found no fault. The"Old Man," of course, had ample noticethat the action would be taken; discussionas to his future status was begun as earlyas January of last year, and he was aware inTurn to page 102 Albert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago535 Fifth Ave., New York415 Hyde Bldg., SpokaneA general Placement Bureau for men andwomen in all kinds of teaching positions.Large and alert College, and State Teachers* College departments for Doctors andMasters; Critics and Supervisors for Normals. Also many calls for Special teachersof Music, Art, Home Economics, BusinessAdministration, CorrespondenceTeaching.Fine opportunities in Secondary Schools.A host of best Suburban patrons for gradeand High School teachers. Read ourbooklet. Call.How Much-How Sure?When planninga retirement fund, there aretwo questions about the returnon the investment you select —"How much?" and "Howsure?9'The Annuity answers bothwith thorough satisfaction. Itoffers the highest possible return commensurate with absolute safety.When you buy a John Hancock Annuity, you buy Incomeplus Security. Ask for information.Tjfe Insurance Companyxof Boston. MassachusettsJohn Hancock Inquiry Bureau197 Clarendon Street, Boston, Mass.Please send me your booklet, "You Can Havean Income as Long as You Live."Name..... « Street and No City A.G. 12-32 State...NEWS OF THE CLASSESAND ASSOCIATIONSCollege1924Arthur Cody is with the National Homes Finance Corporation, while on leave of absencefrom the Cody Trust. *** Winifred E. Barn isassistant professor of education at Teachers College, Columbia University.1927Barbara Davidson sends in the followinginteresting note on her activities of lastsummer: "I was in Santa Fe last summer,working in the Laboratory of Anthropology, andwas there for its opening and for the anthropological conference held immediately afterwards.My jobs varied from filing clerk to lay critic ofmuseum displays, the most interesting of whichwas work in weaving, done on small looms, butin enlarged scale for use in demonstrating patterns and methods of securing effects. It wasfascinating to meet the men whose books I hadused in anthropological and sociological courses,to lunch with them in patio tea rooms such asonly Santa Fe could produce, and to drive Dr.Clark Wissler's chastened Chevy, whose groanswhen urged from reverse into low, gave evidence of many wanderings in that desert country.Members of the Laboratory's staff and many ofthe guests spoke regretfully of Dr. Cole's absence, and were interested in activities at Chicago." *** Mrs. T. M. Ingman (KatherineMcCabe) is living in Hollywood, California.(1835^ Grace Ave.) *** Florence G. Gund-lach punctuates periods of housekeeping withsessions with her camera. She is a photographerof plants. *** Elena Boder has finished herfirst year's interneship at Bobs Roberts Hospital, and will start her second at Children'sMemorial Hospital, Jan. 1, 1933. ***W. E.Lewis, A.M., is with the educational departmentof Doubleday Doran and Co., Garden City,N. Y., covering midwestern colleges and universities. *** Beulah A. Liles, A.M., is an instructor in mathematics at the College of Minesand Metallurgy at El Paso, Tex. *** IsabelCarlson is employed as a secretary at the OrientalInstitute at the University. *** Mrs. JosephKing (Helen E. Palmer) and her husband havebeen traveling in Europe and studying at theUniversity of Edinburgh where they plan tostay for another year. *** Mrs. J. B. Carlson(Louise Duncan) received a master's degreefrom North Carolina State College this summer, and is now teaching English at Broughton HighSchool, Raleigh, N. C. *** Dorothea Adolphteaches first grade at the Malvern School, ShakerHeights, Ohio. *** J. Parker Hall has been enjoying a holiday in Europe.1928Adelaide Sasser is with the First NationalBank of Hattiesburg, Miss. *** Ruth M. Tapperis teaching Latin and Upper English in Cuba,III., Community high school. She plans to finishher work for a Master's Degree this summer. ***F. M. Setzler is assistant curator of archeologyat the U. S. National Museum. He spent thespring in the Big Bend region of Texas, wherehe supervised the excavating of certain cavesfor the museum. *** Helen Cunningham, A.M.,is teaching at Waukegan Township high school.*** Ilda J. Meyer finished her work for herMaster's Degree at the University this summer. *** Glenn K. Kelly, A.M., is principal ofRiverside Township high school, 111. Mr. Kellywas previously superintendent of schools atHoughton, Mich. *** Eleanor C. Wilkins is assistant librarian at Scripps College, Claremont,Calif. *** Mabel F. Hoyt is Dean of the WestJunior School at Sioux City, Iowa. *** H. J.Sachs, A.M. '29, is an assistant professor ofEnglish at Louisiana Polytechnic Institute. ***Alfred A. Rea, A.M., is starting his 16th yearas principal of the high school at Aurora, 111. ***Almira M. D. Martin, A.M. '31, is an instructorat the University of Utah, in Salt Lake City.She was greatly interested in her experimentswith the Play School on the University campusthis summer. *** Beatrice H. Feingold is employed with the law firm of Tatge and Tatge, 19S. LaSalle St., Chicago.1929Virginia Winship teaches shorthand and typingat the Vocational School at Battle Creek, Mich.*** Marjorie Ireland is teaching in Peoria,111. *** Maude Flanagan is elementary and primary supervisor at Mitchell, S. Dak. ***0.L. Walter, A.M., continues as principal of Goshenhigh school, Goshen, Ind. This summer he wasinstructor in the department of education atGoshen College summer school. *** Elizabeth M.Cannitz teaches English at Flower high school,Chicago. *** H. Scudder Mekeel, A.M., afterreceiving a Ph.D., from Yale, has accepted aposition as Fellow in the Social Science Research Council, 1932-33, and is a member ofthe Yale faculty. *** Olive McFadden is96NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONS 97teaching first grade in Cleveland Heights,Ohio. *** Isaac M. Miller is doing extension work (off campus classes for teachers)under the supervision of the State Departmentof Education, at Salisbury, N. Car. He alsoteaches regular classes at Livingstone College. *** James R. Kelly, A.M., is teachinghistory at New Mexico Military Institute. ***Mortimer P. Masure, S.M. '30, is junior physiologist in the horticultural research station ofthe Bureau of Plant Industry of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, at Wenatchee, Wash.,"the apple capitol of the world." *** RuthSchonherst was Nature Lore Counsellor at CampTakeda, Brenau College's Ideal Camp for Girlsin Georgia, this summer. Miss Schonherst isinstructor in Botany at Florida State Collegefor Women this fall. *** Mereb Mossman, A.M.,who has been teaching sociology in Ginling College, Nanking, China, for the past two years,was a recent visitor at the Chicago campus. ***Muriel Ferguson has taught at Parker PracticeSchool since February. *** Dorothy Smith, A.M.,is an instructor in English at Carroll College,Waukesha, Wis. *** Lillian Schlesna has beenteaching at Bowen High School, Chicago, thispast year.1930Doris Dennison, A.M., is director of religiouseducation at Pilgrim Church, and instructor indramatization for the Congregational YoungAlumniProfessional DirectoryClark G. (Skee) Sauer "12 C. P. (Buck) Freeman '13WithJAMES E. BENNETT & COMPANYStocks — Bonds — Grain — CottonMembers: New York and Chicago Stock Exchanges,Chicago Board of Trade, All Principal Markets332 So. LaSalle St. Telephone Wabash 2740EMPLOYMENTFor Your Office and Sales AssistantsBoth Men and WomenDavis Personnel Service, Inc.One LaSalle St. Cen. 4232GERTRUDE G. DAVIS '18INSURANCEC. F. AXELSQN, >07Chartered Life UnderwriterREPRESENTINGThe Northwestern Mutual Life Ins. Co.209 So. LaSalle St Tel. State 0633 LITHOGRAPHINGL. C. MEAD *»i E. J. CHALIFOUX 'ziPHOTOPRESS, INCPlanograph - - Offset — Printing725 So. LaSalle St. Harrison 3624RADIOWMAQOfficial Broadcasting Station ofThe University of ChicagoWilliam S. Hedges, '18 Mgr.REAL ESTATEJ. Alton Lauren, '19J. Alton Lauren and Co.139 N. Clark St. Randolph 2068SEEDS (Wholesale)OSTBERG SEED CO.Wholesale Seeds7301 Woodlawn Ave. Phone Dorchester 0314SOUND FILM"LIFE ON THE QUADRANGLES"Produced byThe Vitaglo CorporationMakers of Educational and Commercial Sound Films4942 Sheridan Road Longbeach 6380For Reservations, Tickets, All Steamship Linesand Travel OrsanizationsLESTER F. BLAIRTravel Service Bureau— University of Chicago5758 Ellis Ave. Phones Midway 0800 and Plaza 3858Business DirectoryARTISTSROFFE BEMANPortraits in Pencil and Other Media1541 East Fifty-seventh Street105 West Monroe StreetChicago~ Telephones Midway 2112 and State 1815GERDA AHLMExpert Restorer of FinePAINTINGS and MINIATURESSuite 1701 Telephone56 E. Congress St. Wabash 5390BROKERS TRAVEL98 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPeople's Conference at Tower Hill, Michigan.*** Earl M. Webb, A.M., will continue his workas superintendent of Berne, Ind., public schools,for the next year. *** Mrs. William M. Zopff(Frances W. Tatge, '30) will be in Chicago fora three months' vacation this fall. She has beenliving in South America for the last year, whereMr. Zopff is connected with the Tropical Oil Co.***Hulda A. Dilling, A.M., is director of primary education at the State Teachers College atOshkosh, Wis. *** Frances Carr is with theConsumer Service Department of General FoodsCompany in New York, working up cook booksand assisting with radio programs. *** D. S.Gerig, A.M., spent the summer touring Franceand Germany. *** Martha C. Mehnert is criticteacher in the training school of Michigan NorthState Teachers College. *** Paul E. Burkholder,A.M., is director of religious work at the Her-shey Industrial School at Hershey, Pa. Thisschool is for orphan boys, and cares for fivehundred at present. Plans are under way toexpand the work to take in 2000. *** MarieLuise Wolf-Ossendorf is studying in Munichthis year, working for her doctor's degree.1931H. J. Klooster is principal of the preparatorydepartment of southern Junior College, College-dale, Tenn. *** Harvey Paulson teaches accounting in the junior college of Muskegon,Mich. *** G. N. Christopher has taught Frenchat the New Haven, Conn., high school for thepast six years. *** Rose Appelbaum is managerof the drug department of the Frances WillardHospital, Chicago. *** Pearl Levin teaches atHayes Elementary School in Milwaukee. ***Bertha Schwartz is a teacher in Rogers School,Chicago. *** Paul R. Lauritzen is in the driedfruits and cereals department of Franklin Mc-Veagh Co., as assistant buyer. *** Pearl Rinehart visited in Chicago last summer. She isteaching in St. Joseph, Mich. *** HelenDudenbostel is teaching English at FrankfurtCommunity High School, Frankfurt, 111. *** JohnH. Glaeser, A.M., taught mathematics at IllinoisState Normal University this summer. ***Victor H. Evjen, A.M., is director of Programand Promotion of .the Division StreetY. M. C. A., Chicago. *** Marian Luella Garbeis teaching at LaPorte Elementary School. ***Faye Cony, A.M., is teaching at the Jones Schoolat Ann Arbor, Mich. *** Howard Jersild is withthe Jersild Knitting Company of Neenah, Wis.*;** Melissa M. Elliott, A.M., teaches in the department of social science at Livingstone College, Salisbury, N. Car. *** Rosalia Pollak iswith the artware and antique department ofMarshall Field and Co., Chicago. *** BeatriceRoberg will teach at Crystal Lake, 111., nextyear. *** Abe Blinder has joined the promotionand circulation department of the magazine,Apparel Arts. *** Jean Searcy has left her posi tion with the University Press and is teachingfifth grade at Elmhurst, 111. *** Lucile Alger returns to her kindergarten class in Ann Arbor,Mich., this fall, after spending the summertravelling in the British Isles with KathleenStewart, '27. *** Ruth M. Griswold, S.M., isdietitian at the Washington Park Hospital,Chicago.Doctors of Philosophy1902Katharine Elizabeth Dopp writes text booksfor the elementary grades.1904John W. Bailey, D.B. '02, has returned froma half year of study and travel in Egypt andPalestine to his regular work at Berkeley BaptistDivinity School.1907Robert A. Hall represented the University ofChicago at the installation of Dr. Boylan aspresident of the new Brooklyn College.1911Arno B. Luckhardt, '06, A.M. '09, M.D. '13,presided over the meetings of the AmericanPhysiological Society, at the three day convention in Philadelphia of the Federation ofAmerican Biological Societies.1913Emile Haxo is professor of romance languagesat the University of North Dakota.1916Earle Eubank recently published his book on'The Concepts of Sociology" through D. C.Heath and Co.1922W. M. Gewehr, 'n, A.M. '12, is the author of"Rise of Nationalism in the Balkans," a volumein the Berkshire studies in European History.He is professor of history in American University, Washington, D. C. *** Warner F. Wood-ring and Mrs. Woodring (Laura^ Lucas, '24)spent the summer in Los Angeles, while Pro^fessor Woodring served as lecturer in Englishhistory at the University of Southern California.He is head of the history department at Allegheny College.1923Ernest R. Wood is associate professor in thedepartment of education at New York Univer-NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONSARTISTS CHIROPODIST 99CAROLYN D. TYLERMiniatures- Pastels- Small SculptureHyde Park Hotel Midway 2772ARTIFICIAL LIMBS AND TRUSSESAMBULATORY PNEUMATIC SPLINT MFG. CO.1861 (W.) Ogden Av. Cor. S. Honore St. Phone West 2040For Best Results in Fractures of Hip, Thish, Leg, Arm, useour Air Cushioned Reduction Bed or Walking Splint.Arches, Braces, Calipers, Extensions, Crutches, Chairs,Abdominal Supporters, Elastic Goods, Invalid Chairs,Supplies. Moderate Prices, Reliable Fitting Service.AUTO LIVERYCHICAGO PETERSENMOTOR LIVERYLINCOLN'S With Experienced ChauffeursMID way 09495548 Lake Park Ave.AWNINGSPHONES OAKLAND 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHYDE PARK AWNING CO., Inc.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueBOYD & GOULD, Inc.5813-15 Wentworth AvenueARTCRAFTAWNINGS AND CANOPIESPhones Wentworth 2450-2451CARPENTERS-T^MES GODSTEDX§J|jJr Carpenter ContractorCarpenter Contractor1111 East 55th StreetFAIRFAX 9393-1361CATERERSMARTHA WINTERLING5034 Cottage Grove Ave.Catering toLuncheons, Dinners, Card Parties, etc.Telephone Kenwood 0249CEMETERIESOAK WOODS CEMETERY1035 E. 67th St. at Greenwood Ave.Fairfax 0140Irrevocable Perpetual CharterCrematory — Greenhouses DR. G. L. BIERSMITHFoot Specialist and Chiropodist1133 East Sixty-Third St.PHONE MIDWAY 1828COAL5900 STEWART 3952AUBURN COAL & MATERIAL CO.COAL- COKE- BUILDING MATERIAL7443 So. Racine Ave. ChicagoCOFFEE AND TEAW- S. Quinby-Bellconrad Co.Importers and Roasters ofHigh Grade Coffees and Teas417-427 West Ohio St. Phones Superior 2336-7-8DECORATORSARTHUR 'E. BOURGEAUPAINTING and INTERIOR DECORATINGHardware and Paints1216-1218-E. 55 ST. PHONE HYDE PARK 1049Est. 1897DENTISTSDR. J. J. JOHNSTENDENTISTSuite 417 1180 East 63rd Street, ChicagoPhone Dorchester 9545DR. E. E. MACPHERSONDENTISTGAS 1133 East 63rd StreetX-RAY Phone Hyde Park 3939ELEVATORSRELIANCE ELEVATOR CO.PASSENGER AND FREIGHTELEVATORSFor Every Purpose212 W. Austin Ave. ChicagoFISHJ. A. DAVIS FISH CO.Specialize in Supplying Hotels, Restaurants, Hospitals,Institutions. Fresh Caught Direct From the Fisherman.211 N. Union Ave. Phone Haymarket 1495IOO THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEsity. ¦*** Norman S. Hayner, A.M. '21, taughtat summer school at Seattle, Washington, thisyear.Jennie Tilt is professor of nutrition at FloridaState College for Women at Tallahassee.1924H. M. Severance is an instructor in chemistryat the Los Angeles Junior College, Los Angeles,Calif. *** Homer P. Rainey, A.M. '23, presidentof Bucknell University, taught at the summersession of the University of Maine.1925John Freeman Pyle, '17, A.M. '18, is Dean ofthe College of Business Administration and professor of economics and marketing administration at Marquette University, Milwaukee. Heis the author of a college marketing text andnumerous articles on business and economic subjects, and is an active member of the MilwaukeeAssociation of Commerce. He is vice-presidentof the Milwaukee Marketing Research Council.*** Donald A. Pratt, '19, is with the University of California as a professor of philosophy.1926Marjorie Anderson is assistant professor ofEnglish at Hunter College of the City of NewYork. *** H. R. Phalen, S.M. '24, is provost ofSt. Stephen's College of Columbia University, atAnnandale-on-Hudson. *** Clive H. Carruthersis professor of classical philology at McGillUniversity, Montreal. *** Florence E. Barnes, '15,has been awarded a Larger Grant, in aid ofresearch, by the American Council of LearnedSocieties. Dr. Barnes is spending four monthsin research work in the important libraries ofEurope. In July she spoke at the conference ofthe International Association of UniversityWomen at Edinburgh. *** Edwin F. Dunmeieris professor of economics at the State Collegeof Washington. *** Guy R. Vawles reports thathe spent the summer in Minnesota readingmodern German literature furiously.1927James R. Jackson, '24, A.M. '24, is head ofthe department of finance at St. Louis University, and director of the Investment AnalysisBureau, doing work for banks, analysing bondand investment accounts. *** C. C. White isDean of the College of Arts, Literature andScience and of the Graduate School at EmoryUniversity, as well as a professor of psychology.***Paul L. Whitely, A.M. '23, is professor ofpsychology at Franklin and Marshall College,Lancaster, Pa. *** Andrew M. MacMahon isorganizing the Department of Physics for theMuseum of Science and Industry. He hasworked with Professor Lemon of the University in developing the Physics Museum at Belfield Hall, which was set up for the benefitof freshmen in the Physical Sciences Course. ***John Hundley teaches physics at the Universityof North Dakota.Emily C. Brown, A.M. '21, is assistant professor of economics at Vassar College.1928Rosa L. Jackson, A.M. '22, teaches mathematics at Alabama College, Montevallo, Ala.***Clarence Harvey Mills is head of the department of romance languages at Talladega College, Ala., where he has done some interestingand unusual work with his French students. ***Margaret K. Strong is professor and head of thedepartment of sociology at the University ofLouisville. *** Frank M. Stewart is now professor of political science at the University ofCalifornia in Los Angeles. *** Ellen Stewart,'16, M.D. '28, is with the Children's Hospital ofPhiladelphia, and writes that an epidemic ofpoliomyelitis has kept her extremely busy oflate. *** Arthur H. Steinhaus, '20, S.M. '25, isspending the year in Europe, visiting physiological laboratories, as a fellow of the GuggenheimFoundation. His major interest is the physiologyof work and exercise. *** Watt Stewart, A.M.'25, was visiting professor at the University ofNew York during the summer session. He isprofessor of history at Oklahoma A. and M. College, Stillwater, during the school year.Merrin M. Deems is but recently returnedfrom a year's trip around the world as AlbertKahn Fellow from America. His report to theTrustees on "Reflections on Observations ofHigher Education in the Far East" has just beenpublished.1929Myron W. Weaver, S.M. '26, M.D. '32, willbe chairman of the Department of Health, Physical Education for Men and Athletics, at Carle-ton next year. Under his leadership the department will be reorganized. *** W. H. Gray, A.M.'27, is associate professor of psychology atKansas State Teachers College, Emporia. ***A. E. Edgecombe studied with Dr. Fitzpatrickat Cornell University this summer. *** Robert E.London, '26, spent the summer in the ColoradoRockies studying geological problems. He isteaching at Colorado College this fall.Lois Bertha Borland heads the English Department at Western State College, Gunnison,Col. *** Trinidad J. Jaramillo, '24, S.M. '26, isan instructor in physics and mathematics atNorthern Luzon Junior College, Vigan, I.S.P.I.Other University of Chicago people there areA. S. Alonzo, Ph.D. '25, Dean of the College,Jose M. Macapia, '26, instructor in history, andLeona M. Schafer, '26, instructor in English.1930Erling Dorf writes that he is "still assistantprofessor of geology at Princeton University, do-NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONSFILLING STATIONS MONUMENTSROSCOE LAYMANFILLING STATION92nd Street and So. Chicago Ave.PHONE SO. CHICAGO 1163FLOWERSAM CHICAGO6SfiM$y ESTABLISHED 1865Wjr FLOWERS^* Phones: Plaza 6444, 6445 1631 East 55th StreetFLOOR SURFACINGL. C. FAULKNERElectric Floor SurfacerRemoves Paint and Varnish ElectricallyMakes Old Floors Like New1516 E. 69th Street Fairfax 3262GARAGESCapacity 350 Cars FireproofFairchild Garage Co.5546 Lake Park Ave.Thru to Harper Ave.PHONES HYDE PARK 1275-1275Dependable ServiceLAUNDRIESFidelity Morgan Service, Inc."Better Laundry Work"Branch 1015 East 61st StreetPhone Calumet 1906LIGHTINGStudio and Display Rooms Tel. Superior 5381- 2Henkel & Best Co.439 North Michigan AvenueDesigners and Manufacturers ofArtistic Lighting FixturesLOCKSMITHSOldest Largest LocksmithsS & $ KEY SERVICEKeys Made While' U Hesitate6420 Cottage Grove * Mid. 364.3-4-5MUSICAL INSTRUCTIONAMERICAN CONSERVATORY of MUSICFORTY-FIFTH SEASONAll branches of music and dramatic art. Certificates,Degrees. Nationally accredited. Enter any time.Address: Free catalog.John R. Hattstaedt, Secretary, 500 Kimball HallSouth Side Branch, 1133 E. 63rd St. Phone Monroe 5058 Established 1889C. CILELLA & SONMONUMENTS AND MAUSOLEUMSRock of Ages and Guardian MemorialsWe Erect Work Anywhere 723-25 W. Taylor StreetPAINTINGEstablished 1851 Incorporated 1891Geo. D. Milligan CompanyPainting and Decorating Contractors2309 South Parkway Tel. Cal. 5665PLASTERINGHoward F. NolanPlastering, Brick and Cement WorkRepairing a Specialty1111 East 55th St. Phones 1878 - 79RIDINGMidway Riding Academy6037 Drexei AvenueExpert InstructorsBeautiful Bridle Path and Good HorsesUniversity of Chicago Riding HeadquartersMidway 9571 Phone Dorchester 8041ROOFINGGROVEROOFINGCO.(Gilliland)Old Roofs Repaired New Roofs Put On22 Years at 6644 Cottage Grove Ave.Lowest Prices — Estimates Free Fairfax 3206RUG CLEANERSTEL. TRIANGLE 3640 ESTABLISHED 1910GRAGG — Certified Rug CleanersOF ORIENTAL AND DOMESTICRUGS AND CARPETS EXCLUSIVELY911-13-15-17 East 75th StreetSADDLERYW. J. WYMANManufacturer, Importer and Dealer inHigh Grade Saddles, Polo Goods, Etc.Chicago Riding Club Building, 628 McClurg CourtLake Forest Store— 210-212 Westminster Ave., EastTelephone Superior 8801SCALP SPECIALISTSDR. H. C. WEIGERTSCALP SPECIALIST5238 Lake Park AvenueMIDWAY 3836102 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEing research work in the mountains of Montana and Wyoming all summer. Returned inMarch from a three months' expedition throughCentral and South America under the auspicesof the Carnegie Institute of Washington." ***Keith T. Swartz, '28, S.M. '29, is research fellowin chemistry at Northwestern University MedicalSchool. *** Wayne Leys is a member of thefaculty of the Central Y. M. C. A. College ofArts and Sciences in the department of philosophy. *** Edward Elias, A.M. '17, is an associate professor of modern languages at theCollege of Mines and Metallurgy at El Paso,Texas. *** Florence Edler, '21, A.M. '24, whois one of the research staff of the history department of Harvard, spent the summer in Europedoing research work. She was a delegate tothe International meeting of the Association ofUniversity Women.1931Irma H. Gross, '15, A.M. '24, is associateprofessor of home economics in the field of homemanagement, at Michigan State College.***Dorothy M. Schullian will be in Rome for thenext two years, on a Ryerson Fellowship. Shewill study with the Director of Classical Studiesat the American Academy, editing a Latintext. *** Herbert M. Hamlin is associate professor of vocational education at Iowa StateCollege. *** R. W. Porter, professor of psychology at Southwestern Louisiana Institute, addressed the annual meeting of the LouisianaAcademy of Science at Shreveport this summer. *** H. C. Witherington, '20, A.M. '25, isprofessor of education at Bowling Green StateCollege, Ohio. *** Mary Andrews studied inJerusalem this summer at the American Schoolof Oriental Research. She is teaching atGoucher this winter.AthleticsContinued from page 05advance that the announcement was to bemade. It was probable that the Chicagoteam would not win in the conference, andto avoid the certain harm to Mr. Stagg'sreputation as a coach should the news of hisretirement be made public following a losingseason, the announcement was made early.He was not retired under special action; theretirement rule operates for every facultymember, administrative officer, and trustee,without exception. The new position ofChairman of the Committee on Intercollegiate Athletics has been created for him, andin that office he will receive an amount,which with his retirement allowance of$3,000, equals his present salary. Whatever Mr. Stagg does, the retirement allowance continues for life. Divinity1907William F. Rothenburger received the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity from SpokaneUniversity this last June. Dr. Rothenburger ispastor of the Third Christian Church ofIndianapolis.1920J. W. Herring, A.M. '20, resigned the pastorate of the Bethany Baptist Church, Pontiac, Michigan, to accept the call of the First BaptistChurch, Peru, Indiana, where he succeeds J. H.Gagnier, D.B., '14. Mr. Herring served thePontiac church for over four years. During hispastorate the church relocated in a fine residential community and built the educational unit ofthe proposed new church structure at a cost of$78,000. Three hundred and fifty new memberswere added to the church during Mr. Herring'spastorate, and the Sunday School enrolment wasmore than doubled. A men's class in the churchschool has a membership of over 100 and a regular attendance of 75.1922Herbert W. Hansen, Ph.B. '22, A.M. '23, D.B.'24, is pastor of the Scarsdale Community Baptist Church, Scarsdale, New York, which recently completed the erection of its first churchedifice at a cost of over $150,000 for building andland. The church is a new organization andMr. Hansen has been pastor from the beginningof the work.***Mrs. George W. Hollister, ex, isthe author of "Lady Fourth Daughter of China"the new text book published by the Central Committee of United Mission Study. Mr. Hollister,ex, is at present, after two terms of missionaryservice in China, Associate professor of Bible atOhio Wesleyan University.1923L. Foster Wood, Ph.D. '23, Professor of SocialEthics in the Colgate-Rochester Divinity School,has been selected as Secretary of the Commissionon Marriage and the Home of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America. Dr.Wood will give his entire time to the work of thisimportant Secretaryship.1926Charles S. Braden, Ph.D. '26, Professor of theHistory and Literature of Religions, Northwestern University, was elected President of theMiddle West Branch of the American OrientalSociety at its recent meeting at the Orientallnstitute.***0. H. McDonald, A.M. '26, whohas been for the past three years one of theministers of the Englewood Baptist Church,Chicago, primarily responsible in the field ofreligious education, has resigned to accept thecall of the Immanuel Baptist Church, Rochester,New York, and already has taken up his newwork. During his service in the EnglewoodNEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONS 103SCHOOLSPRACTICAL BUSINESS TRAININGBusiness Administration, Executive-Secretarial14 Other Practical Courses- Train for Assured SuccessCollege Grade Courses 76th Year Write for CatalogBRYANT & STRATTON COLLEGE18 South Michigan Avenue Randolph 1575 SCHOOLS — continuedOrthogenic School of ChicagoAffiliated with the University of ChicagoBoarding and Day School forRetarded and Problem ChildrenCatalog on Request1365 East 60th Street MID. 7879TIMELY ART GUIDANCEExperienced • Progressive • SuccessfulSummer Session Starts July 6Fall Session September 6 — 30th YearCHICAGO ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS1 8 South Michigan Avenue - Chicago Pestalozzi Froebel Teachers CollegeKindergarten — Primary— Dramatics— SpeechStrong, Practical CoursesCentrally Located in Downtown Chicago. Dormitory.Accredited-37th yr.-2f3,4 yr. Courses-Special Courses616 S. Michigan Ave. Write for Free Catalogs Wabash 6762THE CHICAGO LATIN SCHOOLFOR BOYSPreparation from Kindergarten to CollegeOur Graduates make excellent University Records1531 N. Dearborn Pkwy. SUPERIOR 5734 STARRETT SCHOOL for GIRLSA Boarding and Day School for High School andJunior College StudentsFully AccreditedA Refined and Stimulating School Environment4515 Drexei Blvd. Drexei 0521CHICAGO SCHOOL OF SCULPTUREVIOLA NORMAN, DirectorLife Modeling — Life DrawingAbstract Design — CompositionWrite for Catalog Studio 1011 Auditorium Bldg.Telephone Harr. 3216 Fifty-six East Congress St.COLLEGE PREPARATORY SCHOOLPrepare for Leading Colleges in Months not YearsHigh School Requirements in Shortest TimeConsistent with Thorough InstructionMorning and Evening Classes23 East Jackson Blvd. Webster 2448 ST. GEORGE SCHOOL FOR GIRLS4545 DREXEL BLVD.DAY and BOARDING SCHOOLCatalog Nursery Through High Enter Any TimeATLANTIC 2746SHIPPING AND STORAGEMOVING — STORAGE — SHIPPINGPacking and Baggage TransferSTROMBERG BROTHERS1316 East 61st StreetPhones Dorchester 3211 and 3416THE FAULKNER SCHOOL FOR GIRLSA Day School for Girls of All AgesPrepares Its Graduates for All Collegesand UniversitiesThe College Board Examinations AreGiven at the School4746 Dorchester Ave. Tel. Oakland 1423MacCormac School of CommerceBusiness Administration and Secretarial TrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESEnter Any Monday1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 2130 TEACHERS AGENCIES"C* • "I Teachers 28' E. Jackson Blvd.CHICAGOAgencyOur Service is Nation WideUNDERTAKERSSKEELES - BIDDLEFuneral DirectorsFairfax 0120 Sixty-Third Street and Evans Ave.THE MIDWAY SCHOOL6216 Kimbark Ave. Tel. Dorchester 3299Elementary Grades J unior High PreparationKindergarten French, Dancing, Music and ArtBus ServiceA School with Individual Instruction and Cultural Advantages VENTILATINGTHE HAINES COMPANYVentilating Contractors1929-1937 West Lake St.PHONES SEELEY 2765 - 2766 - 2767104 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEChurch the program of religious education wasalmost completely reorganized and now ranksas one of the most successful large church programs in Chicago.1933A. LeRoy Huff of the College of the Bible,Drake University, is being sent to the World Sunday School Convention at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,as a delegate of the Iowa Ministerial Institute ofthe Disciples of Christ. *** James J. Kingham isActing Principal of the Jean Hamilton Theological School in Singapore, S.S., is also Editor of theMalaysia Message', and Conference Evangelistfor Malay. *** Andrew Vance McCracken, whorecently became pastor of the important FirstCongregational Church, Concord, New Hampshire, has been appointed by Governor John G.Winant of New Hampshire to membership on theState Unemployment Relief Committee.EngagementsJane Blocki, '31, to Walter Scott Trude, ex,'32.MarriagesGertrude Emerson, '12, to Basiswar Sen ofCalcutta, India, November 2, 1932.Mrs. Robert D. Birkhoff (Ellen P. Gleason,'21) to Clarence R. Conklin, J.D. '28, August20, 1932, Chicago. At home, 7036 Oglesby Avenue, Chicago.Frank D. Mayer, J.D. '23, to Katherine Selz ofChicago, November 16, 1932.Isabel Hirsch to Saul R. Miller, ex, '24, October 19, 1932.Helen Beatrice Tupper, '26, A.M. '29, to R. M.Burnett, September, 1932. At home, 5527 University Avenue, Chicago.Elmer Lampe, '27, to Gertrude Eberhart,September 3, 1932, Chicago.Constance Ruth Sidder, ex, '27, to Dr. DavidSeligson of Detroit, April 10, 1932. At home,17200 Third Avenue, Detroit.Carol L. Hess, '28, A.M. '31, to Dr. WilliamSaphir of Vienna, Austria, April 15, 1932. Athome 6620 Drexei Avenue, Chicago. Mrs. Saphiris now dietitian at Bobs Roberts Hospital forchildren.Hortense B. Bernhard, '22, to J. Everett Blum,1932. At home, 528 Washington, El Monte,Calif.Harriet Dean Hathaway, '29, to W. R. Fearan,September 17, 1932, at Hilton Chapel. At home,72 Peterboro Street, Boston, Mass.Ruth Vivian Norman, '29, to Eugene WilsonMacoy, '29, at the University Church of theDisciples, September 24, 1932. At home, 6751Jeffery Avenue, Chicago.Doris L. Stickle, '31, to Clarence J. Runyan,June, 1932. At home, 103 East Poplar Street,Normal, 111.Joan Weil, '31, to David Philipson, ex, '29,August 2, 1932, Highland Park, 111. At home,1818 Cambridge Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. Florence Andrews, '32, to Eric Hugh Best, '32,September 10, 1932. At home, 7650 EgglestonAvenue, Chicago.Jane Waterstone, ex, '34, to Morton Weinress,September, 1932. Mr. and Mrs. Weinress areenjoying their honeymoon on the Continent.BirthsTo Dr. Frank A. Chapman, M.D. '13, and Dr.Katharine Howe Chapman, '22, M.D. '26, ason, Philip Elias, September 19, 1932, Chicago.To J. Forrest Crawford, '22, and Mrs. Crawford, a son, Clifford Smeed, July 30, 1932, atBrummara, Lebanon.To Mr. and Mrs. Frank I. Fonaroff (RuthNeuhausen, S.M. '23) a daughter, Naomi,October 2, 1932E, Louisville, Ky.To Selby V. McCasland, A.M. '24, Ph.D. '26,and Mrs. McCasland (Louise Gaston, '22) adaughter, Mary Ann, April 24, 1932.To Dr. and Mrs. Charles L. Bidwell (EugeniaCampbell, '24) a son, Charles Edward, January24, 1932, at Chicago Lying-in Hopital.To Mr. and Mrs. David L. Jordan (FrancesReinken, '25) a son, Thomas Dietrich, December21, 1931, Long Island, N. Y,To Dr. Robert J. Mason, '25, M.D. '29, andMrs. Mason, a daughter, Katherine Suzanne^June 24, 1932, Detroit, Mich.To Cornelio Castor Cruz, Ph.D. '28, andMrs. Cruz, a daughter, Chloe Maria Dorotea,February 6, 1932, at Manila, P. I.To Paul H. Reed, M.D. '29, and Mrs. Reed, ason, Robert Allen, August 21, 1932.DeathsStephen G. West, M.D. '90, October 18, 1932,Chicago.June Etta Downey, A.M. '98, Ph.D. '07, Trenton, New Jersey, October n, 1932. Dr. Downeywas professor and head of the department ofpsychology and professor of philosophy at theUniversity of Wyoming. She was internationallyknown for her psychological studies, and haspublished many books and articles. A brilliantteacher, she is mourned by many students andfriends.Emory Cobb Andrews, '01, June 17, 1932,Winnetka, 111.Eugene L. Hartigan, '04, S.B. '08, October 29,1932, at Mercy Hospital, Chicago. Dr. Hartiganhad been police surgeon for twenty years, andwas professor of medical jurisprudence at De-Paul University.Robert T. Coit, D.B. '06, May 12, 1932, Ashe-ville, N. Car.M. Ethel Brown, '21, A.M. '26, October 12,1932, Kalamazoo, Mich. Miss Brown was oneof the founders of the Chicago chapter of PiLambda Theta.William Diamond, Ph.D. '22, October 27, 1932,in an automobile accident in Los Angeles.Maurice Donald Kirk, '25, September 3, 193 1.End of RasputinIn 1916, the Russian Imperial Court, confronted with reverses at the Front, restlessconditions throughout the country, needed agreat leader, drew instead a charlatan, GrigoriEfimovitch Rasputin.Combination medicine man, "mughik," priest,petty politician and lecher, Rasputin had literally lifted himself by his own boot strapsfrom a lowly pallet in a sod cottage in Pok-rovskoe, Siberia, to the most ornate and elaborate beds in Imperial Russia. Endowed withan amazing personal magnetism, and an almostsupernatural power over women, both bodiesand souls, he is reputed to have repeatedlycured the puny hemophilic Tsarevitch, thereby gaining complete control over the Czarina.Russia, guided from behind the scenes by themiracle worker from Pokrovskoe, steadilysledded down hill, while opposition to Rasputin crystallized in a powerful group of thenobility.As TIME, had it been printed in December1916, would have reported subsequent events:As most Russians were^ on their way to bed onenight last week, a closed car came to a stop at theside entrance of Prince Felix Yusupov's palace. Twoheavily wrapped men hurried inside. One, tall, withunkempt beard and hair, dirty stained cloak, wasRasputin, Russia's mysterious power behind thethrone. The other, slight, dapper, well dressed, wasPrince Yusupov, husband of Grand Duchess Irina,most beautiful woman in Moscow.For many months, lecherous Rasputin had heardof the beautiful Grand Duchess Irina, was especially delighted at the possibility of a private meeting withher. As the two, entered a small downstairs diningroom the Prince explained to Rasputin that his wifewas entertaining friends, would join them soon.While Yusupov listlessly strummed a guitar Rasputin consumed a plate full of small cakes, and inthem enough cyanide of potassium to fell a squadof cossacks. Every minute expecting to see the Siberian priest pitch headlong onto the floor, Yusupovbecame unnerved, excused himself saying he wouldbring his wife.Quickly getting a revolver from a friend upstairs,the Prince returned, shot Rasputin through the chest,immediately rushed back to his friends to revive hisebbing courage with a; strong drink. Returning laterwith his friends, he found the room empty. In themiddle of the snow covered court yard they foundRasputin, crawling, a trail of blood behind him.Frenzied, they; shot and pummelled him into unconsciousness, tied his hands and legs. Throwing himinto a car they drove to the Neva River, unceremoniously dumped the body in.Three days police searched for the body whileYusupov at first protested innocence. Finally thebody was recovered, the lungs filled v/ith water,showing that Rasputin wai alive when thrown into.'the water.Yusupov finally admitted, then proudly boasted, ofcarrying out the assassination, and many rejoiced,but on the lips of Rasputin's followers is his oftrepeated statement : "So long as I live, the ImperialFamily will live, when I die, they will perish."So, too, would TIME have reported howYusupov was dismissed without punishmentby the vaccilating Czar; how, 5 months afterRasputin's death, Imperial Russia ceased toexist; how chaos followed turmoil, the Bolshevik coup d'etat followed chaos.Tl METhe Weekly NewsmagazineVEARLY SUBSCRIPTION $5.. 135 EAST 42nd STREET, NEW YORK CITY.. 15 CENTS AT ALL NEWSSTANDStfz'-"^I FORGOT my galoshes, but I'm goingalong in the rain . . . having a good time. . . smoking my Chesterfields.Just downright good cigarettes. They'remilder and they taste better.Just having a good time. They Satisfy.© 1932, Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co.