!lIl1hUililliliIlUlilluiuihHlllllfiiilllllll�lIIludlll�mllllllllllhiU(iTiilmUUlllllliillifuuliulliffilfuliitinmffi'lIlilillllllllnlliiUiUniimlHlIllllmmmmll1In1l11l11llJlIIlIIlIlIHIllIuIllIlIlIlIIUIIIIIIIIIJIIlIuUinliiiiiiiiiiilUiiiJanuary,1932 NUMBER 3�lIE UNIVERSITY OF:!iICAGO MAGAZINE�.:������������������������������==Men Come Into the MirrorJust a mere man in the annual Mirror Revue. He is Fritz Leiber, Junior,and the girls are Peggy Holohan and Jerry Mitchell� just a sample of the fiftyundergraduates to appear in the Dramatic Association's smart romp in MandelHall, February 26 and 27. The Revue this year is called UAlts Fair," whichis fair enough, considering that at least a hundred students are busy getting itread», with Bertha Ochsner training the dancers, Mack Eoans and CarlBricken helping with the music, and Frank Hurburt O'Hcra again directingthem all. The Mirror Board consists of Barbara Coo}, Jane Kesner, ElizabetbParker, Jackie Srnith, and Alice Stinnett.IN TH I�Ic/JLl COn our cover we show the doorway of theNew Museum and Administration Build­ing of the Oriental Institute. Dedicatedon December 5, this building is John D.RO'ckefeller J r.'s latest contribution to theUniversity. Behind it lies an endowment,the income of which is to' be devoted tothe study of the birth of civilization in theeastern end of the Mediterranean Basin.Directing this stupendous project is alUan to' whom all Chicago alumni lookWith pride and gratification, for, in thewords of Raymond D. Fosdick, "If therehad been no Breasted, there would havebeen no Oriental Institute, and without anOriental Institute, the story of the rise oflUan would to-day be far less vivid and farless complete.".In this issue we publish the dedicatoryaddress of James H. Breasted, Director ofthe Oriental Institute. .* * * * *. George Morgenstern, a Chicago journal­ist who, as an undergraduate, edited ThePhoenix" wrote a Blackfriar's show, won aPhi Beta Kappa key, and wore the gownof a College Marshall, discusses the neweducational plan at Chicago.. Dr. Moulton's article in the DecemberISsUe has inspired others besides Mr.Morgenstern to rush to their typewritersOr their telephones. The editor acknowl­�dges with!' gratitude the comment thatas been offered. The limits of space pre­clude its publication in detail.f We do submit, however, one open letterf rolU a well-known alumnus and formeracuity member. Detroit, MichiganDEAR DOCTOR MOULTON:I obtained a real kick from your article onthe New Educational System at the Universityof Chicago. There is one particular statementwhich interests me. You say that "the wisdomof men declines after they are thirty years ofage.'" You do not give, much to my surprise,one of your complicated mathematical formulaeto show the rate of this decline. Just as aworking hypothesis let us assume that the rateof decline after thirty years is the same as therate of increase from the time of birth to thirtyyears of age. On this hypothesis (and I havejust looked up your age,) it is necessary for meto conclude that some time during the monthof April, 1932, you will have reached the samestate of wisdom that you possessed at the timeof your birth. Of course I do not know whenyou _ wrote this article so I will have to assumethat you possessed at least a slight amount ofwisdom at the time, but it follows naturallyfrom your own statement and my hypothesis,that you are fast approaching the zero point.Very sincerely yours,(sgd.) JOHN F. NORTON, Ph. D., 19II.* * * **Will Cuppy is one of the illustriousmembers of the class of 1907. Aftergraduation he returned to the campus forintermittent periods until his Alma Materpresented him with a Master's degree in1914. Burton Rascoe was for two yearsa member of the class of 1915, when hefared forth to win laurels in the literaryworld. It is a joy to' print what Burtonthinks of Will.* * ** *Herbert Phillips was a member of lastyear's senior class. He majored in sciences,avocationed in sociology and politics andbrought a measure of fame to himself andthe University by his work on the champion­ship gymnastic team.The Magazine is published at 1009 Sloan St., Crawfordsville, Ind., monthly from NovemberCto July, inclusive, for The Alumni Council of the University of Chicago, 58th St. and Ellis Ave.,hicago, Ill. The subscription price is $2.00 per year; the price of single copies is 25 cents.Entered as second class matter December 10, 1924, at the Post Office at Crawfordsville, Indiana,under the Act of March 3, 1879.99THE NEW ORIENTAL INSTITUTE BUILDING, WEST WALL OF THELIBRARY-r--_� �Vo L. x X I V NO·3�beWnibef.5'itp of <!bicago.maga?ineJANUARY, I932�-------------------------------------------------------�----------------------------------------------------------------+-The Rise of Man *By JAMES H. BREASTEDDirector� The Oriental InstituteWE ARE gath­ered ?ere thismorning togive some thought tothe purpose and mean­ing of a new buildingassociated with a greatuniversity. If this werea new building in­tended for the studybranch and teaching of somegeol of natural science, such asogy ,would 'b or chemIstry, or physics, weto us ll. engaged in a routine familiarbeen kr , for such laboratories have longshies �oW? to us at other large univer­that' t �s an interesting fact, however,ing ,We would find no parallel to this build-, In any oth . , ither ilea Or b er umverslty, ert er In Amer-fa road F f ioninz fhiact b ,ar rom rnentionmg t ISI y Way of if ' ,call gran yIng our own vanity,fact fYour attention to it because it is a For ages man has seen himself against ao whi hlaYing rc I am constantly conscious as background of Nature, Gradually his ownbility, uio� us a great and unique responsi- achievements have profoundly modified histhe q ,t IS a fact which obviously raises ideas of his own position in the visible, Uestlon "Wh ?" Wh h S ASlties h y. en other univer- world about him, W en tone ge manaVe f '1why th' ai ed to recognize such a need, shifted from hunting to agriculture and forIS new bUilding at Chicago and why the first time felt his dependence on the'*'4d �4 .at the dedication of the new building of the Oriental Institute, December 5, I9JI.the researches to be housed in it?I have lived for more than forty yearsin daily realization of the need of such abuilding, and to me the natural questionseems rather to be: "Why should science,which builds its laboratories to investigatethe history of every other creature from thefrog to the horse, never have created alaboratory for the investigation of earlyman, the most important of all creatures?"The researches centering in this buildingmake it a laboratory devoted toman, to hisorigins and to the evolution of the civiliza­tion which we have inherited. The lifegoing on in this building invites you to anew vision of the place of man in a universeout of which he has issued with new andsovereign powers to understand somethingof that universe and his own place in it.Man�s Place in Nature101I02 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEfruitfulness of the earth, it led him to deifythe fertility of the green fields and to takehis place as a child of the god of fertility.It gave him a very simple idea of his placein the natural order. Since those primitivedays the profoundest minds have struggledwith the problem of man's place in nature.The self-development, which was the deep­est current in the growth of Goethe's mind,was conditioned by the expanding conscious­ness of his own kinship with Nature and thebelief that somehow man had come out ofNature. These thoughts eventually issuedin Goethe's profound conviction of his spirit­ual oneness with Nature. A quarter ofa century after Goethe died Darwin pub­lished his Origin of Species� and thereuponthe conception of man's place in Naturehardened into mechanical and largely biolog­ical aspects of the emergence of man. Itwas especially in the writings of such men asthe Frenchman Taine that these mechanisticand biological conceptions revealed theirdevastating effect upon a trained mind eventhough enriched by literary culture. Underthe light of modern science and its terrify­ing revelations man has begun to fear thetremendous idea that he is an outgrowth ofthe universe' that holds him in its immutablegrasp. To be sure, some minds like that ofTennyson have kept alive the spiritual atti- .tude so strongly held by Goethe. We reallyhear an echo of Goethe as we contemplatethe figure of Tennyson standing by thecradle and for the first time looking into theface of his first-born son, with the words,"Out of the deeps my child, out of thedeeps." In an evolutionary age, however,there was little upon which this mystically spiritual attitude of Tennyson could bebased.The Gap in Our Knowledge of theHuman CareerSince then the natural scientists havelabored on and the physical origins of manfrom the lower animals have become farclearer. But between the historians andthe natural scientists there has been a "greatgulf set," with the result that we now have,on the one hand, the paleontologist with hispicture of the dawn-man enveloped in cloudsof archaic savagery, and, on the other handthe historian with his reconstruction of thecareer of civilized man in Europe. Be­tween these two, the paleontologist with hisarchaic savage on the one hand, and thehistorian with his account of civilized Eu­rope on the other, stand we orientalists en­deavoring to bridge the gap. It is in thatgap that man's primitive advance passedfrom merely physical evolution to an evolu­tion of his soul, a social and spiritual de-·velopment which transcends the merely bio­logical and divests evolution of its terrors.I t is the recovery of these lost stages, thebridging of this chasm between the merelyphysical man and the ethical, intellectualman, which is a fundamental need of man'ssoul as he faces nature to-day. We canbuild this bridge only as we study theemergence and early history of the firstgreat civilized societies in the ancient NearEast, for there still lies the evidence out ofwhich we may recover the story of theorigins and the early advance of civilization,out of which European civilization and even­tually our own came forth.THE GREAT PALESTINIAN MOUND UNDER WHICH THE FAMOUSFORTRESS CITY OF ARMAGEDDON (MEGIDDO) IS BURIEDTHE RISE OF MANTHE PREHISTORIC SURVEY IN CAMP AMONG THE GRAVEL HILLS ANDSAND DUNES IN THE SAHARA DESERT WEST OF THE NILE BETWEENSAKKARA AND THE F AIYUMTHE EXCAVATION OF IVIEDINET HABU 103»: •..•. (_: •.•.• ? ...Iv /\.)/)�',��?'0 RS/iM0[V[»,=.,��':';���.r;.�!> �",,,,,,,,,,.TEHERANp E R S� I Ao .A R A B I A N ''';'''�f::);f�;;i;:'';;\: .. ,(. ��R�F� :E��ET .... ���ES:S,:��* =EXPEDITIONS OF THE ORIENTAL \:��INSTITUTE, EXCEPT THE PREHISTORIC \\l.� �SURVEY EXPEDITION. WHICH HAS 1l, -t-OPERATED EXTENSIVELY ALONG THE NILE.= FERTILE CRESCENT.rno�MAP SHOWING FIELD OPERATIONS OF THE ORIENTAL INSTITUTE IN THE NEAR EASTSta'Ys indicate the locations of the Institute's field expeditions or other scientific projects. These comprise a total of thirteen undertakings, of whicht't,,,e\ot.>e o: .. e sti.U in i>'Yog'Yess. It 'Wi.U be seen that the eX1;>edi.tiO'Vl.S ONe st'Yo.teg;'caUCI dist'Yib",ted. Owe a.t each e""d of the Highland Zone a""d others at fourt?oO:;"·1"'\ .. tS o.1.o'V\.'o the Fe'Yt."-\e C .... e e c e vvc -wnCl.R.e s:;"x exi;>ed.:;"t;'o"lll.S "''V\. As;_a.���e"t..Utse ,s."-= ex\?ed.;'t"'O'li\.S -l.'Ifl. E.o�t?t a/woLd. No-rtheo..st Ai-v-tca._ ....e...,��C1Z.....<��(f)��o"%jo�.....o:»oos:::»o:»N.....Z�THE RISE OF MANThe Organization Needed for Bridgingthe GapThat is the greatest task of the humanistto-day; but no group of orientalists howevergifted or able, if organized solely as a uni­versity department as teachers of the historyand the languages of the Orient, can under­take to recover the evidence still lying scat­tered far across the hills and valleys of theancient Near East. What is required in thefirst place is such an organization as willpermit the employment of a large group of�fficient field men with practical archaeolog­Ical training, who can be associated withthe philologists and historians of a univer­sity department of oriental languages. Ifsufficient funds are available the field staffsand the university department at home canthen co-operate in a far-reaching, twofoldprocess, first, the task of salvaging the vastbody of evidence still surviving in the field,and second, the task of studying and inter­preting the evidence as it, is received fromthe field by the scientific staff at home. Thusthe formerly more or less helpless universitydepartment of oriental languages becomes?art of an effective organization in whichIt serves as the interpretative organ. Wethus link together the far-flung salvagingoperations in the field and the interpretativegroup at home in one great co-operativeorganiza tion.The Oriental InstituteThis organization of· home and fieldstaffs, which we have called the Oriental Institute, began its work in the autumn of19 I 9, and is, therefore, twelve years old.Its resources were at first very modest, con­sisting of a subscription of $IO,OOO a yearfor five years, contributed by Mr. John D.Rockefeller, Jr., in the spring of 1919. Thispersonal subscription by Mr. Rockefeller,Jr., steadily increased, and at the same timethe General Education Board and the Inter­national Education Board made large ap­propriations for the expansion of the newinstitute. It was, however, not until fiveyears ago that the Oriental Institute wasable to launch a comprehensive program ofresearch, providing for a field expedition ineach of the great ancient oriental civiliza­tions of the Near East: These are now atwork in Anatolia (Hittite civilization),Syria, Palestine, Assyria, Babylonia, Persia,Egypt, and Northeast Africa, making a totalof twelve expeditions. They form the mostfar-reaching archaeological organizationever projected.Thus for the first time a single organiza­tion is now able to control and to correlatethe results of research and excavationthroughout the leading early civilizations ina single composite reconstruction of thecourse of ancient human life before the riseof Europe. A small fraction of the evidencethus far recovered is installed in the museumhalls which we are about to visit. We shallpass through these halls, five in number, inthe following order: Egypt, Assyria, Baby­lonia, Persia and Islam, Palestine and theHittites.WORKING IN THE WIND AT ALISHAR 105106 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWestern Asia and the Rise of Businessand LawThese names at once suggest the diversityof peoples which produced the compositecivilization of Western Asia. Indeed thehistory of Western Asia is made up of onebrilliant eruption after another arising fromthe intermingling of invaders and invaded.There is no unbroken evolution of a singlesociety stimulated by the ferment and fric­tion of its own internal forces. The foreigninvader periodically diverts the developmentinto new channels and produces sudden dis­locations in the evo- put together in a highly developed form bythe great Hammurabi, whose remarkablecode you may see in replica in the Baby­lonian Hall. Thus the work of man's handsin agriculture, cattle-breeding, manufac­tures, and building merged into more highlydeveloped forms of human organization.Society gained classes and men of giftsgained leisure.The Rise of /l rt , Literature, and ScienceThis situation made possible the earliestflowering of art and literature as the humanmind discerned entirely new and undis­covered ranges whereit might wander. Inan address so brief, Icannot even suggestthe character andachievements of theearliest national art inEgypt and WesternAsia. That untilrecently little waSknown of it, even inthis University, maybe observed from thefact that in his open­ing lecture, inaugurating the RenaissanceSociety of the University, one of our owncolleagues summarized the art of the Orientas "the winged bulls of Assyria and theJackal-headed Anubises of Egypt." In.spite of this terrifying epigram we havesince annexed one of the said winged bulls,and you can this morning decide for your­selves .whether you regard it as successfullutionary process, likethe fall of Ninevehbefore a combinationof foreign foes, or thecapture of Babylonby Cyrus and thePersians. It is a vastand intricately com­plicated mosaic whichwe are endeavoring topiece together III THE LOCAL TRUCKING SERVICE ATWestern Asia. MEDINET HABUI t was a still greatercomplex of civilization resulting from thecommingling of the life of Egypt and West­ern Asia which eventually reached Europeand furnished the cultural basis on whichEuropean civilization arose. It was in theN ear East that man developed the wholematerial basis of life, as grain and cattle,linen, wool, and manufactured mer­chandise gradually built up the earliestcommercial world in the Near East at atime when Europe was still primeval forest.In the thousand years between 3,000 and2,000 B.C., the merchants of Babyloniacreated the idea of credit which still bindstogether the great peoples of the world orleaves them helpless and disorganized when .its cementing power breaks down as it nowseems to have done. You may enter ourBabylonian halls and see there masses ofbusiness documents, some of them reachingback to nearly 3,000 B.C. The commercialand social relations which produced thembuilt- up a body of business customs whichbecame inviolable and gradually took shapein laws which, long before 2,000 B.C., were art.In literature I can make only one refer­ence; I could show you a papyrus containinga government report embedded in which is asingle statement disclosing admiration of abeautiful scene along the Syrian coast. Itwas written in the twelfth century B.C.,and it is the earliest surviving expression inhuman speech of man's love of beauty innature-the beginning of a long develop­ment which has culminated in the poetry ofShelley and Wordsworth.Through an obscuring veil of supersti­tion men looked out upon a mysteriousworld which they longed to understand aswe do to-day. The demand to do so was atTHE RISE OF MAN 107THE WINGED BULL OF SARGON H, NOW DWELLING IN THE NEWORIENTAL INSTITUTE BUILDINGfirst a social summons, the need of humansUffering, which called forth efforts at alle­viation. The oldest known treatise on sur­gery, which was written in Egypt nearly5,000 years ago, discloses to us the thoughtsof the earliest man who reveals a scientificattitude of mind. This treatise is, there­fore, the earliest document in the historyof science.Less than a thousand years later the�gYPtians were already writing mathemat­tea] treatises of astonishing penetration. Thearea of the 'circle was computed by taking�ight-ninths of the diameter and squaringIt. The value of iT thus gained was 3.1605,Which differs less than two one-hundredthsfrom the value of IT current at the presentday. This led to a formula for computingthe area of the surface of a hemisphere, atnethod rediscovered by the Greeks 1,300Years later. A recently deciphered papyrusE Moscow has disclosed a surprising ancientgYPtian formula for the computation ofthe cubical contents of a truncated pyramid, that is a pyramid cut off part way up in aplane parallel with the base. This formula,which was unknown to the Greeks, was firststated in Europe by Leonardo of Pisa inA.D. 1,200, three thousand years after ithad been discovered by the Egyptians.The supreme achievement of science inthe Orient was Babylonian astronomy. Asfar back as the twenty-third century B.C.,the Babylonian astrologers observed aneclipse of the moon which has been calcu­lated to have occurred in 2,283 B.C. Butat that remote date such observations wereonly occasional and they were likewise veryinaccurate and unsystematic. Graduallyit became customary to make more frequentobservations, until 747 B.C., in the reign ofthe Babylonian king N abonassar, the seriesof observations became continuous and arecord of them was carefully kept on file.This file furnished the first long series' ofastronomical observations ever made byman, and therefore the first great body ofastronomical knowledge. It is an extraor-108 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEdinary fact that modern astronomers havenot yet been able to accumulate a series ofobservations equally long. The Babylonianseries continued for over 360 years, whilethe longest known series of modern ob­servations, that at Greenwich, which beganin 1750, has now been going on about 181years, or about half the length of the Baby­Ionian series.The use to which the Babylonian astrono­mers put these scientific archives is anastonishing demonstration of the scientificattitude of mind. About 500 B.C., theChaldean astronomer N aburimannu wasable to calculate the annual movements ofthe sun and moon with an error of lessthan ten seconds for the entire year. Alittle over a century later the Chaldeanastronomer Kidinnu, whom the Greekscalled Kidenas, greatly surpassed this ac­curacy, reducing the error in a year's revolu­tion to one second. Indeed one of hismeasures of celestial motions even exceedsin accuracy the figures that have long been in practical use by modern astronomers.This was because he had before him 360years of lunar observations, arid no modernastronomer has any such body of records athis disposal. Eventually Kidinnu dis­covered the slow change in the obliquityof the earth's axis which we call the pre­cession of the equinoxes, an achievementhitherto attributed to the Greeks.The Greeks Inherit BabylonianAstronomyI t is now obvious that Thales made hisfamous prediction of a solar eclipse on thebasis of Babylonian observations, and wenow know also that when the Greek engi­neer Meton was trying to introduce ascientific calendar at Athens, he took thelength of his year from the BabylonianN aburimannu. These two remarkableBabylonians, N aburimannu and Kidinnu,who first revealed to men a majestic systemof the celestial world and thus became thefounders of astronomical science, were anWALL PAINTING FROM A TOMB IN ANCIENT THEBES, FOURTEENTHCENTURY B.C. FROM A COpy IN COLOR BY MRS. DAVIESTHE RISE OF MANimperishable scientific and intellectual bondbetween the early East and civilized Europe.Undisturbed Evolution of Civilizationin the Nile Valley 109Thereupon with the development of asettled manner of life, the evolution gradu­ally became a social process.Man�s Earliest Triumph OverMaterial ForcesFrom that time to this, man's life hasbeen periodically involved in a struggle be­tween the tremendousSuch glimpses of early man's intellectualConquests, as revealed' in surgery, mathe­matics, and astronomy, disclose to us thefact that man was ad­vancing for thousandsof years at manyPoints along a wideand imposing front.In Western Asia asWe have seen, thatfront was broken upby invasions and shift­ing movements ofearly populations,which produced con­stant complicationsand makes it increas­ingly difficult to fol­low the humanadvance. In the NileValley, however, saferfrontiers, while by noIn HIGH WINDS, SWARMS OF FLIES, ANDeans impenetrable, INTENSE HEAT RENDER THE DRAFTS-�ade ancient Egypt a MAN'S TASK DIFFICULTklOd of social labora-tory where we may watch almost unin­terrUPtedly the successive stages of humanevolution.b -f\s. you enter the Egyptian Hall in thisulldmg, you will find at the right a group�f stone implements, all of which were�und embedded in geological formations in� e Nile Valley. They therefore belong tof nOWn geological periods. They stretchrom the earliest known stone artifacts al-Nost down> to the Late Stone Age or theeolithic, and they form the first suchgeologically dated series of stone tools,Cov .enng a period of many thousands ofYea:s, ever discovered. During the period�hlch produced them, the Nile cut down itsCannel through a hundred vertical feet ofsordth.1 rock. It was not until long afterth�S period of probably several hundred. usand years, which we can follow onlyIn �radually improving stone tools, that mangaIned cattle-breeding and agriculture. impression receivedfrom the naturalworld and the hu­maner impulses thatare engendered bysocial experience andsocial struggle. Inthe Nile Valley wecan watch the first ofthese periodic strug­gles and with sym­pathetic understand­ing we can follow thefirst great age of spiri­tual disillusionment.We watch the trium­phant conquest ofmaterial' forces, atfirst slow and thenmoving with astound­ing rapidity as theseancient Nile dwellers came completely underthe spell of their material triumphs.In the Cairo Museum you may stand inthe presence. of the massive granite sar­cophagus which once contained the body ofKhufu-onekh, the architect who built theGreat Pyramid of Gizeh. His name means"Khufu lives," or in its Greek form"Cheops lives"-certainly a significantname for the builder of a pyramid whichis still the greatest of all masonry buildings.Who does not know the Pyramid ofCheops? Let us in imagination follow thisearly architect to the desert plateau behindthe village of Gizeh. It was then baredesert surface, dotted only with the ruinsof a few small tombs of remote ancestors.The oldest stone masonry construction atthat time had been erected by Khufu­onekh's great-grandfather. Only" threegenerations of architects in stone had pre­ceded him. We can easily imagine Khufu-110 THE UNIVERSITY· OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEonekh's grandfather saying to him, "Myfather put up the first stone building evererected in Egypt." 'There probably werenot many stone masons, nor many men whounderstood the technique of building instone as Khufu-onekh took his first walk onthe bare Gizeh Plateau, and staked outthe ground plan of the Great Pyramid.Conceive, then, the dauntless courage of theman who told his surveyors to layout thesquare base 755 feet on each side! Whenthat had been done Khufu-onekh was look­ing out over a square of naked desert con­taining thirteen acres. He must have lookedacross the Nile at the quarries some thirtymiles distant, and perhaps he made a quickcalculation: "It will take nearly two and ahalf million blocks each weighing two andone-half tons to cover this square ofthirteen acres with a mountain of masonry481 feet high; but I will do it!" This isthe first time in the history of man that weare thus able to put our yardstick athwarta human mind and take the measure of itscourage in terms of cubic feet of masonryand colossal organizing achievement inengineering never again to be equaled. TheGreat Pyramid of Gizeh is thus a documentin the history of the human mind. Itclearly discloses man's sense of sovereignpower in his triumph over material forces.For himself and for his sovereign thepharaoh's engineer was achieving the con­quest of immortality by sheer command ofmaterial forces-an immortality, that con­sisted in survival of the king's body sheathedin an imperishable husk of masonry.The Egyptians� the Discoverers of Char­acter ; Man Discovers the InnerVclues : the Dawn of ConscienceHere then was a man still under the tre­mendous impression of the physical world,the world about him, but not yet aware ofthe world within him. When five or sixhundred years of desert storms had buffetedthe Great Pyramid of Gizeh and its com­panions on the Sahara Plateau, a thoughtfulEgyptian looked up at the pyramids andsang of the colossal futility of merelyphysical survival of the body. The humansoul had entered the first great age of dis- illusionment. We begin to hear remotevoices that proclaim the utter futility ofmaterial conquest. As if through the dustand tumult of an engrossing conflict manfor the first time caught something of theveiled splendor of the moral vision. Hebegan to hear the voices within himself, andout of the conflict of social forces he gradu­ally became conscious of the inner values.Thus the Egyptians were the discoverersof character. Not projected from the out­side in to a world of unworthy men by somemystic process which our old school theolo­gians called inspiration or revelation, butspringing out of man's own life illuminingthe darkness of social disillusionment andinner conflict, a glorious vindication of theworth of man, the dawn of the age of con­science and character broke upon the world,a historically datable event, about 2,000B.C. It was the outgrowth of man's ownsocial experience, it sprang out of his ownsoul, and no outworn theological doctrineof inspiration, no conception of a spot-lightof Divine Providence shining exclusively onPalestine, shall despoil man of this crown­ing glory of his life on earth, the discoveryof character. It is the greatest discoveryin the whole course of evolution as far as itis known to us. I t was the discovery of anew realm at whose gates we are stillstanding hesitant.Earliest Materialism Defeated by Man�sDiscovery of CharacterIn our museum halls we can actuallylook upon the evidences of the transitionfrom the age of materialism to the age ofconscience and character . You will find inour Egyptian Hall a group of twenty-sevenstatuettes with which a cemetery official,who served under the shadow of the GreatPyramid nearly 5,000 years ago, equippedhis tomb. These painted limestone figuresrepresent his household, his children, andhis servants engaged in grinding and siftingflour, mixing and baking bread, brewingbeer, slaughtering cattle and poultry andcooking them;" making pottery, castingmetal, carrying their master's messages, of,with three harps and a drum, making musicwhile he ate. Thus, in the pyramid age,THE RISE OF MANthe first half of the third millennium beforeChrist, the Egyptian conceived his needs inthe hereafter as being purely physicalgratification. Alongside the case contain­ing these statuettes is a cedar coffin withraised lid bearing on the inside pictures ofthe food and drink which carryon the oldideas of the needs of man beyond the grave.But on the inside of the lid is a long writingCOntaining the earliest intimations thathappiness in the next world will be de­pendent on worthy moral conduct in thisWorld. There was a lapse of perhaps fivehundred years between the cemetery officialWho wanted merely food and drink in thenext world and the dead man who had hiscoffin so painted that as he lay in it andlooked up at the lid he would have staringhim in the face the new fact that he mightexpect felicity beyond only as he had liveda Worthy life here.Today you may walk between these twocases in the museum and standing there con­template the original evidences, the actual?riginal tokens of this supreme transitionIn the life of man in its rise from savageryto civilization: the first defeat of material­ism-the earliest dawn of conscience, thediscovery of character-the emergence ofsocial idealism. This tremendous tran­sition went on as a process entirely inde­Pendent of religion. It transformed re­ligion, however, for it brought f�rth for thefirst time a god of brotherly kindness.When men began to live as tillers of thesoil, the chief of their divinities was a god IIIof fertility; when the state arose with aking at its head and men caught their firstvision of a supreme personality, they calledtheir god a king. Finally, when society de­veloped and the friction and ferment ofsocial struggle had taught men kindness andforbearance, they discerned for the firsttime a god of character and of brotherlykindness, whom they called "the goodshepherd," two thousand years before theGood Shepherd of Christian faith. It wasthus from the richly colored palette ofhuman life itself that man drew the colorswith which he glorified his picture of hisgod. That splendid vision arose out of theearliest spiritual revolution. It was caughtup and exalted by the Hebrew prophets andthrough them has brought into our lives alight which still shines from the East. Thusat its culmination the evolution of manpassed to a higher level than that of merelybiological processes.I have given you some rapid glimpses ofa few of the new materials by which wehave begun to bridge the gap between theemergence of physical man and the rise ofEurope. It is by these researches that weare slowly creating what I have called theNew Past. They form a task which mustgo on for centuries, and as it proceeds nowand later, its results will disclose to us andto our posterity an ever clearer vision of thehighest process in the Universe, as far aswe know it today-the unfolding life ofman. It is to these purposes that we dedi­cate this building.MODEL OF THE STABLES OF SOLOMON, DISCOVERED BY MEGIDDOEXPEDITIONJulius Rosenwald1862-1932XTHODGH allover the worldmen are mourn­ing the loss of JuliusRosenwald, the alumniof the University of Chi­cago may well feel thatit is a very personal lossto them. For thirtyyears an interested andgenerous friend of theUniversity, he has beenone of the far-seeingbuilders of the institu­tion. He gave not onlywith splendid generosity,but with intelligent con­sideration of the needsof the University. Asa member of the Board of Trustees he wasa stimulating, capable and beloved fellow- worker. His interest inthe Alumni Associationin particular was demon­strated by his becomingan Endowment Membersome years ago. JuliusRosenwald never wishedhis philanthropies to bemonuments to himself.The buildings, scholar­ships, and funds whichhe established will notbe the chief things wewill remember abouthim. Rather he will beknown for his interestin and sympathy forhumanity, an interest sowide that it embracedall races and creeds, and a sympathy so deepthat it understood the needs of all.ROBERT MAYNARD HUTCHINS, presidentof the University of Chicago-Mr. Rosen­wald was one of the most active andgenerous members of the university's boardof trustees. This institution, like everyother with which Mr. Rosenwald was con­nected, will find it hard to do without hisimagination, loyalty, and common sense.HAROW H. SWIFT, '07, president of thehoard of trustees of the University ofChicago-UThe city of Chicago has lost itsoutstanding citizen. The trustees of theUniversity of Chicago mourn the loss ofhis genuine friendliness as well as his verywise counsel."DR. CHARLES W. GILKEY, dean of thechapel of the University of Chicaoo-»­"Lulius Rosenwald was widely regarded asthe foremost citizen of Chicago. This highestimate rested not only upon his wealth,his husiness genius or his generosity. It rested even more upon his ClVlC sense andpublic spirit."LEO F. WORMSER, 'os. J.D. '09, secre­tary of the Museum of Arts and Industry­"Lnstitutions which Julius Rosenwaldfounded and projects he supported throuah:out this country, and indeed the world, arehis everlasting monuments. To the welfareof mankind he gave his energy, time andfortune, but most of all he gave himself."VVILLIAM ]. BOGAN, '09, superintendentof schools-We have lost one of our greatestcitizens. Education was near his heart andhe was ever generous of wise and sympa:thetic counsel as well as of money.HENRY D. SULCER, 'o6j Chairman ofthe Alumni Council, "The Alumni Councilspeaks for the whole body of Alumni ofthe University in expressing its grief at thepassing of Julius Rosenwald. He was anactive, interested member of our Association,and a friend to many of us."T T?The Moulting SeasonBy GEORGE MORGENSTERN '29FROM his ivory tower, fronting inter­stellar space, Dr. Forest Ray Moul­ton has emerged to pitch a dead catat the new educational system.Some four years ago Dr. Moulton pluckedhis eye from the telescope long enough forhis head to quiet from its twenty-seven­year whirl with the stars. It was duringthis lull in the vast heave and pitch ofinfinity's eternal sea-sickness that Dr.Moulton came to his senses. He felt thecall of a higher mission. He would leavethe stars to stagger through their lonelycourses, alone.Thus he changed towers. We find himnow at 327 South La Salle street, an ad­dress seven miles distant from his old scho­lastic haunt, and, in implication, a millionrniles away. Dr. Moulton had become abusiness man-an executive of UtilitiesLight and Power Company,But Dr. Moulton has not only gone overto the utilities-he has gone over to utility.Recently he was appointed Director of Con­cessions and Admissions for the 1933"World's fair. The man who once walkedWith the stars will parcel out the patronageof peanots� popkern� chewn gum!Astronomers have long been' an unstablespecies. The starry Galileo recanted hisheresies (A.D. 1633), and the starry Moul-'ton has made no less a concession to the�ecular arm. He has forsworn his potter­�ngs in the void of infinite space; cleanedrom his feet the mud of what his fellow?rotagonist in the statement of the planetes- .unal hypothesis called the "cosmogonic fensand fogs." /,lIe has preserved his passion for con­�roversy. A debatable cause-any de­"Bable cause-is his proving ground.s . e Went on to meet the armed men, andhald among the trumpets, Ha-ha." Heas contributed essays on almost anyto .d,Plc that would provoke argument. Hislscussion of the new educational plan iso�IY one instance. It is typical that hes ould take up the cudgels for those of the younger generation who are exposed to thereorganization, for they have not the spirit,had they the impulse, to question the planfor themselves. To all his jousts, he bringsa penetrating viewpoint, an informed mind,an embarrassing perspicacity-"Keen as a razor,Tough as a strop,He could write like a foolAnd he knew when to stop:"* * *In his long preoccupation with lightyears, with vistas of such stark and magnifi­cent dimension as leaves the ordinary mindnumb and humble, Dr. Moulton un­doubtedly gained a peculiar serenity andsweetness. Star in the east, star in thewest, and all of them gathered within hisbreast. So foreign to his native bent arehis jibes at the average professor, the evilsof unlimited tenure, that one is forced intoa reluctant wonder whether he did notenter a criminal tongue-in-cheek compactwith the editor of this magazine.In his consideration of the reorganization,however, his attack is less against the planthan the professors. He looks on the uni­versity scene, not from his proper academictower, but from the tower on La Sallestreet. He reasons that, if there is a fal­lacy in the assumption that an untriedscheme will solve the problem of readjust-'ing old-line educational methods to currentneeds, there is a still worse fallacy in thebelief that incompetent and pretentious pro­fessors will prove adequate stewards in itsadministration. Dr. Mouiton judges the"average" faculty member harshly, apply­ing the tests of La Salle street. He asksto what, if any degree, a professor's aca­demic status and immunity qualify him toclaim he is a success in life.I t is his obvious feeling that the normalprofessor is a crackpot. He suggests that aslong as students are subjected to 1. Q. testsand comprehensive examinations, the Presi­dent and the members of the faculty receiveno better treatment. It would cause me noII3114 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE •grief to see President Hutchins sweatingthrough a comprehensive-but I doubt ifhe would. Anyone who has fallen under theinfluence of his after-dinner manner willshare this conviction.Through Dr. Moulton's discussion of"ability tests" runs a recurring theme. Hein�ists that these tests "can only show at themost a relationship between 1. Q. and theability to pass courses, rather than to achievesuccess in the world." Now, this is in keep­ing with the development we should expectin the La Salle street Moulton. He de­mands that the university and its processeshelp a young man to "amount to something"later. In this he reflects the traditionalthought of American business. It is thesame philosophy that aligned Dwight W.Morrow and the house of Morgan againstMeiklejohn's experiment at Amherst, andbrought about the defeat of that experiment.* * *But Dr. Moulton must learn that theAmerican college is not, in ideal conception,a business training school, but a cloister forthe spirit. It should have no practicalutility, and the work that its communitypursues should possess none. Most times,one is impelled to think, the work hasn't.Joseph Wood Krutch has made that evidentin his argument, The Disillusion with theLaboratory, where he points out thatscience, no matter what material advances ithas brought, has been powerless to bringpeace to the tortured soul.N ow, I shall concede that I am not de­fending the letter of the new educationalplan, but the motivation for the plan. ButDr. Moulton, despite his most recent title,will make few concessions, and less admis­sions. He will not even permit himself tocommend the intrepid idealism that is im­plied In the "new plan." If, as he claims,the President and the faculty have startedfrom a faulty blueprint, and made only in­adequate preparations, that will only add tothe epic of their accomplishment, should thereorganization succeed. It is a heroic handi­cap-as if Columbus had bored a holethrough the bottom of his flagship beforeventuring out to cross the unknown At­lantic. Possibly the President and his band aredreamers. As the business executive of theNew Yorker said in conference to hisheavy-jowled associates: "We have ideas.Possibly we tilt at windmills-just sevenDon Juans tilting at windmills."But Dr. Moulton refuses to admit thedaring of the dream. It is necessary to takehim up a rhetorical N ebo to show him thepromised land.* * *In the year 1775 the faculty of the Col­lege of William and Mary in Virginia de­livered the opinion:"The flourishing State of a College is notto be estimated by the Number of wild anduncultivated Minds which may be broughttogether by a Cheapness of Living, butpurely by the Number of competent Schol­ars and well-behaved Gentlemen which aresent out by a Seminary of Learning into thelarger Society."This was more than a commentary on asystem of education. Fateful and forebod­ing, it represented a criticism of the entireAmerican civilization that was to' arise.The faculty of the College of WilliaIlland Mary were evidently scholars andgentlemen. They expected their students toconstitute, with them, an aristocracy of tastein American life.* * * * *It is 157 years later. Mr. Hoover sitsin the White House-a noble experiment.Everv Americano has a colored bath tub.Col. "Lindbergh's baby is doing well, thankyou. Prosperity, never fear, will be withus on the lilting wind of Spring. In theland of the Pilgrims' Pride, there are morecollege graduates than Ford cars!And what colleges-what graduates!In this enlightened day,· a Schiffmann,from the West Side, can go to college tolearn the science of butchering and begraduated, doctor of pork packing; or aCabot, to drink and be a gentleman, andeventually get his degree of D.T.In the dark recesses of the laboratory,with fevered eye and tremulous hand, agnome in long white apron stares at a tinYretort. Who is this ?-some eager son oftrue science, finding that the thrill of pureTHE MOULTING SEASON 115experiment is its own reward? Ah, no:just the Talcum Powder Fellow, who.. ifhis test comes out right, gets a job at tengrand a year.In the hospital of a great university, abeam of white light cuts a dramatic stagein the evening dimness of the operatingroom. Hundreds of eager student- eyesgaze down from the cone-like tiers in thetheater as a man with strange, lost eyesis wheeled in.No tinselly pantomime here! A drama,with real life and death as pawns. Uponthe skilled hand of the great Dr. Hacksaw,Upon the precision of that subtle wrist inIhanipulating a keen, slim knife, dependsa human life. And where is the doctor?In a nearby alcove, with a check for$2,000 lying before him, the great mansits, and his subtle hand briskly writes:"I am happy to be the 2o,679th physicianto endorse Lucky Strike cigarettes. They'rekind to your throat."* * *Calvin Coolidge wrote the history of theUnited States in 200 words, but it can bedone more briefly than that:"Democracy and equal opportunitybrought prosperity; prosperity made itPossible for everyone to live comfortably;standardization made the articles of com­fort accessible; democracy, comfort, stand­ardization and prosperity corrupted the in­tegrity of a people."So it might be written.Matthew Josephson, following fromeffect to cause through the long sequenceUntil he arrives at a primary factor,says that in the defeat of American�ulture, it is ". . . with waning faithIn the goodness of man ( certainly, inthe mass);' that we turn to the belief that itWas the abundance of liberty, the universalequality of condition and motive, that mayhave been most fatal. The spirit of equalityled to a dreadful sameness of character."'Thus the national tragedy. An aristoc­racy of prosperous democracy could notfunction as an aristocracy of taste.* * *Inevitably, the colleges got dragged intothe general disintegration. At the' first, their function was, either toturn out clergymen and professional men,or to give the "gentleman's education" ofthe English university from which they de­rived. And the theory of a gentleman's edu­cation made it the sporting thing to learn,so that even if the student of the early periodhad not mirrored the stark and purposefulspirit of the times, he would still havelearned.The corruption of higher education wasaccomplished in two waves of invasion thatcovered over the old cultural function of thecollege.When prosperity started becoming gen­eral, the first of the rising classes able to sendthe boy to college-and the girl, too, whenthat became well bred and permissible­were, naturally, the people of better blood,the older families of modest rank in theearlier communities, who, with time, haddeveloped into the backbone of thenation.The students who came from this back­ground accepted college with the apologetic­jocular tone arising from a conviction thatintellectual enthusiasms were socially notgood form. The college met them half-wayby establishing arbitrary standards to meas­ure academic progress. So the hall of learn­ing was turned into a sanitarium where thebrain could be given a rest cure.The second invasion followed when itbecame apparent that America's materialgenius couldn't help making everyone pros­perous. The loan shark, the Sicilian in theditch, the poor white, all sent their boysto college-indeed, to Harvard.And because this new type of studentcame from a heritage of poverty and repres­sion, he appreciated his opportunity more,he demanded more of college-and he com­pleted its wreck. For, in his eagerness toretain his social advances, he asked, not thatcollege should be a cultural experience, butthat it should fit him for a material career.I t is because of him that the commerceschool was added to the university, and ad­vertising put in the curriculum besideChaucer. He helped commercialize the col­lege and make it an intellectual Piggly­Wiggly.II6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESo the college has come down to us. Itsconfusion as to function is rivaled only bythe student's confusion in objective.Mass education is not a curse just becauseit is mass education, but because it giveseverybody the same thing. It cannot par­ticularize as to individuals. So it does itsbest-makes rough classifications of thegeneral run of students and diffuses whereit should concentrate by setting up the vari­ous "schools": commerce, for the aspirantcaptain of industry; education, to qualifythe intellectual incompetent to spread moredarkness; liberal arts, for the do-nothing ladand the girl who comes to college to gether man.The curriculum is a fearful and wonder­ful mixture of obsolescence and experimentalmodernity. Still modeled on the forms ofthe past, when the fact of college attendancewas a social distinction, the university offersLatin and Greek to the Schiffmann whowould pack pork, and the Kelly, who wouldclutch jurisprudence to his soul. And, at thesame time, it can hazard the hope of findingthe solution of its problems in television anda campus air field, which President WalterDill Scott soberly proposes to use in baitingthe hook for Northwestern University.* * *Although the long savannah of Americaneducation is desolate enough to the out­ward eye, it is in this very barrenness thatthe main hope for recrudescence lies. Forthe failure has become so patent that thecries of the college for new organization,new purpose and new life can no longer bestifled.President Max Mason in 1926 took cog­nizance of the fact that the situation wasnot ideal. "The difference between whatstudents are getting out of college and whatthey might get out of it," he said, "would bea factor of about 100. Our goal will bereached when the intellectual work of thecollege becomes a student activity."N ow, under 32-year-old Robert MaynardHutchins, Chicago has taken the lead in re­vising the system. Taking as precept Lao­Tse's remark that "We keep only that weset free," the university has ordered aboli- tion of the four-year system, of classroomsand formal study. It has placed the studenton his own responsibility to work as he will.The new experiment recognizes the limi­tations of the "gentleman's interest," pro­viding especially for the student floater withno special purpose in college. I t will givehim an honorable discharge at the end oftwo years, if he is entitled to it. It will savehim time and give him a better education,considering his needs and capabilities, thanhe now gets in four years. Anyone con­tinuing after the two-year division is con­sidered a serious scholar-a candidate for anadvanced degree, with the purpose of be­coming an expert and a leader in his field.This system is not a panacea for theAmerican problem in education, for thereare no panaceas. But it is an effort towarda workable rehabilitation. It invites thestudent to participate in his own education.Fewer and better graduates will result.Such a system discourages that "democracy"which has become, with the wholesale dis­semination of college degrees, simply an in­tellectual trade unionism.* * *Present-day iconoclasm does not restrictits promise to education alone. For, those inthe coming years who pursue self-floweringin an atmosphere of freedom may rise toform again an aristocracy of taste in Ameri­can life, and to challenge the bases of a de­fective civilization.When Alexander Meiklejohn's. experi­ment in creative idealism failed at Amherstin 1923, Lucian Price, expressing the im­plications of the situation in his ProphetsU nauiares, pictured this possibility:"Suppose an education experiment travelsso far on its errand of truth-seeking as tobecome, for the minds of scores of youngmen, an exposure of our existing socialsystem, and an exposure so thorough thatthey begin to arrive, like Jesus, at the con­demnation both of our civilization and of themen who made it."Suppose that, and magnify the possibilitiesby thousands of such a crusade of the mind.What then? Simply that America may dis­cover truth and, so, be remade.News from the Hermit-By BURTON RASCOEPREPOSTEROUS as it may seem tosome people, Will Cuppy (the authorof "How to Be a Hermit" and, morerecently, "How to Tell Your Friends Fromthe Apes") actually exists in the flesh. At . fl�I e too much flesh, he would say, becausehI� weight worries him (but don't sympa­thIze with him on that account: nearlyeverything worries him from the haircutsth: barbers give him to the styles of punctu­atIon in force on different magazines).I emphasize the point of his actual exis­tence because there was a time when I wasPaid the high compliment of being accusedof Using the name Will Cuppy as a pseu­donym and of creating the character of aWriting hermit to carry out the imposition,and more lately he has been rumored to bea figment of Isabel Paterson's imagination.th �or some people who are too skeptical forelr own good, my report of a VISIt toW�ll's shack on Jones's Island and my de­SCfIption of Will's hermit life seemed toornuch to swallow. The stuff appearingunder Cuppy's name was so utterly unlike�nything that anybody else ever wrote thatIt Was convenient for them to assume thatwmebody else besides Cuppy wrote it.hy? Don't ask me. And Will's spon­taneous quips, as reported by Mrs. Paterson,sounded too much like those afterthoughtswho hIC occur only, if at all, on the way home,�o be quite credible. Some people find itIrnpossible to believe that anybody is natu­rally wittv and clever in conversation. TheW' .th eIght of common experience tends to hearhem out'l But to encounter Will Cuppy'surn . .B or IS a most uncommon experience.e Was born in Hicksville, Ohio. (I'mnot k'dd') .1 mg you. Whether hIS name ap-P:ars as Will in the record of births, mar­rIages and deaths in the Cuppy family BibleOr •W. IS a form which Cuppy preferred toIlliam as he grew up, I don't know. I�uspect that he was born William and thate probably had' a middle name too. Thereare few who can resist tinkering in adoles­'life OUriesy of the New York Sun cence with the names our parents pin on us(my father was christened Marquis deLafayette Rascoe, which he rapidly al­tered to Matthew L. and so became knownas Fate). Having once established hisname in print as Will, it is probable thatCuppy never dared risk the consequencesof changing it again.He early established his name in print, forhe was a child prodigy. He entered the Uni­versitv of Chicago in knee pants, startled thefaculty by his brilliance and turned out, inshort order, a book of stories reflecting thelife, the mores, the traditions and the spiritof the university, called "Maroon Tales."I t was published by the University of Chi­cago Press, and when I went to the univer­sity it was prominently displayed by thecampus bookstore. Probably still is. Some­thing (not somebody, something) told methen not to read those tales lest I jump towrong conclusions and leave school imme­diately. I have never read them.He was so young when he graduated thathe decided to stay on for a while to acquiresome maturity as well as learning. All inall he stayed there twelve years, acquiringdegrees' of various sorts, writing Blackfriarshows and acting as campus correspondentfor the Chicago Herald. When I went thereand got the job as correspondent for theTribune he was already dean of the campuscorrespondents. And being dean he hadworked up a soft snap for himself. It was aplan to chase the legs off the rest of us cor­respondents and then for us to divvy withhim on the news we got. Engaged in re­search in early English drama, he sat in thelibrary all day reading "Gammer Gurton'sNeedle" and things like that while wescurried around for news and then at 5o'clock he met us in the Reynolds club andshared the news with us. I got tired of thisafter a while and began scooping the pantsoff him.We remained friends, but it meant thathe had to go to work, so he decided to give117liS THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEup college, go East and write the GreatAmerican Drama. He had a small allow­ance from his mother and on this he couldget along, especially since he had a richfriend, just his size, who gave him cast-offclothing. How far he has ever got alongwith that Great American Drama nobodyexcept him knows. The only visible evi­dence I ever had of it was the sight of hun­dreds of little library catalogue cards stuckaround on the walls of his shack, with partsof scenes, bits of dialogue and memorandawritten on them.The first I heard of him after he leftChicago was when I got a letter from himafter I became literary editor of the NewYork Tribune. I t was a very droll letter,largely concerned with "Chrome Yellow."I printed it and wrote urging him to dosome book reviews for me. It took a greatdeal of urging to get him started and reallyterrific amount of urging to keep him goingonce he got started. He has to be pamperedand encouraged and told he is good everyminute or he will think you consider hisstuff is too rotten to print.He used to bring in his copy sometimeswhen I was very busy and lay it on my desk.Usually I would grab it eagerly and beginreading it as a welcome relief from what­ever else I was doing, sure of some chucklesof amusement. He always expected me toread his stuff immediately, to chuckle ap­preciatively, pat him on the back and tellhim it was fine. Occasionally I was toorushed to do this. Then (as I learned later)he would go out into the other room whereIsabel Paterson was and sink into a chair utterly dejected. He would say to her,"Burton doesn't like my reviews any more.I don't think he is going to print any moreof them. Is my stuff that bad?"Mrs. Paterson would reassure him, com­pliment him on his last printed piece, spurhim on. The job of encouraging Cuppygot to be too much for me. Mrs. Patersonand Florence Brobeck took it on. MissBrobeck got him to write some cookeryarticles and by working with Mrs. Patersonmight and main to keep him going therewas finally evolved the series which largelygo to make up "How to Be a Hermit."Mrs. Paterson certainly deserves having hislatest book dedicated to her; she had togive up writing her own books to see thatthe pieces composing it finally got written.I don't believe for an instant that hethinks his stuff is bad. I believe he knowsthat he is what he is, one of the wittiestof all writers, a humorist who uses none ofthe stock laugh-provoking devices but saysfunny and illuminating things in an un­expected manner. It is not that he needsencouragement, really: he is just lazy. Byreducing his material needs to a minimumhe has to work very little to make enough tolive on. If he gets mass encouragementthrough his books becoming very popular,he may alter his mode of living and so make. it necessary to do more writing or he maygo back to writing the Great AmericanDrama.At all events, meanwhile, "How to TellYour Friends From the Apes" is a reallywitty book. It is good fun.By HERBERT M. PHILLIPS, '31BumsSPRING, witnessed indoors, on hardchairs and high stools,-massive scien­tific books,-warm lecture ro'Oms,­laboratory rooms reeking with the smartingv�pors of formaldehyde and containing spe­ClInens long since dead,-white faced stu­dents bent over "dry rot," quizzes,-exams,-and term papers,-none of these are inte­gral· parts in the everyday experience ofburns, tramps and hoboes.Needing a vacation and with a sociologi­cal inclination and a latent adolescent de­sire to try my wings in an unconventionalrealm, I left my secure home immediately�te.r receiving my B.S. sheepskin from theDIversity of Chicago, without money 'Ormeans, determined to expose myself to the�un and fears enjoyed by the AmericanUrn.. My direction was westward. By the�lrne I rolled into Salt Lake City my wingsad been much tried. I had learned to fearand avoid the "cops," both the "townclowns" as the city police are called, and�,he gorillas in the freight yards calledbulls," I had outworn the painful modestyt�at accompanied my first "mooching" (beg­�l�g) enterprises; "stemming" (panhan­hng) had become easier and I had accus­��rned myself to the discomforts of "two­It flops" and sleeping in "empties" (box�ars) and smelly jails. I had quickly cal-oused over the soft SP'Ots, left tender bymy home and school environment. I wasan "ex-white-collared, hothouse plant,"roughly equipped for the worst.f As Jungles (hobo camps) go-I knowrom using many-those around the gen­�rous comrilUnity of Salt Lake City werefetter than the average. Among these myavo rite was a mile and a half west of;?wn near the Gas Works. Water trick-ln� from the 'Open end of a small pipePrOjecting from one side 'Of the Gas House�as used for drinking purposes and wast Ought by some to be clean,-this appealedo me. Then, too, transportation was nol;0?lern. The Western Pacific and thenlon Pacific tracks running parallel, about a city block apart, cross a little drainagestream here and the Jungle is convenientlysituated on the west bank between the twotracks. The brutal efficiency of the U.P. bulls made that line useless to the hoboes,but the Western Pacific is. known as a safeand easy line to ride and every freight pass­ing either brings from ten to sixty stiffsinto the Jungle or, when west-bound, takesa similar number out. A nearby dangerouscrossing makes it necessary for all trainsto stop, which adds to the convenience ofthe camp.While the Jungle is not picturesque,neither is it painfully plain. Midway be­tween the two tracks there is a small areain the abundant tall grasses and weeds onthe bank of the stream that has been tram­pled into a semicircular clearing. A smallfire burns in the center twenty-four hoursa day and almost constantly is heating alarge rusty pot of coffee. The camp isconsidered very well stocked, for scatteredaround on the ground in abundance are dis­carded pots and pans and tin cans of allsizes. Most are in a fairly early stateof decay. Although in many ways thisJungle was better than most, it was justaverage in respect to plumbing-there wasnone.Because of its many advantages, my fa­vorite Jungle was very popular and some­one could be found there any hour duringthe day. During the light hours men couldbe seen "crumbing up" (process of washingand destroying biology in clothing). Theystir their clothes in a large can of boilingwater on the fire and later they wash themwith soap. They are then spread out on thetall grass and dried in the sun while theunclad owners bathe in the stream. Otherhoboes stay in camp only long enough to"jungle up" (washing and shaving). Thisis a process painful to watch, and worse totry. One must follow the course of therazor as it scrapes over the face in a smallpiece of a mirror found lying on the ground.The water used is heated in a tin can, andlather obtained from any soap available.II9120 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHIC.�GO MAGAZINEBathing, washing clothes and "jungling up"usually take place in preparation for a visitto. the city where the men hunt jobs, mooch,stem, Dr steal. .I spent Dne eventful evening in my fa­vorite Jungle, - when the thirty men thatgathered in the camp to. wait for the west­bound manifest' freight got in on a swellfeed. Two. strictly professional bees, Texand Slim, came back from their bummingtrip to. the city with four tall paper bagsfilled with the raw materials for the eve­ning feast. The bags were turned Dverto. Dad, a sixty year old hobo, who. CDm­menced immediately to. prepare the meatends contributed by town butchers and thevegetables given by grocers, He took a greatdeal of pride in his work and by skilfullyseasoning and mixing he combined the unat­tractive food elements into. a palatable "mul­ligan stew." The bakery goods that gavethe meal balance were left-overs freelycontributed by the town bakers.In anticipation of the corning meal, withits tantalizing odor, each hobo huntedaround the Jungle for a suitable plate.TDps of cans and- discarded pie tins wereabundant enough to' supply the demand.Cans served as coffee cups, and every goodbum carries his own spoon, to. meet justsuch occasiDns as this. When, with greatpride, Dad lifted his masterpiece from thecenter of the fire into. the red hot coals atthe edge and said "come and get it," wewere ready and waiting. One by one wefiled up and piled the stew on our make­shift plates, helped ourselves to. bakerygoods, and finally to. strong black "Java"from the coffee PDt. Each sat or laypropped on Dne elbow levelling DUt individ­ual piles of stew in silence. There werethirty-three eating. There was no. one noteating.The sun had set Dn the Great Salt LakeDesert by the time we finished devouringthe stew, and chilly breezes quickly cooledthe night air and kept everyone sittingwithin the small circle warmed by the fire.In the unsteady light of the flames, ourJungle clearing, bordered on three sides bytall grasses and weeds and on the fourthby the stream, might have been mistaken for a CDZY camp and the men vacationingcampers.Studying the faces encircling the brightfire, revealed the chief characteristics es­sential to. a successful hobo, They must"bum" their subsistence from absolutestrangers. Therefore, while begging Drstemming one must be, to' inspire sympathy,first of all, clean in appearance, and therecan be nothing that would tend to. frightenthe "customers," such as tough IDDks Drspeech Dr an unsightly skin disease on theface. Being a member of a colored race Drhaving a conspicuous foreign accent are usu­ally lethal hindrances to' hobo life. Asmooth line of talk, effectively dramatized,makes one seem deserving. It is all impor­tant to' be able to' appear deserving, notonly to' overcorne begging resistance, but fre­quently to' convince unfriendly "bulls."All of the men in the jungles around melooked deserving, and most of them reallywere.The jungle crowd I was in was typical in .every way. Most of the hoboes were vic­tims of the recent unemployment epidemic.After being laid off and failing to' find wDrkin the horne town, and being equipped tomake a go. of bumming, they had left theunhappy scene of their unemployment toIDDk for work elsewhere. Most were onthe bum for the first time in their lives.These floaters earnestly looked for wDrkeverywhere they went. Some around mewere bound for the west coast hoping toget work picking fruit Dr a job in a can­nery, others were headed for Las Vegashoping to. work on the Hoover Dam. Stillothers were going to. Reno.Some of the men, and especially those withdependents, were so desperate and bitterfrom prolonged unemployment that they ad­mitted that they had and would in the fu­ture "roll" (steal from ) men every timethey could find a safe opportunity, SDmewere despondent and tried to' forget bydrinking denatured alcohol and cannedheat (Sterno. melted and strained thrDUg?a handkerchief.) These are called "de raIlstiffs." Others used dope to' get solace. .Allfound the life they had to. lead increasinglydistasteful and they despised the methDdsby which they lived. "Good God, I can'tgo home like this" was the invariable re­sponse when one was asked why he did notreturn to the town where he was knownto get help.Another current type of hobo, numeri­cally less important than the floating un­employed, are men who have refused towork for reduced wages and who havevoluntarily given up their jobs. Most ofthese men are very well equipped to exploitthe charity and generosity of people. They�hose to live as vagrants and hoboes off thefat of the land rather than sell their servicesat. "starvation wages." They will conde­scend to work for their accustomed "Pros­perity wages" but nothing less will do.They are the men who have for the most.Part no serious anchorage. Many of themhave small incomes from a war pension ora savings account. Some even own realestate in small amounts.Picturesque and harmless is the old fash­ioned "professional hobo." We had onlythree-Tex, Slim and Dad-in our Jungles.These men make an art of bumming. Asa type they have been enjoying a period ofprosperity ever since the depression gavethem an excuse to be unemployed. Dad ex­plained that nowadays people seldom injurehis professional pride by offering him work.These bums are excellent story-tellers as arule and enjoy telling of how they fooled the�ulIs, and of people they met and pals theyad had. No respect was given to truth.Most of them justify their hoboing with anelaborate philosophy and use distinctiveterms todo so. This type seems happy andare all harmless.h Other miscellaneous types are found ont e road. Runaway boys, often hoboes inthe making, and men and boys just usingt�e hobo methods of travel also frequentt e jungles in varying numbers. We hadtwo runaway boys, one ordinary traveler,and a man and his wife. We had one quitebare specimen in our Jungle that could noti Placed legitimately in any of the aboveh assifications. He was a short, stubby, red­Waded Jewish communist just out of theI orker's College in New York. He trav­e ed all over the country as a "floatingBUMS 121unemployed" and talked communism every­where he went. In the jungles he assumedan attitude of superiority as he argued withanyone and everyone, and in both fiery andflowery language insulted and damned allthings and people not connected with hiscause. His clothes and body were by far thedirtiest present. He was filthy. He soontired the patience of every. bo in the Jungleby his intolerable attempts at domination.Several large men threatened him with a"soak on the kisser" if he "didn't pipedown."Before the boy would-be-leader wasmuzzled he had brought up such topics as"Our depression and its causes," "The pos­sibilities of an American Revolution,""Russia's plan," "Religion," "Charity"and "Dole." A discussion started in whicheveryone participated. Most men wantednothing more than the return of prosperityso that work would be available. It was,however, partially agreed that the "bigshots" were doing nothing to bring back"good times." It was thought by mostthat sooner or later there would have tobe an American Revolution, but what itwould be fought for and what the resultswould be, varied with the individual talk­ing. From the arguments given as to thecauses I gathered that our depression is theresult of over-production, Hoover's un­scrupulous management, of the fact thathistory repeats itself and goes in cycles,capitalism, etc.The consensus of opinion was that theRussian Soviet System would never work."The Russians are ignorant and much worseoff than we are." Not much was thoughtof my idea that perhaps many of Russia'stroubles are necessary evils inherent in thetransition and not integral parts of thedynamic plan.As to religion there was little orthodoxyin the crowd, although neither was cold­blooded atheism represented. It was agreedthat "there must be something to explaineverything" and "somebody had to startthings going." The "after-world" theorydidn't bother anybody that expressed him­self, although a young, handsome Italiannicknamed "Italy" remained silent. What.122 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEwas actually said of charity and dole couldnot be printed. The Salvation Army, calledin the jungles the Starvation Army, wasreviled in strong language. One bo quotedsome popular writer as saying that over ayear's time there was barely enough leftby the charity grafters to buy one ham sand­wich for the poor. Many present thoughtthat even this estimate of the amount ofgood done was too generous.All evening freight trains had come andgone on the Union Pacific tracks but theywere all conspicuously free from hoboes.The "bulls" were too tough on that line.The attitude of the Western Pacific "bulls"and "hreakies" was one of indifference andall jungle trading was done exclusively withthis line. The first train that carne inon the Western Pacific tracks from theWest brought in about forty hoboes. Theyswarmed into the Jungle and our discussioncircle disbanded.Not long afterwards the east-boundfreight passed through the "high-ball"(starting whistle) of the west-bound couldbe heard in the freight yard a mile away.Men could be seen slowly getting ontotheir feet and stretching. Each went tothe Gas House to "tank up" on water.Then a general silent migration towardthe Western Pacific tracks started. Therewas no farewell hand-shaking and fewgood-byes were heard. One of the run­away boys on his way passed me and Isaw in the firelight his lips were swollenand bunched. I said, "What happened toyour kisser, lad?" "Don't know; musthave drank from a bum can," he answered.He disappeared through the weeds in thedarkness. The long manifest came to astop, sounded its "highball" and slowlystarted again. Many dark figures couldbe seen opening box car doors and then scrambling aboard. I heard Dad say,professionally, "Some of those blokes aresure clumsy."The crowd left in the Jungle was dwin­dling. Men were going to the City to huntup a flop. Only Dad, Tex and Slim sleptin the camp. I, too, left for town with sixother hobo stiffs. Our course passedthrough a small red-light district and oneof our group bummed a place to flop froma girl who had a vacant room. One of theremaining five boes said he knew wherethere was an empty shack. Four went withhim and the other came with me to a "two­bit flop house." When the old proprietorof the joint showed us our accommodations,hoping to get something better I said, "thosebeds are pretty dirty ain't they, Pop?"He responded angrily, "Here is your twobits-now beat it." I talked him into lettingme stay and found out that I had made aderogatory remark about his best room andbeds. After removing our shoes andstretching out on separate beds, sleep carneswiftly. I was not bothered by so much asa single crumb (bed bug) although my tem­porary roommate twitched and scratchedsuspiciously.The exotic adventures of research, thethrill of confirming newly discovered facts,the romance of knowing worlds of micro'scopic life, the fun of reading modern theoryunderstandingly, knowing and workingwith intellectual leaders, having the abilitfand technique to enjoy creative service­none of these experiences are integral partsin the everyday experiences of the bums,tramps and hoboes. I know. My wingshave been tried, my latent adolescent curi­osity has been satisfied and I. am now pre­paring for a brand new romance and adven­ture at the Northwestern UniversityDental School.• • •.In lilY 01l1lJIOn·By FRED B. MILLETTAssistant Professor of EnglishTo ONE bred in the ways of thecountry but oppressed by its limita­tions, the modern city has thepersistent lure of EI Dorado or the lostA.tlantis. For it offers him, or in prospectSeems to offer him, all that the ancient cul­ture of rurality obviously lacks. If literary­lllinded, he thinks of Cosmopolis as the homeof his favorite modern authors, the kindlylllilieu of the witty and emancipated. Therehe envisions forbidding offices of famousPublishers, bookshops bulging with treas­Ures, new and old, and the world's booksand magazines scattered wide for his eagerContemplation. In the haven of free li­braries, he sees himself demanding and re­ceiVing at will, the cherished riches that thei?verty-ridden and ignorance-smitten villageIbrary could not bring him. International�hops, known only by occasional glimpsesInto smart magazines, he now visits in per­�on, though his experience at purchasing may� merely vicarious. His imperfect contactWIth drama and the arts now yields to their�ct�al presence: Bernhardt and Duse, thef rvmgs and the Barrymores now stalk be-Ore him, and the enticement of printedrossip wanes before the infectious glow of�otlights and quickening excitement beforet e unraised curtain.b A.nd, as, the refugee from the country. ecomes anurbanite, for a time he growsIn self-importance as he identifies himselfsub-consciously with the physical vastness�� psychological complexity of the city.h e audacious towers, the florid opera-oUse, the lavish shops, the magnificent con­\7eYances rolling through parks and boule­h�rds are in a measure his, and despiteI� pinchbeck habitation, his grubby8d� ary, his attitude toward Cosmopolis is1St'Inctly proprietary. He casts off pro- vinciality, and becomes a boulevardier, eventhough the boutonniere is artificial.More seriously, he comes to prize urbanexistence as a laboratory for social andethical experimentation. Here his contactsare no longer limited by the invisible bondsof rural clans where everybody is somebodyelse's cousin, and members of an alien sectare not merely odd but slightly unclean.Here one is estimated in terms of his owngifts and talents, and not in the shadowof serried generations of inherited respect­abiiities. So far as he knows, none of hisassociates have grandparents, or, if theyhave, they are buried, alive or dead, in Iowaor Tennessee. Here there is no compulsionto preserve civilities on no stronger groundthan blood-relationship; the urbanite canpick and choose, cherish or discard, cultivateor ignore, without the charge of being un­social or uncivil.Moreover, the refugee from rurality soondiscovers that his ethical and philosophicalbonds are loosed. No longer is he restrictedto the weltanschauung of one or the otherof the churches at the four corners. He maybelieve anything he pleases so long as hebelieves nothing fanatically. And even ifhe is a fanatic, he can with a little searching,find coteries of like-minded souls who agreewith him that anyone who has a million iseternally damned or that one who preferschampagne to sauerkraut juice is perma­nently lost to grace. He finds the envelop­ing anonymity of urban life an immenserelief to the microscopic curiosity of thevillage drug-store; unobserved among themillions, he can conduct his philosophicaland social experiments, with no enemy savethe policeman and the reporter.But to the true-bred countryman, themodern city is as monstrous as it is fascinat-123124 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEing. On the merely sensory level, it ishideous and destructive. The melancholycroaking of frogs, the wind entangled in elmbranches, and the shuffle of dead leavesgive way to the matutinal clatter of ash­cans, the grinding whine of the elevated; themonotonous burr of motors, the poundingvibration of trucks, and the noisy breathingof the beast that lurks at the heart of thecity's maze. The jangling telephone, whichin the country is a welcome index of hisneighbor's curiosity or kindliness now inter­rupts his most private thoughts, his mostintimate acts, and nine times out of ten in­troduces a dreaded obligation, an undesiredpersonality. And even though he wouldcreate an aura of quietude about himself,his neighbors worship silence with less pas­sion. Through the thin walls, over hishead, beneath his restless feet, their noisylives go on, their noisy tastes beset him. Ifhe yearns for Toscanini, they pine forOrphan Annie. Nameless and transitoryas are his neighbors, he shares their quarrelsand their revels. Unwillingly he learnstheir hygienic habits and the scent of theirracial foods. With bedizened and unlovedcompanions, the elevator hourly maroonshim.And, though Cosmopolis offers him end­less enticements to pleasure and stimulation,he learns all too soon the embarrassmentof riches. If he yields to the constant temp­tation to frequent shows and movies, lecturesand parties, he pays the price by. sacrificingconsecutive thought, repose, and uninter­rupted achievement. Beneath the constantstimulation of nerves and senses, there isa growing awareness of alienation fromreality, of severance from the earth-boundroots of tradition and custom. His initialelation at his share in the city's immensityand abundance is lost in the acute conscious­ness of his own puniness and unimpor­tance. Before the callous impersonality ofurbanity, he is helpless and insignificant. Inan unfriendly and unfeeling world, he isalone. In a personal crisis, he can not counton the ancient loyalty of the family and theclan; at the worst, he must accept thecharity that does not begin at home. Themeaningless repetitions in urban existencebecome hideous and nightmarish: at night,dreams harry him through thousands ofindistinguishable kitchenettes, g rub byporches, over-stuffed suites, and rounds ofhaphazard and meaningless hospitalities.The shattering rituals of birth and love anddeath become dull contributions to vitalstatistics, and his experimentations with lifefacts in a sordid case-history.But fortunately there are ways of escapefrom this inevitable depression and devital:ization, even for persons like street-cleanersand professors whose livelihoods look sillyand suspect against the reality of thecountryside. Anteeus-like, the urbanite can,if he will, re-visit the unhygienic healthinessof rurality. If not thoroughly debauchedby urbanity, he can find himself again a partof clan and community; he can escape frorllsensationalism into solitude, and there culti­vate his not utterly abandoned soul. Eve!!if sentenced for life to the urban prison, hecan train himself to ignore the iron bars.With courage and patience, he can become anon-participant in its fads and follies. Evenmore, he may become a quietly defiant re­jector of its absurd over-valuation of money,things, sensations, and possessions. In acommunity devoted to possessions and thestimulation of the nerve-ends, he may, ifhe seeks diligently, find creative solitude andmeaningful individualism. At the least, hecan anticipate a grave on a far hill-side andquiet undisturbed save by the wind en­tangled in the elm branches, and the shufIleof dead leaves stirred by the feet of one whOwalks alone.Opportunities. in BusinessWelcome words in these days to anyone, and twice welcome to the under­graduate about to step out in the <world, because they assure him that the alumniof his University are ready to back him up and help him get a start. ((Oppor­tunities in Business" is the name of the course of lectures that is being givenby alumni for undergraduates this <winter. The Committee on 17 ocational Guidanceof the Alumni Council has <worked out the program in collaboration <with theUniversity's Board of 17 ocatlonal Guidance and Placement, under the directionof Mr. Robert C. Woellner. Mr. Bertholf M. Pettit is chairman of the Committee­from the Alumni Council. These lectures are given on Wednesday afternoons,at 3:30, in Room I08, Haskell Hall. There is no admission fee, and the alumniare all giving their time to this most practical effort to help the undergraduates.It is significant that the alumni are taking this interest in the ((younger brothersand sisters of the family," and that their interest is taking such a practical turn.T'he alumni are in a peculiarly advantageous position, and can do more to helpthe newly graduated senior than can any other group.OPPORTUNITIES IN BUSINESSWEDNESDAYS-,WINTER QUARTER3 :30, Room 108, Haskell Hall6 Marshall E. Sampsell Public UtilitiesPresident, Central IllinoisPublic Service Co.January I3 Sam A. RothermelMoore, Case, Lyman & Hub­bardJanuary 20 James O. McKinseyJames O. McKinsey & Com­panyJanuary 27 Hays MacFarlandHays MacFarland & Com­panyFebruary 3 Paul G. HoffmanVice-President & GeneralSales Mgr., Studebaker Cor-porationFebruary IO George R. SchaefferA doertislna Manager, M ar­shall Field and CompanyFebruary I7 Miss Helen NorrisDean of Women, Common­wealth Edison CompanyFebruary 24 James H. GreenePersonnel Director, Stude­baker Corporation2 Dunlap Clark Commercial BankingAssistant Cashier, ContinentalIllinois Bank & Trust Co.9 E. H. PoscellTreasurer and Secretary,Sears, Roebuck and CompanyOPPORTUNITIES IN THE PROFESSIONSTHURSDAYS 3 :3o-WINTER QUARTERDean Shailer M atheuis DivinityDivinity SchoolProfessor William S. Gray EducationSchool of EducationJanuaryInsuranceAccountingAdvertising ( AdvertisingAgency Standpoint)Sales ManagementAdvertising (AdvertisingManager's Standpoint)PersonnelIndustrial RelationsMarchMarch Chain StoresFebru�ry. 4I06 S<wift HallFebruary III26 Graduate EducationBuildingFebruary I8IIo Cobb HallFebruary 25North Room,Lasu SchoolMarch 3Pathology Professor Edith Abbott Social Service Adminis­trationLas»Mr. Leo WormserRosenthal, HamillWormserDr. James B. Herrick Medicine125tEbe \Hniberl1itp of <!bicago jMaga?ineEditor and Business Manager, CHARLTON T. BECK '04Cobb Hall, University of ChicagoEDITORIAL BOARD: Commerce and Administration Association-RoLLIN D. HE­MENS, '21; Divinity Association-C. T. HOLMAN, D.B., '16; Doctors' Association-D. J.FISHER, '17, Ph.D., '22; Law Association-CHARLES F. McELROY, A.M., '06, J. D., 'IS;School of Education Association-LILLIAN STEVENSON, '21; Rush Medical Association­MORRIS FISHBEIN, 'II, M.D., '12; College-RoLAND F. HOLLOWAY, '20; ALLEN HEALD,'26; WM. V. MORGENSTERN '20, J.D., '22; Faculty-FRED B. MILLETT, Department ofEnglish.DONALD P. BEAN, '17, ChairmanNE"WS OF THEQUADRANGLESBy JOHN P. HOWE, '27A GOOD many thousand years ago­it's hard to determine the exact dayit happened-there occurred a highlyinsignificant collision between two atoms.Insignificant so far as today's roundof living is concerned. The exact place atwhich this little cataclysm occurred is evenharder to spot with a positive finger than isthe time. Probably it was not on this earthat all, probably not within the sphere of oursolar system, probably not within the mani­fold of stars we call the Milky Way. Morelikely the collision occurred somewhere outbetween the greater systems of heavenlybodies, in intergalactic space.But whenever and wherever the paths ofthose desolate atoms crossed, collide theydid, and great was the havoc wrought uponthe configuration of the electrons withinthem. So great that at this moment the re­verberations of it are passing through you,wherever you are.This month I propose to discuss cos­mic rays-one of the most interestingresearch problems we have here on theUniversity campus, and one of the mostdifficult to explain.Coming out of the dark regions be­tween the stars, these cosmic rays have been pelting you for a long time-and I thinkyou ought to be introduced to them. 1suspect that your great-grandchildren willhear a great deal about them. I should evellventure to speculate that because of thestudies on cosmic rays now beginningthroughout the world your great-grand'children will all be unemployed. But moreof that later.In themselves the cosmic rays are inno'cent enough. They spattered both of tlSat breakfast this morning and they've beellraining down on this world-and presuItl'ably all other worlds-for many millions �iyears. We just didn't know about it untlfa few years ago. For that matter all 0us are targets for all sorts of rays, withol.ltbeing disturbed about it. Indoors we havethe two extremes in rays passing throughus-the long, slowly undulating radio raYs,and the short, sharply vibrating cosmic raYs.And in the middle ground between theSetwo types we have light rays, which forsome reason are the only forms of radiaotenergy we can detect with our eyes, bounc'ing off us but not going through. 01.l�doors we are the targets, also of infra�rerays and radiant heat rays, which are longerthan those in the visible range; and of the126NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLESUltra-violet rays, which are shorter. Thatleaves X-rays, which are still shorter, andgamma rays, which are shorter still, and wehave covered the known brands of radiantenergy-leaving, of course, quite a few gaps.But getting back to those two atomswhich collided out beyond the farthest hori­Zons so many years ago. Roughly-veryroughly-this is what may have happened.Suppose the atoms are both hydrogen-thesimplest of the elements. Hydrogen atoms,at their simplest, have a single nucleus withOne positive electrical charge on it and one?egative electron swishing around it, keep­Ing it balanced. The next simplest of theelements, helium, has a nucleus with twoP.ositive charges and has two balancing nega­tIve electrons, which makes helium twice ascomplex as hydrogen. So far, so good. Ourtwo hydrogen atoms, then, collide and�oalesce into a single helium atom, accord­�ng to the well-known law that one plus oneIS equal to two.Well, in this case one. plus one is equalnot to two, but to two arid a fraction, noO?e knows quite why. And that extra frac­tIon flies off from the collision, by happychance in the direction of our pleasant littleU'nlverse, and at length, after scootingthrough the dark regions for several. thou­sand years at the rate of 186,000 miles asecond, comes through your roof and strikesYou. By this time it has probably peteredit in the foundations of your building.hat's a cosmic ray..t\ Last August I mentioned that ProfessorC r�hur H. Compton of the University of�lcagO was about to lead an expedition toOUnt Evans, Colorado, to study cosmicrayt s, and that from there he would proceed� the S�issflps on the same kind of errand.e has Just returned. .S' .�h ClentIsts are the most cautious of mentn ere facts are concerned. I doubt veryofuch if Professor Compton would approveCo tn� �able about the two hydrogen atomss tnblOlOg to form a helium atom, with thee�flus transformed into a cosmic ray. Sev­ab years ago some one told me a storyd OUt Professor Compton's career as a stu­a ent at Wooster College in Ohio. He wasgreat athlete there, the best of his period 127in football, baseball and track. But untilhis senior year he had never played basket­ball. The day before the first game of theseason the regular varsity team, as a protestagainst some action of the University ad­ministration, decided to withdraw from thesport as a body. Compton thought that.Wooster College ought to go through itsschedule, and he organized a scrub teamwhich made a brave but somewhat awkwardshowing. As the season progressed the scrubteam improved, however, and in the final,big traditional game with Kenyon College,Compton himself scored twenty-three bas­kets and set some sort of All-Americanrecord. Last spring I repeated the story toCompton, accused him of being a hero, andasked if the epic were true."Yes, it's quite true," he replied, "exceptthat it wasn't Kenyon College, it was Wes­leyan; and it wasn't basketball, it was foot­ball; and I didn't score twenty-three baskets,I ran the wrong way; and we didn't win,we lost."I'm afraid that if Professor Comptonheard my version of how cosmic rays origi­nate he might say, in the same vein: "Well,it's quite true, but it's not a combiningcollision, it's merely a disturbance; and it'snot atoms, it's alpha particles, and it doesn'thappen in intergalactic space, it happens afew hundred miles above the earth's surface;and they're not real radiations, they're highspeed corpuscles."It's quite true that no one knows a greatdeal about the origin, or even the nature ofcosmic rays. They were discovered to existby a pair of German scientists about tenyears ago, and the very famous ProfessorRobert Millikan, formerly of this universityand now at the California Institute of Tech­nology, then took up the hunt.U sing a pair of quartz fibers held apartby their equal and similar electrical charges,Dr. Millikan insulated the space around thefibers against all the known kinds of dis­turbances-including all the familiar kindsof radiation. But even by his most exhaus­tive precautions he could not keep the fibersfrom closing together, due to a change inpotential caused by the leakage of electricity.He sent his quartz fibers up in a balloon,128 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEand found that they closed even faster athigher altitudes. He sank them 200 feetunder water, and still they closed-e-this timevery slowly indeed. The presence of theextremely penetrating cosmic rays, whichseep through almost any barriers, was thecause of the closing.Cosmic rays come toward the earth ingreat abundance, but are gradually absorbedin the enveloping atmosphere. The factthat they are more intense at higher alti­tudes is one of the reasons that ProfessorPiccard made his sensational balloon tripinto the so-called stratosphere ten milesabove the earth's surface, last summer. Andthe same fact leads Professor Compton tochoose mountain tops for the scene of hisrneasuremen ts.The observations which Dr. Comptonmade during the last two months-to whichthese laborious remarks have been a preface-have quite simple results. He foundthat the intensity of the rays coming intoMount Evans, Colorado, at a height of13,000 feet above sea level, as comparedwith those coming into the J ungfrau inSwitzerland at a height of 11,000 feet, wasin a ratio of about 13 to I I. In other words,when you make allowance for the varyingheights, the intensity of the rays was equalin both of these widely separated spots. Hefurther found that the intensity of the rayswas equal in the daytime and at night. Thischecks with results he obtained in theHimalaya Mountains of India several yearsago. At the present time observations arebeing made for him in South Africa. Andhe hopes himself to be able to lead expedi­tions in the near future to the Andes Moun­tains in South America, to the South Seasand to Alaska.It is fairly certain already that the cosmicrays are bombarding the earth equally fromall directions, and at all times. But maythey not be emanating from the earth'supper atmosphere, where it is known thatunusual electrical conditions prevail-suchas the so-called Kennelly-Heaviside layer,which permits radio waves to bounce aroundthe world? By such further expeditions ashe contemplates Professor Compton may beable to find out. If the cosmic rays are streams of particles, for example, their in­tensity should be even greater at the mag­netic poles. If the intensity is equal in allof these widely scattered geographical andclimatological sites, he may be able to elim­inate the possibility that the rays are gener­ated in the upper atmosphere. And if suchis the case he may be able to eliminate thepossibility that they are generated in thesolar system or in the Milky Way becauseboth these local astronomical complexes ofours are discs, not equally dense in all direc­tions from the earth.Even at the earth's surface the cosmicrays are the most penetrating radiationsknown. They will seep through fifty feetof lead before they are fully absorbed­whereas X-rays are checked at an eighth ofan inch, and light rays are stopped at thesurface. If your roof is fairly stout yoUcould detect, with an instrument called anelectrometer, about 5,000 of them an hourcoming into your room. Actually, there areabout a million a minute entering the room-You may have noticed that I have beentalking about the cosmic rays as though theywere things-actual particles. In highschool we were taught that all types of radi­ant energy are mere wave-forms movingthrough an imaginary ether. It's quite trUethat rays are waves. But it is also true thatthey are particles which can deliverblows like projectiles. For demonstratingthat fact to the scientific world ProfessorCompton received the Nobel Prize in 1927'But that Nobel Prize experiment was amere preliminary to the present work-ahurdle that had to be taken en route.I should like to give you an idea of thedimensions of these energy particles-orphotons, as they are called. A photon oflight has about one zoo.oooth of the mass ofan electron. Cosmic ray photons, however,have from a hundred to a thousand times themass of an electron. An electron has aboutone 1800th the mass of an atom. There arefrom two to a hundred atoms in a molecule.And as for molecules, a famous Britishscientist used this illustration. If you wertable to take all the molecules in a glass 0water and mark each one in such a way th��you could recognize it afterward; then 1NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLESYou were to empty the glass into the sinkand wait a sufficient time for all thosemolecules to be distributed evenly through­Out all the waters of the earth; then if youWere to go back to the tap and. draw anotherglassful of water, you would find 2,000 ofthe original marked molecules in the secondglass.Compton doesn't use a ruler to measurePhotons. He uses X-rays, and his NobelPrize experiment was an effort to determinethe vagaries of X-rays, so that they couldbe used as rulers.He is quite at horne with these un­believably small things. Two years agohe made measurements which are believedto be the most delicate space computa­tions ever achieved. In surveying thecrude distance between layers of atoms in acalcite crystal-a distance which is roughlyone one hundred millionth of an inch, hehas measured that space-as though it werea great gaping chasm-down to an accur­acy of one part in 300,ooo--that is, one30o,oooth of one I oo.ooo.oooth of an inch.You might very well ask, why it is im­Portant to learn how cosmic rays are pro­duced. And the first answer would be thatto the scientist all problems are important.The energy of cosmic rays as they arereceived on earth is about the same as that?f star-light. Though this energy is smallIn "amount," the emission of light is thechief business of suns and stars. Thus apicture of the universe which does not take�osrnic rays into account neglects a veryllllportant aspect of the universe-and aneglected field of inquiry is a challenge toall right-minded scientists.II The second answer to the question,Why," has philosophical implications. Upto the present time, I pointed out in myremarks about cosmic rays last August, the�.nly sources of radiant energy which scien­b1sts have been able to peg definitely areh'sed on a destructive principle. They find\ at the little surplus. of mass which ist rOWn off when an atom is disturbed oc­CUrs only in the breaking up of complex�to�s into simple atoms. There is one ex-ephon to this. Professor Compton statesthat in Italy last month. a European scien- 129tist reported that he had found what hebelieved to be the production of very highfrequency gamma rays-almost cosmic raysthrough the union of atoms. And ProfessorCompton believes this to be one of the mostimportant pieces of scientific news in manyyears. In general, however, it is believed,particularly by a group of British physicists,that the universe is running down like aclock. After all the heavy, complex atomshad at last been broken up into simpleatoms, there would be no more life, noenergy, no movement-e-only a morass of in­ert hydrogen particles.Such a contingency is much too remote, interms of years, for us to worry about. Thereis still enough complexity in the universe tolast for billions of years. But the thoughtof such ultimate stagnation makes me, per­sonally, a little uncomfortable. And hereis where the cosmic rays come in. Amer­ican scientists, notably Millikan and Comp­ton, have a hunch that radiant energy maybe produced in other ways than through thedeterioration of atoms. They think thatenergy may be produced through the build­ing up of atoms-the union of two or morelight simple atoms, such as hydrogen orhelium, into the heavy complex types, suchas oxygen or gold or radium or uranium.Specifically, their hunch is that cosmic raysare produced by building rather than bydestruction, and the universe, through con­tinual rebirth, may live forever.The third answer to the question of' theimportance of cosmic ray studies is the onemost interesting to me. You have perhapsheard of the phrase: the release of atomicenergy. You may have read in popularscience magazines about how there is enoughenergy bound up within the atoms in a glassof water to drive a battleship across theocean. Such a statement is probably quitetrue. There are thousands of billions ofatoms in a glass of water, and each of themis a "miniature power house."The actual and potential energy of thesetiny solar systems is terrific. But theproblem changing this energy into a formdirectly useful for human purposes is so dif­ficult that respectable scientists have in thepast scoffed at the idea as an impossibility.T.HE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEProfessor Compton is a vastly respectablescientist-one of the greatest in the UnitedStates.Yet in conversation I have heard him saythat his work looks toward the ultimate re­lease of atomic energy. Such a goal is· notone which you ·can think of as requiring afew years of experiment. Perhaps Dr.Compton's lifetime of research will just bepart of a hundred-year project for perform­ing that near-miracle. But think of theconsequences if someone eventually did dis­cover how to release atomic energy. Ifenough machines could be developed to usethis unlimited energy, no one would haveto do much work in this world, and the racecould spend its time improving its soul.Dr. Compton does not dally with such allur- ing speculations. He simply goes on at hiswork, hoping to learn how the nucleus ofthe atom is built.Back in 1831 the great Michael Faradaydemonstrated his principle of electro-mag­netic induction before a distinguished groupof British scientists and statesmen. A states­man came up after the demonstration andasked, "Of what practical use is this prin­ciple?" "I don't know," Faraday replied,"but some day you'll be taxing it." Well,the whole modern electrical industry is basedon that principle. I don't suppose anyonewill ever tax Compton's measurements ofcosmic rays but I shouldn't be surprised ifknowledge gained from the measurementswill some day produce things eminently tax­able.By WILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN, '20 J. D. '22SCORES OF THE MONTHBasketballChioago, 32; Bradley, 29Chicago, 24; Western St. Tchrs., 36Chicago, 29; Carleton, 33Chicago, 39; Carnegie, 40 (Overtime)Chicago, 21; Marquette, 36Chicago, 14; Minnesota, 22XSURAN CE can be given all thoseinterested that Chicago will win achampionship in the season of indoorcompetition which runs for the next threemonths. Mr. Daniel Hoffer, who is togymnastics what the late Knute Rockne wasto football, will provide the championship.But there is no cheer in other directions.Though the swimming team is considerablyimproved over last year, the track team isweaker by far, and the basketball teamseems a shade less effective than it was ayear ago.The University now has two buildings tohouse indoor sports, for the new field house was put in operation on December 28,when the second Christmas Week basketballinterscholastic got under way. The moreancient of the alumni will remember thatdark November day back in 1925, whenMr. A. A. Stagg, then a mere lad of 63,put on a cap and gown and dug a hole thatwas to start operations on the field house.Chicago's athletic decline started that veryafternoon, for after Mr. Stagg put awayhis ceremonial shovel, Dartmouth proceededto slaughter Chicago's football team, 33 to7, to Oberlander's tune of "Ten thousandSwedes popped out of the weeds." Maroonfootball teams never have been robust since.Now Mr. Stagg has finally achieved hisfield house but at the present moment hehasn't many athletes to put in it.The field house is a striking structure,imposing in its mass and in the sweep of itsgreat arena. The design is Gothic, the ex:terior is limestone and the roof is red tile, SOthat the building harmonizes rather succesS�fully with the rest of the University. Thereare no obstructing girders in the interior,ATHLETICSwhich is one enormous hall, of practicallythe same dimensions as the exterior, 368feet long and 165 feet wide. The field houseCovers the south end of the block at 56thst. and University ave., just to the northof the big football stand. Provision hasbeen made, if attendance justifies the cost,for a balcony that will seat 2,500 and for a"he<td house" that will fill the space underthe balcony. At the present time, bleacherssurrounding the basketball floor provideapproximately 3,500 seats. Attendance onthe Saturday night when the finals of thetournament and the Chicago-Carnegie gameWere played exceeded 5,000 but crowds likethat will not be very numerous, until theChicago basketball team improves suffi­Ciently to pack 'em in without assistance.Width of the building permits runningthe basketball court, I I 0 by 62 feet.. acrossthe arena, leaving the eight lap to the milerunning track free of obstructions. Ii.locker room is located in a basement at theeast end of the building, but the entirearena floor is covered with clay. Bartlett�ymnasium will continue in use for severalInter-collegiate sports such as gymnastics,:restling, and fencing, but its chief use wille for intramural athletics.Nelson Norgren's basketball team hasPlayed two pre-conference games in this�ew building so far, and lost both. (Therst two were played in Bartlett.) N or­�ren, as usual, has a squad of limited capac­Iff les that is outclassed by most of the con-erence rivals, but he will manage to de­�elop a team that will win about three ofIts twelve games in the Big Ten. The needof Marshall Fish, who controlled the floorPlay and led in scoring last year, is obvious.�t the present time the most valuable playerIS l( . h �1 en Parsons, who has height the othersack. Parsons, however, grows visibly�eary before the game is over and has to• aVe rest periods. Stephenson, for his size,Is V ery much a basketball player, and a fineshot who occasionally will have a night on�hich he hits whenever he aims the ball att e basket. Byron Evans, a sophomore usedat forward in the last three games, has givensOllle Scoring strength and seems to add gen­erally to the effectiveness of the team, al- though he is somewhat erratic. Scott Rex­inger will do for a substitute forward, andMarshall Dziubaniuk also can be used atthat position. Jim Porter and Capt. HarryAshley are the two regular guards, withKenneth Fraider, a "C" man, as a verygood reserve. The team did .not develop asfast this season as it did last, and its workon defense is ragged. At one time in thesecond half of the Carnegie game, Chicagohad apparently a commanding lead only tobe tied because of its feeble guarding. Theconference apparently has more good basket­ball teams this year than in 193 I, and Chi­cago's schedule brings it against all the con­tenders except Michigan. The estimate ofthree victories may be liberal, but the teamstill has possibilities of improving enough totake that many games.Several new men will balance the swim­ming team, but Coach McGillivray's menwill not be in a class with Michigan, Min­nesota, and Northwestern in the conferencemeet. There are two good divers, John andJames Marron, brothers from Hyde Park,who were beneficiaries of McGillivray'scoaching while they were still in high school.John won four national interscholastic div­ing championships in his senior year, andhis brother, who was formerly a breaststrokeswimmer, has switched to that event anddoing almost as well as John. Stanley Con­nelly, who won the Chicago river swimthree years ago, is a strong freestyle swim­mer for the longer events. Victor Lorber,who has improved greatly in the last year,is another promising recruit for the 220 and440. McGillivray has made a first classbackstroke swimmer out of Donald Bell­strom, who was an average swimmer inprep school. Another sophomore, AllanSachs, is making fast times in the freestyleevents. There are three veterans back,Ralph Earlandson, freestyle; Gordon Rit­tenhouse, water polo captain, who filled inas a fancy diver last year, and did well inthe breast and backstrokes, and JamesMcMahon, who swims the breaststroke.The water polo team, which has won threechampionships in the last five years, and lostin the two other seasons by one-point defeatsin overtime games, also will be strong.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEDan Hoffer has two aces this year for hisgymnastic team. Capt. Everett Olson, whowon the all-round championship, the paral­lel bars and the rings, and finished second onthe horizontal bar, has his most dangerous ri­val in a sophomore of his own team, GeorgeW righte. Hoffer seldom gets any mentrained in prep school, but Wrighte carnefrom Lindblom with the best of preparationand with that kind of start, the coach hasturned him into a very marvelous performerindeed. The young man went down twograde points last year, but was so houndedby Mr. Hoffer that he turned in two A'sand a B in the Autumn quarter and is noweligible. Olson and W righte together could.win the championship, but Hoffer has a lotmore who will pick up most of the pointsthat Olson and W righte do not get. Oneof these men certainly must be the lightestcompetitor in intercollegiate sports. He isMartin Hanley, he is 5 feet, 1 inch tall, andhe weighs 89 pounds. Hoffer has him per­forming in four apparatus. events and also isgrooming him as a darkhorse for theOlympic rope climbing title. (Yes, Dansays there is such a thing.) Proof thatgymnastics keeps you in shape is found inthe fact that several of Chicago's old starsare working for the Olympics. The oldestis Harold H uls, who finished in 1917, andstill is able to consider! the possibility.Floyd Davidson, who is on the west coastin the flying service, also may try. Olsonand W righte both are being aimed for theinternational competition, and Irving Kolbis working for the trials on the horse.Bromund, who won the club swinging threeyears in a row, is another of Hoffer's prod­ucts who will try for the team."Bud" East, Bert Nelson, LawrenceBrainard, and Dale Letts all having gradu­ated, the track team is in a desperate plight. Several of the freshmen who would havebeen prospective point winners are ineligible.In the' sprints, Brooks, a sophomore from ,Hyde Park, and Calkins, a transfer fromCrane, are good, but not top flight, withBob Wallace, Ramsay, and Franklin Moorea shade slower. Capt. Roy Black andBrooks are the class of the hurdlers. In the440, Cameron, if he is eligible, and J entryare the only prospects. There are no 880,mile, or two mile candidates who can run'anywhere near conference times. The ma­terial in the field events is just as weak, withJohn Roberts, good for 5 feet, II inches,and Grimes, who has done 5 feet, 8, as thebest in the high jump; Roberts and Birney,a pair of 12 foot pole vaulters, and Tuttle,a shot putter capable of 41 feet, as the best.Yarnell, a sophomore high jumper, canclear 6 feet, but probably won't beeligible.And so we come finally to the wrestlers.Coach Vorres has arranged a very ambitiousschedule this year, with two eastern trips.On one of these jaunts his boys will earntheir carfare by participating in threemeets in twenty-four hours. Vorres actuallyhas persuaded his wrestlers that this sort ofthing is a real reward for those who makethe team. The team has lost Bill Dyer,who was the cleverest wrestler in the BigTen last year and winner of the 145 poundchampionship; Charles Adler, a good 125pounder, and Peter Todhunter, 135pounder, who hurt his back diving intOshallow water this summer. Several foot­ball men are on the squad, including VinsonSahlin, 145 pounds; Bernard Johnson, 135pounds; Ray Zenner, 165 pounds; Capt.Carl Gabel, 175 pounds, and John Spearing,heavyweight. Gabel is the best wrestleron the team and V orres expects him to winthe conference in his class.NEWS OF THE CLASSE SAND ASSOCIATIONSWith Yesterday's Marshals andAidesWith the N ew Year comes news of morecampus celebrities of other : days. Such notes��e always welcome and we hope that the other<v.l.arshals and Aides will not wait to be askedpersonally for word of their present activities.. I90S-Frederic SPeik has been very muchInterested in civic enterprises this year. He isa director of . the South Pasadena CommunityChest and chairman of the Advance Gifts Com­Illittee. The Oneonta Men's Club also claims8'Ome of his interest and time, as he serves thatorganization as a director, vice-president, andchairman of membership. His daughter,�adeleine, took lower division honors at Stan-ord last spring.F.I906-George R. Schaeffer is with Marshallneld and Company, as director of advertising.lJ e was recently commissioned a major in the. ' S. Reserve Corps as a member of the Selec­��e Service Advertising Groups. His staff atleld's includes a number of Chicago alumni,?amely, Olin O. Stansbury, '2-3, Helen C. Wells,,24, Helen E. Sisson, '25, Catherine Crowley,828, Isabel Murray, ex '30, C. A. Exley, ex, and/rah Carr, ex. (Miss Carr is editor ofashions of the Hour.)I908-N orman Barker is the newly elected�re�ident of the Los Angeles and Southern:s ahfornia Alumni Club. He is with the Longeach Polytechnic High School at present.th I909-M arjorie Day is the "Middle voice ofF � Lyric Trio" who sing "Familiar Songs" onrlday afternoons at 4:30 over WGN.. 19Io--W inston P. Henry writes that the mostinteresting thing that has happened to him thist�st year was his "appointment as chairman ofh e Oklahoma Stripper Well Committee, whichs ad the arduous task of securing markets for°llle thirty thousand small pumping wells, whoseJ�nnections t� the pipe lines were discontinued ona. nuary I, 1931. The task has been successfullytl�Complished, which has given relief to several00 ou�and families, which in turn has meantC nSlderable satisfaction to Mr. Henry and the°rnmittee."). 19I8-Stanley Roth, since April, 1928, hast�d in Milwaukee. He is vice-president andIlleneral manager of Gimbel Brothers depart­Stent store. He is married and has two sons,ha.�;ley, Jr., five years, and Robert, one-and-a-e/923-Edna Staudinger has been made chiefltor of the Phelps Institute of Speech, which is devoted to adult education in English andallied subjects. "Better English and BetterSpeech" a popular course presented at the Good­man Theatre, was prepared by Miss Staudingerin collaboration with Mr. Phelps, president ofthe Institute. They plan to include radio talksas part of their program too.I929-Charles F. Cutter reports that he is"tied down to the wheels of finance, so life hasbeen rather dearth of interesting experience."Most people have found finance rather excitinglately, in one way or another, it seems,I93o-Muriel Parker is working at the OakPark Library while she continues her study ofmusic.College1887C. L. Fisher teaches Hebrew and systematictheology at Selina University, Selina, Ala .1903Frank McNair made the society columns ofthe Chicago papers this winter when his daugh­ter Caroline made her formal debut at a teaat their home.19'06Ella May Jones returned in September froma fourteen month VISIt in Europe. Most ofher stay was spent in Italy. *** Mrs. W. G.Mitchell is editor of the "Voice of the TenthDistrict," a little news sheet gotten out by thatdistrict of the federated women's clubs of thecity.1907Helen Norris, Dean of Women for the Com­monwealth Edison Company, was recentlyhonored by appointment as chairman of theWomen's Committee of the Public RelationsSection of the National Electric Light Associa­tion. *** William F. Rothenburger is pastorof the Third Christian Church of Indianapolis,and as director of the Pension and Church Erec­tion Funds has to supervise the use of someeleven million dollars. *** Ernest G. Ham, A.M.,is serving his seventh year as superintendentof schools in Springfield, Vt. Last summer Mr.Ham and three other superintendents droveout to Los Angeles too the N. E. A. convention.On the return trip they visited the Universityand report real gratification at the growth itshowed.133134 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1908Florence Cheney Benedict is in China atpresent, and can be reached at 78 Kan MienHutung, Peking. *** Norman Barker, newlyelected president 'Of the Southern CaliforniaAlumni Club, visited Chicago at Thanksgivingtime after officiating at the Notre Dame­Southern California game at South Bend.1909Sophia C. Camenisch is one of three fromthe Chicago Normal College who are members'Of the National Commission for the Reconstruc­tion of the English Curriculum for the PublicSchools. This commission is planning a com­plete course of English study from kindergartenthrough the University.1910M. Ralph Cleary is a member of Cleary andCompany, dealers in listed stocks and bonds. ***LiIIiam P. Gubleman, A.M. '24, is head of thedepartment 'Of foreign languages at the StateTeachers College in Valley City, N. Dak. Sheis vice-president for North Dakota in the Classi­cal Association of the Middle West and South.1911William C. Craver is executive secretary of, the Houston, Tex., Y. M. C. A. *** A numberof Chicago alumnae worked together on theHyde Park Community Luncheon this winter.This affair is sponsored by the local Y. W. C. A.,and was held this year in the dining hall ofBurton Court. Mrs. Charles W. Gilkey (Gerald­ine Brown, 'II) national president of theY. W. C. A. gave the principal address andAgnes Prentice Smith, '19, District Chairman,and Kathleen Stewart, '28, executive secretaryof the Hyde Park Branch, also spoke.1912Frederick T. Wilhelms, as president of theChicago High School Teachers Association, hasbeen decidedly busy this fall trying to get someaction on the long delayed salaries due theChicago teachers. Mr. Wilhelms is a teacherhimself, being in the economics department ofthe Bowen High School. *** Frank M. Chapman,A.M., is superintendent of city schools at CawkerCity, Kansas.1913S. T. Slaton is pastor of the First MethodistChurch of Ensley, Alabama. Mr. Slaton holdsan honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity fromBirmingham Southern College, where he taughtfor five years. *** Harrison C. Givens is withthe department of education at San Juan, PortoRico.1914William M. Bailey, S.M., heads the botany department at Southern Illinois Teachers Col­lege.1915J. Hugh Priett is doing part time work asinstructor in physics and astronomy in the cor­respondence study department 'Of the Universityof Oregon. Since the war Mr. Priett has beenan assistant professor there. *** E. M. Hosman,A.M., for ten years secretary of the NebraskaState Teachers Association, has resigned hispresent position to accept that of director ofextension and publicity in the Municipal Uni­versity of Omaha.1916Alice Adams supervises third grade work atCentral State Teachers College, Mount Pleasant,Mich. *** Leon P. Smith, S.M., was elected aFellow in the American Geographical Societyrecently. Mr. Smith is head 'Of the depart­ment of Physical Sciences at Wesleyan College,Macon, Ga. *** J ehiel S. Davis teaches chernis:try in the Los Angeles High School system, andas a side line promotes and conducts Europeantours.1917Kate Lewis, A.M., is employment manager inone of Brooklyn's fashionable stores.1918Margaret A. Hayes has been at Crane Junio!College for the last two years.1919Fred R. Platt teaches botany and zoology atHarrison High School, Chicago. *** HarrietA. Lee is assistant principal at Paton Hall,Romeo, Mich.1920Bessie McCoy, A.M. '26, teaches English atCentral High School, Detroit. *** Roy W. Met­calf manages the refinery department of th!Signal Oil and Gas C'O., of California.;jI;!!Florence T. Leins, ex, is head of the hoJlleeconomics department of Riverside-BrookfieldTownship High School. *** Mrs. Edna R·Meyers is greatly interested in the educationexperiment she is conducting at the Le"Wis'Champlin School, Chicago, under the directionof Supt. Bogan and Asst. Supt. McDade. TheSeptember "Elementary School Journal" con­tains an article describing her work. *** Blanc�eRinehart teaches sociology in Detroit. *** ,AvISGray Chapel has recently enlarged the scopeof her work as supervisor of kindergartenand primary, in Hazleton, Pa., to include Grad�s5 and 6. Miss Chapel trains principals IPelementary supervision and curriculum coP'struction. *** Bertha Vermilya teaches in �h;history department of Robinson Junior IIlgdSchool at Toledo. *** Ethel Stilz, newly electe,secretary of the Philadelphia Alumni Club I�instructor in Fine Arts and house director aNEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONSSwarthmore College. *** William B. Parks,S.M., teaches chemistry in Kansas StateTeachers College at Pittsburgh, Kan. *** F. C.Colyer, S.M., directs the work in geography atSouthern Illinois State Teachers College.I92ILouise Hostetler Goode is completing herwork on a master's degree at Stanford Uni­versity, and plans to remain for the next yearand study for the doctorate. The last twoYears she has spent at Adams State TeachersC'()llege in Colorado, as instructor in elemen­tary education. *** Mrs. Richard L. Davis(Dorothy Harjes, A.M. '26) teaches Germanat Tilden Technical High School in Chicago,and in her problematical spare time writesbooks. A recent publication of the RockwellPress "How the World Supports Man," is asample of her work. *** Elizabeth Mann, whohas specialized in the study of r Sth centuryEngland, had an opportunity to use her special I35knowledge in acting the part of Faulkland ina recent production of Sheridan's "Rivals," bythe faculty of Rockford College. Miss Mannis an assistant professor of English there. ***Golda Belle Boyd is the visiting agent in Cleve­land for the Cuyahoga County Child WelfareBoard. *** Mrs.' Charles R. Bennet (LouiseHamilton Harsha, '21) is living in Westerville,Ohio, where Mr. Bennet is president of theChamber of Commerce and head of the BennetMfg. Co. Their children, Elizabeth Anne andJane Josephine, are five and two respectively.*** Howard Beale read, a paper before theAmerican Historical Association in Minneapolisin December, and in January spoke at the Fri­day evening dinner of the University Churchof the Disciples on the subject, "Peace."I922Belle C. Scofield is supervisor of art in thepublic schools of Indianapolis and is doingsome very interesting work there. In OctoberAlumni Professional DirectoryBIOLOGICAL SUPPLIESPresident, C. Blair Coursen '22General Biological Supply House761-763 East 69th Place, ChicagoDorchester 3700BROKERSFARNUM, WINTER & CO.120 West Adams St. Randolph 8910l'iew York Stock Exchange. Chicago Board of Trade,Chicago Stock ExchangeJames M. Sheldon '03 Paul E. Gardner '13IIARRY C. WATTS & CO., Inc.INVESTMENT -:- SECURITIES39 So. LaSalle St. Rand. 7804Harry C. Watts, '11 Pres.Ralph W. Stansbury, '14STANSBURY & CO.Investment Securities105 W. Adams St. Cent. 776�CHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, '12:EPSTEIN, REYNOLDS and HARRISIi S Consulting Chemists and Chemical Engineers. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4286 CLEANERS AND DYERSBIRCK-FELLINGER COMPANYExclu8ive Cleaner8 and Duer« 0/ RecognizedAbility, Service and Re8pon8ibility200 East Marquette RoadTelephone Wentworth 5380Edwin H. Fellinger '28ENGINEERS. Judson S. Tyley, '18 Secy.E. H. Ward & Company, Inc.Engineers of Tests608 South Dearborn St.FLOOR COVERINGSEdw. P. Bezazian, '25Oriental RugsDomestic Carpets and RugsThe Tobey Furniture Co.200 N. Michigan Avenue State 4300INSURANCEC. F. AXELSON, '07Chartered Life UnderwriterREPRESENTINGThe Northwestern Mutual Life Ins. Co.209 So. LaSalle St. Tel. State 0633ELLSWORTH E. HOFFSTADT '24INSURANCEIn All Its Bra.nches1180 E. 63rd Street Faixfax 1200Fairfax 5353THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEshe was the chief speaker at the meeting ofthe Art Section of the Convention of the N. E.Teachers Association at Fort Wayne, and hadcharge of an exhibit and of demonstrations ofthe work her pupils are doing. Miss Scofieldis president of the Western Arts Association,which will meet in St. Louis in May for its1932 Convention. *** Dr. Louisa H. Bacon(Louisa Hernken, S.M. '23) is pathologist atSan Bernardino County Hospital, Calif. Mr.Bacon, S.M. '23, teaches geology and mineralogyat Riverside Junior College, Calif. *** Fred­ericka Blanckner, A.M. '23, lecturer, writer andstudent of Italian life and culture, is the authorof a book of poems, "All My Youth," publishedby Brentano this month. It has been heraldedby the critics as one of the important booksof poetry of the winter. Miss Blanckner, afterreceiving her Master's degree at the University,went to the University of Rome, as Alice Free­man Palmer Fellow from Wellesley College.She received the degree of Doctor of Lettersfrom the Royal University of Rome, and laterwas decorated by Italy for her notable inter­pretations of Italian culture. One of herliterary studies was awarded the Dante Prizefrom Harvard University. *** Celean Uffordis in the department of character research atthe University of Southern California.1923Florence Justin, A.M., directs the HomeEconomics nursery school and teaches child de­velopment and home management at Ohio Uni­versity at Athens. Miss Justin received thedegree of Doctor of Philosophy from theUniversity of Minnesota in 1929. *** AlmaBrown is dietitian of the County General Hos­Ipital at San Bernardino, Calif. *** Earle C.Bowman, A.M., is professor of education anddirector of student teaching at DePauw Uni­versity.1924Mack B. Sevearingen, A.M., Millsaps CollegeRhodes Scholar, is now working for his Doctor'sdegree at Chicago. He has recently been ap­pointed a professor of history at Tulane. ***Isabel Aitken is Girls' advisor at the IndianSchool at Red Lake, Minn. *** Olga Adamsteaches in the kindergarten of the laboratoryschool at the University. *** Ruth Schmalhausenis working toward a Master's degree in house­hold arts at Columbia. *** Charles G. Campbell,'ex, is president of the school board at Mt. Car­mel, Ill. *** C. R. Danielson, '26, is assistantdirector of budgets for the Kroger Grocery andBaking Co. of Cincinnati.Doctors of Philosophy1896Frank H. Fowler, of the University ofArizona, recently published an article on "The Origin of the Latin Qui Clauses" in Language,Vol. VII, No. I, March, 1931.1901Frederick William Shipley is dean of Univer­sity College and professor of Latin at Washing­ton University, St. Louis.1903Henrietta Becker VonKleinze, '00, is co­director with her husband, Camillo VonKleinze,of the Junior Year in Munich. *** F. G. Cres­sey, D.B. '98, spent the summer "seeing some"what of most of the countries of Europe, withPalestine and Egypt thrown in." He is directorof the Granville Travel Bureau of Ohio. Mr.Cressey is also one of our most prominentcandidates for the Chicago Families Department,rivalling the Merriams and Downings. Mrs.Cressey (Minnie Babcock, '93) teaches Latinin Denison University, and is spending the fallin study at the American College in Rome.Their son, George, received his S.M. degree atChicago in 1921 and his Ph.D. in 1923, whiletheir other son, Paul, received his doctorate in1930. George Cressey is head of the geologydepartment at Syracuse University. Paul isjust back from a year of study of industrial can"ditions in India, and is teaching this year atMcGill University in Montreal.1907George Winchester, '04, has returned from avisit abroad, where he studied at the Sorbonne.1908Alma C. Stokey, was visiting professor atWomen's Christian College, Madras, India, forthe last two years. Now she has returned toher position at Mount Holyoke, where she isprofessor of botany.1909The following letter was forwarded to us bYProfessor Stieglitz, and gives an interestingglimpse of the work of W. W. Hickman, whOis in this country for a visit and vacation froillhis work in Assiut, Egypt."I went out to Assiut College in upper Egyptin 1909 and have been continuously at' wor�there since that time except for the threeSabbatical years which I have spent in Americ�-and a part of each furlough I have enjoyein the University of Chicago. After my presentyear in the home-land I contemplate returnillgto Assiut to carryon my work there."When I went to Assiut College our entiredepartment of science, of which I had charge,)1:'was housed in one room. We have now edpanded into the 23 rooms of our building �d'have been obliged to construct a second bUlling of 12 rooms to provide for the expansio:�While this work is very small compared to tfgreat things being done about the University 0LAUNDRIESNEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONSSCHOOLSR. C. WEINBERG '31ECLIPSE LAUNDRY CO."Artists in Wash craft "Triangle 7500949-957 E. 75th St.LITHOGRAPHINGL. C. MEAD '2.1 E. J. CHALIFOUX 'uPHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph - Offset - Printing72.5 So. LaSalle St. Harrison 3624MUSICIANSPhone Fairfax 7310RAYMOND A. SMITH, '185130 Kenwood Ave.PIANIST AND ACCOMPANISTArranger STETSON SINGERSMale QuartetteAvailable for Banquets, Clubs, ConcertsPERSONNEL SERVICEFor Your Office and Sales AssistantsBoth Men and WomenDavis Personnel Service, Inc.One LaSalle St. Cen. 4232GERTRUDE G. DAVIS '18RADIOWMAQOfficial Broadcasting Station ofThe University of ChicagoWilliam S. Hedges, '18 Mgr.REAL ESTATEr, Alton Lauren, '19]. Alton Lauren and Co.139 N. Clark St. Randolph 2068 137THE FAULKNER SCHOOL FOR GIRLSA Day School for Girls of All AgesPrepares Its Graduates for All Collegesand UniversitiesThe College Board Examinations AreGiven at the School4746 Dorchester Ave. Tel. Oakland 1423SEEDS (Wholesale)OSTBERG SEED CO.Wholesale Seeds7301 Woodlawn Ave. Phone Dorchester 0314SIGNSFEDERAL ELECTRIC COMPANYNeon I All Types Electric SignsW. D. Krupke, '19225 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, Ill.SPORTING GOODSRAY WHITE, Inc.Athletic EquipmentComplete Golf and Tennis Supplies28 East Jackson Blvd.Harrison 3437 Ray White, '16TRAVELFor Reservations, Tickets, All Steamship Linesand Travel OrganizationsLESTER F. BLAIRTravel Service Bureau-University of Chicago5758 Ellis Ave. Phones Midway 0800 and Plaza 3858WAREHOUSE LOCATIONSFACTORY AND WAREHOUSELOCATIONS, INC.35 E. Wacker DriveJ. C. Erickson Huntington B. Henry, '06BUSINESS DIRECTORYAUTO·SERVICEENGLEWOOD 0280CHICAGO AUTO SERVICE COMPANYComplete Auto Service Specializing In All MakesEverything For the Car436 East 63rd Street, ChicagoHartland Garaae57th and Cottage GroveSERVICE ALL CARSBatteries - Tires - Gas - Oil - StorageHYDE PARK 6816 UNIVERSITY SERVICE STATION5701 Cottage Grove AvenueTEXACO GAS TEXACO ETHYL GASHigh Pressure Greasing by Experienced MenTire Service, Battery Service and Electric RepairingPhone Hyde Park 0103AWNINGSPHONES OAKLAND 0690-0691-0692The Old ReliableHYDE PARK AWNING CO., Inc.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove Avenue138 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEChicago, still it is not exactly dead when it is socontinuously spreading the. walls.We have some 250 stud-ents in our depart­ment of Chemistry, about 300 in Biology and350 in Physics. All of these su�jects are be!ngtaught in two Ianguages-e-Arabic and English.When I first went to Egypt all the instructionwas in English as there were no texts and noproper terminology for the use of the Arabic.Now text books and laboratory manuals havebeen developed in the Arabic language andmost of the teaching is done through thatmedium. I have enjoyed having a part in thepreparation of these Arabic books."Many of our students take up graduate studyabroad and for those contemplating such studywe provide teaching through the English lan­guage. The student planning to continue hisgraduate or professional study in Egypt natu­rally takes his work in science in the Arabiclanguage."Our college usually has an attendance ofabout 700 or 800 students. It is a boardingschool and draws students from all over thecountry and even from much farther south inAfrica. At present we have students fromAbyssinia, the Sudan, and even Senegal. Thecollege is generally known as the 'AmericanCollege' as it is controlled by an Americanfaculty and is under the Board of ForeignMissions of the United Presbyterian Church."Allow me again to thank you for your inter­est and sympathy which have been so manifestever since I first entered your office in October1906. And again allow me to congratulateyou and your colleagues upon your splendidnew building and equipment."Ivan Lee Holt preached at the EgremontPresbyterian Church in Liverpool in August,going on to the meeting of the World Alliancefor International Friendship at Cambridge,afterwards. *** H. A. Spoehr, '06, is with theRockefeller Foundation in New York.19IOWilliam C. Moore has been elected vice­president of the Electro-chemical Society. Heis research chemist for the U. S. IndustrialAlcohol Company of Baltimore.1912Russell M. Wilder, '08, M.D. '12, heads thediabetic clinic at Mayo Clinics, Rochester, Minn.*** Dice R. Anderson was elected presidentof Wesleyan College in Macon, Ga., last spring.For the last eleven years, Mr. Anderson hasbeen president of Randolph-Macon Women'sCollege.1913Mr. and Mrs. George R. Coffman (BerthaReed) spent the last summer working in thelibrary of the British Museum. Mr. Coffmanis head of the English department at the Univer- sity of North Carolina, and Mr. Coffman isassociate professor of German at Simmons Col­lege in Boston.1914W. J. Donald and Leona Powell, Ph.D. '24,are respectively editor and managing editor ofthe Handbook of Business Administration, pub­lished in October by McGraw-Hill Book Co., f'Orthe American Management Association. Mr.Donald is managing director of the Association.Quite a number of Chicagoans participated inthe writing of the book; James O. McKinsey,'17, A.M. '20, professor of business administra­tion at the University; James L. Palmer, A.M.'23, professor of marketing, U. of C.; A. C.Hodge, 'IS, Ph.D. '22, of A. G. Becker and Co.;W. W. Charters, Ph.M. '03, Ph.D. '04, bureauof education research, Ohio State University;Wm. J. Reilly, Ph.D. '27; John Mills, '01,director of publications, Bell Telephone labora­tories.1915Rev. Allan W. Cooke, '14, A.M. '15, is rectorof Christ Church Springfield, Ohio.1916David M. Key, of Millsaps College, is amember of the Mississippi Research Commission.*** Agnes R. Riddell spent the last year or SOtravelling on the Continent, and has now re­turned to Wheaton College, Norton, Mass.1917Roy Temple House is editing a most interest­ing quarterly called Books A broad, a collectionof reviews and comments on all the most signHi­cant publications in languages other than Eng­lish. The field includes Europe, Russia, an1South America. The contributors are weiknown critics and writers of all countries, in;eluding some members of the University 0Chicago faculty. Reviews are printed in Eng­lish, French, Spanish, Italian and German, andsometimes in less. generally known languages.The quarterly is published from Norman, Okla.1920Irwin Roman, A.M. '16, is assistant profeSSOrof mathematics and physics at Michigan Col­lege of Mining and Technology. *** Dean. "\Pack is working on the plant physiologlcafproblems arising in the "quick freezing" 0bfruits and vegetables. He is on the researcstaff of General Foods at Gloucester, Mass.1921Gertrude Elizabeth Smith, '16, A.M. '17, isassociate professor of Greek at the UniversitY·*** W. L. Uhl is editor of the Century Studiesin Education and dean of the School of Educa­tion at the University of Washington, in Seattle.1922Lyman Chalkley, Jr., '20, has started a con-CATERERSNEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONSDENTISTMARTHA WINTERLIN'G5034 Cottage Grove Ave.Catering toLuncheons, Dinners, Card Parties, etc.Telephone Kenwood 0249CEMENT WORKEMIL o. HANSELCEMENT CONTRACTORFloors Our Specialty824 Wrightwood Ave. Phone Bittersweet 2259Let Us Do Your Cement WorkC. L. GUNGGOLL COMPANrConcrete Contractors for 30 Years6417 So. Park Ave.Phones Wentworth 1799w. J .. SCHUMACHER6147 University Ave. Phone Hyde Park 5840Pladsterlng, Mason and Cement Repairs, Expert Chimneyan Boiler Mason Work, Brick and Stone BuildingsCleaned, POinting, DraFt ExpertCLEANERS AND- DYERSTHE NEW DREXELCleaners and Dyers9vWe Clean Everything from Gloves to Rugs4.12. Rugs Cleaned on Both Sides, Only $2.004720-22 Cottage Grove Ave.Phone Drexel 0909 - 0910 - 0911 - 0912COAL5900 STEW ART 3952AUBURN COAL & MATERIAL CO.COAL- COKE- BUILDING MATERIAL7443 So. Racine Ave. ChicagoALL PHONES ENGLEWOOD 2606.R OUT Yards Cover the Entire Cityeritage Coal Com.panyMain Office 101-33 East 63rd StreetCorner Michigan Blvd., ChicagoJ. J .. HERITAGE, PresidentCUT STONE HAULINGOLSONCUT STONE HAULING3001 S. Wells Street Victory 0711 139DR. J. J. JOHNSTENDENTISTSuite 417 1180 East 63rd Street, ChicagoPhone Dorchester 9545EMPLOYMENTReliable HELP FurnishedOffice, Technical, Domestic, Factory, Hotel,Restaurant No CHarge to EmployerGROVE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE852 E. 63rd St. Phone MID. 3636FLOWERSCHICAGOESTABLI)iHED ]865Phones. Pla�6t�4';'11�1 �t�th StreetOberg's Flower ShopFLOWERS WIRED THE WORLD OVERTelephones: Fairfax 3670-36711461-63 East 57th St.FLOOR SURFACINGL. C. FAULKNER·Electric Floor SurfacerRemoves Paint and Varnish ElectricallyMakes Old Floors Like New1516 E. 69th Street Fairfax: 5262HARDWAREHENRY T. HANSEN935 East 55th StreetPaint - Hardware - Cutlery - ToolsHardware Phone Midway 0008Radios and Expert Radio ServiceRadio Service Phone Midway 0009INSURANCE,CHILDS & WOODINSURANCE UNDERWRITERSTelephone Us When You Have AnyQuestions About Special Coverage175 W. Jackson Blvd. Phone Wabash 1180LAUNDRIESFidelity Morgan Service; Inc.H Better Laundry Work"Branch 1015 East 61st StreetPhone Calumet 1906I40 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEsuiting service of his own at 580 Fifth Ave.,New York. *** Irving Garwood published "TheAmerican Periodicals from I850 to I860" earlyin I931. *** Elbert H. Clarke, after spendingAugust hiking through England has settled downat the University of Gottingen for six monthsof study. Mr. Clarke is head of the departmentof mathematics and_ astronomy at Hiram Col­lege, Hiram, Ohio.I923John Hawley Rokets, '20, is at WilliamsCollege, Mass. He taught at the University ofChicago in the English department, during thesummer quarter.I924M. Evelyn Dilley is director of Latin at theShaker Heights High School, Cleveland, andsupervised cadet language teaching at the sum­mer session of the University of SouthernCalifornia. *** Homer P. Rainey, A.M. '23., isthe new president of Bucknell University, Lewis­burg, Pa. *** D. M. Trout, A.M. '22, D.B. '22,is professor of psychology and dean of men atHillsdale College. MacMillan Company pub­lished his book on "Religious Behavior" lastyear. *** Earle Augustus Spessard, S.M. '20, isprofessor of botany and head of the departmentof biology at Hendrix College, Conway, Ark.I925Thomas Leroy McMeekin is a research as­sociate in the department of physical chemistryat Harvard Medical School. *** Morris Levine,'22, is research chemist for Mariner and Hos­kins, Inc. *** Donald Ayres Piatt, 'I9, on leaveof absence from the University of Texas, isvisiting professor in philosophy at the Uni­versity of California. *** Fay B. Karpf isteaching Social Investigation at the TrainingSchool for Jewish Social Work, and directingstudent research at the school in New York.I926Guy R. Vowles is professor of German atDavidson College, in North Carolina. *** K.L. Hertel teaches physics at the University 'OfTennessee. *** Vernon S. McCasland, A.M.'24, and Mrs. McCasland (Louise Gaston, '22)and their small son are living in Baltimore.Mr. McCasland is teaching at Goucher College.*** P. L. K. Gross, '23, A.M. '26, is investigatingthe physical properties of aquifers in his re­search on hydrology for the Division of WaterResources for the state of California. *** ErmaSmith, M.D. '3I, is now at Iowa State College,Ames, Iowa. *** Mary M. Steagall, '06, is headof the zoology department at Southern IllinoisState Teachers College. *** Charles W.Saunders, S.M. '12, is farming the Peebles­Saunders Farm at Hopkinsville, Ky. *** F.M. Thrasher A.M. 'I9, sends the following:"It is many years since I have had thepleasure of chatting with you. I remember the good old days at Hitchcock Hall. I amnow frantically engaged in many projectsin New York City. I am directing a $36,000research project for the Bureau of SocialHygiene and another research venture inconnection with the study of motion pictures.I do a great deal 'Of lecturing. On January2ISt I am to speak with Colonel Randolph,president of the Chicago Association ofCommerce at the Public Forum in Phil­adelphia. I am chairman of the LowerWest Side Council of Social Agencies. Yousee I have been busy since leaving Chicago.My chief problem is to find sufficient timein which to eat and sleep. I am enclosinga little yellow folder which may be ofinterest to you."The little yellow pamphlet is an announcernet'!of "Dr. Frederic M. Thrasher's AmazingLectures, 'Gang Life in Great Cities'" underthe management of W. B. Feakins, Inc. Dr.Thrasher is famed for his studies of socialorganization, history and significance of thecity gang.I927Ernest L. Mackie is associate professor ofmathematics at the University of NorthCarolina. *** William J. Reilly has recently gooeinto business for himself, with 'Offices at 230Park Avenue, New York. *** J. Barton I{oaghas been elected president 'Of the ChicagoChapter 'Of the Institute 'Of Radio Engineers'He is an assistant professor 'Of physics at theUniversity.Dorr R. Bartoo is professor 'Of biology atTennessee Polytechnic Institute, Cookeville,Tenn. *** Cornelio Castro Cruz is an assistaO;professor of geography at the University �the Philippines. *** Dorothy V. Nightingale l�instructor in chemistry at the University. �Missouri. *** D. S. Garby has resigned hISchair of chemistry at the Central State Teacher�College at Stevens Point, Wis., to become heatof the department of physics and chemistry aNorthern State Teachers College at Marquette.*** M. Luella Carter, A.M. 'I6, heads thedepartment of modern languages at DoaoeCollege, Crete, Nebr. *** Hilmeyer Cohen, '241is in Moscow at present, doing some work forthe Soviet Government.I929Charles Allen Clark, A.M. '2I, is pr'Ofe�sO�of practical theology at �resbyterian Theol?glC�,Seminary. Mr. Clark recently pubhshethrough Fleming-Revell, two books on Kor�a�religions. *** Mabel F. Rice,. is literary crl�in character research at the school of philosoP h�of the University of Southern California. �.is co-author with W. W. Charters and E. '11Beck in the writing of the' set of work books Icharacter education called Conduct Proble1lZ!'LAUNDRIES - ContinuedNEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONSTAILORSLEXINGTON LAUNDRY1214 East 61st StreetFAIRFAX 0732U For All Fine Laundering "LIGHTINGStudio and Display Rooms Tel. Superior 5381- 2HENKEL & BEST CO.439 North Michigan A venueDesigners and Manufacturers ofArtistic Lighting FixturesLOCKSMITHSOldest Largest LocksmithsS & S KEY SERVICEKeys Made While U Hesitate6420 Cottage Grove Mid. 3643-4-5MONUMENTSPhone Monroe 5058 Established 1889C. CILELLA & SONMONUMENTS AND MAUSOL�UMSRock of Ages and Guardian MemorialsWe Erect Work Anywhere 723-25 W. Taylor StreetPAINTINGEstablished 1851 Incorporated 1891Geo• D. Milligan CompanyPainting and Decorating Contractors616 S. Wabash Ave. Tel. Har.0761PLASTERINGMONAHAN BROS., Inc.CONTRACTING PLASTERERS201 North Wells StreetPhone Central 4584RIDINGROOFINGGROVE ROOFING CO.(Gilliland)Old Roofs Repaired-New Roofs Put On20 Years at6644 Cottage Grove Ave.Fairfax 3206 Phone Central 6801 8 So. Michigan Avenue, ChicagoAnderson & Christiano, Inc.TAILORSDeSigners and Makers of Smart Riding Clothes for Menand WomenTEACHERS AGENCIESF• k Teachers1.8 Agency 28 E. Jackson Blvd.CHICAGOOur Service is Nation WideTHE YATES-FISHER TEACHERSAGENCYEstablished 1906PAUL YATES, Manager616-620 South Michigan Ave. ChicagoSCHOOLSMacCormac School of CommerceBusiness Administration and Secretarial TrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESEnter Any Monday1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 2130STORAGEAsk Our AdviceMOVING-PACKING-STORAGE-SHIPP INGthe Murray Warehouse &Van Co.6314 University Ave. Chicago, IllinoisHyde Park 8067 Phones Midway 8067Peterson Storage CompanyStorage - Moving - Packing - ShippingBaggage and Freight to All Stations1011-13 East 55th StreetPhones: Midway 9700-Hyde Park 0452UNDERTAKERSBOYDSTON BROS.Undertakers4227-31 Cottage Grove Avenue Cor. 42nd PlaceTelephones Oakland 0492 and Oakland 0493LUDLOW .- SCHNEIDER.FUNERAL DIRECTORSFine Chapel with New Pipe OrganSedan Ambulance ServiceTel. Fairfax 2861 6110 Cottage Grove Ave.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe books were published this summer by Mac­Millan. *** Donnal Vare Smith, A.M. '28, isassistant professor of history at New YorkState College for teachers. *** Wesley R. Longis with Tarkio College, MOo., in the departmentof modern languages. *** A recent census ofthe faculty of Central College, Fayette, Mo.,revealed such a large proportion of Chicagoalumni 'On the list that Bernard E. Meland,B.D. '28, Ph.D. '29, sent in the followingreport: Frank Eo Burcham, S.M. 'IS, pro­fessor of mathematics; William D. Baskett,Ph.D. '16, professor of modern languages; johnT. Hardman, A.M. '17, B.D. '18, professor 'OfBiblical Literature and religion; Merrill E.Gaddid, Ph.D. '29, professor 'Of history; BernardE. Meland, B.D. '28, Ph.D. '29, professor ofreligion and philosophy; E. B. Gift, A.M. '27,professor 'Of education; M. E. Smith, '18, A.M.'21, associate professor 'Of English; Kathryn B.Hildebran, A.M. '29, assistant professor 'Ofmodern languages. *** Leon M. Pultz is anassociate physiologist with the U. S. Department'Of Agriculture. *** W. M. Krogman, '26, A.M.'27, is engaged in research in child developmentat Western Reserve University, Cleveland. Mr.Krogman .is associate professor of physicalanthropology in the school of medicine atWestern Reserve University.1930R. W. Rutledge is professor of Zoology andR. O. Hutchinson, Ph.D. '23, teaches mathemat­ics at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute. ***Alexander Oppenheim, erstwhile lecturer atEdinburgh University, has resigned from thatInstitution to be head of the mathematics depart­ment at Raffles College, Singapore, MalayStates. Mrs. Oppenheim (Beatrice Nesbit, '27)recently enjoyed a visit from her sister AllegraNesbit, '23, WhD teaches history in Gary, Ind.Miss Nesbit spent the summer travelling in theBritsh Isles.*** George H. Scherer is generalsecretary 'Of the Bible Lands Sunday SchoolUnion for Christian Education, At the request'Of the Presbyterian Mission he is writing abiography 'Of "Jesus, the Messiah" for highschool use, which is unique, in that it beginsthe story with the ministry 'Of John, the Baptist,and does not attempt t'O interpret the birthstories, At a recent conference 'Of Near Easteducational leaders from Persia, Turkey, Greece,Algiers, Egypt and Syria, Mr. Scherer read apaper on curriculum reconstruotion.v+eDivinity1892Henry Tupping, who has been in Japansince 1895, is especially interested right now inthe "Kingdom 'Of God" movement there.1898Robert Van Meigs, pastor 'Of Logan Square Baptist Church, Chicago, reports very encouraging results from a five week course on "Steward·ship" with his young people's group,19IIClarence W. Kemper, A.M. 'II, D.B. 'IZ, iicompleting his ninth year in the pastorate of thlBaptist Temple, Charleston, W. Va. Presldeu'M. B. Jones, 'Of the Northern Baptist Conventionrecently appointed him a member 'Of the Federe­Council 'Of Churches 'Of Christ in America:representing the Convention.1914J. H. Gagnier, D.B. '14, has resigned rhepastorate of the First Baptist Church 'Of Peru!Indiana, where he has served since October!1928.1923Fred Baldus, A.M. '23, D.B. '24, has gone froJl]Greeley, Colorado, t'O the First Baptist Churcb'Of Waukegan, Ill. I1927Preasley J. Rutledge is associate professor ofreligious education at Birmingham S'OuthernCollege, He was visiting professor 'Of ReligioUSEducation at Scarritt College for ChristianWorkers at Nashville. ***' Milton A. Reinke,A.M., assumed his duties as pastor 'Of theImmanuel Lutheran Church, Downers Grove,IlL, 'On Dec. 20, 193 I.1929Carl A., Nissen, A.M., has been electedpresident 'Of the Kansas Baptist MinistersAssociation.1930Akintunde Browne Dipeolu, A.M., is no�College Pastor at the Florida Agricultural a�Mechanical College at Tallahassee. *** E. .'Higdon, D.B., nDW located in Manila, P. L, ISthe author 'Of Jesus and National ASPiratlO�SJwhich was published in the Islands recent y.Mr. Higdon is the Executive Secretary of �be.National Christian Council 'Of the PhiliPPI01Islands. *** Robert L. Sutherland, Ph.D., aO£Charles M. Bond, members 'Of the faculty °eBucknell University, served 'On the cDmmitteIter'which successfully promoted a Model ntcollegiate Disarmament Conference, held aBucknell in December.1931 atJ ohn Peterson, '23, A.M., spent the year b'sthe University 'Of Chicago working for. 19degree in Divinity. *** At the annual �e�tl�t1and dinner 'Of the Illinois alumni 'Of the DIVl�1 gSch'ODI at Rockford, in October, the folloW1'f,'Officers were elected: Pres., Rev. Clarence ,!'vKerr, of Pontiac, Ill. Secretary, Rev. phIl dA M f Q . III *** MildreJohnson, .., '0 UlllCY,'· datProctor, A.M., is teaching in the Week- ktSchools 'Of Religion in Covington, Kent��eJwhere the system is notably well estabhsand efficiently 'Organized.NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONSUNDERTAKERS - ContinuedSKEELES BIDDLE Albert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago535 Fifth Ave., New York415 Hyde Bldg., SpokaneA general Placement Bureau for men andwomen in all kinds of teaching positions.Large and alert College, and State Teach­ers' College departments for Doctors andMasters; Critics and Supervisors for Nor­mals. Also many calls for Special teachersof Music, Art, Home Economics, BusinessAdministration, CorrespondenceTeaching.Fine opportunities in Secondary Schools.A host of best Suburban patrons for gradeand High School teachers. Read ourbooklet. Call. 143Funeral DirectorsFairfax 0120 Sixty-Third Street and Evans AveUPHOLSTERERSHARPER UPHOLSTERINGREFINISHING-REPAIRINGCabinet Work, Antiquelng and LacqueringPhone Radcliffe 6413Paul H. Davis, '11Ralph W. Davis, '16 Herbert I. Markham, Ex. '06Walter M. Giblin, '23MembersNEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGECHICAGO STOCK EXCHANGE37 South LaSalle StreetTelephone Franklin 8622CHICAGO UNIVERSITYCOLLEGEThe downtown department of THE UNIVER­SITY OF CHICAGO, 18 S. Michigan Avenue,wishes the Alumni of the University andtheir friends to know that it offersEvening, Late Afurnoon and Saturday ClassesTwo-Hour Sessions Once or Twice a WeekCourses Credited Toward University DegreesAutumn, Winter and Spring QuartersSpring Quarter begins March 28. 1932Registration Period, March 18 to March 26For Information, AddressDean C. F. Huth, University College,University ofChicago, Chicago, Ill,u1tmosphereWhether you are seeking a distinguished place to live or planninga social function that requires a luxurious setting, you will searchno further once you have made an inspection ofJt{otels lfindermere56th Street at The Lake WARD B. JAMES, Manager Fairfax 6000144 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEEngagementsWesson Seyburn Hertrais, '31, to Olive Hut­ton Lucas. Miss Lucas is a senior at theUniversity.MarriagesJoseph A. Golde, '13, J.D. 'IS, to MartheBloch, '22, A.M. '24, on June 28, 193 I. Athome, 2334 E. 70th St., Chicago.Henry O. Lloyd, A.M. '2S, to Lilian Elliot,June 6, 1931. At home, Weirton, W. Va.Wilton M. Krogman, '26, A.M. '27J Ph.D. '29to Virginia M. Lane, '28, Dec. 22, 1931. A�home, 2240 Grand View Road, Cleveland, Ohio.Guy W. Jordan, '28, to Eleanor C. Boehmerof Los Angeles, on Nov. 13, 1931, at Houston,Texas. At home, 4313 Harrisburg Boulevard,Houston.Emri S. Sites, A.M. '28, to Virginia LaRoseHolly, November 29, 1931, First Baptist Church,Indianapolis, Indiana.William Leonard Weddell, '29, to Helen S.Tate, ex '31 at Bond Chapel, Oct. 24, 1931.Ruby E. Garner Smith, '29, to Ross Lucas ofMorocco, Ind., July 28, 1931.Elizabeth Bryan, '29, to Z. Cartter Patten,Aug. 19, 1931. At home, Ashland Farm, St.Elmo Station, Chattanooga, Tenn.Emmet C. Barr, '29, to Sarah Elizabeth Miller,Dec. 12, 1931, at Peoria, Ill.Marie Acomb, A.M. '29, to Irvin Quick. Athome, 26 Sunnyside Drive, Athens, Ohio.John Henry Davis, Ph.D. '29, spring, 1931.Mr. Davis is at Presbyterian College, Clinton,S. C.Victor H. Evjen, A.M. '30, to Jessie B. Heinlof Chicago, at Joseph Bond Chapel, June 26,1931. At home, S210 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago.John J. Chapin, '30, to Marion L. Harding,June, 193 I, at Joseph Bond Chapel. At home,4728 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago.Myra Paula Littman, '30, to Lawrence IrmasCohen, Oct. 12, 1931, at St. Louis. At home,512S University Ave., Chicago.Julia Hanson, M.D. '31, to Lennox Davidson,M.D. '31, August, 1931. Both will finish theirinterneships in January, 1932, and will go toLitchfield, Minn., to practice.BirthsTo George Serck, '20, and Mrs, Serck, adaughter, Lenore Rita, Nov. II, 1931, at NewYork.To John J. Zavertuick, '21, M.D. '24, andMrs. Zavertuick, a daughter, Joan Helena, Aug.22, 193 I, at Chicago.To James K. Kneussl, '2S, J.D. '27, and Mrs.Kneussl (Helen CaUahan, '2S) a son, JamesKenneth, Jr., on March 19, 1931, at Chicago.To Mr. and Mrs. Neil Crawford (ElizabethJean Garrison, '27) a daughter, Diana, Jan. 19, 1931. The Crawfords have recently moved to2219 West Boulevard, Cleveland.To Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Stitt (Joy VeageY,'28) a daughter, Nancy Sue, Dec. 4, 1931,at Chicago.To Mr. and Mrs. Howard John Clark (ClaireDavis, '30) a son, Nov., 1931, at Des Moines,Iowa.To Paul J. Patchen, '25, M.D. '30, and Mrs.Patchen, a son, Nov. 3, 1931. Mr. Patchen isresident at the Children's Hospital at Boston.To Mr. and Mrs. Winifred E. Gordon a soo,Jim Dudley, Sept. 8, 1931. 'DeathsRobert R. Williams, M.D. '76, June 8, 1931,at Manning, Iowa.Perry C. Thompson, M.D. '83, Aug. 13, 1931,at Los Angeles, Cal.Herman Justice Hensley, M.D. '87, May 25,1931, Yates City, Ill.Dr. Francis Marion IngaUs, '88, Sept. 22, 1931,Glendale, Cal.William H. Muelchi, M.D. '91, of TeU City,Ind., Nov. 20, 1931. Dr. Muelchi was a memberof the Indiana State Medical Association, and Ia Fellow of the American Medical Association.Morton W. Bland, M.D. '00, October, 1931,at Westerville, Ohio.Rev. Edward AUen Sibley, '01, Nov. 2S, 1931,in an automobile accident at Takukan, P. I.Carlos M. White, M.D. '01, Nov. 6, 1931, atVisalia, Calif. Dr. White was a prominentphysician and surgeon and one of the leaders inhis profession in the San Joaquin Valley..Oscar E. Granberg, ex '0S, May 17, 1931, atRIver Forest, Ill.Clark Saxe Jennison, LL.B. '06, Dec. 3" 1931at Montreal, Canada.Mrs. E. W. Mason (Edna Weldon, '08) Oct.6, 1931.Mrs. Charles H. TreadweU (Harriette Taylor,'II) on Dec. 12, 1931, at Hammond, Ind. Mrs.TreadweU was principal of the Gompers School,Chicago, and was prominent in educationalcircles.Margaret Sue Burney, A.M. 'IS, August :20,1931, at Kansas City, Mo.J. Stevens Tolman, 'IS, December 17, 1931,at Chicago.Mrs. George R. Plumb (Mary Korta, '16)Nov. 2S, 1931, Chicago.Jessie B. Ice, '16, Feb. 27, 1931, at FarmingtOIl,W. Va.Kenneth Kemp, '20, A.M. '28, Dec. 18, 1931'Chicago.Karl W. Moser, A.M. '28, May I, 1931, litDowners Grove, Ill. litEnid Calvird, '29, November 22, 1931,Clinton, Missouri.