lilllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllillllllllllllllllllllllllllll^ Illllllllllllllllllllllll I lllllllll mill I milium,VOL. XXIV March, IQJ2 NUMBER 5THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEAicago / \lUniversity of Chicago / \LUMNI headquartersand (or 101 other colleges and 21 national Pan -Hellenic sororities'ii£££d HNewest RatesDaily $1.75 to $4.00 TransientWeekly $1 0.50 to $25.00SinglWeekly $8.50 to $1 2.50Doubl«per person/ separate Floors BSE ¦ BS 98 M $ ESSI 4 Separate Floors forMarried Couples10 separate FloorsRCA RADIO SPEAKER IN EACH OF THE 1000 ROOMS AT NO EXTRA CHARGEUN HOUSEPHILIP E COBDEN, Manager ¦ CHICAGO ¦ 701 North Michigan AvenueTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 193I-GUIDING HANDIn the fog— aAs a safeguard, airlinesequip with RADIO TELEPHONEThe pilot can fly straight as a homing pigeon — in spite of sudden fog, darkness and low-hangingclouds. With his Western Electric radio telephone, he can talk to ground stations and gel instructions andbearings from them at any time, G. All the major airlines in this country are using this equipment as anextra safeguard and to help maintain the accuracy of their I^M^JI mail and passenger schedules. Onecompany, for example, flying 1,000,000 miles a month, has all of its 106 planes and 35 stations WesternElectric equipped, ft Voice reproduction by means of Western Electric apparatus reflects an experience•>f over 50 years making telephones and other communication apparatus for the Bell System. ^^Western ElectricLEADERS IN SOUND TRANSMISSION APPARATUSTRAVEL SERVICES FOR ALUMNIConvenient and Enjoyable Travel Assured by the Appointing ofthe American Express Company as the Official Travel Bureau ofthe Intercollegiate Alumni Extension Service.SUMMER AGAIN-VACATION AGAINAn opportunity to visit E U J» OJrli. ...©*» unusual toursEDUCATIONAL TOURSTOURS through the Old World, planned to realizefully the exceptional educational and cultural values of travel, are offered by the Intercollegiate TravelExtension Service of the American Express Company.They include the major artistic, scientific and socialproblems of vital interest to modern men and women.An educational director, an authority in his field, willaccompany each tour. On some of these tours it ispossible to gain academic credit, which makes them ofespecial value to teachers and students.Here is an opportunity long awaited by alumni, advanced students and all intelligent travelers — a pleasant summer in Europe combined with intellectual andesthetic pleasures and benefits.1. Music Lovers' Tour . . . Educational Director, Prof. E. V.Moore, University of Michigan . . . Sail on ''Olympic" July 1,return on "Homeric" Aug. 24 . . .price $798.2. Education Study Tour . . . Director, Dr. Thomas Alexander,Teachers College, Columbia University . . . Sail on "General vonSteuben" June 30, return on "Europa" Sept. 7 . . . cost $760.Arrangements can be made to attend the New Educational Fellowship Conference at Nice, France, July 29 to August 12.3. Social Welfare Tour . . . Director, Dr. Thomas Alexander,Teachers College, Columbia University, assisted by Mr. John W.Taylor of Raleigh Public Schools . . . Sail on "General vonSteuben" June 30, return on "Europa" Sept. 7 . . . rate $760.Arrangements made for attending International Conference onSocial Welfare at Frankfurt, July 10 to 16.4. Agricultural Tour . . . Director, Dr. C. E. Ladd, CornellUniversity ... Sail : "Olympic" July 1, return: "Pennland"Sept. 4 . . . price $800.5. European Industries Tour . . . Director, Prof. N. C. Miller,Rutgers University . . . Sail on "Westernland" July 1, return on"Lapland" Aug. 29. 7-day extension tour to England, returningon the "Baltic" Sept. 5. Cost $681 for main tour, $88 for English Extension.6. Architectural Tour . . . Director, Prof. W. M. Campbell,University of Pennsylvania . . . Sail on "Conte Grande" June 28,return on "Statendam" Sept. 3. Price $882.7. Art Tour . . . Director, Prof. Charles Richards, Oberlin College . . . Sail on "Olympic" July 1, return same steamer Aug. 30. . . rate $775.8. Psychological Residential Study Tour . . . Director, Prof.Henry Beaumont, University of Kentucky. . . Reside in Viennaone month and attend University. (Lectures in English.) Sail on"Westernland" July 1, return on "Majestic" Sept 6 . . .cost $645.Arrangements made for attending International PsychologicalCongress at Copenhagen, August 22 to 27.9. Anthropological Tour (To New Mexico) . . .Director, Prof. Paul H. Nesbitt, Curator, LoganMuseum, Beloit College . . . Tour leaves KansasCity Aug. 1, returns to that city Aug. 22. Thecost ranges between $440 from Kansas City, to$502 from New York.(Write in jor individual tour booklets, giving allnecessary information) TRAVELERS CHEQUES, TRAVEL SERVICEHERE AND EVERYWHERE INDEPENDENT TRAVELIF you are the kind of traveler who likes to go "independently," the American Express can be of assistance to you, too. The charm of any journey can be lostif one is too immersed in its worrisome details, arrangement making, reservations, standing in line, and therest. We can free you from this, and send you on yourway rejoicing. Call at the American Express office nearest to you, at your alumni secretary's office, or writein, and tell us where you wish to go, for how long, howmuch you wish to spend and mention your preferencesas to ships and hotels. According to your wishes, anitinerary will be submitted, and if it meets your approval, all your reservations will be made in advance.This independent travel plan refers to travel everywhere — in foreign lands, in the United States orCanada, to cruises or motor trips, even week-ends.In this way you attain the maximum Wanderlustfreedom with the minimum of care."TRAVAMEX" TOURS OF EUROPETravel independently, a new economical way — at a costof about $8 a day while in Europe. Choose from among10 alluring itineraries, ranging from 15 days at $133,to 35 days at $300.00. (Time and cost exclusive of oceanvoyage.) Send for interesting booklet, with maps."AMEXTOURS" OF EUROPE—If you prefer anescorted tour, there are 31 varying tours, all interestingand carefully planned, and priced to fit modest incomes.They start from a 25-day tour at $278, including allexpenses. (Write for literature.)HIGH TIME TO BOOK NOWWhatever way you are planning to spend this summerof 1932, or the particular part of it that is your vacation, it is wise not to delay in making all the necessaryarrangements and reservations. If you are planning tojoin any of the tours enumerated here, let us knowimmediately and your accommodations will be thebetter for it. If you are going to travel independently,you will need steamship tickets — let us procure themfor you now — while there is still a choice of ships andcabins. On & domestic trip you will need railroadtickets, Pullman and hotel reservations.Prepare now — for in travel, like ornithology, the early bird is the best satisfied.Send for descriptive, informativeliterature on any tour or countrywhich interests you— and make yourbooking!FILL IN THE COUPON AND MAIL TO ADDRESS MOST CONVENIENT TO YOU —,American Express Intercollegiate Travel Extension Service, 65 Broadway, New York, N. Y.American Express Co., 70 E. Randolph St., Chicago, 111. 8Gentlemen: I am interested in the trip checked. Please send me information and literature.? Special EDUCATIONAL TOURS to EUROPE . .. ? "TRAVAMEX" Tours to Europe ? Independent Travel . ? "AMEXTOURS" to Europe . .. .Name Address i 194W$t Umbersrttp of Cfncago J$laga?meEditor and Business Manager, Charlton T. Beck '04Cobb Hall, University of ChicagoEDITORIAL BOARD: Commerce and Administration Association — Rollin D. He-mens, '21; Divinity Association — C. T. Holman, D.B., '16; Doctors' Association — D. J.Fisher, '17, Ph.D., '22; Law Association — Charles F. McElroy, A.M., '06, J. D., '15;School of Education Association — Lillian Stevenson, '21 ; Rush Medical Association —Morris Fishbein, 'ii, M.D., '12; College — Roland F. Holloway, '20; Allen Heald,'26; Wm. V. Morgenstern '20, J.D., '22; Faculty — Fred B. Millett, Department ofEnglish.Donald P. Bean, '17, ChairmanI Al T H I ^"Raymond Blaine Fosdick writes thismonth about the twentieth century fromthe point of view of the archeologist whowill some day have the pleasure of excavating our remains from the dust of futureages. Mr. Fosdick has held many civiloffices in New York, has served the countryin war as special representative of the Secretary of War on the Mexican Border in1 916, and again as chairman of the Commission on Training Camp Activities ofWar and Navy Departments in 19 17-18;in recognition of his work he was awardedthe D.S.M. He has worked with theLeague of Nations, the American Academyof Political and Social Science, AmericanInstitute of International Law, and theNational Institute of Social Sciences, to saynothing of serving on the boards of almostany number of educational and researchfoundations. His books on American andEuropean police systems are authorities.*****Allen Miller, '26, is Radio Director forthe University and has the fascinating jobof bringing the work and achievements ofthis institution to thousands of listeners allover the country. Ernest E. Quantrell, Trustee of the University, took "The Fine Teachers of FineMen" as his subject when he spoke for theBoard of Trustees at the annual Trustee-Faculty Dinner. We are very happy to beable to publish excerpts from his talk.£l£. iSi. Us. ite. £X&*?f? 7tf? TpT vjy *T»Mary Louise Foster, Ph.D. '14, foundthat the romance of old Spain and the studyof chemistry could be combined in a studythat has revealed some surprising thingsabout the strange circulation of knowledgeand language. Miss Foster is an associateprofessor of chemistry at Smith College,and taught that subject for two years to thewomen at the University of Madrid. Wehave had the pleasure of publishing anotherarticle from her pen, "The Triumph ofEducation in Spain."jfc 2lL +3£. Jl* £3&7JT 7r? yjy ^? SJ?We are fortunate this month in havingan article by Charles Hubbard Judd, deanof the School of Education, in which heanswers many of the questions raised regarding the function of the new GraduateEducation Building, which was dedicatedofficially at the educational conference onMarch 14 and 15 at the University.The Magazine is published at 1009 Sloan St., Crawfordsville, Ind., monthly from Novemberto July, inclusive, for The Alumni Council of the University of Chicago, 58th St. and Ellis Ave.,Chicago, 111. The subscription price is $2.00 per year; the price of single copies is 25 cents.Entered as second class matter December 10, 1924, at the Post Office at Crawfordsville, Indiana,under the Act of March 3, 1879.1951M"<3BOi. a£•5•2 fi<3<3•ft,O196Vol. xxiv No. 5tinftiergttp of Chicago4fflaga?meMARCH, 1932•i * ~ " The Renaissance of 1932By Raymond Blaine FosdickIF EVER we had an illustration ofEmerson's dictum that an institutionis the lengthened shadow of a man, wehave it in connection with this Oriental Institute. Bricks and mortar are not substitutes for creative scholarship, but sometimes creative scholarship can be given areasonable degree of permanence if it issuitably clothed. Pasteur and Niels Bohrand Flexner and Breasted — these are menfor whom the world insists on some kind ofman-made immortality. For them weerect monuments while they yet live — institutes and laboratories by which andthrough which their contributions to humanknowledge can be made more effective. Butback of the bricks and mortar there is theman. If there had been no Breasted, therewould have been no Oriental Institute;and without an Oriental Institute, the storyof the rise of man would today be far lessvivid and far less complete.* * *Next to astronomy, archeology, it seemsto me as a layman, is the most soberingscience. Astronomy deals with immensitiesof time and space in which the life of ourparticular planet is contemptibly insignifi cant. It speaks of a universe that is running down and of stellar systems that havetheir day and cease to be. It raises disturbing questions about the place of man— if he has any place — in all this vast illimitable complexity.Only a shade less disquieting is the emphasis of archeology on the impermanenceof human institutions. It shows us thedebris of civilizations that stretch from thedawn of history up to our own threshold —civilizations that dreamed of immortalityand now are dead. The same pallbearersthat carried out Sumeria and all its workswere waiting on the doorstep for Tutank-amen, just as later they waited for thecivilizations of Pericles and Augustus.What archeology tells us is that nothingexternal is permanent. Sooner or laterthere comes to all human institutions thefinal rap on the door.This is what makes archeology a soberingscience. It looks to the past and it dealswith death. And yet, of course, in anothersense it deals with life, too. The spark isnever extinguished. The fire never completely dies out. Civilizations perish andare forgotten; institutions are buried underhundreds of cubic feet of earth; but some-197198 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEhow or other the spirit remains to manifestitself in new forms. We cannot share today the confidence of Herbert Spencer that"always toward perfection runs the mightymovement." The curve is frequently downrather than up. But we know that whatever the direction and goal of the humanpilgrimage — whether it be good or evil —the disappearance of one institution or ofone civilization means the reappearance ofanother, and in the very fact of changethere is always some element of hope.It seems to me that this is a point thatcould well be emphasized. We of thisgeneration are living in one of those crisesin history when changes of a far-reachingcharacter are in the making. We are indeed in the midst of a revolution andit is rapidly gaining momentum. Ethics,law, philosophy, economics, politics, religion, education, government — there isnot a single field in which swift transformations are not occurring. The world hasoutgrown its old framework, and the cracksand fissures which are now appearingin the social structure seem to indicate thebreaking up of one era and the startingpoint of another. Apparently we have arrived at one of those crucial points — likethe Renaissance and the Reformation —when old ideas and values no longer serve,and new intellectual scaffolding and newsocial controls have to be built on the ashesof what has gone.Now the disappearance of an old eraand the emergence of a new is always afrightening time, particularly when theprocess is rapid, and standards long acceptedare given up before fresh ones appear. Consequently many of us are uneasy and apprehensive. One of man's deep instincts seemsto be his fear of change, his dread of uncertainty. He naturally shuns whateverthreatens to ruffle the stability of existence.He clings for protection to the idea and theinstitution that is old and familiar. Heis tempted to hang on to the shell of hissocial and economic life even after it hasbeen outgrown, and to adhere to the huskand form of beliefs even after they aredead.My point is not that change is necessarily good; it is that change is not inherentlybad. Change may indeed indicate vitalityand a capacity for growth. As Clifford,the historian, says: "A race in proportionas it is plastic and capable of change maybe regarded as young and vigorous, whilea race which is fixed, persistent in form,unable to change, is as surely effete, wornout, in peril of extinction."Moreover, as Professor Whitehead haspointed out in a recent book, we are inclined to put an excessive value upon placidity of existence. We make the mistake ofthinking that the two words "security" and"civilization" mean the same thing. Thereis of course a degree of instability which isinconsistent with civilization, and archeology tells us of civilizations that wereshaken to pieces by insecurity. But tranquillity is not necessarily the basis of progress, and the great ages have not alwaysbeen the stable ages. Indeed there isground for believing that the great ageshave often been the unstable ages. Suchwas the age of Pericles; such was thetwelfth century; such was the Renaissance.It is not security that chiefly develops thehuman spirit, but danger. Not in hours ofplacidity do men build a Chartres Cathedral, or paint the frescoes in the SistineChapel, or write a Constitution in Independence Hall. Unrest and instability canalso make their contributions to the cultural life of men. Insecurity is not withoutvalue as an antidote to stagnation.As we look ahead into the next decade,it seems likely that there will be in theworld less security than in the immediatepast, less stability. In the words of General Smuts, humanity has struck its tentsand is once more on the march. A newadventure is beginning, a new search forjustice, perhaps — who knows? — a newRenaissance. "Ah, but it is dangerous,"you say. Of course it is dangerous. "Wemust expect that the future will disclosedangers," says Professor Whitehead. "Itis the business of the future to be dangerous."When, therefore, archeology tells usthat alteration and change await all humaninstitutions, we need not be too soberedTHE RENAISSANCE OF 1932 199by the news. Frequently, indeed, revolutionary changes are essential if humanityis not to bog down on the march. We havea striking illustration, it seems to me, inour own generation. Our machines, whichdistinguish this era from all others thatpreceded it, have fastened themselves onevery detail of our lives. They have calledinto being hundreds of millions of peoplewho otherwise would not have been born.For these hundreds of millions they are thesole means of existence. Stop the machinesand half the people in the world wouldperish in a month.We originally created machinery in order to increase production. Now we findthat increased production involves thenecessity of increased consumption. Ourproblem has become not how to makethings, but how to dispose of them, not howto produce goods but how to produce customers. If we are to keep our machinecivilization stable, consumption must constantly keep ahead of production; the appetite for more things of every kind mustconstantly be stimulated. One desiremust be used to breed another, and thesenew wants in turn must be fed and nourished so that other new wants may be born.As the editor of a New York newspaperrecently remarked, the citizen's first importance to his country is no longer that ofcitizen, but that of consumer.Consequently our civilization is predominantly a civilization of things. It isa civilization of electric refrigerators, automobiles, vacuum cleaners, and thousands ofother contrivances without which no manis happy and no home is complete. Thedesirability of their possession is shoutedat us over the radio and proclaimed fromevery billboard, newspaper and magazine.The ingenuity of modern business is devoted to the task of creating new things, ofmaking people want what they neverwanted before. We live in a kind of mental five and ten cent store, our minds cluttered with gear. We are absorbed in thebewildering complexity of possessions whichmodern industry has produced as an answerto the simple question: "What shall weeat, what shall we drink, and wherewithal shall we be clothed?" President Hoover'sKing's Mountain address spoke the philosophy of our time. "Compared with eventhe most advanced country in Europe," hesaid, "we consume four times as muchelectricity and we have seven times as manyautomobiles; for each thousand people wehave more than four times as many telephones and radio sets."I am not saying, of course, that automobiles and radio sets are bad. What Iam saying is that the acquisition and use ofall these things engrosses us in such passionate concentration that life for most peopleis robbed of meaning, of dignity, and of thepossibility of beauty. Our generation iswitnessing a head-on collision between thedriving necessities of machine industry andthe good life. We have manouvered ourselves — or we have been manouvered byour machines — into a position where thevery existence of our civilization seems todepend upon our capacity to consume. Butno great civilization can be built on theideal of consumption as the chief end ofman. There can be no bright future fora race that uses means as ends. Today asin all previous generations there is thesame fundamental incompatibility betweenthe things of the world and the things ofthe spirit. Consequently ours is an agethat would stand condemned by all theforemost teachers and prophets from thebeginning of history. Socrates would riddleit with scorn; Plato and Aristotle woulddismiss it as unworthy; Jesus of Nazarethwould have none of it. Confucius, Buddha, Lao-Tsze — there is not a spiritualleader whose judgments we profess to revere in all the long line, to whom our acquisitive civilization would not be anathema.At this moment, in the midst of oureconomic depression, we are praying forthe return of prosperity. What do wemean by prosperity? Do we mean theshrieking high-power salesmanship and thefever of stimulated wants that made upthe whole of existence before 1929? Dowe mean a society of patterned minds inwhich every man desires whatever hisneighbor has, and life is a hectic race for200 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEgadgets and knickknacks? It seems inconceivable that anyone would want to goback to such a condition. There must besomething better. We were all of uscaught in a system which was not of ourmaking and which we could not control.Now it has broken down. Are we merelyto patch it up so that we can live as welived before? Surely if prosperity meansonly houses and furniture and automobilesand radios and telephones and all the otherparaphernalia of living — and no life thattranscends all these mechanisms — then weshould earnestly pray that the blight ofprosperity may never return.John Burroughs, in one of his essays,tells of a friend who said that if he outlived his wife, he would put on her tombstone: "Died of Things." When somefuture Breasted digs down through thecrust of our civilization — as some futureBreasted will — it would indeed be lamentable if this had to be his conclusion: "HereTHESE days seem sufficiently full ofanniversaries, with the bicentennialcelebration of the birth of GeorgeWashington, the impending World's Fairwhich marks a century of progress since theincorporation of the town of Chicago, andother like events, without calling anyothers to mind. And yet one decade ago,the University of Chicago launched aneducational venture in a new field, that ofradio broadcasting.Today the inspirational teachers of thecountry can stimulate simultaneously thelatent cultural and educational interests ofmillions of listeners enclosed within theservice area of a single large station. Withinfinite ease, the voice of man is hurdlingthe isolation barriers of former days andtaking the culture of the race to the mostremote and backward villages. The class- lie the remains of a civilization thatwas smothered by its own possessions."* * *Probably you think I am wanderingrather far from archeology. But one ofthe significant purposes for which archeology and its sister, history, can be used,it seems to me, is to gain perspective, toenable us to judge the present with a littleclearer vision and see the future perhapswith a little more hope. Surely in relationto this new building, which today we dedicate under such happy auspices, I can thinkof no greater service it could perform.These lofty halls can be the mirror of arelentlessly changing past. Here we cansee the records of ancient wisdom and oldmistakes and lessons that were not learnedin time. Out of this building can come, ifwe use it wisely, knowledge and inspirationby which, even in the midst of this sorelytroubled time, our generation can find itsway with surer footsteps to a fairer of the radio teacher is four hundredmiles in diameter in contrast to the oldschool room forty or more feet square. Theradio class numbers thousands while theclasses in the school rooms can be reckonedin scores.Since 1922, when Forest Ray Moultonstepped before the microphone to deliver atalk on "The Evening Sky," the Universityof Chicago has maintained a continuousaffiliation with WMAQ, the Chicago DailyNews Station. From a meagre schedule ofone twenty-minute period a week, the program has expanded to twelve broadcasts eachweek, totalling six hours and twentyminutes.Even though the University of Chicagodoes not own a station, its efforts to adapteducational materials to the radio haveearned the respect of commercial andThe University on the AirBy Allen Miller, '26THE UNIVERSITY ON THE AIR 201Carlos Castillo educational broad-casters alike.While many colleges owning radiostations have beenbickering withcommercial stations and with theFederal RadioCommission, theUniversity of Chicago has been creating a techniquewhich would holdthe attention of thelistener and at the same time maintain subject matter acceptable to the educator.The first forward step in program development was taken in the fall of 1926when, for the first time, lectures directfrom the classroom were put on the air.Since that date, one class has been broadcast each quarter including many subjectsfrom the humanities, social and biological sciences.At eight o'clockon the morning ofTuesday, March29th, 1932, William D. Hutchin-s 0 n , associateprofessor of American History, willstep upon the platform in the lecturehall of the SocialScience Buildingand face a class ofover one hundredstudents who will be assembled there for thefirst lecture in the course on "AmericanHistory Since 1865." Simultaneously, withthe assistance of radio, he will be introducedto thousands of listeners scattered throughout the Chicago region. The first thirty-fiveminutes of his class may be heard fromTuesday to Friday, inclusive, throughouteach week of the quarter. The remainingfifteen minutes of the period is filled withclass discussions which cannot, owing totechnical difficulties, be broadcast. ThePercy HolmesBoynton Harold D. Lasswellcourse was selected for its interesting subject matter, and also because of Dr.Hutchinson's outstanding reputation forteaching in the Junior Colleges. You mayrecall that he was one of the five menawarded increases in salary last summer forexceptional ability in teaching.The University of Chicago Round Tablehas proved to be one of the most noteworthyexperiments yet attempted in theadaptation of serious subjects toradio. The spontaneous conversationsof three men,usually on politicaland economic questions of immediateinterest, are presented to the radioaudience on Sunday afternoons atfive o'clock. Thefeature, started ayear ago with a constantly shifting groupof men, did not reach the height of its development until Percy H. Boynton, professor of English, T. V. Smith, professor ofPhilosophy, and, later, Harold D. Lass-well, associate professor of Political Science,were selected to appear regularly in the discussions.The Round Table has achieved recognition from numerous publications, as indicated by the following excerpt from aneditorial entitled, "When Radio Is WorthWhile," which appeared in the Chicago Daily Newson January 20th,1932:"A better technique and a higherquality are beingdeveloped in drain a t i c presentations, and there isin process of making a new art forcommunication ofideas which promises to be of im- T. V. Smith202 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmense value. The Universityof Chicago is taking the leadin this interesting educationaladventure. It still employsthe obvious method of theradio lecture. The serious-minded listener has welcomedthe privilege of listening in onclasses in literature, philosophy, and comparative religion,conducted by able membersof the faculty. More recently, however, the university has experimented in whatmight be termed the conversational symposium, and anentertainingly informal means of exploringa topic has been adapted admirably to radiouse."Last Sunday, for example, the office ofpresident of the United States was discussedby three erudite and genial professors —Percy H. Boynton, authority on Englishliterature ; Harold D. Lasswell, politicalscientist, andThomas V. Smith,philosopher. Thosewho tuned inmust have feltthat they hadquietly intrudedon this trio ofsavants while engaged, without consciousness of audience, in impromptuexchange of thought.Humor mingledwith sagacious comment in a mannerthat made the illusion of spontaneityperfect. There wasafforded a thoroughly enjoyable contactwith well-informedand discriminatingminds."Such use of theradio may have agreat value as a stimulus to thinking. Itmay even restore theart of conversation,now so little practiced to good purpose. It recalls the William T. HutchinsondramatizedSprinc Quarter Weekly Radio ProgramSunday10:30 A. M.- — Organ Recital11:00 A. M.- —Religious Service5:00 P. M.- -University of ChicagoRound Table6:45 P. M- -Among the Philosophersin HadesTuesday8:00 A. M.- —History of the UnitedStates Since 1865 —Prof. Hutchinson10:45 A. M.- —Readings4:30 P. M.- -Elementary Spanish —Prof. CastilloWednesday8:00 A. M, —History of the UnitedStates Since 1865 —Prof. HutchinsonThursday8:00 A. M.- —History of the UnitedStates Since 1865 —Prof. Hutchinson10:45 A. M.- —ReadingsFriday8:00 A M, —History of the UnitedStates Since 1865—Prof. HutchinsonSaturday8:30 A. M- —News from the Quadrangles — John Howemore leisurely days of drawing room and coffee house discussion — days when SamuelJohnson, Goldsmith, Gibbon,Burke and other worthiescrossed verbal swords, whileBoswell made mental notesfor later transcription."And another of our programs of which we are justlyproud, for no more uniqueprogram has been developedby educators, is Prof. T. V.Smith's "Among the Philosophers in Hades," in whichthe story of philosophy isPlato, Socrates, Thales, andother eminent philosophers of the past areheard conversing with a modern philosopheron divers subjects. This series has naturallybrought forth much interesting commentfrom listeners in widely separated districts, showing vividly the scope of thisparticular service, and of its possibilities.To those who arenot already acquainted with ourradio programs, maywe say in closingthat a weeklyschedule of all University of Chicagobroadcasts, completedescriptions of thedifferent programs,and a comprehensiveout line of the coursebeing broadcast direct from the classroom is compiledinto a radio programeach quarter, and isavailable from theRadio Department,University of Chicago, for thirty-fivecents. Needless tosay, the SpringRadio Program willcontain an outline ofProf. Hutchinson'scourse in AmericanHistory.Fine Teachers of Fine MenBy Ernest E. Quantrell, '05Trustee j University of ChicagoIT HAS been a happy experience to beidentified with the University ofChicago and watch it grow during thelast thirty years. In 1901 it was myprivilege to enter as a freshman. The University was then nine years old. In approximate figures its assets were $12,500,000.Today they are $106,500,000, or over eighttimes as large. The annual budget thenwas $790,000. Today it is $7,840,000, ornearly ten times as large. Up to 1901twelve thousand students had matriculated.Thirty years later this had increased toabout 155,000, or nearly thirteen times asmany.These are impressive figures and indicatea phenomenal growth, particularly for ayoung university. But they do not indicatethe success of the University.The success of a University depends on itsproduct, and its product consists of studentstrained to lead happy, proficient, useful andunselfish lives. To obtain this product agood faculty is essential, and constitutes themost important part of a university.Chicago started with one of the greatestfaculties in the history of American education. In fact, it was so famous that astandard was set which is not easy to maintain. The most important work of theBoard of Trustees is to act as a serviceorganization for the Faculty in providingample plant and facilities for encouraginggood teaching.This raises the old question, "What isgood teaching, and who are good teachers ?"I thought you would be interested in hearing the opinions of six of our successful andloyal alumni who had the benefit of goodteaching and acknowledge its help. Incidentally, three are doubly indebted to theUniversity as they married former students.I asked them the following questions:1st. What teacher at the University ofChicago was most helpful to you and thegreatest influence in your life, and2nd. In what way was the teacher helpful?In naming the alumni I will also give a brief outline of the record of each, takenchiefly from Who's Who in America. TheUniversity is proud to claim them as formerstudents.Trevor Arnett, A.B. '98, is Presidentand Trustee of the General EducationBoard and the International EducationBoard. He is also Trustee of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, andthe Rockefeller Foundation, and is a formerTrustee of the University of Chicago. Hislife work has been devoted largely to educational matters.Mr. Arnett names Dr. Harper, firstPresident of the University, as the teacherwho helped and influenced him most. Hesays:"President Harper seemed to me to bethe embodiment of the ideal teacher. Hehad the rare quality of inspiring his students to desire to gain all the knowledgeand understanding of the subject and not tobe satisfied with a lesser accomplishment.His students were thrilled by his zeal andearnestness and caught the contagion of hisown great personality. He was an excellent example of the great teacher whoseinfluence was personal and not dependentupon teaching a popular subject. He washonest in the presentation of views for andagainst an interpretation and endeavoredto lead his students to form their own conclusions on the basis of the evidence andthrough their own reasoning. He was always ready to meet his students early andlate, oftentimes at great inconvenience tohimself. Although I had but one classwith him, and that Sunday morning, thesequalities of his made an indelible impressionon me "David H. Stevens,, Ph.D., '14, a formergraduate student, was recently appointedDirector of Humanities of the RockefellerFoundation and is Vice President of theGeneral Education Board. At the University he was formerly Professor ofEnglish, Assistant to the President, andAssociate Dean of Faculties. The teacherwho helped Mr. Stevens most was Professor203204 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEManly, head of the Department of English Mr. Stevens says, —"Professor Manly still demonstrates, ashe did twenty years ago, the fundamentallesson of research, the process of independent constructive thought, and by his ownexample, taught me never to accept dogmaticassertion as a substitute for thinkingthrough to the end of any problem."Harold H. Swift, Ph.B. '07, is VicePresident of Swift & Co., and Presidentof the Board of Trustees of the Universityof Chicago. He was the first alumnus tobe elected to that Board. He is also Trusteeof the General Education Board and theRockefeller Foundation.Mr. Swift says, "Charles RichmondHenderson, who inspired me more than anyother man, seems to have done it by sheerpersonality and almost not at all by teaching methods. He gave me a philosophy oflife with the result that his influence upon me was probably greater than that ofany other man with whom I have had contact."Lee W. Maxwell, Ph.B. '05, is Presidentof the Crowell Publishing Co., which publishes the American Magazine, TheWoman s Home Companion and TheCountry Home.The teachers who were of greatest helpto him were J. Laurence Laughlin of thePolitical Economy Department and RollinD. Salisbury, of the Geology Department,because, as Maxwell says, "They taughtme to think." Maxwell says further, "Butof all those with whom I came in contactat the University the one who had thegreatest influence on my life was AmosAlonzo Stagg, director of athletics, becausehe taught me the fundamental characteristics of manhood, clean living and goodsportsmanship. Through him I was taughtthe importance of being square with myselfand the rest of the world, and inspired towork hard for what I wanted, and to takethe breaks as they came."Frank A. Vanderlip, private banker andeconomist, and from 1909 to 19 19 President of the National City Bank of NewYork, was a special student at the University in 1892. He is a Trustee of the Carnegie Foundation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and New York University. He has been decorated by FranceMontenegro, Greece and Belgium. Whilehe was working as a reporter on the ChicagoTribune, interviewing people at hotels, thefinancial editor of that paper resigned, andhe was given the job. He was not particularly interested in finance but recognized hisnew work as a promotion. In order toequip himself better for his new duties, heenrolled as a special student at the University. He says, — "The University shapedmy life. Both Dr. Adolf Miller and Dr.J. Laurence Laughlin had a profound influence in my life. Dr. Miller aroused inmy mind an intense interest in the subjectof Political Economy. I had attended theUniversity of Illinois some years before,but my ambitions then were along the linesof Science, and Political Economy was anew book to me. With Dr. Miller I feelthat I profited both by his inspiration as ateacher, and by the sound foundation helaid in the subject matter itself. He hadthe faculty of accurate- definition. Hecould speak for an hour and define withbeautiful definiteness the terms of his subject so that he helped one lay a really scientific foundation."The work I did with Dr. Laughlinleaves a rather different impression. Itwas in the Financial History of the UnitedStates and today I have not a particularlydefinite impression of just what I learnedin the way of facts, but I have a very definiterecollection of what he did for me on thesocial side. Occasionally he used to havehis students in for tea and would talk informally on one subject or another — sometimes of his experiences and his own studentdays, in a way that opened my mind andfired my ambition."Both men I am certain have in all theyears of my life since been a source of inspiration."Frank B. Jewett, Ph.D. '02, is Presidentof the Bell Telephone Laboratories, andVice President of the American Telephoneand Telegraph Company. In 1928 he wasawarded the Edison Gold Medal of theAmerican Institute of Electrical EngineersFINE TEACHERS OF FINE MEN 205for his contribution to the art of electricalcommunication. He is one of the leadingelectrical engineers of this country. Hereceived an Honorary Degree from theUniversity of Chicago in 1929 and has beenawarded the Distinguished Service Medalby the U. S. Government. He is a memberof numerous scientific societies. He says:"Unquestionably the contact with Professor Michelson was productive of thegreatest influence of any on my whole afterlife. As a matter of fact, I was more influenced by my contact with him than Ihave been by any other single individual,save possibly only contact with my laterchief, General J. J. Carty "Primarily Michelson's influence on mehad nothing to do with the formal contactsexisting between teacher and student, norwith the content of his courses. As a matterof fact, except for a few fundamental matters of physics and a few general impressionswhich were indelibly impressed on me bythe sheer beauty of his scholarly and polishedpresentations, I have forgotten most of thesubject matter of his courses "The power of his influence on me, and Ishould think on all those who came to studyunder him, was purely an intellectualphenomenon. It had to do wholly andsolely with the appreciation of the powerof a great mind in action. It was throughmy contact with Michelson that I came firstto appreciate fully the value of scrupulousintellectual honesty and the irresistibleforce of logical thinking applied by manundaunted by any number of obstacles,whether they were obstacles of nature orthose resulting from the muddied or dishonest thinking of lesser men. He wasthen, and so remained to the end of his life,a man of the most astounding perseverance,who applied that perseverance continuallyunder the guidance of a clear-thinkinganalysis of whatever problem was engaginghis attention."There is an obvious objection to thislist of great Chicago teachers. It is not allinclusive. I greatly regret all of them cannot be paid an individual tribute here tonight.In the foregoing illustrations little em phasis is placed on the subject matter of thecourse. The most important result in themind of the alumnus is something inspirational, or basic in life, which was a byproduct of the course.It is not unusual for alumni to forget thenames of some of their teachers. This ismost regrettable, regardless of cause. Onewould think an instructor would sufficientlyimpress his pupil, or be helpful enough tostamp his name indelibly on the student'smind. Some alumni complain they receivedlittle from the Faculty. Others stronglyfeel the impressive sums spent in buildingsand equipment are largely wasted. Theycan see little of the good accomplished andemphasize only the bad. Instead of recognizing the help given by universities in aiding students to grope their way successfullythrough an occasional crisis brought aboutlargely by the ignorance of humanity, theyseem to expect the universities to dispel anddo away with all ignorance. I am remindedof the French Canadian who left his countryto work for Uncle Sam, building a jetty ata harbor entrance on the Pacific Coast. Onreturning home he was asked how he likedhis job. He said it was fine, but UncleSam was a big fool, wasting his money on alarge light house with a bright light, a belland a big horn. When it was finished hesaid, "We light de light, we blow de horn,we ring de bell, and de fog she come injust de same."In talking about great teachers with oldalumni one might conclude, as one educatorsaid, that "All great teachers are deadteachers." Mr. Kelly states, in his report to the Association of American Colleges, "Contrary to the prophecies frequently made, more great teachers haveappeared in the twentieth century than inthe nineteenth century. 'The decade inwhich the largest number of great teacherswas listed, was the decade ending 1920."My optimistic nature leads me to believethe same is true at our University. If not,we certainly are going backward, and Idon't believe that. No system of educationcan be outstanding without good teachers.We have had, and still have great teachers,but we will have still greater ones.The Alfonsine LapidaryBy Mary Louise Foster, Ph.D. '14Associate Professor of Chemistry, Smith CollegeNOT far from Madrid toward thewest, there was, in the sixteenthcentury, on the slope of the SanGredos Mountains an exhausted mine. Allabout lay the refuse of the mining operations, stone and slag. The place had beenlong deserted and was known as "escorial."Barren and forsaken as it was, it lookedsouth over Castilla Nueva and it was herethat Philip II determined to erect a building, in fulfilment of his vow to San Lorenzo,who had given him the victory of St.Quentin in 1557. It is obvious how themagnificent great building came to becalled "El Escorial."It is a huge granite edifice without external decoration, the square severity of outline relieved only at the four corners withsquat cupolas, by which that austere kingwished to recall the gridiron upon whichSan Lorenzo had perished. This enormousbuilding was designed to house all Philip'sclosest interests: the church where he worshiped, the priests and monks who servedin the church, the palace where he livedso close to the high altar that he could sharein the services without appearing in thechurch itself, and the library, now, to thescholar and student, a priceless collection ofmanuscripts and ancient documents.The main room of the Library of SanLorenzo is very long and narrow, the wallsof the three bays frescoed and adorned witharabesques by Carducci, the ceilings byPellegrino Tibaldi. Books, uniform inheight, their backs to the wall, their titlesprinted on the gilded edges, fill the glasscases; portraits of Charles V and Philip IIand of Arias Montano, the first librarian,recall the founders. In the centre, thewhole length of the vast room, are glasscases containing the Library's pricelesstreasures : the beautiful illuminated work ofmedieval artists and craftsmen. Here areto be found the missals of Philip and hisfather; a volume called the Codice aureo,richly bound, with hand-wrought bronze corners and silver clasp, and containing ingolden letters the four Gospels; manuscripts of St. Jerome and Eusebius; and theCodex Albedensus written in 976. In addition to these books of religious worth, isanother of quite different value, one ofespecial importance to the student of thehistory of science. Modern research findshere gradual evolution under the influenceof a changing environment. Comparisonof documents and manuscripts is disclosingthe slow passage of the scientific knowledgeof the East toward the West and thechanges and modifications which affected itin the passage.This book, written apparently throughout by the same person in bold Spanish-Gothic letters, on sheets of vellum abouttwelve by eighteen inches, is beautifullyilluminated. The miniatures in the initialletters indicate the subject matter of thebook. The first represents a man with abook seated in a chair under Gothic archesteaching other men, who sit at his feet.Other initial letters depict men, always twoin number, one in the garb of the teacher,the other in that of a workman, who is displaying to the Master the stone which hehas dug from the ground with his pick, orfished from the stream with his net. Thesubject matter of the book is thus illustrated: it is a work on minerals, and thelocalities where they are found. In themargins are arabesques of flowers andanimals in many colors, red, blue, green,lavender, brown, and gold. We may expect, then, to find animals and plants playing some part in this story. And fartheron, for tailpieces, are strange figures ofwomen and animals, each one distinguishedby a star which appears in different placeson the figures. To the initiated this meansthat the stone described in the text owedits intrinsic value to some star or constellation, with which it had connection. Wemay expect the book to tell us, then, whatthe teachers, or philosophers as they were206THE ALFONSINE LAPIDARY 207called, taught about this subject and howthey interpreted the reactions of the stones.This book, "El Lapidario de Alfonso ElSabio," belongs to the thirteenth century.In 1279, Jehudah Mosca and his colleague,Garcia Perez, presented to Don Alfonso,tenth of the name, the manuscript on whichthey had been working for three years.Don Alfonso, son of Don Fernando andDona Beatriz, was at that time king ofmost of the eastern part of Spain, includingin his kingdomCastilla, Cordova,Seville, and evenLeon in the west.From his earliestyouth he had been astudent and patronof scholars whomhe attracted to hisCourt. But it wasnot merely for himself that Don Alfonso sought thesociety of theselearned men frommany nations. Hewas interested in thespread of knowledgeamong his peopleand that they mightread the books themselves, he had themtranslated into Spanish. He was thefirst to do this. Warwas the habit of the ||IiSm4m»«iMi «¦ifcA^nMtMkf ¦¦'i- *day and Don Alfonso's reign was disturbedby foreign and domestic and civil strife, butrelief from these uncongenial struggles hefound in the personal supervision of thetranslation into the Castillian idiom ofworks on theology, law, and poetry. Somehundred years before, Archbishop Rai-mundo of Toledo had a similar project, buthe had made Latin the medium of translation for the Arabic works which thuspassed into Europe. Don Alfonso, by theuse of the Spanish language for his bookslaid the foundation of Spanish culture. Hescrutinized ceaselessly and meticulously thewritings of his staff of scholars. He championed always beauty and eleganceand accuracy of expression, and thus prepared the way for the literary development,which is called the "Siglo de Oro." Forthis far-seeing idealism in a time of political disenchantment, he has been called"one of 'los grandes civilizadores' in theannals of mankind" and is universallyknown as Alfonso El Sabio.Jehudah Mosca gives in his introductiona brief history of the book which he hadtranslated from.Arabic into Spanish."Aristotle," he saysin the first line, "wasthe most highly endowed of all philosophers, one who hadexplained in areasonable way therelations of plantsand animals andstones to the fourelements." Concerning the stones, hewrote a book describing the color,size, habitat, andlocality and intrinsicvalue, "virtue," ofsome seven hundred.Many learned menespecially among theChaldeans thoughtthat this was notsufficient ; that itt otheA photograph, greatly reduced in size, of a pageof the Escorial manuscriptwas necessaryconsider the additional influence ofstars and constellations from which allcreated things certainly received their intrinsic worth. Among those who thus believed was one Abolays, a Chaldean bydescent, familiar with that language andastronomy. Into his possession came oneof these Chaldean books on stones with descriptions of some three hundred and sixtyvarieties and of their relations to the signsof the zodiac. This book he translated into Arabic and it was this which had falleninto the hands of Don Alfonso by whosecommand it had been translated intoSpanish.208 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEFour folios bound together in the SanLorenzo copy give accounts of four hundredand ninety-two stones. Evidently the original writers had access to several lapidaries,for there are repetitions and descriptions ofthe same stone under different names and ofdifferent stones under the same name.Translation was an extremely difficultmatter. The Arabic and Greek languageshad little in common and in the transferthe original words often became obscuredbeyond recognition. However, in manyinstances the name is given both in Latinand in Spanish, as well as in Arabic.Furthermore, the chemical and physicalcharacteristics aid in the identification. Inthis way we have found that the Arabsreally brought into Europe a very considerable body of mineralogical knowledge. Itwas both chemical and physical, thoughqualitative rather than quantitative. Forthe latter determination as the necessaryfoundation for identification, the world hadto wait till the latter part of the eighteenthcentury in the work of Lavoisier. As forthe "virtue" bestowed upon the stone dueto its relation to some celestial body, thatexisted for the Oriental as an additionalquality. It in no way affects for us thestatements concerning the physical properties or the place in which the stone wasmost abundantly found.The association of this physical sciencewith the extra-mundane has brought undeserved reproach upon alchemy, which hasbecome synonymous with magic. While ina sense this is true, this very association offact and fancy, of the true and, for us, thefalse, should rather make us wonder aboutthe origin of these ideas. There may be herea clue which will repay investigation.Modern belief in evolution applies toknowledge as well as to biology.Study and research with comparison oftexts reveal the marked similarity betweenthe writings of Marbode, bishop of Rennes in the eleventh century, of San Isidoro ofSeville of the seventh century, and of Plinyof the first century. It would seem thatthey had a common ancestor. This has always been supposed to be Aristotle. Thisalso is the attribution of Abolays, the Chaldean. To this Greek science was addedastronomy, in which the Chaldeans ofBabylonia excelled. When and how?whence the Persian and Indian names socommon in the book?Communication by caravan routes,though slow, did exist in those remote times.The products of India, Tibet, and Tartary,to mention only a few, were brought toPersia and Arabia on the backs of camels.All of these places were familiar to thetravellers who went to and frp. Greekinfluence and Greek philosophy were of tremendous importance in the fifth century inMesopotamia. Greek teachers were soughtafter at the Syrian Court and later at Bagdad whea the Abaside dynasty came intopower. It was to this dynasty that Harounal Rashid belonged. Their dominion verynearly encircled the Mediterranean. Intheir culture they united Greek philosophywith Oriental mysticism and fantasy. Itwas this culture which penetrated to Spainand thence to Europe. The Alfonsin|eLapidary sets forth this assimilation in itsfinished form.Beside the two aspects discussed here,there is still a third, the medicinal values attached to the stones. The same traditionsattach to these, traditions that are indisputably of the Far East. Knowledge recognizesno barriers nor boundaries. It is international and evolutionary and partakes of thecharacteristics of the culture of each nationthrough whose territory it passes.I wish to express to the American Councilof Learned Societies my appreciation of the"grant," which made possible the abovestudy.Changing Freshman AmbitionsBy William F. CramerSecretary of AdmissionsON THURSDAY morning September 24, 1 93 1, President Hutchinswelcomed the incoming freshmanclass as the best qualified, most importantgroup that had ever been admitted to theUniversity of Chicago. While these, orsimilar adjectives, were probably used todescribe hundreds of other freshman classesall over the United States, the Universityof Chicago freshmen were unique in at leastone respect. They had chosen to alignthemselves with, and become a part of, anew educational venture which presagesgreat changes in college and university education. They were the first students toenter the University under the so-called"New Plan." It is, therefore, extremelyimportant to find out some of the characteristics of this year's freshman class.In spite of the financial depression whichhas lowered college attendance in this section of the country, 1381 applications werereceived, a larger number than in any previous year. Of this number 1082 were eligible for admission. The two corresponding figures for 1930 were 11 75 applicationsreceived and 1 002 eligible for admission.The median score made by the 1931freshmen on the scholastic aptitude testgiven to all entering freshmen was significantly higher than the corresponding scoremade by the 1930 group. It appears, therefore, that the "New Plan" is attracting notonly a larger number of students but alsothose of greater ability.The facts that are presented in the remaining part of this article were gleanedfrom the application blanks of 702 freshmen who entered directly from secondaryschools at the beginning of the autumnquarter* and for whom complete datawere available.Geographically speaking the 193 1 classis more widespread than the 1930 class. Last year 65.2 per cent were from the Cityof Chicago, 12.8 per cent from Illinois outside of Chicago, and 22.0 per cent from outside the state of Illinois. This year 57.4per cent were from Chicago, 16.3 per centfrom Illinois outside of Chicago, and 26.3per cent from outside Illinois. In 1930they came from 29 different states; in 193 1from 34 states, the district of Columbia,and three foreign countries. Five and six-tenths per cent came from Indiana, slightlymore than two per cent from Michigan,Ohio, and Wisconsin, and the followingstates furnished between one and two percent: Iowa, Kansas, Massachusetts, Missouri, Nebraska, and Oklahoma. Thestates furnishing less than one per centwere: Alabama 1, Arizona 1, California 4,Colorado 3, Connecticut 2, Florida 1,Georgia 1, Idaho 1, Kentucky 2, Maryland 1, Minnesota 5, Montana 2, NewJersey 3, New York 6, North Carolina 2,North Dakota 1, Oregon 1, Pennsylvania3, South Dakota 4, Tennessee 4, Texas 2,Virginia 1, and Wyoming 1.Sixty-three and one-half per cent of theFreshmen said they expected to live at homewhile attending the University.The median age of the class was 18 yearsand 7 months, as of October 1, 1931, thegirls averaging 2 months younger than theboys. The youngest member, a boy, wasjust over fifteen years and the oldest wasnear forty (student's statement). One-fourth of the class were less than seventeenand a half, and only h\e per cent were overtwenty.Almost all freshmen coming to the University of Chicago come in the autumn following their graduation from high school.Eighty-seven and three-fourth per cent ofthis group graduated from high school lessthan a year before entering the University.Slightly over seven per cent more, or a*A few 1931 freshmen entered the University during the summer quarter and a numberof others entered at the beginning of the autumn quarter with a small amount of credit fromother institutions of college rank. These were not included in this analysis.209210 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtotal of 95 per cent had less than two years creasing from year to year. Nearly three-elapsing between high school graduation fifths of the fathers have at least a highand entrance to college, while only 1.14 per school education.cent delayed going to college more than The comparatively large number offour years. freshmen who did not report a vocationalSome light on the environment from choice is somewhat misleading. It shouldwhich our freshmen come may be had by a be explained that, through an oversight, astudy of the educational training of their number of application blanks that werefathers. Table I furnishes this information, sent out at the beginning of the season didAs might be expected the percentage of not call for this information.fathers who are college graduates is in- The homes of business men furnish byTABLE IEducational Achievement of the Fathers of 1931 FreshmenFATHERS' EDUCATION PER CENTDid not graduate from high school 41.2Graduated from high school but did not attend college 21.1Attended college but did not graduate 10.5College graduate 26.1No report made 1.1100.The fathers' occupations and the occupational choice of the students themselves throwfurther light on their environment and, to a certain extent, on their ambitions. TableII contains these data.TABLE IIVocation of Fathers and Vocational Choice of FreshmenPERCENTAGEVOCATIONSAgricultureBusiness ExecutiveBusiness EmployeeEducational ServiceEngineeringFine ArtsHome-makingJournalism and WritingLabor.^ Law and GovernmentMedical ServiceReligious ServiceScientific ResearchSkilled TradesSocial ServiceTransportationMiscellaneousUnknown FATHERS STUDENTSI.7I .1423-9423-79 IO.II•565.125-69 19.09I.85•43 3-27•715.701.285.98 IO.4O6.42 9-121.57•857.98 •431 4. 1 1.14.143-565.845-7^ I.7I.9921.65IOO. IOO.CHANGING FRESHMAN AMBITIONS 211far the largest number of freshmen, 47.73per cent in all. The professions, if grouped,would furnish the next largest number, between 25 and 30 per cent. A comparatively small number of the fathers are engaged in agriculture, unskilled labor, scientific research, and transportation. Itshould be remembered, however, that thelatter two of these four vocations contribute only a small percentage to the totalpopulation of our nation.The shift in vocation from fathers tochildren is interesting. The greatest changeis away from business and toward the professions. About twice as many freshmenare interested in some sort of educationalservice (teaching, library work, personnelwork, and physical education) as are interested in business. Approximately one-eighth of the freshmen who reported a vocational choice expressed a preference forlaw and another eighth for medical service, whereas only about half as manyfathers are in these two professions. Scientific research has a strong appeal with morethan one-sixth of the freshmen making ittheir choice of a profession, while less thanone per cent of the fathers are earning aliving at this kind of work. Not a single freshman chose to be a laborer; nor did oneexpress a preference for the field of transportation.Less than one per cent of the girls admitted that they preferred home-making toother vocations.Another interesting fact about the vocations of the fathers and the vocationalchoices of the freshmen is the shift awayfrom religious service and toward socialservice. The proportion of percentages ispractically reversed with a slightly largerper cent of freshmen than fathers choosingthese fields of service when the two arecombined.For a sane interpretation of table II, oneshould keep in mind three important facts.First, that deciding on paper what vocationone should like to enter and accomplishingone's ambitions are quite different. Students do not always reach the goals theyset for themselves just as people never planto become dependent upon charity. Second,the freshmen class is composed of both sexes,whereas the occupations of only the fathersare given in the table. Third, all of thefreshmen plan to be college graduates,while only 26.1 per. cent of the fathers arecollege graduates.of Chicane rroftt Jetvdm*-/ Jti—Autwnft Quorlrr, /9J/ I ¦'V^'/ •".• • ••* •W-v, ¦*• '.¦¦;¦';••>.'-¦¦• .' •'' mm¦W= 70.SX *tm CMrtf .<-« *"T ~. J ' 5 J*i sin n Miii>. ^Guardian of the StarsTHE card that Rex Cole, A.M. '19,Commerce and Administration,would hand you in the course ofbusiness or upon request bears in thin Roman capitals at the lower right hand cornerthe not uncommon designation "InvestmentCounselor." But back of this lies a story.First of all, the office of the concern ofwhich Mr. Cole isvice-president andgeneral manager issituated in Hollywood, California,which, as everyschoolboy knows, isthe motion picturecapital of the world.And naturally onewould surmise thatan investment counselor in Hollywoodwould be counseling motion picturepeople. This sur-m i s e is correct,but more background is necessary.Perhaps one of the more important features of Mr. Cole's equipment for theposition of advisor to motion picture starsand directors is that he has learned to say"No" in at least half a dozen languages.He knew, of course, how to say it in English when he left the University; later, asFar Eastern representative for an international trade concern, he learned to say itin Japanese and Chinese, and still later, asrepresentative in Europe for the sameorganization, he added several otherlanguages.Then he went to California. At thattime, some eight years ago, motion picturepeople were making lots of money (as someof them still are) and they were also spending it.It was the out-door-pool, two Rolls-Royce, real-estate-boom era in the pictures.The stars and directors could get plenty ofRex Cole, A. Mkaill,advice as to how to spend their money;few persons were interested in seeing themsave some of it. Mr. Cole thought that thenovelty of the saving idea might have itsappeal, and found one star to agree withhim. For several years his efforts werespent, among other things, in conservingthe rather considerable earnings of that star.The news gotaround. Today Mr.Cole is investmentcounselor for some35 stars and managers. With becomingreticence, he declinesto reveal the namesof his clients, butnews of this kindgets into the magazines, and from theirissues were gleanedthe information thathe is investmentcounselor to WarnerBaxter, ConstanceBennett, Mary As-tor, Dorothy Mac-and Helen Twelve-trees, among the stars; and to AnthonyBushnell, Eddie Sutherland, Tay Garnett,Ernest Pascal, and Henry King, among thedirectors — and there are others.Working for him Mr. Cole has a staffof investment analysts, whose reports areavailable on securities of many types.These he uses in making decisions as to howhis clients should invest their funds. Further than this is the requirement thatchecks signed by his clients must bear hissignature before they are valid. And hereis where the ability to say "No," mentionedabove, has its innings. A star or director,bothered by a high-pressure salesman or bya pest who, having once walked on theopposite side of the street from the star backin Brooklyn, tries to borrow money on thestrength of that acquaintanceship, merelysays, "I can't give you the money; you'll'19Zazu Pitts,RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION 213have to see Rex Cole." And Mr. Colesuavely says "No," unless the cause isworthy and well-qualified.The occupation has its romantic side.These may vary all the way from a requestto take care of an attempt at blackmail,to an invitation to hop into an airplane andfly to Yuma, Arizona, to act as best manor witness when a star is married. Thetelephone calls that are likely to come in atany hour, day or night, are often as exciting as any that come to the city desk of ametropolitan daily.But these are the spectacular elements ; thebig job is conserving the stars' money. Andhere the Cole conservatism and foresight areat their best. Mr. Cole's clients were outof the Los Angeles-Hollywood real estateboom months before it collapsed. Theywere holding good bonds and buying annuities when the stock market crashed."Just now," says Mr. Cole, "they're buyinggovernment bonds."gf&g®®®®**®Research in the Field of EducationBy Charles Hubbard JuddDean of the School of EducationTHE motive of the General Education Board in providing the Department of Education of the Universitywith the new building, dedicated thisMarch, was to promote research in thefield of education. The plans of expansion cover two fields which have not beencultivated in any large measure up to thistime. First, studies will be made of thestages of the mental and physical development of children which precede the kindergarten-primary period. In this study of theearly stages of child life and related problems of parent education the Department ofEducation is to co-operate with a Universitycommittee that has been organized for thepurpose of co-ordinating the activities of anumber of departments of the University,all of which are concerned with the study ofthe early years in the lives of human beings.The second major addition to the Department's sphere of research will be in thefield of college and university education.Some years ago the General EducationBoard provided the University of Chicagowith a fund to be devoted to a systematicstudy of the problems of internal organiza tion which confront the administration andthe faculty of this institution. That gift,which is quite independent of the endowment given to the Department of Education, has recently been increased, and thereis now under way a general investigation ofthe institutional activities of the University, which the General Education Boardhopes will result in the establishment ofcertain broad general principles of administration and instruction that will be applicable to all institutions of higher learning.The enlargement of the Department ofEducation to carry on studies in higher education is a natural outgrowth of the earlierstep taken by the General Education Boardand the University, and it is also a welcomeextension of the sphere of the Department'sactivities.The plans now moving rapidly towardconsummation have been maturing for someyears. When the Department of Educationwas first given independent status in theUniversity, in 1909, ideas about the possibilities of research in the field of educationwere relatively vague. It was true in education, as it .has been in all the spheres in^Excerpts from an address delivered at the Cornerstone laying of the Graduate Building of theSchool of Education.214 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEwhich sciences directly related to human lifehave been evolved, that the idea of investigating the familiar facts of man's nature and his immediate environment had towait until scientific methods of thought andobservation were developed by studyingthings remote. Men studied the stars longbefore they thought of making the familyan object of scientific scrutiny. Even today, when a college student is first introduced to scientific discussions of the family,he usually thinks of some family other thanthe one in which he grew up.Not only was the scienceof education very young in1909, but the School of Education was absorbed in activities other than the cultivation of this science. Thechief function of the Schoolof Education in its early history was to train teachersand supervisors for the elementary school. At thattime state departments ofeducation and standardizingassociations did not distinguish between certificatespermitting the holders toteach in elementary schoolsand certificates permittingthe holders to teach in high schools. TheCollege of Education conferred an inferiordegree, known as the Bachelor of Education.This division of the University was regardedas a somewhat undesirable member of theacademic family and as one which certainlynever could carry on research.In spite of the handicaps resulting fromwhat may be called its unfavorable socialstation in the University, the School ofEducation went vigorously about its business and gradually came to be accepted asa member in good standing. Some part ofthe acceptance granted to the School of Education was due to the fact that this divisionof the University carefully limited its activities to studies in the fields of elementaryand secondary education. There have beendifficulties even in these limited fields. Ithas been the hard lot of the School of Education for many years to try to supply a systems andteaching inCharles Hubbard JuddDean of the School ofEducationsatisfactory education for the children ofmembers of the University faculty. It is notrivial problem for a student of educationto try to decide about the relative importanceof heredity and environment when theheredity is supplied by his next-door neighbor and the environment is supplied largelyby himself. However, as was said, theSchool of Education made progress. Itphotographed eye-movements and improvedmethods of reading. It surveyed schoolinfluenced administration andmany centers. It did othermeritorious acts and gainedmuch ground. It securedthe respect of other parts ofthe world and came to bewell thought of by a numberof people in the immediateneighborhood.Then there came a daywhen new responsibilitieswere thrust upon the students of the science of education. So much had beendone to measure results inelementary and secondaryeducation and to survey critically the administration ofpublic-school systems thatfinally the sacred precinctsof the college were opened somewhat reluctantly to scientific examination. Thereis not a little waste and incoordination in theorganization of the colleges of this country,and, when light is thrown on these defects,certain vested interests are sure to be interfered with. I am forced by the rumors whichI hear to believe that departments of education in American universities will have togo through a second period of distrust andcriticism while those who are not in 'sympathy with the systematic study of theproblems of higher education learn thatthere are scientific methods of analyzing theachievements of colleges and universities. Ifsuch a period is inevitable, at least we shallhave a comfortable home in which to waitfor the dawn of a better day.May I inject an illustration of the wayin which some of the brightest minds inour academic community work. I heardRESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION 215one of the officers of this University whoholds a high position say in an official conference that he supposed the purpose of thesurvey of the University now in progress isto secure money for its support. I assumethat this brilliant thinker would hardly accept the statement that the purpose of theastronomer in looking through his telescopeis to earn his salary. The point is, everyoneknows about astronomy, even unscientificacademicians. On the other hand, studiesof social institutions, such as universities,are contemplated by some of our contemporaries with the same superstitious misgivings that the medievals exhibited towardstudies of chemistry or medicine. It willrequire time and patience to bring to theminds of some otherwise intelligent peoplethe idea that a university has a structurewhich is quite as interesting as the structureof a solar system and that movements withina university need to be directed by patienceand intelligent examination of results.The program of research of the Department of Education has been carried far inthe twenty-two years of its history. Duringthis period there has been a steady growthin its graduate work. It has been thepolicy of the Department to transfer itsenergy and resources to graduate work andresearch as fast as institutional interestspermitted. One important step after an other has been taken. In June of this yearthe last step will be taken. The Collegeof Education will, by action of the Boardof Trustees of the University, be discontinued. The Department of Education isthus left free to concentrate on advancedwork. It is preparing to be of service tothe college by continuing certain courseswhich are required of teachers in standardhigh schools, but it will no longer registerany undergraduates.The Department of Education is a member of the Division of the Social Sciences ofthe University. It has given up its statusas an independent professional division ofthe University. It secures by its affiliationwith the other social-science departments theadvantage of co-operation in dealing withmany educational problems. For example,there are problems of educational organization which can be solved only when thestudents of political science, economics, andeducation join forces. There are manyproblems of human growth and maturitywhich demand for their solution the coordination of the social and biologicalsciences. If time permitted, it could beshown that co-ordinations of the type described are now actually coming into existence. One very striking example will serve.The only member of the faculty of theUniversity of Chicago on an important-.* *.^-.ii=a«:The New Graduate Education Building2l6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEnational committee dealing with school administration is a member of the Departmentof Political Science, who accepted appointment on this committee after consultationwith his colleagues in education.The erection of a special building forgraduate work in education and the increases in the staff which have been madepossible by the new endowment have alreadyserved to stimulate new activities within theDepartment. During twenty-two years themembers of the Department have been engaged in pioneering work. The coursesoffered by the Department have often beenof the exploratory type, in which new materials were brought together and tried outin a purely tentative way. It cannot besaid that pioneering is altogether at an end.Fortunately, there are frontiers which stillinvite the scientific adventurer. On theother hand, so much territory has beenbrought under full cultivation that theDepartment is in a position to gather a harvest. If I may now drop the figure, whichis growing somewhat distracting, I comedirectly to the point by saying that theDepartment has undertaken, by way of celebrating its entrance into the new building, anew arrangement of its instructional pro gram. A series of fundamental introductorycourses will be given, beginning next summer, in which the results of scientific studiesin education will be summarized by competent lecturers. Following these fundamental courses will be a series of readingcourses, organized for the express purposeof cultivating in students ability to compassby independent study the various fields inwhich there is scientific material. Coursesof a third level will be provided in whichthe instructor and his students will be intimately associated in breaking new ground.During the past year the Department hasgiven much attention to planning its newhome and to preparing its new program ofinstruction and research.The members of the Department of Education are highly gratified that new andample material equipment is being providedfor their work. To the General EducationBoard and to the Trustees and Administration of the University they express theirprofound thanks. They look forward withoptimism to the development of their scienceand to the steady improvement of all thepractical undertakings which will be guidedby the findings of this science.&&&&&&&*&THE LAW SCHOOL AND ITS ALUMNI 2171R. - llThe Law LibraryAre Law students getting too much of this and not enough of the Court Room?The Law School and Its Alumni in ActionBy Charles P. Schwartz, '08, J. D. '09President, The Law School Association1AST year the Law School Alumni Association called the faculty's attention-4 to the fact that the law school graduated men into the legal profession withoutany practical contact with or knowledge ofthe field. Graduates entering the practicefind themselves total strangers to the mostelementary mechanics of the profession andwholly ignorant of what a court or jail islike. While a knowledge of these thingsmay not be indispensable to a student of thelaw and may be acquired in a comparativelyshort time, after the student locates hisfirst job, it would help a man starting outfor himself or in applying for a place in anoffice if he has a speaking acquaintance withthe way in which the law is practiced.The question is hoary with age whetheror not it is the business of a law school,not only to teach its students the principlesof law, but also to make lawyers out ofthem. At the annual dinner of the Alumni Association last year the topic discussedwas in the nature of a symposium on, "Themissing element in legal education." Everyview was represented — the university, lawschool, student, alumni and bar. The University viewpoint favored confining the lawschool to the teaching of law. All theothers seemed to favor some modification ofthat. After all, a law school today islooked upon as something more than acloister. A great many men enroll in thelaw school to prepare themselves for thepractice of law and would not have enrolled for a cultural education alone.Until the law school is ready to shut thedoor to that class of applicant it would seemto be proper for the law school to concernitself somewhat with what happens to itsgraduates in the profession.From the very start Dean Bigelow'sreaction to the question was not whetheror not the school should concern itself with2l8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe graduate's welfare but how the lawschool could best help him without compromising his education.One thing however seemed certain, thatclose cooperation between the alumni andfaculty was indispensable to the operationof any plan. Accordingly last year's effortof the alumni was devoted to bringingabout a closer working arrangement between the faculty and its graduates.This cooperative effort resulted in the successful establishment, for graduates, ofdowntown evening courses in law. Starting in the Fall quarter with one class on,"Taxation" under Professor Arthur Kent,limited to twenty-five, the limit was raisedto forty in the Winter quarter with twoclasses, one in "Corporation Accounting"under Professor Graham and another in"Corporation Finance" under ProfessorKatz. In the Spring Professor Bogertwill give a course on "Trusts." Thesecourses not only re-contacted many of theolder graduates with their Alma Mater butserved the useful purpose of enabling thesemen to brush up and bring themselves upto date with the newer developments ofthe law.The Association through its committee onEmployment, under the chairmanship ofArnold Baar, has, in cooperation with the Dean's office, helped an increasing numberof graduates find desirable positions withpracticing lawyers. And through its committee on curriculum, under the leadershipof Roy D. Keehn, the various courts andlaw departments of the various governmental agencies in the Chicago area haveoffered to cooperate with the law school ingiving its last year students an opportunityto see the law in action.The Corporation Counsel's Office of theCity of Chicago, through the kindness of itshead, William H. Sexton, has taken intoits fold a number of seniors, to give themfirst hand knowledge of and acquaintancewith office management and court practice.United States District Attorney GeorgeE. Q. Johnson has also employed a number of seniors with the same object in view.It is too early to make any prediction aboutthe feasibility of this plan or whetheror not it ought to be extended. At thepresent time no provision is made for timeout of the curriculum. The work is optional and must be done by the studentsout of class hours without credit. Perhapsif the students can get enough out of spending a certain time in the field in their lastyear at the law school it would be desirableto provide for it in the curriculum.The Chicago Alumnae Club map of the quadrangles is finding an eager marketin Chicago and far afield. The first foreign buyer was Margaret MacDonald Doorty,'ij, who is in Paris at present. The very first subscriber was Miss Elizabeth Faulkner,who, as rumor hath it, sent her check to Miss Gladys Finn at the University as soonas she finished reading her copy of the February University of Chicago Magazine.The Amazing BalzacBy John Dollard, Ph.D. '31HOW does a literary artist work?From what silk hats of memory orfancy, from what crammed diaryor notebook, does he pull the creationswhich, when set in type, look to us so perfect and inescapable? These studies onBalzac will, perhaps, illuminate the mindof that creative artist.Some men cast the molds for the thinkingof generations who follow them. Such aman was Honore de Balzac, who lived inFrance in the first half of the nineteenthcentury. He looms large in the literaryhistory of the last century and he is moldingthe techniques and output of literary menof our own day.He created, so they say, the novel of contemporary manners — the searching, probingnovel which tells us what men in societyare like. He was concerned with "men,women, and things," and in the way inwhich they react on each other. He livedin an age when the methods of classificationfound in the natural sciences had taken afirm hold on the imagination of men, and heset out to do a job of social classificationon contemporary France. He was a classifier, a documenter. He saw men sociologically as the geologist sees the earth and itsstrata, and hence he divided them accordingto trades, habitats, professions, wealth, andbirth. He was a sort of "social architect"who saw society in terms of its structure —its human piers sunk deep in the ground, itssinewy human beams and girders thrustinginto the air, its dainty and fanciful humantowers and spires at the top. This societyhe shows in its naked structure and in itsoperation, its delight in wind and sunlight,its fierce conflicts with storm and rain, itsseismic tremblings at the base.By Balzac's time the human race inFrance had already achieved a complexsocial organization. Balzac aimed to present the whole social show, and to put it allunder one tent. One tremendous series ofnovels was to describe the social scene as he saw it. They were to be called by thetitle, La Comedie humaine — "The HumanComedy." He planned collectively onehundred and fifty novels or tales in thisseries, and actually finished ninety-five ofthem.Before Balzac, those who wanted tocriticize contemporary society usually wrotetreatises or indulged in veiled satire.Balzac created a new form. He toldstories about modern folk and folkwaysas they were actually lived in his own time ;they were long, detailed human stories; hehad his people earning, talking, loving, hating. They were three-dimensional people— they constituted solidly "the comedy oflife" itself. These full-bodied charactersrepresent the Restoration in all its aspectsand seem today like historical figures. Thiswas an achievement, so novel and usefulthat innumerable artists since his time haveused the novel as a vehicle of social criticismand followed Balzac's technique to gaintheir end.Balzac created a world of his own. Inhis ninety-five novels there are about twothousand sharply individualized characters,some of whom appear in more than onenovel. When such a character reappearswe have the sense of renewed contact witha person familiar to us and bringing withhim a train of old associations. This interlocking and reappearance of characters givesthe illusion of a real world with real people,each one an actor in the human tragicomedy.The novels are solid, real. They dealwith force, food, money, and concreteobjects as factors in human destiny. Andthey deal always with men and women asthe masters or the playthings of these forces.Balzac intended not only descriptions butcriticisms of the greed, corruption, lust,faithlessness, and smallness of his age andhis countrymen. He contrived also to showus splendid examples of love, selflessness,and heroism.219220 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe mere planning of such a series ofnovels is a stupendous feat. The writing ofthem is a staggering feat. The writing wasperformed by arduous toil, under greatdifficulties, and usually under the pressureof a need of money. Balzac was a greatliver and lover himself — a man of strengthand gusto — passionate and perdurable. Heknew at first hand the France of which hewrote. He had high ideals of love andcreative art. He was a visionary, egotisticand mystic.Such a prodigious performer is worthstudying. He is another Atlas who carrieda world of smaller men on his shoulders.How did this astonishing man work?Where did this multitude of characterscome from, and how were they so exactlyestablished in the narratives? Did thestories leap from his mind perfect at thefirst writing? If not, what changes didhe make in the manuscripts after they wereset in type and what revisions did he makein successive editions?We need to know more about this, because the feats of such a worker are boundto add color to life and stimulus to endeavorfor all who live at a slower pace.Mr. E. Preston Dargan of the Universityof Chicago is helping to answer these questions for the rest of us. He and his studentstogether with other American Balzaciansare working through a series of projectsconcerning the genius Balzac.The first of these projects, the publicationof 'the only great bibliography on Balzac,is well under way. This bibliography willbe a list, with annotations, of nearly all ofthe books and articles that have beenwritten about Balzac and his works. Thecompiling has been done by Mr. WilliamH. Royce, of New York City. The publication of this bibliography, which now existscomplete in manuscript, is absolutely essential, since it will be the dictionary of allfurther studies on Balzac. Hereafter, anyscholar starting out to write on this authorwill have at his finger tips in one bookreferences to all important previous studiesand comments.The second of Mr. Dargan's projects willbe a series of studies of Balzac's technique. These studies will be based on the Crouecollection of early editions of Balzac'snovels. First editions of sixty of thesetales are now in possession of the University,and it is hoped that the collection may becompleted.The early forms of the stories wouldnecessarily need revision and development tokeep pace with the growing structure ofthe human comedy. The Croue collectionembraces a study of these later revisions ofthe earlier works. The editions revealinteresting variations in realistic detail andsociological data.In the third project Mr. Dargan, who hasfor some years promoted studies of this sort,hopes to terminate the series with a studyof the evolution of La Comedie humaine.For the more distant future, a series ofstudies on Balzac's enormous influence areprojected.It is particularly appropriate that thestudies should be carried on at the University of Chicago because students ofBalzac in America consider this Universitythe natural center of such production. Thisis because more work is done here on Balzacthan anywhere else in the United States andbecause our Croue collection of first editionsis an unrivaled field of investigation. TheBalzac group has already published workwhich will serve as a background for presentstudies and it is significant that the resultsof the enterprise are well known andfavorably reviewed by foreign scholars.Anyone who loves Balzac, anyone who isinterested in the art of fiction, will followthese studies eagerly. No nineteenth-century author is more revealing in hisprocesses. Anyone who, for instance, hasknown the immortal father-love of PereGoriot, so intense that it was itself amonomania, will be interested in how sucha story came to be written and how such acharacter was pulled out of the thronginggarret of Balzac's imagination. Within thepages of La Comedie humaine is a packedworld of beauty and drabness, love andcynicism, demigods and fools. It is a workthat has deeply affected thousands of intelligent people throughout Europe andAmerica. It is a world whose creation is aIN MY OPINION 221mystery of creative art. Any light thatscholarship can throw on the techniques ofso profound an artist as Balzac is a funda-ONE of America's most widely syndicated pedagogues recently emittedthe following gems of literary chauvinism: "Today America has the prouddistinction not only [sic] of having a groupof American women novelists superior toanything in our previous history, but superior to any other group of the same numberin any other country. I do not think onecan name six women novelists in any country in Europe superior to our half-dozenAmericans — Edith Wharton, Willa Cather,Anne Douglas Sedgwick, Edna Ferber,Dorothy Canfield, Zona Gale." Now themaking of literary lists is one of the mostinnocuous of parlor games, but, like anyother game, it should be played with a certain seriousness and according to the rules.If one plays chess, he ought to know thenames of the pieces; if he trifles with listsof the best novelists (not of "best sellers,"which raise elementary problems of quantity, not of quality,) he ought to be able torecognize the elementary distinction between women novelists and women whowrite novels. Unless one keeps this basicdivision in mind, any list he concocts islikely to be grotesque.The women who write novels are legion ;women novelists, especially superiorAmerican women novelists, are far rarerthan the list under scrutiny suggests. Ofthe numerous types of women who writenovels, two are particularly obnoxious: thesociety novelist and the manufacturer of mental part of that history of the humanmind which it is the task of the humanist towrite.novels. The society novelist is a peculiarlyAmerican product. Like the dynamo ofenergy that she is, she finds time to turnout a novel or two among the pressing busi-i nesses of raising a family, keeping up with» the theatre, the opera, and the new books,spending the winter in Florida and thesummer abroad, working for sweet charity,: and endorsing sleepless mattresses. Inevitably her novels are read, for those whoi know "dear Agnes" must read her to dis-, cover what they have contributed to the fic-( tion, and those who have encountered her; only in the pictorial supplement feel thatthey must glimpse the mind and heart ofr the upper tenth or check up on her aristo-- cratic and uncertain grammar. So betweenone form of publicity and another, the; society novelist has her little day, preens and> plumes her hour upon the lecture platform,' and disappears into oblivion without caus-- ing the slightest ripple on the surface of> American literature. A far greater dangerto muddle-minded readers and critics is the> professional manufacturer of novels, pri-: marily for the ladies' magazine and drug-> store bargain counter trade. In the handsof the endlessly capable American woman,; the manufacturing of novels threatens tor become one of our major industries, or atr least an indispensable subsidiary to thef production of talkie scenarios for the great; American Moron. The professional novel-* ist like the professional writer of advertis-f ing has an office where she works regularlyin my opinionBy Fred B. MillettAssistant Professor of English222 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEas many hours a day as the lawyer or thebond salesman who passes for her husband.Publicity reveals her with a variety offavorite pets, — cats, wolfhounds, and cobras. The woman's page introduces heradmirers to her personal recipes and hair-washes, and she produces an annual novelwith all the fecundity of a pioneer mother,but with far more fuss and confusion. Heridols are Fannie Hurst, Kathleen Norris,and Mary Roberts Rinehart. May theirtribe decrease!Of the rarity of serious women novelists,Mrs. Woolf in A Room of One's Own haspersuasively revealed the reasons: the lackof leisure and privacy, the absence of economic or social independence characteristicof woman's status in the past. This raritymay likewise have been intensified by therealistic and practical nature of womankind,to most of whom whole-souled devotion toartistic creation seems preposterous andquixotic. For the novelist of either sexmust abandon everything if he would beworthy of his craft; he must reject theworld's values, and repel the insidious influences of an acquisitive society. He muststruggle unremittingly to achieve the mostperfect and compelling rendition of hisutterly honest and searching reading of life.From this point of view the professor'slist takes on a new triviality. It cries outfor a series of major operations. AnneDouglas Sedgwick must go, since her relation to American literature is merely biological. Her career, her experience, herpoint of view, her material, — all are British; if American literature derives anyglory from her work, the glory is, like themoon's, reflected. Zona Gale, admirablethough her short stories of American villagelife may be, uses the novel form onlyoccasionally and uncomfortably. DorothyCanfield illustrates perfectly the wide gulfbetween good writing and literature. Herwork has been admired for the utterly irrelevant reasons that she has a Ph.D. inFrench, that she is a good mother, that sheloves France (and lately the Basques), andthat she is interested in noble causes. Allthese virtues, excellent as they are, fail tomake her solemn axe-grinding fiction more important than that of a minor WinstonChurchill in skirts.Least worthy of the names on the professor's list is that of Edna Ferber. To besure, hers is a name for the ambitious girl-journalist to conjure by, for has not MissFerber overcome the handicaps of. an informal education and by sheer persistenceand energy become one of our most prolific"best sellers," and the purveyor of superiorpseudo-historical scenarios to the omnivorous talkies? Our pedagogue indeeddescribes Show Boat as "a remarkable contribution to the social history of America."Aside from the fact that creative literaturecan never be a contribution to social historyin an exact sense of the word, Miss Ferber'ssocial history can hardly be regarded withanything but the greatest suspicion if oneis to judge by the historic architectural details of American Beauty, all of which J.Frederic Kelly (in the Saturday Review ofLiterature, January 23, 1932), has demonstrated to be cheerfully and beautifullyerroneous. Miss Ferber is a perfect illustration of the extent to which energy andapplication can transcend the lack of theminimum essentials for the writing ofserious novels. From The Girls to American Beauty, a style of the completest banality covers but does not conceal unswerving insensitiveness and superficiality.The only remaining names on our listare those of Edith Wharton and WillaCather. Of these veritably serious practitioners, Mrs. Wharton is the more gifted inobviously novelistic ways. Her long andarduous discipline under the tutelage ofHenry James brought her gifts of richexperience and urbanity, of insight andirony to worthy fruition in such novels asThe House of Mirth, Ethan Frome, TheCustom of the Country, and The Age ofInnocence. Like the greatest of novelists,she has had her amazing lapses, but at herbest, hers is the most assured position amongthe American women novelists of our time.Miss Cather has fewer of the novelist'sgifts, but for her inability to invent anddevise plot, to "create" characters, herother powers are ample compensation. Shewrites as though she had heeded Mrs.IN MY OPINION 223Woolf's plea that women novelists shouldwrite like women, and not in servile imitation of men. Thus her extraordinaryimaginative sympathy has carried her acrossthe limits of her own racial and personal experience, and in O Pioneers! and My An-tonia wrought almost classical renditions ofAmerican experience and values. She ishappiest perhaps in such re-creations of historical epoch and scenes as those of DeathComes for the Archbishop and Shadows onthe Rock. Here is history interpreted andillumined by those tender and life-cherishing qualities which one thinks of as peculiarly feminine. In Shadows on the Rock, forexample, it is the part of wisdom for her toeschew the broad canvas, the spectacularescapade, and the heroic gesture. It is byMiss Cather's grasp of the deepest humanvalues, the richest and most precious ofhuman experiences that these living shadowson the rock in the wilderness become interesting in themselves and symbolic of allliving beings waiting and hoping for thelong winters of life to pass.Finally, I have no hesitancy in nominating Elizabeth Madox Roberts to the enviable company of Edith Wharton and WillaCather. Like Miss Cather, her saturationin the American scene and the Americanspirit is complete. She has the freshnessof phrase, the fastidiousness of style of herbetters. Indeed, for better or for worse,she writes prose like a poet. Accordingly, it is unjust to judge her writing in terms ofpure realism. For her, a novel is a kindof prose epic ; it is raised above dailyness andvulgarity by a degree of stylization that isat first baffling but that finally becomes agenuinely individual instrument capableof rich choric effects, like those in TheGreat Meadow, in the talk of the womenabout child-bearing and in the projectionof the most delicate feelings through theduet of the two sisters at the spinning wheel.Moreover, like Miss Cather, she interpretsthe American adventure essentially fromthe woman's point of view. For this reason, perhaps, The Time of Man, amongher major novels, is ultimately more satisfying than The Great Meadow, for she isnot quite equal to the masculine breadth ofthe latter's scheme. In the earlier book,however, she is at her richest and profound-est in the moving presentation of primitivecherished household ways and customs, ofthe feminine treasuring of family historyand tradition, of tremulous girlhood andcalm patient maternity, of woman's tenacious grasp on intimate realities and quietendurance of man's infantile and grandioseambitions.The making of literary lists is a divertinggame. Sometime, in an idle hour, compose your own. It is almost certain to bemore satisfying than Professor WilliamLyon Phelps's or my own.NEWS OF THEQUADRANGLESBy John P. Howe '27p"T^RACTICALLY every importantcosmological hypothesis advancedduring the past thirty years, withthe exception of Einstein's, had its genesisat the University of Chicago."That statement, coming as it does from acompetent, if partisan source, is almost initself a sufficient introduction to one suchhypothesis with which the University maybe credited. Thirteen years ago Dr. William D. MacMillan, Professor of Mathematical Astronomy at this University, published in the University's AstrophysicalJournal a radically new and comprehensiveinterpretation of the functioning of theuniverse, based upon the idea that matterand energy are interchangeable forms.Since then several nice bits of experimental work, done at Chicago and other institutions, have borne out details of MacMillan 's magnificent picture of the cosmos.The discovery of the existence of cosmicrays is one supporting development, andProfessor Millikan of the California Institute of Technology, with a bow to MacMillan, suggests that these strange emanations are "the birth shivers of the atom."Another more recent development is usedas the peg upon which this brief expositionof MacMillan's ideas is hung.All cosmologies must rest, in the lastanalysis, upon unprovable assumptions, saysMacMillan. They must be consistent withthe observed facts, self-consistent, and assimple and fruitful as possible. Beyond thatthe test of their "truth" lies in their attractiveness to normal individuals.George Santayana begins the introduction to his Skepticism and Animal Faithwith the remark, "Here is one more systemof philosophy" ; and MacMillan would say,"Here is one more cosmology." MacMillanfinds the universe to be infinite and wouldsay that Einstein's finite system is abnormal. He finds the universe continuously regenerating itself, where Eddington and Jeanswould say that it is "running down."Within the electron, Professor MacMillan holds, there exists an infinite seriesof undiscovered physical systems, withinwhich are transpiring atom-building, theproduction of radiant energy, and otherprocesses which insure the universe of perpetual rebirth. Above and including thehyper-super galaxies is an infinite hierarchyof larger systems.This picture of the cosmos as being tremendously bigger and more complicatedthan most modern scientists concede wasoutlined last month during an interview inwhich the Chicago astronomer explained thesignificance of a communication printed overhis signature in a recent issue of the Britishscience journal, Nature.The possibility that there are thousandsof habitable planets, such as the earth, scattered through the universe, many of themsustaining forms of life far superior tohuman life, was described by Dr. MacMillan during the interview as "highlyprobable." If the universe is perpetuallyregenerating itself at the sub-electronic level,as he proposes, advanced forms of life havealways grown up during an infinite past,and while individual planets may perish instellar cataclysms, such life will continue togrow up in an infinite future, ProfessorMacMillan points out.In his letter printed in Nature Dr.MacMillan takes exception to the theoryadvanced at the last meeting of the BritishAssociation for the Advancement of Scienceby the two English astronomers, Eddingtonand Jeans, to the effect that the universeis "exploding." The explosion theory isbased on the following reasoning, accordingto Dr. MacMillan:1. Within the past two decades astron-224NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES 225omers have become agreed that the faintlyglowing masses which can be observed withtelescopes in remote portions of the heavensare not gaseous nebulae, as had been supposed, but are systems of stars, similar tothe Milky Way, which includes the earth,sun, and most of the visible stars. Hundredsof thousands of these outer galaxies havebeen observed, ranging in distance from theearth — and from each other — between onemillion and 150 million light-years. Lighttravels at the rate of 186,284 miles a second,a velocity established by the late ProfessorA. A. Michelson of the University of Chicago, and a light-year is the distance coveredby a beam in a year.2. Within the past few years Dr. V. M.Slipher of the Astronomical Observatoryat Flagstaff, Arizona, discovered that theseouter galaxies appear to be moving awayfrom our galaxy, the same Milky Way.Last year, while Einstein was visiting theMt. Wilson Observatory in California, announcement was made of a study by Professors Edwin Hubble (Chicago 'io) andMilton Humason of that Observatory indicating that the outer galaxies are movingaway with speeds which are proportionalto their distance. That is, the farther outthey are from the earth, the faster they aredeparting, the outer ones receding at a rateof as much as 12,500 miles a second.3. The idea of an expanding universe wasinterpreted by the English astronomers tomean that at some remote time in the past,probably a few billion years ago, there wasan explosion at the core of the universe,and that those things which were shot outwith great velocity continued to move withgreat velocity — and are still doing so — whilethose things which were ejected at slowerspeeds continued in their comparativelysluggish paces.4. The conception of an exploding universe is based upon an interpretation of theexperimental findings of the American astronomers on the basis of what scientistscall "the Doppler effect." The Dopplereffect is the increase in the frequency of awave (e.g. the increase in the pitch of asound) when the measuring device is movingtoward the source of the wave, and like wise the decrease when the measuring device is moving away from the source.Slipher and Hubble and Humason foundthat the light-waves coming from the outergalaxies "tended toward the red end of thespectrum," that is, that the energy fromthese galaxies showed a lower frequency thanwould be expected if the galaxies were relatively stationary. They therefore concludedthat the outer galaxies are receding.Professor MacMillan does not believeit reasonable to interpret this "shift towardthe red" as a Doppler effect. "Such an interpretation would put a terrific draft uponour credulity," he says, "because it leads tothe conclusion that all the mighty objects inthe universe were once compacted into a relatively narrow area and it implies a releaseinvolving energies of which we can have noconception." He objects to the explosionidea also because it puts limits to time, if notto space, and points out that there are rockson the earth, which is a comparatively youthful body, which are estimated by geologiststo be 1800 million years old, and which,even in their cooled state, are of the sameorder of age as the postulated explosion.In seeking to explain the diminution inthe frequency of the light-waves comingfrom the outer galaxies on some otherbasis than the Doppler effect, Dr. MacMillan proposes several possibilities. Heregards the light as a stream of particles —or photons— and suggests as one solution ofthe problem of the disappearing energy thatthese photons collide with other photons intheir path and lose some of their potency.Dr. MacMillan believes that the mostplausible explanation, however, is thatsome of the energy of the light, somewherein its journey of from one million to 150million years between the outer galaxies andthe earth, disappears into the fine structureof space, and eventually emerges into ourken in the form of atoms. The fartheraway the galaxy is, the greater is this"evaporation.""The extraordinary velocities of recession which are derived from the shift towardthe red of the spectral lines of remote galaxies have led to much scepticism of theinterpretation of this shift as a Doppler226 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEeffect," Dr. MacMillan's article begins."This scepticism is enhanced when it islearned that the velocities are proportionalto the distances of the galaxies."On the basis of an energy leakage supposition, and the observed shift of the spectral lines, a light quantum loses one percent of its energy in 17,600,000 years. Itrequires 1,210,000,000 years for half itsenergy to escape.""If you picture a quantum of light as consisting of a flock of one hundred birds flyingtoward our earth," Dr. MacMillan says inexplaining this statement, "then one wouldfall — presumably into the sub-electronicsystems — every 17,600,000 years. Thiswould not be noticeable in the light comingfrom stars in our own galaxy but the scaleof the outer galaxies is so tremendous thatit does account for the observed loss ofenergy. Under such a hypothesis it becomesunnecessary to regard the universe as expanding, much less exploding."This not only answers the question, whatbecomes of the energies which the stars arepouring forth so lavishly? but also itsantithesis, what is the origin of the amazingquantities of energy locked up within theatom? When energy is locked up it is anatom, when it is free it is radiant energyas we know it."Dr. MacMillan holds that there is nosuch thing as a perfect vacuum in the universe, and that the apparently empty areas,however small, are filled with the unknownsub-electronic systems. The energy fromthe outer galaxies "leaks" into these lowersystems, and within the lower systems syntheses and other operations are transpiringwhich may account for the building ofatoms — with their admirably balanced protons and electrons — and might even accountfor the production of cosmic rays, as ripplesgiven off when the sub-electronic materialis boosted to the atomic level.It is within this "fine structure of space"that the building process which insures theuniverse of continual rebirth is going on,Dr. MacMillan suggests. Here energy istransformed into matter, matter accumulates around stars and other cores, whichgrow by accretion over a period of millions of billions of years, at length reaching suchproportions that internal pressure resultsinto a breakdown into radiant energy — andthe cycle goes on."We have no reason for supposing thatthe electron is the smallest physical unit,nor indeed, that there is any smallest unitwhatever; and similarly, that there is nolargest one. We merely watch the coursesof atoms as they are tossed about by thevarious forces which they encounter on theirjourney from their birthplace in the depthsof space to their place of extinction in somestar. Things do not cease to exist merelybecause we are ignorant of them."Dr. MacMillan finds it difficult, underany other hypothesis than that of the sub-electronic systems, to account for the factthat interstellar space is dark. The nightsky would glow if something did not happento the light en route from millions of starsto the earth.Since there appear to be hundreds ofthousands of galaxies, with billions of starsin each, it is not too much of a guess tosuppose that thousands of the stars, havingexperienced disruptive approaches, haveplanetary systems circling around them, Dr.MacMillan thinks. Neither is it too muchto suppose that thousands of these planetswill sustain life. The creation of organiclife, many scientists would hazard, is notan accidental phenomenon, peculiar to ourearth, but may very well be an elemental andfundamental operation in nature whereverconditions are suitable for a long time.If these assumptions are true, then thereis life throughout the universe, not justdead space and stars and drifting rock.This life is perhaps not like ours, sincehuman life grew up in terms of the geography of the earth, but nevertheless life —and in some instances, since the earth isyoung, life more advanced than ours. Andif this is true at present, Dr. MacMillanis willing to speculate, it has always beentrue, and though magnificent "civilizations"may have grown up over enormous stretchesof time and then perished in a cataclysm, lifewill continue always to grow up."Atoms, living beings, stars and galaxiesare permanent forms in the universe; it isATHLETICS 227the individuals only that come and go," saysDr. MacMillan. "The greatest of fallacies,one which afflicts even astronomers, is toregard our life, our planet, our galaxy, asthe center of anything."As for the future of our earth Dr. MacMillan suggests, using the same grand scaleof years, that the sun will grow by accretionuntil it draws back within itself its familyof planets. Jupiter, outermost of the group, may have grown big enough to retainits entity and co-exist with the sun as thesmaller partner of a double-star. The greatnumber of such binary systems in theheavens, remnants of old planetary families,is just one more evidence of the ubiquity oflife.Well, it's a grand system. Carpe diem,but not till we've made something of ourselves.By William V. Morgenstern, '20; J. D., '22Scores of the MonthBasketballChicago, 25; Iowa, 43Chicago, 27; Purdue, 40Chicago, 29; Ohio, 26Chicago, 23 ; Wisconsin, 34Chicago, 31; Ohio, 40Chicago, 28; Iowa, 46Chicago, 20; Illinois, 41Chicago, 18; Purdue, 53TrackChicago, 83; Loyola, 12Chicago, 52>4; Purdue, 51^Quadrangular :Ohio, 50Wisconsin, 46Chicago, 21Northwestern, 15Chicago, 29 ; Michigan, 66Pentangular :Indiana, 44Minnesota, 34^ Chicago, 17^4Northwestern, 8Purdue, 5%Water PoloChicago, 1 1 ; Ohio, 1Chicago, 1 1 ; Indiana, oChicago, 2; Illinois, 3GymnasticsChicago, 1 169; Ohio, 948Chicago, 974; Minnesota, 1061Triangular :Illinois, 1 159.5Chicago, 1 157.5Michigan, 976.5WrestlingChicago, 17^2; Minnesota, 10^2Chicago, 20; Mechanics Institute, 10Chicago, 16; Harvard, 16Chicago, 22; Brown, 8Chicago, 11; Franklin & Marshall, 17Chicago, 18; Iowa, 16Chicago, 3 ; Illinois, 25Chicago, 19; Wisconsin, 11228 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEScores of theFencingChicago, 3 ; Ohio, 4Chicago, 1 ; Illinois, 6Chicago, 7; Michigan, 4Chicago, 1 3 ; Northwestern, 3THE indoor season, except for theconference meets, is now concluded,and from a Chicago standpoint theactivities in the last three months have beendrably undistinguished. Even the gymnasticteam has known defeat this season, notonce, but twice, and that is a record whichwill astonish the oldest living alumnus. Although none of the teams had a successfulrecord, the season produced an impressionof futility largely because the basketballteam was so helpless. The team won butone game in twelve in the conference,and generally looked rather bad while itwas losing. This was not the fault of anyone in particular; the squad was outclassedin height, in speed, and in skill. All thingsconsidered, the wrestling team did thebest, losing but one meet in the conference.Coach S. K. Vorres has to scramble andargue for his material ; most of our undergraduates view his sport with disdain andprefer to preserve their ears. Nevertheless,Chicago wrestlers have lost but two conference dual meets in the last two seasons.Chicago's one basketball victory wasgained over Ohio State, and waswon largely because the players made asavage fight that disconcerted the biggerOhio players. "Chiz" Evans, the sophomore center, had a particularly effectivenight, and scored 15 points in this game.Coach Norgren was always hopeful thattwo of his players would be hitting thebasket in the same night, but he generallywas lucky if he had one who could amasssix points in a game. Paul Stephenson was,despite his size, the best player on the squad,faster, cleverer, and more persevering thanthe rest. "Stevie" conducted a personalrally in the second half of the Purdue gamein the field house that had the comingchampions worried, but no one else couldprovide support. The defense continuedragged throughout the season and the team rTH, continuedSwimmingChicago, 26; Ohio, 49Chicago, 54; Indiana, 21Chicago, 22; Illinois, 53simply could not shoot baskets. It couldnot penetrate a set defense, although NelsonNorgren tried every possible variation ofhis attack, and it could not drop the ballthrough the basket when Norgren in desperation threw away system and tried longrange shooting. Six members of the squadwill be lost by graduation: Capt. HarryAshley, guard ; Kenneth Fraider, guard andforward; Bernard Wien, guard; PaulStephenson, Scott Rexinger, and LouisSchlifke, forwards. Remaining are JamesPorter and Harold Wegner, guards ; KeithParsons, center, and Byron Evans, forwardand center. The freshman team has goodbalance; there is no exceptional height, butthe material is sturdy and has some promising men. Merritt Lovett, from Oak Park,is sure to be on the team at forward nextyear. He is a clever player who can handlehimself in any competition without beingpushed about. Robert Pyle, a big 6 foot,3 inch center, from Vincennes, Ind., wherethey generally have good basketball teams,is another prospect. Maurice Gottschall,also from Vincennes, and Earl Seaborg,from Joliet, have possibilities at guard, H.O. Page admits. William Voorhees, fromLong Beach, Cal., rates high among theforwards. Another forward who has madean impression is Clark, an Oklahoma product. But your correspondent has observedthat it is unwise to count your freshmenbefore they are eligible, and this phase ofthe chronicle will end with the observationthat the enumerated young men and someothers would be helpful next season.The track team has done as well as couldbe expected, and in fact, various individualshave done better than figured to do on form.John Brooks has been beaten in the dashin the Quadrangular, the Michigan, andthe Pentangular meets, but against Michiganhe won the low hurdles, in addition to winning that event and the dash in the PurdueATHLETICS 229meet. Capt. Roy Black has come throughwith a fine record, defeating Egelston ofMichigan, and Scheifley of Minnesota inthe high hurdles, and placing second in thelow hurdles in the Quadrangular and Pentangular meets. Black and Brooks arepoint possibilities in the conference meet,the only ones Chicago has. John Robertshas made points in the high jump withconsistent performances at his best height,which is 5 feet, 10 inches. Don Birney hasbeen the other steady point winner, withplaces in the pole vault. Outdoors, Chicagomay be a little better comparatively in dualmeets, for Bob Wallace and Brooks willdo something in the 220, and Brooks is capable of 24 feet in the broad jump. CoachMerriam will have a couple of fair weightmen, Tom Goodrich and Ted Haydon,who do 130 feet in the discus. Goodrich alsothrows the hammer 135 feet. Sam Perlis,a quarter miler, will be eligible for thespring quarter, and Jerome Jontry probablywill be shifted to the 880, an event in which the team has been weak. The freshman squad does not promise to help outnext year in the middle distances, in whichthere is a dearth of ability generally.Orville Berns, a quarter miler, has doneo:53 5/io; Barton Smith, from LongBeach, has won his numerals with o: 095/10 in the high hurdles and o: 08 in thelows. Eugene Ovson, who put the 12-pound shot 51 feet at Oak Park, will doat least 43 feet next season with the 16-pound shot. Louis Turley, a freshmanfrom Utah, gets 135 feet in the discusevent. Pyle, the basket ball player, is reputed to be a fair half miler. Frank Taussig, from University High, is the best ofthe sprinters, although the stocky Ovson cangive him a race. Richard Jackson, a polevaulter from Oklahoma (the town isParagoved, if you must know) does 1 1 feet,6 inches.The swimming team showed the anticipated improvement over last year. JohnMarron is about as good a fancy diver asu// The Personality ofAmerica's FinestEngraving Plant //V:'iSITORS notice it — clients remark about it — all of us herefeel it — a "something," a sortof a driving force that gets thework done and still keeps everybody happy. Something intangible, yet of worth to us andto those whom we serve.* This thing has gone far beyond ourdoors. It has attracted the finest artisans of the business — hasspread the fame of this shop from Oregon to Georgia. Kindof a mechanical "it," we like to think of it as "The Personalityof America's Finest Engraving Plant.COLLINS & ALEXANDER, INC.65 E. South Water St. Phone Central 4090 Chicago230 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEFLOWERS forEASTERAlways FreshPAUL BLOME & CO.FLORIST1361 North Clark St. Arthur Blome, PresidentPrompt Delivery AnywherePHONES SUPERIOR 1401, 1402, 2760Paul H. Davis, '1 1 Herbert I. Markham, Ex. '06Ralph W. Davis, '16 Walter M. Giblin, '23Paal RDavls &<90*MembersNEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGECHICAGO STOCK EXCHANGE37 South LaSalle StreetTelephone Franklin 8622CHICAGOAlbert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago535 Fifth Ave., New York415 Hyde Bldg., SpokaneA general Placement Bureau for men andwomen in all kinds of teaching positions.Large and alert College, and State Teachers' College departments for Doctors andMasters; Critics and Supervisors for Normals. Also many calls for Special teachersof Music, Art, Home Economics, BusinessAdministration, CorrespondenceTeaching.Fine opportunities in Secondary Schools.A host of best Suburban patrons for gradeand High School teachers. Read ourbooklet. Call.UNIVERSITYCOLLEGEThe downtown department of The University of Chicago, 18 S. Michigan Avenue,wishes the Alumni of the University andtheir friends to know that it offersEvening, Late Afternoon and Saturday ClassesTwo-Hour Sessions Once or Twice a WeekCourses Credited Toward University DegreesAutumn, Winter and Soring QuartersSpring Quarter begins March 28, 1932Registration Period, March 18 to March 26For Information, AddressDean C. F. Huth, University College,University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. there is in the conference, and the bestasset in the conference meet. The waterpolo team had an opportunity to win theconference championship, but lost to Illinois, 3 to 2, in the game that was descisive.Mr. Page is, as usual, somewhat moroseabout his baseball team, which will be rebuilt almost completely, except for RoyHenshaw, who was the best pitcher in theBig Ten last year. He needs first, saysMr. Page, a catcher to replace Art Cahill.There are several candidates, but they arenot quite broad enough to suit the coach.Frank Howard is developing, and Lewis,a freshman also may do, with Richardson,Kerr, and Christie as other hopes. Mr.Page got by last year with only one pitcher,supported by a pretty fair infield and areliable catcher in the person of Cahill,but he wants a bigger margin this season.Williams, a left-hander; Beeks, Langford,and Straska are the men seeking understudyresponsibilities for Henshaw. Capt. BillOlson is out of school, and unless he returnsthe first base position will be open. WillUrban is gone from second base, and eitherGeorge Mahoney or Gene Buzzell will bemoved in from the outfield. Clair Johnsonwill be back at shortstop, and in MarshallFish's and Tipler's place at third will beone of four men, Decker or Marver, sophomores, Joe Temple, or Comerford. H. C.Johnson and Mike Jucius are lost to theoutfield, with only Mahoney or Buzzell,depending on the choice at second, remaining.The tennis team has a couple of courtsin the new field house and has been working steadily all winter to get the jump onthe rest of the conference. There will beseveral teams this year to menace Chicago'schampionship, including Ohio and Northwestern. Capt. Paul Stagg and HermanRies, the latter No. 6 last year, are the bestmen on the Maroon squad and may beable to hold on to the doubles title.Princeton's selection of H. O. Crisler tobe its football coach, an action that brokethe precedent of alumni coaching, callsattention to the fact that though comparatively few of Mr. Stagg's young men go in(turn to page 240)ALUMNI A F F A I R STHE winter season has witnessed agratifying activity upon the part oflocal alumni clubs and many gatherings have been reported in all sections of thecountry. New organizations have been effected, or old ones resuscitated in LittleRock, Nashville, Muncie, Indianapolis,Louisville, Cincinnati, Des Moines,Aurora, Elgin, Lawrence, Evansville, andLexington. Sponsoring committees are nowpreparing the way for organizations in adozen cities and by the end of the year thereis every prospect that the alumni will berepresented by seventy-five active, organizedgroups.While it is manifestly impossible to provide a representative from the Universityfor every meeting of every club, the AlumniOffice in cooperation with the Universityadministration has carried the news of the Quadrangles to many a group throughfaculty members and administrative officers.President Hutchins has been a stellarattraction at Kansas City, where nearly300 gathered under the leadership of thelocal club president, J. Frank Goodenow,and his efficient committee. He also spoketo more than 150 in Aurora at the organization meeting of the Aurora Alumni Cluband, together with Dean Judd and Secretary Ray Lyman Wilbur, provided thespeaking program for the big gathering ofChicago alumni at the Willard Hotel inWashington, sponsored by the WashingtonAlumni Club at the time of the annual convention of the Department of Superintendence, N. E. A.Dean Boucher has met with the alumniof Memphis, Little Rock and Evanston,Dean Mathews attended a luncheon mieet-F-F^ONTINO SOUTHCON JACKSOI^ PARK5«T»S STREET AND THE LAKE^AtmosphereWhether you are seeking a distinguished place to live or planninga social function that requires a luxurious setting, you will searchno further once you have made an inspection of|{otels ||indermere56th Street at The Lake WARD B. JAMES, ManagerFairfax 6000231232 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEing of the Sioux City Club, Doctor Stifleraddressed an enthusiastic delegation ofPhiladelphians, Professor Lemon spoke atthe organization of the Nashville Club,Prof. Stagg took breakfast with the alumniof Eau Claire and Dean Brumbaugh hasspoken at Cleveland and Hinsdale. Professor William E. Scott has told the storyof the working of the new plan in MorganPark and Elgin. Prof. Morrison delightedthe alumni of Boston with a practical andinspiring address, and Professor EmeritusStarr gave the Portland Club one of thoseincomparable talks for which he has beenso long noted.Professor Shirley J. Case, Chairman ofa church history commission to the FarEast, was entertained by the Chicago Clubof the Philippines when forty U. of C.alumni, all Philipinos except three, gave aluncheon in his honor aboard one of theCoast Guard cutters. During the Christ-College1905Alida J. Bigelow is with the National RedCross in San Francisco.1909Edith E. Barnett is teaching history in Southwest High School, Kansas City, Missouri. ***Edward L. McBride, formerly with A. B. Leach& Company, New York City, is engaged inspecial financial work on reorganization mergers, etc., with offices at 15 Park Row. Hisdaughter is enrolled as a freshman at WellesleyCollege.1910Francis M. Orchard is now living at 24 Gra-matan Gardens, Bronxville, New York. ***E. LeRoy Dakin, D.B. 'u, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is Chairman of the Executive Committeeof Civic Committee for observance of Washington Bi-Centennial in that city. He gave anaddress February twenty-fifth on the background of the Japanese-Chinese situation. mas holiday season nearly one hundredalumni of the Botany Department had amost interesting meeting in New Orleans,while Chicago geologists enjoyed a highlysuccessful reunion at Tulsa.The new movie-talkie of the Universityhas been shown in Philadelphia and KansasCity where a print was provided to be exhibited by a local operator. The originalpicture with Kenneth A. Rouse, Assistantto the Dean of Students, at the projectorand often doubling as a speaker, and withJohn Fryer Moulds, Secretary of the Boardof Trustees, and Charlton T. Beck, GeneralSecretary of the Alumni Council, tellingthe story of "What's Happening on theMidway," has been shown to alumni in LaPorte, Evansville, Grand Rapids, RockIsland, Davenport, Moline, Evanston,Morgan Park, Hinsdale, Rockford, Elgin,Dubuque and Des Moines.1911Conrado Benitez is Director of the School ofBusiness Administration, University of thePhilippines at Manila. *** C. LeRoy Baldridgeand Mrs. Baldridge (Caroline Singer) were inManila recently and Conrado had the pleasureof taking them around. They were on the wayto Persia to do a book, and have promised todo the Philippine Islands next. *** Eugene D.Merriman has moved to California where he isworking on his Doctorate in the University ofSouthern California. He has been a Superintendent of Schools in the state of Washingtonfor a number of years.1912Matilda Fenberg, since leaving the Corporation Counsel's office, has opened her own officefor the general practice of law at 1303 StateBank Building, 120 South La Salle Street,Chicago.1914Jeannette Thielens Phillips has been appointed Director of Personnel for the WelcomeWagon Service, Inc., a unique and highlyfesd NEWS OF THE CLASSESAND ASSOCIATIONS SIALUMNI PROFESSIONAL DIRECTORYBIOLOGICAL SUPPLIESPresident, C. Blair Coursen '22General Biological Supply House761-763 East 69th Place, ChicagoDorchester 3700BROKERSFARNUM, WINTER & CO.120 West Adams St. Randolph 8910New York Stock Exchange, Chicago Board of Trade,Chicago Stock ExchangeJames M. Sheldon '03 Paul E. Gardner '13HARRY C. WATTS & CO., Inc.INVESTMENT -:- ¦ SECURITIES39 So. LaSalle St. Rand. 7804Harry C. Watts, '1 1 Pres.Ralph W. Stansbury, '14STANSBURY & CO.Investment Securities105 W. Adams St. Cent. 7762CHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, '12EPSTEIN, REYNOLDS and HARRISConsulting Chemists and Chemical Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4286CLEANERS AND DYERSBIRCK-FELLINGER COMPANYExclusive Cleaners and Dyers of RecognizedAbility, Service and Responsibility200 East Marquette UoadTelephone Wentworth 5380Edwin H. Fellinger '28DENTISTSDr. Kermit F. Knudtzon, '25DENTISTSuite 1619 Pittsfield Bldg. 55 E. Washington St.Hours by Appointment State 1396EMPLOYMENTFor Your Office and Sales Assistants^ Both Men and WomenDavis Personnel Service, Inc.One LaSalle St. Cen. 4232GERTRUDE G. DAVIS *18 ENGINEERSJudson S. Tyley, '18 Secy.E. H. Ward & Company, Inc.Engineers of Tests608 South Dearborn St.FLOOR COVERINGSEdw. P. Bezazian, '25Oriental RugsDomestic Carpets and RugsThe Tobejr Furniture Co.200 N. Michigan Avenue State 4300INSURANCEC. F. AXELSON, '07Chartered Life UnderwriterREPRESENTINGThe Northwestern Mutual Life Ins. Co.209 So. LaSalle St. Tel. State 0633ELLSWORTH E. HOFFSTADT '24INSURANCEIn All Its Branches1180 E. 63rd Street Faixfax 7200Fairfax 5353LAUNDRIESR. C. WEINBERG '31ECLIPSE LAUNDRY Artists in Washer aft"Triangle 7500949-957 E. 75th StLITHOGRAPHINGL. C. MEAD *2i E. J. CHALIFOUX '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph7*5 So. LaSalle St. Offset PrintingHarrison 36x4MUSICIANSPhone Fairfax 7310RAYMOND A. SMITH, '185 1 30 Kenwood Ave.PIANIST AND ACCOMPANISTArranger STETSON SINGERSMale QuartetteAvailable for Banquets, Clubs, ConcertsRADIOWMAQOfficial Broadcasting Station ofThe University of ChicagoWilliam S. Hedges, '18 Mgr.233234 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEpersonalized plan of merchandising and advertising, successfully operating in about seventyof the larger cities of the country, and is incharge of the Chicago area.I9i5Harriet E. McCoy is Children's Librarian,River Forest Public Library, River Forest,Illinois1919Mrs. J. L. Clements (Esther B. Burnette) hasa very busy life. Besides keeping house andmothering her young son, she prepares bookreviews and papers for various clubs in LakeZurich, and occasionally teaches Home Economics for her husband, who is principal of theEla Township High School.1920Laura P. Craig, S.M. '32, is teaching Foodsand Nutrition in the Duluth Public Schools, andliving at Hotel Duluth, Minnesota. *** ThomasR. Davis, A.M., after having spent fourteenyears in the system of education of the Methodist Episcopal Church, is now in the PublicSchool System as principal of Austin HighSchool, Knoxville, Tennessee.1921Richard W. Canman, ex, is in the insurancebusiness at 1903-175 W. Jackson Boulevard, andlives at 2150 Lincoln Park West, Chicago.1922H. P. Lawrenson is selling life insurance inSan Francisco with an office at 11 50 RussBuilding.1923Jennie N. Phelps, 6335 Kimbark Avenue, isprincipal of the Yale Elementary School, Chicago. *** John P. Whittaker is Registrar ofAtlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia. ***Wallace E. Bates is in the eastern advertisingoffice of the Chicago Tribune, New York City.Mrs. Bates was Louise Kieff, ex '25. *** RobertC. Matlock, 17 Trinity Place, Montclair, NewJersey, is in the Research and DevelopmentLaboratory of the R. C. A. Radiotron Company.*** Doris M. Strail is living at 36 11 North Kimball Avenue, Chicago, and has just returnedfrom a three years' residence abroad, engagedin research work.1925Helen W. Henderson spent last summertravelling in Europe. She is teaching HomeEconomics in the State College, Bowling Green,Ohio. *** John F. Merriam is Director of theDepartment of Information, Northern Gas andPipe Line Company, Omaha, Nebraska. ***Lucy Lamon Merriam, '26, is enjoying being a housewife and living in Omaha. She is a member of the Board of Directors of the OmahaY. W. C. A. Their home address is 817 South38th Street.1926Adah Peirce, A.M. '31 is dean of Women andAssistant Professor of Sociology in Hiram College, Hiram, Ohio.1927Emily B. Lamey is teaching English and Education in the State Teachers College, Westchester, Pennsylvania. *** Beatrice OdellGreen is Assistant Librarian in Howard University, Washington, D. C. *** Barbara J.MacMillan, A.M. '28, is teaching Spanish andItalian at Milwaukee-Downer College, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. *** Etta Eugenia Lambert,A.M., is head of Social Studies Department,South High School, Grand Rapids, Michigan.1928Maxine Gloe Robinson is in Paris this yearstudying harp and taking work at the Sorbonne.She will return to the United States in Juneafter three years5 study in European Universities. *** Mary Stanton has just returned fromsix months abroad studying social and economicconditions. She has returned to her positionas Secretary of the Child Welfare and HealthDivisions of Community Welfare Federation inLos Angeles. *** John H. Garland is Instructorin the Department of Geography, Ohio StateUniversity, Columbus, Ohio. *** Edith F. Dead-man has been appointed to a position at theCook County School of Nursing, Chicago. ***Frances M. Miller is teaching General Scienceand Mathematics at the Curtis Junior HighSchool, Chicago. *** Karl Mygdal is in chargeof sub-surface Geology of the QuiriquireField in East Venezuela.1929Alpha J. Cochran has recently completed anelaborate experiment in testing the "teachableness" of two civics texts. One book has beenofficially adopted as the basic text. She writesher American History and Civics classes aredoing beautiful work on the bi-centennial ofWashington. Bulletin board exhibits, individual contributions in classes, and one-actplays help to generate a living interest in thelife and times of Washington. Her address is1323, Kinney's Lane, Portsmouth, Ohio. ***Winifred Tuttle is teaching Dramatics in theIowa State Teachers College, Cedar Falls,Iowa. *** Amalia M. Nemec is teaching Mathematics and girls' Physical Education in theBeardstown, Illinois, High School where sheorganized the latter department.NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONS 235REAL ESTATEJ. Alton Lauren, '19J. Alton Lauren and Co.139 N. Clark St. Randolph 2068SCHOOLSTHE FAULKNER SCHOOL FOR GIRLSA Day School for Girls of AH AgesPrepares Its Graduates for All Collegesand UniversitiesThe College Board Examinations AreGiven at the School4746 Dorchester Ave. Tel. Oakland 1423SEEDS (Wholesale)OSTBERG SEED CO.Wholesale Seeds7301 Woodlawn Ave. Phone Dorchester 0314SIGNSFEDERAL ELECTRIC COMPANYNeon, All Types Electric SignsW. D. Krupke, '19225 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. SOUND FILM"LIFE ON THE QUADRANGLES"Produced byThe Vitaglo CorporationMakers of Educational and Commercial Sound Films4942 Sheridan Road Longbeach 6380SPORTING GOODSRAY WHITE, Inc.Athletic EquipmentComplete Golf and Tennis Supplies28 East Jackson Blvd.Harrison 3437 Ray White, *l6TRAVELFor Reservations, Tickets, All Steamship Linesand Travel OrsanizationsLESTER F. BLAIRTravel Service Bureau— University of Chicago5758 Ellis Ave. Phones Midway 0800 and Plaza 3858WAREHOUSE LOCATIONSFACTORY AND WAREHOUSELOCATIONS, INC.35 E. Wacker DriveJ. C. Erickson Huntington B. Henry, '06BUSINESS DIRECTORYARTISTSROFFE BEMANPortraits in Pencil and Other Media1541 East Fifty-seventh Street105 West Monroe StreetChicagoTelephones Midway 2112 and State 1815 Hartland Garage57th and Cottage GroveSERVICE ALL CARSBatteries - Tires - Gas - Oil - StorageHYDE PARK 6816BOYD & GOULD, Inc.5813-15 Wentworth AvenueARTCRAFTAWNINGS AND CANOPIESPhones Wentworth 2450-2451CAROLYN D. TYLERMiniatures- Pastels- Small Sculpture1401 E. 53rd Street Midway 2772AUTO SERVICEENGLEWOOD 0280CHICAGO AUTO SERVICE COMPANYComplete Auto Service Specializing In All MakesEverythins For the Car436 East 63rd Street, Chicago UNIVERSITY SERVICE STATION5701 Cottage Grove AvenueTEXACO GAS TEXACO ETHYL GASHigh Pressure Greasing by Experienced MenTire Service, Battery Service and Electric RepairingPhone Hyde Park 0103AWNINGSPHONES OAKLAND 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHYDE PARK AWNING CO., Inc.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueCATERERSMARTHA WINTERLING5034 Cottage Grove Ave.Catering toLuncheons, Dinners, Card Parties, etc.Telephone Kenwood 0249236 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1930Chester C. Schroeder has moved from Chicago to Roosevelt Drive, Evansville, Ind. ***Helen Krull Dunn has moved from Chicago to502 U. S. Custom House, Denver, Colorado.*** Anna Price, A.M., is teaching Clothing andTextiles at Oregon Agricultural College, Cor-vallis, Oregon,i93iStella Bartlett, A.M., is Assistant Professorof Clothing and Textiles at Louisiana Polytechnic Institute, Ruston, Louisiana.Doctors of Philosophy1931Georgiana R. Simpson, '12, A.M. '20, is Associate Professor of German, Howard University, District of Columbia.1925Laird T. Hites, A.M. '16, D.B. '17, is Professor of Philosophy and Religion at HiramCollege, Hiram, Ohio. Four Doctors of Philosophy, five Masters, and four ex-Students ofthe University of Chicago are also on the staffof Hiram College. *** Edwin R. Hunter, A.M.'17, is Dean and Head of the Department ofEnglish at Maryville College, Maryville, Tennessee.1926Joseph Friedman is Research Chemist withthe Brewster Color Film Corporation, Newark,New Jersey. *** Virginia B. Hudson, Professorof English, State Teachers College, East Radford, Virginia, is Regent of the Daughters ofthe American Revolution, Radford Chapter.1927Robert D. Highfill is Head of the EnglishDepartment, West Tennessee State TeachersCollege, Memphis, Tennessee.1929H. H. Downing, S.M. '17, is Professor ofMathematics at the University of Kentucky inLexington, and Coach of the Tennis Team. Ofnine teachers of Mathematics at the Universityof Kentucky, with the rank of Assistant Professor and above, six have studied at the University of Chicago, three have received Ph.D.degrees, and one a Master's.1930Wayne A. R. Leys has just had published abook entitled "The Religious Control of Emotion." *** Everett V. Stonequist is Professor ofSociology at Skidmore College, SaratogaSprings, New York. *** A. R. Mclntyre, M.D. '31, spent the summer and autumn abroad andhas now returned to undertake his new positionas Instructor in Pharmacology at the Universityof Michigan.1931Robert W. Bates is associated with OscarRiddle, Ph.D. '07, at the Cold Spring HarborStation for Experimental Evolution. *** VersaV. Cole is continuing her studies toward theM.D. degree and has a Douglas Smith Fellowship in Surgery. *** Marie C. D'Araour is Instructor in Pharmacology at the University ofAlabama. *** Milnor R. Freeland is Biochemistat the Presbyterian Hospital, Chicago. ***Thomas F. Gallagher is continuing his investigations at the University of Chicago and hasbeen appointed a Research Associate. *** Hubert W. Marlow, S.M. '29, is Assistant Professorof Chemistry at the State Agricultural College,Manhattan, Kansas. *** Ennis B. Womack isAssistant Professor of Chemistry at Middle-bury College, Middlebury, Vermont.Rush1912Aaron Arkin, '09, Ph.D. '13, Assistant Professor of Medicine at Rush Medical College,made first place in the competitive civil serviceexaminations for attending physician at CookCounty Hospital, held last November. Hemade first place in medicine and in tuberculosis,the first time one man made first place in twodivisions of the hospital staff.1916Jacob Lifschutz, '14, has qualified as attending staff physician in Ear, Nose and Throat atthe Cook County Hospital.1917H. A. Keener has changed his address fromthe Naval Hospital, Mare Island, California,to U. S. S. Relief, San Pedro.1923Roy L. Grogan, S.M. '22, is located at 1007Medical Arts BIdg., Fort Worth, Texas. Hewas elected F. A. C. S. in 193 1. His specialtyis Obstetrics and Gynecology.1924Alfred L. Craig, '21, is chief surgeon in theShriners' Hospital in Honolulu. He also waselected F. A. C. S. last year.1928Coyne H. Campbell is Assistant Superintendent in the Western Oklahoma State Hospital,Supply, Okla.NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONS 237CEMENT WORKEMIL O. HANSELCEMENT CONTRACTORFloors Our Specialty824 Wrightwood Ave. Phone Bittersweet 2259Let Us Do Your Cement WorkL. GTJNGG0LL COMPANYConcrete Contractors for 30 Years6417 So Park Ave.Normal 0434 Phones Wentworth 1799 DECORATORSARTHUR E. BOURGEAUPAINTING and INTERIOR DECORATINGHardware and Paints1216-1218-E. 55 ST. PHONE HYDE PARK 1049Est. 1897DENTISTSDR. J. J. JOHNSTENDENTISTSuite 417 1180 East 63rd Street, Chi cagoPhone Dorchester 9545W. J. SCHUMACHER6147 University Ave. Phone Hyde Park 5480Plastering/ Mason and Cement Repairs, Expert Chimneyand Boiler Mason Work, Brick and Stone BuildingsCleaned, Pointing, Draft ExpertCHIROPODISTDR. G. L. BIERSMITHFoot Specialist and Chiropodist1133 East Sixty-Third St.PHONE MIDWAY 1828CLEANERS AND DYERSTHE NEW DREXELCleaners and DyersWe Clean Everything from Gloves to Rugs9x12 Rugs Cleaned on Both Sides, Only $2.004720-22 Cottage Grove Ave.Phone Drexel 0909 - 0910 - 0911 - 0912COAL5900 STEWART 3952AUBURN COAL & MATERIAL CO.COAL- COKE- BUILDING MATERIAL7443 So. Racine Ave. ChicasoALL PHONES ENGLEWOOD 2606Our Yards Cover the Entire CityHeritage Coal CompanyMain Office 101-33 East 63rd StreetCorner Michigan Blvd., ChicagoJ. J. HERITAGE, PresidentCUT STONE HAULINGNELS OLSONCUT STONE HAULING3001 S. Wells Street Victory 0711 DR. E. E. MACPHERSONDENTISTGASX-RAY 1133 East 63rd StreetPhone Hyde Park 3939EMPLOYMENTReliable HELP FurnishedOffice, Technical, Domestic, Factory, Hotel,Restaurant No Charge to EmployerGROVE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE852 £. 63rd St. Phone MID. 3636FLOWERS- AM CHICAGOGHXti&y ESTABLISHED 1865ybr FLOWERS^^ Phones: Plaza 6444, 6445 1631 East 55th StreetOberg's Flower ShopFLOWERS WIRED THE WORLD OVERTelephones: Fairfax 3670-36711461-63 East 57th St.FLOOR SURFACINGL. C. FAULKNERElectric Floor SurfacerRemoves Paint and Varnish ElectricallyMakes Old Floors Like New1516 E. 69th Street Fairfax 3262HARDWAREHENRY T. HANSEN935 East 55th StreetPaint — Hardware — Cutlery — ToolsHardware Phone Midway oooSRadios and Expert Radio ServiceRadio Service Phone Midway 0009238 NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONS1930Lemuel C. McGee, Ph.D. '27, is starting thepractice of internal medicine in Dallas, Texas,with an office in the Medical Arts Bldg. Hehas an appointment on the medical staff ofBaylor College of Medicine and Baylor University Hospital. *** M. George Henry, formerly Resident Surgeon of the PresbyterianHospital and Rush Medical Clinic, Chicago, isnow associated with the Dr. A. W. MooreClinic, 917 Brockman Bldg., Los Angeles. ***Robert C. Levy, S.B. '26, is a resident inMedicine at Cook County Hospital, Chicago.*** John P. Redgwick, '26, after finishing hisinterneship at Passavant Hospital, Chicago, ispracticing medicine and surgery at 4930 S. 24thSt., Omaha, Nebraska.Divinity1893Frank Kurtz, D.B. '93, is Field Secretary ofthe American Baptist Telugu Mission withheadquarters at Secunderabad, India.1898Franklyn C. Sherman, A.B. '95, D.B. '98, isRector of Grace Church, Cleveland. He hasbeen elected Secretary of the Joint Commissionon Christian Healing of the General Conventionof the Protestant Episcopal Church.1907H. B. Benninghoff, Ed.B. '06, A.M. '07, isDirector of Waseda Hoshien which is the Christian Center conducted by Baptists at WasedaUniversity, Tokyo. Dr. Benninghoff has beenin charge of Baptist work at Waseda Universitysince 1908 and Director of Waseda Hoshiensince 1920. An exceedingly interesting annualreport has just come to hand. *** William F.Rothenburger,, D.B. '07, pastor of the ThirdChristian Church, Indianapolis, has been electeda Trustee of the Eight Million Dollar PensionFund of the Disciples of Christ.1914Andrew W. Solandt, A.M. '14, D.B. '22, isExecutive Secretary of the Hampden CountyY. M. C. A., Springfield, Massachusetts.1919John E. Hartzler, A.M. '19, Ph.D. is servingthis year as Visiting Professor of Religion andEthics in the American University, Beirut,Syria. In July he will lecture for the Austro-American Institute of Education in Vienna,Austria, after which he will return to America.1922John J. Milford, A.M. '22, for five yearspastor in Huntsville, Alabama, has been elected a Trustee of Howard College. He also has beenelected Vice President of the Southern BaptistConvention.1925Claude C. Douglas, Ph.D. '25, has publishedOverstatement in the New Testament throughHolt, 193 1.1930Joseph Harold Gamble, A.M. '30, D.B. '30,pastor of First Baptist Church, Grand Forks,North Dakota, suffered a serious accident whileon a camping trip with the Boy Scout troup ofhis church. While chopping wood he was struckin the eye by a flying stick; as a result it wasnecessary to have the eye removed.i93iMary Edith Andrews, Ph.D. '31, returnedto her teaching in Goucher College, Baltimore,Maryland. *** Kenneth W. Clark, Ph.D. '31, hasaccepted an interim professorship in Duke University, taking the work of Professor HarvieBranscomb (sometime Fellow in the New Testament Department), who is studying in Europe onthe Guggenheim Foundation. Dr. and Mrs.Clark report that they are pleasantly situatedin Durham, and that Dr. Clark's work giveshim entire satisfaction. *** Morgan S. Odell,Ph.D. '31, is happily settled in his professorshipof philosophy and religion in Occidental College,Los Angeles. *** John Merle Rife, Ph.D. '31, hasreturned to his teaching in Tarkio College,Tarkio, Missouri.Walter Scott Athearn, who recently resignedthe Deanship of the School of Religious Education and Social Service of Boston University,was inaugurated as President of Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana, at a two dayacademic celebration, February 6 and 7.M. P. Boynton, D.D., pastor for over thirtyyears of the Woodlawn Baptist Church, Chicago,has been seriously ill for several months. Hehas recently undergone a major operation andat the time of writing is convalescing at theWoodlawn Hospital.John H. Carstens, pastor of First BaptistChurch, Rock Island, Illinois, has suffered aserious physical breakdown. It is feared thathe will not be able to carry the work of hischurch for a period of several months.Herman F. Gerber, who was German Exchange Student at the University of Chicagoduring 1930-31, is now studying at the University of Giessen, Germany. His address isFrankfurt-on-the-Main; Alt-Hausen 2.John Peterson, Ph.B. '23, A.M. '31, has returned to China to assume the presidency of theKingchow Theological Seminary.Ben W. Sinderson became pastor of the Independent Church, Springfield, Missouri, Januaryfirst.NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONS 239INSURANCE PAINTINGS RESTOREDCHILDS & WOODINSURANCE UNDERWRITERSTelephone Us When You Have AnyQuestions About Special Coverage1 75 W. Jackson Blvd. Phone Wabash 1180LAUNDRIESFidelity Morgan Service, Inc."Better Laundry Work"Branch 1015 East 61st StreetPhone Calumet 1906LEXINGTON LAUNDRY1214 East 61st StreetFAIRFAX 0732" For All Fine Laundering "LIGHTINGStudio and Display Rooms Tel. Superior 5381-2Henkel & Best Co.439 North Michigan AvenueDesigners and Manufacturers ofArtistic Lighting FixturesOldest - - Largest - - LocksmithsS &> S KEY SERVICEKeys Made While U Hesitate6420 Cottage Grove Mid. 3643-4-5MUSICAL INSTRUMENTSAMERICAN CONSERVATORY of MUSICFORTY-FIFTH SEASONAll branches of music and dramatic art. Certificates,Degrees. Nationally accredited. Enter any time.Address: Free catalog.John R. Hattstaedt, Secretary, 500 Kimball HallSouth Side Branch, 1133 E. 63rd St.MONUMENTSPhone Monroe 5058 Established 1889C. CILELLA & SONMONUMENTS AND MAUSOLEUMSRock of Ages and Guardian MemorialsWe Erect Work Anywhere 723-25 W. Taylor StreetPAINTINGEstablished 1851 Incorporated 1891Geo. D. Milligan CompanyPainting and Decorating Contractors2309 South Parkway Tel. Har. 0761 TELEPHONE DIVERSEY 7976UNITED ART & CRAFT STUDIOSPaintings, Etchings, Cornices, Picture Framing,Mirrors, Expert Regilding and Restoring1412 North Clark Street Chicago, 111.PLASTERINGMONAHAN BROS., Inc.CONTRACTING PLASTERERS201 North Wells StreetPhone Central 4584RIDINGMidway Riding Academy6037 Drexel AvenueExpert InstructorsBeautiful Bridle Path and Good HorsesUniversity of Chicago Riding HeadquartersMidway 9571 Phone Dorchester 8041ROOFINGGROVE ROOFING CO.(Gilliland)Old Roofs Repaired— New Roofs Put On20 Years at6644 Cottage Grove Ave.Fairfax 3206RUG CLEANERSTEL TRIANGLE 3640 ESTABLISHED 1910GRAGG — Certified Rug CleanersOF ORIENTAL AND DOMESTICRUGS AND CARPETS EXCLUSIVELY911-13-15-17 East 75th StreetSADDLERYW. J. WYMANManufacturer, Importer and Dealer inHigh Grade Saddles, Polo Goods, Etc.Chicago Riding Club Building, 628 McClurg CourtLake Eorest Store— 210-212 Westminster Ave., EastTelephone Superior 8801SCHOOLSFREE INFORMATION of Private Boarding Schools andSummer Camps Catalogs on request. Call;Affiliated Boarding Schools Ass'n.1112 Marshall Field Annex, ChicagoTel. Central 0345 Miss S. H. Shultz, DirectorPRACTICAL BUSINESS TRAININGBusiness Administration, Executive-Secretarial14 Other Practical Courses- Train for Assured SuccessCollege Grade Courses 76th Year Write for CatalogBRYANT & STRATTON COLLEGE18 South Michigan Avenue Randolph 1575240 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERollo C. Speer, recently pastor of First BaptistChurch, LaGrange, Illinois, has been called toand has accepted the pastorate of the FirstBaptist Church, Greeley, Colorado.Bessie F. Winchester, pastor of First BaptistChurch, Rantoul, Illinois, was one of thespeakers at the International Baptist YouthConference held in Prague, August i to 3. Heraddress, "Basic Principles Controlling YoungPeople's Work Among Baptists," was printed inthe Australian Baptist and reprinted in theIllinois Baptist Bulletin.EngagementsJeannette B. Rubin, '28, to Rabbi Oscar Z.Farman, '28. They are to be married in thesummer.Harold Eisenstein, '30, to Rosemary Livingston, '32.MarriagesLorna I. Lavery, '16, to Maurice L. Stafford,December 31, 193 1. They will live in Koono,Lithuania, where Mr. Stafford will be Secretary to the American Legation and Consul.Agnes Potter Van Ryn, '24, to Seldon GaleLowrie. At home, 535 Terrace Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio.Clara E. Scholpp, '25, to Burton E. Vergowe,July 17, 1930. At home, 1474 Gregory Street,Chicago.Wilhelmena Amy Warner, '27, A.M. '30, toVictor Levine, '25, M.D. '29, December 18,193 1. At home, 1734 East 72nd Street, Chicago.Mona Flanders, '27, to L. J. Nelsen, August26, 1931. At home, 6137 Kenwood Avenue,Chicago.Estelle Rochells, '28, to Rabbi David L. Green-berg, June 28, 193 1. At home, Fresno, California.BirthsTo Mr. and Mrs. Lewis J. Bergman (RuthGenzberger), '19, a daughter, Vina Jane, November 14, 193 1, at Chicago.To John S. Ivy, '22, and Mrs. Ivy, a. daughter,Barbara Carolyn, November 4, 193 1, at Houston,Texas.To Russell Hamlin Burno, '25, and Mrs.Burno (Elizabeth H. Morrison), '28, a son,Philip, November 30, 193 1, at Chicago.To Herbert F. Mayer, J.D. '27, and Mrs.Mayer, a daughter, Patricia Else, January 7,1932, at Grand Island, Nebraska.To Mr. and Mrs. Harold E. Gibson (AmedaMetcalf), '30, a son, Richard Allan, October 8,193 1,, at Jacksonville, Florida.DeathsDr. Francis M. Ingalls, '88, passed awaySeptember 22, 1931, at Highland Park, Illinois,instead of Glendale, California, as stated in theJanuary issue. James Harvey Davis, D.B. '91, December 15,1931, at Denver, Colorado.Laura L. Runyon, '98, Ph.M. '06, December 31,193 1, at Plainfield, N. J. Miss Runyon hadbeen connected with the State Normal Collegeat Warrensburg, Missouri, since 1903.Nels L. T. Nelson, Ph.D. '99, January 14, 1932,at Goodhue, Minn.Mrs. Claude A. Royston (Shirley S.McDonald), '05, July 23, 1931, at Oak Park,Illinois.Jessie M. Fink (Mrs. Charles E.), '16, December 5, 193 1, at Schenectady, New York.Robert E. Wright, M.D. '28, December 26,193 1, at Cambridge City, Indiana.William Westbrook Redfern, M.D. '31,February 7, 1932, of pneumonia at Coldwater,Michigan. Dr. Redfern was the first graduateof the south side Medical School.Athletics(continued from page 230)for coaching as a career, most of those whohave adopted that work have been rathersuccessful. Crisler had produced at Minnesota, where he was also athletic director,one of the best looking football machinesin the west, and he ought to be a sensationdown east in a year or two. His team mate,Paul Hinkle, recently was appointed athletic director at Butler, where he went in1922 when H. O. Page was director there.Hugo Bezdek is athletic director at PennState ; Elmer Lampe, who was taken fromEvanston high school to be end coach atWisconsin, is now football coach at Carle-ton College ; Wallie Marks is on the Indiana staff; Sherman Finger is track coachat Minnesota; Joseph E. Raycroft is director of the department of physical educationat Princeton ; Fred W. Luehring, who wasnot an undergraduate but took a Master'sdegree at the University, is a professor ofphysical education and assistant to the deanunder the Gates Plan at Pennsylvania;Herman Stegeman is athletic director atthe University of Georgia, and NormanBarker is athletic director at Technicalhigh school, Long Beach, Calif. WalterSteffen, a judge in the Superior Court ofCook County, has been head football coachat Carnegie Tech for many years, and whenhe tried to resign this winter, there wasoutcry until he agreed to remain in an advisory capacity.