FERÌOD. R. R.HOV l***30¦1 %& .I j^1 >w«£'(KR2L. «£¦#*¦: #V:*flS**^ ^ f. £*? »/ "-£%-**.uhDTHE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEX xxm. NOFEMBER, 1930 NUMBER 1THE ALUMNI COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITYOF CHICAGO. H^mWr'Chairman, Henry D. Sulcer, '06 '«3-/Secretare & Editor, Charlton T. Beck, '04 <£-*jL : : /C-^ VThe Council for 1930-31 is composed of the following delegatesiFrom the College Alumni Association, Terni expires 19312 John P. Meiitzer, '98 ;Walter L. Hudson, '02 ; Mrs. Martha Landers Thompson, '03 ; Henry D. Sulcer, '06 ;Harold H. Swift, '07; Mrs. Phyllis Fay Horton, '15; Terni expires 1932: ElizabethFaulkner, '85; Herbert P. Zimmermann, '01; Paul H. Davis, '11; Daniel P. Trude,'02; Mrs. Jessie Heckman Hirschl, 'io; Milton E. Robinson, '12, J.D. '14; Terniexpires 1933: Frank McNair, '03; Herbert I. Markham, '05; Renslow P. Sherer, '09;Mrs. Margaret Haass Richards, '11; John A. Logan, '21; Arthur C. Cody, '24.From the Association of Doctors of Philosophy, Herbert E. Slaught, Ph.D. '98;D. Jerome Fisher, Ph.D. '22; Robert J. Bonner, Ph.D. '04; Arno B. Luckhardt,Ph.D. 'u, M.D. '12; George K. K. Link, Ph.D. '16.From the Divinity Alumni Association, A. G. Baker, Ph.D. '21; Perry J. Stackhouse,D.B. '04; Andrew R. E. Wyant, DB. '97.From the Law School Alumni Association, Charles F. McElroy, J.D. '15; CharlesP. Schwartz, '08, J.D. '09; DwightP. Green, J.D. '12.From the School of Education Alumni Association, Jessie Todd, '25; Harold A.Anderson, '24, A.M. '26; Paul M. Cook, A.M. '27.From the Commerce and Administration Alumni Association, Earle W. Enghsh,'26; Henry G. Hulbert, '23; Dwight M. Cochran, '27.From the Rush Medical College Alumni Association; William A. Thomas, M.D.'16; Clark W. Finnerud, M.D. '18; T. E. Blomberg, M.D. '27.From the Association of the School of Social Service Administration, Louis Evans,A.M. '29 ; Mrs. Edwina Meaney Lewis, '25 ; Mrs. Savilla Millis Simons, A.M. '26,From the Chicago Alumni Club, Frank H. Whiting, '16; Kenneth Rouse, '28;Frank J. Madden, '20, J.D. '22. .From the Chicago Alumnae Club, Mrs. Charlotte Thearle Sulcer, '09 ; Mrs. MiriamBaldwin Shilton, '14; Shirley Farr, '04.From the University, Emery Filbey, '17, A.M. '20; Walter G. Preston.Alumni Associations Represented in the Alumni CouncilThe College Alumni Association : School of Education Alumni Associa-President, Henry D. Sulcer, '06, 167 tion : President, Roy W. Bixler, '16East Ontario Street, Chicago; Secre- A.M. '25, University of Chicago;tary, Charlton T. Beck, '04, University Secretary, S. Lenore John, A.M. 27,of Chicago 6009 Kimbark Avenue, Chicago.Association of Doctors of Philosophy: Commerce and Administration AlumniPresident, Robert J. Bonner, Ph.D. '04, Association. President, Earle W.University of Chicago ; Secretary] Enghsh. >6, 5240 Ken wood Avenue,Herbert E. Slaught, Ph.D. '98, Uni- Chicago ; Jecretary Margaret E Knox,versitv of Chicco '28, 6116^ Kimbark Avenue, Chicago.versity or Chicago.^ Rus„ M_mcAL CoLLEGE Alumni Associa-Divinity Alumni Association: President, -non: President, Cari B. Davis, '00,R. E. Sayles, D.B. '03, First Baptist M D' '03, 122 South Michigan Avenue,Church, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Secre- Chicago; Secretary, Charles A. Parker,tary, C. T. Holman, D.B. '15, Uni- MD >9Ij ? West Madison Street,versity of Chicago. Chicago.Law School Association: President, Association of the School of SocialCharles P. Schwartz, '08, J.D. '09, 105 Service Administration: President,West Adams Street, Chicago; Secre- Marion Schaffner, '11, 3957 Ellis Ave-tary, Charles F. McElroy, J.D. '15, 29 nue, Chicago; Secretary, Ruth Bartlett,South LaSalle Street, Chicago. '24, 6850 Cornell Avenue, Chicago.Ali Communications should be sent to the Secretary of the proper Association or to the AlumniCouncil, Faculty Exchange, University of Chicago. The dues. for membership in any one of theAssociations named above, including subscription to The University of Chicago Magazine, are$2.00 per year. A holder of two or more degrees from the University of Chicago may be a memberof more than one Association; in such instances the dues are divided and shared equally by theAssociations involved.The Magazine is published at 1009 Sloan St, Crawfordsville, Ind., monthly from Novemberto Tuty, inclusive, for The Alumni Council of the University of Chicago, 58th St. and Ellis Ave.,, Chicago, 111. The subscription„:price is $2.00 per year; the price of single copies is 25 cents.\ Entèred as second class matter December 10, 1924, at the Post Office at Crawfordsville, Indiana,under the Act of March 3, 1879.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE iA/ \LUMNI headquarte rsfor 102 colleges and universities and 21 national Pan-Hellenic sororitiesALLERTON HOUSEWALTER W.DwyER,Gen*IMgr. ¦CHICAGO «701 North Michigan AvtnueTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINENobody worksbut Ol' Man RiverVISIT a great hydroelectric plant, and the first thing that will strikeyou is the astonishing absence of people. Alone, almost unwatched,the water flows, the great turbines revolve. Nobody works, apparently,except Ol' Man River. But how he works! (Last year our Americanrivers generated over thirty-three billion kilowatt-hours — more thanone-third of the electricity used in the country.) » General Electrichas built over a thousand hydroelectric generators installed in thelast ten years and is also largely responsible for the automatic control,by which many of these plants produce thousands of horsepowerwith little or no attention. » Having built the machinery whichdevelops this power out of lazy rivers, General Electric also buildsboth the apparatus that applies electricity to the service of industry,and the household appliances that make possible more leisure forwomen in the home.US IN THE GENERAL ELECTRIC PROGRAM, BROADCAST EVERY SATURDAYEVENING ON A NATION-WIDE N. B. C. NETWORK95-723DI A4 T H I ^~I cyVU EDuring the past year the Chapel Councilof the University has sponsored a series ofmeetings, at which members of the facultyhave discussed such vital subjects as Im-mortality, Economics and Religion andDoes Civilization Need Religio nfThese symposia have been of keen interest to the small group that has beenprivileged to hear them. They were insti-tuted with the hope that they might be ex-tremely friendly and intimate discussions,and the speakers expressed themselves witha charming informality and candor thatmight have been lacking had they appearedbefore a larger audience or faced the pos-sibility of inaccurate reporting to the press.The Magazine is especially fortunate inobtaining permission to publish the contri-butions of the four well known members ofthe faculty who took part in the symposiumon Immortality. May we, for the benefitof the older alumni, introduce these men,who need no introduction to the youngergeneration ?Arthur H. Compton became professor ofphysics at Chicago in 1923. He no soonergot established in Ryerson Laboratory thanhe brought added fame to himself and hisUniversity through his discovery of the so-called "Compton effect" proving that lightconsists of corpuscles, like a shower of tinyprojectiles. This discovery won for himthe Nobel Prize for physics and the Rum-ford Medal of the American Academy.During the past year he has given theworld the first definite outlines of the strutture of the atom. Avocationally, he has aserve at tennis that reminds one of BillTilden, and at the billiard table he exhibitsthe grace and prowess of a Willie Hoppe.w w wThomas Vernor Smith joined the depart-ment of philosophy in 1922. Within aperiod of four years he leaped from an in-structorship to a full professorship, doing abit of deaning en route, and establishing alocai record for the professional runningbroad jump in philosophy, so to speak. Heteaches courses in systematic and genette ethics and other subjects too numerous tomention. He is a popular teacher, a prolificwriter and a captivating speaker.Anton Julius Carlson has been cònnectedwith the department of physiology for morethat a quarter of a century, and professorof physiology since 191 6, save for two yearsof war service as Lieutenant Colonel, Sani-tary Corps, U. S. A. A past president ofthe American Physiological Society, he isknown the world over for his demonstrationof the nervous origin of the heart beat andfor his studies in the nature of hunger.For recreation he fishes in summer, and inwinter he wins or loses with equanimity,not to say stoicism, at the Quadrangle Clubbridge table.w w »Shailer Mathews carne to the University,in 1894 t0 teach New Testament history.Since 1908 he has been dean of the DivinitySchool, and is recognized as one of the out-standing theologians of the country. He hasreceived honorary degrees from a goodlyshare of the domestic higher institutions oflearning, and has now begun a collectionof foreign doctorates. Past president ofthe Federai Council of Churches, formereditor of two well known magazines, authorof a score of books, preacher of a thousandsermons, inspirer of a multitude of students,he is stili human enough to smoke a pipeand optimistic enough to operate a farm.» w wThe death of Milton Sills, '03, whichoccurred September 15, will be felt deeplyas a personal loss, not only by the olderChicago alumni who knew him so inti-mately, but also by ali Chicago alumni whohave come under the speli of his greatpersonality as exhibited on stage and screen.He has been so long in the public eye thatbiographical details are superfluous, and wepublish instead a very beautiful letter — aletter that was never sent — from one whohas enjoyed and cherished an intimate ac-quaintance with him since high school days.The writer of the letter is also a member ofthe illustrious class of 1903, Charles Collins,dramatic critic for the Chicago Tribune.3Graduate StudentTaken by Tolya Fhdale in Jones LaboratoryVol. XXIII No. IUmbersttp of ChicagojWaga^neNOVEMBER, 1930-f- -i-IMMORTALITYFOUR FACULTY MENVIEW THE FUTUREThe PhysicistTHE seeker after religious truth asksearnestly whether science has an an-swer to its vital problems: Is therea God? Is man morally responsible forhis actions? What about a man's soul?Does death end ali? The answers of science to questions of this kind are ususallyhesitating and tentative. Some things pointone way and some the other.So in discussing the problem of immor-tality from the standpoint of science it isnot my purpose to draw any conclusions,but rather to present as fairly as possiblethe meagre evidence which science offers.Science does not supply a definite answerto this question. If one is to have eithera positive faith in a future life or a convic-tion that death ends ali, such beliefs must,it seems to me, be based upon religious,moral or philosophical grounds rather thanupon scientific reasoning.Mortality and Immortality of LivingOrganismi. Is it not obvious to one whoviews without bias the course of life abouthim that life is invariably followed by death? If then science is a description ofthe way in which things happen, how canscience state any other conclusion than thatdeath is the inevitable terminus of life?But what is it that dies? Each person,or to be more general, each organism dies,but the race or species lives on unless someworld wide accident occurs which makesthe species extinct. Sir James Jeans in hisjust published book, "The Universe AboutUs," assigns a million million years as thereasonable life expectancy of the humanrace on earth. This million million yearsmay not be life eternai, but it is probablyas long life as most of us are interested in.The biological center of life is the germceli, and this, with divisions and subdi-visions, grows and lives forever. What thefruit of the appiè is to the seed, the body ofman is to his germ celi. The appiè maydecay, but the seed grows into a new tree,which flowers and begets new seeds. Thefruit and the tree will pass away, but thereis eternai continuity of life in the cellswhich develop from seed to tree to flower to56 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEseed, over and over again. It is thus be-cause we concentrate our attention uponthe tree or the fruit that we say the end oflife is death. These are merely the outerwrappings, the hull which surrounds theliving germ. Biologically speaking life,whether it be of an appiè seed or of thegerm cells of man, is essentially continuousand eternaloWhat Becomes of the Soul When theBody Dies? "But," you say, "that is notthe kind of eternai life in which I am pri-marily interested. My body may be merelythe hull that surrounds the living germ;but what will happen to me when the hulldecays?"To this question science has no straight-forward answer to give. For when youask, "what will happen to me," you areconcerned not with your body but withyour consciousness, mind, or soul, howeveryou may choose to name it, which is notmaterial, and regarding which physical sci-enee does not directly concern itself. If weare to teli what is the fate of consciousnesswhen the body dies, we must know whatthe relation is between body and mind.Certain psychologists use the hypothesisthat thought is a function of the brain, inthe sense that every idea that we have andevery decision we make is a consequence ofsome action occurring in the brain. Onthis view it is obvious that destruction ofthe brain would carry with it the destruction of consciousness.This hypothesis has been adopted pri-marily in order to simplify the problem ofbehavior by reducing it to a set of medianica! laws. If a thought is a by-productof some molecular change in the brain, andif these molecular changes follow the usuaidefinite physical laws, there will be astraightforward sequence of molecularchanges starting with the initial stimulusand ending with the final action of theorganism. Thoughts may be associated withthese various changes, but they cannot alterthe end result, for this is determined by thephysical laws which govern the molecularactions. The problem of a man's behavioris thus simplified by reducing him to anautomaton. To the large majority of thinking peopleit seems that this simplified behavior failsas a complete description of our actions.In some reflex actions and habitual actswe may behave as automata; but wheredeliberation occurs we feel that we chooseour own course. In fact a certain freedomof choice may, it seems to me, be consideredas an experimental fact with which we mustreconcile our theories. Because the me-chanist's basic hypothesis leaves no room forsuch freedom, I see no alternative otherthan to reject the hypothesis as inadequate.On the other hand if freedom of choice isadmitted, it follows by the same line ofreasoning that one's thoughts are not theresult of molecular reactions obeying fixedphysical laws. For if they were, histhoughts would be fixed by the physical con-ditions, and his choice would be made forhim. Thus if there is freedom there mustbe at least some thinking possible quite in-dependently of any corresponding cerebralprocess. On such a view it is no longerimpossible that consciousness may persistafter the brain is destroyed.That there is some correlation betweenthe brain's activity and mental processesis however evident. This is frequentlyassumed to imply that thought is producedby cerebral activity. If this is the case,destruction of the brain would result in thecessation of thought and consciousness.William James has however called attentionto the fact that the observed correlation isequally consistent with the view that thefunction of the brain is to transmit thethoughts from a non-physical thinker to thebody of the organism. On this view thebrain would correspond to the detectingtube of a radio receiver, without which theoutfit will not operate. Stopping the soundby destroying the tube would not imply thedestruction of the ether waves which carrythe music.An examination of the evidence seems toshow that the correspondence between brainactivity and consciousness is not very dose.Our Professor Lashly has pointed out thatin certain animals a large portion of thebrain may be damaged or even removedwithout destroying consciousness or seriouslyIMMORTALITY 7disturbing the mental processes. On theother hand such a relatively minor disturb-ance as a tap on the skull may, so far as wecan teli, completely destroy consciousness fora considerable period of time. I under-stand that it is impossibleto distinguish the physicalcondition of the brain ofone who is awake fromthat of one who is asleep,though the difference between the two states ofconsciousness is very great.The detailed proof by Professor Bergson that"There is infinitely morein a human consciousnessthan in the correspondingbrain," and that "the mindpverflows the brain on alisides, and cerebral activitycorresponds only to a smallpart of mental activity,"(Mind-Energy pp. 41 and57) seems convincing.That consciousness must die with thebody is thus logically required only if weadopt the mechanistic viewpoint that a definite thought is the result of an equally definite physical change in the brain. Theseeming fact of free will makes this viewpoint appear to me highly improbable. Itseems rather that our thinking is partiallydivorced from our brain, a conclusion whichsuggests, though of course does not prove,the possibility of consciousness after death.EXPERIENCE OF REVIVED PeRSONSWhat might appear to be first hand evi-dence regarding the persistence of consciousness after death comes from the experienceof those who have been revived after someaccident. In the Atlantic Monthly someyears ago appeared an article by one whoclaimed to have died nine times. He hadbeen drowned, had fallen down an elevatorshaft and stunned into unconsciousness, hehad died a lingering death on the battlefield later to be revived, he had beenknocked out by a blow on the head, he hadbeen anaesthetized, and so on. This emu-lator of the cat described the experience ofArthur H. Comptondeath as "the mere cessation of consciousness — nothing more."Yet even such evidence is of doubtfulvalue. I recali one evening when mybrother carne home from football practiceand sat down to dinner.Soon he began asking us,"What'sthematter?" Hehad received a blow on thehead, resulting in a lapseof memory. Five minutesafter each explanationwould come back the ques-tion, "What's the mat-ter?" He recognizedeveryone in the r o o m,t a 1 k e d rationally, andcould play familiar tuneson his mandolin. By everytest he was perfectly con-scious; only his memorywas very short. At aboutten o'clock the followingmorning his thoughts re-turned to their normalchannels. Now he remembered diving intothe interference of the opposing team tobreak up a play, but the subsequent eventsremained blank. How he got to his homehe did not know. He had only the testi-mony of his friends that he had remainedconscious except while he slept at night.Had he been asked he would have describedthe experience as "the mere cessation ofconsciousness — nothing more." In a similarway evidence based on the memory of arevived person must be doubted.Evidence of perhaps equal weight butpointing in the other direction is given bystatements such as the following, made byformer President Little of the Universityof Michigan, himself a biologist of no meanstanding: "The death of my own parentswithin a day of one another completelywiped out preexisting logicai bases for im-mortality and replaced them with an utterlyindescribable but completely convincing andsatisfying realization that personal im-mortality exists. Such experiences are nottransferable, but are probably the mostcomforting and sacred realizations that cancome to any of us."8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEuselessness of consciousness toDead OrganismsAn argument against immortality whichcarries considerable weight is based upon thevalue of consciousness to the organism.From the biological point of view consciousness appears in animals to enable them tocompete more successfully in the struggleof life. That is, consciousness is the servantof the biological organism. In the evolu-tionary process we should on this viewexpect consciousness to appear only whereit can be of some value to the organismwith which it is associated. For a babe atbirth consciousness is of little if any value,and it seems to be only feebly developed.In youth and maturity, however, it is ofvital importance that the organism beaware of what is going on, and consciousness is accordingly most highly developed.Clearly consciousness can be of no valueto a dead organism. From the biologicalpoint of view, therefore, we should expectan efHcient evolutionary process to bringabout the cessation of consciousness withdeath.There is, however, an alternative pointof view which is equally tenable, and whichpoints toward the opposite conclusion. Thisis that the evolutionary process is workingtoward the development of conscious per-sons, rather than toward the developmentof a physical organism. The old fashionedevolutionary attitude was that the worldas we know it developed as a result ofchance, variations of ali kinds occurring,some of which would be more suited tothe conditions than others, and thereforesurviving. More recent thought has foundthis viewpoint increasingly difHcult to de-fend. To the physicist it has become clearthat the chances are infinitesimal that auniverse filled with atoms having randomproperties would develop into a world withthe infinite variety that we find about us.Slight alterations in the properties of theelectrons and protons of which the world ismade must have resulted in a very deadworld indeed. To the chemist, it becomesapparent that the development of proto-plasm, whose chemical properties are of the most complex and unstable sort, could haveoccurred only under narrowly defined conditions — just the right chemical elements,associated in just the right way, at theproper temperature and probably withsuitable illumination by ultraviolet light.If left to chance such a combination appearshighly improbable, even through the immense time of geological history. Thepaleontologist finds that at least in certainwell authenticated cases the evolutionaryprocedure has not been the development ofmany branches with the final survival ofonly the more favorable variations, butrather the straightforward developmentfrom a primitive form through graduai stepsto a more highly developed form, withoutwasting time experimenting with unfavor-able variations. This is the phenomenonknown to evolutionists as orthogenesis. Thebiologist calls attention to the fact that asthe evolutionary process goes on, phenomenaappear which could not have been predictedfrom our knowledge of earlier stages. The*three following are generally recognized tobe phenomena of this type: i. The ap-pearance of life itself in the form of pro-tozoa. 2. The appearance of multicellularorganisms, differentiating into animals andplants. 3. The emergence of animai consciousness. These facts of world historyhave been described by the term emergentevolution.This situation strongly suggests that theevolutionary process is not a chance one, butis directed toward some definite end. Ifwe suppose that evolution is directed, weimply that there is an intelligence directingit. It thus becomes reasonable to supposethat intelligent minds may be the endtoward which such an intelligent evolution is proceeding. In such a case we shouldnot look upon consciousness as the mereservant of the biological organism, but asan end in itself. An intelligent mind wouldbe its own reason for existence.A survey of the physical universe howeverindicates that mankind is very possiblynature's best achievement in this direction.Though astronomers teli us that there aremillions of millions of stars in the sky, aplanet is a very rare occurrence, and aIMMORTALITY 9planet on which life can exist is even morerare. Thus in his recent book, "The Natureof the Physical World," Professor Edding-ton, the noted British astronomer, con-cludes, "I feel inclined to claim that at thepresent time our race is supreme; and notone of the profusion of stars in their myriadclusters looks down on scenes comparableto those which are passing beneath the raysof the sun."If in the world scheme conscious life isthe thing of primary importance, what ishappening on our earth is thus of greatcosmic significance, and the thoughts ofman, which have come to control to sogreat an extent the development of lifeupon this planet, are perhaps the most im-portant things in the world. On this viewwe might expect Nature to preserve at alicosts the living souls which it has evolvedat such labor, which would mean the im-mortality of intelligent minds.SUMMARY OF WHAT SCIENCE SaYS IThis is about ali that present day naturai science can teli us about immortality.There are many if's and but's. While onthe mechanistic view the mind could notsurvive the brain, the evidence seems againstthis view, and no cogent reason remains forsupposing that the soul dies with the body.The evidence of revived persons broughtback from Hades is unreliable. If consciousness is merely the servant of the living organism we should expect the two todie together; but if, as seems perhaps moreplausible, intelligent consciousness is theobjective of the evolutionary process, wemight expect it to be preserved.Analogy of the Light and theCandle FlamePermit me now to come away from ourscientific reasoning, and present a scientificanalogy which though of no value as anargument may yet be suggestive of possi-bilities.* Where does the light go whenyou put out the flame?Let us take the flame to represent thebody, and the light which comes from it* / have borrozved this parable of the light atcan astronomer, Henry Norris Russell. the consciousness or soul. In a candle flamevapor comes from the wick and air comesfrom the side, forming a steady stream ofburning gases passing continually throughthe flame. There is an intake of "food"and oxygen at one end, and an outpouringof waste products at the other. It is akind of metabolism. The material of theflame is continually changing, just as thecells of our bodies change; yet the form ofthe flame remains the same. It is the sameflame. But puff, and the flame is out!Is this the end ? The flame is dead. Whatthen ?What is happening to the light? Theflame was material made up of atoms andmolecules; but the light is a different kindof thing — electromagnetic radiation, flyingaway at tremendous speed. We know thatif the candle was out under the open sky,its light was streaming into interstellarspace, where it will keep on going for-ever. The flame was mortai, but the lightwhich it gave was immortal. More thanthat, the escaping light carries with it thestory of the candle's life. If on some fardistant planet the light is caught in aspectroscope it can teli that it was born ofthe burning of carbon in oxygen, and thatthe temperature of the flame where it livedwas some fifteen hundred degrees. By astudy of the light an amazing number ofthings could be found out about the flamefrom which it carne.Suppose now we can observe moleculesbut are blind to the light. Would we nothave said the flame died, and that was theend? Is not this precisely our position re-garding the life of man ? His body we canobserve, his mind we can only infer fromthe actions of his body. The body dies — isblown out. The light from the candle flamelived on through eternity, though the blindman could not see it. We know we areblind to the soul. How can we know that itdoes not go on living forever with a fullnessof life corresponding to that of the light?The Conservation of Character. Let medose with an observation suggested by ourdiscussion of the way in which Nature/ the candle flame from our distinguished Ameri-IO THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEhas been evolving intelligent life. Wefound strong reasons for believing that inspite of his physical insignifìcance man asan intelligent person is of extraordinaryimportance in £he cosmic scheme. If wewere to use our own best judgment, whatwould we say is the most important thingabout a noble man? Would it be thestrength of his body, or the brilliance of hisintellect? Would we not place first thebeauty of his character? A man's body isat its prime before middle life, and hisintellect probably somewhat after middlelife. But it takes a whole lifetime tobuild the character of a noble man. Theexercise and discipline of youth, the strug-gles and failures and successes, the painsand pleasures of maturity, the lonelinessand tranquillity of age, these make up thefire through which he must pass to bringTHE fact that man has been born doesnot augur well for immortality. For,as a nineteenth century poet hasqueried,Can lines finite one way be infinite anotherfIt occurs to me that full and completejustice is done the logie of the belief inimmortality by Rupert Brooke's poem,"Heaven"—Fish (fly-replete, in depth of June,Dawdling away their wafry noon)Ponder deep wisdom, dark or clear,Each secret fisky hope or fear.Fish say, they have their Stream and Pond;But is there anything Beyond?This life cannot be Ali, they swear,For how unpleasant, if it were!One may not doubt that, somehow, GoodShall come of Water and of Mud;And, sure, the reverent eye must seeA Pur pose in Liguidity.We darkly know, by Faith we cry,The future is not Wholly Dry,Mud unto mud! — Death eddies near —Not here the appointed End, not here!But somewhere, beyond Space and Time,Is wetter water, slimi er slime!And there (they trust) there swimmeth OneWho swam ere rivers were begun,Immense, of fishy form and mind,Squamous, omnipotent, and kind;And under that Almighty Fin, out the pure gold of his soul. Having beenthus perfected, what shall Nature do withhim? Annihilate him? What infinitewaste !Speaking now not as a scientist, but asman to man, how can a father who loveshis children choose to have them die? Aslong as there is in heaven a God of Love,there must be for His children everlastinglife. This is not the cold logie of science,but the warm faith of a father who hasseen his child on the brink of death.cc And so at last, it may be you and IIn some far azure InfinityShall find together some enchanted shoreWhere Life and Death and Time shallbe moreLeaving Love only and Eternity."The littlest fish may enter in.Oh, never fly conceals a hook,Fish say, in the Eternai Brook,But more than mundane weeds are there,And mud, celestially fair;Fai caterpillars drift around,And paradisal grubs are found;Unfading moths, immortai flies,And the worm that never dies.And in that Heaven of ali their wish,There shall be no more land, say fish.I describe this poem as doing "full andcomplete justice" becauèe, though there bemetaphors and analogies, wishes and phan-tasies, hopes and fears, there is really noevidence for immortality, unless one canfind more weight than I have been able tofind in the literature of psychical research,or can, by recovering the emotional im-petuosity of adolescence, believe that human desire can create the objects or con-ditions for its own satisfaction.Logically, then, perhaps I should closemy address by telling you the story ofBenjamin Franklin's reply to PresidentEzra Stiles, of Yale College. Upon beingasked whether he believed in immortality,Franklin replied that he had had his doubts,but since he was old, he would soon findThe PhilosopherIMMORTALITY nout without troubling to speculate fartherupon the matter.I should indeed stop here were I notafraid that some might take it as a con-fession that a philosopher knows less aboutthis subject than does aphysicist or a physiologistor a theologian. Weali alike out-talk our in-formation when we discussimmortality. When aman out-talks his informa-tion, he ought to talk beau-tifully, so that the talkcould be its own reward.Let this, therefore, be my \apology for a heavy reli-ance henceforth upon thepoets, who, after ali, areour best philosophers.One may commemoratefrom the poets several atti-tudes upon this question.First, one may surrender Thomas V. Smithto the undertow of primitive animalism, as does Tennyson in declar-ingOh yet lue trust that somehoiv goodWill be the final goal of ili,That nothing <walks with aimless feet;That not one life shall be destroy'd,Or cast as rubbish to the void,When God hath made the pile complete.Or, again, one may, with MatthewArnold, celebrate his escape from the back-ward pulì on an "eternai note of sadness" :The sea of FaithWas once, tao, at the full, and round earth'sshoreLay like the folds of a brighi girdle furl'd!But now I only bearIts melancholy, long, withdrawing roar,Retreating , to the breathOf the night-wind, down the <vast edges drearAnd naked shingles of the world.Or, one may stili accept the inevitable,satisfying himself, through the avenue ofre-definition, with the immortality of thegerm plasm, or the lasting influence ofhuman effort, or, after Thomas Hardy, withremembrance on the part of friends. Adead love surprises her beloved upon thebrink of suicide, and restrains him withthese ominous words — A Shade but in its mindful onesHas immortality ;By living, me you keep olive,By dying you slay me.In you resides my single powerOf sweet continuance here;On your fidelity I countThrough many a comingyear.When the full import ofthis revelation from his beloved dawns upon the des-pairing lover, he acceptsfor her sake the "bleak un-rest" of life and echoesback across the Styx. . . . When 1 surcease,Through whom alone livesshe,Her spirit ends its livinglease,Never again to be.Or, one may, in a spiritof bravado, look mortalitystraight in the face, as inS winburne's f amous lines —From too much love of living,From hope and fear set free,We thank with brief thanks-givingWhatever gods may beThat no life lives forever,That dead men rise up never,That even the weariest riverWinds somewhere safe to sea.But I should suppose that one mightalso, accepting life for what it is and theuniverse for what it is, in full appreciationof, and yet independence from, a simplerpast, turn his face nevertheless to the futureand exclaim with Walter De la Mare —Of old men wrought strange gods for mystery,Implored miraculous tokens in the skies,And lips that most were strange in prophecyWere most accounted wise.And so they built them altars of retreat,Where life's familiar use was overthrown,And left the shining world about their feet,To travet worlds unknown.We hunger stili. But wonder has tome downFrom alien skies upon the midst of us;The sparkling hedgerow and the damorous townHave grown miraculous.And man from his far traveling returns,To find yet stranger wisdom than he sought,Where in the habit of his threshold burnsUnfaihomable thought.12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEIf we can achieve this more wholesomeattitude, we shall then orient our lives withreference to what we know, rather thanwith reference to what we do not know.Fixating our emotions indeed upon the process of knowledge itself, we shall not misswhat has been lost in the renunciation ofoutworn credulity. While we do live, wemay find other ways of transportation thanthe horses that beggars ride. If tenderhuman spirits stili cry —But are there not souls so strongSuch feet with swiftness shod,That they can reach it,Reach some bourne, some ultimate ofGodf—I am here against my will, induced bythe persuasiveness of a young lady. I in-formed her that I had not spoken on "immortality" since my intellectual metamor-phosis. I ofrered to speak on Physiology.She said, "No, we want you to speak onimmortality. Dean Gilkey wants you tospeak. Mr. Smith will not take part un-less you do." Well, that is something, andalso something else. Since without mypresence you would have been deprived ofthe poetic discourse of Mr. Smith, I agreed.Next in importance to hearing Compton onthe Physics of Consciousness and of Carlsonon Physiology is hearing Smith on Immortality. So I am here.The Chairman did not inform you thatthe speakers, a Physicist, a Philosopher,a Physiologist and a Man of God, madea gentlemen's agreement not to laugh ateach other's inanities, and not to cali names.But I apologize for what I am going tosay because it seems so simple and self-evident that it needs not be spoken to anaudience of scholars, except for the extraor-dinary physiology one sometimes hearseven from scientific colleagues like Mr.Compton.Mr. Chairman, I think that someoneshould define what we mean by "immortality" in this symposium. I am not nowinterested in the immortality of energy, as those who are done with wishful days canonly reply:There is no bourne, no ultimate;The very farthest starBut rhymes a sea of other starsThat reaches just as far;There's no beginning, and no end;As in the ages gone, the greatest joy of joys.Must be the joy of going on!Crossing thus the threshold of maturity,we should find it resurrection enough, evenat Easter time, if every day finds revived inus the curiosity to question, the will to live,the thirst to love, and the grace to die —when die we must — with the dignity ofone who wraps the mantìe of his couchabout him and reinherits the tongueless si-lence of the dreamless dust.illustrated by Mr. Compton's candle flame ;nor in such loose or general use of theterm as we find in expressions such as "theimmortai Shakespeare," "the immortalityof truth," "the immortality of the germ-plasm." I presume that when people ingeneral use the term immortality as relatedto man, they mean the perpetuai persistenceof man as a conscious individuai. That ismy understanding of the term for thissymposium. We have crude examples ofsuch personal immortality in the Sagas ofthe resurrection of Lazarus and of Christ.These are also examples of the immortalityof the physical body. Christ's body disap-peared from the tomb at his resurrection.This was a mutilated body. And whenChrist appeared before the disciples, therewere stili holes in his hands and in the side.The idea of persistence of the individuaiafter physical death comes down to usfrom the ancients in most if not ali races.What credibility are we going to give tothe idea solely because of its historical as-pect? So far as I can see, we can giveno greater credibility to the ancients' viewson immortality than to their views on otherthings about which they knew nothing.And that applies, from my point of view,to every judgment or statement of allegedfacts in the so-called "sacred books" of thevarious peoples in domains outside of theThe PhysiologistIMMORTALITY '3direct experience of these people. The in-spired elements of these books are thematters of the social experience of thepeople. When it carne to cosmogony,geography, biology, physiology, or chem-istry, the ancients werecomparatively ignorant.These ancient Sagas havebecome "sacred" by thehypothesis of "inspira-tion." That is, the Sagasare not records of earlyman's experience andguesses, they are direct"revelations" from theGods ! How many of youcan respect, love or "wor-ship" Gods that teli people(via the channel of "in-spiration," whatever thatmeans) codes of ethics,things the people could,and undoubtedly d i d ,slowly learn for themselvesby the travail of living,while in matters of the nature of the worldas well as of man himself, these same omnis-cient Gods broadcasted mainly errors? Inbrief, the idea of personal immortality gainsno credibility in its historical aspect. Assuch, it is an interesting guess. And the interest is mainly anthropological and psycho-logical. Was the idea distilled from dreams,or is it a crude and passing expression of thewell nigh universal will-to-live ?Now, let us turn the light of science onthis ancient idea of personal immortality.What is the nature of man? What are thefacts of death? What is the physiology ofdeath ? What is the physiology of memoryand consciousness? Dr. Compton has ai-ready outlined for you the various guessesas to the nature of man. The idea thatwe have a kind of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hydemake-up, a physical one and a so-calledspiritual one, is assumed by some. Thereis one view that these two entities have noconnection whatsoever, that "souls" orportions of "soul matter" can exist totallyindependently of the physical body. Othershold that there is causai interconnectionbetween the two. A third view assumes Carlsonthat in some way conscious phenomena andintelligence, that is, personality, are justas much an evolution of the material worldas is the rest of the body processes. Weseem to be forced to this conclusion fromthe evidence of the intimate dependence of alip h a s e s of consciousness,memory, and personalityon the quantity and qualityof the nervous system.It is perfectly true thatwe can cut off an arm orleg, remove certain peri-pheral ganglia, and evencertain limited parts ofthe centrai brain withoutseriously interfering withconsciousness or personality. We can leave thebrain structure anatomi-cally intact, and throughp o i s o n s eliminate consciousness temporarily oralter the individuai personality permanently. The data from braintumors, brain injuries, drugs, experimentalphysiology, defective heredity, show thatthere is a dose correspondence or dependenceof consciousness, intelligence, memory, andindividuality on the nervous system.What is personality? We think biolo-gists would agree, today, that one elementin personality is heredity, the kind of germplasm with which we are endowed at con-ception. But this hereditary personalityis modifled and built up gradually by experience and memory, so that today I ama somewhat different person from what Iwas twenty years ago. It seems at leasthighly probable, on the basis of biology,physiology and medicine, that this experience or the cumulative effect of the environ-ment (memory) depends on changes builtup mainly in the nervous system. Themodifications of the nervous system we calimemory are less stable than the hereditary elements of the nervous organization.Ali the present evidence points to the factthat the nervous system goes to pieces withthe rest of the body at death. It doesn'tmake any difference whether the disintegra-14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtion is fast or slow. We may preserve fora time some externals, by dessication, em-balming or petrification. But fossils andmummies are as dead as the ashes of thefuneral pyre. I cannot conceive of en-vironments in the future that wouldexactly reproduce my heredity and personal experience so that I could live again.But if this should happen the productwould be, not the old wagon, but anotherindividuai of the model T.If this is the end of the individuai man,what about the purpose of evolution?When we begin to speak of "purposes" innature we cease to bc scientists. We be-come anthropomorphists and inject our ownwishes in the matter. We confuse reasonwith emotion. We think we can detecttrends in evolution, but as to purpose, nobody knows. And our wishes in thematter do not change the events. Ourwish does not prevent sickness of thosenear and dear, it does not prevent death,it does not prevent the miseries of man.The wish for personal immortality does notmake it a fact, though it may render beliefin it possible in people with little informa-tion in biology.Now, you may ask, how do I get thisway? Is it the result of defective earlytraining? I think not. As a child I wasthoroughly exposed to the Christian Sagas,and other traditional lore. My motherwas an earnest, orthodox, pious Lutheran,and through her influence I read the wholeBible through twice before I was 15 yearsold. I read the Bible with the mind of anordinary child, that is, literally and with nodoubts. As a child I prayed, at least attimes, in earnest. I don't know that myprayers were ever answered, but I prayed.Like the colored deacon who prayed forand then went after the chicken, at the ageof eight I prayed and hunted for the recovery of my lost pocket knife, but for aliI know that knife is stili rusting in theheather of the hills looking down on thefjords of Sweden. My good mother saidthat God probably did not want me to havethat knife. It might cut my finger or mutilate the cherry tree. Dean Mathews mightsay the knife was taken away by God as a punishment for my sins. But my query is:why teach a child the futile habit of prayerrather than the actual ways of life? It wasonly later, with education, with the comparative study of religions, and, history andphilosophy, and then science, that I beganto doubt traditional lore. Being "reborn"through years of serious scientific work, Inot only doubted, but, saw that those oldideas, religious dogmas and ethics based onthem, were untenable for me. I foundother bases for conduct, other meanings forthe good life. But I concede that some ofthis lore may yet be tenable for many peoplewho have not had my experience in biologyand perhaps for some who have. Few, ifany, persons are rational ali the time onevery aspect of living.I will say this in closing. These mentalconflicts that the youngsters experiencewhen education and science compel an in-ventory of traditional faiths are, in my experience, due to the grafting of practicalethics on the stem of ancient dogma. Whenyou have worked your way out of thatconfusion the meadows are stili green, thesunset as charming as ever, and you look onman with a new and saner interest. Justice,now, may assume an added significance.You paid me the compliment of asking meto speak; in turn I owe you the service ofscientific frankness. In my judgment, immortality of the person is at present untenable. I do not even wish it. I havenot seen any heaven described where I careto go. My forebears had their Valhallawith its mead, and roast pork, and combats ;the American Indian his happy huntinggrounds; the followers of Mohammedtheir heaven of houris; the Christian hashis Golden City of many apartments, hisgolden harp, and his orientai worship ofadulation. But hunting means destroyingfellows not so very different from myself.Mead and pork and fights and females for-ever leave me cold. Flowers, though theylike ourselves last but for the moment, arefìner than gold. Justice seems greater thanworship.When the shadow lengthens toward theeast, I am content to cali it a day and leaveIMMORTALITY 15the arena forever. This dismissal of thetraditional tomorrow seems to have addedinterest to my work today, greater interestI have a great deal of sympathy for Dr.Carlson. I was brought up in a piousfamily myself, and I think I have beenreborn. I can say, too, that I don't think Iam particularly worried as to what is goingto happen to me after I am dead. I shallfind out in a few years. Even those ofus who think that a belief in the continu-ance of personality after death is forcedupon us logically by an understanding ofthe total world in which we live, — havetimes when about ali that we can confidentlysay is that we should be surprised if wewoke up and found ourselves annihilated!We ali have only a minimum of interestin the future so far as it has a direct hearingon any particular act. If a questionnaireis a method to prove anything, it wouldseem that those of us who believe in thecontinuance of the personal life after deathare not trying to frighten people into decencyby talking about hell, or endeavoring tomake heaven a sort of compensation fordefeat on the earth. We await it as weawait any event in the order of nature.I think most of us are interested in immortality because of those who are dear tous. We are rather ready to take a chanceourselves, but we hate to think that thosewhom we have loved, who have actuallybeen of significance in the world, who haverisen above the backward pulì of theiranimai inheritance, and have gone on tosomething noble and pure, are annihilated.Let us first consider negative conclusions.Ali of the statements which our friendshave made, and much of the poetry whichhas been quoted, I am familiar with. Aprofessor of theology must scrutinize hisreligious faith if anybody must. My beliefin personal survival after death, if I canestimate it, is not due to any particularwish, but to my view of the total situationin which we are. There is no use to talkabout what a particular form of matter willdo or won't do before you know what mat- in my students, in my fellow men, in otherthings that seem worth while human efiforts.For when I die, I will be a long time dead.ter is. There is no use to talk about pre-conditions of mental life until you knowwhat life is. There is no use to be dog-matic about anything where you don'tknow. But you must have working hy-potheses in life; you must organize sooneror later an answer to the question as towhether there are forces in the cosmoswhich can develop characteristics superior tothose of our immediate predecessors theanimals. If one thinks seriously, sooner orlater one must make up one's mind as towhether or not in the cosmic process ofwhich we are a part, which starts nobodyknows where, and goes nobody knowswhither, there is any meaning.What then, avoiding both negative andpositive dogmatism, seems on the whole thebest working hypothesis ? The issue cannotbe avoided by a study of origins. At bestorigins are far from being origins. Afteryou have the atom, you have the proton andelectron, and after you have them, whathave you? When you look at those tre-mendous stars a million light years distant,you find yourself face to face with space.But nobody knows what space is; nobodyknows what time is. Who dares be nega-tively dogmatic in an area where trueorigins are hidden in the obscurity of anactivity you don't understand? Who canlearn ali of the possibilities of the matterof the brain by studying its corpuscles andcells? They are not ultimate.You are thrust into a choice of workinghypotheses, drawn either from the patternof the machine, or from the pattern ofwhat seems to be the finest product of thecosmic process — yourself — and yourself inrelation to other persons. Of course, youwill never get any sense of immortality solong as you think of things in terms of ma-chines — mere mechanisms. But neither willyou dare organize your ethics on a mechan-istic philosophy. The police wouldn't letyou, even in Chicago. You dare not organ-The Theologiani6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEize your relations with one another as ifyou were what a strictly mechanistic con-ception of life says you are. We must treatone another as more than machines ; we musttreat one another as though others were likeourselves, selfdirecting, capable of choosingvalues, acknowledging things like beautyand honor and faith, and the very act ofwill. But there is no time-element in thoseacts.Religion is not an entity any more thanscience is an entity. What we have ispeople, men and women, who have a certain behavior, who organize their lives witha certain sense of values. And you havehard work getting beyond folks. No scien-tist ever showed me an electron, nobodyever showed me anything, except their im-pressions of something. What we meanby science is really the experience of scien-tists. When we talk about religion we aretalking stili about a group of experiences,— of experiences of people who have tried insome way or other to live in the frame oftheir personal selves, to utilize in their behavior the power which they possess not asmachines but as persons.I know perfectly well how idle and crudehave been some of these attempts at livingwith the universe at the level of personality.Yet the whole scale of life was the same.Sometimes primitive religion seems pathetic,_but on the whole I think it was glorious.Somewhere, sometime, some life emerged,by some strange metamorphosis, from theanimai; someone found himself consciouslyfacing the universe in which he had to live.He had no scientific training back of him,he had to live as best he could. And ap-propriating his experience in dealing withhis fellows, he tried not only to live with thetrees, rocks and ali nature's mechanisticoperations, but as if there were also in theuniverse the capacity for a personal ad-justment. He had chosen his working hypothesis !Religion didn't invent belief in the con-tinuance of life after death. That carneout of the urge of life itself, and this ispractically universal. Millions, and hun-dreds of millions of people, in ali gradesof culture, have believed themselves im- mortal. This belief was due to the deeperbelief that what had produced personalvalues was stili at work producing personal value. This belief carne out instrange ways, for primitive men had nopsychological laboratories. They thoughtin terms of soul and spirit, but stili theydared think of personality as worth something in nature and as not ending withdeath. The development of this belief inpersonal values gave new thrusts to ali life.Let us not confuse belief in the persistenceof personality with pictures of the future.As a child I used to believe that I shouldplay a harp forever with a crown on myhead. Later I feared I should feel a gooddeal of ennui before eternity was over.Dr. Harper, when he faced death, as we alihave to, tried to reconcile himself to stop-ping in the midst of an extraordinary careerby saying, "There must be some work forme to do over there." His idea of heavenwas an opportunity to be of service of somesort.It really comes back to this : The creativeprocess and the evolutionary process didnot stop back in the first chapter of Genesis.If the human soul, or whatever you wantto cali it, is the outcome of the evolutionaryprocess there must be in the universe forcescapable of producing what they have produced, and they must stili be operating inour environment. The process is stili on.Personal development through relation withthese forces is stili going on. I know thedifEculty from the point of view of physiology, but I don't think that physiologyknows ali there is in the universe. I don'tknow what matter is — of course, I am onlya theologian — but I am not at ali afraid ofwhat matter may be. And physiology isabout the only science that stands betweena conception of matter and this world viewthat of necessity includes a belief in thesurvival of the individuai after death.If it didn't seem so hopelessly naì'vemetaphysically, I should endeavor to setforth a monism which isn't ready to say thatmatter is dead, even when it is found indead bodies ; that as a form of cosmic energyit is always active.Now, of course, it is perfectly true no-IMMORTALITY 17body can prove that, but you can take yourchoice as to whether you live in a universewhere personality-evolving forces are atwork, or whether you live in a universewhere ali you have is chemistry, mechanics,and mechanism. Religionsays that immortality as apersonal experience is anelement in this workinghypothesis. Ali m e n 'scrude pictures of whatcomes after death are ef-forts to set forth theirbelief that personal valuesare supreme, and that personality is not at the mercyof impersonal forces. Ourfaith in the continuance ofthis process, at least in thecase of those who are atone with the personality-producing elements of thetotal activity, is to theeffect that life at our pres- Shailerent stage can be betterlived on the supposition that the animai andthe mechanical aspects of our life, are reallylower phases of what we really are becom-ing. We expect the continuance of thoseelements of our life which are in adjustmentto the personality producing forces of theuniverse not subject to time or space. Wedo not allow imperfect conceptions of matter to deprive us of this one tenable world- As religious persons we are not tryingto frighten folks; we are not trying to de-ceive folks. We are trying to induce folksto live as if the ultimate values in life wereoutside of time; that life is not futility orfrustration ; that the qual-ities which we shouldfurther in ourselves arenot those which we sharewith the beast that dies, orthe animai that survivesin our own body, butthose of the timeless personality-evolving forces ofthe universe. "Thismortai," says R o y e e ,"must put on individua-lity." Really, that's whatreligion looks forward to— a life which will bericher and more self-directed, because not lim-ited by those particularforms of matter in themidst of which we nowmove, and which we now express ; but whichwill be conditioned by some other form ofeternai force as superior to present formsof matter in human brains as these aresuperior to the crystal and the atom. Webelieve personal adjustment with the personality producing forces of the universewill carry the evolution of persons beyondthe change in the form of existence whichwe cali death.MathewsSojourn on a SummitBy Henry Justin Smith, '98XVII.1.<TT WAS the charming month of May."I The calendar was witness; and byA its testimony the Lowlander knewhow many months had gone since his trans-lation to The Summit.Only a part of a year lived in this place,only a succession of weeks, really, since itslandmarks offered themselves to a surprisedgaze, and now, how familiar it ali was!Here rose the shapely reddish walls of TheClub ; one could draw a map of its interior.Across the Street: That delicate squaretower, which for some reason seemed lesstali than at first, yet more intimately beautiful. And beyond, building after building,almost every cranny of them explored — evento the steel levels of library "stacks," likegalleries in the engine room of a ship —their different shadows, noises, odors, identi-fied, absorbed into experience.A pageantry once dim and remote, per-formed by alien beings behind a veil, nowhad been moved dose to the observer, aswhen, in motion pictures, you see a wholescene, actors and ali, unaccountably march-ing toward you, and what was a blur becomes a "close-up."Had nothing happened in these months?It was hard to recali any crowning event.Nothing spectacular anywhere, certainly.... So gently, and in such large curves,did activities move that, just as in followingthe planetary time-table or the movementof the seasons, one knew there was progress,but could not separate it into periods. Wasanything finished? Ask the scientists,and they would say "No." A few hundredmore records of animai or plant phenomenahad been made ; photographs of the dance ofatoms or the darting of light-rays had beenadded to an already vast collection;mysteries lurking in rocks had been ex-plained, a little more fully; in a basementwhere a dictionary of an ancient languagev\ as being assembled, thousands more cardshad been stacked up; perhaps, by this time, The Great Man had established that com-plex equation which puzzled him last fall.But — finished? Nothing was finished.The surmounting of each slope did but re-veal a new horizon. . . . Keep on ; keepeverlastingly on.Meantime, enjoy life. This is the season,scientists. The quadrangles are again green,and Windows can be thrown open, ad-mitting the shouts of athletes and the tink-ling of distant music. The tennis courtsare in shape ; the nets are up. Play a little.Forget the exasperations of unfinishedthings, and play. Forget, if you can, thatyou must surrender some time to Fate, andenjoy the illusion that you are immortal.Believe you are always young!2.The University was in a gay mood thatmonth. Those grand plans for enrichingthe place, for making everybody happy, forturning dream-pictures into reality, nowlooked perfectly possible. At The Club,professors no longer shook their heads.andmuttered: "Can it be done?" They nowasked only "How soon?" With the returnof leaves to the ivy, confidence too had comeback; and with the May-flies flew a newflock of glittering rumors. It was said, andnot denied, that the scientific hall longtalked of was now assured. Even that storyof a handsome million was brought back —and believed.And besides, the alumni were doing sowonderfully! Ali over the country, in bigcities and little, even in towns where onlya dozen remembered Alma Mater, her songwas being sung, and there were pledges tostand by her. The mounting record ofdollars brought cheer to the quadrangles.The figures were displayed from week toweek; they were discussed at trustees' meet-ings; the news of them reached the mostsecluded work-shops.Were the alumni wealthy? Were theyenthusiastic, to the last man and woman?Were they going to contribute, "100 per18SOJOURN ON A SUMMIT 19cent"? Maybe not. But they were young.They were the reserves, coming to recruitthe weary ranks, and they were adoptedchildren, not total strangers, like the restof the populace. Their attitude was a thingproved, not merely guessed.So spring moved on, in a crescendo ofhappiness and trust. There was a feelingali about that enterprise had broken itschains. There was a certainty that by nextyear there would be "big doings" on thisplateau ; ground-breakings, corner-stonelayings, dedications. Indeed, already, onone spot walls were going up, and workmenclambering about. Under stark trees, on awinter day, there had been a quiet littleceremony, a purely family affair, when acopper box, filled with mementoes, had beenlowered into the hollow of a massive block,and a trowel applied by a nervous officiai.Among the snow-flakes, the President hadsolemnly consecrated this work. Therewere people who had muttered that hemight never live to see it completed. Buthe was living, was he not ? And day byday, the clink of trowels, the puffing oiengines, behind that fence, spoke of thenew epoch.The Dean's wife gave a party. Some ofthe ladies had to have new gowns made forit. The men had to exhume their swallow-tails and white waistcoats. There wasdancing, and a supper almost too lavish fora single piate. A brilliant affair! It wasfelt that there was some definite reasonwhy the Dean's wife staged it. Only a fewpeople, however, heard her say that "shehad reason to think the university's pros-pects were never better."A "big man from the east" was seenamong the buildings. From one of theFoundations, he was. He walked aboutwith the President, and nodded his head.He nodded his head ! There were long con-ferences with this man. A luncheon wasgiven for him, only a few of the trustees andhigher officials being invited. The speecheswere kept secret. Ali this was very signif-icant.At a banquet of big business men in aclub Down There the President spoke onthe aims of the university," and a great many of the big business men nodded theirheads. Word of this carne back to thequadrangles, and professors went aboutwhistling.At a luncheon just for department people, Mrs. Professor Doane said that shewas positive that the department would nothave to get along in the old quarters nextyear. What had she heard? Well, shecould not say. . . .The fraternity houses were lit, fromground floor to attic, those nights. Theywore banners. Strains from phonographsand radios kept up a merry hullabaloo.Through the open windows of thedivinity building carne, every noon hour, themasculine chorus of the theologues in theirchapel, singing most heartily, "Praise Godfrom whom ali blessings How."3.Now for many days and nights that ex-elusive student society, the musical comedytroupe, had been rehearsing, rehearsing;writing songs, practising dances, worrying,and calculating. Behind the lighted panesof the assembly hall they had been brewingmysteries, while in a secret room their jazzquartet labored upon discords which shouldexcite the dullest ear-drums.And the opening night was here.Why should it not serve as a jubilee time,with so much carnival in the air? A truceto dignity and to lingering troubles, thisMay evening.So resolved the university, from its mostaugust to its most insignificant members.More than ever, on this first night, it was"the thing" to fili the boxes with swellingwhite shirt-fronts and shimmering gowns.Professors, trustees, townsmen, were pa-trons. There had been dinner parties, withtoasts to the university, and from these,groups caped, scarfed, silk-hatted pressedinto the hall. A jam of motors outside; aregular opera night.Only once a year could the universityfamily be seen like this. At football gamesit swelled into a bowl-full of shriekingsavages, wearing blankets. Here, it turnedinto manifold rows of discreetly costumed,program-rustling, theater-goers ; rows of20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEyouths and girls, laughing about nothing,mingling with professorial parties, withalumni, even with folk who did not belong,but simply "liked a good show." Theorchestra leader himself, a hired man,seemed to feel that he was among friends.He led the merry overture with mockgrandeur, and with grins for people in thefirst row. The musicians tooted like boys.Then the curtain rose, and through along act, among whose freakish numbersseemed to wander the specter of a plot, thesetransformed students presented their as-tounding selves as clowns, as mimics, asdancers, as musical innovators. "Why,they're ali men," said a first-time visitor;and so they were. It was the custom withthis troupe. Ali men, and their clumsyfeet, their awkward elbows, their manipu-lation of skirts — that was the most fun.The faculty sat and heard itself twitted.A burlesque dean disciplined a chorus of"young ladies." Sciences were reduced torags by the irony of the leading actor. Ayouth made up to represent a "butter-and-egg man" wrote a check to the university forten million dollars. . . . The crowd couldafford to laugh at this, now.There were shouts of laughter. Therewere curtain calls. There were glances andjibes in the boxes, where some of the "gags"struck closest.Who were burlesqued ? Everybody. . . .Everybody éxcept the President? Werethey holding back that one until he shouldenter his box? Where was he, by the way?Box number I stood empty.A few people considered this very strange.4-Out into the court, the heated audiencepoured entre ade to enjoy the fragrance ofthe evening. Ali around the square, withits bowl and fountain in the center, coloredlights were strung, sequences of red, blueand white. In every window of the labora-tories, lights blazed. The high-frettedwalls, the little spires, were lavenderborders against the deep purple of the sky.The audience quite filled the court.Cigarette smoke curled up from groups ofgentlemen in black and white. Girls, arm in arm, their costumes like spots of cloud underthe prismatic glow, strolled softly about.Others, with things to sell, accosted trustees and emptied their pocket-books.Into this crowd the flower-borders pouredtheir perfume. The fountain leaped whiteand stili.Oh, nights on the Summit can be beautiful!5.In a corner of the corridor, drawn awayfrom the crowd, someone was whispering tothe Dean. Someone was always whispering to the Dean, but this communicationwas clearly grave. The person who broughtit was quite pale. He threw out his hands,as if at a loss for the right words. TheDean eyed him steadily, his chin graduallybecome outthrust, his lower lip almostmenacing.How the crises in this carefully disciplined place did clothe themselves in secretmessages! The Lowlander, idly watching,thought that what the Dean was hearingmight be any thing at ali: A mere problemof a delìnquent, a little financial muddle.Or, it might be something worse. But any-way, it would be a long time before it wouldcome to the surface. It might never beknown at ali. . . .The Dean, left alone, looked about,caught sight of a trustee, edged that waythrough the crowd, and whispered. . . .The grey-haired trustee listened, bendingdown, his hand on the Dean's arm. Theyboth shook their heads.And now, somehow or other, an alarm,secret and oblique, began to flit from groupto group. You could observe the momentof its arrivai at each knot of people. Youcould see them stiffen up, their lips formthe words: "What! You don't mean it."You could almost discern the circulation ofthat insect-like rumor, and its departure foranother set of hearers. It shot out intothe court. It struck down heads here andthere. To the continuous murmur, it addeda new note; a separate, thin, gloomywhisper.A well-posted person was standing nextto the Lowlander, and, having been theSOJOURN ON A SUMMIT 21latest recipient of the message he must passit on. It was a way he had, to keep theLowlander informed, sometimes regardingmatters which were no business of either ofthem.But, this time, it was the business ofeverybody, apparently. No stopping it.No smothering this piece of news, whichhad driven the smile from so many faces,THE COLLOQUY"Pain is money in hand, but not in the pocketFor hoarding or lending,This new-minted coinage of tissue and socketIs ripe for the spending.""Well — let the Soul regard with tranquil eyesWhat this her preyThe Body earned before, perplexed, unwise,She went her way.""O but what timeless purchase shall be madeWorth this for barter,That the dumb Soul stood in the Body's shadeAnd was its martyr?"O grieving flesh, incorrigibly loathTo suffer — uncompanionable child,Are we undone by an ambiguous oathAnd both beguiled?DIMIDIUM ANIMAE MEAEPeace folds her wings within your quiet mind,And you inhabit silence like a tower;Secure from wrath and the tumultuous showerOf unripe joys that leave dismay behind.Seeking your rose of solitude for dower,My lordless thoughts, unruly as the sands,Make pilgrimage to you, and at your handsLook to receive the fair, unwithering flower.We are divorced from fortune, you and I,Alike in patient thought as one could find,And I admire that, being of one kind,I could ask anything and you deny.Since, then, you take my quiet if you go,Regard my tossed heart, lest your -own be so. which seemed to discolor even the winsomelights, which threw carnival into a sorrylight of satire. News which drove from thememory the delight of the last confidentweeks, which turned triumph sour."Have you heard. . . . The President.. . . Taken to a hospital. ..."What! Of ali people, the President!ONCEWhen she had come, my swiftly wingingthoughtsWent circling round her brow like littlebirds,Within the singing cadence of her speechI heard the music only, not the words.And ali the time that she was standing thereMy thoughts were gayly roving, up anddownAmong the tender shadows of her hairAnd in the fragrant ripples of her gown.HAYDN SYMPHONY, THIRD MOVEMENTFlowering phrase ! not timorous of errorAs doubtful acts wait for a life's reply —These notes will have their answer ere theydieIn music by whose sureness life grows fairer.Mind, will you have this answer, gravelyspokenWhile six slow notes resolve the flutes'unease,And spent wills seizeSwift mending for the Spartan vows solingeringly broken?"Friendship's a fugitive and love a question?"— Now you grow strange, and fail, and answeroddlyIn two dim chords that are not silenced soon;There is no comfort, sir, in ali these godlyAnd minor suppositions in the bass;— No certainty, but so extreme a graceAs passes for the lost and f alien meetnessOf notes I quelled my quick thoughts to attendThe answer fails,But meanwhile here's a tuneTo set a slow life to, and so with sweetnessDisarm its end.En RouteThe John Billings Fiske Prize Poems of 1930By Alice Winifred Finnegan, '29THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEREVIEWSa a -X—An Epic on the LoomThe Great Meadow, by Elizabeth Madox Roberts, J2i.The Viking Press, New York City, $2.50WHILE our book-jacketeers havebeen laying violent hands on theword "epic" to describe many aprosaic novel of the soil, some of our poets— notably Stephen Vincent Benét, GlenwayWescott and Elizabeth Madox Roberts —have been improving the foggy moment byquietly laying hands upon the novel andturning it toward the epic, although makingno claims and probably hoping that noclaims should be made which might alienatea public proud of its prose-mindedness.But the trend cannot go unspoken.Two years ago everybody (the "everybody" of a monthly book guild) was read-ing Benét's John Browns Body, a novel inverse. Now everybody is reading ElizabethMadox Roberts' The Great Meadow, herthird important long poem in the guise ofa novel, and her nearest approach to thetrue epic. To those who remember theassociation of Miss Roberts and GlenwayWescott with the University of ChicagoPoetry Club, the dedication of The GreatMeadow to Glenway Wescott seems apledge to a common mission.The measure of epic is, of course, morea thing of feeling than of formula. Itcatches great rhythms, the rhythms of peo-ples. It shapes images of monumentai herofigures in epochal attitudes against horizonsfull of immediate meaning to the eyes ofpeoples. The prose novel has achieved onlya part of this. For a century our novelistshave recorded varied aspects of Americanlife, gradually defining our folkways andspeech — our epos. The Great Meadow hascaught more of it, by virtue of poetry.The "Great Meadow" is frontier Ken- tuck, an heroic horizon in the eye of everyschoolboy. The story of it is as old asagriculture, and has been epic in manylanguages — the quest of a Canaan beyondthe mountains. Confronted in body andspirit by the symbolic image of "the BlueRidge as a wall across the west," DionyHall, knowing that her tidewater fatherhas named her for a daughter of the Titans,goes forth with Berk Jarvis in consciousnessof Tradition and Destiny, and becomes asthe bronze of monuments which are risingeverywhere today to the Pioneer Woman.Her knitting tools and spinning wheel andloom mark out a Parcaean rhythm, the toolsand wheel starting as the book starts,jerkily, gathering momentum, and thenspinning on with repetitions of sound neverquite the same, twisting the loose stufi oflife and thought more firmly with eachturn:1774, and Diony, in the spring,hearing Sam, her brother, scratchingat a tune on the fiddle, hearing himbreak a song over the taut wires andfling out his voice to supply ali thatthe tune lacked, placed herself momen-tarily in life, calling mentally hername, Diony Hall. "I, Diony Hall,"her thought said, gathering herselfdose, subtracting herself from the dif-fused life of the house that closedabout her. . . . "I, Diony Hall," herhands said back to her thought, herfingers knitting wool.Here, as in her first two poem-novels of theSouth (The Time of Man having to dowith poor-whites, and My Heart and MyFlesh with decayed gentlefolk shadowed byREVIEWS 23the mulatto spectre) the repeated speakingabout music is a clue to form, along withmetered alliterations which now and againjog the reader who would lapse into prosyhalf -attention, — "of humility and holinessin the house" . . . "the last of the leaveswere falling and the ground was spreadwith gold" . . . and with recurrent Bibli-cal turn, "making a song to sing over him,singing."Dialect gives its own deep accent, akinto that in the poems of Frost. It is notaccident when successive sentences endthus, ref rain-like : ". . . Sallie Tollivergoing mutely by way of reply," and ". . .her father mending a plow," and ".Sam outside singing." A rooted way ofthought is shown here. And a folk voice iscaught simply in "I look to see the LongKnives take Kentuck" and "The trees madeas if they would come into leaf." It is notstrange if, in the effort to get at the dementai in words by throwing them intonew combinations, there should be an occasionai straining of idiom which one is morelikely to associate with certain modempoetic creeds than with pioneer Americans.This is evident when sounds are made to"eat into Diony's ear places." And the im-age of mouths as "hungry instruments thatbent about reports of killed men" is sheerconceit, though powerful and though design-IN HIS campus days, Donald Richbergwon his college letter on the track;and his narrative of American experience has ali the resiliency of a relay race.Sheerly as a "true story" it offers rattlinggood entertainment; but the analogy holdswhether we think of it in terms of his owncourse, baffled in one lap only to swingahead in the next, or whether we think of itin terms of the changing incarnations ofthe democratic impulse in our times. Thesehe treats at once warmly, with the zest of aparticipant, and whimsically, with the philo-*Courtesy Survey Graphic. edly reporting the tension of frontier life.It is only in terms of a larger concept ofepic, finally, that the end of The GreatMeadow is understandable. For the mostpart, as in many of our novels of thefrontier, a true epic conflict is implied ratherthan dramatically presented. One eposconquers another, manifestly, as the agri-cultural order of the whites crowds outIndian hunters. But it is an accompani-ment rather than a centrai theme. It takesBerk away to avenge his mother, murderedand scalped, but the story remains atHarrod's Fort with Diony and her son. Itpermits Diony to marry Evan Muir whenBerk does not return. When Berk doesreturn at last, she must send away one ofthe men. Her choice then between Berk,the warrior and builder, and Muir, thehusbandman, brings the epic conflict finallyto the front.To have wrought it otherwise wouldhave been to give the story to Berk's ex-ploits, and the whole book to the libraryof children's literature. Boone would haveentered for his moment as a movie hero,rather than as the legendary half-god whichhe is. In ali this Elizabeth Madox Robertshas braved perils herself.This is unmistakably Art, and Poetry,and almost Epic by any rule.Lennox Grey, '23sophic edge a vivisectionist might bring tothe nine lives of a cat.He wrote this history in response toeager insistence that a realistic chronicle ofour generation "on the march" should betold through the intimate encounters of onewho had spent twenty-five years in the tentsof those mighty who, one and another, haveassumed to teli us whither we should go.For here in their encampments has beenthis modem minstrel with a marshal's batonin his hip pocket ; a man with a penchant forwriting, off and on, politicai platforms,popular songs, novels, learned articles inNow For Another LapTents of the Mighty, by Donald R'. Richberg '01. Willett, Clark &Colby, Chicago. 26 J pp. Price $2.50.24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINElegai and economie reviews — and light andserious verses. Surely a lawyer of nationalreputation, with deeply grounded convic-tions, who nevertheless is constantly amusedat himself and ali other humans, pittingthemselves against unknown and largely un-realized forces, ought to write history aswell as to help make it.We first discussed the project of thisbook in that piping time, sufficiently iden-tified by the names of our two first postwarpresidents, when the citizenship of theseUnited States seemed to have pitched campfor a long season among the flesh pots ofprosperity. They were a bit winded aftertheir charge to make the world safe. It wasa period of disillusionment, sophistication,sag. "What is worth fighting for in American life?" we asked of a jury of men andwomen whose qualification was insightrather than ignorance, and who were con-scious of new or resurgent stirrings amongmen. The juror at the end of our front rowproved to be a whole panel in himself. Hisarticle must become a series, his series abook. Before him had passed a pageant ofstrangely mixed leaders in every field ofnational life — Roosevelt and Newton Baker,Michelson and Insull, Jane Addams and LaFollette, Bryan and Darrow. Among themhad movcd a man of religious faith andskeptic mind, always asking: "Why do wedo this ?" and "Where do we go from here ?"Stored away in his correspondence files andmemory were glimpses behind the scenes ofgreat events, that shed a new and engaginglight on the forces stili struggling to masterthe thought and to direct the energies ofthe American people.Now the story has been written. It startsin a college fraternity at the turn of the cen-tury. It grows quickly into an insider'saccount of the Progressive movement whichcarne of age in the Roosevelt campaign of19 12, faltered in 19 16, died politically when"normaley" overwhelmed La Follette in1924. Social issues shifted from the ballot-box, but this Chicago lawyer, stili in hisforties, put his mark on the railroad-valua-tion case before the Interstate CommerceCommission and the U. S. Supreme Court,which with its fabulous stakes has proved to be the prime legai battle between ownersand users (of property) in our generation.His mark, also, on the development of a newstructure of industriai relations in which thegovernment, railway brotherhoods and theoperators play their parts. Out of these experiences, out of his contaets with scientistsand technicians, he searches out something totake the place of the moralities of Armaged-don, the legalities of court action, the cleav-ages of class conflict.Here I wish to come back to that analogyof the relay race. In spite of his exceptionalqualities, Donald Richberg has gone throughessentially the American course. He startedat scratch in things of the spirit and thespiked shoes of the young materialists of1930 line up along the same tape. He wascaught up in the politicai militancy of thefirst decade of the 1900's, but the secondsaw him a lap ahead of its older leaderswho had not his grasp of the industriaiforces which were reconditioning the function of government. The third decade hasseen him, with his sentience to scientificadvance, a lap ahead of those who clingto an out-moded range of economie solu-tions. The essential youthfulness of his ap-proach has spanned the three decades inan era of transition; and he is not onlyready to strike hands with an oncominggeneration, but to run the course in advance of them. The torch he carries intothis new decade is a kindling awareness ofthe dynamic which has stirred ali thesegreat currents in our social life — an epicsense of common adventure — the flair formatching innovating word with concerteddeed in a sequence of new worlds. From thefirst to the last page his is a fascinating proseballad of the leadership of yesterday and today, shot through with prophetic glimpses ofthe future that may well inspire others tofollow the "new captaincies" under whosestandards he hopes that mankind may yetrealize some of its "old dreams." Whetherthey agree or disagree with his philosophy,readers of every variety of social and politicai faith will enjoy this racy, good-humoredtale which he describes with ironie inac-curacy as the biography of an UnknownSoldier. Paul U. Kelloggin /ny opinionBy Fred B. MillettAssistant Professor of EnglishGR. ELLIOTT'S Cycle of ModemPoetry is a significant incident in• the process of evaluation to whichAmerican critics under the aegis of IrvingBabbitt are submitting nineteenth centuryliterature. Although it is a collection ofcriticai essays and not a sustained andordered treatment of modem poetry, it at-tains unity and coherence in its rigid application of Professor Elliott's criticaistandard, and succeeds in indicating theneo-classical estimates of Shelley, Keats,Byron, Wordsworth, Browning, Long-fellow, and Frost, not to mention Shakespeare and Eugene O'Neill.There can be no uncertainty as to thecriticai standard by which Professor Elliottsets out to evaluate some of the character-istic figures of the romantic and Victorianperiods. From his own point of view, heis a true Humanist; from the historicalpoint of view, he is a pseudo — or neo-classicist. In his eyes, "our chief criticaithinkers since Arnold" are Irving Babbittand Paul Elmer More, and by insistentrepetition in this volume he familiarizes uswith the major tenets of the creed of theseChristian Humanists. The creed is anincongruous medley of literary and religiousdogma. In literature, it owes allegiance tothe less ebullient examples of classicalantiquity, and in the case of ProfessorElliott, to Milton only, in modem literature. In religion and ethics, it is emphati-cally Protestant. It never loses sight of "thevital and awful cleavage that gleamsthrough the centre of human nature," of"the creative battle of Satan and the Sonof God in the human spirit." It is violentlyopposed to any form of scientific or philo-sophical monism, to "the notion that the life of the universe consists of a single kind ofenergy," for such a view "obscures andblurs those mighty oppositions in our naturebetween which the true world of poetryrevolves." For Professor Elliott, at least,the dilemma of modem poetry can beescaped only when poets "imaginativelyrealize" that the "powers primordial" are"two opposed natures, a lower and a higher,meeting terribly or beautifully in humanpersonality. This realization would liftpoetry again to awe, and broaden it tocommon sense." This American Humaniststrives to amalgamate Aristotelian modera-tion and Christianity of the primitive sin-hating, soul-saving, ego-centric variety. Itfollows almost inevitably that he abomi-nates humanitarianism, romanticism, andrealism.This is obviously not the place for a dis-cussion of the dubious validity of ChristianHumanism. What is of importance is thevalidity of Professor Elliott's criticaimethod as illustrated in this volume.Whether or not the creed be sound, thecriticai method is certainly fallacious.Professor Elliott's major assumption is thatany poet who is not a Christian Humanistis a bad poet. Consequently, when a poetwho does not subscribe to the dogmas ofpseudo-classicism presents himself for judg-ment, he is dismissed as imperfect and un-satisf actory. The logie of such a procedureis no more ridiculous than its results. Oneafter another, the great romantic poets,Keats, Shelley, and Wordsworth, presentthemselves, and are summarily dismissed asinadequately Christianized. One wouldhave thought that Browning's conventionalfaith would have saved him, but ProfessorElliott finds in Browning "not spiritual2526 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEdevelopment but emotional revolution."Even Shakespeare must yield to Milton inorthodoxy; moreover, Shakespeare "wouldbe the first to realize in Milton a consistentheight of poetic power (including poeticspontaneity) that he himself could notachieve."It is only fair to judge a criticai methodby its results, and it is obvious that a methodwhich denigrates Keats and Shakespeare,and awards the prizes for poetic excellenceto Milton, Robert Frost, and Henry Wads-worth Longfellow, involves a major fallacy.Of Milton, Professor Elliott's view isstrictly neo-classic: in the only model avail-able in English literature, there can be noacknowledged flaw. To such an attitude,the recent revelations of the genetic natureof Milton's religious and ethical views andthe common agreement as to the aestheticinferiority of Paradise Regained are unim-portant heresies. The attempt to rehabil-itate Longfellow results in the freshest andmost illuminating of Professor Elliott'sessays. On the aesthetic and technical side,he makes out a very good case. If we couldforget those poems of Longfellow's whichthe grammar school forced upon us, and re-consider his less saccharine work, weshould undoubtedly revise our estimates ofhis poetic powers. But when ProfessorElliott commends to us his "fine personalcharacter" and his "firm, sweet, laboriousDURING the past summer a largeand notable group of Chicagoalumni visited England to attendthe Fifth International Botanical Congressheld at Cambridge, England, August 16-23,1930. The University of Chicago was rep-resented by Professors Cowles, Shull, Fullerand Coulter of the Department of Botany.Among the alumni of the Department fromcountries other than the United States wereProf. R. R. Gates, Ph.D., '08, King's College, London, England; Miss Dorothy G.Downie, Ph.D., '28, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland; and Prof. C. Y.Chang, Ph.D., '26, The National CentralUniversity, Nanking, China. Professor H. living," when he would persuade us thatthrough Longfellow "the way to Miltonruns more clearly, in certain respects, thanthrough any other poet of the century,"when he adjures America to recover theingenuousness of Longfellow, we remainunstirred and unconvinced.It is perhaps significant that thoughProfessor Elliott's Weltanschauung is neo-classical, his style has a late Roman deca-dence. He delights to scatter his pages withunnecessarily Latinized terms, such as in-certainty, expressional, mis fortunate, artis-tical, inruptions, specialistic, disbranching,cosmoplastic, decadency, motivational,norma, democratism, unìntensity, simplex,duple, factitiously unfactitious, stazionari-ne ss, paradisaic, localistic, meanders (as anoun), cottage d (as a verb), febrility,scienti fi cized, identicism, passionism, andspectacularity. Occasionally, the decadencecreeps into his grammar, and it seems hardlyworth disentangling such a sentence as"For when vitally ingenuous his poeticspirit is so liable to formless volutions that,when deliberately*architectured, it is alwayslikely to become factitious and inane, likethe human shapes which a fanciful, de-termined eye finds in the clouds."There is an unfortunate misprint on page21. The line, "The consolidation that hewanted not," should read, "The consola-tion that he wanted not."C. Cowles, Ph.D. '98, and Professor R. E.Buchanan, Ph.D. '08, of Iowa State College, were chosen as presidents of two of theeight sections of the Congress.On Thursday, August 21, a reunion ofthe Chicago Botany Alumni took the formof a luncheon at the Lion Inn, at which 49alumni of the Department were present.Professor Cowles presided, while the othermembers of the staff from Chicago toldsomething of the progress made by the Department and of its new equipment in theway of greenhouses and laboratory. Asocial half hour closed the first internationalmeeting of Chicago Botany Alumni.Geo. D. FullerChicago Botanists at Cambridge, EnglandAn Unposted Letter to an Unforgettable FriendDear Milton Sills: I have been lettingthe milestones of Time slip past me at anaccelerating pace, absorbed in the tasks anddiversions of the present, as you have beenin yours, but never forgetting our years ofstudent life and comradeship when we werevery young. Always in the back of my mindthere has been an idea that we would gettogether again, some place near the end ofthe road, and talk it ali over — the old daysat Hyde Park High andthe university, when aFrench prof called us"les frères jumeaux,"and the more than twodecades that followed, inwhich we have gone ourseparate ways. It wouldbe a long litany of "Doyou remember?"We would talk ofMrs. Brainard's post-graduate English class,in which we fledged ourfirst sonnets and gotgaudy ideas about be-coming important subjects in future historiesof literature.Of sessions after classes, in your room inthe old home on Berkeley avenue near 44thStreet, debating hotly ali the contemporaryisms of the arts of fiction, drama, music,and painting; changing the subject, whenour minds became exhausted, to the alwaysrefreshing problem of girls.Of the way you went Deke and I Chi Psi,and Kennicott [our third musketeer] DeltaTau Delta, causing our lodge brothers tofrown upon us, now and then, for pickingpals outside of the fraternity.Of the afternoon [you will have forgot-ten this] when I challenged you to a 220yard dash, serene in my theory that a leanlightweight could always run faster than a6 foot heavyweight. I lost, of course ; that'swhy I remember.Of your discovery of Donald Robertson,and ensuing loss of interest in graduatework in philosophy; of your first steps in the art of acting, which seemed to be learn-ing how to fall down, when stricken by avillain's dagger or bullet, without breakingan arm; of Herman Lieb and Alice Johnsand ali the other faithful Robertsonians whostrove to uplift the drama at Ravinia park,in Fullerton hall, and other places wherehigh hopes and low rents went hand in hand.Of opening nights when I was pinch hit-ting for Jimmy Bennett on the Record-Herald, and would takeyou along — of the night,especially, when we wentbackstage between acts at"The Man on the Box"to see Jack Westley, andmet Carlotta Neilson ;and how, a year or twolater, you became herleading man in a NewYork production — Gia-cosa's "Falling Leaves"it was — adaptation byyourself.Of how you strayedaway from the amateur-ism of Robertson's flockand turned prò — leadingman in "Dora Thorne,"a low brow play on one night stands; andhow the high brows thought you had turnedagainst the Cause and were lost forever.Of the play we tried to write together,which proved to be a preposterous mixtureof Ibsen, Tolstoy, Henry James, and Pinero,and was abandoned without regret.These and many other little incidents ofthe fantasy of youth we would remember inthat reunion to which I have always lookedforward. We would have recalled themwith the laughter that belongs to the endof the game. ... I had never dreamedthey were to be, for me, a reverie of mourn-ing over a distant grave . . . Hollywood,lamenting the loss of its First Scholar, willheap that grave with flowers. I will sitalone and in your memory re-read Shelley's"Adonais."Charles Collins, '03Courtesy Chicago TribuneMilton Sills, '031882-10302728 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEW ÌN-f,-^*T"i -' ' '_5te; ¦i© ^-sirA^O"'r£|aìè--Aerial PhotographTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 29JL:^r--5^'***..in.NIVERSITY OF CHICAGO3° THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe Big Bend State Turns to BruceiT THE primary election on August 7,f-\ Arthur Bruce, Chicago, '06, was-*- -*- chosen by the Republican party ofTennessee as its candidate for governor. Toquote from one who is in the thick of theTennessee politicai battle and who has alithe earmarks of an authority, "The republican and independent forces of the statecombed the mountains, the valleys and thefertile plains from Clarksville on the northto Chattanooga on the south,from Johnson City on theeast to Memphis on the west,searching for the outstandingfigure of this historic commonwealth to lead theirforces in the coming struggle.They sought a man of greatheart, clear head, sound ex-p e r i e n e e, unquestionedhonesty and unlimited cour-age."And was their search re-warded ? Indeed it was !Right there on the banks ofthe Mississippi, just as theywere contemplating taking a Arthurferry boat and continuing thesearch in the state of Arkansas, they foundthe leader for whom both republicans andindependents were so impatiently waiting.Even after the man was discovered it re-quired insistent demands and passionatepleading to persuade him to hearken to thiscali of his countrymen, for in addition toali the required characteristics he wasblessed with a becoming modesty — to saynothing of a big job of his own. But in theend persistence won, and Arthur Bruce ofMemphis was persuaded to become guber-natorial candidate of the Republican party,and his nomination was confìrmed in theprimaries.Twenty-four years ago Arthur Brucegraduated with honors from the Universityof Chicago after four years of activity inmusical, dramatic and literary lines thatseldom has been equalled.After twg years of required law andsuperfluous culture at Harvard he sought an antidote in the high plateau region ofNew Mexico where, under the tutelage ofSkeeter Vogt, '06, he spent a year in specialresearch work, learning to ride and cook,to camp and pack, to rope a steer and throwthe diamond hitch. His Chicago Spanishgradually acquired the twang of a realnativo del pais. He made friends withminer, farmer, cowboy, herder, Pueblo andNavajo. He became interested in live stockand is stili vice president ofthe Vogt Sheep Companywith its far stretching ranchesin Valencia and McKinleycounties.After a year of life in theopen Bruce began the practiceof law in Kansas City, wherehis work attracted the attention of the A. O. Smith Cor-poration of Milwaukee,whose legai staff he was persuaded to join.In the meantime Arthur'sfather and brothers formedthe E. L. Bruce Company ofMemphis, which has becomethe world's largest manufac-turer of oak flooring and hardwood lumber.Arthur joined the firm in 1920, and movedwith his family to Tennessee, where he wasmade vice president and director of publicityfor the company.During his ten years in Memphis Brucehas become an outstanding figure in thecommunity. His efficient work as head ofthe Memphis Community Chest attractedthe attention and admiration of his fellowtownsmen. His outstanding administrationas president of the Memphis Chamber ofCommerce forced him to accept a secondterm. When President Hoover called twohundred leaders in industry to counsel withhim in Washington, Arthur Bruce was oneof the two hundred. His present nomination is but one of many honors.Arthur Bruce has been an active Chicagoalumnus. As president of the MemphisAlumni Club and as State Chairman duringthe Development Campaign, he has provedBruce, '06BIG BEND STATE TURNS TO BRUCE 3ihis continuing interest in the University of done, he delights to sit at the piano or plink,Chicago. plunk on the old banjo while he warblesAnd today — as a quarter of a century the song hits of The Passing of Pahli Kahnag0 when the really important jobs are and The King's Kalendar Keeper.Korean SketchesBy Cyrus LeRoy Baldridge, '11'1 -•-¦¦ -*"" A decade ago Roy Baldridge and NatPeffer, both of the class of 191 1, traveledthrough Korea, collaborating on some illus-trated articles on Korea for the Americanpress. Upon their return to this countryRoy gave the Magazine permission topublish some of his originai sketches. Wetake pleasure in presenting again two ofthe Korean drawings from the pen of theillustrator of White Africans and Black,one of the really beautiful books of thepast year.On the left, A Little Mother; below,Korean Farmer.NEWS OF THEQUADRANGLESu By John P. Howe, ì2^NQUESTIONABLY," DeanGeorge R. Moon reports on thenew freshmen, "the brightest classever to enter the University."From year to year the freshman class hasalways been called the brightest and mostpromising in a decade; and quite truly, nodoubt. Ours was so called. This year thepaean of improvement has these statisticsfor its burthen:That with few exceptions the new matric-ulants have come to the University withhigh school scholarship averages of 85 orover.That nearly 1400 applications were re-ceived for the 750 places open in the class;that nearly ali the applications were madeby eligible candidates; and that thereforethe "selective admission" system was actu-ally selective because factors of personalitycould be given considerable weight.That 135 members of the class are re-ceiving scholarships, the greater proportionof which imply other excellence thanscholarship alone.Statistics do not make a class. Deansand others agree that the boys and girls of'34 are personable; "handsome," says Mr.Hutchins. Fraternities and Clubs seemsatisfied, which is rare. Delta Tau Deltapledged 21 of the 274 men that took buttons.wwwTwenty freshmen chosen by Dr. Mor timer Adler from among the sixty best-recordsin the group — ten men and ten women — ¦were picked for the "honors reading course',being given by President Hutchins and Dr.Adler. Over a period of two years themembers of the class will read from theliterary masterpieces of the Greeks andwestward — ali the great books that every-one should have read, and which no onehas. A room in Classics has been set aside,with a hand-picked library. Discussionstake place Tuesday evenings, sometimes at the Presidente home. For the first quarter,week by week, the readings will be selectedfrom the Iliad, the Odyssey, the Old Testamene iEschylus, Sophocles, Euripides,Herodotus, Thucydides, Aristophanes andPlato, sources first, commentaries second,comment third. By the spring of '32 theclass will have reached Sigmund Freud.Forty new faculty faces appeared beforeUniversity classes for the first time October1. At noon of that day the 38th Commemorative Chapel Service was celebratedin the Chapel, recalling the thirty-nine-year-old first service conducted by PresidentHarper in Room no, Cobb hall, October1, 1892.New full professors: Dr. Edwin H.Sutherland, criminologist and former headof sociology at Minnesota, in the Sociologydepartment; Dr. N. Paul Hudson, of theRockefeller Institute, interested in fllterableviruses, a member of the late Noguchi'syellow fever expedition, in the departmentof Bacteriology and Hygiene; and Dr.Eleanor Bontecou, former dean at BrynMawr, under leave of absence since herappointment last year, in the School ofSocial Service Administration, as Professorof Legai Relations.Dr. Frederick J. Kelly, until recentlypresident of the University of Idaho, hasbecome Lecturer in the School of Educationand member of the survey staff throughwhich the University is quietly and ex-haustively analyzing its own functioning.Dr. George Alan Works, last year presidentof the Connecticut Agricultural College, isalso a member of the survey committee, andProfessor in the School of Education.Visiting Professors: Dr. Franz Alexander, Berlin, lecturer in psychiatry, plusa seminar in criminal psychiatry in the LawSchool; Dr. Maurice Halbwachs, University of Strasbourg, in sociology; and3»NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES 33Dr. C. V. Taylor, Stanford, in zoology.Associate Professors, new: Mortimer J.Adler, of Columbia, in philosophy; HenryD. Gideonse, of Rutgers, in economics;William C. Casey, of Illinois, in politicaiscience; Dr. W. W. Swanson, Minnesota,in pediatrics ; and Jens P. Jensen, economics.Messrs. Gideonse and Casey will assist inthe reorganization of undergraduate teach-ing in their respective departments, in ac-cordance with Mr. Hutchins' pian of prò-viding the most stimulating kind of survey-lectures for large classes of beginning studente.Assistant Professors, new: Dr. StephenPoljak, California, neurologist in the Medicai School; Dr. Rudolph Schoenheimer,Pathological Institute of Freiburg, in surg-ery; Charles O. Gregory, Yale, in law;Ernest C. Colwell, in New Testament;Clay G. Huff, in Bacteriology ; and Franklin P. Johnson, in art. Wilbur S. Katz,Harvard, is Visiting Assistant Professorin law. Dr. Huff is an entomologist, andhis appointment represents a new development in bacteriology, a recognition of theimportance of insects as agents to inf ectiousdisease. One of his recent contributions hasbeen a demonstration that susceptibility todisease is hereditary in insect-strains as wellas in human family lines.The faculty roster now numbers over 800names. As noted in the Midsummer issueof the Magazine 71 full professors havereceived salary increases this year averaging$700; 23 associate professors increases averaging $485; and 55 assistant professorsincreases averaging $470. Part of thesalary-increase program has been made pos-sible by the new Alumni Gift Fund.The number of faculty members receivingsalaries over $7500 and to $10,000 is now535 as against 14 five years ago; the numberreceiving salaries over $5000 to $7500 is145, as against 78 five years ago; the number receiving salaries over $2500 to $5000is 164, as against 148 in 1925-26; and thenumber receiving $2500 and under is 59,as against 52. Here again, the AlumniFund, raised during the Development Cam-paign, has been in large measure responsible.The number of students registered on October nth "in the University and on thequadrangles, was 5,622 ; in University College downtown 2,326. Of the grand total— 7>929 (minus duplications) — 3,055 areclassified as "graduate," 4,340 as "undergraduate," with 534 "unclassified." Of thegrand total 4,155 are men and 3,774 arewomen. Of the 5,622 who are on the quadrangles 3,131 are undergraduate, 2,391 aregraduate, and 100 are unclassified; 3,563are men and 2,059 are women.Fifteen departments of the University areoff ering "honors" or research courses forundergraduate students this autumn, so thatthe best students may be encouraged to goas far and as fast as their abilities permit.Exactly 900 classes met at the Universityand on the quadrangles October ist.A new phase in the history of the University of Chicago was inaugurated August26th when ground was broken south of theMidway for the first two units of residencehalls for undergraduate students.The ground breaking ceremony brings theUniversity dose to realization of its plansfor the development of a unique college.Involved in the decision to erect the hallssouth of the Midway is a pian for com-prehensive reorganization of college life, in-struction and method which University au-thorities have been planning for severalyears.President Hutchins has been particularlyinterested in this phase of the University'sprogram, and it is expected that he will bein a position to disclose the outlines of thenew pian shortly. It is regarded as proba-ble that the halls will be the first buildingsof an entire collegiate development south ofthe Midway.Within a decade or less the Chicagodream of the "most beautiful academicavenue in the world" will be a reality, nowthat the Midway barrier has been broken.At the present time the north side of theMidway Plaisance, along Fifty-ninth Street,is lined with Gothic buildings from Drexelavenue, to Blackstone avenue. The new International House, on the site of the oldDel Prado Hotel, and new hospital units onthe west, will fili in ali vacant spaces be-34 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtween Cottage Grove avenue, and theIllinois Central road within a few years.The unit for which ground was brokenin August is to be a men's hall to accom-modate 400 students. The site is betweenGreenwood avenue and Ellis avenue onSixtieth Street. Operations will start shortlyon the second unit, to house 370 women,on a site between Woodlawn avenue andKimbark avenue on Sixtieth Street.The men's unit will be a building en-closing two quadrangles, and will be 341feet long by 240 feet deep. The Midwayfront will be five stories in height, and thesides will be four stories. There will beeight sections in the hall, each with an individuai entrance, with two main gatesfacing on the Midway. Two attractiveclub-rooms and two dining halls will be inthe south end of the building, and adjoiningon the south will be recreation fields.The building for women students will be340 feet by 154 feet, five stories in heighton the Midway front, four stories on thewings, and two stories on the south section.It will be built in four sections, each withits own dining hall, and the club-room andrecreation facilities of the men's buildingwill be duplicated. Zantzinger, Borie andMedary, of Philadelphia, are the architects,and Bulley and Andrews are the contrac-tors.Erection of the dormitories was madepossible by the generous coopera tion of Mr.Julius Rosenwald with the Board of Trustees of the University. Mr. Rosenwald, amember of the Board, and one of the University's leading benefactors, has agreed tocontributi forty per cent of a total construc-tion cost of five million dollars.Things recently demolished: One andone-half smokestacks of the two which oncemarked the Old Power Plant, now replacedby the Blackstone Avenue Plant. Thetruncated stack stili standing at Inglesidewill serve the University incinerator.Lorado Taft's studio, south of the Midway at Ellis, when it was planned to putdormitories there. Mr. Taft has moved oneblock westward.Kimbark Hall, which stood between Emmons Blaine and Belfield halls — an oldapartment house which served as the University High Boy's Club. The site is thatof the new graduate building for the Schoolof Education.The old red building at the northwestcorner of 5Óth Street and University avenue— once used to provide small apartmentsfor married graduate students — to makeway for the Field House.The old Del Prado Hotel, this spring, tomake way for the new International House.Buildings practically finished: the Chicago Lying-In Hospital, the Nancy AdeleMcElwee hospital and the Gertrude DunnHicks hospital. Buildings under way: thedormitories and the Orientai InstituteBuildings to be started soon: InternationalHouse, the graduate education building, andthe Field House.Under the will of the late Thomas D.Jones the University of Chicago is to re-ceive $200,000, it was revealed in October.Half of that sum will go to the FrankBillings Clinic and half to the general en-dowment of the University.wwwDr. J. Laurence Laughlin, emeritus professor of economics, and now 80 years old,was honored on October ioth at a luncheongiven by President Hutchins. Dr.Laughlin, as first chairman of economics,organized the University's department in1892 and served as its head until his re-tirement in 19 16.The occasion marked the impendingpublication of his life-work, "Money,Credit and Prices," which is to be releasedby the University Press next month. Agroup of Dr. Laughlin's friends have con-tributed toward the publication, includingMartin A. Ryerson, George Reynolds, JohnV. Farwell, Harry Wheeler, Harold Swift,Bernard Sunny, Julius Rosenwald, ThomasE. Donnelley, Cyrus McCormick, GeorgeWoodruff, Mrs. Joseph Schaffner and Mrs.Edmund Hulbert.Mrs. Harry Pratt Judson, widow of thesecond president of the University, diedNEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES 35September I2th in the Billings Hospital.Professor-emeritus Addison W. Moore, amember of the philosophy faculty from 1895to 1929 died in England, August 25 th.The University of Chicago has beennamed as one of three American educationalinstitutions to receive the "Fidac Distin-guished Service Medal" for furtheringinternational understanding and good will.The Fidac, or Interallied Veterans Association, represents nine million ex-service menof the lately allied nations. ProfessorWilliam E. Dodd received the medal forthe University at the Fidac Congress inWashington on September 20th. The Juryof Award, selected by the American Legion,acting for Fidac: Hon. Newton D. Baker;Hon. Ray Lyman Wilbur; Gen. L. R.Gignilliat ; Drs. David P. Barrows, StephenP. Duggan, Paul Monroe, George E. Vincent.Some University activities furtheringinternational understanding and good will,which no doubt influenced the Jury:The Norman Wait Harris Institute, anannual conference at the University, nowcurrent for seven years, at which domesticand foreign experts discuss specific world-problems.A study of the causes of war, now threeyears in progress, supported by the University's Social Science Research Committee(which was formerly called the Locai Community Research Committee).Teaching, research, writing, talking oninternational problems and their corollariesby various faculty members — among whomare Quincy Wright .and Samuel Harper;active cooperation with foreign researchersin ali academic fields.The comprehensive series of studies incitizenship which will eventually have described the trends in ali important modemcountries, which is proceeding under theaegis of the Politicai Science Department,the imprimatur of the University Press, andthe direction of Charles E. Merriam; ofwhich the ninth volume, "Civic Trainingin Switzerland,^ has just been published.The number of foreign savants who cometo Chicago as visiting professors, lecturers, guests; and the number of special fellowsfrom abroad.The fact that foreign students composeabout one twenty-fifth of the student body;and that a full-time advisor assists themhere in making their adjustments; and, notleast, that an International House willshortly be erected at the University for theforeign students of the entire city, on thesite óf the old Del Prado Hotel.Russian communism is in its third — andcriticai — stage of development as a workingsocial theory, and the communists are dis-tinctly on the offensive in their own country,Professor Samuel Harper says. ProfessorHarper has just returned from a two monthsstudy of Russia, and is giving six downtownlectures in which he will analyze "The NewCadres of Russia.""Cadres," Professor Harper explains, isa term which refers to the system of militantofficials and organizations by which thecommunists hope to bring the Revolution tosuccess by a complete elimination of everycapitalistic element in the country.The six "Cadres," according to Dr.Harper are the communist party-workers,of whom there are now two million, dividedinto 50,000 "cells," the Young Communists,two politicai organizations; the "Shock-Brigade Workmen," a group of special-duty workers; the "collectivist peasants,"who have adopted the communist form offarming; the communist propagandists,newspapers and teachers; and the RedArmy, which is on the alert for any capitalistic aggression."The communists aim to intensify theclass-struggle by every possible means," saysProfessor Harper. "They do not believethat a nation can grow into socialism; theybelieve that socialism can be achieved onlyby a sharp overthrow of capitalism. Thefirst period of the Revolution was an attemptto take capitalism by storm, but it succeededonly in cutting off the head of capitalism,leaving the roots to flower. The second wasa period of retrenchment. The third period,which began in 1928 with the institution ofthe Five Year Pian, is a systematic attackon ali the capitalistic vestiges in the country.36 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"The Five Year Pian is far more thanan effort at industriai and agricultural reorganization — it has deep politicai implica-tions; its aim is finally to bring about theclassless society. The leading groups ofthe old, overthrown order who are to beeliminated by this process of development,and who, to quote the cartoonists, 'do notlike the big plans and these new cadres' arefirst the capitalists; that is, the privatemanufacturers, merchants or traders, whohave survived. Then there are individualistpeasants — called the 'rich peasants,' who areto be converted to collective farming; theengineers, or technical experts, of the oldregime ; and the centrai figure, the renegadesocialist, who has deserted the cause. Onefigure was added later : the priest."The Five Year Pian is under way atthe cost of a terrible struggle — short rations,censorship, arrests, executions. Twomillion communists are attempting to set up a new social order for 156,000,000Russians. To the workers, the Pian holdsout the promise of eventual higher standardsof living, higher wages, leisure. It is alsoa struggle to outstrip other nations. Thepossibility of underselling other nations inforeign markets is always noted. And thecommunists believe that if the venture isa success, it will have a strong appeal toworkers in other nations."To Americans the word 'Bolshevik'means something destructive. To them itmeans something having the highestqualities. The first sowing of wheat thisyear under the collective farming methodis always spoken of as the 'bolshevik sowing,'because it was done by bolshevik methods,of, by, and for, bolsheviks."Professor Harper will publish a book,embodying the material of his six lec-tures, which will be called "Making Bolsheviks."Athletic Snap ShotsUpper left, The Baseball team arrivesat Tokyo. Lower left, Captain Hollahanmeets Captain Mori. Below, "They bearfamous Chicago names." Harlan O. Page,Jr., whose father made athletic history in1907-10, and Paul Stagg, son of AmosAlonzo and Stella Robertson Stagg, '96.Henry Miller News Picture Service, Inc.By William V. Morgenstern, '20 J.D. '22THE morning after a 34 to o defeatwould seem to be no time to be dis-cussing football "prospects," unlessyou are proceeding on the old theory thatit's always darkest before dawn. Chicagohas met Wisconsin in its opening confer-«ence game, and lost 34 to o. To a man,the experts on the daily journals have writ-ten Chicago down as hopeless ; some of themgo so far as to refuse credit to Wisconsinfor beating so weak a team. Well, maybethis is another 1926 but one game, even at34 to o, is hardly sufHcient basis for such aconclusion. A personal guess is that theworst this Chicago team will do is to break«ven in the remaining six games, againstFlorida, Mississippi, Princeton, Purdue,Illinois, and Michigan.The opening of practice saw 63 men re-port, but since anyone who thinks he canplay football will be given a suit at Chicago,the size of the squad meant little. Therewere eight lettermen in the group, five re-•serves, and not more than twelve others,sophomores and squad members of 1929,who could be considered of possible use. Itwas quite apparent that Chicago again thisseason would not compare in man powerwith most of its opponents, that its linewould be mediocre in the early season andthat orthodox tactics would be of no avail.•So Coach Stagg last spring started to developa forward passing attack, planning to offsethis lack of power with deception and astyle of play that would avoid battering hismen.There was no experienced center, so thatit was necessary to take Andrew Brislenfrom guard. Keith Parsons, a 180 poundsophomore, who will be a good man nextyear, and Raymond Zenner, a stubby 172pounder whose passing is unreliable, are theother men at the position. The best of theiguards for the year now appears to be Stanley Hamberg, a 190 pound reserve of1929. Hamberg was very green last year,and he is stili learning, but he is going tobe a good man before the season is mucholder. Apparently the next choice is PompeoToigo, who weighs 167. Pompeo has oneoutstanding virtue — he likes rough going.He can be tricked but he is agile and rough.Then there is Walter Maneikis, regardedas the class of the freshmen linemen lastyear; 188 pounds, but slow. Not cleverenough for a tackle, he will be useful atguard. For the tackles two lettermen, SamHorwitz, who was a guard last season, andWalter Trude, were available. Horwitzreally lacks the weight for tackle, being only169, but he is a smart player and handleshimself cleverly. Trude made up his scho-lastic difficulties just before the seasonopened. He weighs 192 and ought to be agood man, but he did not get going in theWisconsin game. Bert Cassels, son of the1899 end, a lanky youth who stands 6 feet,4 inches, and has 182 pounds sparsely dis-tributed over that big f rame, is another whois used at tackle. He really needs a year'sexperience and twenty pounds more weight.Alvin Reiwitch, who has been doggedlysticking to the squad for two years, is find-ing regular employment at this position. Hehas the physique, but lack of high school experience has been heavily against him untilthis season.Tom Cowley, who was shifted to endfrom halfback last fall, and won a letterthere, is an aggressive player, a good tackler,but somewhat uncertain on pass catching.He has been handicapped so far by an injury.Bernard Wien, a reserve, is at the other end.Cowley weighs only 162; Wien 168.Thomson, a 168 pound sophomore, and ArtAbbott, sub of 1928, are the next two possi-bilities, with four or five green men trailing.Stagg has been dissatisfied with his ends, and3738 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEhas even worked Horwitz there. Horwitz,by the way, is the handy man of the line,for he went in at guard against Wisconsin.The backfield looked good before theseason opened, with Capt. Errett Van Niceas a really great player. Van Nice was theone dangerous runner on the team, fast de-spite his 200 pounds ; a fine passer, ali themore effective because he is lefthanded, andhe had developed into a punter during thesummer. But in the first week of practicehe was injured, being out two weeks. Inless than five minutes he was hurt at Wisconsin; he will miss the Florida and Mississippi games at least, and cannot be countedon as a factor any more. This is a realtragedy, for the team had poise and confi-dence when Van Nice was in. He gave thevital element of class to Chicago's offense,particularly in his passing, and he was theone man who could break up a ball game bygetting loose.The most improved player on the teamis Paul Stagg, and if he keeps up his presentpace he must be rated the best back on thesquad. Paul was reliable last year; thisseason with the benefit of experience, he isconfident and effective. He directs the teamintelligently ; he throws good passes; hecatches punts beautifully, this year takingthem on the run; he seems to have morespeed to make him better as a ball carrierand a defensive man. Paul was the oneback who did not wilt at Wisconsin ; hewas going as hard in the last minute as hewas in the first. Joe Tempie has addedweight and looked very good in practice,particularly improved on his passing. Buthe had a bad day against Wisconsin, espe-cially on his defensive play. Walter Knudsonis somewhat better as a runner and is stilithe sure defensive player he has always been.Louis Kanne, a first rate punter, and asteady player, is now the first reserve, taking Van Nice's place. Don Birney, theNebraska sophomore, has been coming fastafter a poor start and will be a valuableman. He can punt and pass. Bob Wallace,a fleet runner, is also being used. EdwardS tackle r, who was a sophomore withKnudson, showed promise as a fullbackwhen he returned this year, but injuries have prevented him from doing much so far.Kenneth Mackenzie, a fullback last year,was moved into the line at guard, but nowhas been put in the backfield again, forboth Knudson and Stackler were hurt atWisconsin.This was the group that was able to startthe season with a satisfactory 19 to o vieto ryover Ripon, with the reserves defeatingHillsdale, 7 to 6. The Wisconsin game wasthe second of the schedule, and it was ap-parent that unless Chicago could get thejump with its passes the superior Badgerman power would wear the team down.The day was fearfully hot — so hot thatspectators in the stands were even over-come by the heat, and the players' handswere so slippery with perspiration that theycould not be sure of passes. That put apremium on reserves, for no eleven mencould stand up a full game. When VanNice was hurt, the offense was crippled,but Chicago was not through defensivelyuntil the middle of the second quarter. Theline once made a magnificent stand to stopWisconsin three yards from the goal, butthe repeated pounding had its effect. Wisconsin got its first score; ran in ten freshmen against the wearying Chicago regulars,and kept running them in ali afternoon.When his best men were exhausted, Stagghad to use green players who had no idea ofhow to stop Wisconsin.The future does not look so hopeless forintelligent football when Princeton comeshere, November 1. The "flanker" attackis a fine one; give the team a chance to getout of its own territory and it will maketouchdowns. The Florida game will bedifficult, partly because of the numerous injuries, but Mississippi will be fairly easy,giving the team a chance to get in shape forPrinceton.wwwChicago's ball team is now on the Pacific,returning from its trip to Japan. NelsNorgren's team got off to a poor start inthe islands, losing its first five games, butit rallied to win seven, lose seven, and tieone for an even break. The club startedplaying the day after it landed, and thelong journey undoubtedly had an effect.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 39Bernard E. Sun-ny Gymnasium,University ofChicago HighSchool, Chicago,HI. Armstrong,Furst & Tilton,Architects. Bul-ley & Andrews,Builders.Will the New BuildingSatisfy You?See what other institutions are doing.Write for illustrated brochure.EVEN a superficial study of collegiate architecture should convinceyou of the greater beauty of the Indiana Limestone building. Locai stone,except in rare instances, lacks thecharm of this fine-grained, light-col-ored stone from the hills of southernIndiana. Other materials certainly donot compare with it. There is so verylittle difference in cost that it is nolonger necessary to substitute for Indi ana Limestone. Newmethods and large-scale production developed by the Indiana Limestone Company sometimespermit a saving. Look into this subjectof building materials as it affeets yourinstitution. Your opinion may be themeans of bringing that lasting beautyto the new building that everyone wantsit to have. Let us send you an illustrated brochure. Address Dept. 2 1 19C,Service Bureau, Bedford, Indiana.INDIANA LIMESTONE COMPANYGeneral Offices: Bedford, Indiana Executive Offices: Tribune Tower, ChicagoNEWS OFTHE CLASSESAND ASSOCIATIONSCollege1885Elbridge R. Anderson has been practic-ing law in Boston since 1886. His nephew,Roberts B. Owen, 'li, is associated withhim.1897New address: Mrs. Roy MorganStanley (Eugenia Radford), 47 3 1 Wood-land Avenue, Western Springs, Illinois.1899W. C. Hawthorne is instructor in physics and dean of the pre-medicai school atGrane Junior College, Chicago. His son,Joseph W. Hawthorne, will receive hisdoctor's degree in psychiatry from the University in December. *** Elizabeth F.Avery and Lucy M. Johnston are spendingthis year in Europe on sabbatical leave.New address: Winifred M. Williams,1007 Lewis Avenue, Long Beach, California.I9OOJosephine C. Doniat, professor of Frenchand recently elected dean of women atGrane Junior College, Chicago, has justreturned from a year's sabbatical leave spentin Europe.I9OINew address : Florence L. Pierce, HotelWoodmere, Chicago.I903Agnes R. Wayman has returned from aMediterranean cruise which she beganwhile on sabbatical leave last spring.New address: Lena Vaughan, '03, S.M.'08, 175 Lake Avenue, Greenwich, Connecticut.I904Elizabeth L. Wave, dean of women atAlbion, Idaho, State Normal, spent thesummer in Europe. New address: Edith Jane Smith, 1106Lake Shore Drive, Chicago.I907Mrs. E. C. Bryan (Mildred Hatton) ofSheboygan, Wisconsin, won sixth place inthe Chicago Tribune 's recent contest forthe history of the United States in five hundred words.New address: Ida A. Shaver, BismarckHotel, Chicago.I908Adelaide Spohn, '08, S.M. '14, professorof nutrition in the College of Home Economics of Cornell University, is spendinga year of sabbatical leave studying at Yale.*** William Wrather of Dallas Texas,parked his family in Switzerland this summer while he was making some geologicalexaminations of structures in Rumania.I909C. Max Bauer, who is with the department of geology of the University of Colorado, spent the past summer making somegeological investigations in the Wind Riverbasin of centrai Wyoming. He has beenchief geologist for the Midwest Explora-tion Company for the last five years.New address: I. Leo Wolkow, 128West Market Street, Louisville, Kentucky.I9IIMollie Ray Carroll, 'n, A.M. '15, Ph.D.'20, has resigned her position as head ofthe department of economics at GoucherCollege to become executive head of theUniversity of Chicago Settlement and amember of the faculty of the School ofSocial Service Administration. Her recentbook, JJnemployment Insurance In Ger~many has now gone into its second edition.*** E. E. Oberholtzer, '11, A.M. '16, hasreturned to his position as superintendent4.0THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEIN JUNE of this year the Alumni Office announced tentativeplans for the preparation of a set of twelve dinner plates commemorative of the University of Chicago from its founding.The consummation of the plans was dependent upon the definitereservation by alumni of a minimum of 300 sets of plates. By mid-summer 347 sets had been ordered by alumni.Gratifìed by this generous response an order for 500 sets wasplaced with the old English firm of Copeland & Sons, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, who are the manufacturers of the worldfamous Spodeware.Since the placing of the order with the potters 168 alumni haveadded their orders to the 347 originally booked, giving us as oflate October a grand total of 515 reservations.Since it is manifestly impossible to satisfy 515 alumni with 500sets of Spode plates, we have cabled Messrs. Copeland & Sons ofStoke-on-Trent to increase our order to 600 sets.We, therefore, take great pleasure in announcing that 85 addi-tional alumni may have the privilege of subscribing for Commemorative plates, which are promised for delivery in midwinter.Sold by subscription only, in complete sets, one dozen plates toeach set. Our large order makes possible the low price of $15 thedozen.THE ALUMNI COUNCILUniversity of Chicago.Please reserve for me set (s) of twelve Spode Plates at $15.00per set. I understand that notice will be sent to me as soon as they are readyfor distribution.Name Address No charge for delivery anywhere in the U. S.42 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof schools at Houston, Texas, after spending the summer doing special work in fieldsof school administration and curriculum revision at Columbia University.New address: Charles R. Sammis, ex,919 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago.1912Mrs. R. A. Conkling (Winifred Winne)'12, S.M. '15, writes us, "I am stili actingas assistant to my husband in his geologicalresearch. We pian to do a piece of workon a ranch in Old Mexico soon. As a sideissue we are stocking a big farm near Norman, Oklahoma, with sheep, goats and hogs.Expect some day to retire to the old farm.I am surely enjoying getting the Magazine.Am amazed at the enormous growth of theUniversity. We hope to return to the Fairand see for ourselves your wonderful newbuildings. Indeed, we are proud to beeven tiny cogs in so wonderful an institu-tion. . . . May the U. of C. always be outstanding in its scholastic attainments andin its priceless equipment."New address: Emada Griswold, c/oHigh School, Highland Park, Illinois.1913Henrietta L. Fulkerson, '13, A.M. '15,is beginning her twelfth year of teachingmathematics at Lindblom high school, Chicago.1914Mrs. Bernard Douglis (Minnie Gold-berg), who lives at 3867 Bedford Avenue,Brooklyn, has a young son who is a futureChicagoan. He is twelve years old now,and carried off a gold medal for generalexcellence upon his graduation from aBrooklyn public school. *** Erling H.Lunde, who earns his living selling for theFederai Machinery Sales Company in Chicago, was last heard from in August whenhe was enjoying a vacation with his wifeand two sons in the woods near SummitLake, Wisconsin. He reported B. H.Lunde, '12, of Chicago, to be "soaking upthe sunshine" in Chambers, Michigan.1915New address: Wylle B. McNeal, University Farm, St. Paul, Minnesota. I916Roderick Macpherson, ex, has recentlybecome associated with Hulburd, Warrenand Chandler, 208 South LaSalle Street,Chicago. *** Louis J. Victor, '16, J.D.'18, who practices law at no South Dear-born Street, Chicago, was recently re-electedchairman of the board of the Rodax Corporation, and elected director and secretary-treasurer of the Lander Corporation.New addresses: Margaret Hess Calla-han, Parlin, New Jersey; G. C. Leininger,1929-A Sherman Avenue, Evanston, Illinois.I917Harry A. McDonald, who directs themultifarious operations of the Arctic DairyProducts Company of Detroit, recently re-fused an appointment to succeed FrankCouzens, son of Senator Couzens, as oneof the three members of the Detroit StreetRailway Commission. *** Nona G. Finneywrites us "I am superintending the A. B. M.Pwo Karen School, at Maubin, Burma,sometimes teaching English, domestic econ-omy, singing, piano playing, sometimes car-ing for babies who for some reason don'tget proper care at home. I teach a Bibleclass of Buddhist boys every day. Thisweek is the beginning of Buddhist lent andmost of the Buddhist pupils have leave tobe absent; but two of them carne to theBible class yesterday voluntarily, thoughthey remained away from school the restof the day."New address: Mrs. H. L. McDaniel(Marguerite Hewitt), 829 Forest Avenue,Evanston, Illinois.I918Ruth Young, assistant professor of Ital-ian at Smith College, spent the past summer in study at the University of Perugia.*** Nellie S. Towle, who is a member ofthe faculty of State Teachers College, EastStroudsburg, Pennsylvania, spent the summer at the University of California.I919New address: H. B. Allin-Smith, 14Maryland Road, Maplewood, New Jersey.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE44 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1920Mrs. W. Willis Houston (Frances S.Hundley) writes, "I am spending thegreater part of my time in pleasure-travelwith my husband. Last summer and fallwe were in the west, Honolulu and the Ca-nadian Rockies ; the past winter in Florida ;and this summer we are motoring to theWhite Mountains where we shall be untilSeptember," *** B. L. Kloster, lawyer andpublic accountant of 100 North LaSalleStreet, Chicago, is the author of PatentAccounting published by Prentice-Hall ofNew York. The book is based entirely onfederai and United States supreme courtcases, and has been exceptionally well re-ceived by patent lawyers throughout theUnited States.New addresses: Mrs. C. F. Carlsen(Gladys Freeman), 5604 Ingleside Avenue,Chicago; Merle E. Irwin, '20, A.M. '29,403 North Ridgeland Avenue, Oak Park,Illinois.I92IHelen E. Elcock, A.M., has returned toher position as associate professor of Eng-lish at Kansas State Agricul turai Collegeat Manhattan, after spending a sabbaticalyear in study at the University.New addresses : Margarethe Wenzinger,3 Craigie Street, LeRoy, New York;Sarah G. Brinkley, 1197 Emory Drive,N.E., Atlanta, Georgia.1923Alice E. Paine received an S.B. in library science from the University of Illinois Library School last June, and is nowsenior high school librarian in Grand Island,Nebraska. *** Franklin D. Scott, '23,A.M. '24, and Mrs. Scott (Helen Gid-dings) '25, write from Stockholm, "Weare enjoying thoroughly the beginning of ayear's study of Swedish history, on a fel-lowship of the American-ScandinavianFoundation. Both the medieval ruins oiGotland and the modernity of Stockholmare fascinating." *** L. L. Lehman hasbeen appointed eastern district sales manager for the Federai Electric Company,and is now making his headquarters at 60East 42nd Street, New York City. New addresses: W. E. Payne, A.M.,.Simpson College, Indianola, Iowa; Caroline V. Crouch, '23, A.M. '24, 6137 Dor-chester Avenue, Chicago.1924H. S. Kemp, A.M. '27, who has beena member of the department of geographyat Dartmouth College for the past twoyears, became a member of the staff of thedepartment of geography at Harvard thisautumn. *** Solomon Katz, '24, andMrs. Katz returned recently from a honey-moon trip through Europe, and are at homeat the Belden Hotel, Chicago.New addresses: Lewis M. Abrahams,2535 East 73rd Street, Chicago; Mrs. R.B. Niemeyer (Marjorie Van Arsdale), 103Dupee Place, Wilmette, Illinois; HarlandC. Embree, 927 Lapeer Street, Flint, Michigan; Pauline F. Ritner, 512 West Ó5thPlace, Chicago.1925E. C. Peters, president of Paine College,Augusta, Georgia, writes that he is "trying to manage a small college, which hap-pens to be anything but a small job."New addresses : Brooks D. Drain, S.M.,17 Fearing Street, Amherst, Massachusetts;L. S. Shapiro, 160 North Menard Avenue,Apartment 308, Chicago ; Elsie M. Troeger,42 Orchard Place, Hinsdale, Illinois.I926Clarinda Brower has accepted a position as professor and dietician at NorthlandCollege, at Ashland, Wisconsin, and willalso serve as assistant dean of women there.*** Captain and Mrs. Charles F. Suther-land (Eleanor Troeger) ex, are leaving forHawaii in November for a two years' as-signment at Schofield Barracks. ***¦¦¦ J. F.Snodgras, A.M., has returned to his position as principal of the township high schoolat Collinsville, Illinois, after spending thesummer in graduate work at the Universityof Southern California, and in a motortrip through the western states. *** MaryWinner Hughes received the diploma forcompletion of the senior course in libraryservice for children at Western ReserveUniversity in June.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 45John Brown' s BodyOn the night of October 16th, 1859, JohnBrown, self-styled "Commander-in-Chief ofthe People of the U.S.," led twenty-one armedmen in a raid on the arsenal at Harper's Ferry,Virginia. His purpose (backed financially byGerrit Smith and such potent New Englandersas Frank B. Sanborn, G. L. Stearns, T. W. Hig-ginson, Theodore Parker and S. G. Howe): toestablish and f ortify a stronghold in the moun-tains where fugitive slaves might take refuge.The raid was successful, but on the 18th Col.Robert E. Lee, with a company of marines,overpowered him, wounding Brown, killingtwo of his sons. On October 31st, he was con-victed of high treason and murder, and on De-cember 2nd (despite seventeen affidavits swear-ing to his insanity) was prepared for executionat Charlestown.As TIME would have reported it, had TIMEbeen published in December, 1859:.... To the jail porch at last carne John ("OldOsawatomie") Brown, scuffling in carnet slippersand an ill-fitting black suit. Suddenly silent, 1500 sol-diers stared, wondered how this patriarchal, white-bearded old man could have been guilty of the cold-blooded massacres in Kansas, of the bloody raid atHarper's Ferry. Those nearest him, guards and offi-cers, saw the bright, fanatic, almost insane light inhis eyes as he stood there, and wondered less. Withno word, he handed out a written statement, curiouslypunctuated: "I- John Brown am now quite certainthat the crimes of this guilty land: will never bepurged away; but with Blood. I had as I now think: vainly ilattered myself that without very mudi blood*shed: it might be done."Before the porch steps stood an open wagon, on itthe fine oak coffin he had chosen for himself. Now,completely surrounded by guards, he descended the6teps, climbed onto the wagon. In front three com-panies of infantry drew into line. On either side afile of riflemen formed. The rest of the soldiery de-ployed, filled in gaps, lest rumored attempts at rescuebecome fact.Thus escorted, John Brown, sitting on his coffin,his arms pinioned, rode through the streets, out tothe open fields where stood the gallows. Said JohnBrown, farmer: "This is a "beautiful country" ....Then, climbing the grim platform, he asked: "Whyare none but military allowed in the inclosure? I amsorry citizens have been kept out" ....Before they put the cap on his head and the ropearòund his neck under the long beard, John Brownshook hands with Jailer Avis and Sheriff Campbell.Then said John Brown, martyr: "I am worth incon-ceivably more to hang than for any other purpose/*There was a wait of ten minutes while the soldierymarched, counter-marched to their prearranged f orma-tìon. Finally at 11:15, the Sheriff 's axe fell on therope, releasing the trap, and John Brown dangled,grasping and twitching. Then ali was quiet. For '35minutes he hung there until the doctor was satisfiedthat the pulse had stopped beating, the silence brokenonly by Colone! Pfeston's cairn, solemn declaration:"So perish ali such enemies of the Nation, alL suchenemies of Virginia, ali such f oes of the human race."There were no exultations, no tears as the bodywas cut down, placed in the coffin and conveyed under military escort to the railroad station. Mean-while in far-off Albany, one hundred guns boomed amartyr's dirge, and in Utica, Gerrit Smith, chiefhacker of John Brown's raid, lay helpless in a lunatìcasylum. . . .Gultivated Americans, impatient with cheap sensationalism and windy bias,turn increasingly to publications edited in the historical spirit. These publica*tions, fair-dealing, vigorously impartial, devote themselves to the public wealin die sense that they report what they sée, serve no masters, feàr no groups*TIMEThe Weekly NewstiiagazineTEARLY SUBSCRIPTION $5 .. 205 EAST 42nd STREET, NEW YORK CITY .. 15 CENTS AT ALL NEWSSTANDS46 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1927Charlotte Crawley, A.M., is at AppletonHome, Macon, Georgia, following a twomonths trip to Europe. *** Hortense Potts,A.M., is back on the job as dean of womenat Otterbein College, Westerville, Ohio,after a delightful summer in Europe. ***Alien Weller and Mrs. Weller (RachelFort) are living in Columbia, Missouri,where Mr. Weller is assistant professor ofart at the University of Missouri. *** JohnR. Russell has recently become associatedwith the New York Public Library, Prep-aration Division, and is living at AllertonHouse, New York City. *** Allan C. Williams, '27, S.M. '29, spent the summer inthe White Mountains and French Canada,and is now conducting reconnaisance pre-paratory to geographic research on the westcoast of Mexico, under the auspicès of theSouthern Pacific of Mexico railway. ***Merle C. Prunty, A.M., '28, superintendentof sohools of Tulsa, Oklahoma, has beenelected president of the North Central Association of Colleges, Universities andSecondary Schools for 1930-31.New addresses : Barbara J. MacMillan,'27, A.M. '28, Milwaukee-Downer College, Milwaukee, Wisconsin ; John A.Posus, ex, 817 South Lombard Avenue,Oak Park, Illinois.I928Oscar K. Dizmang, A.M., is a memberof the department of economics and sociology of Beloit College this year. ***Mildred M. Klein may be addressed asMrs. M. G. West, at Baylis, Illinois. ***Mrs. Bernard Lieberman (Mary Dulkin)is teaching in Grosse Pointe, Michigan, andliving in Detroit. *** Jean Scott is nowMrs. Frank Barron of Niles, Michigan. ***Beatrice Feingold is employed with thelaw firm of Keehn, Woods, Weisl andKeeley, Chicago. *** Charles A. Werner,A.M., is entering upon his third year asprincipal of the Eia Township high schoolat Lake Zurich, Illinois. *** Evan E.Evans, A. M., principal of the six yearhigh school at Winfield, Kansas, is co-author, with Malcolm S. Hallman, of Home Rooms published by Barnes and Company of New York City.I929George K. Fisher, A.M., left Pontiac inJune to accept a position as principal of theMcMillan Township Junior-Senior highschool at Newberry, Michigan. *** PedroA. Cebollero, A.M., is assistant professorof education at the University of PortoRico. *** Otto J. Richiardi is teachingmathematics and chemistry at LoyolaAcademy, Chicago. **¦* Ruth Schornherstspends her winters teaching botany at theFlorida State College for Women, and thissummer directed the study of nature loreat Camp Taheda, Gainesville, Georgia. ***Albert B. Keenan and Mrs. Keenan(Hazel Grover) are living at 15 15 WestGrand Boulevard, Detroit. *** MaryLatham spent the summer in England at-tending the Cambridge University summerschool. *** Czarna Moecker is working forher master's degree in English at the University. *** Scudder Mekeell, A.M., has returned to his position as research assistantat Yale University, after spending the summer doing research work on the Pine RidgeIndian reservation. *** R. A. Alien is study-ing at the Northwestern University MedicaiSchool. *** Charlotte Roehl finished acourse at the Chicago Normal College inJune, and is teaching this year. *** Deme-trios Stylianou, A.M., has just completedhis first year as teacher at the AmericanAcademy of Cyprus. He is also head ofthe English department of a Catholic girlsschool in Cyprus, and is collecting materialfor his doctoral thesis on "The AncientReligion of Cyprus." *** Betty Potovskyis doing family welfare work for the JewishSocial Service Bureau in Chicago.1930Marjorie Haeberlin is taking a course inlibrary work at Columbia University. ***C. K. Pearse is with the U. S. Forest Service at Boise, Idaho, engaged in erosion research. He expects to return to the University for graduate work some time thisyear. *** Helene E. Mynchenberg informsus that she may be addressed as Mrs. Edward W. Wallace, 5524 Ellis Av., Chicago.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 47.Hotels TFindermereOnly Three Blocks From The MidwayTO LIVE at Hotels Windermere — facing south at Jackson Park— is to place yourself in an ideal environment, removed fromcity distractions but adjacent to ali Metropolitan activity.You travel comfort ably to the "Loop" via electrified IllinoisCentral in ten minutes, or by motor over the outer drive in aboutthe same time.Suites and single rooms at the Windermere are modem in everyparticular.For luncheons, dinners, or dinner dances, you cannot choose morewisely. Give your next social occasion the prestige and charm of aWindermere setting.HeadquartersFor Practically AH Athletic TeamsCompetine With ChicagoOn to MichiganONE of our most important grid gamesof the season, which to ali indica-tions will draw the largest crowd of theyear, is that with Michigan on November22.A number of years have passed since welast trekked to Ann Arbor, and as this willbe the final game of the season, a big Chicago delegation is expected. Bar ring in-juries our Maroons should be working withmachine like precision, and as a consequenceour old rivals at Ann Arbor can anticipatetrouble, and in large quantities.Incidentally, we have been informed thatthe Michigan Central Railroad will operatespecial trains from Chicago, Saturday,November 22, leaving the Central station,situated at Roosevelt Road and Michigan Boulevard at 7:00 A.M., stopping at 53rdand Ó3rd Street stations, arriving at AnnArbor at 12:15 noon. Returning they willleave Ann Arbor at 5 :oo P.M., and arriveat Central station, Chicago, at 10:15 P.M.An unusually low rate of $8.92 for theround trip will be in effect for this train.If parlor car seat is desired, cost will be$1.50 additional in each direction.For those wishing to remain in AnnArbor until Sunday, the Michigan Centralhas named a round trip fare of $11.90.Already hundreds of alumni have signi-fied their intention of making the AnnArbor pilgrimage, and with railroad faresso reasonable, we predict a record breakingattendance on the part of the student bodyas well as the alumni.48 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERush1885Eli H. Dunn writes in from Kansas Cityto state that he is "going strong — confirm-ing the precept and personal admonition ofour departed Uncle J. Adams Alien: that,*out of nothing, nothing can be made.' "*** George Kessel, surgeon in chief at St.Joseph's Mercy hospital, Cresco, Iowa, hasbeen traveling in Europe this summer withhis daughter. Dr. Kessel recently donatedseveral acres of land to the city of Crescoto be used for an addition to Kessel Park,which was his gift to the city some years ago.1886John W. Brackett is running a drug storein Belle Fourche, South Dakota. *** C. H.Churchill writes, "Am seventy-two yearsold and stili holding down my job" as surgeon for the Albuquerque & Cerillos CoalCompany at Madrid, New Mexico. ***Perry H. Stoops is in general practice inIpava, Illinois.1897W. W. Gregory spent the summer inAlaska. Since his return he has been con-fining his practice in Stevens Point, Wisconsin, to office work only. *** J. I. Clarkof Santa Ana writes that he is engaged in^Constant hard work to maintain good oldRush" and invites ali his friends to cometo California next year. He gives us newsof J. M. Barlow, M.D. '04, whom he re-ports to be going strong in Santa Ana, andof R. E. Hawes, M.D. '22, who became thefather of a third daughter recently. *** F.F. Fisk is engaged in general practice atPrice, Utah. *** J. Frank Aldrich is practic-ing medicine in Shenandoah, Iowa, whereB. S. Barnes, '06, S.M. '08, M.D. '09, isalso located.I9OIF. L. Adair is professor of obstetrics and•gynecology at the University. *** W. E.Lamerton is conducting a practice limitedto diagnosis and internai medicine in Enid,Oklahoma, and is a member of the staff ofthe Enid Clinic and Enid General hospital."*** G. W. Potter reports this to be his thirtieth year of practice in Redfield, SouthDakota.'*** G. S. Adams is director of thestate hospital for the insane at Yankton,South Dakota. *** J. H. Crawford is ingeneral practice in Watertown, SouthDakota.1903David C. Hilton has been engaged in thepractice of general surgery in Lincoln,Nebraska, for the past twenty-seven years.He is chairman of the surgery section at theMemorial hospital, attending surgeon at St.Elizabeth's hospital, and division surgeonfor the 35th division of the National Guard.*** J. B. Matthews, F.A.C.S., is chiefsurgeon for the Allis Chalmers Manufacturing Company of Milwaukee. *** G. M.Anderson of Cheyenne, Wyoming, stoppedoff in Chicago while on his way to theAmerican Medicai Association meeting inDetroit and visited Rush. He declares thatthe South Side clinics are the best in theUnited States. *** Leon F. Beali is prac-ticing in Irene, South Dakota. *** Mrs.Otto Baumrucker (Otillie Zelegny) is engaged in general practice at 5946 West 22ndStreet, Chicago. Her son, George, is asenior at Rush. *** R. B. Stephenson isengaged in eye, ear, nose and throat practice in Centralia, Washington.New address: Joseph L. Baer, '01, S.M.'03, M.D. '03, 1706 East 56th Street, Chicago.I906Clinton L. Hoy, 'oo, M.D. '06, major inthe U. S. Medicai Corps, has been touringthe Pacific Coast while awaiting his re-tirement, which was due on October 31,1930. *** John R. Harger, who conducts apractice at 185 North Wabash Avenue,Chicago, is now chairman of the committeeof the Chicago Medicai Society to helpreorganize the staff and medicai service atCook County hospital. He has filled everyoffice in the Chicago Medicai Society andhas been treasufer for the last four years.We expect he'll be president soon. *** E. H.Spiegelberg, M.D. '06, writes that he andC. S. Hayman, M. D. '95, have organizedNEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONSa medicai and surgical clinic in Boscobel,Wisconsin.I9IIDr. and Mrs. John D. Ellis and childrenreturned to the United States recently aftera summer spent in Europe.New address: W. W. Peter, 47 ParkAvenue, White Plains, New York.I920Mary G. Schroeder is working as assistant physician in Mount Clemens, Michigan.*** J. J. Jelinek is practicing surgery inLos Angeles. *** F. W. Mulsow, Ph.D.'19, M.D. '20, is pathologist for the St.Luke's and Mercy hospitals of CedarRapids, Iowa, and conducts a general practice in that city. He informs us that theLinn County, Iowa, Medicai Society wasaddressed by Dr. W. W. Hamburger ofRush recently, and that R. R. Keech, M.D.'05, of Cedar Rapids, gave a luncheon forDr. Hamburger, including among the guestsJ. M. Knox, M.D. '05, F. W. Mulsow, F.G. Murray, M.D. '00, W. E. Owen, M.D.'89, and J. C. Petrovitsky, M.D. 'oi, aliof Cedar Rapids. *** Williams E. Cary,Ph.D. '16, M.D. '20, is practicing medicineat 104 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago.*** James J. Swendson is in charge of thedepartment of obstetrics and gynecology ofthe Earl clinic in St. Paul.I922E. Stafford Safarik is practicing internaimedicine in Los Angeles, and MiltonTobias, '22, M.D. J22, is practicing pedia-trics in the same city. *** Elton R. Clariceof Kokomo, Indiana, is completing his termas coroner of Howard County and is seekingre-election this fall. *** A. Howard Shan-berg, '20, M.D. '22, is specializing in internai medicine at 25 East WashingtonStreet, Chicago. *** A. G. Isaac has beenin general practice at a community hospitalat Goessel, Kansas, for the last three years.I924I. R. Salladay, '22, M.D. '24, has returned to his practice in White River, SouthDakota, after six months of post graduatework at the Chicago Lying-In Hospital.*** Psychopath-ology andPoliticsBy HAROLD D. LASSWELLIn this book, "À contribution fromthe pen of a brilliant young politicaiscientist, personalità takes its placeas a potent factor in the study ofpolitics."—HARRY STACK SULLIVAN$3.00IntelligentPhilanthropyBy ELLSWORTH FARIS, FERRISLAUNE, and ARTHUR J. TODDWhat is an intelligent philanthropicprogram? The answers of twelve ex-perts, each from a diff erent point ofview, form a complete philosophy ofphilanthropy for every one who givesor administers the funds of charity.$4.00Play s forSeven PlayersBy CHARLES RANN KENNEDY"The Terrible Meek," "The Servantin the House," and six other playsby this famous actor-dramatist — col-lected for the first time in one volume. $5.00The ChilcTsE m o t i onsChicago Association for Child Studyand Parent Education"Full of information that comes fromintimate and prolonged study . . . ar-resting . . . stimulating . . . suggestive."— New York Times. $2.50AbovePompei!Ten essays by the President ofOberlin, Ernest H.Wilkins,— "alwaysthe graceful touch and the earnestmessage." $1.25The Universityof Chicago Press5Q THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHerbert F. Binswanger, '21, M.D. '24,practices internai medicine at 104 SouthMichigan Avenue, Chicago. *** Eugene H.Ferguson, '21, M.D. '24, is practicing medicine at 933 Professional Building, KansasCity, Missouri. *** Paul A. Quaintance ispracticing general and traumatic surgery at2007 Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles.I92SEdward W. Griffey, '22, M.D. '25, hasreturned from a year of post graduate workin Vienna and Budapest and is now special-izing in ophthalmology in Houston, Texas,***Percival A. Gray of the W. D. Sansumclinic in Santa Barbara, is lecturing ondiabetes in the American hospital in Paris,and will study in Vienna a few months before returning to the United States. ***Mabel G. Master, '21, M.D. '25, was recently promoted to assistant professor ofneuro-psychiatry at the University of Wisconsin Medicai School.1927Theodore Oltman and Mrs. Oltman andtheir baby daughter sailed for China in1896The Isaac Walton League of America hashonored itself by electing to its presidencythat world famous sportsman, George EdgarVincent, former president of the RockefellerFoundation, and for many years dean of thefaculties at Chicago.1897H. Foster Bain, who has been with theAmerican Institute of Mining and Metal-lurgical Engineers in New York City forsome time, addressed the World PowerConference in Berlin in June on "The Placeof Minerals in a Power Sustained World."I906H. M. Walker is retiring to private lifeafter several years as president of MississippiA. and M. College.New address: William R. Blair, '04, September. They will be stationed atAmoy as medicai missionaries of the DutchReformed Church.I928George P. Guibor, '24, M.D. '28, who isassistant medicai superintendent at theMunicipal Contagious hospital, ophthalmicresident at Presbyterian hospital and clinicalassistant in ophthalmology at Rush, informsus próudly that George Junior, who arrivedlast New Year's day, has turned out to bea red head.I929H. D. Moor was house physician at theWestern State Tuberculosis Sanatorium atClinton, Oklahoma, this summer.1930Herbert A. Sheen, '24, M.D. '3o, hasbeen appointed senior interne at City Hospital Number Two, St. Louis, for 1930-31.*** Evelyn Gruhlke McLane, who is practicing medicine and surgery at Sleepy Eye,Minnesota, had an article entitled "Hyper-thyroidism" in Minnesota Medicine thissummer.Ph.D. '06, P. O. Box 103, Oceanport,New Jersey.1913J. Léonard Hancock, '05, Ph.D. '13, isdean and acting president of Crane JuniorCollege, Chicago. *** E. W. Burgess, associate professor of sociology at the University, returned early in October from a tripto Russia.I914Bert A. Stagner has resigned his positionas supervisor of research for the Union OilCompany of California, and has establisheda research laboratory in Los Angeles. Hewill do consulting work and independentresearch in petroleum refining and organicchemistry. *** Ellsworth Faris taught acourse on social attitudes and the psychologyof social groups in the University of Washington this summer.Doctors of PhilosophyNEWS OF THE CLASSES1918Percival Bailey, '14, Ph.D. '18, is professor of surgery at the University of Chicago.New address: Chi Che Wang, S.M. '15,Ph.D. '18, 13 14 East 5Óth Street, Chicago.I920Derwent Whittlesey, '14, A.M. '16,Ph.D. '20, is editing the officiai organ ofthe geographers of the United States, TheAnnals of the Association of AmericanGeographers.New address: Alice H. Farnsworth,S.M. 'i7, Ph.D. '20, Lick Observatory,Mount Hamilton, California.1921Gertrude E. Smith, '16, A.M. '17, Ph.D.'21, has been advanced to the position ofAssociate Professor of Greek at the University. *** Fred W. Emerson, S.M. '18,Ph.D. '21, is teaching at New Mexico Nor-mal University, Las Vegas, New Mexico.*** Christen Jensen is dean of the newgraduate school established at BrighamYoung University in 1929. *** R. D. Mc-Kenzie has a year's leave of absence fromthe University of Washington to make astudy of urban trends as a part of theHoover study of social trends.I924Harris H. Hopkins has accepted a chemical research appointment with the Mid-Continental Petroleum Corporation atTulsa, Oklahoma. *** John A. Wilson isepigrapher on the staff of the Orientai In-stitute Epigraphic and Architectural Survey at Luxor. *** Clifford G. Manshardt,'18, A.M. '22, Ph.D. '24, is director of theNagpoda Neighborhood House, a pioneersocial settlement, in Bombay, India.I926John W. Coulter is with the departmentof geography of the University of Hawaii,Honolulu. *** Webster B. Kay, Ph.D. '26,and Mrs. Kay (Genevieve M. Neef) '24,are living at 1252 West Ó4th Street, Chicago. *** John A. McGeoch was recentlyappointed professor of psychology at the BOOKSyou will want forYOUR CHILDRENA New SeriesTHE STORY OFTHE WORLDendorsed by the followingU. of C. Scientists1. How the World Began Noe%. How the World Grew Up Sapir3. How the World is Ruled Mott4. The World of Animals Newman5. The Garden of the World Coulter6. How the World is Changing Noe7. The World's Moods G. Taylor8. This Physical World Michelson9. What Makes up the World. . .Stieglitz10. Other Worlds Than This. . MacMillan$1.25 each, postage lOc10 voi. attractively boxed$12.50 postpaidThey answer r the "How,""What" and "Why" intel-ligently and [interestinglyOrder todayfrom theU. of C. BOOKSTORE5802 Ellis Avenue5* THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEUniversity of Missouri and began his dutiesthere in September.New address: E. D. W. Ho, 746 EighthAvenue, Honolulu ; Erma Smith, 800 SouthHalsted Street, Chicago; H. O. DeGraff,University of Akron, Akron, Ohio.I928James D. Stranathan is associate professorof physics at the University of Kansas. ***Minnie M. Miller is professor of modemlanguages at Kansas State Teachers Collegeat Emporia. *** Watt Stewart, A.M. '25,Ph.D. '28, is professor of history at A. & M.College, Stillwater, Oklahoma. *** GeorgeE. Reed is assistant professor of physics atPurdue University.New address : Paul J. Ovrebo, 206 Chest-nut Street, Selinsgrove, Pennsylvania.1929W. E. Sturgeon has accepted an appoint-ment as professor of chemistry at BeaverCollege, Jenkintown, Pennsylvania. *** A.C. Wheatley, S.M. '27, Ph.D. '29, has beenI907New address : James McKeag, One La-Salle Street, Chicago.1913Jerome Frank, '12, J.D. '13, is the authorof a new bock entitled Law and the ModemMind.I916New address: Otto A. Sinkie, Box3696, Station E., Kansas City, Missouri.1919Fletcher Catron, '14, J.D. '19, is assistantUnited States district attorney with head-quarters in Santa Fé, New Mexico.1920Roswell Magill, '15, J.D. '20, professorof law at Columbia, will give a course incivil procedure at Harvard Law School thisfall. *** A. J. Hutton is practicing law inSpokane, Washington. *** M. William appointed director of the Chemical Development Research laboratory, stationed at Me-Masterville, Quebec. *** Melvin O. Fore-man has accepted an appointment as in-structor in organic research in the department of chemistry at the University. ***Orlando Park, '26, Ph.D. '29, is assistantprofessor of biology at Kent, Ohio, StateCollege. *** Morris H. Daskais has accepted an appointment as research chemistwith the General Chemical Company, LongIsland, New York. *** Edward Larson isassistant professor of pharmacology atTempie University, Philadelphia. *** IsidorWalerstein is instructor in physics at Purdue University.I93OFlorence Edler, '20, A.M. '23, Ph.D.'30, has accepted a research position whichwill keep her busy for the next year or so.She is working on a glossary of medievalItalian terms of business under the auspicesof the Medieval Academy of America andthe Harvard School of Business.Malczewski, J.D. '20 is practicing law at1700 Broadway, Gary.1923LaVerne Norris has resigned after fiveyears as assistant United States attorneyfor the northern district of Illinois, and willcontinue in private practice in the First National Bank Building, Chicago.1925Anna A. Krivitsky, 22, J.D. '25, is practicing law in Tampa, Florida.***Lester E.Willis claims the distinction of being theonly University of Chicago law graduatepracticing in the state of Mississippi. Heis assistant United States attorney at Me-ridian.I928Sidney D. Podolsky, '25, J.D. '28, is apartner in the recently organized law flrmof Keating & Podolsky, of Aurora, Illinois.***Charles A. McNabb, '27, J.D. '28, isLawNEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONS 53practicing law in the Title and TrustBuilding, Chicago.1929W. A. Brookshire has an excellent lawpractice in Farmington, Missouri. *** J.Kennard Cheadle, '27, J.D. '29, spent lastyear at the Harvard Law School as FelixFrankfurter research fellow, and in Junereceived the degree of L.L.M., magnacum laude. He began his duties as assistantprofessor of law in the University of Washington in October. *** J. Russel Christian-son and LaRoy Schurmeier are practicingin Chicago under the firm name of Schurmeier and Christianson.I93OC. M. Lindrooth is with the GoodmanManufacturing Company, manufacturersof electric mining machinery, in Chicago.MarriagesEleanor M. Mahany, '15, to Dr. HarryT. Tillotson, August 5, 1930, at Chicago.At home, 7958 Yale Avenue, Chicago.George R. Robertson, S.M. '19, Ph.D.'21, to Alice E. Donegan, June 21, 1930,at Santa Monica, California. At home, LosAngeles.Earl B. Dickerson, J.D. '20, to KathrynWilson, June 15, 1930. At home, Chicago.Orville E. Droege, '21, to Sally Nesthus,August 30, 1930. At home, 5400 HarperAvenue, Chicago.Amy R. Woller, '23, A.M. '24, to Pres-ton H. McClelland, M.D. '29, August 24,1930, at Hilton Chapel, University of Chicago.Livingston Hall, '23, to Elizabeth Blod-gett, September 13, 1930, at New York.At home, New York City.Helen McPike, '24, to Willard W.Strahl, August 16, 1930. At home, Princeton, New Jersey.Earl E. Hoff, '24, to Florence Timblin,August 9, 1930, at Eden, Wisconsin. Athome, Fond du Lac, Wisconsin.Ruth I. Wien, ex '25, to Clarence S.Levine, November 9, 1929. At home, 11South Lake Avenue, Albany, New York.Don S. Irwin, '25, J.D. '27, to BarbaraM. Brown, July 2, 1930, at Los Angeles, EUROPE IN 1931with leaders who are scholars.Winter and SpringMediterranean CruiseEgypt, PalestineGreece, Italy, Spain.SummerStudy and Recreational Toursfor College Men, College Womenand Alumni.Announcements on requestBUREAU OF UNIVERSITY TRAVEL86 Boyd St. Newton, MassachusettsJOHN HANCOCK SERIESDependents {Your dependents)must have an incomeJtloW much of anincome have you guaranteed foryour dependents in case of yourdeath? Take pencil and paperand actually figure the incomeyield on your present estate.A John Hancock agent can teliyou how to immedia tely increaseyour estate through life insur-ance, and figure out exactly howmuch you must lay aside fromyour present income to make itcome true.ÌLI fe Insurance Company^of Boston. MassachusettsInquiry Bureau, 197 Clarendon St.»Boston, Mass.Please send booklet, "This Matter ofSuccess."Name Address — OVER SIXTY-SEVEN YEARS IN BUSINESS-54 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECalifornia. At home, 642 South CochranAvenue, Los Angeles, California.Richard C. Rugen, '26, to Edith M.Tupper, August 31, 1929. At home, Chicago.Evelyn H. Randall, A.M. '27, to RalphM. Smith, November, 1929. At home,1049 Michigan Avenue, Evanston, Illinois.Ruth Burtis, '27, to James R. Webster,'27, September 11, 1930, at the ThorndykeHilton chapel. At home, 55 Ì4 BlackstoneAvenue, Chicago.Julia Meta Arnold, '27, to B. B. Williams, June 28, 1930, at Olivet, Michigan.At home, 5440 Neckel Avenue, Dearborn,Michigan.Leila J. Thomas, '28, to W. E. Briggs,August 16, 1930, at Harvey, Illinois. Athome, 17 15 Grand Avenue, Dayton, Ohio.Freda Lovrien, '28, to Richard Wood,August 15, 1930. At home, St. Paul, Minnesota.Eleanor Louise Duncan, '28, to JohnBernard Carson, June 23, 1930, at Washington, D. C. At home, 1 1 1 North BoylanAvenue, Raleigh, North Carolina.Rachel A. McNabb, '29, to Edgar E.Flesher, June 28, 1930, at Chicago. Athome, 11 103 South Hoyne Avenue, Chicago.Howard Y. McClusky, Ph.D. '29, toHelen H. Hartman, August 26, 1930. Athome, Ann Arbor, Michigan.Robert F. Garber, '29, to Carol V.Hadley, Aprii 17, 1930, at Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania. At home, 2294 Wolff Street,Cincinnati, Ohio.Elizabeth Millies, '29, to Bryce L. Hamilton, '23, J.D. '28, August 6, 1930, atChicago. At home, 1838 West I05thStreet, Chicago.Betty McNair, ex '30, to Frank S. Sims,June 17, 1930, at Chicago. At home, 73East Elm Street, Chicago.Elizabeth Thomason, '30, to James A.Griffen, Jr., Jury 9, 1930, at Tampa. Athome, 206 Bianca Avenue, Tampa, Florida.BirthsTo Mr. and Mrs. Elmer Bielsfeldt(Elizabeth Arentz) '18, a son, June io,1930, at Joliet, Illinois. To Dr. and Mrs. Ralph W. Stearns (S.Marie Williams) '19, of Klamath Falls,Oregon, a son, Ralph Waldo, Jr., May 12,1930, at Oakland, California.To Donald Gray, '20, and Mrs. Gray, ason, Malcolm, July 3, 1930, at Kankakee,Illinois.To Mr. and Mrs. Donald Campbell(Kathleen Foster) '20, a daughter, MarthaLouise, May 14, 1930, at Chicago.To David W. Heusinkveld, '21, M.D.'25, and Mrs. Heusinkveld, a son, Kennon,August 13,1930, at Cincinnati.To John B. Watkins, '22, A.M. '25,Ph.D. '29, and Mrs. Watkins (Mildred W.Miller) '19, a daughter, Jean Mildred,July 27, 1930, at Oak Park, Illinois.To Andrew C. Scott, J.D. '23, and Mrs.Scott (Marion Rockey) ex '22, a son,Andrew C, Jr., August 11, 1930, at Denver.To F. P. Purdum, '23, M.D. '26, andMrs. Purdum (Carmel Hayes) '24, a son,William Hayes, August 22, 1930, at EastBrady, Pennsylvania.To Harold Walker Lewis, '23, and Mrs.Lewis, a daughter, July 16, 1930, at Chicago.To Walter H. Milbacher, '24, M.D.'26, and Mrs. Milbacher, a son, JohnWalter, June 4, 1930, at Aurora, Illinois.To Mr. and Mrs. Thomas O. Mabbott(Maurine Cobb) '24, A.M. '27, a daughter,Jane Adele, September 5, 1930, at NewYork City.To D. B. MacCallum, '20, Ph.D. '23,M.D. '25, and Mrs. MacCallum, adaughter, May 22, 1930, at Los Angeles.To Herbert Ball, '25, and Mrs. Ball(Glenna Mode) '24, a daughter, JacquelineJean, March 24, 1930, at Wheaton, Illinois.To Mr. and Mrs. Cari R. Hill (DeborahSpencer) '25, a son, Cari Richard, August20, 1930, at Wilmington, Delaware.To Mr. and Mrs. J. V. Carne (RuthFreeman) '25, a son, Donald Freeman,June 19, 1930, at Chicago.To Robert A. Lundy, '25, and Mrs.Lundy, a daughter, Joan, August 2, 1930,at St. Albans, Vermont.To Mr. and Mrs. George H. White(Mary Ruth Sleezer) '25, a daughter,NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONSMargaret Judith, July 6, 1930, at Kent,Ohio.To Mr. and Mrs. William A. Weber(Dorothy Negus) '27, a son, Thomas William, July 15, 1930, at East Orange, NewJersey.To Harry Axon, '28, and Mrs. Axon(Kathryn Homan) '27, a daughter, EllenConstance, at Chicago.To Bertram D. Barclay, Ph.D. '28, andMrs. Barclay (Harriet George) Ph.D. '28,a son Bertram Donald, Jr., July 20, 1930,at Tulsa, Oklahoma.To E. S. Olson, M.D. '29, and Mrs.Olson, a son, August 2, 1930, at LosAngeles.EngagementsTheodore Fruehling, '25, to EmmaReichert of Aurora, Illinois.Herbert F. Mayer, J.D. '27, to LindaRathman of Grand Island, Nebraska.Betty Potovsky, '29, to Milton L. Durch-slag, '28, J.D. '30.Lisette Kruse, '29, to Earl F. Brown ofHuntington, West Virginia.Samuel S. Frey, '29, to Agnes Larabee ofMendota, Illinois.Frances Tatge, '30, to William M. Zopffof Louisville, Kentucky.DeathsGustave H. Fricke, M.D. '69, July 15,1930, at his home in Park Ridge, Illinois.Dr. Fricke had been in active practice inChicago until about ten years ago.Albert L. Brittin, M.D. '84, July io,1930, at his home in Athens, Illinois. Dr.Brittin was a former president of the Illinois State Medicai Society.Hiram L. Cosby, M.D. '89, in Aprii,1930, at Pekin, Illinois.John Nicoli Vroom, M.D. '90, August3, 1930, at Denver.F. A. Swezen, M.D. '94, September 11,1930, at Wakonda, South Dakota. Deathwas caused by heart disease.George W. Nott, M.D. '96, September7, 1930, at Racine, Wisconsin. Dr. Nott'sdeath carne very suddenly while he was onthe golf links. The Faculty . . .The Alumni . . .The Student Bodyof the University of ChicagoWill find here unusual facilitiesfor dinners, dances, luncheons,business meetings — plus acordial welcome that evidencesour wish to cooperate with aliUniversity of Chicago socialfunctions — large or small —formai or informai.HOTELsiioici:l\m»55th Street at the LakeTelephone Plaza 1000Stephens CollegeColumbia, MissouriA Junior College forWomenFully Accredited by theUniversity of ChicagoLet Us Teli You About theFour Year Junior CollegeCourse for Your DaughterJAMES M. WOODPresident56 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPaul H. Davis, '11 Herbert I. Markham, Ex. '06Ralph W. Davis, '16 Walter M. Giblin, '23Paal RDavls &<9<xMembersNEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGECHICAGO STOCK EXCHANGE37 South LaSalle StreetTelephone Franklin 8622CHICAGOUNIVERSITYCOLLEGEThe downtown department of The University or Chicago, 18 S. Michigan Avenue,wishes the Alumni of the University andtheir freinds to know that it offersEvening, Late Afternoon and Saturday ClassesTwo-Hour Sessions Once or Twice a WeekCourses Credited Toward Uni ersitv DegreesAutumn, Winter and Spring QuartersThe Winter Quarter begins January 5, 1931For Information, AddressDean, C. F. Huth, University College,University of Chicago, Chicago, 111.Clark-Brewer Teachers AgencyEstablished 1882College Department for Masters and DoctorsLarge suburban clientele Attractive opportunitiesin the best secondary schools. Grade supervisionand critics for city system s and normal collegesEach member registered in ali six offices per-manently Get Brewer's Nat. Ed. Directory —10,000 namesfor $1.00.Chicago, 64 E. Jackson Blvd.; New York, Flat-iron Bldg.; Pittsburgh, Jenkins Arcade; Minneapolis, Globe Bldg.; Kansas City, N. Y. LifeBldg.; Spokane, Chamber of Commerce Bldg.Ali members National Association of Teachers'Agencies.ALUMNIPROFESSIONALDIRECTORYReal EstateJ. Alton Lauren, '19J. Alton Lauren and. Co.139 N. Clark St. Randolph 2068 Ralph S. Poi-ter, M.D. '97, March 21,1930, at Walter Reed Hospital, Washington, D. C.John B. Ellis, M.D. '99, July 30, 1930,at Chicago. Dr. Ellis died very suddenlyof heart disease in the lobby of his officebuilding. He was clinical professor ofophthalmology at Rush, attending ophthal-mologist at the Presbyterian hospital andconsulting ophthalmologist at St. Joseph'shospital and the Home for DestituteCrippled Children.George Maxwell, M.D. '99, Aprii 13,1930, at his home in Sterling, Illinois.W. S. Bellows, M.D. 'oi, June 24, 1930,at Waukegan, Illinois.Ernest O. Weber, M.D. '02, July io,1930, at his home in Wahoo, Nebraska.Death carne after a three day illness causedby a paralytic stroke.Milton Sills, '03, September 15, 1930,at his home in Santa Monica, California.Evan S. Evans, M.D. '06, May 9, 1930,in Iowa City. Dr. Evans had practiced formany years in Grinnell, had served in theSpanish-American war and was a major inthe medicai corps in the world war.Julian Clay Risk, J.D. '14, June 28,1930, at Chicago. Death was the result ofa motor accident. Mr. Risk was a memberof the flrm of Winters, Stevens, Risk &Griffith of Chicago, and was a member ofthe American, Illinois and Chicago Barassociations.Anne Lowell Wells, '18, July 2, 1930,at Kansas City, Missouri. Miss Wellswas teacher of history and sociology in theJunior College at St. Joseph, Missouri.Rufus E. Christian, J.D. '20, March 5,1930. Burial was at Arlington Cemetery,Washington, D. C. ~Grace Barkley, S.M. '22, Ph.D. '26,Aprii 1, 1930, at Greencastle, Indiana,where she was a member of the faculty ofDePauw University. Death was the resultof a severe fall.Mrs. Florence Spence Bishop, '28, June8, 1930, at her home in Chicago.Eric P. Jackson, Ph.D. '29, June il,1930, in Franca.