VOL. XXIV NUMBER 8June, 1032HE UNIVERSITY OFHICAGO MAGAZINEWhen you visit Chicago . . .You will enjoy stopping at Hotel Shoreland.Make your home at this distinguished address whetheryou return for a reunion, come for an athletic contest ormerely visit Chicago on a business or pleasure trip.You will find an atmosphere of true culture and refinement . . : spacious and luxurious rooms, suites andapartments — furnished in good taste with every modernappointment.A location as secluded as a beautiful country estate yetbut 10 minutes from the "Loop" v\d the Outer Drive orIllinois Central Electric.Your inquiry cordially invited.__=HOTEL__==_SHORELAND_55th Street at the Lake — CHICAGOThe Accepted Center ofSocial Activities . . .Hotel Shoreland is privileged to serve noteworthygatherings — banquets, dinners, dances, teas and luncheons of some of the most prominent of the University ofChicago groups.Here a wide variety of the most unusual private partyrooms — an experienced, highly organized catering staffassure your gathering both a service and cuisine thatleaves nothing to be desired.®i)e ©nfoergttp of Cfncago JWaga?ineEditor and Business Manager, Charlton T. Beck '04Cobb Hall, University of ChicagoEDITORIAL BOARD: Commerce and Administration Association — Rollin D. He-mens, '21 ; Divinity Association — C. T. Holman, D.B., '16 ; Doctors' Association — D. J.Fisher, '17, Ph.D., '22; Law Association — Charles F. McElroy, A.M., '06, J.D., '15;School of Education Association — Lillian Stevenson, '21 ; Rush Medical Association —Morris Fishbein, 'ii, M.D., '12; College — Roland F. Holloway, '20; Allen Heald,'26; Wm. V. Morgenstern, '20, J.D., '22; Faculty — Fred B. Millett, Department ofEnglish.Donald P. Bean, '17, ChairmanI Al T H I ^I c/l/* U cWithin the past month the daily presshas carried the story, somewhat garbled inspots, of the University's most recent venture in visual education. To the interestedalumnus we bring the true tale of thisforward step in education where movingpictures in sound will be used to supplementthe work in lecture hall and laboratory.wwwRalph W. Gerard has been especiallyactive in developing the general course inthe biological sciences. In the late winterhe reported upon the progress of the students in this course to the West SuburbanAlumnae. The Magazine has extractedsignificant portions of his address and offers them to its readers.wwwMiss Wallace completes her Adventuresof an Emerita and leaves for Mexico toaccumulate some more — which we hopem%®m%®®&%®The Magazine is published at 1009 Sloan St., Crawfordsville, Ind., monthly from Novemberto July, inclusive, for The Alumni Council of the University of Chicago, 58th St. and Ellis Ave.,Chicago, 111. The subscription price is $2.00 per year; the price of single copies is 25 cents.Entered as second class matter December 10, 1924, at the Post Office at Crawfordsville,Indiana, under the Act of March 3, 1879.337 sometime to have the privilege of publishing. The author's pen and ink drawingshelp to make this last installment especiallyinteresting.wwwWilliam E. Dodd is chairman of his department at the University. As he is anoutstanding authority on United Stateshistory, an author of note, a clear-eyed criticof social and economic conditions, hisBasic Causes of the Great Depression willbe eagerly read by many.Fortune permits us to publish that portion of its article on The Bowery SavingsBank relating to its president, HenryBruere, Chicago, '02.John Holt writes a sprightly account ofhis meeting with George Bernard Shaw.Freshman Meeting at the Doors of MandelVol. xxiv No. 8®mbergttj> of CfncagoiHaga^tneJUNE, 1932The University Extends ItselfON MAY 1 6th the first public announcement was made of the University's newest venture ineducational method — talking motion pictures as an integral part of its new generalcourses for Freshmen and Sophomores.-Although the idea may have seemed toburst upon the public in full bloom, as amatter of fact if time-lapse photographycould record the processes of the mind asgraphically as it records physical processes,it would show the tedious procedures offour years technical experimentation, plus ayear or two's close study of the value ofthe medium from an educational standpoint. Now the University, convinced ofthe value, is ready to sponsor eighty soundpictures — a series of twenty pictures ineach of the University's four general divisions: Physical Sciences, Social Sciences,Biological Sciences, and the Humanities.It is planned to produce the Physical Sciencefilms first, several reels of which can beready for Fall use.A large undertaking admittedly! Andone in which the University needs the co operation of other like-minded educationalinstitutions. But when 714* educationaladministrators replied immediately to President Hutchins' first letter of announcementby saying definitely, "We are interested.Please tell us more about it," the University's confidence, which had never wavered,soared. Each one of these people will havea personal call from a representative of theUniversity of Chicago Press, which has undertaken the distribution of the films as alogical extension of its publishing activities.The Press believes that this new method ofreproduction may become as great an aidto teaching and learning as are the printedmaterials which up to this time have beenits major contribution to education.The development of this project has hadthe keen personal interest and attention ofPresident Hutchins for more than a year.He believes in it as an aid in teaching andin learning. He sees it as an extension ofthe University's resources in faculty andequipment, following the policy establishedby Dr. William Rainey Harper, first president, that the University should use every*To date of writing this article, with more replies coming in on every mail.339340 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmeans of disseminating educational opportunities. The Press, the University College,which gives late afternoon and eveningclasses downtown ; the Home Study Department, which has 7,000 students enrolledin correspondence study; a continuing seriesof public lectures, the radio, and talkingpictures — each offers educational opportunities not available to its particular beneficiaries in any other way. And of them all,the President believes the sound film coursesmade available to any high-school, college,university, or adult-education group in thecountry, have a scientific value no other medium possesses, and can reach more peoplethan any other medium.This development in the use of educational talking pictures will be achievedthrough the combined efforts of the University and the American Telephone andTelegraph Company, through various of itssubsidiaries. Erpi Picture Consultants,Inc., a research group composed of educational psychologists and specialists in thevarious fields of science and scholarship, willprovide the expert knowledge essential tothe program. The Bell Telephone laboratories and the Electrical Research Products,Inc., will contribute the technical skill infilm-making and sound recording.The group of Chicago faculty memberswho built up the general courses of the University under the New Plan will formulatethe courses for film presentation, workingwith the Erpi research staff. In their numerous conferences there is the process ofweeding out, the weighing of the importance of this feature or that quality, theendeavor to present the significant processesof science — not the popular, or the merelyspectacular.Talking pictures are primarily for thepurpose of giving the student knowledgewhich he cannot get elsewhere. Subjectsthat can be adequately presented by textbook or blackboard are eliminated.After a subject is chosen as one that canbe better illustrated and demonstrated bya sound film than by any other educationalmedium, a unit of instruction in the form ofa Teacher s Handbook is prepared byauthorities in that field. This will be a comprehensive, although brief, expositionof the specific subject to be filmed,The selection of the phases to betreated and the processes to be filmed willthen be made from the Handbook. Themanufacture of the film, therefore, is exactly correlated with the Handbook. Thiscontains discussion leads, references, bibliography and all material necessary to makemost of the talking-picture presentation. ATeacher s Handbook will be prepared foreach individual topic in the film course — .twenty for the series. One will be suppliedwith each film.Printed material to be put in the handsof the individual student is also planned,and it is probable that carefully worked-outtests will be provided.This correlation of films with printed material in an organized and comprehensiveseries will result in the first integrated soundfilm course, in Physical Science at the college level.Dr. Hermann I. Schlesinger, professorof chemistry, and Dr. Harvey B. Lemon,professor of physics, have organized thePhysical Science film course around the following twenty topics :1. The Solar System2. The Changing Surface of the Earth3. Beneath the Earth's Surface4. States of Matter5. Combustion and Corrosion6. Chemical Equilibrium7. Carbon and Its Compounds8. The Carbon Cycle in Nature9. Time and the Calendar10. Velocity of Chemical Reactions11. Electrochemistry12. Heat and Work13. Electricity14. Interference of Light15. Sound16. Weather and Forecasting17. Composition of the Atmosphere18. Energy, Work, and Power19. Eclipses of the Sun and Moon20. Decoding the Information in aBeam of LightSome idea of the manner of treatment ofsuch a subject as, say, "The ChangingTHE UNIVERSITY EXTENDS ITSELF 34iSurface of the Earth," may be obtainedfrom the following outline :"This picture brings to the classroom a wealth of pertinent materialrelative to the operation of agencies ofgradation — glaciers, wind, and water.Photographic techniques permit intimate study of existing glaciers at work.By the use of animated models, theaction of the great glacial age is shownas it pertains to changes in the earth'ssurface in North America. This issupplemented by photographic illustrations from the terrain itself. Stop-motion photography permits effectivedemonstrations of the action of windblown sand on rock formations. Thisis supplemented by some of the morespectacular scenes of this nature in theUnited States. The construction ofdunes by wind-blown sand is shown bythe same method. The effect of wateron the earth's surface is illustrated byscenes showing the work of waves onthe New England shoreline and on thesandy coast to the south; a sequencefrom the Grand Canyon of the Colorado; a river digging a new channelthrough alluvial deposits; the erodingof fertile uplands through the actionof frost, rain, and wind. Reference ismade here to the effect of these agencies on the lower Mississippi Valleyand on the agricultural regions ofChina. All of the agencies in this picture are shown as leveling agencies, ascontrasting to the upraising agencies ofdiastrophism and volcanic action in thenext picture, 'Beneath the Earth's Surface.' "Here we have an illustration of time-lapse (technically called "stop-motion")photography which makes visible the invisible slow processes of years. On theother hand, another picture will show movements that are too rapid to be perceptible tothe human eye. An example of this is anexplosion, which can be illustrated by "slow-motion" photography.X-ray photography enables observationand demonstration of processes withinopaque objects; the telescopic lens willbring the stars and planets within studyreach; the microscopic lens will enlargeliving and moving organisms to the size best adapted for observation, and will showphysical changes taking place* An exampleof this last is taken from the descriptionof the treatment of Combustion and Corrosion, as follows:"The effects of corrosion are illustrated by stop-motion micro-photography of the progressive changesof steel and silver when subjected tothe action of ordinary air."Just as stop-motion or time-lapse photography, slow-motion photography, and X-ray photography make visible things thehuman eye cannot see, so does the soundrecord by means of amplification renderaudible sounds the human ear cannot hear.These experiences and this knowledge thestudent cannot obtain by any other method.Another important advantage of soundfilms over individual laboratory experimentation is that it brings to the smallerschool the facilities of a great university'slaboratories and museums. Mechanismcostly and difficult to set up need be set uponly once — not hundreds of times in hundreds of different classrooms. The hazardsof changing conditions are eliminated. Agreat master of science, who could not possibly visit the distant classrooms, can hereproduce or reproduce his experiments withelaborate and expensive equipment difficultor perhaps impossible to duplicate; and thesound disc of his voice will be a permanentrecord of a master's teaching.It is President Hutchins' opinion that theentire Physical Sciences film course can beused without any change in the curriculumof any school. It will not require the adoption of a general course similar to that givenat the University of Chicago.The President's faith in the effectivenessof this new, dynamic medium of instructionis best expressed in the proposal he makesto other institutions. He says: "Shouldother institutions, including high-schools,care to adopt the University of ChicagoPhysical Science film course in its entirety,it should be possible to arrange to give students who have done this work the regularChicago comprehensive examination in thatfield, and to admit those who pass to advanced standing in the University."342 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe technical equipment required forshowing these films has been simplified tobring it within the reach of the averageschool budget. The films will be made for35 mm. Western Electric sound-on-filmprojector, but will also be available for thenew portable 16 mm. sound system, developed by the Bell Telephone Laboratories,WHAT is this thing, an education,that we should give our students?The answers are many and conflicting. Perhaps most common, "It is amind-training process." Surely we have allbeen subjected to Latin and algebra to trainour minds. But I am personally unconvinced that any mind was seriously benefitted by the ordeal. Minds are largelyborn, and a good one is determined by ahappy mingling of chromosomes when theegg is fertilized. Of course it must develop ; but the experiences of childhood andyouth constitute such an education in themost vital sense. If the child's mind is notfinely tempered while meeting the innumerable problems of development and socialadjustment, the learning of multiplicationtables or irregular verbs will never do thejob."At least," others answer, "valuable information should be acquired during aneducation." What, then, is our standard ofvalue, and which information qualifies? Isall that we dispense across the lecture tableof such exalted character; or was the manmore nearly correct who, after telling hisboy that he would catch the child when hejumped from a table, let him fall. "Yes,"he explained to the mother, "I'm going toteach that kid not to trust anyone!' If"valuable" means of practical use, I suspect that that boy received a lesson veryvaluable in the work-a-day modern world.And by the same measure, acquaintancewith the outstanding events of history, the and produced by the Western Electric Company, which the University has selected asmost satisfactory for classroom use. Thisportable equipment is particularly helpfulin preserving the classroom situation. Itmakes films as natural a part of theclassroom equipment as books or laboratory.major literary figures and their creations,the inner workings of a human body or ofa radio set are almost worthless — except tothose with special professional purposes.Surely the cultivation of talents and acquaintances at Ida Noyes socials or clubdances will be more useful to the younggraduate seeking for a hold in his wrestlewith success.But, granting that some facts we teachare valuable from one view or another(biology, for example, is close to problemsof health and disease, and it might be helpful to know that yeast will not cure allailments, nor eating fish increase one's intellectual vigor), how long do they stick?Recently I attempted to test this by askinga class, including all grades from freshmento graduate students, all of whom had hadchemistry, physics, biology and basic mathematics, twenty-five of the simplest questions.For example: If the side of a cube is twoinches, what is the volume? What is thecommon name of NaCl? Name twovertebrates. The class averaged 57, andno one was nearly perfect; yet some in theclass were superior students and several arenow doing valuable research.And again, except in the most elementary courses, the "facts" we teach today areno longer facts tomorrow. Science isgrowing like Topsy, and the interpretationthat is not shaken to its foundations byaccumulating observations in ten years'time is rare indeed.Having, to my own satisfaction at least,An Inside Report on the New PlanBy Ralph W. Gerard, Associate Professor of PhysiologyAN INSIDE REPORT ON THE NEW PLAN 343largely disposed of the commonest answersto our question, may I now emphasize whatimpresses me as of much deeper significance ?The conversation between a parson and hisparishioner one Monday morning as shehung out the washing may help the point."That was a fine sermon yesterday, Parson." "Thank you, Mrs. Jones, and doyou remember what it was about?" "Nn-no." "Then I'm afraid it did you no good.""Oh yes, Parson. You see how I sprinklethese clothes and they dry right up, but eachtime it leaves them a little whiter." Byhomely analogy, that is something a highereducation should do to its victims — bleachthem. The student should have glimpsesof life that are new to him. He should seethat there are fascinations and intricacies ina chunk of coal, a Bach fugue, an Egyptianurn, a feudal state, or a yeast cell of so greatallure that thousands of men devote theirlives to such concerns. No one youngstershould, or could, engorge himself upon allthe delicacies of knowledge or appreciation ;but the finer wares of civilization should bespread before him to note and sip and taste.And I say that if he develop an appetite fornone, he is dead or unborn as a college student.From such exposure should come interests, hobbies, which will afford him individual expression and enjoyment for life, bethey charcoal sketches, iambic pentameteror tuned radio circuits. But more, thereshould likewise result a subtle change inmental outlook. One who has even slightlysensed the enormous caution of the scientistand the panoramic view of the historian cannever again be quite so certain of hisopinions. Knowledge and insight breedtolerance. One can hardly dip into astudy of comparative religion and remaincomplacent in any one creed ; nor note theendless testing and evaluating of data bythe scientist without becoming a little lesshasty in lauding or downing new ideas, institutions and individuals.Note, please, that I am pleading for attitudes more than knowledge. But of courseall I have just said is predicated upon somefactual basis. Facts must be at least vehicles of transfer, and are often enough the framework of an entire mental structure.I have not, earlier today, quarreled withfacts, but only with an arbitrary choice ofor emphasis upon them. We can teachsome facts which are so certain and important or utilitarian that they continue to havea value to their possessor. Better, we shouldacquaint the student with sources and techniques for acquiring information in thelibrary, the laboratory, or the field whenand as he needs it.These, then, a college should have givenits graduates: a passing contact with thewide and verdant fields of knowledge andappreciation ; a lasting and vivid interest insome few patches of the whole that canhappily be cultivated through life; a tendency to evaluate evidence before plunginginto strong opinion; a technique for finding information as needed. Who travelsthis road obtains an education.Now I must raise with you a secondpoint, "Who should go to college?"Clearly not everyone. As I have urged, asis implicit in the meaning of the wordeducation, an institution of learning can onlysupply grist. The mental mill with whichthe student must grind it, and the powerfor running the mill, he must supply. Wedo not handicap our track teams with short-legged or flabby-muscled youths nor subjectthese individuals to the emotional hazards ofsuch impossible expectations. Nor shouldthose with a mental equipment or drive ill-adapted to making use of what a collegeoffers be in it — to their own discomfitureand the obstruction of others.The population of Wisconsin has increased twenty-five per cent in a quartercentury, the high school graduates fourhundred per cent. To most of these, thecollege is no more than an approved stamping ground for the years between adolescence and adulthood, and on admittingthem it inevitably becomes molded to theirpurposes. A private institution, which canexercise its option as to admission — in contrast to public ones which must accept allwho can meet simple set requirements —owes it to itself to be very choosy aboutwhom it takes in. There are plenty ofinstitutions for the mediocre; a few could344 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEwell be reserved for really first-raters.We should all like to see the Universityof Chicago devoted to the best, I am sure,but how shall we corral them? And, forthat matter, why should society support aninstitution for the edification of the few;for, of course, student fees do not beginto cover the cost of what is given them,and the uselessness of most professors mustbe obvious to you after reading Mr. Moul-ton's article in the Alumni Magazine. Thenative abilities of students do correlate wellwith school grades, anathema though thesebe. (A correlation of over .6 of a possibleI was obtained in a large number of comparisons between scholastic aptitude andachievement ratings.) Some persons amongstudents and faculty have a certain abilityfor academic work. If such activities appeal to an individual donor as worthy ofsupport, well and good; if not, also well,though not so good. One who does not enjoy the symphony is not expected to pay theorchestra; and I should be satisfied to restthe case of the university on the same premise — if pure knowledge and understanding do not bring you an emotional pleasurecomparable to that of art or music, don'tsubsidize universities.However, there is an argument of widerappeal than the aesthetic one, that ofutility. Some years back a study appearedin the Atlantic Monthly of the careers ofcollege men in a large public utility company. The author compared the positionsobtained by many hundred men after anumber of years in the organization withtheir scholastic records in college. Thecorrelation was surprisingly high betweengood grades and responsible positions.Society will make no mistake in subsidizingthe students with high ability ; they will return to society in achievement far morethan is expended on them. The converseis, of course, not true — many persons withnon-academic sorts of minds (or whose interests were never intrigued by intellectualmatters) have been brilliantly creativeor otherwise of value to their group.Now let us descend to the more specificand examine the University's new plan inthe light of the above. As a whole, it has been both praised and condemned, often onslender bases. Incubated by faculty andadministration for some years, it hatchedlast year and is now busily scratching forworms. Though Mr. Boucher remarks thatanalytical examination of educational methods has waxed most intense for the lastRve years, Mr. Moulton has earnestlycriticized the University's move as beinghalf-baked. There has not been, Moultonurges, an adequate factual basis for scientific planning, a sufficient preparation, nor afrank stock-taking of our personal qualifications. There is much in Moulton's contention, but what he asks is, after all, whatpsychologists and educators have been striving towards for a generation. It can hardlybe overemphasized, however, that, as adeliberate experiment, the new plan iscapable of yielding extremely valuable information on educational problems evenshould it prove a failure as an educationaltechnique.I say "is capable of yielding" advisedly,for an experiment is of value only as it iswell controlled and its results carefullynoted. It is surely the duty of the University to study its experiment, though Iam not certain that this is provided for.The Board of Examiners, or other bodyformed under the new plan, should examinefar more than the ability of individual students to pass set hurdles; it should constantly, and quantitatively, where possible,analyse the specific objectives of ourcourses or divisions, the success ofvarious devices for testing attainment ofsuch objectives, the validity of the objectives as revealed by future experience,etc., etc. We must test the "bleaching,"test the tests, test the value; and if this isfaithfully done, the new plan becomes asuccess — whatever else may eventuate.The plan is in harmony with the suggested purposes of education. The usualdriving and policing of student performance by assigned themes or experiments,recitations and examinations, and by awarding high or inflicting low grades is discarded. Acquiring a smattering ofunrelated technical facts is discouraged. Theinstructor is to become again the comrade-AN INSIDE REPORT ON THE NEW PLAN 345guide. To these ends have been institutedcomprehensive courses, comprehensive projects, and comprehensive examinations, andthe student becomes responsible for comprehensive knowledge. Nice words — Itrust developments justify them. Instructors have no part in the crucial examinationswhich determine ultimately, "pass or fail,"and so have no club to hold over theirstudents. Attendance is optional, completing exercises is voluntary; and a real effortby both faculty and students has resultedin a partial change in attitude in the desired direction. This is a great gain andshould be slowly cumulative.Abolition of grades and of assignmentsis also of basic significance — at least for theworth-while student. For on the one handhis time need not be divided for manyroutine tasks of little value but concentrated at the point of his own interest ; andon the other he must learn to work underinner, not external, compulsion. The oldsystem was a series of educational calisthenics, like compulsory "gym," to be cutwhen possible and dropped when the requirements were met. The new resemblesmore a sport program. A student wouldno more stop reading significant books ongraduation than he would drop tennis, if theformer, like the latter, were a spontaneouspleasure-giving activity.But how much of this vaunted freedomand initiative do we really offer the studentwho, for one or two years, walks in thevalley of fear of the "COMPREHEN-SIVES?" Which puts us squarely againstthe crux of the whole fabrication. Theseexaminations cannot help but control theentire instructional scheme. The students,for all our generalities and promises, willjudge what we expect of them and measure our sincerity by the comprehensives.These will concretize what we mean by"broad grasp of fundamentals," "integratedpicture of relationships," and so on. Thesewill define for students and faculty alikeour immediate objectives, and our attainment standards — of which more shortly.There is no more important problem facingthe college division than the comprehensiveexaminations. Mr. Thurstone, chief examiner, has abroad vision of the problem and its implications. But no one man could possibly supply the required technical background in several fields, and he must workthrough a younger staff cooperating withleaders of the general courses and otherfaculty representatives, who in turn havelittle knowledge of the techniques of examination. Much earnest work has beencarried through — as many sacrificed weekends will attest — and a large bulk of validexamination material has been prepared.Especially is this true of "objective typetests," in which the question is so framedas to call for an exact reply. These lattertend, however, to become nearly pure factual catechisms, as in the true-false type, orinnate intelligence tests, as in some multiple-choice problem types. Of course a studentmust acquire a factual basis in any subject— the special language of music or mathematics is as basic as that of Latin to anappreciation of the literature of the subject — which, with a good reasoning power,might fairly evidence the proper attainment.Such material as I have indicated will beused in the comprehensives. I hope they arefully successful. But an unpleasant sense offailure pervades the whole examinationset-up, to my mind. Because of practicaldifficulties, none unsurmountable, moresignificant examination types have beenvetoed. We should certainly have included many questions, if not all, forthe answering of which the student isfree to use any books or other informationsources. To test individual initiative,interest and knowledge of how to obtainand utilize information, what could bea fairer test than to turn a student loosein a library to look up some subject pickedat random ? Given an afternoon, or a week,such a problem would call for acquaintancewith source materials and library procedure,experience in "skimming," judgment inselecting, and understanding in finallyorganizing a report. No student couldpass such a hurdle without previous training, and any one who had seriously followedup an interest, in classes or out, shouldhave obtained the needed training. Such346 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtests would be in good faith with ouravowed purposes. Such tests would stimulate and put a premium on true initiativeand scholarship. Such tests are not beinggiven. I fear that when the examinationsplanned have been given and the smokecleared it may appear to our shame that wehave filled our new bottles with the sameold sour wine.What is the student reaction? I havebeen at some pains to find out in individualchats and group discussions. They are allagreed that the present schedule, as theycarry it, involves so much material that theyare lapsing into routine work. This mustbe corrected, and a block of absolutely freetime assured them. I asked, "How manyof you would use such time to follow upintensively those things that you becameinterested in, and how many of you woulduse it for other irrelevant activities andinterests ; without implying that one is betterthan the other?" Two-thirds of them saidthe second and one-third the first. Two-thirds of the students knew from experiencewith themselves that they would use theirfreedom for play, one-third for intellectualactivity. Of course, in the last analysis theywould both be doing the same thing, becausethat group of students which would readintensively or perform experiments wouldbe playing too. Those are the students towhom a certain amount of intellectualactivity is just as pleasurable as playinggames is to almost everybody. Some areable to get that extra value out of life, andsome are not. It is particularly to the topthird, I think, that the University shouldcater.A word about attendance at the courses,especially in Biology. I am sorry to report that none of the people who are leading this noble experiment — the president ofthe University, the dean of the College, themembers of staffs giving the other generalcourses, the faculty at large — have come tosee how their experiment is working out.This is very unfortunate. Other membersof the Division have come only rarely.But the students come. They nearly allcome nearly all the time. It is^ a hang-overfrom high school in part — some of the lec tures aren't worth attending, but they comefor those as regularly as for the good ones.About a third of the students congregate inthe back of the room. The interested onesusually manage to get seats in front, wherethey sit attentively. Why those in the outerfringe come I don't know, for they powdertheir noses and rustle their Maroons andtalk to their neighbors and have a grandtime with each other. I hope we will soonbe a little more rigid and keep them out,since they haven't the courtesy to stay awayfrom an entertainment in which they are notinterested.The class, I should say, divides itself intothirds. This outer third that isn't muchinterested — the boys and girls in it are niceyoung people who may have great capacitiesand talents for various activities, but whoare just a bit weak in this particular itemof intellectual enthusiasm. Next there is asecond third, of students who are interestedand who seriously want something fromtheir studies ; and there is the third, or less,who are enthusiastic about learning — thereal students in the good old sense of theword.I bring this material in because there isthis very important problem connected withthe comprehensives: How decide whichstudents pass and which not? It is obviouslysilly to worry about a "passing grade," sincethis depends on the nature of the test andthe standards demanded. We must estimate, more or less a priori, what percentageof the students should be encouraged to goon and what percentage should not; whatstandard is to be set for hatching fromcollege. Now I am giving you strictly myown view. The upper two-thirds of theclass we have and of similar classes shouldsucceed in getting by these examinations.The lower stratum — students who arereally not interested — does not deserve acertificate from college, which is supposedto mean the acquisition of a certain roundedviewpoint and possession of an intellectualalertness. The two-thirds that are passedmight very nicely again be divided into two.The middle third should be given an honorable and creditable discharge on leaving thecollege. Its members will have obtainedAN INSIDE REPORT ON THE NEW PLAN 347from college what their innate ability permitted. They ought not, I think, be encouraged to go on into an upper division,which should be essentially of graduatecharacter, with research emphasis. A student coming into one should be thrown fromthe start largely on his own initiative. Hehas been given a background and is presumably competent to go about things himself.Now let him go.Whether such will be the action of theUniversity is quite another question. I expect most of the students will pass from the college. Most of those who pass will beadmitted into the division. Many of mycolleagues agree with the above in principle,but they say that I am an idealist and alsothat these are hard times and the Universitycannot afford to miss the tuition fees. Maybe so. But if we ever hope to have three-thirds of our Freshmen of the calibre represented by our present upper one-third,these superior students must be attractedfrom all over the country by standards thatwill challenge their interest and fire theirimaginations.Adventures of an EmeritaBy Elizabeth WallaceTHE Caribbean adventure was scarcelyover when a new one began. Wewere still in the warm south lands, —why return to the bleak north where boisterous March storms keep up the traditionof winter?"Suppose we explore New Orleans andthen make our way to California?" temptingly suggested one of the brothers.What more logical, since Havana usedto be the port of departurefor all exploring and adventurous parties in the past.It was from here that Cortezset forth, and he foundMexico. When Louisianawas under Spanish rule,stately vice-regal voyageswere made back and forthbetween New Orleans andHavana.To be sure, we couldn't go in a Spanishgalleon and were forced to content ourselveswith a modest but vastly more comfortablehoat of the United Fruit Company, but evenso, we might make discoveries.So we set sail one stormy evening fromHavana in an unassuming bark bearing thechallenging name of Turrialba. As wecrept cautiously through the narrow passage,Monsieur le guarded by Morro Castle, we wondered ifSylvia and youth and idealism could everwin against age-old tyranny and selfishnessand greed, and if Cuba libre was a dreamnever to be realized.tj£ vj*" ^Jr vjr SjcIn New Orleans we camped in a hotelbordering on the Vieux Carre, where wecould sleep in the reassuring spruceness ofStatlerized rooms and yet in a trice step intoquaint old streets, teemingwith the atmosphere of thepast.In my eagerness to drenchmyself in this atmosphere, Ifell into conversation with awithered French clerk in anantique shop, who, under the\ B< persuasive influence of hisBoutellier native lanSuage> graduallyblossomed into telling mesome shadowy tales of past grandeur."But," said he, "you should meet my friend,Monsieur le Boutellier. He is the chiefbutcher at the French Market. Hold! Iwill give you a note of introduction to him.Necessarily you will have to go at theearliest hour of the morning. Six o'clockwill be best, and present this to himfrom my part." Here he handed me a note348 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEhe had been scribbling on a sales slip. Undaunted by the matutinal hour, I went tothe market and was amply repaid by visionsof luscious fruits, tempting vegetables and aclattering throng of market men and womenfrom whose lips rippled the liquid syllables,slightly blurred, of the tongue I loved sowell.I soon found my butcher, presiding overan immaculately clean counter where hewielded a mighty cleaver. He wiped hishuge hands before he took my note, held itdaintily before him and then beamed uponme. His trade had evidently not made himdull to the amenities of life and he did hisbest to make the hour I spent with him ameaty one.He told me tales of the old market inclear, vivid pictures, made all the moreincisive by his professional attentions to customers, who served as a frame to the storyjust told. He opened up to me vistas ofwhat may still be done to preserve the pastif only one had at command a little more ofthe present.Each day in New Orleans was markedwith like experiences that bade us linger,but we must hasten on to San Antonio wherewe breathed the atmosphere of Old Mexicoin the picturesque Missions which standsturdily where the wise Fathers strategicallybuilt them.In both New Orleans and San AntonioI found myself thinking, "when we get backto the States we must remember to do thusand so," so strong was the impression thatwe were still travelling in foreign lands. Irealized that these two cities, with possiblythree or four others are the only cities wehave in the United States that have escaped the curse of standardization whichcondemns them to a monotonous likeness.I was reminded of what a distinguishedMexican once wrote after a prolonged sojourn in the north: "Plenty of variety andcontrast are afforded the traveler in theUnited States. And yet, no matter howsharply his senses may be attuned to the different and the unique, the impression he receives is one of uniformity rather than ofvariety. Everywhere I was confronted withthe standard, the standard in language, in morals, in material comforts, in food. Itraveled in standard trains, running onstandard time, with standard equipment — .in every city where the train stopped longenough, I bought a paper which alwayslooked the same and which, somehow, always read the same. There were the samemotion picture houses, over-ornate, 70 degrees cool, with their incredibly attiredushers and their syndicated programs. Andapparently all the one hundred and twentymillions of Americans listen to Amos 'n'Andy from 6:40 to 7 :oo P. m.vWhen we reached California, then we feltas though we had returned to our nativeland. Oil stations, Fords and Buicks,gigantic advertising boards, electric signs,endless concrete roads, growing everbroader, bungalows and more bungalows, allalike, all those dear delightful proofs of ourone-mindedness and efficiency.However, as the weeks passed and firstimpressions wore off, we could more keenlytake in the majesty of the hills, the serenity of the plains, the sweep and the grandeurof the long shore line, as well as the illimitable possibilities nature offers to man, andthat man has seized and converted intomagic creations.In many ways California gave me ananticipatory thrill (or foreboding?) of whatHeaven may prove to be. Lovely valleysand hills with celestial views, cerulean,cloudless skies, serene and changeless air.And in this enviroment you were constantlymeeting someone who recalled a past existence; an almost forgotten classmate resuscitated from years of oblivion, extraordinarilyrejuvenated, living in a mansion whereflowers bloomed and fountains played ; a onetime student whose corrugated brow andanxious air of unfulfilled desire had beenmiraculously changed to plump placiditycrowned by a coronet of marcelled silver.There were these, but there were others,and by far the majority who were busy inthe Elysian fields and were performinghappy tasks that seemed to keep them forever young.I spent some happy hours with Anne ReedHarwood, who was one of the unforgettableradiant students of the first years of theADVENTURES OF AN EMERITA 349University, whose brown eyes had caught alight from her Greek courses which theyhave never lost. Another day my pathcrossed that of a group whose gay laughter,which used to ring out in the faraway 90's,has never been muted ; pretty Mrs. Clark ofKelly, and the McWilliams sisters. Thenthere was an afternoon and evening withNarcissa Cox Vanderlip, when we wanderedover their vast estate, bounded on the westby the Pacific Ocean, and looked at the hundreds of contentedly caged exotic birds thatare one of Mr. Vanderlip's hobbies. At thedinner that same evening was MonicaRailsbach, as blonde and slender as she wastwenty-five years ago. But the youngestof the party was Myra Reynolds, whomatched all my stories of the early days ofthe University and went me several better.Later we visited her in her cottageperched high above the bay, where she isplaying with Japanese art and culture withthe same joyous enthusiasm that she oncegave to Wordsworth's England and toquaint ladies of the 17th century.It. is possible that it is this illusion of aheaven in California that has given a theological slant to the pronouncements ofRobert Millikan, but however much hisphysics have been corrupted, he himselfwears the same angelic smile he had whileon earth, meaning Chicago, and he and Mrs.Millikan are the perfect gracious hosts toemeritae like myself. The Institute thatthey are building into a great educationalcenter will be their lasting monument.One sunny afternoon I spent some unforgettable moments at the bedside of Mr.Michelson, just three weeks before he left us. His eyes had the unconquerable look ofthose who have wrested secrets from the Infinite and who know of its inexhaustiblerichness. His speech had the gentle gayetyof those who have suffered and are unafraid.A picturesque cottage on a shady windingstreet of Santa Barbara was a fitting background for Professor Emeritus Merrill andhis wife. He has his books around him andshe her flowers, apparently endless sourcesof content.This Paradise, peopled with so many deardelightful shades — I haven't enumeratedhalf of them! the Tufts, the Soares — hadone additional realistic touch that broughtme to earth. The serpent. One day whileriding a mountain trail, I felt a gentle somnolence steal over me. Suddenly the guide'shorse immediately ahead of me, rearedperpendicularly and in a flash I awoke tofind myself sitting twenty feet away in themidst of an enveloping low pine. How Igot there was a mystery. My horse hadturned completely around and was stillshowing signs of agitation. The guide wasstanding and in the act of swinging his lassoat something on the ground. There wereno broken bones, so I was soon beside myhorse. The guide held up a huge rattlesnake whose gallant warning had been rewarded by death.We left California reluctantly, but whenthe time approaches for me to leave earth,I'm going to prepare for Heaven by a prolonged sojourn in that land of fruits andflowers and reminiscences. The final transition will then bring no shock.We came back to our Minneapolis homeby a road that led north through giant trees<2§^$The Emerita Confronts the Serpent35o THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEA Village Church in Mexicoand by new and prosperous cities, thenacross mountain ranges and vast monotonousplains that made me feel I wanted to stopand never fare forth again. But I hadscarcely oiled the domestic machinery whenthe beguiling world called again. This timeit was Mexico and the Tempter was in theguise of the Sixth Seminar on Cultural Relations with our Neighboring Republic.The special lure was that I should act aschairman of the Hospitality Committee.There was a vague but generous connotation to the title that appealed to me and Ijoyfully yielded.The five weeks spent in Mexico last summer had a charm enhanced greatly by thefact that while our friends in the UnitedStates were prostrated in a temperaturenearly ioo° all through the month of July,we in Mexico were widening our horizonin an exhilarating atmosphere of from 700to 8o°. For the great plateau of MexicoCity, of Puebla, of Cuerrj^/aca and ofTasco is cooled by the a; that breathesfrom the snow-capped^ juntains whichpicturesquely and ber ;, jatly guard it.But aside from, pice that the realization of others' discblhfort adds, our experiences were as highly flavored as the nativefood, as brilliantly colored as the gorgeousflowers, as inspiring and refreshing as the clear sunshine and the sudden swift showers.But why try to describe Mexico! Thatvast cornucopia of plenty, stretching fromits sinuous base in Central America up to thewide arid deserts of the north, with its majestic mountains, lofty plateaux and tropicjungles; with its mysterious past speakingto us through cyclopean pyramids and car-ven beasts and birds. After all, we couldget only a glimpse of all this, but so skilfully were lectures and excursions and socialcontacts interwoven, so painlessly was information absorbed, so unconsciously andspontaneously was sympathy established thatat the end of our stay we had vicariouslyfelt the onward sweep of revolutions thathad developed a national soul; we felt theancient land hunger that had kept the Indianone with the soil and given him his noblepatience and mysterious strength; we hadseen artists, who with mighty brush strokeshad pictured Mexico in its history, in itsmisery, in its brutality, in its simplicity, inits mystery, — but always Mexico; we hadheard great educators who understood theneed of their own children, and who hadtaken us by the hand to Indian villageswhere we had seen the miracle wrought bythe rural schools; we had listened to thehaunting strains of Mexican music, sungand played by their greatest artists ; we hadwatched the weaving in and out of nativedances, vibrant with the hidden story ofthe race; we had broken bread with cultured men and women of varying shades ofcolor who spoke English infinitely betterthan we spoke Spanish, and we came awayknowing indisputably that Mexico was notan inferior country, but one where we hadlearned much. We likewise had a suspicionthat it possessed an idealism in national feeling that we of the north might well envy.We came back lightened of prejudice andladen with new, illuminating facts, whichwe immediately yearned to impart to whomsoever we might persuade to listen.?E? Trf? 3f? vpf ^T?It was natural that, having succumbed tothe fascination of Old Mexico, I shouldeagerly accept a generous invitation to visita ranch in New Mexico, situated in thequaint old Mexican town of Alcalde, whereADVENTURES OF AN EMERITA 35iwe could easily trace the trail of the con-quistadores and at the same time see the vastdifferences that separate the Indian of thenorth from the Indian of Toltec and Aztecancestry. Three weeks was all too short forthis experience, but by this time I havelearned to be content with allusions andhints and suggestions of the immense possibilities that lie in human existence. Theyare enough to assure me of the fact of thesepossibilities and they give me food for endless thought.*****Soon there came another adventure. Butnow these adventures begin to take on a definite direction, a more uniform coloring.They draw me with delicate but irresistiblethreads back to lands that are filled with thefaraway echoes of childhood memories.When the Seminar on Cultural Relationsasked me to become its lecturer on Latin-American Literature during its sessionamidst the islands of the Caribbean lastJanuary, I gladly consented, with the fervid hope that Time would linger so that Imight be able to prepare sufficient material.Time was kind and when we set sail Ihad learned much of the traditional cultureof Santo Domingo, of its masterly historicnovels, of its graceful modern lyrics. Idared to touch on Haitien folk-lore, andCuba's agitated revolutionary poetry furnished a colorful hour, while the richness ofSouth American literary productions gaveme profound embarrassment. These lectures had a laboratory feature that energized them. For instance, during the cruisethere would be an exposition of Dominicanpoetry, explanations, background, translations, the usual routine of a University lecture. Then we arrive at Santo Domingo,we are met by a cordial group of distinguished Dominicans. Among them I recognize one of my poets, in fact, the outstanding one. I tell him that we alreadyknow him, and I present the Seminar, whoregister admiration. Smiling delight on thepart of the poet. "I will present each witha volume of my poetry," he exclaims. Weprotest, but he vanishes from our sight fora space, to return, pockets bulging with thinlittle volumes. "I shall inscribe your names," he cries happily, and in a little whilewe are the proud possessors of autographedvolumes of the most outstanding poet of thehistoric little republic. Could there be abetter way of creating warm appreciationbetween nations?*****As I said before, one of the immediateresults of the Mexican Seminar was to galvanize its participants into becoming activepropagandists, and so it was with the Caribbean venture. No sooner had I landedin New York, the middle of February, thanI sallied forth on a tour to some NewEngland Colleges to share my enthusiasmwith young students. It was a grand experience, for not only did I have an opportunity for uninterrupted monologues, buteverywhere I met with healthy curiosity,enthusiasm, and above all, warm friendliness of the University of Chicago vintage.At Connecticut College, President Katherine Blunt proved that she could not onlyrun a college admirably well, but could superintend a charming home. At Providence,R. I., Principal Helena Dey bewildered mewith the multiplicity of her talents concretely expressed in the art, the music, andthe scholarship of the Mary C. WheelerSchool whose destinies she directs. AtThe Sad Indian of Mexico352 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWellesley, Helen Hughes, from the chastefastnesses of her colonial home on the hill,sallies forth daily in her Chevrolet to moldand fashion graduate students. At SmithCollege, Ruth Young smilingly and wholeheartedly teaches the tongue of Dante. InCambridge, Antoinette Forrester Downingmiraculously summoned to a welcoming teain her pretty apartment Mari Bachrach,Katherine Ransom, Derwent Whittlesey,Harold Kemp, and even her husband,George Downing.On this tour, The Imperial Policy of theUnited States in the Caribbean and Discontent in Panama became questions ofsecondary importance compared with thethrilling possibility of meeting an alumnusor an alumna from the University ofChicago, dating anywhere from 1893 to1927.And so I came back from my last adventure, but not to rest, for another trip toMexico is in the offing and I must be readyto guide new explorers into the fields ofMexican literature. I am eager to tellthem, when we gather together in Cuerna-Fin vaca in July of the deep mysticism and vastlearning of a Sor Juana de la Cruz, of thepicaresque adventures of a Periquillo Sar-niento, of the startling, unafraid realism ofan Azuela, the keen and vivid word paintings of a Guzman, of the exquisite delicacyand finish of an Amado Nervo, and finallyof those young moderns who voice the longings that have been born of the turmoil andtravail of the long revolutions that beganin 1910.*****Yes, the rewards of such adventures arerich and endless. Horizons widen, humanunderstandings deepen, transitions betweendifferent worlds become a simple and anatural process.In the meantime, between adventures,there are serene intervals of family life,when we can tell each other, my brothersand I, of the perils we have passed and reflect together upon this strange and interesting thing we call life. We draw the curtains upon the outer world for a while, andspend a tranquil evening by our own hearthstone awaiting the next Adventure.is. . . . awaiting the next AdventureBasic Causes of the Great DepressionBy William E. DoddChairman, Department of HistoryALL over the world men are hard/-\ pressed, and millions of people whoX .m. neVer thought of suffering personalwant are receiving governmental or privatedoles. Hardly an industry but is overstocked with goods, hardly a farm that receives over a half or a fourth of its formersmall return. There was a similar, but nota world-wide, state of things after theNapoleonic wars; and there was a similarand an acute crisis that followed the Civiland the Franco-Prussian wars of 1 861-71.But these continued acute only in certaincountries for three or four years. The present drastic economic re-orientation givesevidence of an abiding nature which deeplytouches the richest as well as the poorest ofpeoples everywhere. Perhaps a student ofhistory these thirty years hence may, withoutoffense, venture a diagnosis.The first of all the causes is the free anduncontrolled sweep of the industrial revolution, above all in the United States wherethe instinct of gain has been too powerfulfor social control.. A little over a hundredyears ago, when the world was just out ofthe horrors of twenty years of warfare,the government of the United States undertook to give unprecedented aid to what wascalled infant industry. This was givenupon the assumption that a monopoly of thehome market would inspire manufacturersto employ labor at high wages, build citiesfor the incoming hordes of Europeans, andcreate markets for agriculture. Labor wasemployed, immigrants came and cities likeunto London and Paris were built.But the cities soon failed to maintain openmarkets: cliques of purchasers organizedand set prices; too many distributors fixedthemselves upon the urban public and theprices of country produce were left to befixed by the demand in London or Liverpool. At the same time the cost of industrial goods rose; in time they were fixedby associations of interested persons and afifth part of the population had the advan tage of high prices for their output and thefour-fifths were left to fare as best theymight in the world market.The next step was the organization of industrial workers into compact associationsfor the purpose of setting their hours oflabor, the conditions of work and the amountof their returns. Industrial employers werecompelled to agree since they had the sameadvantage over the general public. Butunorganized workers were left to competewith unskilled workers who in time pouredinto the country by the million; and therewas no way for all to partake of the supposed plenty of the industrial policy. Thustwo elements of the industrial life tookprivileged positions.A third step in the process was the unprecedented combinations of industrial andrailway corporations and the issue ofsecurities in enormous volume based not somuch upon the value of properties involvedas upon the estimated consuming capacitiesof their respective markets. The last phaseof this movement began with the "watering" of United States Steel securities to theextent of four hundred million out of a totalof a little more than a billion dollars ofbook value. The American public, segregated from the world market for steel products, was left to pay prices that wouldtake care of costs and the retirement of menlike Andrew Carnegie, or not to buy at all.As if this were not enough, the concentration o'f industries in narrow limits andthe focussing of all the great transportationsystems at points like New York andChicago led to the multiplication of landvalues beyond anything ever known in history. The most precious spot in Londonwas not worth half the price of a strip ofland in New York. Upon this, industrymust pay insurance and interest and taxes,not to mention the levies of political machines. Finally, as a means of realizingupon these artificial values skyscrapers rosethick across every city horizon; and then353354 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmore trolley lines and subways and overheads were constructed which only increasedthe total overhead cost of industry.Such is the structure which we have seenrise in our midst, and boasted of the show.A thousand people pay fares every day tosee a single skyscraper. Its ramificationsrun into every town and village of thecountry; its securities make the reserves ofevery bank and insurance company; itsmasters talk to Presidents and congressionalcommittees as masters of plantations talkedseventy years ago to any and all who criticized their structure. It is free individualism, which in 1776 was set up to breaka similar structure in England and makeevery home in America a freeman's lodge.If the managers of the great industrial-financial organizations of the countryleft things to take their normal course andthe laws of the country let down the barsof protection, the lot of the unorganizedmajority would not be so precarious. Buttheir overhead is so great that they must sellmore and more goods each year. To thatend the country is laid out in districts;clever agents are located at strategic points ;they are commanded to sell certain quotasof articles or they lose their positions; andthe public is coaxed, even by the President,to buy and buy — where cash fails, credit isgranted and the evil day postponed. Theseare the greater causes; there are othersclosely allied.Contemporary with this American evolution there grew similar powers in Englandand on the continent of Europe. Economicleaders there were able in a measure to sella considerable portion of their output in thehalf-closed market of the United States.They were able to undersell American industrialists in most of the markets of theso-called backward countries; and NewYork financiers were long subordinate tothe great money changers of London. Butthe leaders of Germany, getting a taste ofthe good things of industrial and commercialimperialism and convinced by the 1870 warwith France that their army was invincible,set about conquering the places in the sunnecessary to their expansion and to the absorption of their teeming emigrant popula tion. They built their industrial-financialstructure much like that of the UnitedStates. But when they sought to expandover Turkey toward the far East, Englandand Russia resisted ; when they tried tomake headway in Latin-America, Rooseveltand the American people waved the bigstick; and when they thought to break intoAfrica from the north, France and Italybarred the entrance. The new and energeticcentral European industrialism, in everysense similar to that of England and theUnited States, was denied territorial expansion. For a traditional militarist power thatwas irksome to the last degree. The greatwar was the result.That war took such dimensions, that itthreatened a new European overlordshipanalogous to that of Napoleon. A Europeandomination from Berlin gave assurance before 19 1 6 that all the world would feel itspower. The United States alone was in aposition to cast the decisive stroke. LikeEngland a little over a hundred years before, the government in Washington castthat stroke on the more democratic side. Itwas in the nature of things. It couldhardly have been otherwise, given the traditions of 1776 and 1 86 1. But the momentthe German power was broken, there arosethe problem of debts, amazing in their proportions : debts to England from France andItaly; to the United States from England,France and Italy; and debts everywherefrom governments to their peoples. Thecost of the war had about equalled the totalvalue of all the properties of all the countriesconcerned, except the United States. Herewas a dilemma.It was determined that Germany shouldpay reparations great enough to coverFrench, English and Italian damages, a precedent set by the United States at the end ofthe war with Mexico and by Germany in1 87 1. If Germany repudiated her domesticdebt and then paid the reparations, France,England and Italy would pay their obligations to the goverment in Washington. Itwas to be a shift of gold reserves from allEurope to the United States; and ill-informed one hundred-per-cent patriots expected to see such an unprecedented harvestBASIC CAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION 355of economic power in New York and othersecurity-holding centers, as the world hadnever dreamed of. It was occasion for immediate European resentment ; and since hy-pernationalism had been the tone and talkof half a century, the cheapest of politicianscould readily make headway in any country.It was the day everywhere of shoddy politicians — not more than three or four realstatesmen in all of the governmentsconcerned, and they were widely denounced.When it proved impossible to discovergold equal to the American demands,Europeans tried in every possible way tosell industrial goods. The reply in Washington was a higher tariff in 1922 than thecountry had known before. The otherturn was for the Europeans to borrow goldin New York to pay their obligations to theAmerican government and then to borrowmore gold in New York to revamp their industries in order to compete with mass production in Detroit and Chicago. When thedilemma had approached the crisis stage asecond time, the congress of the UnitedStates enacted a still more prohibitive tariffand the President signed the bill againstthe protest of nearly all the informedeconomists in the country and violentdemonstrations all over the world. Thepeople who had saved the endangerednationalities of 19 16 were now as unpopularin the same countries as Germany had beenin 1914.With the great American domestic market borne down with an overhead too greatto be carried without foreign outlets, therewas nothing else but catastrophe in 1929,if European countries retaliated ; and retaliation was prompt and decisive. Everycountry now had its market closed, as nearlyas possible, against every other country. Agriculture had felt the blow in 1922.And, as there were no longer free landswhere tenants and debt-laden farmers couldfish and hunt and start again; and as therewere no longer the incoming millions of immigrants, each with his mite of savings tostart things again, the lot of the farmer wasmerging into peasantry, all the billions ofdollars worth of gilt-edged farm mortgagesbecoming frozen credits, and all the bankson the verge of ruin. Great business menthought to cure the ill by sales-pressure,by coaxing men to buy two automobileswhere they needed only one, by wearing awatch on one's wrist and carrying anotherin one's pocket. But when Europe closedher markets and great American industriescould not quickly transfer their plants toother countries and when farmers simplycould not buy, and farmer folk everywherebegan again to can their own vegetables,butcher their own meat and repair their agedimplements, the first great judgment day ofbig business was at hand. The directors ofSteel and Motors, of railways and banksstood aghast. Hundreds committed suicide.Millions of their employes began to beg inthe streets. The governments, state andnational, began to seek ways to lend aidwithout calling it an aid.These are the greater causes. There areminor ones; which are omitted as merelyancillary to the greater. It is a momentwhen all men need to employ their bestthought and captains of industry need tolearn what they have neglected all theirlives, the rudimentary principles of economics and a little of the precedents of history. The greatest historian of the passinggeneration foretold the existing situationtwenty years ago in Chicago and elsewhere.Not a newspaper reported his forecast, fewpublic men even know his name.The Bowery Savings Bank"THE world's biggest collection of savings is in the Caisse Nationale d'E-pargne of France. The next biggestis in the Bowery Savings Bank of Manhattan. Although you may argue whetheror not the Caisse Nationale d'Epargne is abank, (it is a government institution resembling our Postal Savings system), thereis no question about the other. It is a bank,and it is not run by the government of theBowery or by any other government. Whatis more, it has upwards of $485,000,000 indeposits, upwards of 363,000 depositors,and, by way of non-sequitur, an extraordinary character as president.Henry Bruere is in many ways as remarkable as the bank over which he presides.He did not become a banker until he wasforty-five and now, just turned fifty, he hasan important place in the banking. Thatfact must be credited to an extraordinarypersonality which includes on one side analtogether genuine and personal interest insocial welfare, on a second side a natural proclivity for making interesting friends, on athird side the desire to get down to theroots of diverse problems, and on the fourthside a great capacity for direct speech. Hislife is an extraordinary proof of this unreasonable combination of bents.His career, after he started to become adoctor at Cornell, and finished by becomingan economist and sociologist at the University of Chicago, has been a veritableOdyssey. At nineteen he was a director ofBoys' Clubs in Boston, where he also foundtime to study law at Harvard and to makethe friendship of Mr. Louis D. (now Mr.Justice) Brandeis. From Boston he wentto Chicago to organize men's clubs for theInternational Harvester Co., and incidentally to become a friend of Jane Addamsand Stanley McCormick. From Chicagohe went to New York, first to investigatethe public baths, then as director of theBureau of Municipal Research (a postcreated expressly for him). He found timein 1911-12 to make a survey of the municipal government of six German cities and*A portion of an article appearing in Fortune. ten commission-governed cities of theU. S. In 1914-1916, he was CityChamberlain of New York under the Mit-chel (reform) administration, his particularjob being to reorganize city government.One of his first recommendations was theabolition of his own office — an unorthodoxmove that created a considerable stir inEurope as well as in America.It was not until 19 16 that for the firsttime he entered directly into private business.Then he became vice-president in charge of"organization and management methods"of the American Metal Company, Ltd,, theAmerican affiliate of Metallgesellschaft A.G. of Frankfort. He retained that officeuntil 1923, he and Julian Beaty becomingpractically guarantors that the company(33 per cent German owned) should not beoperated against American interest duringthe trying War years. During the periodhe also found time to act as financial advisor to the Republic of Mexico.Then, in 1923, as if his career had notalready carried him into enough fields, hewas invited by the late Haley Fiske to jointhe Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. HaleyFiske had made the Metropolitan not onlythe largest life-insurance company in theworld, but had taken it into the field ofsocial welfare. He put in Bruere as fourth,later third, vice president (a good place inthe roster of a company with an immenseexecutive staff). In this capacity Bruereran the company Policy Holders ServiceBureau, founded departments of industrialhygiene of safety engineering, of economics,etc. His work brought him in contact withmany industries, and was productive of suchincidentals as a group-insurance contract for40,000 employees of the Rock Island railroad.This interlude occupied only Rve years.In 1927, he stepped into banking. Thetrustees of the Bowery Savings Bank, at thattime planning a reorganization of its executive staff, named him first vice presidentand treasurer of the bank to prepare himto succeed its president, Victor Lersner,356THE BOWERY SAVINGS BANK 357when the latter retired. One of his firstactivities was to develop the personnel department, but his hand can be traced inmany others, — in its advertising (frequentlydone in conjunction with other savingsbanks) and in its posters, several of whichare usually selected for the "ioo best postersof the year"; in its advice to depositors forthe purchase of sound investments (thebank sells no securities) and for home buying; in the housing problem of New York'sLower East Side (the bank holds a $960,-000 mortgage on a large cooperative apartment built on Grand Street — a social experiment which has been a great success,since at present writing only five of its 238apartments are vacant).In January, 1 93 1, Mr. Bruere was madepresident of the bank. In the meantime hehad made himself an important place inthe savings-bank world. Incidentally, hewas called on to write the article on American savings banks for the latest edition ofthe Encyclopedia Britannica. As chairmanof the legislative committee of the NewYork Savings Bank Association he succeeded in getting bank taxes considerably reduced. And he has a project afoot for aclearing house for information on mortgages — a project that soon may be realized — that would centralize knowledge of real-estate conditions, standardize constructionas a basis for mortgage appraisals, savesavings banks much duplication ofeffort.His capacity for dealing with men — thesame capacity which has linked him withsuch unusual friends as the late ThorsteinVeblen (then professor of economics at Chicago), Justice Brandeis, Stanley McCor-mick, Jane Addams, in his earlier days, andmore recently with such others as John Pur-roy Mitchel, Haley Fiske, Frank L. Polk,Lillian D. Wald, (of the Henry StreetSettlement) is the same force which helpsto make him important as a banker. In thecourse of a week you are likely to find himone morning conferring with his fellowbankers, another morning testifying beforea legislative committee, and two or threeother mornings tramping downstairs intocellars, climbing up to inspect roofs, interviewing owners, janitors, and tenants incompany with his mortgage officers. Oragain you may find him at his spacious deskat one end of a handsome Byzantine basilica.He is a singular example of a financier whois a professional executive, and a professional executive who is a sociologist — anda success at all three.wm\Looking at Kent from the CampusJust ShawBy John B. Holt, '31TO SEE Shaw grin, — and he grinsall the time, — is to want to grinwith him. You can't help it whenyou see the rectangular block of long whitehair, posted vertically, like a gravestone,above a suit of clothes. In the block is anoval where Shaw's grin shows through, thekind of grin a school teacher sees in theuncomfortable moment when she realizesherself the victim of a neatly executed joke.Shaw came as tea was served and LadyAstor was showing us her flowers. He waslate, but Lady Astor is herself an afternoon's entertainment, — small enough toscamper around without taking the flowerpots and rugs with her, personality enoughso that she could tell Hve uproariouslyfunny jokes I would blush to tell a stonewall, hostess enough to keep half a hundredpeople constantly entertained without creating the impression that she was doing so enmasses and impersonally."Chicago," said Shaw while the cakeswere being passed. "Capone. Hm. Youmust feel rather indebted to him." Shawenjoyed the mystified expressions that werehis only response. "Seriously speaking," hecontinued —."Tut, Shaw, these Americans know aswell as I do you never speak seriously,"Lady Astor broke in. I never did hear whyShaw thought Capone a social benefactor.There is constant warfare between LadyAstor, the social idealist, and Shaw, theskeptic. Lady Astor introduced G. B. S."This is —, well, just Shaw," she saidand cast aspersions on his skepticism thatcame back like staccato sparks under highvoltage as Shaw rose to his feet. Severalminutes passed before Lord Astor couldstep in and put a stop to the high tonedvaudeville duet.Dramatic critics welcome Shaw's playsto Chicago, but when it comes to discussingthem they begin to wonder just what Shawdid mean. As a speech critic, I fared nobetter. He was asked to compare theRussian and Italian dictatorships, where upon he proceeded to call representativegovernment funny names."A parliament?" he mused. "Yes, thereis some sense to a parliament, because itprotects the majority from the minority inpower. It is the minority, you know, thatalways gets into power. Our Parliamentwas invented by the common people and theking to protect themselves from the nobles.Nowadays a parliament functions aboutthe same. In modern England the laboritesthus defend themselves from the businessinterests. In America Congress is themeans with which democracy defends itselffrom too much democracy."But a parliament as a representativegovernment? That is nonsense. Imagineanyone representing my interests in Parliament. Impossible. What man cares whogoverns him so long as he is allowed to goabout his business unmolested? All I demand of someone in power is the permissionto shoot him if I don't like the way he runsthings."Parliaments waste a lot of time talking,trying to compromise or synthesize the interests of a dozen minorities and finally arriving at something that nobody wants. IfI were to choose an ideal working partyit would be made up of people like LadyAstor, who goes about getting things doneby bulldozing people into thinking theywant them done. Perhaps you haven'theard how she threatened to kiss the sonof Lord Cecil in public just before a "division" was taken in the "House" unless hevoted for her bill. That is only one variation of her tactics."Shaw subsided. The let-down for hisaudience was such, it is recorded, that thebrother of our esteemed chaplain, a Massachusetts clergyman of big repute, dozed offduring the speech of Shaw's successor, whowas also a clergyman, and of no less rankthan an archbishop.Shaw went to Russia two weeks later.When the London Times got wind of theprospective visit, the cartoonist explained358JUST SHAW 359graphically just why Bernard Shaw wasgoing to Russia. Several poses were exhibited, one of which showed G. B. S. interviewing Stalin. Stalin sits at his desk withhis chin in his hand and a furrow in hisbrow. He has even temporarily discardedhis pipe. Santa Claus Shaw is pointingjovially to his white beard and giving Stalina sales talk. An inserted sketch of Lenin'sbrain as it is preserved in the Kremlin explains Shaw's appeal to Stalin's collector'sinstinct. Stalin doesn't seem much interested in beards.It was in Leningrad outside the hotel thatI was privileged to have a personal interview with Shaw — over my camera. Threeminutes before, I had been gazing froma canal bridge at the Graf Zeppelin justappearing from Berlin over an arch of theKazan Cathedral. Alumnus Walter Her-rick and I were late for a party excursion,but as we rounded the hotel corner weforgot Zeppelin, party, and all."There's Bernard Shaw," said Bud."Where?""There, standing with Lord Lothian,Lord Astor, and someone else."In the course of the fifty yard dash downthe hotel second floor corridor to get mycamera, I swallowed two draughts of pipesmoke that proved to be the only menaceto my health in Russia.Lord Astor was leaning out his firstfloor window in his shirt sleeves when Icame down. Bernard Shaw and Lord Lothian, now a member of the National Government, posed obligingly beneath him. Iclicked them and expressed my thanks."What kind of a contraption is that?" Shaw asked. I handed it to him. "Butisn't it too dark?""I have a 3.5 lens," I explained."Oh well, of course," he replied, andmy interview was over.The Astor party left Moscow the daybefore we arrived. Shaw had spoken before a crowd with his characteristic success."You can't understand what I am saying," he told the crowd, "so I can say anything I like, a privilege in Russia whichonly Stalin enjoys beside myself." He wasgoing back, he said, to tell the workers ofEngland that they should follow the example of the Russians. "Don't be toohard on Lady Astor," he finished. "It isnot her fault she has estates. She wouldlike to get rid of them for they cost hermore money than they bring in, but shecan't."Lady Astor was heckled, nevertheless."You people are too proud," she said,"much prouder, even, than we are in England.""We have a right to be proud," someonein the crowd answered her. "See what wehave accomplished."Shaw returned to England and wroteamong other things, "The Russians say theyhave destroyed religion and point tochurches almost as empty as ours in London." This remark crystallized my impression of him. At heart he is a social idealist.His so-called paradoxes and baffling humorare a sugar coating he gives his pills oftruth. We swallow them and cry for more,often quite unaware that the pills containmore subtle ingredients than the sugar coating.in my opinionBy Fred B. MillettAssistant Professor of EnglishIN THE year 2132, the historian ofthe thought and life of our time willbe struck, I believe, by nothing soforcibly as the extent to which we enslavedourselves to an analogy, the metaphor ofthe machine. It is as though primitiveman, having with his own hands devisedan implement, bowed down before it andforgot his gods. Thus modern man has done.The fascination of the machine, the awe andfear it inspires in timorous and defenceless man, its harsh and unfeeling impersonality, its power for destruction and construction alike, have driven out of the mindof modern man almost all thought of theBuilder, the primal Craftsman, the miraculously powerful and subtle Designer ofthis horrific unending universe. But notonly has man allowed his body to becomeslave of the machine ; what is worse, he hasallowed an inaccurate metaphor to becomethe dominant influence upon his thoughtabout himself and the world.The power of the machine-metaphor is,of course, enhanced by the omnipresence,almost the omnipotence of actual machines.We live, not only by, but in them. Theabode of the typical urbanite, — the apartment house or hotel, is a machine of tremendous complexity, which "runs" oroperates smoothly with only a minimum ofattention from its janitorial slaves. Daily,advertising would force upon us new devices to complete the mechanization ofdomestic existence: devices calculated atonce to simplify problems of sanitation,refrigeration, the cooking and serving ofmeals, and to swell the pocket-books of theadvertiser. Though the white-collar class,the professional, academic, and clericalminority, may feel itself to be somethingmore than a nursemaid to the machine, it can hardly be unaware of the millions whosubsist precariously by dull uncreative hoursof pushing levers and pressing buttons.What is even more appalling is the victory of mechanization in the field of playand entertainment. Here where one mightexpect spontaneous and pleasurable activityto persist longest, we submit ourselves increasingly to mechanism. The radio, themoving picture, and the automobile, eachin turn claims its passive and unresponsivevictims. Whole families become so perfectly conditioned by unceasing noise fromthe radio that they are no longer able totalk, much less converse, without thishideous accompaniment. Parasites of themachine, we proffer passive eardrums toradio versions of prize-fights, presidentialelections, and the wonders of Pepsodent.Even more dangerous than the submission of our bodies to the machine is thepower we tend to grant it over our thoughts.To the scientific method, which alone hasproduced the machine and the machine age,and to that method alone, do we attributeunrivaled authority and validity. Wehumbly await, nay, some of us welcomewith masochistic enthusiasm, the intrusionof the scientific method into every field ofhuman experience. Not content to giveit ff* ; ~cv the entire objective uni-vcise, we permit it to blunder into therich and subtle world of feelings, emotions,and ideas, and to attempt the measurementof the immeasurable. We deify the knowledge that is obtained by measurement,whether that knowledge is pertinentlyhuman or not, and forget that statisticalknowledge is incommensurate, does not correlate with, wisdom, the wisdom of theheart, of the instincts, of the mind.But the highest compliment man has paid360IN my opinion 361the machine, the completest evidence of hisabasement to it, is his identification of himself with it. The current mechanistic interpretation of character and personality,logically pursued, involves renunciation,with the behaviorists, not only of the willand its limited or unlimited freedom, butalso, of consciousness, man's most characteristic and distinguished possession. Ifman were a rational instead of an indomitably irrational being, he would bestruck dumb with horror at the implications, philosophical and ethical, of psychological determinism, since it envisages aworld, not of brutes that might be trainedinto decency, but of ambulatory and irresponsible machines, knowing and doingneither good nor evil.It is no wonder that tender minds attemptescape from the hideous spectacle of adeterministic universe by flight into irrationality or mysticism: into numerology,astrology, theosophy, christian science, ormediaeval theology. Along with them fleea notable group of distinguished scientistswho, horrified by the spectacle of the universe which they themselves have created,struggle to make the universe homey andcomfortable again, to make man responsibleand ambitious again, by invoking the mostelementary forms of mysticism, morality,and theology. Tough as elephant-hide intheir own domain, they are tender as babesin alien fields of thought. Theirs is themechanism of flight, not the courage ofconfrontation.The unbiassed historian of our time, will,I believe, see that its central philosophicalproblem was that of adjusting men'sthought to the mechanized and mechanisticuniverse of which he first became completelyaware in the early twentieth century. Certainly no problem, not even that of thesurvival of our machine-made civilization,is so basic as that of the various possibilities of satisfactory adjustment to it. Andit is almost inevitable that the clearest statement of the problem and its possible solutions should come, not from philosophers orscientists or statisticians, but from men ofletters who are more concerned than anyother type with essentially human values. In English literature, Thomas Hardyfirst notably realized our dilemma andstated it with beauty and power. The dilemma and his reaction to it are implicitin all his later fiction, but they are nowhereprojected so magnificently as in the Dynasts,his dramatization of a mechanistic universeand the fate of mortals therein. The creation and contemplation of such a universearoused in the great soul of Hardy a feeling of almost unqualified tragedy, the feeling of profound despair and agony at theidea of existence, threatened, harassed, andinevitably snuffed out, the feeling of pityfor everything living, and the correlativeinsistence on the avoidance of all possibleunkindness and cruelty to all forms of life,and the faint and groundless hope that somehow the power behind the universe mightgrow into pitying consciousness of its ownand man's plight.It is significant that Bertrand Russell,approaching the problem from the point ofview of scientist and philosopher, shouldarrive at almost exactly Hardy's conclusions. This view of the situation has analogies with ancient Stoicism, for, facing allthe dire possibilities, Russell insists on highcourage, universal compassion, and theproud asseveration of man's essentiallynoble powers under the bludgeonings of life.Probably the most common of adjustments to a mechanized universe is one eithervaguely or consciously Epicurean. In so faras one can see any urge operating in modernlife, aside from the instinctive ant-like acquisition of more and more mechanisms,the major motive actuating most of one'sthoughtless contemporaries is the quest forpleasure. The more tender-minded stillhope for happiness; the tough-minded,aware of the improbability of happiness andits tenuousness, stake their all, invest theirtime, money, and energy in the pursuit ofpleasure. To this hunger for thrills, eventhe arts become subservient, while the millions, deaf to the satisfactions of the arts,grasp frenetically at the excitations of food,liquor, love affairs, vulgarized shows andmovies, and rapid and inattentive scurry-ings over sea and land.A somewhat more philosophical attitude362 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEto the claims of modern Epicureanism isapparent in Llewelyn Powys' ImpassionedClay. Here a brilliant poetic survey of thehistory of the universe and man's placetherein leads to a fervid attempt to demonstrate that the pursuit of pleasure, especiallythe pleasures of the senses, is the essence ofwisdom.There is wisdom in this doctrine, but notthe whole of wisdom. If nothing in manis more dependable, more estimable thanthe pursuit of pleasure, nothing is morecertain than that to make pleasure the endof existence is to coast surely to a disaster. For in no field of human experience doesthe law of diminishing returns operate soimplacably as in that of sensuality. Tothe jaded boulevardier, no less than to thesot in the gutter, pleasure turns inevitablyto ashes and bitterness. Disease and degradation are the least, as satiety and surfeit are the greatest, of its penalties.Sensuality as a means and as an end ispractically less defensible than the most perverse of asceticisms.But if Stoicism is too frigid, Epicureanism too hot a way of life, there must be amiddle way. The problem is — to find it.A Midway View of HarperNEWS OF THEQUADRANGLESBy John P. Howe '27A u{ive year plan" for the revival ofbusiness, calling for a drastic but temporaryfiscal inflation, has been framed and endorsed unanimously by members of the Department of Economics at the University.Drawn up as a memorandum at the request of a member of the House Committeeon Military affairs in Washington, whichhas been considering immediate payment ofthe veterans' bonus, the document discussesthe financial situation as a whole, rejects thebonus-payment plan, and proposes alternative inflationary devices.The memorandum is signed by ProfessorsGarfield V. Cox, Aaron Director, Paul H.Douglas, Harry D. Gideonse, Frank H.Knight, Harry A. Millis, Lloyd W. Mints,Henry Schultz, Henry C. Simons, JacobViner, Chester W. Wright and TheodoreO. Yntema.The deflation continues, these observersagree, because costs remain high, relativeto commodity prices. This fundamentalcost-price maladjustment is aggravated byresistance to the downward swing on thepart of wages, rents, and other fixed chargesinvolved in production, particularly in thecase of goods and services provided bypublic utilities and other business characterized by "an exceeding politeness of competition."The major recommendation calls for"generous federal expenditures, financedwithout resort to taxes on commodities ortransactions." Large-scale sale of government bonds to the Federal Reserve banks issuggested, the funds thus created being expended heavily for unemployment relief andfor public and semipublic improvementswhich can be readily started and stopped.This method of inflation, the economistsassert, "can now be productive of tremendous gains, with no possible losses of compensating magnitude." Too meager or tooshort-lived inflation would be dangerous,they believe, but once the upward swing of prices and production has begun, no attemptshould be made to stabilize at a specifiedlevel. Inflationary support should becautiously but promptly withdrawn, so thatno boom might ensue. The unlikely butconceivable possibility that America mightbe forced off the gold standard during theinflationary process they regard withoutalarm."Severe depression and deflation can bechecked, and recovery initiated, either byvirtue of automatic adjustments, or bydeliberate governmental action," the document begins. "The automatic process involves tremendous losses, in wastage ofproductive capacity and in acute suffering.It requires drastic reduction of wage-rates,rents and other 'sticky' prices, notably thosein industries where readjustments are impeded by monopoly. It must also involvewidespread insolvency and financial reorganization, with consequent reduction offixed charges, in order that firms may beplaced in position to obtain necessary working capital when and where expansion ofoutput becomes profitable."Given drastic deflation of costs andelimination of fixed charges business willdiscover opportunities for profitably increasing employment, firms will become anxiousto borrow, and banks will be more willingto lend."As long as wage-cutting is evaded by reducing employment, and as long as monopolies, including public utilities, resist pressure for lower prices, deflation may continueindefinitely. The more intractable the'sticky' prices, the further credit contractionwill go, and the more drastic must be theultimate readjustment."We have developed an economy in whichthe volume and velocity of credit is exceedingly flexible and sensitive, while wagesand pegged prices are highly resistant todownward pressure. This is at once theexplanation of our plight and the grounds3^33^4 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEupon which governmental action may bejustified. Recovery can be brought about,either by reduction of costs to a level consistent with existing commodity prices, orby injecting enough new purchasing powerso that much larger production will beprofitable at existing costs. The firstmethod is conveniently automatic but dreadfully slow. The second, while readilyamenable to abuse, only requires a courageous fiscal policy on the part of the central government."Heavy contributions toward relief of distress is the most urgent, and, for reflation,perhaps the most effective price-raisingmeasure, the economists believe. Largeappropriations for public improvements arealso an attractive expedient, provided projects are chosen which can be quickly startedand opportunely stopped. Federal unemployment relief and bonus legislation "bothinvolve a sort of outright gift," but the former "involves allocation according to need,when need is dreadfully acute"; the otherignores this criterion completely. Fundsspent for relief would certainly be spentfor commodities, and very promptly, whileless needy veterans might only use additional cash further to increase hoarded savings."One should recognize at the outset adanger that any measures of fiscal inflationmight be too meager and too short-lived.Parsimonious inflation is an illusory economy. We might experience temporary revival and then serious relapse. If we endorse inflation, we should be prepared toadminister heavy doses of stimulant, if necessary, to continue them until recovery isfirmly established. It is obvious that bonusmeasures fail utterly to provide this necessary flexibility."Political expediency calls for a method ofinflation which will not be alarming, thereport states. "The issue of Greenbacksseems most expedient ; but this method mustbe ruled out unless one is ready to abandonthe gold standard, for it would create thegreatest danger of domestic drain. Largesales of federal bonds in the open marketwould be much less alarming; but theprobable effect upon the price of such bonds must give us pause, especially since a markeddecline might jeopardize the position ofmany banks. It would certainly be betterfor the government to sell new issues directly to the Reserve banks, or, in effect,to exchange bonds for bank deposits andFederal Reserve notes. Much may be saidfor issuing the bonds with the circulatingprivilege."We must be prepared to see a sort ofrace between depletion of the gold holdingsof the Reserve banks and improvements ofbusiness. If the time comes, as it probablywill not, when we must choose between recovery and convertibility, we must thenabandon gold, pending the not distant timewhen world recovery would permit our returning to the old standard on the old basis.The supposedly awful consequences of departure from gold are, as England hasshown, nothing but fantastic illusions."With improvement of business, federalrevenues will automatically increase. Indeed, one might maintain that temporary inflation is the most promising means to restore a balanced budget. Congress shouldrecord the intention of balancing expenditures and revenues over a period of, say,four or five years."We have suggested that for the periodof the ensuing five years all federal expenditures, including those of an emergencycharacter, should be covered by tax revenues. To minimize the total necessary outlay, outlays should be very generous now.It would be wise to avoid any new taxeswhich fall at the producer's (or dealer's)margin. The levies on income, however,should be advanced immediately to themaximum levels which an imperfect, butimproving, administrative system can support."Even after recovery, additional commodity taxes should be resorted to only ifmore equitable levies prove inadequate tofull completion of the 'five year plan.' Indeed, by 1940, our federal debt should standat a figure far below that contemplated byexisting legislation. We should have highincome taxes when incomes are high. Suchtaxes would now have no serious deterrenteffect on business, and they could be leviedNEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES 3^5at the present time with least political resistance."Successful resort to fiscal methods forterminating deflation will present the veryserious problem of keeping recovery within safe bounds. A merely salutary inflation-treatment will fail to satisfy manygroups. There will certainly be demandfor more inflation and more 'prosperity'than we can afford or sanely endure. Inflation should be abandoned, and reversed,long before many individual industries andclasses have obtained the measure of reliefwhich justice might prescribe. It should notbe viewed as a method of solving the agricultural problem or deflating the rentier."There is no immediate problem of excessive inflation — rather a danger of doingnothing or of a too modest beginning.Once there is clear evidence of revival, however, the mechanism of credit expansion willbegin to operate. As soon as this happens,retrenchment must be started. We shouldnot attempt to bring prices to any level wechoose to regard as normal. Once recoveryis given a sure start, the real task will bethat of preventing the recovery from becoming a boom. The seeds of booms aresown by innocent expansion of credit duringyears of seemingly wholesome revival."* * * ^ *A remarkable three thousand mile flightover the Holy Land and the buried citiesof the ancient Near East, shooting scenesfor a sound motion picture called "TheNew Past," to be produced this autumn bythe Oriental Institute, constituted thisyear's field survey for Charles Breasted,executive secretary of the Institute and sonof the University's famous archaeologist,Professor James H. Breasted.Bringing with him 12,000 feet of film,most of it depicting the excavations of theInstitute's twelve expeditions, CharlesBreasted returned in May from his ventureover Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Turkey, Iraqand Persia.The first section of "The New Past,"containing a synopsis of the rise and development of civilization as described byProfessor Breasted, was completed in February. The second section, upon which explanatory continuity will be dubbed insound, will be drawn from the film whichhas recently arrived. The picture will beshown publicly this fall.The Chicago flying party was piloted byCaptain Gordon V. Olley, chief charterpilot of the Imperial Airways, Ltd., whohas frequently carried the Prince of Wales,the King of Belgium and other Europeannotables. The plane was a tri-motoredFokker-type 10 passenger ship, the othermembers of the party being the cameraman,a radio operator, an assistant pilot andPrentice Duell, field director of the Institute's Sakkara expedition."Accompanied by Mr. Reed Haythorne,our cameraman especially dispatched fromAmerica," Charles reports, "we took off atdawn on March 23 from Heliopolis airdrome outside Cairo and headed northeastfor Biblical Gaza in Palestine where werefuelled before continuing on across theDead Sea, Transjordania, and the nearlysix hundred miles of desert beyond whichlies Baghdad. In the middle of this desertlies a tiny Beau-Geste-like fortress guarding the ancient Rutbah Wells — a place nolarger than a pin point on the map, yet bymeans of Marconi's remarkable new direction finder, a haven for all the air services. Behind its barbed wire entanglementsand machine gun emplacements you may eatan excellent meal while your plane is beingrefuelled. Every drop of gasoline and morsel of food has been hauled across the desertfrom Damascus or Baghdad by motor convoy."From Rutbah we flew on to Baghdadthrough a fiendish dust storm in whichvisibility was nil and progress was possibleonly by constantly establishing our positionthrough radio. Captain Olley who hadnever before flown this route literally bisected the Baghdad airdrome, and broughtus safely down. After a sleepless, chokingnight, the dust settled as suddenly as itrose, and we were able to record in 'movies'the work of our Iraq Expedition, stationedabout 50 miles out in the barren plainnortheast of Baghdad, where we are excavating two large ancient Babylonian citiesthe latest 'layers' of which date from366 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE2500 B. C, or some 4500 years ago."Thence we pushed on to Basra, thegreat port of Iraq on the Persian Gulf, andon to Bushire, our airport of entry intoPersia. The dust had risen again and wefelt our way along the Persian coast in atwilight through which, after Bushire, wehad to climb to 12,000 feet before we foundthe clear sunlight. The silver-tan peaksof three great mountain ranges stood out inthe late sun, here and there covered withsnow. Sailing along in the even, cold upper air we came at length to Shiraz whichlies in a plain over five thousand feet abovesea level, and thence by car continued toPersepolis, the most magnificent site of theancient world with the single exception ofthe Acropolis at Athens."Persepolis, the capital of the PersianEmpire, built by Darius the Great about 500B. C. and destroyed by Alexander the Greatin 331 B. C, stands at the base of a blackmountain on a great terrace built of gigantic blocks of stones taller than a man, andsurveys a vast plain encircled by mountains.Here ruled the emperors of ancient Persia— and here today the Oriental Institute isexcavating and restoring this place oftransient grandeur. Our Expedition headquarters is the reconstructed harem ofDarius ! Needless to say, our cinema recordof Persepolis — the first one over made onstandard size film — is of remarkable interest."From Persepolis we drove back toShiraz (a distance of some 40 miles) andonce more enplaned for Bushire and Baghdad where we were again delayed by a duststorm — the one in which Colonel Regnier,President of the League of Nations Frontiers Commission, crashed with pilot andcompanion as they were en route fromDamascus to Baghdad to consider the realignment of the frontiers of Kurdistanwhere at the moment the mountaineers arein a state of war. As we took off fromBaghdad early on the morning of March 30,we watched the funeral cortege."After recording the Institute's work atKhorsabad, some eighteen miles northeastfrom Mosul, where we are excavating thepalace and city of King Sargon II, once ruler of Assyria, from whose palace the In-stitute secured the great winged stone bullnow installed in its exhibition halls here atthe Chicago headquarters, we continuedon, southwestward across the desert, viaRutbah to the shores of the Lake of Galileewhence by car we achieved our expeditionexcavating the Mound of Megiddo, whichguards the pass leading through the CarmelRange of hills. Every army of ancienttimes marching from Palestine to Egypt orthe reverse, had to use this pass, and evenin the late War, Lord Allenby sent throughit in a single night his 20,000 cavalry. Itwas natural that in very early times sostrategic a point should be occupied by atown which gradually grew to large proportions. The Institute is peeling offstratum after stratum of different occupations, and at present has laid bare thecity of the time of Solomon (about 950 B,C. ) where you may walk through the stablesonce occupied by his blooded horses whichhe traded with neighboring countries. Herewe made a fascinating picture record, including that of a newly discovered tombdeep in the native rock."From Megiddo we returned to the Lakeof Galilee and took off again, circling overNazareth and Haifa, and above Megiddo,photographing as we went, and southwardto Jerusalem, and at length back over theSuez Canal to Cairo where we added toour ground record of Luxor and Memphisair views of the Great Pyramids, the stepPyramid, and the ancient cemetery of Memphis, before coming down once more atHeliopolis airdrome."On a magic carpet, albeit to the roar ofthree motors, we had circled the majorportion of the ancient Near East, had secured some twelve thousand feet of uniquemotion picture record, and had in the faceof every sort of obstacle, returned to ourstarting point on absolutely scheduled time.I can conceive of the day — it may even beupon us now — when a far-flung archeologi-cal organization will find its own aircraftindispensable to the maximum efficiency ofits field work."The Near East is literally a great warehouse of buried ancient cities and townsATHLETICS 367filled with the paraphernalia of man's dailyexistence thousands of years ago — equipment long since 'written off' by the inexorable wear and tear of history. From ourexcavations it is hoped there will grow theauthoritative History of Civilization."*****Personal intelligence : Walter G. Preston, assistant to President Hutchins sinceJanuary, 1930, has resigned that positionto become vice-president of the BankersReserve Life Co., of Omaha. Mr. Preston was married in May to MargueriteNelson, '24. . . . Dr. Arno B. Luckhardt,Professor of Physiology, was elected President of the American Physiology Society atthe annual meeting in Philadelphia, Dr. A.J. Carlson being made editor of Physiological Reviews. . . . Ronald T. Crane, Professor of English, and Hayward Keniston,Professor of Spanish, have been elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences,membership in which is limited to 250. . . .George Dillon, '27, has been awarded the$1000 Pulitzer Prize for poetry, this following the publication of his second volumeof verse, The Flowering Stone. . . .Two members of a New York party cooperating with Professor Compton's worldwide cosmic ray survey, Allen Carpe andTheodore Koven, were killed in May climbing the Muldrow glacier on Mt. McKinley,Alaska, and Dr. Ralph Bennett, lately ofthe local physics department and now ofthe Massachusetts Institute of Technology,is heading a second party dispatched tomake the Alaska tests. . . . The Collegeexecutive committee, the University Senateconcurring, has at length abolished compulsory gymnasium requirements and hasrecommended the expansion of facilities forintramural athletics.William V. Morgenstern, '20, J.D., '22Scores of the MonthBaseballChicago, 2 Wisconsin, 6Chicago, 1 Michigan, 5Chicago, II; Lake Forest, 10Chicago, 8 Minnesota, 2Chicago, 3 • Minnesota, 13Chicago, 2 Purdue, 6Chicago, 9 Purdue, 18Chicago, 0 Western State, 4Chicago, 5 • Michigan, 3Chicago, 5 • Michigan State, 7Chicago, 1 ; Wisconsin, 5Triangular : TrackWisconsin, 88Chicago, 66Northwestern, 20 Triangular :Indiana, 88Chicago, 39Purdue, 38Quadrangular :Marquette, 89 ViChicago, 42%Illinois St. Nor., 29%Loyola, 2^Chicago, 82%; Illinois St. Nor., 57^TennisChicago, 5 ; Northwestern, 1Chicago, 1 ; Illinois, 5Chicago, 6; Notre Dame, oChicago-Ohio; rainChicago, 5; Bradley, o368 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGolfChicago, ioj^; Loyola, 7^Chicago, 12; Iowa, 6Chicago, 7; Illinois, 11Chicago, ioj^; DeP'aul, 7j4*****THERE is no evidence of an athleticrenaissance in the record for thespring competition but the generalattitude of those who have refused to become disheartened during the last -Rveyears, and therefore have enough interestto peer hopefully into "next year," is thatthings generally are on the upgrade. Thelocomotive which is to pull all Chicagoteams into winning runs is the 1932 football team and the possibilities of that teamare very good. The perennial hopes aredependent on eligibility of the freshmangroup, and the important news concerningChicago's future will be known as soon asthe comprehensive examinations, now beingadministered for the first time, are graded.What evidence there is in advance indicates that most of the freshmen will be ableto pass the new type examinations, but theissue hangs on the showing of a few keymen. With them, Chicago will have a football team that need ask no favors in anycompetition; without them, the team willbe good, but not brilliant. And those whohave fed on hope for the long years since1924, when the 21-21 tie game with theGrange Illini marked the football peak ofthe post-war years, will have to postponetheir celebrations for at least another yearif the team is just a good one.Leaving the realm of speculation, andgetting down to facts, nothing spectacularwas achieved by the spring quarter teams.The baseball team finished in ninth place,with a record of 3 games won and 7 lost.It never was able to play consistently goodball, largely because the hitting was sporadic. The loss of such veterans as Fish,Cahill, Urban, H. C. Johnson, and BillOlson, who gave the team punch in thepinches last season, was very noticeable.Roy Henshaw, the lefthander who had sucha fine season as a sophomore, was just anordinarily effective pitcher this season. Hewas troubled with a bad arm, and he was apparently upset by the uncertain supporthe was getting. Only four men, Gene Buzzell and Harold Wilkins, outfielders,Frank Howard, catcher, and Joe Temple,third baseman, will be graduated, andCoach Page has had his eye on 1933 allthis season. The freshman team as a wholewas weak, but there are several highlypromising placers who fit in where the needis greatest. Gordon Clark, of Okmulgee,son of the Maroon athlete of earlier days,is a lefthanded first baseman with greatspeed, a good arm, and a keen batting eye.Clark should be the best first baseman theMaroon club has had in years. MerrettLovett, of Oak Park, a righthander, is aclever infielder who can be used at secondor third base. David Levine, from HarvardPrep School, Chicago, is an outfielder ofpromise. He hits and throws lefthanded.All three of these players hit above .500in ten games against the varsity and varsityreserves. Wendell Hamilton, from Lind-blom high, Chicago, and Ralph Hamilton,Hyde Park, are good outfield prospects.Hamilton was switched from a right handedto a left handed batter, a change thatbrought marked improvement. Phil Cole,a fine fielding infielder, who does somespectacular piece of work in almost everygame, likewise has improved in hitting afterbeing switched from a right to left handedbatter. The best pitching prospect is LeRoy McMahon, of Calumet high, Chicago,a righthander with a deceptive delivery anda hop on his fast ball. He is wild and needsexperience, but he has made steady progress and by next year should be of considerable value.The track team started with very little,but it developed as the season went on. Oneof the best achievements was that of JohnRoberts, who added several inches to hisbest height in the high jump, and tied forfourth place in the conference with a 6foot leap. Roberts apparently has notreached the limit of his possibilities. JeromeJontry did good work in the 440. JohnBrooks, the best man on the team, specialized in the conference and remained out ofthe dashes and low hurdles, to win thebroad jump with a 25 foot performance.ATHLETICS 369Brooks is a good competitor, and he provedit when Gohl of Purdue got out in frontby an inch, Brooks coming through withhis 25 foot effort on his only remainingtrial.There will not be much strength gainedfrom the freshman team, though some ofthe new men will improve. Eugene Ovson of Oak Park has done 44 feet, I inchin the shot, which is ordinarily good enoughfor a place in the conference meet. FrankTaussig of U. High has broad jumped 22feet, 8 inches. William H. Sills, of thesame school, who has run 0:54 in the quarter, and Orville Bernes, Kankakee, whodid 0:53.3, have promise. Barton Smith,the football end, will make a good lowhurdler next season when he can concentrateon that event and pay less attention tospring football practice.The tennis team was third in the conference, losing one match to Illinois, andvery probably being saved from defeat byOhio by a rainstorm. The team won nineout of ten of its dual matches, includingtwo victories in the conference. The doubles team of Capt. Paul Stagg and MaxDavidson was just a little shy of being conference champions, losing a 5 set match inthe semifinals to Lejeck and Hands of Illinois, after three times having match point.Stagg graduates, as does Lawrence Schmidt,who has been on the team three years. Herman Ries, who won all but one of his dualmeet matches, playing number 3, remains,as does Max Davidson, who won all hismatches as No. 2 man. Trevor Weiss, alefthander from Hyde Park, who went tothe semifinals of the Chicago interscholasticlast year, and with Sidney Weiss won thedoubles, heads the freshman team. Heis seventh ranking junior player in the westand will develop. Elmore Patterson, sonof an old "C" man, rates second on thefreshman team, but there is considerable ofa gap between Weiss and Patterson atpresent. Sidney Weiss ranks as the thirdman. The two Weiss boys, incidentally,are not related. Altogether, the varsityteam next year should be better than this.Twenty members of the baseball, track,and tennis teams received the major "C." John Brooks and John Roberts, sophomores,won the letter for the first time, as didEdward Haydon and Jerome Jontry, juniors, and Thomas Goodrich, senior. Capt.Roy Black, who won his letter last year,also received the "C." In baseball, TedDecker, John. Lynch, Harlan O. Page, Jr.,and Ashley Offil received the letter for oneyear of service. Frank Howard and JoeTemple were awarded letters for two yearsof service, and Harold Wilkins for threeyears. Previous baseball "C" men who received letters were Charles Buzzell, RoyHenshaw, Clarence Johnson, and GeorgeMahoney. Max Davidson, sophomore,won a letter for one year of service, andHerman Ries for two years' work. Capt.Paul Stagg won his third letter in tennis.No major awards were made in golf.The athletic year ended with the traditional baseball game between the Varsityand an alumni team recruited from hitherand yon. Despite the efforts of Fritz Cris-ler, Harold Moulton, Pat Page, et al, thefinal score was rather lop-sidedly in favorof the Varsity.Undergraduate RamblingsBy Rube S. Frodin, Jr.PERHAPS the most significant eventof the last month, from the viewpoint of change in existing undergraduate institutions, has been the abolition of compulsory gymnasium by the College faculty. By a 35-22 vote they removed the existing requirements and placedthe facilities of the men's and women's gymdepartments on a voluntary basis. Specifically the faculty recommendation to theUniversity Senate was as follows:For the entering class next autumn aplan should be adopted which provides : ( 1 )a fair trial of the experiment of conducting Physical Culture on a voluntary basis;(2) adequate facilities for and instructionin Intramural sports; and (3) physical examinations and health conferences for allcollege students more frequent than atpresent.This action by the College faculty marksthe end of a year's struggle on the part ofThe Daily Maroon to secure a referendumon the subject of compulsory gym. TheDaily Maroon, under the leadership ofLouis N. Ridenour, Jr., was only guidedby student opinion on the Physical Culturetopic, and used its editorial columns to promote the arguments of the students againstthe requirement.The active campaign against the gymrequirement of six quarters (and in thewomen's department certain specificcourses) was commenced at the beginningof winter quarter. On January 19 the nowextinct Undergraduate council passed aresolution recommending a reconsiderationof the entire gym question. On January22 The Daily Maroon conducted a one-daypoll which showed students to be 3-1against compulsory gym. In a second poll,conducted over a four-day period, 955 outof 1,427 undergraduates cast their votesagainst the requirements. The Board ofWomen's Organizations then sought anexclusive women's poll which showed disfavor among the women toward the existingPhysical Culture System. The case for the students in the entirematter was brought up before the facultyby C. S. Boucher, Dean of the College,who cited the efforts of The Daily Maroonand the poll conducted by it.An expression of the new trend in Undergraduate activities which has sprung up oncampus during the past year was shownby the action of the Student Committeeon Student Affairs in the creation of a newoffice in publications — that of Student publisher. After careful investigation on thepart of the Student Committee, CharlesNewton, Jr., '33, was named to assume thenew job. Newton was selected because ofhis business experience and connections withpublications at the University, at Kentuckyand at Illinois.The office was created for the coordination of student publications with an eye totheir improvement. Since Newton's appointment the Cap and Gown has takenover the publication of the Student Handbook and the Undergraduate Directory. Asingle business manager will exercise authority over each of these three publications.As reported last month the seniors startedtheir annual mustache race with great zeal.For two weeks the members of the class of'32 gardened their faces, and each day theygathered around the "C" bench at noon tosee who was getting ahead. Two prominent campus figures, Stillman Frankland,president of the Senior class, and Louis N.Ridenour, editor of The Daily Maroon,failed to start the sought after bush. Theseniors held a council of war and thenissued the proclamation to the two : "Growa mustache," said they, "or it's the BotanyPond for you." Frankland decided hewould start a mustache. Ridenour demurred. One day a band of thirty seniorspicketed the Maroon office, secured thebody of the editor and hustled him off andinto the Botany Pond. When the day ofjudgment came, the possessors of the bestmustaches gathered in front of Cobb, andthe head barber of Reynolds Club measured370THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 371The Personality ofAmerica's FinestEngraving Plant"V:ISITORS notice it — clients remark about it — all of us herefeel it — a "something/' a sortof a driving force that gets thework doneandstill keeps everybody happy. Something intangible, yet of worth to us andto those whom we serve.* This thing has gone far beyond ourdoors. It has attracted the finest artisans of the business — hasspread the fame of this shop from Oregon to Georgia. Kindof a mechanical 'it/ we like to think of it as "The Personalityof America's Finest Engraving Plant.COLLINS & ALEXANDER, INC.65 E. South Water St. Phone Central 4090 ChicagoF-WONTINO SOUTI-fON JAtf!<dbf>f RAWKBetU STREET AND THC LAKE "AtmosphereWhether you are seeking a distinguished place to live or planninga social function that requires a luxurious setting, you will searchno further once you have made an inspection of^btels ||in(Ier»mere56th Street at The Lake WARD B. JAMES, ManagerFairfax 6000372 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe different growths. Lo and behold thewinner! Wilfred Davis '32. Although itis no discredit to Mr. Davis, campus notables and athletes had never heard of him."Off to the Botany Pond with him," theycried. And off to the Botany Pond hewent — and in.Deferred rushing on the part of thewomen's clubs, which was in effect thisyear, saw the pledging of seventy-sevenFreshmen women late in May. This number is approximately one-half last year'stotal, when autumn pledging of freshmenwas the rule. Mortar Board led with atotal of sixteen pledges. Esoteric, Quad-rangier and Pi Delta Phi each pledgedeight. Sigma and Wyvern each pledgedseven. The other clubs pledged as follows :Achoth, six ; Chi Rho Sigma, four ; Arrian,four; Phi Delta Upsilon, three; Phi BetaDelta, two ; Delta Sigma, two ; and Deltho,two.While on the subject of deferred rushing — no action has been taken on the GreekCouncil's plea for a moratorium to helpthe fraternity situation. This writer feelsthat it is the University's aim and desirethat the system of deferred rushing go intoeffect next year. There is insufficientreason for delaying the action — especiallywhere it is doubtful that a moratoriumwould do any good.Within a week after the Blackfriarshow, "Whoa Henry," was presented inMandel Hall, the new Board of Superiorsfor 1932-33 was selected and announced.Henry Sulcer, Jr., '33, Psi Upsilon, wasnamed as abbot for next year. AlfredJacobsen, '33, Sigma Chi, became the newprior, and Robert Balsley, y33, Delta KappaEpsilon, was elected hospitaller. RobertBohnen, '33, Chi Psi, is the new scribe.The eighteenth annual Commerce andAdministration banquet was held in JudsonCourt on May 19, with Dean William H. Spencer and James O. McKinsey as theprincipal speakers. The Delta Sigma Pikey for scholastic excellence was awardedto Anthony Alic, a senior in the C. & A.school. Alic has received A's in twelveout of the fourteen courses he has taken.The Alpha Kappa Psi medallion awardedto the student with the best record for hisfirst year in the school was presented toWinston Hanson.A word about the Freshman class whichhas been subjected to the first year of thenew plan — they received the fourth highestrating on psychological tests taken by entering students in 177 colleges last October.These tests were prepared by Prof. L. L.Thurstone, chief examiner at the University,and given to a total of 165,341 students.Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania, led the entire country with a medianscore of 241.67. Wells College, Aurora,New York, ranked second with a score of213.89. The freshman class of DartmouthCollege rated 206.67 and the entering classof the University of Chicago had a medianscore of 202.21.President Robert Maynard Hutchinshas announced that he will continue hishonors course for another two years.Started in the fall of 1930, in collaborationwith Mortimer Adler, professor of philosophy, the class consisted of twenty studentswhose field was the development of westerncivilization.In a poll conducted by the Crusaders,campus anti-prohibition organization, 435ballots were cast. Eighty-one per cent ofthe students felt that the present generation could not accept the face value of theEighteenth Amendment. Eighty-seven percent of the students voting felt that thepresent generation should take an active partin modifying, amending or repealing theEighteenth Amendment and 64% said thatthe amendment should be repealed.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 373Peregrinations with aPurposeTHE Intercollegiate Travel ExtensionService of the American ExpressCompany is venturing to offer a highly specialized group of Educational Tours,which it is hoped will commend themselvesto educators, alumni and students as worthyof the name.The itineraries have been worked outwith special reference to the subject to beemphasized on each tour. The EducationalDirectors are men well known in their particular fields. They have been over theground again and again and know how thewealth of material available may best beused in connection with the tour.The Music Lovers Tour is planned forstudents and teachers of music, as well asthe larger group of persons who derivepleasure and inspiration from music.The Education Study Tour is intendedfor people seriously concerned with the studyof educational systems and institutions, thepurpose being to orient the visitor with respect to the educational systems of Germany,Austria and Holland.The members of the European IndustriesTour will have the opportunity of gettinga first-hand picture of the industrial andeconomic situation in Europe.The Architectural Tour will cover theimportant steps in the history and development of architecture from the beginning tothe present time.The great art shrines in the famous artcenters of Europe will be visited on the ArtTour.It is suggested that you write to theAmerican Express Company, 65 Broadway,New York City, the American Express office nearest to you, or to your Alumni Secretary, and more detailed information andliterature giving itineraries and costs, willbe sent you promptly. A BELL SYSTEM IDEAL... to give the public constantly better telephone service^^§. at the lowest costconsistent withfinancial safety.UNIVERSITYCOLLEGEThe downtown department of The University of Chicago, 18 S. Michigan Avenue,wishes the Alumni of the University andtheir friends to know that it offersEvening, Late Afternoon and Saturday ClassesTwo-Hour Sessions Once or Twice a WeekCourses Credited Toward University DegreesAutumn, Winter and Spring QuartersSummer Session, six weeks, from June 27 to Aug.25Registration Period, June 21 to 25For Information, AddressDean C. F. Huth, University College,University of Chicago, Chicago, 111.Albert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago535 Fifth Ave., New York415 Hyde Bldg., SpokaneA general Placement Bureau for men andwomen in all kinds of teaching positions.Large and alert College, and State Teachers' College departments for Doctors andMasters; Critics and Supervisors for Normals. Also many calls for Special teachersof Music, Art, Home Economics, BusinessAdministration.CorrespondenceTeaching.Fine opportunities in Secondary Schools.A host of best Suburban patrons for gradeand High School teachers. Read ourbooklet. Call.Alumni Professional DirectoryBIOLOGICAL SUPPLIESPresident, C. Blair Coursen '22General Biological Supply House761-763 East 69th Place, ChicagoDorchester 3700NEWS OF THE CLASSESAND ASSOCIATIONSElection ResultsPresident .Second Vice-PresidentExecutive Committee „Council Delegates .PaulS. Russell/ 16.Louise Norton Swain, 'og.Alice Greenacre, so8Elmer Donahue, '21.Paul S. Russell, * 16Elizabeth Faulkner, J8$Milton E. Robinson, s11Willoughby G. Walling, sggHenry D. S ulcer, so6Harry R. Swans on, s IJCollegeThomas R. Weddel! writes that the Class of*86 holds an unbroken record of annual reunions,and that each is more enjoyable than the last.1897Zelma Clark has started something new inhousing for business women at her home at5830 Harper Avenue, Chicago. Miss Clark hasbeen head resident of several large women'shalls, for the University of Michigan, and theY. Wo C. A,, and is a member of the Committeeon Housing of the Chicago Council of SocialAgencies.1898Henry Justin Smith is preparing the officialhistory of Chicago for the Century of ProgressExposition in 1933.1899Marcy I. Berger is State Secretary of theConnecticut Jersey Cattle Club, and is muchinterested in his dairy business. He lives atWoodbury, Conn., Old Titchfield Turnpike.1900Edwin D. Solenberger is general Secretary ofthe Children's Aid Society in Pennsylvania, andpresident of the executive committee of the National Conference of Social Work01901Arthur E. Bestor has been elected presidentof the Lake Placid Educational Foundation.1902Harold Bennett Challis has been singing inthe opera for a number of years. At presenthis home address is 26 Arrandale Ave., GreatNeck, L. 1 1904Rose J. McHugh is with the school o£ sociologyand social service at Fordham University, NewYork.1907Faith H. Dodge, 7425 Jeffery Ave., was oneof the speakers at the convention of the National Association of Modern Languages at theDrake Hotel, May 6 and 7. Her address wasentitled "Buen Provecho" and was given inSpanish. *** Jessie Foster is at Scarsdale Lodge,Scarsdale, N. Y. *** Odell Shepard, Ph.M. '08,now teaching at Trinity College, is the authorof the Phi Beta Kappa Centennial Ode, "TheAmerican Scholar." *** Florence R. Scott is backin England again after a five week trip in Italyand Sicily. Her English address is CrosbyHall, Cheyne Walk, London. *** Arthur GibbonBovee has just published a new book called"Aventures par la Lecture," a second yearreader in French, which is unique in America asfar as plan and contents are concerned.1909Ben H. Badenoch is in charge of the office ofthe Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company at Boston. He and his family live at 6Croftdale Road, Newton Centre, Mass. *** H.R. Halsey's new business address in New Yorkis 285 Madison Ave. *** J. W. Shidler, A.M.'21, is state representative for Macmillan Company.1910Abigail C. Lazelle, A.M. '31, is a member ofthe French Department of Cedar Crest College,Allentown, Pa01911Paul H« Davis was recently appointed to theBoard of Trustees of Armour Institute of Tech-374THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 375BROKERSRalph W. Stansbury, '14STANSBURY & CO.Investment Securities105 W. Adams St. Franklin 4101HARRY C. WATTS & CO., Inc.INVESTMENT -:- SECURITIES39 So. LaSalle St. Rand. 7804Harry C. Watts, '11 Pres.CHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, '12EPSTEIN, REYNOLDS and HARRISConsulting Chemists and Chemical Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4286DENTISTSDr. Kermit F. Knudtzon, '25DENTISTSuite 1619 Pittsfield Bldg. 55 E. Washington St.Hours by Appointment State 1396EMPLOYMENTFor Your Office and Sales AssistantsBoth Men and WomenDavis Personnel Service, Inc.One LaSalle St. Cen. 4232GERTRUDE G. DAVIS '18ENGINEERSJudson S. Tyley, '18 Secy.E. H. Ward & Company, Inc.Engineers of Tests60S South Dearborn St.FLOOR COVERINGSEdw.J*. Bezazian, '25Oriental RugsDomestic Carpets and RugsThe Tobey Furniture Co.200 N. Michigan Avenue State 4300INSURANCEC. F. AXELSON, '07Chartered Life UnderwriterREPRESENTINGThe Northwestern Mutual Life Ins. Co.209 So. LaSalle St. Tel. State 0633 INSURANCE — continuedELLSWORTH E. HOFFSTADT '24INSURANCEIn All Its BranchesFaixfax 72001180 E. 63rd Street Fairfax 5353LAUNDRIESR. C. WEINBERG '31ECLIPSE LAUNDRY CO."Artists in Washer aft"Triangle 7500949-957 E. 75th St.LITHOGRAPHINGL. C. MEAD 'zi E. J. CHALIFOUX %^^PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing725 So. LaSalle St. Harrison 3624RADIOWMAQOfficial Broadcasting Station ofThe University of ChicagoWilliam S. Hedges, '18 Mgr.REAL ESTATEJ. Alton Lauren, '19J. Alton Lauren and Co.139 N. Clark St. Randolph 2068SEEDS (Wholesale)OSTBERG SEED CO.Wholesale Seeds7301 Woodlawn Ave. Phone Dorchester 0314SOUND FILM"LIFE ON THE QUADRANGLES"Produced byThe Vitaglo CorporationMakers of Educational and Commercial Sound Films4942 Sheridan Road Longbeach 6380SPORTING GOODSRAY WHITEAthletic EquipmentComplete Golf and Tennis Supplies28 East Jackson Blvd.Webster 4082 Ray White, '16376 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEnology. *** Albert T. Volwiler, A.M., heads thehistory department of Wittenberg College,Springfield, Ohio.1912Paul Hoffman, ex, is president of Sales, forthe Studebaker Corporation. *** Mrs. James M.Pearce (Lydia Lee) occupies herself with herthree children and her classes in public speakingat Tilden Tech.1913Margaret Greene may now be reached atR. R. No. 2, Box 440, Indianapolis, Ind.1914Laura M. Smith is assistant to the PersonnelVice-president of the American Telephone andTelegraph Co. *** John A. Greene is vice-president and general manager of the Ohio BellTelephone Co., with offices at 750 Huron Road,Cleveland.1915Andrew P. Juhl, A.M., teaches at RooseveltHigh School at Fresno, Calif. *** Edith MaeBell, A.M., '16, is lecturing on the psychology ofreligion in Detroit.1916Edmund M. Holmes, A.M., is in his thirteenthyear with the department of philosophy andEnglish Bible at Simpson College, Indianola,Iowa. *** Roderick MacPherson, ex, is associated with Lawrence Stern and Co., 231 S.LaSalle. *** Mrs. Florence Chisholm Bowlesinvestigates applicants for City Welfare Aid,acting as a volunteer under Red Cross supervision, at Detroit. *** Icie G. Macy is directorof the research laboratory for the Children'sFund of Michigan.1917Joseph J. Levin is with A. G. Becker andCo., 100 So. LaSalle Street.1918Helen E. Lath, A.M. '20, teaches Latin andGerman at the State College, Superior, Wis. ***Helen Elizabeth Richie is director of the kindergarten, Lower Primary division, of NorthrupCollegiate School at Minneapolis, Minn. ***Nellie L. Walker is studying at Columbia University this semester.1919Ruth F. Mueller is teaching social science andSpanish at Frances Willard Junior High School,Santa Ana, Calif.1920E. D. Ries is with the DuPont Experiment Station at Wilmington, Dela. *** B. B. Ballard,connected with Updike Grain Co-operating Company for Farmers' National Grain Corporation, is a wheat broker with the Chicago Board ofTrade. *** Charles L. Crumly is Y. M. C. A.secretary at Oregon State College, CorvallisOregon. *** Corinne Rulag is Principal of anelementary school at Indianapolis.1921Katherine A. Sisson, who teaches French andHistory at Hyde Park High School, will be oncampus this summer, taking work on theFrench Revolution. *** Laurentza Schantz-Hansen is head of the department of applieddesign at Purdue University. *** F. TaylorGurney has taught for the last eight years atthe American College of Teheran, under thePresbyterian Board of Foreign Missions. He isprofessor of chemistry and physics. At presenthe and his family are on furlough in this countryand Mr. Gurney is taking work at the University. *** Marjorie S. Logan directs the artdepartment of Milwaukee-Downer College. ***Edith Vorees teaches economics at the seniorhigh school at Fort Lee, N. J.1922Ethel M. Wood A.M., is selling life insurancefor the Equitable Life of Iowa.1924William A. Askew has left the office of Promotional Secretary to Eureka College, to accepta call to the pastorate of the First ChristianChurch of Vandalia, 111. *** Helen Rees Cliffordhas been awarded a scholarship for six weeksof study at the Sorbonne this summer, in artand archeology. This is the second time MissClifford has won the scholarship in competitiveexaminations given by the Institute for International Education, (connected with the CarnegieInstitute). Miss Clifford is an instructor inLatin at H. Sophie Newcomb College at TulaneUniversity. *** Mabel Keller and Lena Swopeare heads of elementary schools in Indianapolis.1925Mr. and Mrs. John F. Merrian (Lucy Lamon)are now living in Chicago at 7322 Phillips Ave.*** Frances F. Mauck is professor of textilesand clothing at Russell Sage College, Troy,N. Y. *** Arthur C. Dregemueller is senioraccountant with Frazer and Torbet, C.P.A., andhas been admitted to membership in the American Institute of Accountants. *** Amy IreneMoore, A.M., has made a new record for homevisiting. As Chairman of the Home VisitingCommittee for the high school at Hays, Kansas,she made 250 of the 985 calls made by the 21members of the faculty. *** Helen E. Sisson iswriting advertising copy for Marshall Field andCo., Retail Store, for the daily papers. ***George R. Pell, Jr., A. M., is principal of thehigh school at Brazil, Ind.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 377TRAVELFor Reservations, Tickets, All Steamship Linesand Travel OrsanizationsLESTER F. BLAIR, Travel Service Bureau— University of Chicago5758 Ellis Ave. Phones Midway 0800 and Plaza 3858 WAREHOUSE LOCATIONSFACTORY AND WAREHOUSELOCATIONS, INC.35 E. Wacker DriveJ. C. Erickson Huntington B. Henry, '06BUSINESS DIRECTORYARTISTS AWNINGSROFFE BEMANPortraits in Pencil and Other Media1541 East Fifty-seventh Street105 West Monroe StreetChicagoTelephones Midway 2112 and State 1815 PHONES OAKLAND 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHYDE PARK AWNING CO., Inc.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueCAROLYN D. TYLERMiniatures- Pastels- Small Sculpture1401 E. 53rd Street Midway 2772ARTIFICIAL LIMBS AND TRUSSESAMBULATORY PNEUMATIC SPLINT MFG. CO.1 861 (W.) Osden Av. Cor. S. Honore St. Phone West 2040For Best Results in Fractures of Hip, Thigh, Les, Arm, useour Air Cushioned Reduction Bed or Walking Splint.Arches, Braces, Calipers, Extensions, Crutches, Chairs,Abdominal Supporters, Elastic Goods, Invalid Chairs,Supplies. Moderate Prices, Reliable Fitting Service.AUTO SERVICEENGLEWOOD 0280CHICAGO AUTO SERVICE COMPANYComplete Auto Service Specializing In All MakesEverything For the Car436 East 63rd Street, ChicagoHartland Garage57th and Cottage GroveSERVICE ALL CARSBatteries - Tires - Gas - Oil - StorageTires - Gas - OilHYDE PARK 6816UNIVERSITY SERVICE STATION5701 Cottage Grove AvenueTEXACO GAS TEXACO ETHYL GASHigh Pressure Greasing by Experienced MenTire Service, Battery Service and Electric RepairingPhone Hyde Park 0103AUTO LIVERYCHICAGO PETERSENMOTOR LIVERYLINCOLN'S With Experienced Chauffeurs5548 Lake Park Ave. MID way 0949 BOYD & GOULD, Inc.5813-15 Wentworth AvenueARTCRAFTAWNINGS AND CANOPIESPhones Wentworth 2450-2451CARPENTERSAmes Godsted$3j/ Carpenter ContractorCarpenter Contractor1111 East 55th StreetFAIRFAX 9393-1361CEMENT WORKEMIL O/ HANSELCEMENT CONTRACTORFloors Our Specialty824 Wrightwood Ave. Phone Bittersweet 2259Let Us Do Your Cement WorkC. L. GUNGGOLL COMPANYConcrete Contractors for 30 Years6417 So. Park Ave.Normal 0434 Phones Wentworth 1799CHIROPODISTDR. G. L BIERSMITHFoot Specialist and Chiropodist1133 East Sixty-Third St.PHONE MIDWAY 1828CLEANERS AND DYERSTHE NEW DREXELCleaners and DyersWe Clean Everything from Gloves to Rugs9x12 Rugs Cleaned on Both Sides, Only $2.004720-22 Cottage Grove Ave.Phone Kenwood 6001, 6002, 6003, 600437» THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1926Georgia Robison, A.M. '29, is in Paris, doingresearch work on the French Revolution. ***V. L. Beggs, A.M. '31, is superintendent ofschools at Elmhurst, 111. *** Gertrude WillardSolenberger is teaching art and design in UpperDarby junior high school near Philadelphia.1927Ellen M. Schubarth is teaching at HarrisonTechnical high school, Chicago. *** BurtonSmith is with the Federal Reserve Bank, Chicago. *** George Dillon is to be congratulatedas the winner of the Pulitzer Prize for AmericanPoetry for 1932. "The Flowering Stone," hissecond book of verse, won him both theGuggenheim Award and the Pulitzer Prize. Inmaking the award the committee announced"The prize is awarded to Mr. Dillon as a youngpoet of very great promise." *** Joel C. Nord-lund is a missionary at Siangyang, Hupeh,China. *** F. B. Wittmer, S.M. is teachingchemistry at Blackburn College, Carlinville, 111.*** Clyde U. Phillips was vice-president of theKansas State Teachers Association, in chargeof the Wichita section last November, when over8000 teachers were in attendance. *** Irving C.Lovejoy teaches general science in Lane highschool, Chicago. *** Mabel May Whitney, A.M.'29, teaches English at Fenger high school, Chicago.1928Georgia L. Carfield is head of the art department of the Kenosha high school. *** SharlotAvery teaches in Forest Park, 111. *** CeciliaGalvin is principal of the Elementary SchoolNo. 3, at Indianapolis, Ind. *** Maude Priceis principal of an Indianapolis elementaryschool.1929Sister Agnes Rita Lingl is studying at theUniversity of Munich. *** Hazel Anderson hasbeen appointed supervising principal of theWashington school at Elmhurst, 111. *** RosaliaM. Schultz, A.M. '32 is teaching Latin andhistory at Beaver Dam high school. *** MarieBehrens is in Los Angeles, Calif., 11 56 West 36thPlace. *** Paul L. Hollister, S.M., is head ofthe department of biology at Blackburn College,in Carlinville. He is also chairman of the athletic commitee. *** S. A. Kirk, S.M. '31, is research associate for the Wayne County TrainingSchool at Northville, Mich. *** Evelyn B. Op-penheimer, formerly with the Walden Bookshops, feature writer for the Chicago Journaland book-reviewer for the Chicago Post, is nowin Dallas, Texas, filling a series of lecture engagements on modern literature and contemporary criticism. *** Irene Rudnick Winn isteaching Latin and English in Valier Communityhigh school. *** Wilhelmina Mulfinger is studying in Switzerland. *** Ruth Rothenburger isworking in the library of the University ofIllinois. 1930Winifred Day is an interne at the Researchdepartment of the Wayne County TrainingSchool, at Northville, Mich. *** Will D. Anderson, A.M., is now principal of Jungman juniorhigh school in Oak Park, 111. *** Alice De-Mauriac Hammond is planning to enter clinicalpsychology in New York City as soon as shefinishes with the necessary examinations. Sheexpects to receive her S.M. degree in June. ***Louis H. Engel is in New York, working aseditorial assistant, reporting new items in advertising fields, for the magazine Advertisingand Selling, at 9 East 38th Street. *** BertieWarren S.M., is head of the chemistry department at Amarillo College, Texas.Doctors of Philosophy1899J. M. Powys Smith has just had his portraitpainted by Oscar Gross. It will be hung in theCommon Room of Swift Hall. Mr. Smith ispresident of the Society of Biblical Literatureand Exegesis, and vice-president of the American Oriental Society.1913William C. Krathwohl is head of the department of mathematics at Armour Instituteof Technology.1914Mary Louise Foster has been invited bySantiago College in Chile, to develop the laboratories in chemistry and physics so that they willfulfill the science requirements of the Universityof the State of New York. Miss Foster has donesimilar work in Madrid, and was honored bythe University there naming the laboratory shecreated "Foster Laboratory."1918Webster G. Simon, professor of mathematicsat Western Reserve University is traveling onthe Continent during his Sabbatical year. ***F. E. Brown, '13, has published a textbook "AShort Course in Qualitative Analysis," throughCentury Company. He is councilor for the localsection of the American Chemical Society, andchairman of the local Boy Scouts organization.1919Karl T. Steik is director of research and chiefchemist for the National Oil Products Co., atHarrison, N. J. *** Hugo L. Blomquist, '16,Ph.D. '21, has nearly completed his study of thegrasses and flora of North Carolina. Mr. Blomquist is professor of botany at Duke University,Durham.1923Dean W. D. Trautman of Western ReserveUniversity is taking his sabbatical year inEurope.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 379COAL5900 STEWART 3952AUBURN COAL & MATERIAL CO.COAL- COKE- BUILDING MATERIAL7443 So. Racine Ave. ChicagoALL PHONES ENGLEWOOD 2606Our Yards Cover the Entire CityHeritage Coal CompanyMain Office 101-33 East 63rd StreetCorner Michigan Blvd., ChicagoJ. J. HERITAGE, PresidentCUT STONE HAULINGNELS OLSONCUT STONE HAULING3001 S. Wells Street Victory 0711DECORATORSARTHUR E. BOURGEAUPAINTING and INTERIOR DECORATINGHardware and Paints1216-1218-E. 55 ST. PHONE HYDE PARK 1049Est. 1897DENTISTSDR. J. J. JOHNSTENDENTISTSuite 417 1180 East 63rd Street, Chicc *SOPhon< i Dorchester 9545 FLOWERS — continuedOberg's Flower ShopFLOWERS WIRED THE WORLD OVERTelephones: Fairfax 3670-36711461-63 East 57th St.FLOOR SURFACINGL. C. FAULKNERElectric Floor SurfacerRemoves Paint and Varnish ElectricallyMakes Old Floors Like New1516 E. 69th Street Fairfax 3262HARDWAREHENRY T. HANSEN935 East 55th StreetPaint — Hardware — Cutlery — ToolsHardware Phone Midway 0008Radios and Expert Radio ServiceRadio Service Phone Midway 0009INSURANCECHILDS & WOODINSURANCE UNDERWRITERSTelephone Us When You Have AnyQuestions About Special Coverage1 75 W. Jackson Blvd. Phone Wabash 1180LAUNDRIESFidelity Morgan Service, Inc."Better Laundry Work"Branch 1015 East 61st StreetPhone Calumet 1906DR. E. E. MACPHERSONDENTISTGAS 1133 East 63rd StreetX-RAY Phone Hyde Park 3939EMPLOYMENTReliable HELP FurnishedOffice, Technical, Domestic, Factory, Hotel,Restaurant No Charge to EmployerGROVE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE852 E. 63rd St. Phone MID. 3636FLOWERS1KA ) CHICAGOGiXbtfP ESTABLISHED 1865mr FLOWERS^* Phones Plaza 6444, 6445 1631 East 55th Street LEXINGTON LAUNDRY1214 East 61st StreetFAIRFAX 0732" For All Fine Laundering "LIGHTINGStudio and Display Rooms Tel. Superior 5381- 2Henkel & Best Co.439 North Michigan AvenueDesigners and Manufacturers ofArtistic Lighting FixturesLOCKSMITHSOldest - - Largest - - LocksmithsS &> S KEY SERVICEKeys Made While U Hesitate6420 Cottage Grove Mid. 3643-4-538o THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1924Charles F. Arrowood was elected president ofthe Texas Society of Teachers of Education forI932"33« He is professor of history and philosophy of education at the University of Texas.1925C. R. Dines is auditor for Armour and Company at Cleveland, Ohio.1927Joseph Ireland, S.M., '23, is a professor andplant breeder at the Oklahoma ArgiculturalExperiment Station, at Stillwater.1928Harald Hoick, '21, will continue to work withthe Department of Pharmacology at the American University of Beirut, Syria, during 1932-33.*** Itzehak Spector is teaching Russian Literature and history at the University of Washington. His Russian novel, "Through the Fog,"published in 1930, is now being translated intoclassic Hebrew in Palestine. He has recentlycompleted a series of lectures on Russian Dramaat Tacoma. The Tacoma Chapter of theWestern Writers' League has elected him president and he is a fellow of the Royal Society ofArts of Great Britain.1929Sydney Bloomenthal, '26, A.M. '27, is a research physicist in the engineering departmentof the R. C. A. Victor Company at Camden, NewJersey.1930C. E. Sims heads the department of historyand political science at the State Teachers College of Murf reesboro, Tenn. *** S. Appelrot isAdjunct Professor of physiology at the American University of Beirut, Syria.i93iRobert E. L. Faris, '28, A.M., '29, is at BrownUniversity, Providence, R. I.Law1906Henry P. Chandler, J.D., is the new presidentof the Union League Club of Chicago.1908Robert Henry, '02, J.D., and his family areto be in Chicago this summer, while Mr. Henryteaches at the University. Mr. Henry is a judgein the Egyptian courts, and makes his permanenthome at Ramleh Road, Bulkeley, Egypt.1909David S. Eisendrath, '08, J.D., has dissolvedpartnership with Irving J. Solomon, '07, J.D.,'09, and Charles H. Borden, '18, J.D. '19, andis now located at 208 S. LaSalle Street, withthe law firm of Murphy, Hollywood, Turner and Barron. *** Irving J. Solomon, '07, J.D., andCharles H. Borden, '17, J.D. '19, are in partnership for general law practice at 100 WestMonroe, Chicago.1913George B. McKibben, J.D., is the newlyelected president of the Y.M.C.A.1914Arnold. Baar, '12, J.D., is President of theCity Club of Chicago.1916Bernard W. Vinissky, '14, J.D., is now at OneNorth LaSalle Street, Chicago.1917Varro E. Tyler, L.D., is a member of the lawfirm of Tyler and Peterson at Nebraska CityNebr.1920John Estill Wilson, J.D., may be addressedat the Legal Building, Asheville, N. C. ***Robert E. Nash, J.D., has been nominated bythe Republicans for State's attorney of Winnebago County. Mr. Nash has served severalterms as assistant State's attorney. *** Robert E.Mathews, J.D., wrote an article on "JudicialAttitudes in the Customs-Union Case," (decidedby the World Court last September), for theMarch issue of the Michigan Law Review. Hewill teach "Wills" at the University of Michigan summer school.1924Arthur Goldblatt, ex, is practicing law at 33South Clark Street, Chicago. *** Robert E. Corcoran, J.D., is now president of the ChicagoJunior Chamber of Commerce.1925William M. Garvey of Rockport, 111., waschosen delegate to the National RepublicanConvention this summer. *** Dudley J. Joseph,'22 J.D., is associated with Kirkland, Fleming,Green and Martin, at 33 N. LaSalle. *** ThomasW. Long, '23, J.D., is with the legal department of Swift and Company, U.S. Yards.1927Herbert F. Mayer, J.D., is a member of thefirm of Mayer, Kroger and Mayer at GrandIsland, Nebraska.Rush1881C. F. Ross, M.D., has been visiting in LongBeach, California, with friends this spring. ***Philip Leach, M.D., has been retired for severalyears. He lives in New York.1884Campbell McG. Chapman, M.D., is practicing internal medicine at Des Moines, Iowa.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 381MUSICAL INSTRUMENTSAMERICAN CONSERVATORY o€ MUSICFORTY-FIFTH SEASONAll branches of music and dramatic art. Certificates,Degrees. Nationally accredited. Enter any time.Address: Free catalog.John R. Hattstaedt, Secretary, 500 Kimball HallSouth Side Branch, 1133 E. 63rd St.MONUMENTSPhone Monroe 5058 Established 1889C. CILELLA & SONMONUMENTS AND MAUSOLEUMSRock of Ages and Guardian MemorialsWe Erect Work Anywhere 723-25 W. Taylor StreetPAINTINGEstablished 1851 Incorporated 1891Geo. D. Milligan CompanyPainting and Decorating Contractors2309 South Parkway Tel. Col. 5665PAINTINGS RESTOREDTELEPHONE DIVERSEY 7976UNITED ART & CRAFT STUDIOSPaintings, Etchings, Cornices, Picture Framing,Mirrors, Expert Regilding and Restoring1412 North Clark Street Chicago, 111. SADDLERYW. J. WYMANManufacturer, Importer and Dealer inHigh Grade Saddles, Polo Goods, Etc.Chicago Riding Club Building, 628 McClurg CourtLake Forest Store— 210-212 Westminster Ave., EastTelephone Superior 8801SCALP SPECIALISTSDR, H. C. WEIGERTSCALP SPECIALIST5238 Lake Park AvenueMIDWAYSCHOOLSFREE INFORMATION of PrivateBoarding Schools and Summer Camps.Catalogs on request. Call ;Affiliated Boarding Schools Ass'n.1112 Marshall Field Annex, ChicagoTel. Central 0345 Miss S. H. Shultz, DirectorPRACTICAL BUSINESS TRAININGBusiness Administration, Executive-Secretarial14 Other Practical Courses -Train for Assured SuccessCollege Grade Courses 76th Year Write for CatalogBRYANT & STRATTON COLLEGE18 South Michigan Avenue Randolph 1575PLASTERINGMONAHAN BROS., Inc.CONTRACTING PLASTERERS201 North Wells StreetPhone Central 4584 TIMELY ART GUIDANCEExperienced • Progressive • SuccessfulSummer Session Starts July 6Fall Session September 6 — 30th YearCHICAGO ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS1 8 South Michigan Avenue - ChicagoRIDINGMidway Riding Academy6037 Drexel AvenueExpert InstructorsBeautiful Bridle Path and Good HorsesUniversity of Chicago Riding HeadquartersMidway 9571 Phone Dorchester 8041 CHICAGO COLLEGE of MUSICEsther Harris, Pres. and FounderPiano — Vocal — Violin — Dancing — Dramatic — Etc.12th Floor Kimball Bldg.306 S. Wabash Ave. Tel. Wabash 3644ROOFINGGROVE ROOFING CO.(Gilliland)Old Roofs Repaired— New Roofs Put On20 Years at6644 Cottage Grove Ave.Fairfax 3206 THE CHICAGO LATIN SCHOOLFOR BOYSPreparation from Kindergarten to CollegeOur Graduates make excellent University Records1531 N. Dearborn Pkwy. SUPERIOR 5734RUG CLEANERSTEL. TRIANGLE 3640 ESTABLISHED 1910GRAGG — Certified Rug CleanersOF ORIENTAL AND DOMESTICRUGS AND CARPETS EXCLUSIVELY911-13-15-17 East 75th Street COLLEGE PREPARATORY SCHOOLPrepare for Leading Colleges in Months not YearsHigh School Requirements in Shortest TimeConsistent with Thorough InstructionMorning and Evening Classes23 East Jackson Blvd. Webster 2448382 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1891William Gregery, M.D., of Cave-in Rock, III.,is in State service at Springfield, 111., a present.1892W. D. Harrell, M.D., reports that he is theonly Rush man in Norris City, 111., and that heis active and well.1895Charles A. Templeton, M.D., writes fromCalifornia that he finds many fellow ex-doctorsengaged in his present profession — fruit ranching.1899Dean DeWitt Lewis, M.D., was elected President of the American Medical Association atthe Baltimore Convention of that organization,May 5, 1932. Dr. Lewis is now teaching atJohns Hopkins Hospital.1920Fred Firestone, '18, M.D., practices internalmedicine and allergic diseases. He has beenelected to Fellowship in the American Collegeof Physicians and received the degree at theannual convocation and convention in San Francisco in April.1920Edward J. Stieglitz, A.M., '19, M.D., hasopened a new office at 30 N. Michigan, Chicago,in the People's Trust Building.1923Everett N. Collins, '19, M.D., is a roentgenologist by profession, and dwells in the city ofCleveland.1924Samuel J. Meyer, '21, M.D., is practicingophthalmology in Chicago.1925Filip C. Forsbeck, M.D., is with the Michigan department of health, at Lansing.1928Helen Coyle, '24, M.D., is practicing neuropsychiatry in Peoria. She is in charge of psychotherapy at Michell Sanitarium. *** ReubenRatner, M.D., writes that he is "practicing internal medicine when not kept busy as SeniorVisiting Physician at homes of the Mount ZionHospital Out-Patient Department, and assistingat Canon Kip Dispensary, where many of theunemployed and California itinerants are givenfree medical advice and medicines. He is associated with Dr. Fred Firestone, '18, M.D., '20,in allergy work. Greatly enjoyed the recentvisit of Mr. James M. Stifler, who so ably toldus what was doing at the University and showedthe movies of the campus." 1929P. A. Tuckwiller, M.D., is practicing inCharleston, W. Va., 318-19 Professional Building.1930Mildred Nordland, '26, M.D., is doing MedicalMissionary work at the Bethesda Union Hospitalat Siangyang, Hupeh, China. *** Willard I.Wood, S.M., '25, M.D., sails for Europe in July,where he will study for several months at thePasteur Institute. *** Larry Williams, '26, S.M.'28, M.D., is assisting Dr. L. C. Gatewood atPresbyterian Hospital, Chicago. *** George L.Perusse, Jr., '25, S.M. '27, M.D., is clinical assistant at Rush Medical School in the SurgeryDepartment, and an instructor at St. Elizabeth'sHospital Dispensary in surgery. He is alsopracticing at 55 East Washington Street.i93iJ. W. Schoolnic is practicing general medicineand surgery at Fairmont, W. Va. *** George W.Fox is practicing surgery with Dr. Lillie inMilwaukee. *** John M. Dorsey, '26, M.D., hasa fellowship in surgery at the Mayo Clinics,beginning July 1. *** Frank E. Newlove, S.B.'26, M.D., is starting in general practice atStoughton, Wis.1932Thomas Armstrong, '28, M.D., is interning atSt. Louis City Hospital, St. Louis, Mo. ***Jesse J. Weight, '25, M.D., will finish his in-terneship at Denver General Hospital in July.*** Paul F. Olson, M.D., is a surgical fellow atthe Mayo Clinics at Rochester, Minn.Social Service Administration1924Effie Doan has taken a position with theIllinois State Emergency Relief Commission.1925Professor Arthur L. Beeley, A.M. '18, Ph.D.,of the University of Utah, has been granted assistance by the National Social Science ResearchCouncil to make a study of the Bail System inEngland.1930Evangeline Rasmusan Atwood, A.M., is caseworker for the Children's Service League atSpringfield.1931Associate Professor A. W. McMillen, Ph.D.,has gone to the Southwest to make a reportfor the United States Children's Bureau aboutthe unemployed boys who are reported as concentrated in some sections of the country. Hewill return for the Summer Quarter. *** NataliaGreensfelder, '22, A.M., has taken a social workposition at the Illinois Soldiers' Orphans' HomeTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 383SCHOOLS — continued STORAGE — continuedTHE FAULKNER SCHOOL FOR GIRLSA Day School for Girls of All AgesPrepares Its Graduates for All Collegesand UniversitiesThe College Board Examinations AreGiven at the School4746 Dorchester Ave. Tel. Oakland 1423 Peterson Storage CompanyStorage - Moving - Packing - ShippingBaggage and Freight to All Stations1011-13 -East 55th StreetPhones: Midway 9700-Hyde Park 0452MacCormac School of CommerceBusiness Administration and Secretarial TrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESEnter Any Monday1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 2130THE MIDWAY SCHOOL6216 Kimbark Ave.Elementary GradesKindergarten Tel. Dorchester 3299J unior High PreparationFrench, Dancing, Music and ArtBus ServiceA School with Individual instruction and Cultural Advantages TAILORSPhone Central 6801 8 So. Michigan Avenue, ChicagoAnderson & Christian©, Inc.TAILORSDesigners and Makers of Smart Riding Clothes lor Menand WomenTEACHERS AGENCIES"C*« "I TeachersJL 1SJK. Agency 28 E. Jackson Blvd.CHICAGOOur Service is Nation WideOrthogenic School of ChicagoAffiliated with the University of ChicagoBoarding and Day School forRetarded and Problem ChildrenCatalog on Request1365 East 60th Street MID. 7879Pestalozzi Froebel Teachers CollegeKindergarten — Primary — Dramatics — SpeechStrong, Practical CoursesCentrally Located in Downtown Chicago. Dormitory.Accredited- 37th yr.-2,3,4yr. Courses-Special Courses616 S. Michigan Ave. Write for Free Catalogs Wabash 6762 THE YATES-FISHER TEACHERSAGENCYEstablished 1906PAUL YATES, Manager616-620 South Michigan Ave. ChicagoUNDERTAKERSBOYDSTON BROS.Undertakers4227-31 Cottage Grove Avenue Cor. 42nd PlaceTelephones Oakland 0492 and Oakland 0493STARRETT SCHOOL for GIRLSA Boarding and Day School for High School andJunior College StudentsFully AccreditedA Refined and Stimulating School Environment4515 Drexel Blvd. Drexel 0521 LUDLOW - SCHNEIDERFUNERAL DIRECTORSFine Chapel with New Pipe OrganSedan Ambulance ServiceTel. Fairfax 2861 6110 Cottage Grove Ave.ST. GEORGE SCHOOL FOR GIRLS4545 DREXEL BLVD.DAY and BOARDING SCHOOLCatalos Nursery Through Hlsh Enter Any TimeATLANTIC 2746 SKEELES - BIDDLEFuneral DirectorsFairfax 0120 Sixty-Third Street and Evans Ave.STORAGEAsk Our AdviceMOVING— PACKING— STORAGE— SHIPPINGThe Murray Warehouse &Van Co.6314 University Ave. Chicago, IllinoisHyde Park 8067 Phones Midway 8067 UPHOLSTERERSHARPER UPHOLSTERINGREFINISHING— REPAIRINGCabinet Work, Antiqueins and LacquerinsPhone Radclitfe 6413384 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEat Normal. *** Caroline Hubert is a medicalsocial worker at the Chicago Children's Memorial Hospital.1932Alice Theodorson, ex, medical social worker,is at Harborview Hospital, Seattle, Washington.***Lora Varney, ex, who is in the same professional field, is at Billings Hospital. *** BessWilliams, ex, is supervisor in the State ChildWelfare Department at Montgomery, Alabama.*** David van Tyne, ex, and Genevieve Goff,ex, are working with Louis E. Evans, A.M., '29,in the child placing department of the JointService Bureau, an organization providinghomes for dependent negro children committedby the Juvenile Court. *** Elsie Charls, ex, andF. Amber Waddle, ex, are case workers at theCook County Bureau of Public Welfare. ***Elizabeth Moffett, ex, is with the UnitedCharities.MarriagesElizabeth Haseltine, '17, to Frederick C. Hib-bard, March 18, 1932. At home, 1201 East 60thStreet, Chicago.Dorothy Sippel, '25, to Anthony Frystak, Nov.21, 193 1, at Bond Chapel.Mabel F. Evans, '25, to Charles Norton Treat,July 11, 1931, at Saugatuck, Mich. At home,7943 Ingleside Ave., Chicago.Joel C. Nordlund, '26, to Dora Lindahl, June25, 193 1, at Kuling Mountain, Kiangsi, China.Elizabeth Pabst, '28, to John Harold Mills,April 8, 1932. Mr. Mills is attending RushMedical College.Florence Eiler, '28, to Lester Robinson, June27, 193 1. At home, 6848 S. Union Ave., Chicago.Mrs. Robinson is teaching at Bowen High School.Robert T. Garber, '29, to Carol V. Hadley ofPittsburgh, Pa., April 17, 1930. At home, 2678Edmondson Road, Norwood, Ohio. Mr. Garberis business manager of the Central ParkwayY. M. C. A., of Cincinnati.Sam Street Hughes, J.D. '29, to Irene Lutz, atBerea, Kentucky, May, 1932. The ceremonywas performed by Dr. William S. Hutchins,President of Berea College.Miriam Elizabeth Greenwood, ex, '29, toAlonzo Linden Kirby, April 30, 1932, Chicago.At home, Mt. Morris, 111.Alice DeMauriac, '30, to Bennet Hammond,ex, at Athens, Greece, Feb. 22, 1932. At home,Bedford, N. Y.Evangeline Rasmusan, A.M. '30, to RobertBruce Atwood of Worcester, Mass., April 2,1932, at Winnetka, 111. At home, 1325 S. 5thStreet, Springfield, 111.Helen Eugenie McFrancis, '31, to NormanLowry Luster, June 17, 193 1, Hilton MemorialChapel. At home, 5400 Greenwood Avenue,Chicago. BirthsTo Paul J. Sedgwick, '18, Ph.D., '22, and Mrs.Sedgwick, (Lillian Grace Reynolds, '19, Ph.D.'22) a daughter, Joanne Virginia, April 301932, Syracuse, N. Y.To Dr. Harald Hoick, '21, Ph.D. '28, andMrs. Hoick, a son, Gunnar Harald, April 11932, at Beirut, Syria.To G. Willson Bonner, '22, and Mrs. Bonner(Agnes Russell, '22) a son, Gordon Russell, July14, 193 1, Chicago.To Arthur N. Wilson, M.D. '24, and Mrs.Wilson (Dagmar Nelson, ex, '25,) a son, ArthurN. Jr., March 21, 1932, at Kennecott, Alaska.To Newton E. Turney, '24, and Mrs. Turney,(Marie Taylor, '25) a son, William Taylor,February 17, 1932, at the Chicago Lying-in Hospital.To Raymond A. Kinzie, '27, J.D. '29, and Mrs.Kinzie (Florence Wyant, '21,) twin daughters,Louise Hulbert and Elizabeth Ann, April 3,1932, at Chicago.To Harold J. Bluhm, '30, and Mrs. Bluhm(Georgia Basset, ex) a son, Harold, January 7,1932.EngagementsDorothy Reiner, ex, to Tom Mulroy, '27, J.D.'28.Joan Weil, '31, to David Philipson, ex, '29.DeathsJames E. Sutton, M.D. '66, at Long Beach,California, March, 1932.Cyrus Monroe Easton, M.D. '72, February 21,1932, at El Reno, Oklahoma.Otto T. Freer, M.D. '79, April 21, 1932, atHenrotin Hospital, Chicago. Dr. Freer hadmade many important contibutions to the scienceof medicine, in the field of laryngology and wasa member of numerous medical societies in thiscountry and England.Franklin H. Stanley, M.D. '86, April 2, 1932.Vienna, S. Dakota.Thomas J. Walsh, M.D. '96, April 21, 1932,Chicago.Merrit B. Hook, M.D. '00, April 12, 1932, atDenver, Colo.W. H. N. Shipman, 'ex, '08, April 17, 1932.Anna Mary McCarthy, '20, at St. Bernard'sHospital, Chicago, as a result of injuries received in an automobile accident, April n,1932.Emi Martha Johnston, '29, at Springfield, HI.,February 18, 1932.John W. Hopkins, M.D. '31, April 8, 1932, atMayvill, Mo.Helen Williams, '32, April 25, 1932, in anautomobile accident near Chicago.MAKE NEW FRIENDSAND ENTERTAIN THE OLDAt the Popular Allerton HotelThe ideal close to the Loop residence for men and women. Hotel service plusthe atmosphere of a club and the hospitality of a home. A well roundedsocial program is planned for the entertainment of Allerton guests and theirfriends including dances, bridge parties, horseback, interesting trips, theatreparties, etc.RCA radio speaker in each soundproof room at no extra charge. Large library,music practice rooms, gymnasium, handball courts, ping pong and billiard tables.Four floors for married couples, seven floors for women and ten floors for men.Within easy walking distance of the business, shopping and theatre district.RATESSingle Double (per person)Daily $1 .75 to $4.00 Daily $1 .50 to S2.50Weekly $1 0.50 to $25.00 Weekly $8 50 to $1 2.50Philip E. Cobden, Manager701 N. Michigan Avenue, ChicagoALLERTON HOTELure as shooiinytnree omers are eomin¦,g.tnree more^/JiesteriielJsmokers !Hear the Chesterfield RadioProgram. Every night except\% Sunday. Columbia Network.\Jfr \\ See local newspaper for time.TJ I . 1the Cigarette tkafs MILDERt/u Cigarette tkat TASTES BETTER© 1932, Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co. uaertr.t myibs tobacco co aH