'•THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEfOL XXIII JPRIL, 1931 NUMBER 6Il R I I S H F n RY THF Al l/M NI COUNCILQUADRANGLE HOMES5545-49 Woodlawn Avenue100% Co-operative« »This IsJohnstonBrothersNINTH100%Co-operativeApartmentBuildingAggregating256ApartmentHomes« » « »ThisSplendiciBuildingWill Permit38 SelectedFamiliesto LiveNear theUniversityUnderIdealConditionsBuilding Consists of: 5 Rooms — 2 Baths; 6 Rooms — 3 Baths; 7 Rooms — 3 Baths.QUADRANGLE HOMES has been designed with unusually large rooms, con-venient layouts of apartments, many closets and the privacy of an individuai home.Each apartment has East and West exposures and will always have an abun-dance of sunshine and ventilation, and a view over the beautiful University ofChicago Campus to the South and West, and the Lake, Jackson Park, and theOuter Drive to the East.You are cordially invited to inspect now, at the office of the Building, theplans, and the samples of the fine equipment that is to be installed in the building.You will be agreeably impressed with the reasonable cost and the excep-tionally low monthly charges.NAMES OF MEMBERS OF THE FACULTY AND OTHERS WHO HAVE MADERESERVATIONS WILL BE FURNISHED ON REQUEST.Johnston BrothersBuilders and Owners77 West Washington St.State 1727 — Mid. 1328 Office of the Building5545 Woodlawn Avenue— Midway 1328 — J. Alton Lauren '19Exclusive Sales1 39 North Clark St.Ran. 2068 — Mid. 1328I Al T H II c/V/'UNo article appearing in The Magazineduring recent years has caused more com-ment than that on Power by ProfessorJerome Kerwin. By some it was read en-thusiastically, with others it aroused violentcriticism. It has gone far to prove to theeditor that there is no depressing standardi-zation of opinion among the alumni. Thewhole subject is admittedly controversialand judging from the number of com-mentators it is of peculiar interest to manyof our readers. In this issue we offer adivergent view in Pro Electric IndustryBuilders. Its author, Lynne J. Bevan,graduated from the University in 1903, andfrom the University of California Schoolof Mines in 1905. Within a month aftergraduation he joined a fleld party makingpreliminary investigations for what, eventoday, is one of the large water power de-velopments in California. For more thantwenty years he was associated with Viele,Blackwell and Buck, a corporation of Consulting engineers, formed for the purposesof originating, promoting, designing, con-structing and operating hydroelectric andsteam power projects. He has had professional contact with power projects inexcess of 6,000,000 HP. Since 1927 hehas been in the private practice of hy-draulic and hydroelectric engineering, andwhile he has had professional commissionsfrom various power companies, he is notunder retainer from, nor in any way underobligation to, any power company. He haswritten this article at the urgent requestof the Editor who knew of his long and intimate association with electric power de-velopment.Under the auspices of the Alumni Coun-cil the second Annual Alumni Assemblywas held in the Grand Ballroom of theStevens Hotel on the evening of March 6.Hundreds of alumni gathered to hear ofthe University of 1931 and of its revolu-tionary plans for the future.Presiding at the dinner was Henry D.Sulcer, '06, Chairman of the Council. Thetoastmaster for the evening was ProfessorJames Weber Linn, '97, who officiated inthe manner that has made him famous. Theaddresses of President Hutchins, ProfessorMollie Ray Carroll, '11, Ph.D. '20, andGeorge A. Works, the newly appointedDean of Students and University Examiner,were so interesting, so informative and soinspiring that The Magazine takes peculiar pleasure in presenting them to itsthousands of readers who were unable toattend the Assembly.Frederic J. Gurney, known to so manyalumni as the Assistant Recorder of theUniversity, writes us from Persia where heis completing a two years' sojourn. EdithFoster Flint, '97, Professor of English,former Dean in the Colleges, and since 1923Chairman of the Women's UniversityCouncil, ofiers some delightfully casualreminiscences of campus life. Charles P.Schwartz, as President of the Law SchoolAssociation, has written an article of keeninterest to our law alumni.THE Magazine is published at 1009 SloanSt., Crawfordsville, Ind., monthly from No-vember to July, inclusive, for The AlumniCouncil of the University of Chicago, 58th St.and Ellis Ave., Chicago, 111. The subscriptionprice is $2.00 per year; the price of single copiesis 25 cents.Remittances should be made payable to theAlumni Council and should be in the Chicagoor New York exchange, postai or express moneyorder. If locai check is used, 10 cents must beadded for collection.Claims^for missing numbers should be madewithin the month following the regular month of publication. The Publishers expect to supplymissing numbers free only when they have beenlost in transit.Communications pertaining to advertising maybe sent to the Publication Office, 1009 Sloan St.,Crawfordsville, Ind., or to the Editorial Office,Box 9, Faculty Exchange, The University ofChicago.Communications for publication should be sentto the Chicago Office.Entered as second class matter December 10,1924, at the Post Office at Crawfordsville, Indiana, under the Act of March 3, 1879.Member of Alumni Magazines Associated.ir»f TS Sf~A Student Home for MenThe West Tower from Judson CourtV O L. XXIII No. 6Che®nfoergttj> of ChicagoiWaga^meAPRIL, 193 1Pro Electric Industry BuildersBy Lynne J. Bevan, '03.Ui¦ NIVERSITY privilege" and "pro-fessorial privilege'' have long beenrecognized as meriting respect. Theinsurgent effusion of Associate ProfessorJerome G. Kerwin, in the February num-ber of the University of Chicago Magazine, however, transcends the bounds ofreasonable professorial privilege.Vituperative in style and incompetent asevidence, it abases the University of suchintellectually honest men as Burton, Millikan, Chamberlin, Tufts and our manyother respected teachers. Based upon super-fìcial information, Mr. Kerwin's tirade isreplete with insufficient and, in some in-stances, absolutely incorrect assertions. Byinnuendo, it vilifies the President, theSecretary of the Interior, the Chairmanand members of the Federai Power Com-mission, and ali the able and honest menwho have had a part in building up amagniflcent industry — that of the generation and distribution of electric power.The very magnitude and wide-spreadbenefìcence of the electric utility industryinvolves, inevitably, the utilization of somemen who have not proved worthy of theirresponsibilities. The same statement, doubt-less, is equally true in the history of the University of Chicago. Moral turpitude,misdemeanors and crimes we do not con-done. Some of the government officials,perhaps, have been self-aggrandizing ob-structionists and others sincere, yet mis-guided, fanatics. But this, certainly, is nottrue of Messrs. Coolidge, Hoover, Wilburor Smith, nor of most other men in responsive federai administrative positions.Adequate interpretation of the history ofthe Federai Power Commission requiresmore lengthy consideration of physical facts,politicai exigencies, and theory of our con-stitutional government than the Magazinecan properly publish. Therefore, after com-ment upon a few of Associate ProfessorKerwin's vagaries, I shall offer one or twosimple, yet constructive, suggestions of tre-mendous significance for our future economiewelfare.Having had personal knowledge of thehydroelectric activities of the AppalachianElectric Power Company from their incep-tion in 191 1 to 1928, and, associated withits counsel, having represented the companyin many sessions with the Federai PowerCommission employees and the U. S. ArmyEngineers, let me relate some of the signifl-cant facts, as tersely as possible, for a fair263264 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEunderstanding of this widely publicizedexample of "senatorial power trust" ogres.The Constitution vests the United StatesGovernment with only certain specifìedpowers. One of these powers is controlover interstate and foreign commerce.Navigation between states has been held,by a Supreme Court decision in 1824, to bea phase of interstate commerce, and hence,subject to regulation by Congress. Nowords of the Constitutionother than the commerceclause can be advanced asjustifìcation for Federai juris-diction over the AppalachianNew River project. Congress, by the Federai WaterPower Act of 1920, dele-gated to the Federai PowerCommission the right to takejurisdiction over projectswhich affect navigation —whether in the navigable por-tion of a stream or on anon-navigabletributary. ThePower Company, actuatedby a common sense business incentive, andat the same time obligated morally toprovide power to its customers at thelowest prices consistent with reasonable return to its stockholders, considered therestrictions of the Power Commissionsupervision a burden unwarranted underconstitutional law. It believed that theoperation of the project would not diminishthe navigable capacity of the river, and,therefore, that the project need not comeunder Federai supervision. However, theCompany wished to avoid question in theminds of those who might fìnance the projectand hence it filed a "declaration of intentionto construct a power dam" with a view toobtaining an affirmative determination as tofederai jurisdiction.What then are the facts concerning theeffect of this project on navigation?The minimum flow of New River at theproposed location, near Radford, Virginia,is about 1000 cubie feet per second, (exceptat long intervals), which is equivalent to9000 continuous horse power under theavailable head of 100 feet. On economieLynne J. Bevangrounds it is feasible to construct this waterpower development, if at ali, only for operation as a peak load carrier. Hence, theplans cali for the installation of roughly 80,-OOO H.P. of generating equipment. Theoperation of this plant will involve, norm-ally, no discharge of water through theplant during most of the day but large discharge for the few hours of heavy powerdemand. However, the development islocated 155 miles above thehead of navigation on theKanawha River. Thisstretch of New River is de-scribed by the Chief of Engi-neers, U. S. Army, in hisreport of December 29, 1925,as "a series of pools of com-paratively stili and deepwater separated by rapidsand shoals" which "wouldact as a series of Storagereservoirs, the effect of whichwould be to equalize theflow." Moreover, the company plans to build two otherhydroelectric dams on the river betweenRadford and the head of navigation, and achemical company has a third dam justabove the head of navigation; so that thereis no practical possibility of this diurnalmodification of flow being felt by navigation. The practical question is whetherthe drainage area below Radford and abovethe head of navigation will always furnishsufficient water for navigation in case thepower company with malicious intent, andcontrary to its common sense interests,allows its reservoir to be emptied and thenshuts off ali flow at Radford by closing thegates in the dam and shutting down theplant.The drainage area above the upper navigation dam is 8470 square miles, and abovethe proposed hydroelectric project 2400square miles, leaving 6070 square miles toprovide lockage and leakage water. Inci-dentally, the lockage water requires approxi-mately 10% of the minimum runoff of theintermediate 6070 square miles while theleakage thròugh the antiquated governmentnavigation dams, requires the other 90%.PRO ELECTRIC INDUSTRY BUILDERS 265The poor condition of these dams thesemany years, and the unjust insistence of thegovernment that New River water shouldnot be available for useful work in a powerhouse if a 10% efficient navigation damneeds it, should give pause to many ad-vocates of government operation of electric power plants. The Chief of Engineersreport said, "Therefore, so far as can bepredicted from available data and recordsit would not be possible to operate the proposed project so as to adversely affect navigation on the Kanawha under the existing(navigation) project."Notwithstanding this report, the Executive Secretary of the Federai Power Commission, relying upon a comparison of waveaction on New River and Pitt River inCalifornia, declined to recommend Commission action in accordance therewith; but,on the contrary, he said he would recommend to the Commission that it find thatnavigation would be affected. A publichearing followed ; and again the matter wasreferred to the Chief of Engineers of theWar Department. His report of July 23,1926, effectively disposed of the ExecutiveSecretary's attempted comparison ; but itdid modify the previous report by sayingthat "the summer of 1925 was exceptionallydry and considerable difficulty was ex-perienced in maintaining navigation in theKanawha River. It appears, therefore,that at long intervals there may be seasonsin which — the runoff from the area belowRadford might be inadequate for naviga-tional purposes."Not a word does he say regarding the f actthat even in this low flow year the intermediate drainage area furnished severaltimes the amount of water required forlockage; and that his conclusion can bereached only by penalizing the power company for the disgracefully inefficient condition of the leaking government dams. Yetthis report of the acting Chief of Engineerswas the basis for the report of the ExecutiveSecretary and the fìnding of the FederaiPower Commission, March 1, 1928, "thatthe interests of interstate or foreign commerce would be affected by such proposedconstruction." Two years of futile attempts for reasonable compromise were followed on May 29,1930, by a letter from the Chairman of theVirginia Commission on Conservation andDevelopment to the Federai Power Commission reviewing the status of the matterand stating that "the circumstances demandsome affirmative action by your Commissionin keeping with the fundamental powers andduties of the Federai Government andwhich will allow this important waterpower project to be completed," and furtherrequesting that the Commission "facesquarely this troublesome and importantquestion in the light of the fundamentallaw of the land, expedite its consideration ofthis case and take appropriate action."This protest was followed by submissionof legai questions to the Attorney Generalwhose opinion, September 22, 1930, fullysupported the contentions of the PowerCompany that a minor part license properlycould be issued for the project in question.A minor part license means government control of the flow only as it affects navigationand omits supervision of finances and re-capture after fifty years.At its final meeting, the Commission ofthe three cabinet secretaries declined totake action ; but concluded that, in view ofthe importance of the questions of jurisdiction as between the United States and theState of Virginia involved in this case, acourt adjudication is desirable.The matter is now before the new Commission of five members which held a publichearing on February 16, 193 1; but, as yetit has taken no action. The brief filed withthe Commission at that hearing on behalfof Appalachian Electric Power Companysuccinctly reviews the legai aspect of thecase and will prove illuminating to ali in-terested persons including those who hon-estly have a leaning toward federai operation of electric power, and reassuring tothose conservatives who would retain theconstitutional government under whichAmerican industry has developed.At any rate, this brief confirms a personalopinion of years that the Executive Secretary of the Federai Power Commission, whois described by Associate Professor Kerwin266 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEas, "a competent government engineer,"has, on the contrary, unfairly obstructed tothe end of his incumbency the right of thePower Company to the use of its own prop-erty, — at a cost many times his salary bothto the Government and to the Company,and eventually to power consumers. Thisstatement is the antithesis of the impressionsderived from the February article, entitled"Power," which dilates on the fringe offacts with obiter dieta and dieta are essita.Why glorify with an exclamation point inthe discovery of Associate Professor Kerwinthat "a 'minor part lease' exempts the licensefrom federai legislation!"? It is not true.The only constitutional jurisdiction of Con-gress in this case is limited to control ofnavigation and this is fully provided by theNavigation Act of March 3, 1899*Anent Clarion River, concerning whichAssociate Professor Kerwin writes gliblywith more dieta arcessita, my personalknowledge is limited to an unfavorablereport I made on its economie value somefìf teen or twenty years ago ; but, by recentinquiry, I have confirmed the fact (theAssociate Professor to the contrary not-withstanding) that the Clarion RiverPower Company is not controlied by Electric Bond and Share Company. It is a partof the Associated Gas and Electric System,and has no corporate or financial connectionwith that usuai target, the Electric Bondand Share Company, of sensational writerson power.As to whether $11,000,000 or $4,600,-000 is the proper basis for recapture fiftyyears hence may be determined by theFederai Power Commission after the question of its jurisdiction is decided by theCourt of Appeals of the District of Columbia. Whether the alleged unsupported$1,121,942.87 is principally accounted forby preliminary investigations, engineeringfees, contractors fees, legai fees, and interest during construction, which accountantsand the courts generally recognize as propercosts, or whether it covers bribery of govern-mental ofHcials or other improper chargesmay, some day, be determined judicially.Inquiry indicates the probable truth of thefirst class of expenditures. Meanwhile, should we not let scandal mongering news-papers only broadcast it? Cheap notorietyonly can be aimed at by citing "$144 forneckties" without knowledge of their pur-pose when millions are involved in the construction enterprise — whether that enter-prise be a water power, a cement plant, ora battleship. The fact is that "neckties"were mistakenly assumed by the Federaiinvestigator from a voucher supporting thepurchase of "scarfs." These scarfs formedthe distinctive uniform of the locai womenwho served as voluntary waitresses in theCompany's commissary during the openinginspection tour.Perhaps enough has been said already tomake an honest man suspect that Mr.Kerwin's article was written from a biasedpoint of view and was intended to misleadand to arouse animosities. But his remarksconcerning the Federai Trade Commissionare too colorf ul to neglect. This same Commission, in 1927, in response to a Senate resolution, made a thorough investigation ofthe electric industry and reported that itcould not find any power monopoly and thatno one company, group, or combinationcontrolied more than 12% of the nation'selectrical energy. Yet Associate ProfessorKerwin talks of the "power trust" and "theanti-power trust senators." The powertrust is a myth.Without specific accusation, he refers toexplosion of "dynamite" by the FederaiTrade Commission, and writes, "But theworst is yet to come" and "yet the best partof this side of the story will be revealedwhen the Federai Trade Commission com-pletes the latter half of its investigation."This applies to the investigation of the in-crease in book values, sometimes in largeamounts, of utility company assets. Is thereanything wrong in being the beneficiary ofappreciation in property values? Someyears ago, I filed upon a quarter section ofland in Oregon, paid the government $400for it, and five years later sold it for $1,600.Should I be accused of any impropriety?Furthermore, security issues, which arethe principal subject of the current TradeCommission investigation, do not enter farinto the fixing of rates for power. ThePRO ELECTRIC INDUSTRY BUILDERS 267Supreme Court has long since held that autility is entitledto earn a reasonableminimum returnupon the proper ratebase. And theproper rate base, ac-cording to the Supreme Court sinceSmyth vs. Ames in1897, has been fairvalue, taking intoaccount reproduction cost less de-preciation, of theproperty actuallyused or useful inpublic service.But let us turnfrom defense againstincompetent public-ity to more construc-tive lines of publicityand to ideas muchmore consistent withthe dignity of andwith the proper pur-pose of a great University; namely, thedissemination of Truth. By way of transi-tion, the Federai Trade CommissionInterim Report to the Senate, datedAprii I7th, 1930, and marked Part 22 ofDocument 92, is invoked. This documentof more than 1200 pages is devoted exclu-sively to American Gas and Electric Company. The opening statement of Hon.Robert E. Healy, Chief Counsel to theCommission, explains that the inquirycovers the growth of the assets and liabilitiesas they appear on the books of account, andnot the valuation of the properties; nordoes the investigation cover the reasonàble-ness of rates of return on a fair value of theproperties. This report shows that American Gas and Electric Company has beenvery successful. It has made money. Itsassets have appreciated over a considerableperiod of years and, at least, a part of thisappreciation has been reflected in the booksof the Company. But when newspaperspublish from time to time, under glaringheadlines, excerpts from the Federai TradeTHE AWAKENING GIANTThe New York Herald-Tribune, through itsgreat cartoonist, Mr. J. N. Darling, supportswith homely horse sense Mr. Bevans thesis.Commission investigation showing "over-night write-ups"don't jump to theconclusion that acrime has been per-petrated, or eventhat, as a consumerof electric current,you are b e i n ggouged. Just realizethat under the lawof the land you andI who own a littlepublic utility holding company stockare having, in amore modest way,the happy experienceof the man whobought a lot on FifthAvenue, in 19 io,for $500,000 andlast year was offered$1,000,000 for it.The appreciation offixed capital on thebooks in the case ofAmerican Gas and Electric Company,shown in the Trade Commission hearings,is only 27.4%. Since 19 16 only, the as-sessed value of the house in which I livehas increased 78.5% and the annual tax171%. Remember, moreover, that, fol-lowing inflation and high costs of construction, there may come a long period ofdeclining costs. The state commissions maythen say to the Utility Companies that theirreproduction costs, and hence fair rate basevalues, are decreasing; therefore electriccurrent rates must be reduced.Rates have been reduced steadily foryears. According to the Department ofLaboor, the cost of food increased 37%between 19 13 and 1930; clothing increased53%; housefurnishings 60%; rent 47%.Electric rates in the same period decreased18.5%._No simple explanation accounts for thisdecrease ; but let the engineer of the FederaiTrade Commission teli part of the story.Mr. Judson C. Dickerman is a graduate ofMassachusetts Institute of Technology ; he268 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEhas been principal engineer of the Virginia scattered territories were served by smallState Commission in supervision of public isolated locai companies. The hugeUtilities, engineer with the Pennsylvania volumes of industriai power loads attachedPublic Service Commission, the Wisconsin indicate that competitive rates are suffici-Railroad Commission and was assistant ently low to get their business. . . . Thedirector of the Giant Power Survey — cer- entire organization is devoting skill andtainly a career not allied with power com- energy to keeping down, or reducing, actualpanies. He says: "This system is skillfully, costs to the organization of installation andprogressively, and aggressively managed. operation and to expanding the volume ofExcellent technical skill is exhibited, equip- business, and, as a corollary to those sub-ment is highgrade — operations are con- jects, giving a high class service and reduc-ducted economically, service is being ing rates when and where such reductionsextended liberally. Rate schedules are will increase the volume of business."being systematized and made uniform over Is it not more consistent with the dignitylarge areas. The public is receiving an of our University to disseminate informa-adequate, well maintained service at rates tion of this character? It is better newsto the non-competitive groups that are ap- because it is true; and it is better publicityproximately usuai for large systems, and because it is fundamentally constructive.probably less than they would be if Anybody who has been sufEciently in-1880 1885 1890 1895 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 1925 1930Primary Power in the United States(Includes engines and turbines in factorìes, public utility plants, mines andquarries, but neither locomotives nor automotwe engines.)PRO ELECTRIC INDUSTRY BUILDERS 269terested to read this far does not need to begiven cold figures showing the doubling ofelectric output in the past ten years. Per-haps, also, he is aware of the fact that waterpower as compared with steam power ismuch over rated in the senate, in the publicpress and in the minds of the public. Thediagram on page 268 shows the relativesources of primary power in the UnitedStates: Water power 13,000,000 HP in-stalled ; steam power and internai combus-tion engine power 52,000,000 HP. In1930, approximately two-thirds of theelectricity generated in this country carnefrom steam stations. In the past few yearsthe efHciency of steam electric generationhas been improved so greatly that only themost favorable water power sites can bedeveloped economically in competition. Infact the much discussed New River sitewould doubtless not be considered favorablyby the Appalachian Company had not a mil-lion dollars, more or less, been invested inlands and preliminary investigations beforethe high efficiency steam plants proved theirmerits. Alumni of Chicago know thatwater power is a possible politicai issue andrelatively a waning business issue.The Federai Power Commission has to-day supervision over only a part of thisrelatively small element in the electric industry. It controls only those water powerswhich involve government land or whichaffect navigation. Whether or not Federaisupervision will redound to the good of thenation, it seems probable that in the not fardistant future the Federai Power Commission may be invested with supervision ofsubstantially ali electric power generationand distribution through the constitutionalpower of Congress over interstate commerce.The President has made such recommenda-tion. If the Magazine is to discuss electricpower let it, sustained by the prestige ofour great University, advocate that theCommission, which will supervise a tremen-dous and highly specialized industry, be com- posed of the best power experts available.Could you have an effective University ifyou were required to appoint theologians tothe chairs of chemistry, and economists tothe department of geology?Is there included in the personnel of thePower Commission a single man who hashad much, if any, first hand experience inthe construction of a steam or waterpowerplant or in the operation of an electricutility company? The Chairman has beena government officiai — and one of the bestsince 1896. When drafted for the PowerCommission he was nationally known asthe Director of the United States geologicalsurvey. No reflections are made on thecharacter of any of the members of theCommission ; but examination before theSenate Committee on Interstate Commercerevealed the evident purpose of rejectingany nominee who had ever had any connection with a power company. I know noexpert chemists who have not sat at thefeet of chemists and worked in a laboratory,and it is equally true that the best schoolfor a power expert is actual power company experience.Admitting that federai ownership andoperation of electric power are desired by asincere, although, I believe, a misguidedminority, how much better would it be,both for this minority and for the majorityfavorable to private ownership and operation, to have on the Federai Power Commission not merely honest and judiciallyminded men, but trained experts in thepower business?I am confident that much of the opposi-tion by power company ofEcials to government supervision will disappear when thereis reasonable assurance of wisdom in theselection of Commission personnel. At thesame time the honest proponents of government supervision should realize that thuswill their own aims be achieved much morequickly, and with much more salutary re-sults to the nation.The University in 1931By Robert Maynard HutchinsPresident, The University of ChicagoT HE s u b j e e twhich has beenassigned to me,the reorganization ofthe University, is oneof which I am sure youare heartily tired. Youmust feel that way par-ticularly since the bril-liant disquisition thathas been made upon itby our Toastmaster. I wish, therefore,while not violating my contract to discussit, to submerge it if I can in a wealth ofhistorical and fìnancial detail so that neitheryou nor I will have much idea that I amtalking about it, or indeed have much ideawhat I am talking about. The best way toreach this desirable and not unusual resultseems to me to be to review briefly the pastyear and a half and to trace, if I can, whatI think we have been doing in that period.We are ali agreed that the peculiar ex-cellence of the University of Chicago is notits buildings, its students, or even its gradu-ates. It is its Faculty. Its Faculty gaveit its distinction from the beginning. Itsdistinction comes from its Faculty today.In some other institutions the faculty seemsto be irrelevant. Its total abolition in someuniversities would leave their life and workalmost unchanged. But every claim to famethat the University of Chicago has rests atthe last upon the men and women who withunique devotion have been its teachers andinvestigators through the years. Every university president in the country would admitthat your Alma Mater has one of the twobest faculties in the United States. It isunnecessary for us, therefore, to make anyclaims for her ourselves. Under these cir-cumstances it was clear that the first dutyof any administration was to maintain oreven raise, if possible, the high quality of thisstaff, to move Heaven and earth to see to it that our professors were freed from economie distress, and to provide them with thefacilities they needed for effective work.This was desirable not only for our ownsake but for the sake of scholarship in America. The position and prestige of the University are such that few other institutionscan command the attention which the University of Chicago attraets. As Mr. Harpershowed, what the University does influencesscholarship and education throughout thecountry. And particularly at this momentwhen state legislatures ali over this areaare likely to adopt ill-considered measuresarbitrarily reducing the expenditures of theuniversities, it is important for the University of Chicago to indicate its belief thateducation and scholarship must be main-tained at the highest possible level if we areever to escape from this depression and therecurrence of similar crises in the future.If, as is generally admitted, ignorance andfolly are the basic causes of our presentsituation, our people will hardly be wise tocripple at this juncture those institutionswhose function it is to combat ignorance andfolly.There is, of course, nothing novel aboutthis conception of the place of the University of Chicago nor about the idea that theexcellence of the Faculty is the excellence ofthe institution. Mr. Harper started it.Mr. Burton gave it new life. Mr. Masonand Mr. Woodward devoted themselves toit unceasingly. The best proof of this isthat we can conscientiously say that theFaculty of the University today is betterthan ever. What we did in the academicyear 1929-30 was to follow in the foot-steps of our predecessors. In this process weattempted to see first, what the most pressing needs of the Faculty were. Here wesaw, as our predecessors had seen, that thefirst need of the Faculty was, oddly enough,to live. We therefore with infinite labor270THE UNIVERSITY IN 1931 271computed what it would take to put Facultysalaries at a level where decent existencewas possible. At some convenient time weshall have to make an effort to carry thatprogram through in its entirety. That thisis not such a time must be even more obviousto you than it is to me. It is particularlyobvious when you realize that the sum re-quired would be in the neighborhood of$15,000,000.00.Since it was impossible for us to under-take the whole task and to give members ofthe staff the income they deserved, we de-cided to do what we could with the resourceswe had. We increased tuitions. We cutdown other expenditures. Through theAlumni Gift Fund we were able to makeincreases that would otherwise have beenimpossible. And as a result we were able toincrease the budget for the current yearabout $360,000.00. But since we weredetermined that our expenditures should befor salaries first, we were able to effect asubstantial change in the ratio of increase inthe salary budgets to the increase in otherexpenditures. Whereas in the previous yearthe increase in the salary item in the generalbudget has been about forty per cent of thetotal increase, for the current year it wassixty-two per cent of the total. We wereable to raise the average full professionalsalary under the general budget from$6,300.00 to $7,000.00 and in Arts, Litera-ture and Science and the Divinity Schoolalone to raise the salaries of 148 membersof the staff. We were thus able to meetemergencies, to retain the services of menwho would otherwise have been compelledto leave, and to do something, though notmuch, about the general standard of livingof our professors.As through the Development Fund theAlumni brought the University to its presentlevel, so through the Alumni Gift Fund, thegraduates are continuing the process.The Fund has brought us since its in-ception almost the income on a milliondollars, ali of which could be applied tofaculty salaries. Without it the outlook formaintaining the quality of the staff wouldnot be brilliant. With it we have some con-fidence that we can keep the University where you want it to be. What we shall beable to do with the salary budget next yeardepends almost entirely on that fund. Wedo not believe this an opportune time to increase tuitions further or to seek large en-dowments. The only way in which we cancontinue raising salaries is to increase thealumni gift fund.You may ask why we do not study ourexpenditures with a view to effecting econ-omies that may release funds for salaries.We have been doing it for a year and a half .Under an appropriation of $50,000 from theGeneral Education Board a staff of sevenexperts is going over the University inves-tigating it from top to bottom with a coldand impartial eye. Since the survey has sixmonths to run its conclusions are as yetunformulated. Nevertheless some thingsmay be said. First, it is now apparent thatthe changes that may ensue as a result of thisstudy will be in the direction of increasedefEciency rather than reduced expense; forexample, if we eliminate some irrationalsmall classes to form larger groups, we shallhave to introduce other small classes setup on a rational pian. Second, there is anunexpectedly slight amount of waste in theUniversity. Although we spent $10,133,000last year, it is difficult to point to possibleeconomies that might reach one half of oneper cent of that total. We have just com-pleted a study on our own account of possiblereductions in the current budget designedto help us meet reductions in income fromreal estate and securities, it is amazinglyhard to locate places to cut down expenseswithout interfering seriously with the effec-tiveness of the University's work. This isperhaps not surprising when it is recalledthat Mr. Judson's long administration wasdevoted primarily to squeezing the waterout of the University budget, and that theUniversity has always been thought of as amodel of economical operation. Stili wemay be sure that through the survey we shallcome to understand ourselves better thanwe have in the past, and that increasedefEciency, which in the long run means de-creased cost, will inevitably result from it.Already its tentative findings have affectedthe decision of the faculty in removing the272 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINElimitation of 750 on the freshman class, haveaffected the pian of reorganization, thescheme of budget making, and in the construction of the new college curriculum haveexerted a most important influence in show-ing the committee exactly what course juniorcollege students were following. Thesethings and many more have already emergedfrom the work of the survey staff ; they alonewould make the study worth more than itcost and would earn the University's grati-tude to the Board that gave the money andthe men that are doing the work.In default of any immediate prospect ofimproving the standard of living of thefaculty as a whole through salary increases,we have turned our attention to othermethods of raising it. These inquiries havetaken us ali the way from possible co-operation in faculty investments, in whichwe have got precisely nowhere, through con-sideration of two projects for much neededfaculty residence and club f acilities in thecountry, to the development of facultyhousing near the Quadrangles. Considera-tion of this last problem has culminated inthe purchase of the apartment house at 5742Drexel which we shall develop as a residenceparticularly for junior members of the staff.The problem is so important, however, thatwe cannot stop here. We must work out apian for the future which shall take intoconsideration the desire of the faculty forindependence and yet meet the urgent needof respectable and reasonable quarters nearthe University for members of the staff.At the same time that we were attemptingto do what we could to improve the con-ditions under which professors live, we wereattempting to improve the conditions of theirwork. These conditions range from provision of clerical service, a study of whichis now under way, to research facilities ofa more impressive sort such as assistants andlibraries and even buildings. Half of thetwo buildings most badly needed, anatomyand bacteriology, we obtained last year inNew York. The other half remains to beraised. Provision which we hope will besatisfactory for some years is being madefor the School of Commerce and Adminis-tration in Haskell Hall. We must again direct the attention of our friends, however,to the need for quarters for Home Eco-nomics and Psychology. These departmentshave struggled with their environment sincethe University was founded. It is amazingthat they have not long since given up thefight. On the library we spent last year$230,000 for books or $50,000 more thanthe year before. That this must continue,and expand the study now being made bythe librarian for the survey, assures us. Hiscareful investigation of last year assures ustoo that we must look forward to a newlibrary of monumentai proportions, and thatthe sooner we get it the better it will befor the scholarly work of the University.Other research needs, including the tre-mendous need of publication funds, we havebeen going over in detail for a year and ahalf. Some small funds we are graduallyaccumulating. Others will have to waituntil a more favorable time.It was in these studies of the needs of theUniversity for salaries and research facilitiesthat we felt at once and most keenly thedesirability of some change in our organization. Since we were expert in few if anyfields we longed for people who could im-partially advise us as to the needs of groupsof departments as a whole. These groupsfell naturally into the groupings of the research activities of the University: thePhysical, Social, and Biological Sciences,and the Humanities. Investigators in thesegroups had been working together for yearsin more or less formai ways. It seemed tous that it would be an advantage to themand to us to have their organization formallyrecognized. We also saw that these groupings held in work in the Senior College toa certain extent as well as in the GraduateSchool. They did not hold in the JuniorCollege. There, different problems werepresented and deserved different treatment.The pian of organization approved by theSenate and the Trustees, therefore, involvedfour Upper Divisions and the College, theUpper Divisions being concerned with research and scholarship, and the College withexperimentation in general education. Atthis point we recognized that we had anopportunity in connection with the reorgani-THE UNIVERSITY IN 193 1 273zation to put into effect at last the ideas thathad been developed here in Mr. Mason's ad-ministration as to under-graduate education.They involved greater freedom for the stu-dent, broader courses, and general examina-tions. The College Faculty adopted onDecember 15 the idea of general examina-tions instead of majors, and last night sub-ject to the approvai of the Senate adopted acurriculum that makes possible wide ex-periment in general education. The numberof departmental courses is reduced. Thenumber of courses of the general divisionairather than departmental type is enlarged.We assume that the Upper Divisions andperhaps eventually some of the professionalschools will abolish majors and substitutegeneral examinations for them. They areali considering their courses of study. Theyare free to experiment with them, and ofcourse that freedom implies that if they sodecide they may leave things as they are.The reorganization raises very seriousquestions. The first of them is thegeneral examinations. They constitute anenormously difficult task. The second is theadvisory service. If a student is not com-pelled to do anything, the kind of educationhe gets may depend almost entirely on thekind of advice he gets. The third is whetherthe American student can stand the amountof freedom given him under this pian. Ithas never been tried with Freshmen, andrarely even with Seniors. To ali thesequestions there are perhaps three answers.First, you never can teli in education untilyou try. The purpose of a university, par-ticularly an endowed university, is to try.One might almost say that the purpose of auniversity is to make mistakes. But second,this experiment is not as reckless as it maysound. Although no university has doneeverything that is done in this reorganization, many universities have successfullycarried through many parts of it. And it issafe to say that the whole trend of educational thinking in this country is in the direction of the Chicago pian. Third, alithese questions fall within the purview ofMr. Works as Dean of Students and University Examiner. I am sure that now thatyou have heard him any fears that you may have had as to the successful development ofour plans have been permanently laid to rest.Although prophecy is always dangerous Iventure to predict now the results of thereorganization. The administrative resultswill be an even higher quality in the staff,greater efEciency in expenditure, better con-sideration of the needs of groups of departments, and far greater responsibility on theDeans than has been dreamed of hitherto.The results in research will be that cooperative investigation between members ofdifferent departments will be given tre-mendous impetus, but not at the expense ofthe individuai research worker. The Ionewolf must be encouraged, for he is likelyto prove the chief glory of a university.The educational results will be four: (1)students will be educated in independence.They will be given ali the advice they canstand, but their education will be up tothem. (2) We shall have to think ourselvesabout what we are doing. We can no longerstate our educational ideals in terms of yearsin college or majors accumulated. We shallhave to determine what we want a studentto know and to be able to do. (3) Muchwider opportunities will be open to thestudent than ever before. Since ali degreeswill be awarded on the recommendation ofthe Upper Divisions, a student shouldeventually have the benefit, if he wants it,of ali Divisionai offerings in the field of hisinterest, irrespective of departmental lines.(4) Educationally the University should becompletely adjusted to the individuai. Thestudent of solid worth who is slow in gettingstarted should be able to proceed at his owngait. The brilliant student will not be com-pelled to linger with the majority of hisclassmates. By breaking down the routineprogression of students through the institu-tion we break down the barriers that haveseparated some of them from an education.Let no one think that the reorganizationwas an end in itself or that we suppose thatthrough change in our machinery alone wecan make the University more effective.Long before the opening of the presentadministration the University had been con-templating parts of the present pian, notbecause it wished change for the sake of274 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEchange but because it felt that the existingmachinery did not enable it to realize theideals in education and research which it hasalways entertained.The new machinery will not automati-cally bring about a realization of thoseideals. If we work hard enough and have enough intelligence it may make it somewhateasier for us to accomplish them. To thisend we require interest and ability in ourstudents, interest and ability in our Faculty,and the interest, loyalty, and support thatthe Alumni have always given their AlmaMater.The University Serving the CityBy Mollie Ray Carroll, 'ii, Ph.D. '20Associate Professor of Social EconomyB,ACK in 1911when my classwas proudly an-nouncing to the worldthat it was the fìnestever graduated fromthe University, a nopinion stili prevalentthough not so openlyexpressed by its members because of thesomewhat disconcerting fact that otherclasses aver the same of themselves, ourstudent activities commanded sufficient pop-ular attention to bring forth an editorial inone of the city papers. The editorial wasto the effect that the ivy was beginningto cover the walls of the University, thattraditions were beginning to take root, thatcollege spirit was coming to be more thana pale imitation of the eastern variety, inother words, that in status as well as outlook, the university, that was about as oldas the bachelors whom it was sending forth,was coming of age.For half of the two decades since thattime, having been away from the city andin more or less intimate contact with a con-siderable number of other educational institutions, their staffs, their work, theirstudents and their alumni, I have come tohave even deeper respect for the Universitythan in those days of undergraduate loyalty.As I have had opportunity to test the educational advantages which the University gives I have come to feel professionalconfìdence because of the brilliant oppor-tunities which the University provides.Many others, like myself, have come toappreciate the life, growth, reality andcreativeness of the work of the University.I have come to realize that in my fìeld, notonly to my slight biased belief, but in theopinion of those whose loyalties are else-where, the University is the centre ofdynamic thinking and action.Coming back to continue professionalwork here, I have been most impressed bytwo aspects of the University, its largerposition in the city and its service to thecity. Its larger position is not merely amatter of increased student enrolment, alarger body of alumni, greater equipment orbetter fìnancial standing. Rather it is thatthe University and its interests have becomean integrai part not only of Hyde Park butof the district back of the Yards, of theNorth Side and of other parts of the citywhich feel the give and take relationshipand count the University as their own.This is in part because the city is supportingthe University in a much larger measurethan before and proud to do so. In part,and even more it is because the University isstretching out to serve the city. It is of thisservice that I wish to speak briefly tonight.And, because in them alone I have a rightto speak, I shall limit my examples to theTHE UNIVERSITY SERVING THE CITY 275social sciences. I have stumbled acrossequally significant contributions in thehumanities and in the physical sciences, butdo not know them in relation to their largersignificance and program. Therefore I pre-fer to stick to the field in which I canevaluate the services and achievements.Last year when some of us in the eastbegan to speak not in terms of isolatedpieces of service but of coordination of effort,analysis of the needs, and planning for acity as a whole, we took our patte fromthe work of the Locai Community researchof the University. We went over the bookson Chicago, the studies that the regionalplanning section of L. C. R. (as we alicalled it) had made. We examined themaps showing the geographic contours of thecity and the effects upon its development.We went over the studies of the industriesof the city, the government of the city, itspopulation distribution, the history of itscommunities, and crime and delinquency inthe locai areas.These studies represented cooperativeeffort of the social sciences in the University to understand the Chicago region asa whole. They were the diagnosis of thewhole patient preliminary to treatment.That Chicago needs treatment no one inthe world, at least outside of Chicago, willdeny. Incidentally persons who have livedand worked here and in other great citiessay that the only difference is that Chicagorefuses to accept and ventilates the problemsthat are covered up in other places.Other studies of L. C. R. include thefield which Miss Breckinridge has so brilli-antly carved out, that of public welfareadministration. She has been responsiblefor studies of indoor and outdoor relief,of dependent children, of housing andpopulation and of the legai status of women.Other studies cover such a wide range ofsubjects as immigration, supply and demand,negro life, causes of war, government fi-nanoe, trade unions, and cardiac morality.To some people these seem strange subjects for a university. However, a recentbrilliant writer to the contrary notwith-standing, it would seem that universitycourses for police captains and master's theses on dishwashing were as legitimatesubjects for university effort as the use ofa preposition by an ancient or mediaevalwriter, the pottery of an ancient tribe, orthe war tactics of a Roman general. AsPresident Hutchins recently said, "Theunfortunate circumstance that universitieswere founded by people who could read andwere proud of it has tended to emphasizethe importance of that exercise and makethe library the great centre of scientificinquiry. . . . Today students of the socialsciences have learned from students ofnaturai science that only by keeping intouch with reality can real life be under-stood. . . . Students of government andbusiness are studying it as it works. . . .Legai scholars are examining the actualoperation and results of the legai system."Nor is it in studies alone that the socialsciences are serving the city. There is activeparticipation in modifying treatment, so thatold rule-of-thumb methods are being re-placed by techniques based upon experi-mentation and research and scientific controlpromises to supplant reform based upon thedebating method. For example, our Schoolof Education is working in cooperation withthe superintendent of schools. It is workingwith 300 schools in the city and conductingstudies in seven of them. As PresidentHutchins recently said, "We have been toobusy spreading education in this countryreally to find out what it was that we wereadministering and where it was that we weregoing with it. It is only lately since ourterritorial expansion carne to an end thatwe have had a chance to examine what itwas that we were accomplishing." Similarexceptional work is being done in the fieldof adult education, through our HomeStudy Department, through UniversityCollege, through the Library School and thework of Mr. Waples and others in researchand experimentation.Another example is found in the depart-ment of Politicai Science, and ali alumniknow how much Mr. Merriam and hiscolleagues have done for the city. Whenwe are discouraged during election time it isperhaps encouraging to remember what awell-known person in the field in the East276 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEsaid to me recently about Chicago. Hesaid that the difference between other largecities and Chicago lay in the fact that wehad not accepted but were stili protestingagainst and preventing the crystallizationof a politicai system such as most cities hadand took for granted. How much this isdue to one man in the University we know.To pursue the matter further. OurEconomics Department maintains the tradi-tions of Laughlin, Veblen, Hoxie and Field,men of diverse interests and points of viewbut serving the city more widely for thatvery reason. It was to our Department ofSociology that President Hoover turnedfor a chairman of his Committee on SocialTrends. Our Law School, among its manyservices, is aiding the polke department ofthe city in reorganizing a school of policeadministration. The School of Commerceand Administration is conducting researchinto 15 or 20 major industries. Some ofthat research and some of the recommenda-tions of its staff I have seen and in thefield of industriai management some of thatwork is absolutely unique. The Instituteof Meat Packing, national and locai, isclosely affiliated. And if one wonders whybusiness administration and meat packingoccur in a university curriculum, isn't it asimportant to study sound business methodsas the decline of a state, and to devisemethods of sanitary food preparation as tostudy disorders of the digestive system?In Social Service Administration, the partof the University which I know best, oneaspect of the service which the school isrendering is shown in Miss Abbott's recentconvocation address in which she said, "Inour American states public expenditures forsocial services have been rising rapidly sincethe Civil War. If the money were wellspent this would be a sign of progress, forrising public expenditures for social welfareare an expression of public concern for theweaker members of the community for whoma young, vigorous and wealthy nation isexpected to show grave concern. Since ourexpenditures are made by the states and byminor locai autfiorities rather than thenational government, it is impossible to estimate with any reasonable degree of ac-curacy our national expenditures in thisfield. Our expenditures for poor relief, forexample, on which the taxpayers spendmillions of dollars every year, are accountedfor only in the scattered and fugitive recordsof more than a thousand different countyboards, most of them making no annual re-ports to any centrai authority."In the field of public welfare administration this school is trying to improve socialtreatment without digging deeper into whatis too often considered the bottomless pocketsof the taxpayer. Not only in public but inprivate service is the school cooperating withagencies in the city to raise professionalstandards through class room work, throughclinical or field work and through socialresearch. To this end it is cooperating withsuch agencies as the United Charities. Ithas revolutionized the treatment of theorphan in the city. It has cooperated withthe University medicai schools, where theaim is not primarily to train more prac-titioners but to promote research and traininvestigators, cooperating to establish amedicai social service department in whichthe aim is to treat patients, to train studentsand to investigate disease, conscious of theimportance of the social facto r in ali theseactivities.This picture of the work of the socialsciences is sketchy enough and not pre-tending to be comprehensive, but it showssome of the contributions of the Universitywhich are more or less unique. Everythingone hears or sees about art, religion, ali ofthe humanities and the physical sciences in-dicates that their services are as coordinated,rich and permeating as those which I havetried to indicate.Nor does this imply sacrifice of the largeruniversity spirit to some mere Babbitry ofservice, petty focusing upon immediate ob-jectives without reference to great and ob-scure truths. Rather it is the clinicalmethod of treatment combined with the ex-perimental attitude that revises treatmentin the light of its results. It is the desire tospread knowledge in a democracy. It isthe faith that truth shall make men free.Student Relations in the UniversityBy George A. WorksDean of Students and University ExaminerT:' HE announce-ment of the establishment ofthe position of Deanof Students and University Examiner hasraised questions in theminds of many regard-ing the purpose of thisnew position. Conse-quently, it seems appropriate at this timeto consider the responsibilities of this office.It seems wise at the very beginning toconfess that I am not able to discuss asspecifìcally as most of you may wish thenature of ali the activities that are broughttogether by the creation of this position.Like other elements in the University 's newprogram, there will necessarily be a periodof experimentation before more than themain outlines will be clearly defìned. Thereare on the campus nearly a score of agenciesthat have to do with student relations. Theestablishment of this new position representsan effort to coordinate the activities ofthese agencies that are of a non-financial andnon-teaching character. The activities ofthis office extend only to the College andthe Divisions. The professional schools arenot included except as they may wish toavail themselves of the services of the office.The activities which are under the Deanof Student's supervision are : student coun-selling, vocational guidance and placement,residential halls, clubhouses, registrareoffice, recruiting of students, student healthservice, social relations, student organiza-tions and publications, and the comprehen-sive examinations that have been substituted,in part at least, for course credits as a meansof measuring student-progress during thecollege period. It is evident that we cannotattempt to discuss ali of these in detail.However, an attempt will be made to giveyou something of an insight with referenceto the plans for the comprehensive examinations and for the integration of the different phases of the student advisory service.The new curriculum that has beenadopted by the College faculty and theabolition of compulsory class attendancecali for a material modification in thecharacter of student counselling. The pianof reorganization will not only affect thenature of the advisory work, but it is equallyclear that the opportunities for the studentto obtain counsel will need to be increased.Both of these changes are to be effected.The work in vocational guidance willbe closely integrated with the educationalcounselling. At the college level these twoactivities become essentially one. A university should do two things in helpingits student body to become orientedvocationally. First, it should help thestudent to understand his interests, needs,and aptitudes. True, we fall short ofhaving the body of reliable data that isdesirable if these efforts are to be mostprcductive, but we have much more thanwe are now using. Second, informationshould be made available to students re-garding the opportunities and demands ofthose vocations for which the institutionprepares students. The work of a committeeof the Alumni Association has made possiblethe offering of a series of talks on the campusdealing with professional and business opportunities. These talks have been ap-preciated by students and will undoubtedlybe of material assistance to many of them.Life in the residential halls will becoordinated with the program of studentcounselling. Plans are being made whenthe new residential halls for men open nextautumn to have several members of thefaculty live in these halls. Men will bechosen who are willing to devote time tostudents' interests but who have no desireto force themselves on students. Thelibraries and conference rooms of thesehalls will make it readily possible forstudents or students and faculty to meetfor discussions and conferences. Just what277278 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEform these will assume and how closelythey will be identified with the counsellingservice we do not know. Undoubtedly thiswill be determined largely by the studentsand the particular counsellor who is asso-ciated with them. We hope on the onehand that there will be a great deal ofstimulation of student interest with no com-pulsion in these relationships and on theother that the contacts of faculty withstudent body will be helpful in the advisoryservice.The comprehensive examinations are themost important responsibility that will beconnected with the new office of Dean ofStudents and University Examiner. Asyou know, the faculty of the College hasvoted to substitute comprehensive examinations for the usuai course examinations forthe major portion of the work in theCollege. Furthermore, it seems not unlikelythat some of the Divisions may make use ofcomprehensive examinations in connectionwith the baccalaureate degree. In takingthis action the College faculty has accepteda view that has been gaining acceptancerapidly in college circles in recent years ;viz., that a general examination, comprehensive in the sense that it extends over alonger period of time than the quarter orsemester, has desirable educational by-products. Examinations of this nature leadstudents to integrate the results of theirstudy activities in a manner that is unlikelyto occur when a subject is dropped with thepassing of a course examination.The pian that has been adopted by theUniversity Senate provides for a Board ofExaminations that will have responsibilityfor determining policies regarding comprehensive examinations. This Board con-sists of a representative from the- Collegeand from each of the Divisions, threemembers appointed by the President, andthe Dean of Students and UniversityExaminer, who is chairman ex-officio. Ifa professional school decides to use comprehensive examinations it will be entitled torepresentation on the Board. The facultyof the School of Commerce and Administration has already decided to use comprehensive examinations. The Board will be a policy-making bodyrather than an administrative organization.Working under its general direction willbe a technical staff consisting of a ChiefExaminer with statistical assistance. Thisgroup will be responsible for putting theexaminations in their final form. Associated with this technical staff will bemembers of the teaching staff who willhelp in determining the scope of the examinations and the qualities that are to bemeasured by means of the examinations.As these examinations are to be the basisof measuring a student's progress it is veryimportant that the examinations used fromtime to time be as nearly equivalent aspossible. This highly important responsibility will fall to the Chief Examiner andhis staff.Beginning about twenty years ago anumber of studies were made which showedthat the ordinary examination is a highlyunreliable means of measuring studentprogress. This was due to the great varia-tions in marks given examination papersby apparently equally competent judges.The results of these studies stimulated thedevelopment of a number of forms of whatare frequently referred to as "new-type"examinations. In general, they are char-acterized by a greater measure of objectivitythan the "old-type" or "essay form" ofexamination.It is true that many of these new-typeexaminations have placed a great deal ofemphasis on the factual phases of the subjects in which the testing was being done.Important as it is for students to gaininformation, college teachers regard it aseven more important for them to showprogress in such respects as the following:i. Growth in power to think effectivelyin new situations involving materials fromthe fields of instruction.2. Increased ability to use the processe?and skills acquired in later study and inlife outside the classroom.3. Growth in capacity to collect andorganize facts for specific ends.A high degree of correlation may obtainbetween achievement in these several respects and the acquisition of information,SOME PERSIAN ROCKS AND RUINS 279but at present we know relatively littleabout this phase. Therefore, any systemof comprehensive examinations establishedshould recognize the tentative state of ourknowledge with reference to this relation-ship. In the formulation of the plans forthe examinations cognizance should be takenof the entire range of results sought, andtests with the maximum degree of objectivitypracticable should be devised.That this view is shared by the facultyis shown in the action recently taken by aSenate Committee in recommending thecreation of a Board of Examinations. TheACLIPPING from the ChicagoTribune of December li, 1930,states that a permit has been grantedto Professor Breasted to "restore the ancientcity of Persepolis." Just how much thismay mean it is difficult to forecast. Perse-polis was a stupendous group of buildingsand to restore it would certainly be a greatundertaking. However, restoration ofany sort would necessarily mean explora-tion. Persepolis is the most outstanding ofali the many monuments of antiquity in thisinteresting "Land of the Lion and the Sun"unless it be Behistun Rock. Opportunitàmay come later to explore other places ; thiscountry is a rich and inviting field for thearchaeologist. The law recently passed bythe Majléss (Parliament) permitting con-cessions for work of this kind is due mainlyto the efforts of several scientific men ofEurope and America. It was stated thatseveral American institutions were planningto cooperate and the present writer pre-sumed that our Orientai Institute wouldbe one of them. A few pictures are sentherewith which may serve as an unofficial* I am indebted to "Persia Past and Present" byProfessor A. V. Williams Jackson of Columbia University for many details of information. Of the pictures those marked P. and Do. were taken respectivelyby Mr. J. D. Payne and Miss Jane Doolittle ofTeheran. Those marked Da. were taken by Mr. A.W. Davis, British consul until recently at Shiras. statement is as follows: Comprehensiveexaminations should not be interpreted asbeing restricted to any particular type ofexamination. In the opinion of this Committee they should include any kind oftest, investigation, problem, assignment, orcreative work by which the abilities, achieve-ment, or performance of students may bemeasured.The examination techniques designed toachieve these ends with the greatest degreeof reliability should be the subject of studyby the Faculty and the Board of Examinations.advertisement. They show some of thethings that casual but interested travellermay see in Persia.I. Behistun RockThe Behistun Rock, some 20 miles east ofKermanshah, ranks with the Rosetta Stoneof Egypt as a revealer of ancient languageand history. It faces southward toward awide plain and the main highway passes atits foot. Viewed from the northeast themountain bears a striking resemblance toGibraltar as the latter is ordinarilypictured. Here on the face of a cliff 1700feet high is sculptured a group representingDarius I (b. e. 526-482) with his foot onthe prostrate body of Gaumata, who hadThe sculptured group on Behistun Rock andthe great panels contaìning the trìlìngual in-scription.Some Persian Rocks and Ruins*By Frederic J. Gurney, B. D. '8328o THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEusurped the throne during his absence, andnine kihgs of conquered territories who hadrebelled at the same time, their hands tiedbehind them and a rope around their necksstringing them together before him. He iscondemning them to death. Behind theking are two vizirs and overhead hoversthe winged figure of the god Ahura-Mazda.Above each captive is his name and the rea-son for his punishment.But infinitely more important is the greattri-linguai inscription in old Persian, Ela-mitic, and Babylonian, which occupies aseries of panels cut in the rock beneath andat the sides. This inscription was copiedand deciphered by Sir Henry Rawlinson,then a young military officer serving inPersia, during the years 1835-44. Thewhole inscription is some 300 feet abovethe base of the rock and was considered byprevious travelers to be utterly inaccessible.But Rawlinson, with the help of severalpeasants, particularly of one Kurdish lad,made the perilous ascent repeatedly andaccomplished the impossible. He gave tothe world a priceless gift by discovering thekey to the hitherto unknown Babylonianlanguage and thus opening up the treasuresof its literature.IL Ganj NamÉhNear Hamadan is another inscription byDarius with a similar one by his son, Xerxes.These are likewise tri-linguai, but they aremuch briefer. They are on a huge graniteboulder at the foot of Mount Alvand. In1802 Grotefend, a German scholar, hadvisited this place and studied them and hadmade out a few of the characters. Rawlinson, however, though he knew of Grote- fend's work had not seen his results beforehe himself attacked the problem of Behistun.His great achievement was accomplishedquite independently. Darius was a goodadvertiser. This inscription, like the other,was beside the main road as it then was, in apass through the mountains. Ganj Naméhmeans "treasure story" and this name wasgiven in modem times under the idea thatthe inscription told the location of treasurehidden somewhere nearby.III. TAK-I BOSTANAbout four miles northeast of Kerman-shah across a beautiful fertile plain a copiousstream bursts out from the foot of a preci-pitous mountain. The name of the placemeans "Arch of the Garden," for the streammakes a garden of the region. On thatmountain are some very fine sculptures be-longing to the Sassanian dynasty (a.D. 226-651). In a panel about 18 feet long andio feet high on the face of the rock is a basrelief of four fìgures. Two are of royalhearing and though the identifìcation is notquite certain, they probably represent Arde-shir I, first king of this dynasty, and hisson, Shapur I, triumphing over the fallenParthian dynasty. This had been over-thrown by them and is represented by thefigure of Artabanus V, the last Parthianking, under their feet. At the left isa figure with a halo of rays about his head,perhaps Zoroaster himself, representing thereligion and blessing the occasion. "Thecentrai figure is a king who stands with atriumphant air, his left hand on his swordand his right hand grasping a ribbon-bedecked coronet which he receives from orbestows upon a second pefsonage of loftyGanj Nameh Tak-i Boston. Note the sunflower beneath therayed figure.SOME PERSIAN ROCKS AND RUINSùPTak-i Bostàn. The arches.hearing. The latter stands before him withthe right hand on the chaplet and the leftresting gracefully on the hip. Both figureswear crowns. . . . Both have the character-istic Sassanian decoration of streamers andveil hanging down behind."*At the left of this groupare two arches recessed intothe rock. The smaller isabout 20 feet wide, 17 high,and 12 deep; the largerabout 24 feet wide, 30 high,and 22 deep. The walls ofboth are richly sculptured inbas relief and the larger hassome fine carvings about theentrance. The walls have,among other things, someelaborate hunting scenes.One represents a deer huntand p i e t u r e s elephants,mounted hunters, fleeingdeer, a boat with banks ofoars, camels, etc. Anothershows a hunt in the marsheschasing wild pigs. Persepolis. The Porch ofXerxes, east front. The co-lossal human-headed nuingedbulls show Egyptian in-fluence.IV. PersepolisHere are wonderful remains from thetime of Darius I and his immediate suc-cessors. The place is in the southern partof the country, less than 150 miles in directline northeast from Bushire on the PersianGulf. A vast platform about 500 by 330yards was built backing against a low mountain and facing westward toward a greatplain. A massive retaining wall, 20 to 50feet high according to the surface of theplain, extends irregularly along the three* Jackson pp. 216ff. Tak-i Boston. The deer hunt.open sides. Considerable expanses of thestone floors are stili to be seen. From theplain rises a grand doublé stairway, rightand left to turning spaces and then left andright to the level beyond. The steps aremostly intact and the ascentis by easy gradients. Judg-ing from the sculptures stilito be seen in the ruins above,it would appear that possiblypack animals and even char-iots may have gone up it tothe imposing building at thetop. On the platform itselfare the porch of Xerxes withits four great pylons, and theruins af palaces of Darius,Xerxes, and Artaxerxes, theaudience hall of Xerxes, the"Hall of 100 Columns," andsome other structures. Theaudience hall was on an upperplatform, which also had adoublé stairway. A numberof its enormous columns arestili standing. On the faceof this platform are longrows of bas reliefs showing envoys of sub-ject nations bringing tribute, royal guardsstanding at attention, and processions ofcourtiers. On the broad doorposts of thevarious buildings are many portrayals ofa king going out or coming in, with attendante following. Most of the faces,alas, have been hacked away, probably bythe Mohammedan Arabs at the time ofthe conquest. Much of the work is stili intact, enough to show accurate fitting of thestones without mortar, and skillful chiselingin .the sculptures. Even a layman would282 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPersepolis. Face of the upper platform, onwhich the Hall of Xerxes stands. Tributebearers ascendtng the stairs. Observe thehandsome band of rosettes, a frequent ornament.fain linger and return day after day to studythese intensely interesting scenes.V. Cyrus the GreatA few miles west of the road betweenIsphahan and Persepolis is the plain ofPasargadae, where the founder of the Per-sian empire gained a great victory over theMedes and where he built his capital.Among the ruins here, of which compara-tively few are now visible, is a great stoneslab over 12 feet high, 5 feet broad, and 2in thickness. On the front (now badlyweathered) is a great bas relief of Cyruswearing a curiously Shaped crown and having a doublé set of immense spreading wingsextending from the shoulders almost to.theground. "The sculptured form" says Jack-Persepolis. Hall of 100 columns. De-tail of ornament on one of the massivedoorposts. Note the winged symbolsof Àhura Màzda with prpcessions oflions, the bands of rosettes, and thediagonal representation of a curtainwith tassels. Below, the king on histhrone and an attendant with a flybrush. Observe how faces, hands andscepter have been hacked. Persepolis. Front of the upper platform onwhich stood the Hall of Xerxes. Note the differ-ìng garb and headgear of the tribute bearersìndicating different naiionalities, also the division of the space into panels by conventionalizedcypress trees, and the officers leading the groups.son quite truly, "is the very idealization ofsovereignty." The top of the pillar, nowlost, bore the simple inscription "I am Cyrusthe King the Achaemenian."The best preserved object of interest atPasargadae is the tomb of Cyrus. Thisstands between the two mud-walled villagesand is surrounded by the broken remnantsof a colonnade. Within these are some ili—kept Moslem graves. Even in its desolationit is an imposing structure. The materialis white limestone. The pedestal, morethan 16 feet high, consists of seven massiveterraces, the lowest 2 feet or more in thickness, nearly 50 feet long, and over 40 feetwide. On this is the mausoleum itself,Persepolis. Lion attacking a bull. Panelledproclamation: "I am Xerxes, the Great King,the King of Kings, King of the Nations withtheir many peoples, King of this Great Eartheven to afar. Thus saith Xerxes, the GreatKing. Everything that has been made by mehere and ali that has been made for me else-where, I have made by the grace of Aura-rnazda. May Auramazda with the other di-vinities protect my kingdom and ali that 1 havemade." Tr. by Jackson, "Persia Past andPresent," p. 314.SOME PERSIAN ROCKS AND RUINS 283some 20 feet long, 17 wideand 18 high. It extendsfrom southeast to northwest.The heavy courses of stoneare ali laid up without mor-tar. Inside there may beseen 2 openings at the fur-ther corners where the stonehas been broken away, andthe larger opening reveals ametal clamp binding togetherthe ends of the stones. Thistomb, like those of othergreat men of ancient times,has suffered at the hands ofrobbers and vandals. Cyrusdied in the year 530 b. e.Alexander the Great, whenhe visited this place two cen-turies later during his easterncampaign, found that thebody had been thrown outand the treasures of gold, precious stones,tapestry, etc. had been stolen. Thouh hehad the body replaced and the tomb closedTomb of Cyrus the Great.The end in the view istoward the southeast. Thedoor, of small dimensions,is at the jarther end. again and sealed, this didnot prevent subsequent de-spoiling. Ali the originaicontents disappeared manycenturies ago. Inside therehave been added some quiteirrelevant Arabie inscriptions,and the peasants of the vicin-ity have hung up tawdry rags,little bells and bits of metalas charms for their goodluck.One is tempted to moralizeon this scene and on othersmentioned above, but this isnot the place for the expres-sion of such sentiments. Wemay be glad at any rate thatthis noble monument hassurvived through nearly 25centuries, even though bat-tered by time and careless orhostile hands, and that so much remains ofother works of past ages to give a suggestionof the ancient glories of Persia.BackTo The MidwayFor ReunionJune 13The University Builds a Student Home forMenTypical Study in Suite for Two MenTerrace at South Entrance to Clubhouse284A Clubhouse LibraryOne of the Dining-Halls"The Very Landscape Was Different"''A ReminiscenceBy Edith Foster Flint, '97Chairman, Womens University CouncilMostly there were vacant lots — I hadalmost said prairie. The- Midway con-noted the World's Columbian Expositionrather than the parks it joined, and that itshould ever be a pathway between "thehigh upreared and abutting fronts" of University buildings could not have beendreamed of.On the western edge of the quadrangles-to-be were Cobb with the three DivinityHalls, North, South, and Middle, adjoin-ing; on the eastern edge were Beecher andKelly; to the Northwest, Snell. Here andthere between grew the scrub oaks, nosmaller then, in my recollection, than now.A fiat-building — apartments were flats inthose days — on University at 55th Streetwas called Science Hall, a fine, hospitable,commodious name, a general-survey-orienta-tion-course in itself. Remember that northand south blocks in Hyde Park run onlyeight to the mile and cease grumbling,those who complain of the distance fromIda Noyes to Cobb. We did it, too, inskirts four yards around, just clearing thesidewalk.The University had been open to studentsjust one quarter when I entered. Thatfirst year I lived at some distance, and theluncheon I sometimes took at college I hadin the Commons, i. e., in the basement ofNorth Divinity Hall ; both men and womenstudents and faculty members had mealsthere together. It was one of the wayseverybody carne to know everybody else,as we did then, with only 700 of us, facultyand students, ali told. The food for thebody, as I recali it, was fierce, and as Ithink back to the scene, I have a generalimpression of many steam pipes ribbing theceiling.When, the next year, I carne to live inBeecher, there was a prevailing sentimentthat the meals left practically everything tobe desired, and several times in the ensuingthree years embassies were dispatched to those in charge of the Commons, registeringprotest. It happened more than once thatI was chosen to head such a protest.Faintly, even then, I realized that a moreconvincing portrait of a famine sufferercould have been selected. We were re-ceived with courtesy, and nothing muchresulted, after the classic custom.Whatever the food, we had good service— devoted maids who would climb out ofa bathroom window onto a fire escape(where in cold weather one kept one's moreperishable supplements to the food officiallyprovided), and thence into one's bay-window to open the door from the insideif one had carelessly locked oneself out;skillful maids, good waitresses. One ofthem I took away with me when I married.Even an instructor's wife could have expert service, with wages at $5 a week,washing included, and always a black uni-form at dinner.The life in the halls was socially important. There were no clubhouses. Peoplehad not yet acquired the habit of entertaining at hotels; only for a prom would onego to the old, then the new, Del Prado.There were no movies, and the Loop was along way off, with no automobiles.A student seeking the theater or an operamust be a hardy spirit, for the ride home onthe Illinois Central behind a tea-kettle en-gine was not a fast one, and what with thewalk, and something to eat in a friend'sroom, and talking it ali over, the timebetween turning in and an 8 : 30 was brief,reckoned on the sleep-scale of the '90's.Yet I remember one winter week goingfive nights and one matinée to the Germanopera at the Auditorium, sitting in the top-most gallery — the point of view from whichRing Lardner once described the conduc-tor and his lighted baton as "a Lillipoothianwith a match.' 'For the most part we had to make our286A REMINISCENCE 287own entertainment. Regularly . once amonth on a fixed day each hall was athome to callers. And because there werefew competing events everybody carne —students and faculty. There were smalldances. People carne to dinner a gooddeal, too, younger faculty men especially.And at the risk of seeming like an ElsieDinsmore book, or at the best, Louisa Al-cott, I must set it down that the hall girlsand their young men sometimes made candyin the big pantry and frequently repairedthither about 9: 50 for crackers and milk,which were always on hand for the asking.Sounds like the desperate farmer in theStephen Leacock Nonsense Novel who wasalways seizing a crock of buttermilk anddraining it, doesn't it?Sometimes we had special parties withgames and stunts — not so bad. I can thinkat the moment of five young faculty men,since risen to wide fame, who scorned notto share in these artless diversions. Andone Washington's Birthday we undergrad-uates were vastly impressed by a skit somegraduate students put on in Beecher. Itwas a burlesque of a Seminar, and onefeature was a paper designed to prove thatthere was no such person historically asWashington, that he was a sun myth, hisname coming from the Anglo-Saxon, Wascine dun — "O shine down!" Dimly butdelightedly we unenlightened perceived thataugust methods and a learned professorwere being spoofed.If one wanted more vigorous recreation,there was bicycling, wasn't there? Andfor that matter there was basketball, a newsport. There was a University women'steam, but Beecher had a team of her own,and in a heady moment asked the newyoung Mr. Stagg to coach it. Undaunted,he said that he would, but that only hisevening hours were free.So in the old one-story gymnasium,standing where the Reynolds Club standsnow — the dusty old structure built of back-door brick and smelling eternally of the hot damp pine partitions between theshower-baths — we practised evenings between eight and ten. With what I ambound to concede was a lack of humor wewent on a Yale training table diet — I thinkthis was our own idea, not Mr. Stagg's —drank only barleywater, and before gamesate sandwiches of scraped rawbeef, in theinterests of valor and fierceness.I remember we were badly beaten inour first game. Somewhere there is aphotograph of us, looking rather sweet andgentle, and extremely lady-like in our gymsuits of heavy black flannel, with sleevesneatly buttoned at the cuff, collars (withties), and full skirts reaching just belowthe calf in its sturdy black cotton stock-ing. Mr. Stagg may have put in extrahours of unrewarded labor, but he had aunique privilege. No other man was everpermitted to enter the women's gymnasiumand see a game on account of the indeli-cacy of the costume. Now sometimes whenI see men at a swimming meet at IdaNoyes, or watch the girls' hockey teamson the Midway, giving pause to not somuch as a grocery delivery boy, I realizeIVe lived a long while.In those days thirty-five years ago(Heavens!) the University attracted avery heterogeneous group of students.Only parents of some audacity would thinkof sending sons and daughters to a placeso new, with so many innovations. Onlystudents who liked the novel and the ex-perimental would do well, be happy, andremain.As I go about the world I am increas-ingly impressed by what a good lot thosefirst years turned out. A surprising numberof them are real people, persons, doinginteresting and important things. I havebeen wondering whether perhaps the revo-lutionary changes now being projected forthe University may not prove to constitutea renewed challenge to adventuring soulsto come and equip themselves for theworld's work.The Missing Element in Legai EducationBy Charles P. Schwartz, '08, J.D. '09President, The Law School AssociationFIFTY or more years ago, men weretrained to be lawyers in law offices.Today, lawyers are prepared for theBar in Law Schools. In the law office, theaspirant for the Bar usually started as anoffice boy. After he outgrew his usefulnessas an office boy, his employer promoted himto the position of clerk. As a clerk, he ac-companied his master to court with theauthorities securely fastened under hisarms; served notices, filed papers and per-formed other high grade clerical duties. Helearned the law at odd moments during theday, and evening from Blackstone's Com-mentaries and other ancient books.The law school changed ali this. It isno longer possible to start a boy on his career as a lawyer without a high schooleducation and a degree from some collegeor its equivalent. It is practically impossible in the modem office to work your wayinto the profession as an office boy or clerk.Apart from the requirements of the vari-ous states, the modem office requires a clerkwith a legai education, and while night lawschools in large cities stili afford some menan opportunity to serve their apprenticeshipbefore completing their studies, neverthe-less it is only a question of time (unlessthey raise their scholastic standard) whenthe evening law school will be forced todiscontinue its activity. It is becomingincreasingly difficult for poorly preparedmen to obtain employment in the betteroffices.A law school such as ours, certainly givesits graduates as complete and thoroughtraining in the law as is possible. A graduate of Chicago or other school equallyequipped with full time professors, is prepared to write a brief for the highest courtin the land involving the most difficult questions of law. He is prepared to hold up hisend in a legai argument with any practi-tioner.The most common complaint that thepractitioner has against a graduate of a law school, such as Chicago, is that the graduatehas not had sufficient practical experience.He has to be told where the court room is;where the clerk's office is ; how to watch acase on the cali and various other thingsthat the night school man is thoroughlyfamiliar with even before he graduates.While this criticism does not go to the man'slegai ability, nevertheless it is in the way ofhis employment and advancement. If itwere possible in some way for the lawschools to give their students some knowledge of the practical workings of an office,and the problems that they will encounterin the practice, might it not go a long wayto avoid this criticism and increase the usefulness and efEciency of the men who graduate from Chicago?While the Law Schools have not beenunmindful of their shortcomings in this re-spect, they have not been able to find aremedy. Perhaps it is too much to expectthe professors in the Law School, who aredevoting ali their time and energy to thedevelopment and teaching of legai princi-ples, to acquire and give, at the same time,to their students a knowledge as to how tohandle and apply these principles in theevery day practice in the law office. Thebest teachers of the law, for the most part,have either no or very little experience inthe practice. If they practised at ali, theyare out of touch with the practical field.It would seem, and in fact many believe,that the only available material of a practical nature for the lawyer can be obtainedonly in the law office, outside of the lawschool.Professor Pound, in speaking before theChicago Bar Association on "THE TASKOF THE AMERICAN LAWYER,"said:"In Law, as every where else, wemust rely upon those who know theproblems to be met, know the material with which they are to be met;know the art of this craft that will288THE MISSING ELEMENT IN LEGAL EDUCATION 289apply to the materials, and knowsomething at least of the experienceof the past out of which those materialshave been wrought."I believe that everyone must agree withProfessor Pound's statement, but how arethose materials to be brought into the LawSchool, so as to enable them to be used inthe class room? This has been regardedby many as the missing element in legaieducation.The ignorance of the practice of the lawon the part of the law school graduate car-ries over and stays with him long after hisadmission to the Bar, and the Alumni Association undertook this year to help supplytheir members with this so-called missingelement in their education. A series ofmonthly talks by the leading Judges of thevarious courts on the practical problems oflawyers who practised there was arranged.Judge Evans talked on the Federai Courts ;Judge DeYoung, the State Supreme Court ;Judge O'Connor for the State AppellateCourt; Judge Denis Sullivan for the StateAppellate Court and Judge Horner for theProbate Court. These talks enabled ourmembers to get first-hand information thatthey may otherwise acquire only throughexperience.The desirability of these talks naturallygave rise to the thought that something ofthe sort should be done by the Alumni forthe students in the Law School. It wasthought that the older alumni, who havethe material, might bring it into the classroom, and do for the students what theJudges are doing for them at these lunch-eons. The suggestion was made to theFaculty, and Judge Hinton has agrèed tobegin an experiment along this line thisSpring. A course of lectures by Mr. HenryF. Tenney of the Class of 19 15, and a mem-ber of the firm of Tenney, Harding, Sher-man & Roders, will be given on office organization and management to the Law Students. An announcement will be made ofthis in due course. Mr. Tenney's materialon office organization and management iswell organized, and I am sure will be wellpresented. I hope you will encourage usby your interest in enlarging upon this ex periment. Perhaps the Alumni is the logicaisource to whom the Law School may turnfor this material that Professor Poundrefers to.A knowledge of how to use and apply theprinciples of law in practice, is almost asimportant to lawyers as the principles. Thecraft is an integrai part of the art. Maynot this practise material be gathered andorganized in much the same way that thelaw was organized by the early commenta-tors? The early decisions were, after ali,but an expression of the experience of liti-gants before their tribunal, the Judge.Many of the earliest cases were decidedwithout any expressed reason or principle.The reason for these decisions carne as alater development. Is not the practisinglawyer in his every day practice confrontedwith the same necessity to pass judgmentand decide upon a course of conduct upon agiven state of facts as a Judge. If so, thenwhy aren't these* experiences capable of expressing a principle, and passed on to thosewho come on the scene afterward? To besure many important difficulties will arise,and suggest themselves to ali of us, butwould it not be worth our effort if we couldthereby help the coming generation of lawyers better to help themselves, their clientsand their community?Some of the things that have transpiredin the Law School recently make me feelhopeful that the Faculty welcomes a closerunion with us, and nothing can bring uscloser together than working together in acommon undertaking. Indeed, Dean Bige-low's pian for the co-operation of theAlumni in passing on the fitness of applicante, and the Alumni's response to the HallScholarship Fund, are evidences of this desire for closer co-operation. Then too, theestablishment of the evening conferencecourses for the Alumni next Fall is anotheractivity along the same line.I believe the members of the AlumniAssociation will respond wholeheartedly toany pian calling upon them for the cò-operation along practical lines calculated tohelp the Law School carry its load, andmake the hard road of experience for itsgraduates a little easier to travel.Wfyt ®ntòetóttp of Chicago JHap?meEditor and Business Manager, Charlton T. Beck '04EDITORIAL BOARD: Commerce and Administration Association— Rollin D. He-mens, '21 ; Divinity Association — C. T. Holman, D.B., 'i6; Doctors' Association — D. J.Fisher, '17, Ph.D., '22; Law Association — Charles F. McElroy, A.M., '06, J. D., '15;School of Education Association — Lillian Stevenson, '21 ; Rush Medicai Association —Morris Fishbein, 'ii, M.D., '12; College — Roland F. Holloway, '20; Allen Heald,'26; Wm. V. Morgenstern '20, J.D., '22; Faculty— Fred B. Millett, Department ofEnglish.John P. Mentzer, '98, ChairmanAn Industriai Pioneer Who Made HistoryCyrus Hall McCormick, Seed Time 1809-1856, By William T. Hutchinson, Ph.D. J2J,Assistant Professor of History, University of Chicago, with Foreword by William E.Dodd; The Century Co., New York, 1930, pp. x, 493, $5.THIS volume by Professor Hutchinsonis the first in a projected two volumestudy of the Virginia émigré whoseinventive genius and business sagacity con-tributed to the building of the Middle West,and profoundly affected American agri-culture and industry. The study proceedsfrom the historical consciousness, common-place among scholars perhaps, but imper-fectly realized in the popular mind, that thedynamic forces in historical development arenot ali found in government and politics.Agriculture and industry, it is recognized,have victories no less than war, and no lessthan politicians and politicai parties. Professor Hutchinson's book is a chapter, anda pregnant one, in the economie and socialhistory of the transformation of the American people from "a congeries of independentcommunities of free farmers" into "the vastindustriai, financial and politicai power,"which was already sufficiently centralized by1861 to defeat the agrarian South. McCormick was a major contributor to theeconomie and industriai revolution of themid-century which made possible the success-ful politicai revolution of the sixties.Whether McCormick realized his contribu-tion to this end, and what his attitude wastowards its incidents, remains to be told byProfessor Hutchinson in his second. volume. This reviewer awaits the telling with interest. But certain it is, that whoso wouldunderstand the emergence of modem America from the earlier Jeffersonian common-wealths must reckon with such men as CyrusMcCormick, if to do so it is necessary toneglect the biographies of many politicaifigures whose statues adorn our halls offame.Much of the subject matter of ProfessorHutchinson's first volurne is concerned withthe mechanical development and successfulmarketing of the reaper, and is necessarilyof a technical nature. The reviewer is impressed by the writer's success in treatingthese technical matters with such clarity asto make them intelligible to the layman.Cutters, seythes, fingers, reels, platforms,rivai reaper models, agricultural statistics,problems of manufacture and sale at homeand abroad : these are not subjects calculatedto inspire general enthusiasm. But Professor Hutchinson has succeeded in makingthem interesting. The general reader mayfollow the development of the reaper without undue labor; and for the technician orscholar there is additional data available infootnotes and charts.In methodology Professor Hutchinsonleaves nothing to be desired. His study isfully and carefully documented. If it seems290IN MY OPINION 291over-documented at times, the fault is nota grievous one, and may be explained by theauthor's meticulous desire to give ali theevidence on both sides of the controversialquestions with which the study abounds.Professor Hutchinson was fortunate inhaving thrown open to him the vast store-house of agricultural historical materialscontained in the McCormick HistoricalAssociation library in Chicago. This material has been hitherto practically unusedby American scholars. Much of it relatesdirectly to Cyrus McCormick; much of itis general in character. Professor Hutchinson spenf three years in sustained researchamong these materials, in preparation forhis first volume. His courage and industry alike challenge our admiration. His bookwhen complete will represent prodigiouslabor.The volume published conforms to thebest standards of the Century Company inbook-making. It is illustrated with photo-graphs, charts and maps, which add to itsattractiveness and enhance its usefulness.A bibliographical guide and comprehensiveindex is provided.Cyrus Hall McCormick, from the pen ofa scholar trained in the technique of historical research who has also demonstratedmarked literary ability in handling his materials, is a valuable contribution to theliterature of American history.Haywood J. Pearce, Jr., Ph.D. '28«m mv opinionBy Fred B. Millett,Assistant Professor of English.IT IS one of my fondest notions thatpeople never think unless they have to,and that, consequently, most peoplenever think at ali, since it is much simplerto get one's ideas ready made or acquirethem on the instalment pian. Accordingly,I derive the greatest satisf action from thecontention of the new psychology that whatpasses through most people's minds as think-ing is really an ingenious process of dis-covering what look like good reasons fordoing bad things. I am quite sure that Ishould never have taken time out to thinkabout the University of Chicago, if theeditor of the Daily Maroon had not re-quested me to do so, and even now Ican not be certain that I am thinking,or merely thinking that I am thinking.How infinitely remote is our child-like faithin man's capacity for pure reason.I am frequently reproached by unre-generate Easterners for insisting that theyrespect my feelings by not referring to this institution as Chicago University. Mysensitiveness on this point has another sourcethan that passion for accuracy which I firstlearned to admire in the graduate schoolhere. For that this is literally the University of Chicago is one of the secrets ofits fascination to the thousands that flockto it. The advantage of having a magnifi-cent city in one's backyard becomes obviousto anyone who encounters willing exiles(usually from Texas) who register for acouple of pleasant summer courses in orderto escape from the heat of Hades toAmerica's summer playground. Nor isChicago a bad center for winter sports, atleast of the urban variety. Despite ourprivate admission that Chicago is not NewYork and our public asseveration that wethank Heaven it isn't, Chicago offersbeauties and diversions enough to explainits being a visionary Babylon to refugeesfrom the barrennesses of Kansas, Montana,and points west.292 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMoreover, the fact that the Universityis in Chicago and not in Ann Arbor orUrbana certainly explains the singular at-tractiveness of its social life or, rather, itslack of social life. Even though the absenceof formalized and regimented social activitymay deprive the timid and unaggressive ofadequate human contacts, the social freelance blesses the uninhibited individuality ofthe University's social habits. Here wemercifully escape the deadliness of innu-merable state occasions when one attemptsto be polite to colleagues he has never seenbefore and hopes never to see again. Hereflourishes a generous obliviousness to one'sreligion or irreligion, the diseases of one'soffspring, or one's difficulties with wivesand servants. There is little or nothingof that microscopie attentiveness to theprivate affairs of others that, for prisonersin small colleges or large universities insmall towns, takes the place of nobler curi-osities. Here at least, promotion does notdepend, as it does in more sharply stratifiedacademic communities, on the kitchenettegossip of the servants of the wives of associate and full professors.Seriously, though, I believe that the moststriking of the University's characterfsticsis its phenomenal power of growth andchange. Of this youthful vitality, the phys-ical changes in the University are theoutward and visible signs. Almost everymorning, apparently, ground is broken fora new building. Almost every month,Gothic walls rise where before was lawn ortennis court. And this physical development is paralleled, though less obviously,by a Constant inner expansion and modifica-tion, an incessant re-alignment and redirection of purposes and energies. Any daymay bring to light a startling and far-reaching intellectual or educational project.Thus, every day means change, and, con-sequently, one must be ever ready, neverflaccid or bored by stale routine or utterlyconventional procedure.An almost equally conspicuous character-istic of the University is its capacity tostimulate people to their best efforts, totheir maximum of production. This stimu-lation is due in part to the extraordinary dynamic quality just mentioned; it- is dueeven more notably to the consciousness thatone is working on the same ground withsome of the greatest personalities in science,research, and scholarship. I can think ofno academic environment where young menambitious of scholarly or scientific distinction would find an atmosphere so definitelychallenging and inspiriting.This high-blood-pressure quality of theatmosphere at Chicago is further intensifiedby the innumerable demands for ali kindsof service, not only by the University butby the great metropolitan area of whichthe University is the intellectual crown. Iused to think of the University as a rcon-astery happily severed from the enticementsof modem urban life. Increasingly Irealize that the University is connected bya thousand threads to the great city andthe great prairie in the midst of which ithas risen. So many are those ties, so Constant are the services one is called upon torender, that in ali probability most of ushere lead excessively extraverted lives, haveinsufficient leisure and solitude and isolationfor psychological and professional healthand comfort.Indeed, the conditions that I havesketched are probably responsible for themajor weaknesses of the University: itscult of hard work and its failure as a sourceof diversion. If in the business world thecult of hard work has the character ofa religion (and a rather absurd one), thecult has some of its most ardent followerson the campus here. Only the strongestand most independent of the charactersamong us have been able to resist the temp-tation to mount the interminable tread-mill. Most of us are galley-slaves, andglory in our servitude. This exaltation ofwork above the important things in life isfurthermore responsible for the failure ofthe University to be amusing, and if anindividuai or an institution isn't amusing,what other excuse for existence can it offer ?The least amusing members of the University population are the graduate students.Of course, one can hardly blame them, sincemost of them are on the verge of starvation,unless they have been astute enough to ac-IN MY OPINION 293quire working-wives. Moreover, in orderto be successful, they must hypnotize themselves into believing that a thesis is thenoblest work of God and the graduatestudent, and that state of mind isn't evenfunny. Fortunately, the faculty is slightlymore amusing than our graduate students,sometimes consciously, more often uncon-sciously. In some respects, luncheon atthe Quadrangle Club on a working day(/. e., Tuesday to Friday) is one of themost diverting sights in the world — but thespirit of discretion advises silence. Afterali, the University would be a pretty dullplace if it were not for the undergraduates ;they constitute its most reliable source ofamusement. They are young and disil-lusioned ; they have a normal sense of valuesand keep work in its proper place; theyhaven't yet discovered (fortunate youth!)that it is almost impossible in the modemworld, academic or non-academic, to bean individuai or to retain one's sense ofhumor.I am unable to decide whether the un-conscious assumption of every Chicagoanthat the University is the greatest in the world is a strength or a weakness. I aminclined to think that it is a point ofstrength. The assumption grows, I believe,out of the very special quality of loyaltythat the University arouses, even in personswho sojourn here in odd summer quarters.It is not the sickly loyalty of the perennialadolescent, hankering for his lost boyhoodand the jejune delights of sitting on thesenior fence, singing threadbare songs inlong spring twilights, and getting, for thefirst time, ingloriously drunk. Nor is ita loyalty of the obnoxious sort that resultsfrom the application of advertising, thelowest of ali rackets, to holding up reluc-tant alumni for an annual contribution tothe swollen coffers of the dear old college.(I have the deepest sympathy for the har-assed alumnus who asked for a final statement of his indebtedness that he might for-ever after escape dunning.) No, the loyaltythat the University of Chicago engendersis a blend of humility, admiration, and de-votion to the shrine where, for most of us,the white light of intelligence seems tobum at its purest. Is there a nobler objectof man's capacity for loyalty?irerewreE^p^FaroEreraparapar^r^^^THE LETTER BOX2S2!2E2Kii2E21Former Conf erence Tennis Champion Writes from Upper AmazonSir:I have now lived in the forests and onthe Amazon for two years, traveling mostof the time where not a soul lives, and themonkeys are numerous and tame, and game,such as tapir, wild pig, and wild turkey,is abundant. Every step I travel must becut with a bush knife, place for everycamp cleared, provisions and equipmentcarried by men. If accidents occur thereis no aid, save a little medicai kit we carry.Nearly ali of the time I am walking inwater waist deep, and am soaked ali day,of course, from numerous fordings of themountain streams which must be followedin order to fìnd any geology. The soil istoo thick to get any information on dryland. I have to bathe twice daily in greaseto keep "moving," and even so one's skin,especially on the feet, becomes thin andbleeding from excessive abuse. Now andthen we fìnd a place where we can use araft or a canoe, but even such luxury doesnot keep us from getting wet.We are lucky enough tohave canned goods along.The native porters, of whichI use between thirty-five andforty, eat powdered yucca(farinha), game, dried fish,rice beans and bananas (whenthey can be found).I have made two expedi-tions, one of six and the otherof nine months, into theforest. It seems a long timeaway from everything, notseeing white men nor hearing a word of English. ButProfessor Chamberlin holdsthe record, for he was thir-teen months off in the interior of Brazil looking foriron. Ruthven PikeHe likes the life. So do I. Ph.D. '28On my last trip I had five guides, belong-ing to the cannibal tribe of Cashibos, whohad been stolen in childhood in the courseof intertribal warfare and subsequentlybrought in contact with civilization. Onlyone of them could speak Spanish and notwell, either. These cannibals live on thesouthern plot of a concession, and with theaid of the guides it was hoped that peacemight be made with the Indians and workcould progress.We carne upon the Indians before weknew it, and in order to save our lives hadto attack and take prisoners. Then we ranaway with them on forced marches, andlater, carrying on the work over a differentroute, I returned them, for I would otherwise have been held by the laws of Perù forstealing nationals. The guides turned traitorand wanted to take the captives for themselves and at the point of a gun I heldthings in check until the captives couldflee up a small creek toward home andsafety. Then for a second time we ned byforced marches and reached safety in twodays.Para, Manaos and Iquitosare the nicest towns on theAmazon. Here there aresome fifty new automobiles,since it is only recently thatthey have been imported. Afew streets are paved andthe roads about the townhave been made suitable forshort drives. , One is sur-prised at the civilizationthat has penetrated to the interior.With very best wishes,Sincerely yours,Ruthven W. Pike,Ph.D. '28Standard Oil Company of PerùIquitos, PerùFebruary 1, 193120,294THE LETTER BOX 295Favors Reorganization PlansSir :I am accepting your invitation to expressmy opinion on the University of Utopia.The idea appeals to me immensely. Ifeel that it is a step in the right direction.I am proud of the University of Chicagofor being the first to take a bold step in thatdirection. It is entirely in keeping withthe broad-minded and far-seeing principlesupon which the University of Chicago wasoriginally founded.That it will be attended with difficultiesthere is no doubt. And that it will needrevision to adjust itself to the conditionsthat it is designed to serve there is littledoubt. But the University of Chicago canmake such revisions, in the same spirìt withwhich it is making the originai start, forshe is a young institution influenced by fewtraditions except the tradition of service tohumanity here and now.President Hutchins says that it needsaa kind of public support that is more important than money, and that is completeand utter academic freedom."You can count on me, as a teacher in college, to use my influence to elicit such publicsupport.Sincerely yours,H. C. Embree/S.M. '25.Flint Junior CollegeFlint, MichiganFive QuestionsSir :As an alumna very much interested in thenew pian of organization at the U. of C,I wish to submit the following questions:1. Will it produce scholarly men andwomen, or merely scholars? In otherwords, men or "greasy grinds"?2. Will it be conducive to better physi-cal health?3. Will it narrowly individualize, orbroadly socialize, the educand?4. Will it enrich and integrate person-ality, or impoveristi and dwarf it?5. Knowledge will be determined by comprehensive examinations. How will other essential qualifications, for example, teach-ing skill, be measured and evaluated ?I firmly believe that these questions arevital to the welfare of every educand, andthat they should be most carefully con-sidered. I also believe that the old pianshould be retained for ali students pre-ferring it, at least until the success of thenew pian shall have been demonstrated be-yond the shadow of a doubt.Sincerely yours,Pearl Hunter Weber, '99.4219 Davenport StreetOmaha, NebraskaNew Rigmarole Does Not AppealSir :Don't like your new "rigmarole" at theU. of C. Am afraid of its results for thedear old "Varsity."Sincerely yours,(Mrs.) Charlotte Comstock Gray,'97, D.B. '98, A.M. '00.Cambridge, Washington Co.New YorkHas Faith in Pian — IfSir :I have read with great interest the de-scriptions of the Chicago pian. That partof the pian charging the college facultywith the task of determining what consti-tutes an ideal general education is, to mymind, excellent. There is considerable evi-dence which seems to indicate that it is fromthis point that much of the trouble in education arises. If considerable energy isdevoted to this part of the pian, if thetask of defining a general education is madea continuous task for ali time, and if thetests that are used to measure the progressof the student cover ali the phases of thelife of a well-educated man or woman, then,I think the pian will achieve tremendouslysignificant results. Without any one ofthese, it seems that the pian would beseriously handicapped.Sincerely yours,R. H. Ojemann, Ph.D. '29.Iowa Child Welfare Research StationState University of IowaIowa City296 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWould Require An Entire Voices Approvai — PromisesMagazine CooperationSir : Sir :I was very much interested in the Magazine for January, particularly in that sectionon page 147 dealing with the Universityof Chicago alumni recorded in WhoJs Who.It has occurred to me that it would beinteresting to have a compilation of theUniversity of Chicago doctors of philosophywho are listed in WhoJs Who, as well asthe graduates of Rush Medicai College whoare listed. Within my own acquaintance Ihappen to know of several who would comein this group of bachelors, doctors of philosophy and doctors of medicine. Perhapsalso the data from the Law school and theDivinity School would be interesting.Sincerely yours,Eugene F. McCampbell, '06,Ph.D. '11, M.D. '12.327 East State Street,Columbus, OhioStepping on the GasSir :Thank you very much for your kindletter of recent date.I was just down in the locker room shak-ing hands with the members of the Chicagowrestling team, with whom we have a meetthis evening. They surely are very niceboys. Coach Voorhes also is apparently theright type of leader for them. Our Coachsays that he is a very efficient man. I believe I am going to split my rooting. Asyou see, I am put in rather a "delicate"position.Note the great changes that are going onat the University. You sure are steppingon the gas. I am very glad to see suchprogress.With kindest personal regards,Sincerely yours,Hugo Bezdek, '08.Office of the DirectorSchool of Physical Education and AthleticsPennsylvania State CollegeState College, Pennsylvania It was our privilege to have Dean C.S. Boucher with us in Kansas City a shorttime ago. It is certainly surprising theinterest that is being shown by everyone inour section of the country in the Universityof Chicago experiment. It is the opinionof many of us here that this is one of themost forward looking experiments in education that we have had in a generation.As Dean of the Junior College here, I amvery much interested in the outcome. I amsure that the University will receive thefinest cooperation from institutions and individuata ali over the country. Certainlythe alumni of the University should giveenthusiastic approvai.Sincerely yours,J. F. Wellemeyer, A.M. '14.Junior CollegeNinth and Minnesota AvenueKansas City, KansasThe Heart of the Editor isMade GladSir:Under the old regime my consciencewould not permit me to join the AlumniAssociation, but with the new interpreta-tion of education as promulgated by theUniversity itself, I'm delighted to acceptyour invitation.Any student who can look back to Dr.William Rainey Harper as a teacher hashad a rare endowment. I come from a lineof teachers and my own life has been spentin the profession. I was honored by aninvitation to the White House Conferencein November.Enclosed you will find draft for the fullfifty dollars. I consider it a privilege tosend it. I have always been deeply interested in U. of C. affairs.Sincerely yours,Myrta Richardson Harman, ex 'oo.Ft. Dodge, IowaChicago, 22;Chicago, 30;Chicago, 31;Chicago, 15; By William V. Morgenstern, '20, J.D. '22SCORES OF THE MONTHBasketball SwimmingIndiana, 33 Chicago, 22; Illinois, 53Illinois, 36Ohio, 22 Water PoloMichigan, 29 Chicago, 7 ; Illinois, 8TrackChicago, 22; Michigan, 73Conference meet:Michigan, 27Illinois, 17Chicago, 14WrestlingChicago, 6; Illinois, 20 FencingChicago, io; Wisconsin, 7Chicago, 9; Michigan, 8GymnasticsChicago, 1149; Wisconsin, 1119.5;Michigan, 865.5.Conference meet:Chicago won, 1 121.95SPRING means various things tovarious people, but to Mr. A. A.Stagg the early robins are merely areminder that the football team needs re-construction. As a preliminary to startingsix weeks of intensive development ofplayers, the "Old Man" has gone intoretirement for the purpose of meditatingon his plays for next autumn. It is reportedthat he plans a major change in his attack,and that he is considering the possibility ofwing-backs. But that seems unlikely. TheChicago coach remains one of the few whohas his own system and it will be very sur-prising if he adopts the tactics of some oneelse.The football team may turn out to be agood one next fall, but so many misfortunescan happen before then, and usually do atChicago, that there is no reason to get un-duly hopef ul. Keith Parsons, center ; Capt.Sam Horwitz, Stanley Hamberg and Walter Maneikis, guards; Walter Trude andBert Cassels, tackles; Bernard Wein,Arthur Abbott, Pompeo Toigo and RobertWalsh, ends; Paul Stagg, Joe Tempie, Kenneth Mackenzie, Louis Kanne, Donald Bir- ney, Edward Stackler, and Robert Wallace,backs, ali active members of last year's teamare among the assets. The first string line,at this distance, looks good, but as usuai isweak in reserves. Last year's freshmanteam will not contribute much to the lineunless some of the men develop this spring.Robert Cummings, a 195 pound tackle, willbe useful, provided he is eligible. Robert Reneker, a big center, is another goodprospect. Harold Johnson and LloydChangnon were considered varsity possibili-ties at end because of their work in theautumn.The freshman group will supply plentyof fine backs. Several of the men are havingdifficulty in keeping abreast of the require-ments, but none is definitely lost as yet.H. O. Page, Jr., Vinson Sahlen, WilliamPyott, Allan Zimmer, and R. J. Aufden-spring will give the veterans competition.Page, a fine blocker and good punter, andZimmer, a gifted passer and ball carrier,are much above the average. If Sahlen isthe fighter on the field that he is in theclassroom, he will put fire in the team. Atthe end of his freshman year, the young man297298 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEhad a deficit of twelve grade points and wasrequested to depart. Announcing that he'dbe back, and stay, Sahlen went to Lewis andmade a strong enough record to be read-mitted to the University. In two quartershe has made up the scholastic deficit and iseven with the Registrare office.Assisting Mr. Stagg in the spring workwill be Nelson Norgren, Saul Weislow,Lawrence Apitz, and A. A. Stagg, Jr. Itwas assumed that H. O. Page would takeover the line coaching duties, but he hasbeen made baseball coach, and will not seemuch of the squad until autumn.Chicago teams have creditably concludedtheir indoor sport activities, for they de-livered to the full extent of their capabilities.The gymnastic team again won the conference championship, their eleventh victory inthe last fifteen years. Capt. Everett Olsonwon the all-around championship and tookfirst in the rings and the parallel bars, and asecond in the horizontal bar event. Phillipstook second in the rings, and fourth intumbling; Bromund retained the clubswinging title, Kolb won the side horsecompetition, Alvarez was fourth in thehorizontal bars, and Hutchinson placed second in the side horse. These achievementsagain demonstrated Coach Hoffer's remark-able ability to build a team. Olson went tothe eastern intercollegiates and was third inthe ali-round championships, although hewas handicapped by the diflerence in easternpractices.Largely because of the individuai per-formances of Dale Letts, who is clearly thebest runner in the conference from the 440to the mile, Chicago finished third in theindoor track meet. Letts won the mile inrecord breaking time of 4:21 6/10, andmight just as well have been under 4:20,had he not been saving himself for the 880,which he also won. Lawrence Brainardfinished fourth in the mile. Capt. AlienEast ran a brilliant race in the 70-yarddash, losing to Tolan of Michigan by lessthan a foot. Roy Black hit the last hurdlewhen he was running second in the highs and lost out. There is more class in theconference hurdlers this year than in anyevent, but Black belongs among the best.Outdoors, the added field events will hurtthe team's chances, for outside of Bibb, abroad jumper, no men will be added forthe javelin, discus, hammer, and jump.The squad will be strong in the relay carni-vals, at both the sprint medley and distance medley. The distance medley teamof Cameron, Herrick, Brainard and Lettsset a new record at the Illinois relays.Cornelius Oker was the only swimmerto place in the conference meet, winning asecond in the 50-yards freestyle. Capt.William Dyer, 145 pound champion inwrestling, was able to win again from astrong field. The basketball team, whichmay have gone stale after its early seasonrush, finished the season with fourvictories in 12 conference games. Its show-ing against Illinois was one of its best gamesin the season.Mr. Page seems to have changed not atali during the ten years of his absence inIndiana. He stili is an advocate of thestrenuous regime and just as gloomy aboutprospects as ever. Such baseball candidatesas were able to spare the time during examination week worked out on the patch ofcinders north of Bartlett Gymnasium, de-spite the only snow of the year. Duringvacation week the baseball players toiledtwice a day. "Pat" professes to be verydespondent about his prospects and antici-pates every variety of misfortune fromineligibility to dead arms for his squad, buthe does not let this professional gloom interfere with his enthusiasm on the field. Ofthe group which went to Japan last summer,Arthur Canili, catcher, pitcher, and out-fielder ; Marshall Fish, third baseman ; RoyHenshaw, pitcher; Clarence Johnson, in-fielder; Harold Johnson, outfielder; JohnLynch, outfielder; William Olson, firstbaseman, and Wilbur Urban, pitcher, stilihave competition. Henshaw, both John-sons, and Lynch were drafted from thefreshman team, and as they were the bestof the new group, not much additionalstrength is expected from the sophomores.NEWS OFTHE CLASSESAND ASSOCIATIONSCollege1870George W. Nead, '70, D.B. '73, is pastoremeritus of the First Baptist Church, Nor-wood, Massachusetts, and a member of theDepartment of Chaplains of the Massachusetts G. A. R.1878Eli B. Felsenthal is stili practicing lawat 69 West Washington Street, Chicago.1897Waldo P. Breeden is practicing law at1705 Law & Finance Building, Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania.1898Orlo J. Price and Mrs. Price (EvaGraves) will return Aprii ist to their home,Rochester, New York, after spending thewinter in Clearwater, Florida.I9OILaura A. Thompson is librarian of theU. S. Department of Labor in Washington.1902From the Survey of February 15 wequote the following: " 'Banking has becomeas cut and dried as cobbling,' you sometimes hear. But with banking, as withcobbling (and the salty memory of HansSachs bears us out) it is not the trade butthe man following it who determineswhether his calling shall be broad or nar-row, dull or satisfying. Those who havefollowed the work of Henry Bruère, thenewly chosen president of the largest sav-ings bank in the world, know that for himbanking — even minutely-regulated savingsbanking — will never be a cut and dried trade.At thirty-three, after graduate studies inlaw, experience as a settlement resident, boys' club leader, in the personnel department of International Harvester, and asdirector of the Bureau of Municipal Research, he was city chamberlain in the Mit-chell administration of New York City.Later he served as financial adviser to theMexican government, and during the warwas a federai director in the United StatesEmployment service. Four years ago heresigned a vice-presidency in the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company to becomesenior vice-president and treasurer of theBowery Savings Bank, which he now heads.Last year Governor Roosevelt called on Mr.Bruère to serve as chairman of the first statecommission on unemployment. To one bigjob after another he has brought the illumi-nating view points of social work theory andmethod, as well as his knowledge of financeand public aflairs and his special skill as anexecutive."That as a savings bank officiai Mr.Bruère sees at first hand some of the causesas well as the results of industriai depres-sion and unemployment is shown by recentstatements of the Bowery Savings Bank.The panicky lack of faith in commercialinstitutions in hard times and the fear oflay-off or wage-cut that makes us save in-stead of spend, are reflected in the figures ofthe bank's recent business. Thus the gainin deposits in 1930 was more than $77,-000,000 as compared with $23,000,000 in1929. The total number of new deposito rslast year was 40,000 as against 27,000 theyear before. In December, when depositspoured in following the closing of the Bankof the United States, the Bowery had toput on an extra clerical force to handle anincrease in savings accounts in excess of$30,000,000 with 21,000 new depositors, ascompared with $6,500,000 and 2,000 newaccounts in December, 1929."299300 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1905Ruth Williston, '05, S.M. '13, who isback home at the Oak Park Arms Hotel,Oak Park, reports a most enjoyable Euro-pean trip last summer. The high spots ofthe trip were the International BotanicalCongress in Cambridge and visits to tenfamous botanical gardens on the Continent.1906Elizabeth Munger is superintendent ofthe State Institute for Delinquent Womenat Niantic, Connecticut.1908Edgar R. Born, ex, is president of M.Born & Company, wholesale clothiers,Chicago. *** Julia K. Sommer is the au-thor of "Educational Ideals," a pamphletdiscussing the need for radicai reforms inelementary school policy and practice. ***Mrs. George D. Criley (Elizabeth Parker)writes from Georgetown, Colorado: "Mytime is devoted to caring for a small daugh-ter and a busy husband, to taking an activepart in club and P. T. A. work, and toenjoying life in cool Colorado."I9IIBernard Sobel, authority on ali matterstheatrical, press agent to the immortai Zieg-feld, has signed a contract with Farrar andRinehart, Inc., to write a history of theburlesque show, to be titled "Burleycue."Mr. Sobel will appreciate any aid thatthe public may care to give him. He hasalready collected a mass of interesting data ;and any stray memories or mementos thathe can collect will be more than welcome.Mr. Sobel is an ideal choice for the writingof a book on burlesque. For many yearshe has written of the stage in its variousmoods ; contributed articles on .stage slang,etc, etc. to magazines, read and lectured onali sides of stage history, has contributedpieces in stage history to the edition of"Morrow's Almanac," edited by BurtonRascoe and was associated for some timewith Billy Minsky in the famous NationalWinter Garden. J9I2Young Land, a volume of dramatic poemsof life in the pioneer west, by GwendolenHaste, was published last fall by Coward-McCann of New York. *** Fred R. Nich-ols, '12, and Mrs. Nichols are making aleisurely tour of the United States andCanada. Mr. Nichols has a year's leave ofabsence from the principalship of the Or-ville Bright School, Chicago.1914Mrs. Austin Howard (Florence Foley)of Farmer City, Illinois, divides her timebetween her husband and children and herposition as teacher of mathematics in theMoore Township High School. *** Mr.and Mrs. G. G. Shor (Dorothy Williston)'14, are spending the winter at Scarborough-on- Hudson, to be near the ScarboroughSchool which their three children are at-tending. *** Laura M. Smith is assistant tothe vice-president of the American Tele-phone and Telegraph Company in NewYork. *** J. F. Wellemeyer, A.M., isprincipal of the Wyandotte High School,Kansas City, Kansas, and dean of theJunior College.19*5Mildred Peabody is director of physicaleducation at Greenwich Academy, Green-wich, Connecticut. *** Helen L. Drew, A.M., has returned to her position as head ofthe department of English at Rockford College, after six months of graduate study atthe universities of Minnesota and Chicago.*** Harriet E. McCay is children'slibrarian in the River Fòrest, Illinois, publiclibrary. *** Hays MacFarland, ex, is president of the Hays MacFarland Company,advertising, of 333 North Michigan Avenue. Mrs. and Mrs. MacFarland (FayeMillard) '22, are living at 24 Scott Street.I916Leon P. Smith, Sr., S.M., dean ofWesleyan College, Macon, Georgia, is president of the Georgia Academy of Science.*** Alsy L. Griffith is living at her home inDundee, Illinois.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 301A,University of Chicago / \LUMNI headquartersand for 101 other colleges and 21 national Pan-Hellenic sororities$10.50 to $17.50 weekly/ separate FioFOR WOM IrNI $2.00 to $3.50 daily14 separate Floorsk ARCA RADIO SPEAKER IN EACH OF THE 1000 ROOMS AT NO EXTRA CHARGEALLERTON HOUSEWALTER W.DWYER, Geni Mgr.B CHICAGO «701 North Michigan Avenue_302 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1924Genevieve Cook, emeritus teacher in theChicago public schools, spent last yearmotoring over the United States. Shevisited every state in the union and drovealone over the nineteen thousand milejourney. *** Elizabeth C. Davis, '24, A.M.'26, is psychiatric social worker at theChild Guidance Center, Chicago. ***Laura A. Miller, S.M., is assistant professor of home economics at the University ofOklahoma.1925Ehrma Cloyd is teaching French andLatin in the Hirsch Junior High School,Chicago. *** Dewey M. Beck, whose head-quarters are at the Hotel Windermere, Chicago, is special representative of the FirstNational Bank of Chicago in the south.190OOtto Heller of St. Louis is the author ofThe Writings of Charles Nagel to be pub-lished this spring by G. P. Putnam's Sons.I90IWillard C. Gore is instructor in education at Chicago Normal College.1904Mrs. W. W. Charters (Jessie Alien) isdirector of parental education for the Ohiostate department of education, and a mem-ber of the department of adult education atOhio State University.1907George Winchester, '04, Ph.D. '07, headof the department of physics at RutgersUniversity, is spending six months leave ofabsence studying at the Sorbonne in Paris.*** Rheinhardt Thiessen, '03, Ph.D. '07,is head of the Coal Research section of theU. S. Bureau of Mines at Pittsburgh.1913Mrs. George R. Coffman (Bertha Reed)is associate professor of German at SimmonsCollege, Boston. 1926Emily L. Sedlacek is teaching in the highschool at Des Plaines, Illinois. *** LillianE. Rickert is teaching history at East JuniorHigh, Waterloo, Iowa. *** In our December issue we stated incorrectly that Mrs.Mason M. Phelps (Margaret Miller) hadreturned to Chicago. Mrs. Phelps plansto remain in Brookfield, Massachusetts, in-definitely. *** Leon Howard, Jr., A.M.,is teaching English at Pomona College,Claremont, California. *** Arlee Nuser,A.M., is supervisor in the Fresno, California, State College. *** Edna R. Stewartis teaching in the Flint, Michigan, JuniorCollege. *** Mayme V. Smith is instructorin reading at Central State Teachers College, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan.1914Bert A. Stagner has resigned from theUnion Oil Company of California, and isnow a consulting chemist with offices at 1 1 2 1South Hill Street, Los Angeles.19*5Theodore H. Jack is professor of historyand vice-president of Emory University,Atlanta, Georgia.1918D. J. Brown is professor of chemistry atthe University of Nebraska.1919Margaret B. O'Connor is professor ofeconomie history at St. Xavier College,Chicago.1920William C. Smith, A.M. '12, Ph.D.'20,is professor and head of the department ofsociology at Texas Christian University,Fort Worth, Texas. *** Charles M. Rein-oehl is professor of elementary education atthe University of Arkansas.Doctors of PhilosophyNEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONS 3031922Wesley M. Gewehr is professor of history at the American University, Washington, D. C. *** Louis M. Sears, '06, A.M.'io, Ph.D. '22, member of the departmentof history and economics at Purdue University, is spending the spring quarter asvisiting professor at Stanford University.1923L. E. Blauch, A.M. '17, Ph.D.. '23, onleave of absence from North Carolina College for Women this year, is in Chicagoassisting in the survey of the Methodistcolleges and universities. He may be ad-dressed at 740 Rush Street. *** Marion G.Frank has resigned from the BeechnutPacking Company and is now in the research department of Erwin, Wasey andCompany, New York. *** E. Lloyd Mor-row is professor of systematic theology atUnion College, Toronto. *** Ernest R.Wood is associate professor of education atOhio State, director of scholarship contestsand director of instructional research forthe Ohio State Department of Education.*** Clarence F. Jones, '18, Ph.D. '23, willconduct a Caribbean field trip for ClarkUniversity Summer School from July 4 toAugust 11. Mr. Jones is professor ofeconomie geography at Clark University.***Floyd A. Spencer is associate professorof classics at Washington Square College,New York University. *** Neil B. Mac-Lean, D. S. O., formerly head of the department of mathematics, University ofManitoba, and for the past three years onthe actuarial staff of the Sun Life Assur-ance Company of Montreal, has been ap-pointed professor of applied mathematicsand joint chairman of the department atMcGill University.1924Leona M. Powell is managing editor ofthe Handbook of Business Administration,published by the American ManagementAssociation of New York.I92SFloyd W. Reeves, A.M. '22, Ph.D. '25,professor of education at the University, is Why SWIFT HandlesButter^ Cheese, Eggsand PoultrySWIFT & Company handlesthese produets for the samereason that your retail dealer handles them.The retail meat dealer has therefrìgeration necessary to keepmeat fresh and equally necessaryto preserve butter, cheese, eggs,and poultry.He can reduce his expenses forrent, salesmen, and delivery service, by selling more goods.He can also serve consumersmore satisfactorily because theyoften like to buy butter, cheese,eggs and poultry when and wherethey buy their meats.Just so with^Swift & Company.The retail dealer finds it a con-venience to buy other goods be-sides meat from us.We have the equipment to keepmeat fresh, and this same equipment may be used in handlingbutter, cheese, eggs, and poultry.And we have the distributingorganization — branch wholesalehouses, salesmen, and deliveryequipment taking our goods to theretailer's store.It would be an economie wasteto use this nation-wide distributing organization for nothingbut meats.Our entire selling cost is keptdown by volume of business, madelarger by handling butter, cheese,eggs, and poultry.The handling of ali these produets by Swift & Company is abenefit to the producers of meats,butterfat, cheese, eggs and poultrybecause it reduces the unit costof marketing.Swift & Company, U. S. A.Swift & Company furnishes thestraightest marketing route from.the farm to the retail dealer304 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEdirecting a survey of one hundred and twoeducational institutions of the MethodistEpiscopal church, and is directing the survey of the University. *** Charles W.Saunders, S.M. '12, Ph.D. '25, taught atthe Georgia State College for Men at Tif-ton this year. *** Pierre G. Robinson, '14,S.M. '22, Ph.D. '25, is teaching at IowaState College.1926Sybil Woodruff, S.M. '19, Ph.D. '26, isassistant professor of home economics andassistant chief in foods in the ExperimentStation, University of Illinois. *** H. M.Sharp, S.M. '23, Ph.D. '26, is teaching phys-ics at State Normal College, Natchito-ches, Louisiana. *** Orvil F. Myers, A.M.'22, Ph.D. '26, was recently made chairmanof the department of philosophy and psychology at the Los Angeles Junior College.*** Herman C. Beyle, A.M. '16, Ph.D.'26, is professor of politicai science atSyracuse University. *** Mary M. Stea-gall, '06, S.M. '23, Ph.D. '26, head of thezoology department at Southern IllinoisNormal University at Carbondale, is atpresent doing special work on bryophytes ofsouthern Illinois, and on histology of tis-sues. *** Jens P. Jensen, on leave of absencefrom the University of Kansas, is doing research work in economics at the Universityof Chicago this year.1927R. G. Archibald of Columbia Universityis studying at the University of Goettingenthis year. *** Louis S. Kassel is researchchemist with the Bureau of Mines in Pittsburgh.1928A. Adrian Albert, '26, Ph.D. '28, at present an instructor in the department ofmathematics at Columbia University, hasbeen appointed to an assistant professorshipin mathematics at the University of Chicagobeginning July 1, 1931. *** Ernest Wiesle,'24, A.M. '25, D.B. '26, Ph.D. '28, is professor of psychology at the International Y.M. C. A. College of Springfield, Massachusetts. *** Rolland H. Waters has beenteaching at the University of Arkansas this year. *** Walter S. Ryder has been teaching at Macalester College, St. Paul, Minnesota, this year. *** Gordon N. Rebert, A.M. '26, Ph.D. '29, is professor and head ofthe department of educational psychologyat Hood College, Frederick, Maryland.1929Raymond R. Brewer, A.M. '28, Ph.D.'29, is teaching Bible in the College of theOzarks. *** Harold H. Downing, S.M.'17, Ph.D. '29, is associate professor ofmathematics in charge of astronomy at theUniversity of Kentucky, where he hastaught for twenty-two years. *** HowardB. Myers is chief of the Bureau of Statisticsof the Department of Labor. His head-quarters are at 205 West Wacker Drive,Chicago. *** C. Rufus Rorem has beenconducting special studies for the nationalcommittee on the cost of medicai care. Hisheadquarters are in Washington. The firstbook growing out of Mr. Rorem's work,The Public s Investment in Hospitals, hasjust been published by the University ofChicago Press. *** John H. Davis, Jr., isprofessor of biology at Presbyterian College,Clinton, South Carolina. *** Helen B. Bur-ton, S.M. '22, Ph.D. '29, is director of theSchool of Home Economics of the University of Oklahoma.I93OAlma Herbst is instructor in economics atOhio State University. *** Ralph R. Pic-kett, A.M. '24, Ph.D. '30, and Mrs. Pic-kett (Agnes Kerr) '27, are living in Em-poria, Kansas, where Mr. Pickett is professor and head of the department of commerceat Kansas State Teachers College. ***William O. Brown is instructor in sociologyat the University of Cincinnati. *** Katherine E. Crane is professor of history atMary Baldwin College, Staunton, WestVirginia. *** A. A. Hovey, A.M. '23, Ph.D. '30, professor of history at Bates College, is also religious councillor for thecollege Y. M. C. A., and chairman of thefaculty committee on religious interests. ***Jessie V. Coles is associate professor ofhome economics at the University of Missouri. *** Mary Elizabeth Cochran, A.M.NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONS'22, Ph.D. '30, is associate professor ofhistory at Kansas State Teachers College,Pittsburg, Kansas. *** Ernest. H. Hahneis director of the summer session and associate professor of economics at NorthwesternUniversity. *** Clyde E. Dankert, A.M.'28, Ph.D. '30, is instructor in economics atDartmouth College.Social ServiceAdministration1926Genevieve Thornton, A. M., was recently appointed field secretary for the Stateof Washington in the Pacific division ofthe American Red Cross.1928Hazel M. Peterson, A.M., has been appointed a member of the 1931 summerfaculty at the University of Utah to teachcourses in educational case work. MissPeterson is also eduational case worker forthe Salt Lake City schools, as well as secretary of the Utah Society for Mental Hy-giene.1930Emma L. Hodgin, has been appointedpsychiatric social worker at the IllinoisWomen's reformatory at Dwight, Illinois,and at the Women's Prison at Joliet underthe Institute for Juvenile Research.193 IErwin W. Johnston, A.M., has been appointed social worker in the' Chicago Muni-cipal court. Mr. Johnston was among thecandidates who recently took the CivilService examinations given for the varioussocial service positions connected with court.***' Edward Arnell Conover, A.M., hasbeen appointed to the Illinois departmentof Public Welfare, Division of the Crim-inologist, Illinois £tate Penitentiary unit.*** Helen M. Thompson, recently LeikHoughteling Fellow in the School of SocialService, has been appointed Director of theSocial Service Department of King CountyHospital System, Harbonian Hospital, COMINGTo match the series of children's booksknown as "The Story of the World"— a splendid new seriesThe STORY of MANalso endorsed by University professors, and covering the fields of ethics,ethnology, inventions, money andbanking, languages, writing, sociol-ogy, geography, anthropology andgovernmentIf you were delighted with "TheStory of the World", you will surelywant, too, "The Story of Man."$1.25 cach voi.We shall be glad to send circularmatter as soon as it is ready, to alithose interested.Address Your Booh Wantsto theU. of C BOOKSTORE5802 Ellis Ave.The Faculty . . .The Alumni . . .The Student Bodyof the University of ChicagoWill fìnd here unusual facilitiesfor dinners, dances, luncheons,business meetings — plus acordial welcome that evidencesour wish to cooperate with aliUniversity of Chicago socialfunctions — large or small —formai or informai.HOTELSHORELAND55th Street at the LakeTelephone Plaza 1000306 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESeattle, Washington. *** Gertrude Runyonhas been appointed a Psychiatric SocialWorker at the Institute for Juvenile Research, Illinois Department of Public Welfare. *** Mary E. Phillips has recentlybeen appointed Medicai Social Worker atMichael Reese Hospital.wwwAt the University of Chicago Settlement,back of the Yards, six of the nine cookingclasses have just been converted into sewingTHE heading fairly presents the sub-stance of the talk by Judge HenryHorner of the Probate Court of CookCounty at the monthly luncheon of theLaw School Association on Friday, March20, 1931. About 120 were present, break-ing ali records for mid-day meetings ofthe Association. President Charles P.Schwartz presented Laird Bell, J.D. '07, aspresiding officer to introduce Judge Horner.To be exact, the subject of the talk was"Pitfalls in Probate Practice," which JudgeHorner used to illustrate mistakes made bypracticing lawyers in encountering therather rigid requirements of the ProbateCourt. A few examples are:The table of heirship is extremely important, because it controls the devolutionof property both in the particular estate,and in ali future transactions where heirship is material. If the deceased has beendivorced, or if adoption has taken place,the table of heirship will not be entereduntil a certifled copy of the divorce decreeor of the adoption order is hTed. Mereevidence will not suffice.If the bond of the executor or adminis-trator is not sufficient an additional bondcannot be accepted, but a new bond for theincreased amount must be hTed, which re-lates back to the beginning of the estate.In the proof of a will, only the testimonyof the attesting witnesses is admissible.Hence, it is practically impossible to prove classes, and 59 of the 98 children who werelearning to cook are now learning to sew.Ali winter these 98 children have been re-ceiving a hot dish a week, in many casessupplementing inadequate diets at home.Materials for the classes have been securedin part through generous donations fromDurand McNeil and Horner, John Sextori& Co., Sprague Warner & Co., and Swift& Co. The members of the three classesthat continue have been selected on thebasis of the children's needs. ,"mental incompetency, or undue influencewhen the will is offered, but the contestantmust go into chancery. Judge Horner istrying to get the law changed in this re-spect.I912Fannie A. Bivans, LL.B., has been practicing law at 605 Millikan Building, Deca-tur, Illinois, for many years.1913William E. Jones is a member of thelegai department of the Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company in Milwaukee, and lives at 4325 North ProspectAvenue.1916Stephen R. Curtis, '14, J.D. '16, and W.Felder Cook announce the formation of apartnership for the general practice of lawunder tfye flrm name of Cook and Curtis,with offices at 704 Equitable Building, Denver, Colorado.1922George K. Bowden, J.D. '22, and Vincent J. HefTernan, '21, J.D. '22, are practicing law in the Foreman National BankBuilding, Chicago. *** Archie Schimberg,LawWhy Lawyers Go Wrong — and How!NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONS 307'17, J.D. '22, and Nathan J. Harrison, '23,J.D. '25, have moved their law offices tothe Roanoke Tower, Chicago. *** ArchieSchimberg, J.D. '22, and Simon H. Alster,J.D. '21, are members of the recently organized firm of Friedman, Schimberg &Alster, with offices in the Roanoke Tower,Chicago.1923Horace Dawson has become a member ofthe firm of Dyrenforth, Lee, Chritton &Wiles. *** Edwin J. Nunn, J.D. '23, andHenry L. Wells, J.D. '25, are with thefirm of Bryant, Roberts, Hass and Lewe, atOne North LaSalle Street, Chicago.1924W. R. Morgan, J.D. '24, is again inChicago with S. W. Straus & Company asassistant counsel. Mrs. Morgan (MarjorieHoward) '24, will return to Chicago fromCalifornia early in the summer.1925Irving R. Senn, '23, J.D. '25, has movedhis offices to 33 North LaSallle Street Chicago. *** Robert L. Drake has moved hislaw office to 1001 Jackson City Bank Building, Jackson, Michigan.1926Harold T. Garvey, '23, J.D. '26, who,since his graduation, has successfully prac-ticed law at Nauvoo and Carthage, Illinois,was elected Judge of the County Court ofHancock County on the Democratic ticketlast November. He assumed his duties onthe bench December first, and is one of theyoungest judges of a court of record in Illinois.1927James K. Kneussl, '25, J.D. 27, is practicing at 1 1 1 West Monroe Street, Chicago.1928Nat S. Ruvell> LL.B., is assistant state'sattorney with offices in the Criminal CourtBuilding, Chicago. 1929Bernard Epstein is practicing law at 100North LaSalle Street, Chicago. *** KarlE. Seyfarth, '22, J.D. '29, is engaged ingeneral practice as a member of the firmof Seyfarth & Léonard, 208 South LaSalleStreet, Chicago.1930Milton L. Durchslag, '28, J.D. '30, hasopened offices for the general practice oflaw at 29 South LaSalle Street, Chicago.*** Clifford M. Blunk is practicing law inSpringfield, Illinois.UNIVERSITYCOLLEGEThe downtown department of The University of Chicago, 18 S. Michigan Avenue,announcesEvening, Late Afternoon and Saturday ClassesTwo-Hour Sessions Once or Twice a WeekCourses Credited Toward University DegreesAutumn, Winter, Spring, Summer QuartersSpring Quarter, March 30 - June 20Summer Term, June 29 - August 7Registration Period, June 22 - 27Address Dean, C.F. Huth, University CollegeUniversity of Chicago, Chicago, 111.Paul H. Davis, '11 Herbert I. Markham, Ex. '06Ralph W. Davis, '16 Walter M. Giblin, '23Paal RDavis &<9<xMembersNEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGECHICAGO STOCK EXCHANGE37 South LaSalle StreetTelephone Franklin 8622CHICAGOALUMNIPROFESSIONALDIRECTORYReal EstateJ. Alton Laureti, '19J. Alton Lauren and Co»139 N. Clark St» Randolph 20683o8 THE UNIVERSITY OFJohn H. David, Jr., Ph.D. '29, to EmmaC. Adcock of Orlando, Florida.MarriagesCharlotte K. Fasold, '23, to Jerome J.Shuman,, January 1, 1931, at Catuissa,Pennsylvania. At home, 332 West Mt.Airy Avenue, Philadelphia.John M. Jackson, '29, to Margaret E.Burd, January 31, 1931, at Milwaukee.At home, 5726 Kenwood Avenue, Chicago.Carolyn B. Marks, '30, to Dr. WalterW. Silberman, January 1, 193 1, at Chicago.At home, 5450 East View Park, Chicago.M..E. Sweeley, M.D. '30, to Ruth M.Probel, September 21, 1930, at Oak Park.At home, Yankton, South Dakota.BirthsTo William H. Wiser, '15, and Mrs.Wiser (Charlotte Viali), '14, a son, Edward Hempstead, January 21, 1931, atMainpure, U.P., India.To Jasper S. King, '20, and Mrs. King(Julia Ricketts), Ji8, a son, Jasper Sey-mour, Jr., March 7, 1931, at Evanston,Illinois.To Mr. and Mrs. Charles F. Bassett(Gladys Hawley) ?22, a son, Neal Favar,January 20, 1931, at Maracaibo, Venezuela, S. A.To Mr. and Mrs. David Jordan(Frances Reinken) '25, a daughter, NancyEllen, October 24, 1930, at Flushing, NewYork.To Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Rattner(Ethel Weiss) '27, a daughter, Marian,October io, 1930, at Chicago.To Fritiof M. Fryxell, Ph.D. '29, andMrs. Fryxell, a son, John Birger, February8, 193 1, at Moline, Illinois. CHICAGO MAGAZINEGeorge F. Beasley, M.D. '64, March n51931, at his home in Lafayette, Indiana.Dr. Beasley was a Civil War veteran. Hewas a former president of the National Association of Railway Surgeons, had servedas surgeon for ali the railroads enteringLafayette for fifty years, and had practicedin that city for sixty-three years.Charles Naylor, '8i, March 7, 1931, athis home in Chicago. Mr. Naylor waschief engineer for Marshall Field & Company and had been an employee of the firmfor forty-hVe years.E. Willis Stone, M.D. '84, following in-juries received in a motor accident onDecember 18. Dr. Stone was well knownin Chicago for his charitable activities.Francis R. Sherwood, M.D. '88, February 7, 1931, at his home in Oak Park.Dr. Sherwood had been a professor ofanatomy and surgery at Rush MedicaiSchool, had taught for many years in themedicai school of the University of Illinois,and was a staff physician at the Oak Parkhospital.E. Perry Rice, M.D. '89, February 21,1931, at his home in Chicago. Dr. Ricewas associated with the Jenner MedicaiCollege, conducted a clinic at the ChicagoMedicai School, and was a member of theChicago Medicai Society.Carlyle M. Keyes, ex 'io, March 8,1931, at his home in Lake Bluff, Illinois.Mr. Keyes was a member of the law firmof Hyde, Westbrook, Watson & Stephensonof Chicago, and^was assistant counsel forthe United States shipping board after theWorld War.Clifford W. Rice, '24, December 14,1930, at Urbana, Illinois.Daniel Clary Webb, Jr., sixteen yearsof age, son of Daniel Clary Webb, '07, diedfrom pneumonia on February 7, 1931, atthe Webb School, Bell Buckle, Tennessee.Engagemeiits Deaths