THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEVOL. XXII FEBRUARY, 1930 NUMBER 4Whyshouldyou beinterestedin theworld'slargestturbine?"DECAUSE you are interested inthe amount of your monthlyelectrical bill; and because by making steam turbine-generators constantly more efficient, the General Electric Company has helpedelectrical companies to producemore electricity from every ton ofcoal.This turbine is one big reason whyelectricity has continued to be cheapin these years when the price of almost everything else has increased.You will probably never haveoccasion to buy a giant steam-turbine. But you do need manyother things made by General Electric. And the same research, experience, and skill which developthese big turbines are employed inbuilding G-E refrigerators, fans,vacuum cleaners, Sunlamps and amultitude of other products fot usein home and in industry.JOIN US IN THE GENERAL ELECTRIC HOIR, BROADCAST EVERY SATURDAY AT9 P.M., E.S.T. ON A NATION-WIDE N.B.C NETWORK 95-7 27CGENERAL W ELECTRICTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 177[Q RubiconThe Gallic wars over, Gaul reduced to apeaceful Roman province and his term as Proconsul about to expire, Julius Caesar had decisions to make. It was the bleak winter of50-49 B.C. but Julius Caesar chafed in hisThirteenth Legion's camp at Ravenna, southernmost city of Cisalpine Gaul. Events atRome disturbed him. The old triumvirate,Caesar, Pompey, Crassus, had ended with Crassus* death, and now world-conquering Pompeyhad Asia, Africa, Spain and Italy at his feet.Caesar, supreme only in Gaul, but countingon the devotion of his Legions, braced himselffor an inevitable conflict. As TIME, had itbeen published on the Ides of January, 49 B.C.,'would have reported subsequent events:... To Julius Caesar came travel-stained TribunesMark Antony and Quintus Cassias Longinus, bearingbad news: On January 7th, the Senate, intimidatedby Pompey's partisans, had declared Caesar guilty ofhigh treason i£ he did not at once resign his Pro-consulship of Gaul, disband his legions. For seekingto exercise their traditional right of veto, they, Tribunes Antony and Cassius, had been hounded fromRome by Pompey's soldiery. As they blurted outtheir story, long-nosed Caesar listened quietly, smiledfaintly. Then shaiply, he issued orders to the Centurions of the Thirteenth Legion.Soon foot soldiers in small groups set out forfateful Ariminum (30 miles away), first Roman citybeyond the Gallic frontier. Caesar himself feastedand dined until mid-evening, then suddenly he leftCultivated Americans, impatient withturn increasingly to publications editeddons, fair -dealing, vigorously impartial,in the sense that they report what they the banquet hall, leaped to a chariot, drove speedilysouthward, his cavalry thundering behind.Soon he came to the banks of the little riverRubicon, haidly more than a stream At the ford,Gaul-Governor Caesar paused until his horsemencaught up. Here was the frontier he might not legallycross — in arms, and accompanied by his legions. Caesarknew that five thousand of his foot soldiers werealready well across the Rubicon, well on their wayto Ariminum, but a touch of drama was necessary toweld his cavalrymen still closer to him, to nourishthe fast-swelling Caesar legend So, slowly, earnestly,he spoke: "My f rends, if I pass not this river immediately, it will be for me the beginning of all misfortunes (a murmur from the ranks), and if I do passit, I go to make a world of people miserable." (acheer from the ranks). For an instant he hesitated,seemingly lost in thought, then suddenly drove hischariot through the shallow stream, crying in a deepvoice "Let the die be cast!"...Two hours later Caesar overtook his foot soldiersat Ariminum, and by sun-up invested the surroundingcountryside. Soon fleeing peasants were carrying toRome inspired rumors that great Caesar with all hisLegions was coming to avenge himself on PompeiusMagnus. Rome gasped in horror, remembering alltoo vividly the butcheries of too-recent civil strifebetween Marians and Sullans .So too, in succeeding issues, would TIMEhave reported how Caesar drove Pompey outof Rome, then, relentlessly, out of Italy; howafter four years of bitter civil war throughoutthe Empire, Caesar returned to Rome triumphant, master of the civilized world — untilassassinated six months sensationalism and windy bias,in the historical spirit. These publica-devote themselves to the public wealsee, serve no masters, fear no groups.TIMEThe Weekly Newsmagazine,7S THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThis is thetelephone's missionAn Advertisement of the American Telephone and Telegraph CompanyIn this country, a new type of civili- construction. At the same time, betterzation is being reared — a civilization of records were made for speed and accu-better opportunity for the average man, racy in service.comfort and convenience, business This American development of in-enterprise and higher standards that stantaneous communication, of fast, far-enrich the daily life of all the people. reaching speech, belongs not to the few,To build for this new age, the Bell but to the many. It is the aim of theSystem in 1929 expended more than 550 Bell System to permit each personality tomillion dollars. These millions were used express itself without regard to add new plant and further improve This is part of the telephone idealservice. Hundreds of new buildings, that anyone, anywhere, shall be ablemillions of miles of wire, chiefly in cable, to talk quickly and at reasonable costeight hundred thousand new tele- x^^%\ w'tn anyone, anywhere else.phones — these were some of the jffffk \ There is no standing still in theitems in the year's program of f( M&L f) Bell System.Announcement!First Annual Alumni Assemblyto be held in theGrand Ball Room, Stevens Hotel, ChicagoWednesday, February 26Informal Reception 6 o'clock Dinner 6 130 o'clockTwo dollars and fifty cents per plateChairman, Walter L. Hudson '02,Chairman, The Alumni CouncilToastmaster, Gordon J. LaingDean of the Graduate School ofArts and Literature Alumni Representative,Donald S. Trumbull 97University Representative,Robert Maynard HutchinsPresident of the UniversityFor years there has been a demand by many alumni for an opportunity to obtain,at first hand, accurate and interesting current information about Chicago and its activities. Two thousand alumni heard Vice-President Woodward's address last Reunion Day— and bemoaned its brevity. Upon the request of scores of its members the Alumni Council, working in co-operation with the Chicago Alumni Club and the Chicago AlumnaeClub, is sponsoring a midwinter assembly for the one great purpose of informing thealumni of recent accomplishments at the University and of its plans and hopes and aspirations for the future.All alumni and their wives — all alumnae and their husbands — are most cordiallyinvited to this big family dinner party. An informal reception before the dinner will givean opportunity to meet old friends and make new. The speaking program after the dinner will give a comprehensive and panoramic view of what is happening in Your University in 1930.Reservations may be made through the Alumni Office.THE Magazine is published at 1009 SloanSt., Crawfordsville, Ind., monthly from November to July, inclusive, for The AlumniCouncil of the University of Chicago, 58th St.and Ellis Ave., Chicago, 111. The subscriptionprice is $2.00 per year; the price of single copiesis 25 cents.Remittances should be made payable to theAlumni Council and should be in the Chicagoor New York exchange, postal or express moneyorder. If local check is used, 10 cents must beadded for collection.Claims for missing numbers should be madewithin the month following the regular month of publication. The Publishers expect to supplymissing numbers free only when they have beenlost in transit.Communications pertaining to advertising maybe sent to the Publication Office, 1009 Sloan St.,Crawfordsville, Ind., or to the Editorial Office,Box 9, Faculty Exchange, The University ofChicago.Communications for publication should be sentto the Chicago Office.Entered as second class matter December 10,1924, at the Post Office at Crawfordsville, Indiana, under the Act of March 3, 1879.Member of Alumni Magazines Associated.179,Vol. xxii No. 4WLmbtx&ity of Cfncago4fflaga?tneFEBRUARY, 1930Progressive Developments in the Colleges"By Chauncey S. BoucherDean of the College of Arts, Literature and ScienceONE who uses any form of theword "progress" runs the risk ofbeing challenged with the bromidicwise-crack that "progress is a delusion."Colleges and college students are the particular butts of wise-cracks. This one istypical: "An American college is a greatathletic association and social club in whichprovision is made, merely incidentally, forintellectual activity on the part of the physically and socially unfit." Here is anotherfrequently heard, in the form of a conundrum: "Why is a college a great repository of learning?" Answer: "Because thefreshmen bring in so much, and the seniorstake out so little." Recently one of ourbetter magazines published an article madeup almost entirely of wise-cracks, entitled"Quack-Doctoring the Colleges," written,strangely enough, by a professor in a collegewhich, with its sound progressive innovations of the last decade, has done much togive meaning and significance to the Bachelor's degree. Wise-cracks are frequentlyamusing and stimulating; a good one twitson facts; but most of them are dangerous, if taken too seriously by the author or hisreaders, because they are only partially trueand usually grossly exaggerate.With keen appreciation I quote from another recent issue of one of our better magazines a definition which satisfies as can nosmart-aleck wise-crack: "Education is theprocess by which one's mind is given discipline and discrimination, orientation inthe modern world and understanding of it,and the adult ability to derive satisfactionfrom knowledge and from the pursuit ofknowledge for its own sake." This definition of education in terms of basic andmeaningful objectives, spells progress.What have we been doing recently to liveup to such a definition?Students, faculty members, and administrative officers of our better colleges are atpresent more constructively critical of theshortcomings and failures of the existingprogram and methods of undergraduateeducation than at any previous time in ourhistory. The time and efforts of many persons are being devoted to a critical studyof curricula, methods of instruction, and*The word "Colleges" is meant to include those educational units organized on the four yearsbasis, granting the Bachelor's degree, whether existing independently or as part of a university.i$i182 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEadministrative and personnel problems ofconsiderable variety through such agenciesas national and local group conferences,commissions, committees, the questionnaire,and specially-appointed visiting agents. Aday seems incomplete if it has not broughta questionnaire from another institution,and visitors on mission of inquiry and investigation are with us frequently. Changein performance merely for the sake of doingsomething different is foolish and dangerous— "quack-doctoring," indeed; but changebased urS6n a careful study of the shortcomings of past performance in the lightof tested thought and more clearly definedobjectives is inspiring because charged withpossibilities for progress. Though thelimits of space do not permit adequate exposition and discussion, I shall list a fewof the new developments successfully inaugurated in the last few years, and venturean opinion regarding the next needed departure.(i) Educational guidance. — During theearly history of our colleges, indeed down toa time within the memory of living men,there was no problem of educational guidance for students, because the curriculumwas fixed. There was no choice betweenmeat offerings or dessert offerings; eachstudent was fed the same intellectual menuas every other student who entered at thesame time. Came a time when researchwork broadened the limits of old fields ofknowledge and opened up entirely newfields. New courses could be introducedonly if electives were introduced. In orderthat the curriculum should reflect thewidened boundaries of knowledge electiveswere introduced, at first sparingly, and thenwholesale. As is typical of us in so manyphases of life, we went from one extremeto another — from the rigidly fixed curriculum to the almost completely elective curriculum. Twenty years ago, in many colleges, entering students faced a formidablylarge catalog with literally hundreds ofcourse offerings, not clearly described andnot properly related, with the elective system in vogue and with no faculty memberand no administrative officer available tohelp them solve the Chinese puzzle of course elections. Throughout his four years astudent with no definite professional aim,finding no one on the college staff to guidehim, more often than not would drift fromone subject to another, depending uponchance, caprice, or student gossip for hisguidance, and would come out at the endof four years with an academic record sheetworthy of a place in an educational museum. And yet, a student with a constitution strong enough to withstand such astuffing of utterly indigestible and unassimi-lable educational hash, would come outtriumphantly with a diploma and a degree(though frequently without anythingworthy of being called an education), provided only that he had accumulated a certain number of course credits. It is nowonder that in this period our college students developed for themselves as never before outlets for their best thought andefforts, "Student Activities" — athletics,publications, dramatics, and a vast numberof purely social activities— something interesting and more worthwhile than the meaningless and deadly academic mummery.After seeing from experience the folly ofboth extremes — the rigidly fixed curriculumand the wide open elective system — the better colleges have endeavored to strike ahappy medium by specifying degree requirements in general but meaningful terms, andby providing an educational guidance service. Regarding the former, the best practice now provides for a number of grouprequirements — English, foreign language,mathematics, natural and physical science,and social science — designed to furnish aproper balance in an introduction to general education to be completed by the endof the second year, and a sequence or concentration requirement for the last twoyears, so that a student may be sure to getdeep enough into at least one branch ofknowledge to master its technique andmethod of thought — so that he may thinkand express himself like an educated personin at least one field of thought. The educational guidance service — by a number offaculty members, whether called deans,advisers, or counselors — provides, whenfunctioning properly, a sufficient number ofPROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENTS IN THE COLLEGES 183faculty members, carefully selected becauseof appropriate qualifications, to give a reasonable amount of time to each student individually, to plan with each student, as wellas for him, an educational program whichseems to offer for him most possibilities forpleasure and profit in its pursuit. Theseeducational guidance agents, with studentsassigned to them on the basis of scholasticinterests, play the roles of guides, counselors,and friends, and are doing our most effective personnel work, of great variety, incidental to and as a natural part of theireducational guidance work.Recently we have heard much blare oftrumpets about a fifth wheel to the collegecart — an independent personnel department, whose staff members are not facultymembers and are responsible only to thepresident's office. A college which has set upsuch an agency has done so apparently onthe assumption that because faculty members have so long neglected their duty regarding educational guidance and all related personnel problems, they can not orwill not study and meet this personnelservice obligation of the institution to itsstudents, even if the proper leadership werefurnished. If this is so, then indeed thereis no hope in us. However, I know frompersonal observation that, in a number ofinstitutions, where the matter has been putbefore the faculty in an intelligent manner,it has not been difficult to recruit a sufficientnumber of faculty members in a very shorttime to afford adequate student service bymen and women who derive great personalsatisfaction from the service and soon acquire new points of view which make themall the more valuable as members of thestaff of instruction. The faculty membersnot personally in this service soon come tolook to those members in the service foropinions and recommendations of greatvalue in faculty meetings when matters ofacademic legislation are considered. I haveattended national and local conferences ofpersonnel workers of both types — facultymembers and independent, full-time personnel workers. At the end of each conferenceI felt that I had never before been exposedto such an incongruous mixture of bunk and sound sense; and most of the bunkcame from the non-faculty member workers.It is no wonder that these independent personnel departments, in most institutionswhere they exist, are looked upon with suspicion and distrust by the faculty members.Freshman Week is another recent innovation attracting attention. I have examined the printed programs for this week atseveral institutions. It is quite naturalthat, in the early stages of this experiment,there should appear many features open toquestion on many scores. At present, thebetter colleges which support a FreshmanWeek have centered their programs aroundtwo objectives: educational guidance andorientation into college life generally. Ourexperience at the University of Chicago hasled us to center very largely on the former,and to continue it and to develop the orientation project throughout the first termthrough individual conferences and generalassemblies for Freshmen.(2) Course offerings. — When old fieldsof knowledge were broadened and newfields explored by a most praise-worthy activity in research, which began to bloomand produce fruit in the closing decadesof the last century, new courses began toappear in college catalogs, slowly at firstas the fixed curriculum gradually gave way,and then very rapidly when the elective system became general. Came a perfect floodof new courses of wondrous variety anddescription. The college catalog of manyinstitutions in the early 1900's became amost formidable document in size andmeaning. A critical examination of thecourses announced in any one of two dozendepartments in a single college would haveshown that perhaps half of the courses inany department could not justify themselveson any ground, save one — they offered theinstructors opportunities to pursue pethobbies in a very limited part of a field —and that the course offerings of the department were not properly related and balanced.This much-needed and too-long-delayedcritical examination of departmental offerings has been brought into being in a steadilyincreasing number of colleges, particularly184 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEin the last ten years, by study of the problemof educational guidance and by the development of the Junior College movement.In what may be termed the "chaotic"period, when the wide-open elective systemran riotously into utter confusion — a periodwhich lasted in most institutions until tenor less than ten years ago, and still persistsin some institutions— most departmentalintroductory courses were designed withthe sole purpose of preparing students foradvanced courses in the respective departments. ^It seemed that nearly every department framed its curriculum as though theintellectual sun rose and set within itsboundaries, as though every worthy studentmust desire to specialize in that department, and as though that department hada life-long vested interest in every studentwho elected its introductory course. Mostdepartments seemed to think only in termsof specialization, and seemed to be interested not at all in students who wanted andneeded an introduction to several departmental fields of thought as essential partsof a general education.In the last decade a basic theory of college education has been put before us moreand more frequently and with increasingforcefulness, that though a student whoenters college with a well defined educational and perhaps vocational aim shouldbe given the opportunity, and should beencouraged, to pursue that aim from thebeginning of his freshman year, the majoremphasis in the junior college years shouldbe placed upon breadth of general education; and that, though general educationshould continue in senior college, the majoremphasis of the last two years should beupon concentration in, and depth of penetration of, some particular field of thought.Thus the attention of each department hasbeen called to its obligation to offer appropriate introductory work to no less thanthree types of students : first, students whoexpect to specialize in that department, orto center their senior college concentrationin and around that department;, second,students who know that they will not specialize in that department and yet desire itsintroductory work for the sake of rounding out a general education, or as an aid towork in a related field of thought; third,students who have not determined upon afield of concentration, but are looking forwhat may become for them a major educational interest.Though one department may find it possible, after careful study and planning, todesign and offer a single course which willserve adequately and satisfactorily the needsof all three types of students, another department may find it advisable or evennecessary to offer two introductory courses— one for the first type, and another forthe second and third types of students. Inthe last few years one department afteranother, in our better colleges, has studiedits course offerings as not before, in a generation, and has had the courage to scrapmany of its old courses and introduce anew set, fewer in number and arranged ina well ordered, progressive sequence, withelementary courses designed not only to furnish the foundation material necessarily prerequisite for the departmental advancedcourses, but also to serve the needs of students who are interested in a particular department only in so far as it contributes toa general education.One of the first and most significant products of the study recently devoted to educational objectives and the curriculum, hasbeen a new type of course, called an orientation or survey course. Though the first ofthese courses was in the field of the socialsciences, similar courses have been developedin the natural sciences, the humanities, andthe fine arts. In the main they are Freshman courses designed to orient the studentin a large field of thought which, it is nowrecognized, frequently runs through andacross many of the artificial boundary lineswhich have been established by the growthof the numerous departmental divisionswhich universities have developed and formalized. One example, no longer in theexperimental stage but a proven success,is a course which covers the whole field ofthe physical and natural sciences. For astudent who may want no more than anintroduction to the field of science, thiscourse seems to be more profitable than anyPROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENTS IN THE COLLEGES 185one of the old style departmental introductory courses; and for the student whoexpects to specialize in one of the sciences,this course gives him an excellent background for later concentration — it showshim the true position of his specialty in alarger field of thought, together with thecontributing values of each specialized department for the others in the larger fieldof thought. The appearance of these general survey courses has caused more thanone department to restudy the content ofits introductory course with a view to making it satisfactory not only for the studentpreparing for advanced work in that department, but also for students who desiresome knowledge of one departmental fieldas part of the preparation for work in arelated field, and for students who desiresome knowledge of this or that departmental field as part of a general education. Atthe present time it is clearly evident that ourcourse offerings are rapidly becoming betterorganized individually and collectively thanever before.(3) Instruction. — It is indeed refreshing to find our colleges giving increased attention to class-room instruction, not merelyon the score of subject matter content, butalso in regard to the personnel of the instructing staff and methods. In the laterdecades of the last century and the earlyyears of the present century, our facultymembers developed research productivityto a remarkable degree. I would be thelast person to belittle the importance of research. It is a well known fact, however,that in too many institutions research wasmade a fetish to the extent that good teaching was not only neglected but was actuallyscorned. Faculty members were appointedin too many instances for research abilityonly, with no inquiry made regarding teaching interest or ability and indeed, in someinstances, in the face of positive knowledgethat they were failures as teachers. Everyuniversity worthy of the name should beable to afford a few research appointmentsfor some of our most remarkable researcherswho have neither interest in nor talent forteaching; such men more often than notcan work successfully with a few advanced graduate students, but these men and undergraduate students should not be made tosuffer together. In recent years the tendency has grown for colleges and universities to insist that new staff appointees benot only creditable, ii not brilliant, researchproducers but also satisfactory, if not actually inspiring teachers. There is no inherent incompatibility between effectiveteaching and research; indeed the lattershould promote the former, if the facultymember has anything approaching a propersense of value and proportions. Teachinginterest and ability is actually being givenmore consideration in faculty appointmentsthan at any time in the last half century.And as for methods of instruction, it isno longer a disgrace and a cause for shameto confess an interest in the study of, andexperimentation with, new methods. Thelecture method, "by which the contents ofthe professor's notes get into the note-bookof the student without passing through themind of either" — to quote another wisecrack — that relic of the period when printedbooks were scarce — is being questioned sothat its abuses may be eliminated and itsprofitable uses stimulated. We are classifying our students for course units on the basisof appropriate levels of advancement. Illuminating experiments with the size ofclasses, sectioning on the basis of ability,promotion at any time in the term on thebasis of demonstrated ability, special treatment for leading students, independentstudy periods (with classes suspended),various forms of the tutorial system, andscholastic aptitude and placement tests, arewell under way with varying degrees ofsuccess and much promise for valuableeffects upon future procedure.One of the most noteworthy examples ofspecial treatment for leading students hasswept across the country in the form ofhonors courses. Though details of practice differ widely in various institutions,the basic feature of all honors plans provides for the better students in the last twoyears release from much of the formal andperfunctory classes performance and givesmuch freedom and encouragement for self-education. Under the guidance of a tutori86 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEor departmental counselor each student pursues an individually approved program ofwork, depending upon the special interestsand aptitudes of the student. The studentis awarded the Bachelor's degree withhonors provided he pursues his program successfully and passes a final comprehensiveexamination in the field of the honors award— an examination which is of far more valueas a demonstration of ability to thinkstraight and to use factual information intelligently (real mastery of a large field ofthought), tnan any number of examinationsupon the completion of small units of workin isolated courses. This is excellent, asfar as it goes, but it affects only the topstratum of our student body and puts significant meaning into college work for buta few of our students. I confess that mymain interest in honors systems is found inthe suggestions and examples they offer formodification of our procedure with the entire student body. This leads me to statemy opinion regarding what should be(4) 'The next development. — For sometime a number of us, who have been studying present performance in college education throughout the country, have beenquestioning the most basic feature of degreerequirements as now stated and administered — the course unit and course creditsystem. If we are to live up to the definition of education quoted in my secondparagraph, we must free our students fromthe toils of the credit system, stated in termsof hours or courses, a certain mystic number of which is the sine qua non for a degreein all institutions, and in far too many isthe sole requirement.Our secondary schools have made remarkable progress in the last few years;indeed, though the graduates of theseschools are entering colleges in far greaternumbers than ever before, they are betterprepared than ever before. Our high-schoolgraduates in many instances are now bettereducated than were many college graduatesa few decades ago. Our college undergraduates are keener, more alert, more inquisitive, and more active intellectually thanwere the undergraduates of two decadesago. Though some of our state institutions, for political reasons, are unable to limitnumbers or to require for entrance anythingmore than a certificate from an accreditedhigh school, many colleges have limitedtheir numbers and have invoked selectiveadmission to insure higher quality. Institutions of the latter type have the best opportunities to individualize, to humanize, andto vitalize their educational processes; theyshould have in mind, as ends to be attainedso far as may be practicable, (a) the substitution of fields of study for the presentcourse units, (b) the provision of opportunity for the exceptional student to makemore rapid progress, (c) the abolition of thepresent system of counting credits for adegree and the substitution therefor ofcomprehensive examinations and whateverother methods of demonstrating accomplishment may be expedient, and (d) in general,greater emphasis upon the student's opportunity for responsibility for his own education.In the light of several new departuresalready successfully operating in a numberof our most progressive colleges (discussionof which is not permitted by the space limits of this article), and in view of the temper of thought among progressive leaders inmany colleges, it seems that some institution in the near future will surely furnishthe courageous leadership of example nowso eagerly awaited in many quarters. Somecollege, already worthy of classification asprogressive, has a remarkable opportunityto put all other colleges greatly in its debt,by adopting a program which will gathertogether the best of the recent but alreadysuccessfully tested developments, and thentake the final step which seems to requiremost courage — the substitution of thedemonstration of ability, achievement andaccomplishment for the book-keeping system of hours and course credits for the degree award. Because we are so much theslaves of custom in regard to administrativepractices and machinery once adopted, thisstep seems a most radical departure. However, a careful study of the shortcomingsof our past performance along with theremarkable results attained at Harvardwith comprehensive final examinations, theAMERICAN LITERATURE BY RADIO 187tutorial system, and the independent study tive inclinations that the step suggested isperiods — to cite only one institution — would sensible and logical at this stage of our edu-quite likely convince even one of conserva- cational experiment.American Literature by RadioProfessor Boynton Broadcasts to ThousandsSINCE early January Professor PercyH. Boynton has been giving a coursein American Literature to a class fartoo large to be gathered in any auditoriumand far too widely scattered to make ameeting on the campus a possibility. Fromthe A 1 1 e g h a n i e s to theRockies, from Superior to theGulf, thousands of earlyrisers have heard of the"Mauve Decade," of "Conscious Cosmopolitans," of"Poverty and Politics," of"H. L. Mencken and the Assault on Tradition."The course is well on itsway but there is still opportunity for the interestedalumnus to tune in onVVMAQ at 8 =20 o'clock fourmornings of each week, and Professor Boyntonenjoy all the pleasures of a typical Boyntoncourse.The subjects for the last four weeks ofthe course are given :IV Sex and Self ExpressionFebruary 14, Edith Wharton and Margaret DelandFebruary 18, Willa Cather and Edna St.Vincent MillayFebruary 19, Amy Lowell and Edgar LeeMasters February 20, Theodore Dreiser and Sherwood AndersonFebruary 21, Joseph Hergesheimer andJames Branch CabellFebruary 25, Eugene O'NeillV Education and the CollegeFebruary 26, The Education of Henry AdamsFebruary 27, The attackon the college: C. Norris,Fitzgerald, Marks, etc.VI Religion and the ChurchFebruary 28, MargaretD e 1 a n d's "John Ward,Preacher" : the theologicalconflict.March 4, Churchill's "TheInside of the Cup" : the social conflict.March 5, Lewis's "ElmerGantry": the pulpiteer and the publicVII The Sense of the FrontierMarch 6, Hamlin Garland and HerbertQuickMarch 7, Willa CatherMarch 11, Ole Edward RolvaagMarch 12, Farewells to the frontierMarch 13, Carl SandburgMarch 14, Robert FrostMarch 18, Edwin Arlington RobinsonSome Factors That Determine Stock PricesBy S. H. NerloveAssistant Professor of Risk and Risk-Bearing in the School ofCommerce and AdministrationIIT IS the aim of this discussion, to present, in so far as is possible in a limitedspace, a technique of thinking about themajor factors that determine stock prices.No attempt jyill be made to present thegolden formula of stock market valuation.The establishment of any such formula, is animpossible task. Anattempt will be made,however, to developa concise body ofthought in regard tothe economic forcesthat play a role indetermining stockprices. This bodyof thought will notfurnish settled conclusions immediatelyapplicable to investment and speculation. problems, but,it is hoped, it willgive to those interested in stock investment and speculationa sort of apparatusof the mind, a technique of thinkingthat will be helpfulin deciding wheh tobuy and when to sell stocks. It may, inother words, improve our judgment in regard to stock values.Aside from such short run and capriciousfactors influencing stock prices as speculative manias (sometimes started by well-heeled and unscrupulous operators), theposition of stop-loss orders, margin requirements, and the size of the short-interest;there are long run factors, more "fundamental" factors, that determine stock prices.These factors can be grouped in two majorclasses: First, factors influencing thecorporate-income-streams applicable toProfessor Nerloveshares of stock, and second, factors determining the "capitalization-base" to be usedwith reference to shares of stock. These twogroups of forces working together are thedeterminants of the level of prices thatindividual shares of stock as well as stocksin general tend to seek. For purposes ofdiscussion, however, these two interrelatedgroups of forcesare here consideredseparately.IILet us start withthe factors influencing corporate-income-streams applicable to shares ofstock. The essentialreason that a shareof stock is worthanything at all, isthat the owner ofthe share can nowreceive or expects atsome future time toobtain an income.Accordingly,all other conditionsremaining the same,the larger the income obtainable, thehigher the stock willbe evaluated ; the smaller the income obtainable, the lower it will be evaluated.Stock prices are directly dependent uponthe size of the income-stream the holders ofthe shares are now, or will be at some future date, in a position to claim.Dividend payments and increase of stockprices are two significant ways by whichclaims against the income-stream applicableto stocks are obtained. Dividends, as weall know, are the payments out of earningsthat directors of corporate bodies decideto make periodically to holders of stock.Obviously, then, if earnings are large, divi-188SOME FACTORS THAT DETERMINE STOCK PRICES 189dends may be large; and if earnings aresmall, dividends are likely to be small.These dividends determine current yieldon stocks, but determine only a portion ofthe income obtainable from the holding ofstocks.In addition to yielding a current incomein the form of dividends, the average shareof stock is expected to reflect in the marketthe size of its income-stream. Accordingly,in these days of highly developed stockmarket structures, it is sometimes possibleto obtain an income periodically by sellingpart of one's holdings of shares of stock.For, if the income-stream going to a givenstock increases, and the dividend paymentsdo not increase correspondingly, this stockwill probably increase in price. Consequently it is possible, although very ofteninconvenient, to obtain a current income notonly from dividends but also from changesin the price of securities.At the present time, therefore, currentyields, measured only by dividends payments, are not as likely to be as significantin determining the value of a share of stockas they were in the past. There is dangerin over-emphasizing the importance of current yields. Low yields may be offset bystock price increases .(including the effectsof stock split-ups, rights, and stock dividends) and high yields by stock price decreases. Often, too, high yields arise outof accumulated earnings which no longercan be used profitably by the business, indicating that the corporate earning powercan no longer be expanded by added investment.What are the important factors determining this income-stream eventually goingto holders of shares of stock? Every nation, every industry, and every corporationin a given industry is likely to have specialfactors which influence corporate earningpower. It is possible, therefore, to suggestonly a few generalizations in regard tomaking a shrewd guess as to the earningpower back of a given share of stock.In the first place, it is essential to emphasize that what is needed is a prediction offuture earnings. The past is importantonly to the extent that it affords a basis of anticipating what is going to happen inthe future. In these terms, worth notingfirst of all is the economic position of thecountry. Is it a nation with large naturaland social resources? Is it highly developedin the industrial arts? Has it an adequatebanking system? All these are highly significant factors. Then, it is essential tostudy the position of the industry. Theanswers to such questions as the following in regard to the industry will tend tothrow light on corporate earning power.In the long run, is the industry in questionlikely to increase or decrease in importance ?How is this type of industry affected bycyclical fluctuations?After a study of the industry, it is advisable to study the future position of theindividual firm, particularly with reference to such matters as prospective competition, current financial conditions, and probable future banking and underwritingconnections. And finally, information inregard to the position of the stock relativeto other securities issued by the corporationunder consideration should be obtained.For example, the greater the proportion oflimited-income-claim securities, such asbonds and stocks with preferences, thegreater will be the income-stream availablefor common stocks in periods of business expansion if at that time the rate of returnon limited-income-claim securities is lessthan the return on the total investment;and the smaller it will be in periods of business contraction, if at that time the rate ofreturn on limited-income-claim securities ismore than the return on the total investment.On the basis of such an analysis of theprospective economic condition of the nation and the industry, and of the estimatedfuture position of the individual corporation and of the share of stock in question,an attempt can be made to estimate prospective per-share earnings. If for this purposeearnings as reported by the company areused, it should be noted that corporations donot always present an accurate statementof earnings. Often earnings are "hidden"instead of being reported, by liberal writeoffs for depreciation, for inventory adjust-190 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEments or for reduction of intangibles.Sometimes earnings reported are largerthan they are actually, owing to inadequatewrite-offs for depreciation, inventory adjustments, or reduction of intangibles. Inview of these possibilities and of the factthat past records in regard to earnings maynot throw much light on future earnings,it is highly advisable to emphasize in one'sthinking the non-recordable factors whichinfluence corporate earning power, particularly such matters as the efficiency andaggressiveness of management.IllOnce future income-streams available forshares of stock are estimated, the questionarises as to how it is possible to determinestock prices on the basis of these figures.Suppose a given share of stock is earning$10 per year, another earning $20. Whatis each one worth ? Does it necessarily follow that the second is worth twice as muchas the first? It is obvious that anotherfigure is necessary, a figure by which earnings per share are to be multiplied. Thisfigure we shall ^call the "capitalization-base^ in other words, the figure that is tobe used in "capitalizing" the earnings ofshares of stock in an attempt to determinestock values.Financial writers have been reportingthat this "capitalization-base" has a certain"normal" size. They often say that underordinary circumstances stocks should sell atno more than ten times their earnings. Inother words, if a share of stock is earningat the rate of $10 it should sell for no morethan $100; if it is earning at the rate of$20, $200 is the limit. Just before therecent unprecedented break in the stockmarket, many experts were agreed that this"capitalization-base" of ten, was not necessarily "normal," that this limit might besomewhat higher under the then existingconditions. Accordingly, various "capitalization-bases" ranging from twelve to eighteen were being frequently mentioned threemonths ago as quite conservative figures.Since the stock market crash, however, thefinancial and speculation experts havechanged their story. They seem to be back to the old alleged "normal" of ten-times earnings.With these inconsistent and varied suggestions in regard to the "capitalization-base" the question necessarily arises as towhat are the factors that determine the"capitalization-base?" So let us now consider the second group of factors that determine the value of stocks, the factors thatdetermine the "capitalization-base.""Capitalization-bases" are likely to varywith the trend and variability of income-streams of shares of stock. If the income-stream is likely to increase in size the "capitalization-base" will probably be higherthan if the income-stream is likely to remain roughly the same. In other words,if the per share earnings are likely to be $10in 1929, $15 in 1930, and $35 in 1931,averaging $20 per year, the stock is likelyto be evaluated more highly than a sharewhose earnings for the next three years islikely to be $20 per year. Of course, ifthe earnings per year are decreasing butaveraging $20 per year, the "capitalization-base" will be lower than it would if theearnings were $20 each year.In addition to the trend of earnings, thedegree of fluctuation and certainty of earnings will influence the figure used as a"capitalization-base." The income-streamgoing to a share of stock in some instancesis likely to fluctuate violently, and in othersit is likely to be either stable or followingdefinitely an upward trend. Obviously, itis much better to hold a security that willgive one an income of $5 every year for thenext five years, than it is to own a securitythat may give one an average income of $5per year for the next five years, but one thatwill be uncertain and vary (without following definitely an upward trend) from noincome at all in some years to $15 income in others. Steady and certain income-streams are preferable to variable income-streams. The greater, therefore, thefluctuations in the income of a share ofstock, the lower the "capitalization-base"figure will be; the more stable and certainthe income, the higher the "capitalization-base."In addition to these factors which affectSOME FACTORS THAT DETERMINE STOCK PRICES 191the "capitalization-base" of individualshares of stock, there is a group of factorswhich affect "capitalization-base" figures ingeneral. These factors are: first, theeconomic conditions that determined thefunds available for investment and speculation in securities, particularly stocks, andsecond, the psychological disposition to purchase stocks for investment and speculation.The funds that finally go into the buyingof stocks originate primarily from onesource: savings, both individual and corporate. From time to time, the extensionor creation of bank credit, the excess working capital of domestic corporations, andfunds belonging to foreign peoples employedhere for investment and speculative purposes, play a significant role in determiningthe available funds for securities. But, inthe main, savings are the most importantdeterminant of the available funds forinvestment and speculation.It is apparent that the greater the amountof available funds, the higher will be the"capitalization-base" and the less theamount of available funds, the lower willbe the "capitalization-base." For example,a sudden increase in savings, or an increasein the influx of foreign funds, or more effective credit creation facilities, will tend tomake the price of stocks higher by making the "capitalization-base" higher. Onthe other hand, a decrease in all of thesewill tend to reduce the price of stocks bylowering the "capitalization-base."The other important set of influencesthat will affect the "capitalization-base"used for stocks is the disposition to purchasestocks rather than other types of securities.Stocks were put in a very advantageousposition just before the recent break in thestock market. Almost everybody seemedto be buying stocks, buying equities inallegedly growing and prosperous industries. Bonds and preferred stocks were toa considerable extent ignored. Since thestock market debacle, however, there hasbeen a tendency to go back somewhat tobonds and preferred stocks. Fixed and stableincome-securities are in greater favor nowthan they were several months ago.The "capitalization-base" figure, then, is likely to vary from stock to stock becauseof the trend and stability characteristics ofthe per-share earnings and it is likely to varyfrom time to time depending first, on theavailability of funds for investment andspeculation in stocks and second, on the disposition to buy stocks over against othertypes of securities. A normal "capitalization-base" really does not exist. And, therefore, we should beware of any rule of thumb"base" such as "ten-times-earnings."IVTo sum up briefly the foregoing: pricesof stocks are determined by two groups offactors: First, those that influence thesize of corporate-income-streams applicableto shares of stock, and second, those thatinfluence the "capitalization-base." In thecase of the applicable income-stream, thefuture should be emphasized. As we havealready suggested, the past is importantonly in so far as it indicates what is likelyto happen in the future. It is also essentialin the case of the income-stream to takefactors into consideration other than reported earnings. These reported earningsare not only likely to be inaccurate but theydo not come out soon enough for either speculative or investment purposes. In the caseof the "capitalization-base," it should benoted that there is no fixed or normal base.It is likely to vary from stock to stock according to the character of the income-stream. It is also likely to vary from timeto time in accordance with changes in theavailability of funds for investment andspeculation in stocks.Once the size of income-streams applicable is determined and the "capitalization-base" decided up'on, the determination ofthe price of a share of stock is a relativelyeasy matter. One merely multiplies onefigure by the other. Suppose a stock isearning at the rate of $15 and the"capitalization-base" is 10, then the priceshould be approximately $150 per share.Suppose, however, the stock is earning thesame amount, $15, but the "capitalization-base" is, say, 5, then the value of the stockis $75. If the "capitalization-base" should192 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEbe 20, the per share value would be $300.Obviously, then, it is possible to have theprices of stocks in general or the price ofindividual stocks go up, by having the"capitalization-base" change upward withno increase in earnings. It is even possibleto have prices go up with decreasing earnings, if the "capitalization-base" goes upfaster than the earnings go down. Thereverse, of course, of all of these propositions is also true.This income-stream-per-share-times-the-"capitalizatiott-base"-scheme of determiningthe price of stocks is not the golden formula of stock market valuation. It merely affords a technique of thinking about stock-prices. If we apply it effectively in connection with available data in regard tostocks, we might improve our judgment inregard to stock values. After all, there isno certain method of insuring success in ¦investment and speculation and there neverwill be certainty in this connection. Allthat can be done is to improve our abilityto analyze adequately so that we will beable to safeguard against bias and error, inshort, to improve our judgment in regardto stock values.Medieval Manuscript IlluminationThe Renaissance Society Sponsors ExhibitionBy Edward F. RothschildAssistant Professor of the History of ArtAGAIN demonstrating its initiative andresourcefulness, the Renaissance^ Society of the University of Chicago has successfully sponsored, to the greatdelight and profit of its members and itscommunity, a unique exhibition of manuscript illumination, a vital monument to thedevotion, skill, and discrimination of Mr.C. Lindsay Ricketts. After an extension oftime responding to an unusual public demand and a constantly large and increasingattendance, the brilliant collection was lastavailable to public view on January twenty-fifth. An incidental and distinctly significant feature of the accompanying programwas a lecture on "Medieval Illumination,"by Professor John Shapley, Chairman ofthe Department of Art, on the evening ofJanuary sixth, which date'marked the opening of the exhibit.Revealed against the pervasively richbackground of the treasures presented tothe eye, the observer's intuition sensed theportrait of a personality. This unique assortment of representative originals andfacsimiles epitomized the vision and purposeof Mr. C. L. Ricketts and the patient andinspired pursuit with which it had beenrealized. The basis of selection was reflected inthe character of the works displayed andresolved the assortment into a well-proportioned and clearly articulated unity.Himself an artist and craftsman, initiatedin the mysteries and traditions of his chosenfield, Mr. Ricketts has sought to acquire orreproduce books or pages which, by subtletyor strength, delicacy or power, richness orrefinement, have embodied the artistic summits which the calligrapher, illuminator, orminiaturist could reach. Artistic distinction, rather than antiquarian interest or the_lure of historical associations, has guidedhis quest. The monuments of the exhibitionwere the testimony which evidenced thegifted feeling with which selection had beenmade. And the care exercised in their display indicated the abiding devotion andsensitivity of the collector.One section of the presentation was devoted to a chronological arrangement of facsimile pages from the history of Celtic,Anglo-Saxon, and English illumination ofthe Middle Ages, beginning with the Bookof Durrow and including examples of subsequent productions through the beginning ofthe fourteenth century. Among the itemswere to be found pages from the Book ofMEDIEVAL MANUSCRIPT ILLUMINATION '93Kells, the Book ofLindisfarne, the Psalterof Augustine, and theOrmesby Psalter.These pages havebeen prepared by Mr.Ricketts and assistantsworking under his supervision as materialfor a corpus of illustrations for a projectedbook, "The Art of theScriptorium in theMiddle Ages," whichhe has been diligentlypreparing for a number of years. This laborhas required devotionas well as skill andscholarship and its planreflects the continenceand thoroughness of itscreator.The writing and illumination of manuscripts requires a degree of craftsmanshipalmost unimaginable inan age of machine production. And it isperhaps a more profound mystery whichwould explain how the love and devotionfor the book and its end which inspired theheart and the hand of the scribe becameexternalized in the decorative glory of thevisible page. This respect for craftsmanship and its embodiment in works of beautytakes on a more humanistic, and in somerespects more fascinating, flavor when wefind it incorporated in the zeal of one of ourown number.In satisfying his own passion Mr. Rickettshas also sought to be of value to scholars.He has investigated the techniques whichhave made possbile the exact duplication ofthe products of a "lost art" and his tran-scriptive precision has recorded not only theminutest details but every irregularity andvariation which the hand produced. Copiesmade from the originals were transferred tovellum and then corrected and colored inthe presence of the source materials.Although the picture of the personality ofProfessor John Shapley Mr. Ricketts which hisideals, and interests,and achievements present, is a rich and preeminently essential oneit is natural that oneshould seek to inquireinto its origins and development.While h i s parentswere migrating fromWest Virginia to Stockport, Ohio, on the OhioRiver near Zanesville,in the Spring of 1858,Coella Lindsay Rickettswas born. In his youthhe divided his time between the rural schooland the duties whichfell to the lot of theeldest son of a largefamily living on a farm.But this early periodsaw the birth of thoseinterests which culminated in his later career. As a child he discovered in two lines of engraved scriptbeneath a picture in a household book, aform of beauty which he resolved to investigate and master.These lines, in which he still recognizesdistinction and skill, were copied and re-copied as the ambition to master the art ofthe pen grew. As an outstanding pupil,teacher, and supervisor of penmanship in thepublic schools, and subsequently while abookkeeper for the Minneapolis Times, hefollowed and expanded this early interest.The years 1880-1882 were spent atAthens, Ohio, at Ohio University. Concerning himself principally with classicalstudies, Mr. Ricketts was able to lay thefoundation on which his later scholarly research could build. And in 1884, withfriends urging him to accept a partnershipin a promising industrial and commercialventure in the Northwest, he decided tocome to Chicago and pioneer his own interests. The Scriptorium of C. L. Rickettswas established to house the arts of calli-194 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEgraphy and illumination and the making ofprivate and special editions of books. Inspirit it was dedicated to the traditions ofthe past which had achieved the glory ofthe book.Shortly afterward, inspired by the beautyof the medieval manuscripts which he hadinspected at the Newberry Library, he followed the suggestion of a friend that heenlarge his experience and continue hisstudy by visiting the libraries of Europe.On his first trip the plan of his researchproject took ¦shape and he commenced thearduous tasks of discovery and reproductionwhich he continued on more than a dozensubsequent trips. He visited the best andthe least known libraries in an attempt tomake his selection of the highest possible representativeness and equality. He became a familiar and respected figure to themany scholars working in the field whocame to know him and his work. SirFrederick Kenyon, Head of the BritishMuseum, said that he had examined moremanuscripts than any living man. At thesame time he was making his own collection,a fraction of which formed the section oforiginals in the recent exhibition.At home, in addition to directing theactivities of the Scriptorium, Mr. Rickettsfound himself occupied with the inceptionand progress of the Caxton Club, one ofthe best known societies devoted to thefostering of the arts of the book. Mr.Ricketts has twice served as president ofthe organization and, among other dis-1M[l ' Tfcmr cvnftcr effe UjcuV '* 9 9{q&cmihcpiwil xa\: er, criktraotimudur-TUiur-. hii namti;^yttt£<jfaunrcp tmaginejatfl; wtbap txwmtmta.Hip foiTmtaa*uift<m«f rada at cUdzL^twanrVaufpanfoU fpfttftnibnch^mconw txmimt &trm a^ tjCT-iffor Arlilnrttiwrtt . Dior aa: uiktaii. A '-nam *rhlstoriated and decorated initial c from the llndau psalter.iith GermanFrom the Collection of Mr. C. L. RickettsMEDIEVAL MANUSCRIPT ILLUMINATION ? 195tinctions, is Honorary Curator of Manuscripts of the Art Institute of Chicago andHonorary Member of the Medieval Academy of America.The members of the Renaissance Societyand others who saw the exhibition weredoubly delighted. They were able to experience tUe wealth of beauty which the exhibition brought to them and they were ableto look beyond the collection at the personality and vision of a man.Professor Shapley's lecture fittinglvmarked the opening of the exhibition. Hedwelt upon the character of the book and itsarts in the Middle Ages and traced the development of styles in Western Europe fromthe late Classic period, as typified by theVatican Virgil, to the dawn of a NorthernRenaissance style in such manuscripts as theHours of Milan, illustrated by the brothersvan Eyck.Books belonged almost exclusively tochurches, monasteries, and the nobility because of their great expense and the factthat few outside of these spheres were ableto read. As bearers of the sacred wordbooks were esteemed with great reverenceand accordingly richly decorated. Thesedecorations were either merely an enrichment and adornment which made the bookmore appropriately luxurious and preciousor they took in addition the form of illustrations which provided a textual as wellas pictorial enhancement. Three sources are constantly drawn uponin the course of development: the Classic,characterized by a sense of natural balanceand organic decoration; the Oriental,marked by an insistence on rhythmic repetition and decoratively patternized color;and, dominantly, the Northern or Barbaric,intensively dynamic and abstractly dramaticin its linear agitation and endless diffusion.Professor Shapley illustrated these conceptsand showed their interplay in typical examples of the periods of development. Hismany references to manuscripts which werereproduced in the exhibition enabled hishearers to derive added profit from theirsubsequent visits to the collection.Although Professor Shapley's talk wasnecessarily a summary and popular one, itscareful insight and selection reflected hismature scholarship which has earned for himan eminent position among art historiansand particularly a reputation for investigation and interpretation of the arts of theMiddle Ages.Thanks to the generosity and patientefforts of Mr. Ricketts, the eloquent interpretation of Professor Shapley, and thepersistent application of the officers of theRenaissance Society, under the guidance ofits President, Mrs. Eve Watson Schiitze,the medieval art of book illumination became a vital experience to those who hadthe good fortune to profit by this featureof the Society's program.First Annual Alumni AssemblyWednesday, February 26Full Details on Page 179Sojourn on a SummitBy Henry Justin Smith, '98XII1.AT twelve-fifteen o'clock, in the private/-% room just off the main dining-hall-*--*- of The Club, there is sitting at thehead of the table with fourteen places agentleman who is drawing papers from abriefcase. He occasionally glances at hiswatch.This is — or will be — a committee meeting. The gentleman is chairman of thecommittee. Look at his face, and see why.He is a person who commands affairs. Hehas a large nose and a quick eye. His movements are assured. You would not thinkthat his profession is to*trace origins of language into the remote past, when there wereno affairs and no committees. You wouldnot suspect that if he were to appear at ameeting of bearded and spectacled Europeans^ thickly encrusted with lore, hewould be welcomed like a lord. He looksmore like a .corporation chief about to suggest passing a dividend.Enter another professor, who slips quietlyinto a chair."I'm late?""No;, right on time. But I wonderwhere those other fellows are.""I met Henry. He's coming.""And Alfred promised. Grant will behere, of course. I guess we'll have aquorum."The chairman beckons to a waiter. Ina trice the faithful club soup appears. Enteralso, from another door, two more members. One is a tall, athletic person, a cracktennis player and incidentally a D.D. ; theother a renowned explorer, his face stilltanned from Mesopotamian suns, his whitehair curling across his broad forehead. Oneof these is hailed by the chairman as "Alf,"and the other as "Greg.""Waiter, soup for these gentlemen."They fall to studying menu cards."Well," says the explorer, "I see thatthe University of Northern Halifax is out after ten million dollars. Trend of thetimes. . . . I'll take lamb stew. . . . We'dbetter put on more steam.""Let's get busy now," from the chairman. "Those other chaps will be here intime to vote, I trust." He consults asheet of note-paper. "The first businessis—"2.This is the way a University is run, nowadays. This is the way its enterprises arecontrolled. Each committee is a minorcourt, which scrutinizes and winnowsmasses of projects, digs for essentials, bothmakes and saves talk. It elicits and banishes dissents. ... Its reports pile up onsomeone's desk.A new suggestion? A new project?Take it to a committee. But which committee? Ah, that requires an expert. Toidentify the committee is often the difficultpreface to deliberation. The matter of anew chair for one's office; would such athing go to the committee on buildings andgrounds ? No, indeed ; to the committee ongeneral administration. Shall a Universityperiodical be discontinued? Would notthis be considered by the committee on publications? You are wrong. The committee on expenditures must solve this problem.Some committee meetings are formal andparliamentary; others so informal that themembers may address each other direct —and by nicknames — instead of saying "Mr.Chairman, I wish to call the member's attention to his error." All are alike in this:That everyone present have something tosay. Thus, through the network of committees, through cataracts of talk, proceedslowly, ponderously, but properly, the concerns of this academic republic.3.The Dean arrives, and after him severalothers, men of large physique and serious196SOJOURN ON A SUMMIT i97faces, which break into smiles upon greeting the soup-eaters."Let's beat it," grunts the Dean. "Ihave two other meetings before threeo'clock.""We've already started," retorts thechairman. "I was just saying, the firstbusiness is to consider this draft of a pamphlet expressing the — er — aims of the University. I have here a copy for each member. Shove these around, will you,fellows?"The manifolds go around the table. •"Why," says the D.D., "I've read thisbefore." -"So you all have. The thing was submitted to the committee at the last meeting. This is a revised draft — andconsiderably improved," and the chairmangives an encouraging glance at the Low-lander, who wrote the pamphlet."I thought," puts in a tall professorknown as "Henry" (Henry QuackenbosFuller, Ph.D., Litt.D.), "I thought wewere going to talk about a Universitymotto.""Or about that alleged million dollars,"whispers the waggish Alfred to his neighbor."Motto? No; some other committee.""Let's talk about mottos anyhow," proposes "Greg." "I have some ideas aboutthat. Don't know anything about pamphlets.""But the pamphlet is the business beforeus. . . . Does anyone move it be published?""Hold on," interrupts a severe-lookingmember, looking up from his eggs au gratin,"the question should be worded that werecommend, or do not recommend, publication.""I accept the correction. Well — ""I move we recommend," speaks up"Alfred.""Second," from down the table."Moved and—""Wait," says "Henry," waving a smouldering cigarette, "What's the hurry? Isn'tthere to be any discussion ? What kind ofa chairman are you, anyhow?""I was a chairman when you were a freshman. . . . However, there shall bediscussion if you like.""Let's all discuss it.""Very well. Let everyone comment. . . .You have all read the draft, gentlemen— atleast in its original form. The revisionswill be found on pages 11, 17, 22, 34 and38. Kindly turn to those marked passages."There are a few moments of study, ofrustling pages. The Lowlander, the author, sits in a natural mood of concern."Now, then, what do you think? Honorable Dean, speak up.""I think it's good.""Alfred?""Fair, only I—""Henry?""Rotten. Look at what it says about theisotopes.""Important, of course — John?""I think the whole pamphlet is blatant,bombastic, and babbitish."Laughter — except from the Lowlander.It is the white-haired explorer's turn."Unfortunately," he says, "I have hadno opportunity to read this presumably excellent draft. My comment, therefore,would be impertinent. But this discussionreminds me of a literary incident of whichI was told in London.""Ahem!" from the chairman. "I hardlythink—""Vote," calls someone."Vote, vote," from others."What is the motion please?" inquiresa professor far down the table, who enteredlate. The motion is repeated."I propose an amendment," speaks upthe learned "John," "Which is that afterthe manuscript has been rewritten and againsubmitted to this honorable body and informally approved,, a subcommittee considerways and means for its publication.""That's something like a motion," approves the chairman. "What do you allthink of that now?"A chorus of "Ayes."At this moment the late-comer down thetable rises in some confusion."What committee is this?""The committee on promotion and publicity."198 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"Well — good heavens," throwing downhis napkin. "I beg the honorable chairman's pardon. ... I thought this was thecommittee on libraries and laboratories."Exit, amid derisive laughter.4."And now," says the alert D.D., "I suggest that Grant tell us about that mysteriousmillion which we've all heard about, butnone of us received."A sibilance of talk, which has arisen sincethe dispatcfyof business, is suddenly hushed.Faces look serious and intent. The Dean,with great deliberation, re-lights his cigar,cupping the match in his brown hands.Extinguishing the match very slowly, helooks around from one to*another of theseintimate friends."The question," says he, "is somewhatembarrassing.""What, haven't you got it, Grant?" jokes"Alfred." "I was going to buy a few in-cunabala tomorrow."Something in the Dean's face smothersthe laughter. His own tendency to jestseems to be under a cloud. . . . The members eye him with\ still more intentness."I take it," says he, "that this meetingis adjourned, and that we are now just agroup of friends, among whom a secret — asort of secret — will be kept inviolable."The chairman nods."Well, then," but instead of going on,the Dean colors, takes a drink of water,and falls silent."Really, boys," he says, in a differenttone, "I'd rather leave this thing to thePresident. It's his problem. . . . Er . . .I hate to be cagy, but the President mustconfirm or deny the rumor in his own way."A silence. As the Dean has said, this isa bit embarrassing."On, the other hand, there are one ortwo crumbs of encouragement which I canoffer. For one thing, there's a gift of$50,000 for X — 's work." "Oh, X — ; money just rains on him,"speaks up "Alfred.""You needn't talk," the chairman twitshim, "you theologians are getting as rich asthe First National Bank.""Why shouldn't X — get it?" puts inanother professor. "What's the use of beinga Great Man? . . . And he makes gooduse of all he gets."But the Dean has another announcement."There is also," he says, "a gift of$75,000 for — give you three guesses — forHastings." He smiles at the murmurs ofsurprise. "It's the nucleus of a fund, conditioned on the university raising twice asmuch. How does that strike you, gentlemen?"It strikes them all of a heap."Hastings!" mutters one. "I'll bet henever asked for the money.""He must be stunned," from another."It's a nice little story — confidential, ofcourse," adds the Dean. "Seems that hewas approached a long while ago — in arailroad station, I believe, by an unknowngentleman who recognized Hastings fromhis picture in the Literary Digest. Thisman — don't know how he did it — drewHastings into conversation. Expressedamazement that he got no royalties fromhis process. . . . Next thing, started to tellHastings how he could make a lot of moneyin exploiting his stuff. You can imaginehow Hastings took it. Probably bit thefellow's head off. But . . . It's this verymulti-millionaire, bless his inquisitive heart,who is putting up the $75,000.""Why not half a million, while he wasat it?""Ask me another." The Dean consultshis watch. "Now I'm ten minutes late formy other meeting. ... As for that verydelicate subject, the President may concludeto say something at the convocation — ifthere's anything to say."Amid a confusion of murmurs and rustling papers, the committee rises.Research in the HumanitiesA History of IdeasBy John DollardIT STARTED somewhere, sometime.Some man or men talked at a timewhen no one else was using, or everhad used, a language. Perhaps it was astrange and gifted man — a mimic — who performed for his well-fed family around thecamp fire after dinner. Ideas were blurryin those days. People saw what was undertheir noses and reacted to that with cries,gesture, and grimace. But the ideas didn'tstick. Once a situation was over there wasno way of describing it. But this giftedunknown man, this mimic, could do it. Hewould cry in terror as when the sharp clawsof a tiger dug into his shoulder-blades, andthe fireside group shuddered and saw theflash of the lean cat-body; he would cry injoy as if he saw the sharp flint knife slashing the throat of a buffalo, and the groupsmelled the roasting of the fat flesh; hewould cry the Christmas-cry when the sun'sshadow fell farthest and nights were longestand the group felt that brighter days werecoming and that winter would soon be gone.This gifted man with his strange cries thatcalled up forgotten pictures to the mindwas the inventor of language.Primitive man used cries and gestures.Animals used them. But the cries hadbeen called out only by a momentary emotional situation, and once the perception ofthat situation was past, they were not usedagain until called forth by a similar stimulus. But with this mimic, or race ofmimics, the cries suggested a definite situation which was not immediately present —an idea. The cry became a label for thisparticular idea — a word. The word couldbe used apart from the fact and would callup the fact after the situation was past andforgotten.Out of such primitive raw material ofcries, of immediate perceptions, have comeall of the elaborations of our flexible andvaried languages.The acquisition of language itself is thegreatest achievement of the race in the last 100,000 years, and the basis of all modernprogress, scientific, social, and ethical.After language was invented, ideas couldbe locked up in it, saved, and transmittedto each new member of the race, so thatthe child could start from the pointwhere his father had left off. He did nothave to begin again the painful processof learning the race-old lessons of experience alone and for himself. The gradualaccumulation of these ideas locked up inlanguage, and transmitted from generationto generation, made civilization possible.All of the great families of languageshave grown out of primitive speech roots,just as modern tools grew out of the stoneinstruments of early man. Language isnot a gift or a natural capacity ; it is a racialacquisition that has been built up by thousands of generations of men like ourselves.The dog scratching at the door has a message for us. He wants to get in. But oncehe gets in he cannot tell you what he saidat the door. Only man has ever had anylanguage kept up by teaching and learning.The development of man's brain at somepoint on the evolutionary journey enabledhim to associate certain sounds with certain meanings. Exactly how this happenedno one knows. But it is sure that, oncethis had happened, the speed of the evolutionary process was enormously accelerated,and, probably, in its turn, the developmentof the brain itself. Language forced manto use his brain and probably it grew inresponse to increased activity and nourishment.The origins of language, as of the races,are lost in an impenetrable veil of distance.It is probable that man was talking ahundred thousand years ago. It is generallybelieved that Cro-Magnon man talked.Very likely he had some type of picturewriting which expressed ideas. But theearliest records of real writing, that is therepresentations of words by signs, arescarcely six thousand years old. Our alpha-199200 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEbet we owe to some of the Semitic peoples,who probably developed it as a system ofshorthand for use in recording their business transactions. The Phoenicians carriedit to Greece, whence it found its way toRome and the European world. This second great invention of writing enabledmen to transmit their ideas on clay tablets,papyrus, or stone, which in their turn areof greater permanence than mere oral tradition. Thus ideas found a form, words,and ultimately a permanent means of record, writing.No sooner had language begun, than itbegan to change. These changes went onin primitive times as they do now. Whena group having a common language splitup, the changes went on separately in eachof the parted groups, and in the courseof time each of the members of the parentgroup developed a new language. Thenew languages would, of course, show theircommon source, but they might be so different that members of the different groupscould not understand each other. Thesechanges, and the isolation of groups ofspeaking men, account for the babel oftongues that confront the modern observerof languages. The parent speech of allmen (if there was a single origin, as isprobable, but not certain) has now beenso changed that it is impossible to reconstruct it. But there are certain greatfamilies of languages, one of these is thegreat Indo-European group, of which modern English is a derived language.* * * * *If a language was gradually developed bya race, and fitted and formed to its use,then the study of the roots of the languagewill tell us much about the race of menwho used it. It will tell us something ofthe objects they knew, the relationships theyobserved, and their notions about the worldin which they lived. The study of theroots and changes of language is thereforea fertile field for those who_ are curiousabout the origins of civilized life on theplanet, for layman as well as scholar.To the men who are slowly revealing tous the extent of our debt to the past, weowe also a debt of understanding and en couragement. Such a man is Professor CarlBuck, who is tracing the evolution of ourideas. Professor Buck is a philologist — astudent of the history of words and ideas.He views language as becoming rather thanas being. He is studying the history ofideas in .our own family language — in theIndo-European group. This Indo-European language group comprises most of theEuropean languages and some of Asia. Itincludes among others Greek, Latin,French, English, German, Irish, Russian,Persian, and the Sanskrit of distant India.The oldest written documents in it are theSanskrit Vedas written more than threethousand years ago. It is one of the largest and certainly the most carefully studiedof all the language groups. These languagesare valuable for study of ideas because wealready know more about the history ofwords here than in any other group.Professor Buck calls his project "A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms." The taskin its broadest outlines is colossal. In thelarge it would involve a historical accountof every idea in this whole group of languages, showing the word used to expressthe root idea in each, and the variationsin meaning of the fundamental conceptwhich are peculiar to each language. Thisis an impossible task for a single scholar orgeneration of scholars, but Professor Buckhas set for himself a possible task, that oftaking a thousand common ideas, and finding the synonyms used to express them ineach of the languages, and then by study ofthese synonyms and their several sources towrite a history of the thousand ideas, showing their derivations, changes, and development in the course of time.The history of an idea, of course, is embodied in the various words which have beenused to express it. For example, in tracingthe history of "world," Professor Bucknotes the word which expresses this ideain each of the related languages. He thenfinds the derivation of the word in eachlanguage, and by comparison of these, hecan run back the history of the idea as itis recorded in these various languages. Itmay have been started in one language asthe physical world (in the sense of "heavensRESEARCH IN THE HUMANITIES 20 1and the earth"), or in another as mankind(in the sense "the whole world knows"),or again as a particular sphere of life (asin the sense "this world or the next").It is interesting that the words for objectsare often specializations of a broader meaning. The Indo-European word for "sun,"for example, is a specialization of a moregeneral word meaning "shining." Theword for "moon" is taken from its conceptof "measuring" and was also used for"month." Words for "mountain" aremostly derived from words for "high" or"projecting." But where the mountainsare heavily wooded there is an associationwith "woods, forest," so that the same wordmay mean "mountain" in our language and"forest" in another. There is a similar association between bare, rugged "mountains"and "rocks." The word for "right" comesfrom the general term meaning "straight."The word for "wrong" comes from thegeneral sense of "wrung" or "crooked."Names for moral qualities and values areusually derived from some strictly physicalconcept. Words of relation also had aconcrete physical significance — a "foot"was the length of the king's foot — a "mile,"the thousand paces of a Roman legionary.Professor Buck will take a thousand suchconcepts — including those for family relationships, emotions, parts of the body, law,religion, the physical world — and trace theirorigin back through the long chain of connected languages of the Indo-Europeangroup. For instance, the group of terms relating to religion and superstition wouldinclude a history of such ideas as expressedby the English words religion, god, temple,priest, pray, sacrifice, omen, witch, fairy,lord, savior, hell, bible, church, bishop.The words expressing concepts of the physical world will include such general termsas world, sky, earth, such features of thelandscape as land, sea, mountain, and suchphysical elements or phenomena as fire,water, rain, burn, boil, freeze.Each of these ideas will be followed back through the chief languages of our familygroup (twenty-five languages are taken asrepresentative, some, like English, dividedinto periods) of the parent stock, and theresult will be a history of these thousandideas — what root ideas they grew from, howthey have changed, what varieties of meaning have attached to the central concept,what varieties of meaning are now attachedto them. The elementary task of assembling upward of 30,000 entries will be ahuge one ; the later task of developing an individual historical picture of each conceptfrom the material so collected is even larger.The project is bound to throw much lighton problems of the spread of peoples andculture, as well as to show us how our ideasgrow and change. Besides a general humansignificance, the various sections will havetheir special interest for students of psychology, anthropology, geography, anatomy,and the history of human institutions likereligion or law.Years of arduous work still separate usfrom the results of such an investigationin the history of ideas as this one. But thework will be done and the conclusionseventually spread before us. All who arecurious will cheer on the scholars who aredoing such tasks for the rest of us, and urgethem to lose no time, for the great historyof the human mind must be written and eachcontribution to it will be most welcome.Language was to the human race whatthe gradual acquisition of speech is now tothe deaf and dumb. It is man's own — hisproudest possession. It contains the recordof his dreams, hopes, fears, hungers, of hisgenius and his creative power. It is eminently worthy of study, and those who studyit will presently write in one of the blankestpages of history.The results of such studies will be asource of great pleasure — another partialanswer to the eternal question, "How didwe get this way"— and to some few willcome the thrill of participation by aidingthe work of the productive scholar.Nationalism in IndiaA Sociological StudyBy Albert James Saunders, Ph.D. '25.BRITISH INDIA today representsone of the most fruitful fields inthe world for the study of socialforces. It is a huge laboratory of livingand changing materials for the investigation of the social psychologist, because thereare going on* all the time the movementsof conflict and fusion of different cultures.The writer has tried to study nationalismfrom the standpoint of the interplay ofsociological forces. He believes that thenationalist movement is a revolt on thepart of the intelligentsia against a status ofinferiority, and is a strong desire for recognition. Nationalism makes three significantdemands: it wants to limit foreign exploitation and to be allowed to develop itsown economic life; it wants to preservewhat it regards as good in its own civilization and to be allowed to develop its owncultural life ; and it wants political freedom,so as to practice self-government and to beallowed to develop its own political andsocial institutions. In brief, Indian nationalism claims the right of self-expression.There are three important sociologicalmovements which have been operating onIndian society with ever increasing powerduring the past one hundred years. They•are as follows:1. Social contacts and impressions. Onecan trace in order such contacts as Britishofficial connections, missionary propaganda,industry and commerce, education, thepress, and the growth of an Indian socialconsciousness.2. Conflict. One can see how the Indianmind has been stirred to resentment andoften violent opposition by the encroachments and penetration of the West throughthe silent and persistent influence of thesesocial contacts. In this connection suchsubjects should be studied as: the disunitiesin India, showing how the different races,languages, religions, and social customs allmilitate against anything like a united India, at least for a long time to come;racial antagonism; political conflicts; various cultural movements; social unrest andhow it is propagated ; and the history of thenationalist movement in India.3. Assimilation. Here one is impressedwith the fact that despite the efforts ofmany Indian nationalists, assimilation hasgone on to such an extent that one can seestriking changes in attitude today all overIndia. These assimilations without doubtare taking place much more rapidly thanappears on the surface to the ordinaryIndian, but thinking and seeing men likeRabindranath Tagore realize it, and cansay with a great deal of truth: "Indianhistory represents a fusion of forces."Changing India is a fact which has tremendous possibilities for the future. Thereshould be mentioned, as forces making forthis assimilation: Western science, democracy and constitutional government, theinfluence of Christianity, swaraj, and theconflict and fusion of cultures.Assimilation is a process of interpenetra-tion and fusion in which persons and groupschange their attitudes and acquire a newset of responses. Formerly, and to a largeextent still, the simple villager explainedevery experience of his narrow life in termsof magic, but now magic is vanishing before the all-conquering march of Westernscience. Another evidence of the processof assimilation is the adoption by India ofdemocratic ideals and the practice of constitutional government. Christianity, too,has played a large part in the process ofassimilation.So complete in recent years has been thisinterpenetration of races and cultures thatthe process of assimilation has gone on andsignificant fusions are taking place all thetime, despite the fact that some nations andIndia in particular are seeking to preservetheir own existence and to stem the tideof foreign influence and propaganda. But202NATIONALISM IN INDIA 203under the circumstances of an internationalworld in which foreign contacts play such alarge part, fusion is bound to go on, inwhich ancient civilizations and old socialstructures will be modified to meet thedemands of a new social order.The inductive method should be freelyused in a study of this nature. Althoughthe source materials are so numerous, yetthey are not easy to analyze and interpret.Social customs, language, caste, and ahundred other barriers make it almost impossible at times and always extremely difficult to find a common ground of understanding between the Eastern brown manand the Western white man. But longresidence in the country and intimate association with numbers of Indians havegiven the author, at least, excellent opportunities of trying to understand Indiannationalism.The argument that the writer wishes toadvance in this study is that nationalism isnot the hideous monster that some peopleimagine, and therefore to be put down atall costs as inimical to the best interests ofIndian society, but is rather a perfectlynatural social reaction to the forces thathave been operating upon the peoples ofIndia during the last century; namely,India's various contacts with Westerncivilization, the conflict which has ensuedwhen India tried to maintain her owncivilization and institutions in the face ofan aggressive foreign competition, the assimilation into her own social structure ofmany things introduced from the Westwhich she has learned from actual experience or observation would be of service toher own national life, and the consequentchange of attitude which this assimilationhas produced. It is these changing socialattitudes which constitute a movement sosignificant and so fraught with all kinds ofpossibilities for the future of India. Thepresent situation in India should not fillone with alarm : it is a social movementthat is full of life, and really represents apeople with a great history awaking to avery real sense of nationality. India isnot a nation; she is in the process of becoming a nation, and the nationalist move ment is the means that is being used toproduce Indian nationality. Nationalism isbreaking down caste and uniting the people as nothing else in India's long historyhas been able to do ; it has become in a veryreal sense the religion of a large sectionof the people; and it is the most significantsocial movement in the whole history ofthe country.The writer wishes to show the importance of group psychology in a nationalistmovement. He believes that the ordinaryindividual is the product of his group; hissentiments and desires are shaped by hisenvironment; and his attitudes are controlled by his group. Nationalism is anorganized effort to change the desires andattitudes of the once static Indian mind,and make it respond to the dynamic ofsocial forces.The writer sees in Indian nationalism apowerful social movement which is breaking down the social barriers, freeing theenslaved peoples from their own exclusivegroups, and welding them into a nation.The mechanisms which are being used inthis social progress are: the creation anddissemination of new ideas, resulting inchanging attitudes; the setting up of newloyalties ; and the organization of groupactivities. All these means are expressingthemselves forcefully in the movement forswaraj, or independent life and self-government. The author thinks that the mostpotent forces in this social movement arethe influence of foreign contacts, the roleof the leader, organized propaganda, andthe building up of a "collective representation." The work of a national leader likeMr. Gandhi, the activity of the vernacularpress, and the focusing of the attention ofthe people on an ideal like swaraj have beenthe mechanism employed to produce thepowerful desire called "Indian nationalism."All this, of course, means what we callprogress, but the writer knows some of thedangers which lurk in the way of socialprogress, and which so often cause societyto adopt policies and engage in groupactivities which are cruel and unjust andunsocial. He thinks that the greatest need204 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof our time is the international socialization of the outlook of the maker of publicopinion and the changer of attitudes in society, while perhaps the greatest problemof our day is how to effect social control.Man has learned many of the mechanismswhich control the forces of nature and isthereby enabled in physical science to dowonderful things. But he is just beginningto discover some of the means which controlthe forces in society. When man has more fully learned these mechanisms and how toutilize them, he will be in a position to control the processes of society. The Indiannationalist leaders have used some of thesemeans for destructive ends. Our task is todiscover and use similar mechanisms forconstructive purposes, so that the happyresult may be social solidarity in which thewhole nation may be brought under thecontrol and direction of the most intelligentand creative minds in the community."We Build"Kiwanis reiterates its slogan and drafts Chicagomen to boss the buildersAT THE recent annual convention off-\ Kiwanis International two Chicago-*- ¦*- men were honored with the officesof president and secretary.Fred. C. W. Parker, a graduate studentof the University, was reappointed secretaryafter serving in that capacity since 1921,and the presidency was given to a Chicagoman for the first time when Horace W.McDavid, J.D. '11, was elected to office.PresidentMcDavid isnot o n 1 y aproduct of ourLaw Schooland the headof the legalfirm of McDavid, Monroe & Mann ofDecatur, Illinois, but heis a man ofmany sidelinesand avocations. Back in his undergraduatedays he was a letter man in three sports.Today he is a director in three industrialcorporations. He is a Mason of many degrees, a former state legislator, past president of the Decatur Community Chest,director in the Y. M. C. A. and a memberof the local Boy Scout Council. He is justas good a song leader today as he was backin 1911 for he has kept in practice by pre-centing in the Westminster PresbyterianPresident McDavid Church of his home city. When his singing voice gives out he leads the YoungMen's Group in its weekly discussion, andwho can quibble if the text is oft times"We Build" — with variations — for whenit comes to building, Horace speaks withauthority. Born in Coffeen, Illinois, onJuly 4, 1883, the entire nation has joinedin celebrating that day on each successiveyear.Colonel Parker did his undergraduatework at Colgate and at Brown, where hewon C's and B's in football and A's inscholarship. He then came to Chicago toround out his education with four yearsof graduate study which prepared him foran outstanding place in service and organization work. During the eight years that Mr.Parker has been secretary of Kiwanis thelocal clubs have increased from 533 to 1,809while the individual builders now numberwell over 100,-000. His interest in Chi-c a g o is evidenced by thefact that twoof his daughters, Muriel,a senior, andElizabeth, afreshman, arenow in residence at theUniversity. Secretary Parkerin mv opinionBy Fred B. MillettAssistant Professor of EnglishAS SOCIAL dancing sinks rapidly to/-% a nadir of vulgarity, professional-^- -^ dancing is experiencing perhaps themost brilliant renascence in the history ofwestern civilization. Under the influenceof primitive elements from the tropics andthe underworld, social dancing has becomeawkward, unlovely, and graceless. Itsstamping about to the most elementary ofrhythms, its stupidly repetitious joltingup and down, its personal indignities thatremind one unpleasantly of a New Yorksubway jam, make it aesthetically negligible, whatever may be its sociological significance. If this were all that the moderndance had to offer, the decadence of thedance as an art might well be regarded ascomplete.But it needs no more than a littlethought, a little recollection, to realize thatthe current ecstacies over such dancers asLa Argentina and Harald Kreutzberg aremore than hysterical in origin. On everylevel, professional dancing is manifestingastonishing vitality and beauty. Even suchconscientiously standardized forms as themusical comedy and the revue have madeuse of such superb eccentric dancers as JackDonahue and Buster West, and no historianof contemporary culture can afford to overlook the exquisite satirical comment ofFanny Brice's Spring dance or the ultimatesquawk of her parody of Pavlowa's dyingSwan. Nor need such an historian gofurther for demonstration of our blind loveof mechanization than to listen to thebursts of applause that greet the machinelike perfections of the Wooden Soldiers orof those Tiller girls who find it extraordinarily difficult to remember their individualnames and telephone numbers. He might also be able to find some subtle culturalmeaning in the intelligentsia's habit of indulging in what they call folk-dancing.Their gyrations have all the spontaneityand artlessness of Alexander Pope'sPastorals.Almost twenty years ago, a lean andwillowy Ruth St. Denis knelt on the stageof the Hollis St. Theatre and wove withher incredibly flexible arms serpentine patterns which must have dismayed the assembled Bostonian dowagers even as theybeguiled an undergraduate yearning vaguelyfor something better than the two-step.He did not realize that beyond this slightfigure loomed the epical form of IsadoraDuncan, or that within a decade the rigidperfections of the classical ballet were to betransformed into gaudy Asiatic dance-dramas in the settings of Leon Bakst. Ofthis mighty transmutation Anna Pavlowawill always seem the most appropriatesymbol. Perhaps the finest exponent of theclassical dancing technique that this generation will see, she never quite escaped fromits restrictions and limitations. The essentials of the Franco-Russian tradition areits wilful economy of means, its studiousminimization of the individual element,and its hostility to uncontrolled personalemotion. Its beauty resides in its precarious triumph over physical handicaps,a triumph so hardly won that there is nothing in the realm of dancing more disagreeable than the conscientious but painfulsmile on the countenance of a bantamweight toe-dancer.Like the opera, the ballet or dance-dramawill ever be a hybrid, and, therefore, a notquite satisfying art-form. Indeed, the balletis an even more complex form than the2052o6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEopera, and in consequence has the greaterdifficulty in maintaining its integrity. It isan amalgam of music, the dance, and drama(that is to say, plot, character, lighting andsetting) an amalgam of which the effect isonly rarely unalloyed beauty. At its heightthe Diaghileff Ballet was one of the gloriesof contemporary art; its current phase isfreakish, esoteric, and limited in significance.Audiences at dance recitals will probablycontinue to applaud most loudly the dancesthat involve the most strenuous acrobaticsor tell the prettiest and most conventionalstory. Even Kreutzberg and%Georgi findit profitable to repeat the old one about thestupid peasant girl .and her burly lover.But it cannot be denied that the moderndance is rapidly abandoning plot in its questfor the abstract. Like contemporary painting and sculpture, the dance is shaking offthe servile state of being an applied art.It is training its audience to enjoy andappreciate it as an end in itself.. The professional dancers most in vogueat the moment in America illustrate in diverse ways this tendency toward abstraction. Some of the finest of Ruth St. Denis'current dances are satisfying renditions ofthe beauty of immobility, of absolutely minimized action. Her incredibly adroit manipulations of a Spanish shawl conveyabstract qualities as complex as those theOriental finds in the arrangement of flowersin a vase. Here emotion is at its purest;beauty becomes Euclidean, almost attains thePlatonic. It is difficult to believe, as someaver, that La Argentina's ballets are moreimpressive than her solo-dances. In thelatter, especially in those in which she dispenses with all music save that of her subtlecastanets, she brings basically folk elementsto a climax of impermanent beauty withoutdross. In her, the spirit of Spain takes on a form as enchanting and incomparable asin the tragic eyes and undulating motionof Raquel Meller. But the farthest reachtoward abstraction is the modernistic dancing of Harold Kreutzberg. Despite hisoccasional descents into the conventional,his greatest power is in the transmission ofthe harsh dark moods of the modern spirit.Angular and horrifying, disillusioned andbitter are the unheard tones that arise fromhis most individual creations.But what, as the lady asked after a performance of R. U. R., is one supposed totake away from all this ? The most obviousmeaning is that the modern dance has refreshed the memory of the western worldas to the beauty and resourcefulness of thehuman body. This is not the least, thoughit is not the most important of its services.The renascence of the dance, like any othercreative movement in the arts, is a renewalof the eternal qualities of great art : design,rhythm, control, and the beauty of ideawedded to form.But as primitive drama is at once a religion and a dance, so in the renascence ofthe dance, one may perhaps see one strandof the spiritual history of our era. For itwill be remembered that no less a personagethan Havelock Ellis has argued that lifeat its best may take on the qualities ofdancing at its best. The dance, if properlyunderstood, may furnish us with a modelfor living. Life may, if we will, assumesome of the essential elements of the dance :purposive control, rhythm and pattern, andunsullied grace. Into the pattern of life,one may weave dark strands and light,gray and crimson and black. The materialsare obstinate, the process is unending, thesignificance of the pattern may escape eventhe weaver, but something of balance, proportion, and symmetry is not beyond thereach of the least gifted of mortals.®fje ®mbersttp of Chicago jfflaga?tneEditor and Business Manager, Charlton T. Beck '04EDITORIAL BOARD: Commerce and Administration Association — Rollin D. He-mens, '21 ; Divinity Association— C. T. Holman, D.B., '16; Doctors' Association— D. J.Fisher, '17, Ph.D., '22; Law Association— Charles F. McElroy, A.M., '06, J. D., '15;School of Education Association — Lillian Stevenson, '21 ; Rush Medical Association —Morris Fishbein, 'ii, M.D., '12; College — Roland F. Holloway, '20; Allen Heald,'26; Wm. V. Morgenstern '20, J.D., '22; Faculty — Fred B. Millett, Department ofEnglish.John P. Mentzer, '98, Chairmane refers & qomms^tTHE other day a questionnairing investigator asked the Alumni Officeto inform him as to the present geographical distribution of all Chicago alumniand former students. The task was toogreat. While the geographical distributionof Chicago degree holders might have beenascertained from the records of the office, wewere in position to report upon the presentaddresses of only ten per cent of the approximately one hundred twenty thousandstudents who have matriculated at Chicago,but who have never been given a degree bythe University.However, to his second request we wereable to give an answer and thus partiallyredeem ourselves in the eyes of the inquirer.The question reads as follows, "Can yougive the geographical distribution of themembers of your Alumni Association?"Nothing could be simpler. Each activemember of any one of the eight ChicagoAlumni Associations is a subscriber to theMagazine and we do know the states andcountries into which the Magazine goes.Does it surprise you to know that nearly40% of our subscribers are located in Chicago or its suburbs, or that we have moreactive members in California than in anyother state save Illinois and Wisconsin, orthat there are as many subscribers in Washington, D. C, as there are in the combinedstates of Wyoming, Rhode Island, Missis sippi, South Carolina, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Nevada and Delaware?It may interest you to know that theMagazine goes each month into every stateand territorial possession of the U. S. A.and that nearly 150 copies go into foreignlands. Be that as it may, the statistics areyours to read or pass by.Herewith, then, is the geographical rollcall of Magazine subscribers:Chicago, 3,346; Chicago suburbs, 591;Illinois (outside Metropolitan district)627 ; Wisconsin, 608 ; California, 562 ;Iowa, 397; New York, 370; Indiana, 354;Ohio, 329; Minnesota, 267; Michigan,266; Missouri, 195; Kansas, 163; Pennsylvania, 140; Nebraska, 138; Texas, 136;Washington, 115; Colorado, no; Massachusetts, 94; South Dakota, 91 ; Oklahoma,86; Oregon, So; District of Columbia, 78;Utah, 70; New Jersey, 57; North Dakota,54; Florida, 52; Tennessee, 51; Georgia,42; Maryland, 42; North Carolina, 41;Virginia, 41; Montana, 40; Louisiana, 40;Alabama, 40; Idaho, 39; Arizona, 36; Kentucky, 35; Arkansas, 31; Connecticut, 29;Hawaii, 25 ; West Virginia, 24 ; New Mexico, 21; Philippine Islands, 17; Wyoming,15; Rhode Island, 13; Mississippi, 13;South Carolina, 9 ; Maine, 8 ; New Hampshire, 8 ; Vermont, 7 ; Nevada, 3 ; Alaska,3 ; Delaware, 2 ; Porto Rico, 2 ; Guam, 1 ;Canada, 40; Foreign, 106.207ALUMNISan DiegoWE HAD a fine time with Mr. Stagg..He came in Monday evening, andstayed until Thursday morning.There were sixty-three former Chica-goans and their friends present at the dinnerWednesday evening. Three of them hadplayed untter the coach. Everybody enjoyed the meeting, and particularly appreciated Mr. Stagg's talk. It is the unanimous verdict that you may send him backto us any time you wish.-At our meeting Wednesday night a suggestion was made that the Chicago alumnihere consider the idea of helping someworthy student through the University ofChicago. We would be glad to know whatyou at Chicago consider the best plan tofollow. Fred E. LindleySan FranciscoMR. STAGG'S visit was much appreciated and we made the most ofit. Forty-four at the luncheon just filledthe California Room at the CommercialClub. Everyone was keen to hear fromStagg, so there was no tiresome program.He gave a splendid talk, beginning withhis coming to the new institution, the development of athletics there, the wonderfulChapel and other new buildings on theCampus, scholastic progress, the new President. Then the meeting was opened toquestions from anyone, and the men eagerlygrasped the opportunity to fire questions athim. The football schedule for next year?Comparative quality of football in varioussections? Advisability of discontinuingextra point for conversion after touchdown? Other questions were asked aboutschool affairs, but the men keenly enjoyedthe opportunity of asking their pet footballquestions from "the greatest expert in thecountry."Two or three had to leave at 1 130 forappointments, but it was notable how every- A F F A I R Sone hung on every word until the very end.And there was certainly a big "Chi-ca-go"for Stagg! We said-most heartily we hopedhe would come out to the Coast for amonth's vacation every year after the football season, and continue the good work atChicago the other eleven months.An interesting sidelight to the luncheonwas the presence of Frank Slaker and JohnWebb, who were members of Stagg'swonder team of '99. They arose to take abow, and still looked physically fit.Altogether the meeting was exceedinglysatisfactory. A nice turnout, and thoroughenjoyment of the occasion.Kenneth A. MatherLos AngelesTHE University of Chicago AlumniClub of Southern California metFriday evening, January 10, for dinner atthe University Club in Los Angeles. Reservations were made for one hundred, andone hundred forty-eight overflowed thedining room!Mr. Harold Huls, the president, introduced Herbert Ahlswede, who told us ofthe inauguration ceremonies of PresidentHutchins. Then Dr. Soares told us of someof the changes in and new plans for the Colleges, making us see very vividly the beautyof the new buildings on the Campus.The Old Man, Amos Alonzo Stagg,arose midst applause and we all sang manyof the old songs, led by Mr. Steigmeyer, thecomposer or author of some of the oldest.As always the Old Man made us see andlive over with him in reminiscence old incidents of years ago.A committee with Dr. F. A. Speik aschairman was appointed to investigate thesituation of obtaining scholarships for fineWestern boys, or of starting a student loanfund out here. The meeting closed withthe singing of the Alma Mater.Edith Lawton Speik{Mrs. Frederick A. Speik)208NEWS OF THEQUADRANGLESBy John P. Howe, '27The DepartmenIF CURING sick souls is to remain thebusiness of religion then the religiouspractitioner of the future must knowsomething about sick minds and sick bodies,says Dean Shailer Mathews. Accordingly,the Divinity School — collaborating with theSchool of Social Service Administration —is bringing eminent psychiatrists to special-lecture its students. "Men who work withhuman material, as do ministers and priests,should be intelligent as well as pious," remarks the epigrammatic Dean. "Theymust have at least an elementary knowledgeof how to distinguish between pathologicaland moral disintegration, and of how oneaffects the other. Religious workers cando and have done a great deal of harm byusing wrong psychological methods. Itseems wrong to me, for instance, to frightenpeople stiff with threats of hell when their'sinfulness' may be only a matter of badtonsils. How may we cure despair, and thesense of sin, unless we know the workingsof the mental states involved?"The road to hell, it seems, may be pavedwith bad tonsils.The Dean's project becomes one of thefirst workings-out of President Hutchins'policy of interdepartmental co-operation.Students in both the Divinity School andthe Social Service School sit in on ProfessorHarrison Dobbs' course in "Case Work."The lecturers — of whom one is to be GeorgeVincent, lately succeeded by Max Mason inthe presidency of the Rockefeller Foundation — are secured jointly by both schools.The future, not improbably, will see stillmore departments contributing their specialknowledge to this problem of the intimatetherapy of the soul, or call it what you will.The Chicago Divinity School, ever a pioneer, has taken many a bludgeoning from t of Publicitythe forces of inertia, so its armor shinesrather brightly.w » wIf by any chance you are not "the manin the street" you are warned by ProfessorSamuel H. Nerlove of the C & A School notto operate in the present security market onthe short swing principle. "The outsideris doomed to failure if he tries to catch theshort swing movements in the presentmarket," says Dr. Nerlove/ "The marketsmake it very easy for anyone to try the shortswing rather than the long pull, but thetechnical movements of securities, arisingout of the activities of pool managers, makeit almost impossible to predict short-runprices with any degree of accuracy." Thatwas expert advice given inexpensively aspart of the regular downtown public lectureprogram of the University College. Subjects of this winter's lectures range from"The Sites of Ancient Civilizations" to"Characters in Spanish Fiction."wwwTuition in all departments of the Graduate Schools of Arts, Literature and ofScience, and of the Law School and theMedical School, will be raised, beginningwith the Summer Quarter. Tuition in theGraduate Schools will be raised from $70¦ — the present fee — to $100. The increasein the Law School and the Medical School,including Rush Medical College, will be$25, bringing jthe rate to $125. Tuition forundergraduates remains at the present levelof $100 per quarter. The purpose of theseincreases is to provide for the improvementof instruction and of research facilities inthe schools affected.wwwMadame Elly Ney, pianiste of international good repute, was struck by thebeauty of the Chapel when she participated2092IO THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEin an exercise there last spring commemorating womankind's coming of age. Volunteering, she gave a recital January 19th. Ofthose in the crowded Chapel the simplerwere touched, simply. The experts cameaway haggling over which was best, theBeethoven, the Bach or the Mozart. Onthe following Wednesday the undergraduate council played impresario to the Kedroffquartet, a group of international Russiansingers, and succeeded in combining thebest features of culture and finance. Thecouncillors^ cleared enough to underwritepossible deficits on the Washington Promand their other humanitarian projects.Anti-prohibitionists will find small comfort — as they so often do — in an analysisof the Hoover-Smith vote now completedby Professor William F. Ogburn, to whomone refers boldly as the country's leadingsociologist. The prohibition issue, he finds,so dominated the election that it completelyoverturned party lines. Drink was threetimes »as important as the religious issue,which was in turn more important thanthe combined factors of party-regularity,urban-versus-rural, and old-stock-versus-foreign. In arriving at these weightingsDr. Ogburn figured the votes from 173counties in 8 states in the 1928 election asagainst previous decisions on each of theEve issues in each of the counties. He usedco-efficients of correlation, partial correlation, the method of least squares and otherconvincing statistical devices. It was thefirst scientific analysis of a president vote.Professor Ogburn, with Dr. Charles E.Merriam of the Political Science Department, has been chosen by President Hooverto serve on a five-man committee directinga social survey of the United States. He isPresident of the American Sociological Society to boot.wwwAfter thirty-seven years as a student andadministrative officer of the UniversityWalter A. Payne, Recorder and Examiner,will retire at the end of the academic yearin June. He will be succeeded by RoyWhite Bixler, now Assistant Examiner. On but four occasions during these historicyears has Mr. Payne been away from theUniversity for as long as a month. A hugeamount of administrative work has been conducted quietly and effectively by him, forin addition to the multiform duties of hisoffice, dealing with admissions and credits,he has been secretary of nearly two-scoreruling bodies and committees, many ofwhich meet weekly. On his first real vacation Mr. Payne will go abroad for anextended trip.wwwUniversity-of-Chicago-trained historiansthis year carried off the three prizes awardedannually by the American Historical Society — the first time that graduates of oneuniversity have captured all the awards.The three winners received their Ph.D. degrees in history in 1928. H. J. Pearce wasgiven the Justin Winsor Prize in AmericanHistory for his study, The Life and Influence of General B. H. Hill, which waspublished by the University Press; theHerbert Baxter Adams Prize in EuropeanHistory went to Henry F. Commager, forhis book, The Reforms of Count Struenseein Denm\afk; and the George L. BeerPrize in Modern History was taken by M.B. Giffen,, for his study, The FashodaEpisode.wwwProfessor Arthur Dempster's proton-patterns, described in last month's Magazine as the clinching link in a series of 20thcentury experiments proving that all matterhas vibration as well as mass, have won himthe $1,000 prize of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Heread a paper at the Des Moines Meetingafter Christmas which people there describedas the stuff that Nobel Prizes are made of.Of the thirteen sections of the Associationfour chose Chicago men as their heads forthe coming year, as follows: Gilbert A.Bliss, Mathematics; Edson S. Bastin, Geology and Geography; E. J. Kraus,Botanical Sciences ; Leonard V. Koos, Education. Professor Arthur H. Compton waspicked to become the Committee on Grants.NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES 211Departures during the month: Dr.Robert S. Piatt, Department of Geography,for a survey of South America from thepampas to the Andes. Dr. Robert Red-field, Department of Anthropology, for anethnologic survey of Mexico in the Yucatanregion; Professor David H. Stevens, Associate Dean of the Faculties, to New Yorkfor a six-month study of the needs and problems of American colleges for the GeneralEducation Board ; Dr. A. A. Michelson toBermuda for convalescence preceding thissummer's light-project.And Charles G. Blooah, anthropologystudent, once heir-apparent to the chieftainship of 25,000 Liberians, back to his ownpeople after 20 years, though not as chief.Blooah, '28, who estimates his age to be 35,was the eldest son of the Chief of theGrebos. He ran away with missionariesat 14, came to America, earned himself aneducation. He was discovered by Professor Sapir (while he was setting up pinsin the Reynolds Club Bowling Alleys) tobe the only person in the country who couldspeak the difficult but typically AfricanGrebo tongue. So he was set to the now-finished task of writing the first Grebodictionary and grammar, and to making thefirst compilation of Grebo folk-lore andethnology.With Dr. George Herzog, research associate in the department, Blooah now sailsback to Liberia, where according to triballaw, ten cows and four bulls, but no throne,await him in the common treasury. Hewill make an ethnological analysis of hiskinfolk, under the auspices of the University's Local Community Research Committee, starting first on the intricate drum-language, then on music, then on generalethnology. He will return in 1931.Arrivals and Returns: Professor T. R.Hogness, of the University of California,authority on light-chemistry, for the Chemistry faculty. Walter Grey Preston, Jr.,Yale '25, to be assistant to the President;Gold Refined Wilson, anthropology student, from an expedition to study black magic andvoodooism in Haiti; Dena Shapiro, alsoanthropology, from Palestine, where shemade an ethnological study of the Zionistmovement, and incidentally became Mrs.Joseph. Richard Martin, again anthropology, from the Hittite country and Assyria, under the flag of the Oriental Institute.Imminent arrivals, awaited with considerable interest : Thornton Wilder, authorof a Pulitzer Prize novel, The Bridge ofSan Luis Rey, for a spring-quarter professorial lectureship and to teach courses incomposition and contemporary literature.Mr. Wilder is one of the famous Yalegeneration which included Stephen VincentBenet, R. M. Hutchins, etc.» » wStatistics given by President Hutchins atthe dedication of the Jones Chemistry Laboratory on December 16th: "Of the 260men and women who received the on recommendation of the Department of Chemistry, 24 are heads of departments in colleges and universities; 57 holduniversity professorships ; 58 occupy collegechairs ; 22 are active in research institutions ;and 85 are engaged in industrial research."wwwThe growth of yeast under laboratoryconditions may seem to have no relation tothe future population of the United States,but Professor Henry Schultz recently usedthat control as one illustration to prove thatpredictions of population increases are subject to greater errors than is commonly supposed by mathematicians and statisticians.The method of projecting curves into thefuture, which forecasts the population of theUnited States for the year 2100 at 196millions, is in error by ten and a half millions, instead of the accepted error of onlyhalf a million, Professor Schultz said. Acurve may fit the data for the past hundredyears with a high degree of accuracy, andyet fail to predict the situation a year in advance, according to his demonstrations."Yours to Date"The Mirror Revue for 1930OVER a hundred University womenare at present working on "Yoursto Date," the revue to be stagedin Mandel Hall on the nights of February28 and March I by Mirror, that branch ofthe Dramatic Association which is exclusively for women.Thts is the fifth annual revue given by theMirror, and promises to be, like the earliershows, both smart and ._ beautiful. With the fourprevious productionsMirror has achieved aunique place in collegeproductions, for it represents the college womenof today at their best andtimeliest, and never imitates the professionalstage."Yours to Date" is asophisticated revue consisting of burlesques, satirical sketches, suave reflections of universitylife, skillfully performeddances, and good musicalnumbers. It is the composited work of seventeenauthors. The ten whowrote the skits areBertha James Rich, andDaniel C. Rich, poetsand former editors of theForge, Catherine Scott,one of the leaders of theWashington Prom, Sterling North, writer,Russell Huber and Alice Ransom, campusactors, Rosalie Martin, a star of formerMirror shows, and Rosalie Sabath, Marguerite Bro, and Philip M. Crane. Theseven music composers are Jeanne DeLar-marter, daughter of Eric DeLarmarter,Eleanor Scully, Betty Bateson, EdwinLevin, editor of the Daily Maroon, RobertMarcellaProduction Ardrey, Orvis Henkle and Russell Huber.The entire revue is under the directionof Professor Frank Hurburt O'Hara, Director of Dramatic Productions. Mr.O'Hara was instrumental in organizingMirror and has produced all its revues.Miss Elizabeth Marsh succeeds Mrs. Marianne Durbrow Venable, who was unableto return from her new home in Virginia, as dancing director.Miss March is an internationally knowndancer and teacher andhas studied with dancemasters of both Europeand America, includingNovikoff, director of theChicago Civic Operaballet, Otero, the Spanish dancer, and AdolphBolm and Miss MarieVeatch of Chicago.A new feature of thisyear's revue is the collaboration with the drain a t i c work of theCostume Workshop, endowed and supervised byMrs. Minna Schmidt,noted authority on costuming and chairman ofthat division of the coming World's Fair. Cos-t u m e s for "Yours toDate" are being createdManager ^ Mrs_ Schmidt>, newclass at the University, and are sure to bea revelation in what can be done to "dress"a college production.The Executive Board of Mirror thisyear consists of Marcella Koerber, production manager, Eleanor Grossman, businessmanager, and Catherine Scott, DorothyCahill, and Marguerite Fernholz, membersat large.212By William V. Morgenstern, '20, J.D. '22TRACK apparently will be the oneindoor sport in which Chicago teamswill achieve any distinction thisseason. There is, of course, the usual three-to-one probability that the gymnastic teamwill win the conference championship, butsomehow or other this victory does not provide as much enthusiasm as does a winningbasketball team. Mention of basketballexposes a very melancholy situation. If theMaroon team wins two victories this seasonthe feat will be a notable one under theconditions. Coach Norgren, with a hand-full of men, finally had juggled them into 'the most effective combination, utilizingevery bit of height, defensive skill, andshooting ability. But in the first game ofthe conference campaign, that with Indiana,Sidney Yates, as flashy a forward as Chicagohas had since Birkhoff, broke a bone in hiswrist. He will be out a total of five weeksat best, according to the experts over in theClinics. Yates against Indiana had thephenomenal average of 5 baskets in 16 shots,and in pre-championship games was scoringtwice as much as his nearest teammate.His loss meant cutting ten points off theChicago scoring, and the team had no suchmargin to spare. As finally arranged forthe season, the team would have used Yatesand Marshall Fish at forward; HaroldBoesel at center, and Paul Ashley and JoeTemple at guards. Fish is a fine defensiveman, and the next best scorer to Yates.By placing him at forward and thus increasing the defensive power of the team,it was possible to use Boesel, a 6 foot, 4inch junior, at center. Boesel is sadly lacking in experience, but he is coming along,and his height is essential for rebounds aridfollow-up work. Ashley is a good floor man,and Temple is a workmanlike guard. Capt. Harry Changnon, who has the fault of wildpassing, and who sometimes hits the ringand sometimes does not, is now at forwardin place of Yates. But were the latteraround, Changnon would be cast as analternate center or forward.The record of games so far :Chicago, 35; Lake Forest, 16Chicago, 15; Oberlin, 18Chicago, 25; Carleton, 20Chicago, 21; Butler, 28Chicago, 36; Ohio Wesleyan, 24Chicago, 24; Indiana, 36Chicago, 23; Wisconsin, 2>ZIt is altogether likely that Yates wouldhave meant the difference between victoryand defeat in the Wisconsin game.The track team so far has engaged in noformal competition, but Coach Ned Merriam is working with a well balanced groupthat will make any member of the conference step fast. Harold Haydon, the crackhurdler, evidently has recovered entirelyfrom the injury that ruined his outdoorseason after he had set a new Big Ten indoor record. He should be one of the firstrank hurdlers of the country this year.Capt. Norman Root, who has been in themoney in the conference and NationalCollegiate meets in the last two years, andAllan East, a junior, are real sprinters.The ineligibility of Black, a sophomore,has removed a hurdler who would have beenvaluable in dual meets at least. Ed Schulz,best of the quarter milers, appears finallyto have developed the staying power thathe has lacked in past years, and is distinctlyof championship class. Hathaway, whocould defeat Schulz at times last year, isanother 440 man better than the average.Dale Letts, a junior middle distance man,is outstanding among the conference 880213214 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEand mile runners. If he once starts believ- with a prospect of winning or placing in himself, he can run the legs off any Haydon, Root, East, Schulz, Letts, andone in the country, including Martin of Weaver are certainly in this class. It hasPurdue. Brainard will get points in the been a rather long time since there was suchdual meet miles, but he is hardly a star; a nucleus, and the freshmen promise toKelly and Harlacher are at present a pair supply enough recruits next season to keepof 9 :58 two milers, but Kelly will improve a the team up.lot before he is through. Cassle at best will Without Oker and Szold, the swimmingmake 6 feet in the high jump, sufficient for team can not win consistently, but by ma-a big meet place in some years. Weaver's nipulating his entries, Coach McGillivrayhands are still sprained, but ultimately he expects to win some dual meets. Danis going to get the shot out around 50 feet. Hoffer of the gymnasts has the national all-Two others,tReiwitch and Trude, are now around champion, Jack Menzies, and adoing better than 42 feet. Hal Cowley is sophomore, Everett Olsen, as the basis ofclearing 11 feet, 6 inches in the pole-vault, another winning team. Both men, inci-and may do better. At any rate he will dentally, were developed entirely by Hoffer.pick up valuable points in dual competition. The wrestling team has some good men inThe best aspect of the track outlook is the light divisions, and a fine heavyweightthe fact that at least a half a dozen men in Max Sonderby, the football tackle, butare good enough to go into any college meet is weak in the middle classes.The Summer QuarterBy Paul B. Ingersoll, A.M. J28Myriads of fluttering moths,Dross caught by the magnet,Milling cattle parched with thirstHurried on by an urge,Compelling, yet unexplained ....Students .... thousandsSeeking learning ....Steady procession as brutes to the slaughter.Girls, gray-haired dames,Serious teachers,Men with families;Black, white, yellow;Children of plutocrats killing time in an idle summer,Genteel penury living on tomorrow's stipend ....Utter strangers babble together as children,Or eye each other with jealous suspicion,Scrambling for honors that tomorrow will be astarnished foil.Dust from old volumesSwirls in the swelter.Throbbing heads crammed with theory,Legal lore, logarithms, history of the Phoenicians,Biology, ethics, ancient Norse epic ....Lectures interminable,Notebooks bulged, heads bewildered ....PROFESSOR STARR CONDUCTS TOUR TO JAPAN 215Science in a garret disproves today's truth, thatmillions may learn anew tomorrow.Racing motors on the boulevard,Riveters hammering together new classroomsTo house more students ....Stop ! Go ! Rat-a-tat-tat ! •What was it the Professor said ?.... I couldn't hear.Ancient ivy camouflaging new stone,A little knowledge covering inanity,Gargoyles leering at the bewildered swarm,Laughing at the mad scramble ....Gasoline, dirt, tepid water,A glimpse of green sward through an open windowTiny blue flowers bloom by a fountain.Learned professors sit in solemn conclave,Raising the standards,Hoping to stem the mad surgeOf strange faces.Revered by their classes,Cursed for low ratings ....Papers rejected that cramped fingers have writtenIn the small hours, while the dawn crept ....Professor FrederickStarr Conducts Tourto JapanDuring the coming spring Professor Starrwill act as director for a By-Way cruisethrough Japan. The party will sail fromSeattle on the 5., S. President Lincoln ofthe American Mail Line March 22, 1930.Full information regarding this intriguingOriental adventure may be obtained fromthe Travel Service Representative, University of Chicago. While no guarantee hasbeen given by the management we take itfor granted that Professor Starr will wearnothing but the Japanese costume in whichhe is portrayed herewith, apparently duringhis morning devotions.NEWS OF THE CLASSESAND ASSOCIATIONSCollege'74 — George Sutherland is PresidentEmeritus of Grand Island College and resides at 1804 Grand Island Avenue, GrandIsland, Nebraska.'75—We have an interesting letter fromDr. John Ridlon of Newport, RhodeIsland, who celebrated his 77th birthdayin November. After obtaining his degreeat Chicago Mr. Ridlon completed themedical course at Columbia. He has sincereceived the honorary A.M. and Sc.D. degrees from Tufts College, which he informsus is the same institution that expelled himas an undergraduate in 1874.'76 — Albert Judson Fisher, for fifteenyears a member of the Chicago City Council, writes us that he is still unofficially""watching the City Hall," and adds, "Somebody has to!"'94 — Samuel D. Barnes is practicingmedicine at 607 South Hill Street, LosAngeles, and lives at 7416 RosewoodAvenue. Dr. Barnes is president of theAssociated Patriotic Agencies and pastpresident of the Los Angeles Chapter, Sonsof the American Revolution.'96 — Joseph E. Raycroft, M.D. '99, isProfessor of Hygiene at Princeton University. He is also president of the NewJersey State Hospital for the Insane, thus,to quote his own words, "performing thefamous feat of playing both ends againstthe middle."'96 — Henry T. Clarke Jr., is a practicing attorney in Omaha.'96— Charles S. Pike is an investmentbanker in Detroit. He finds time to writemany a clever skit for The Players, an organization of local Thespians with its ownPlayhouse.'96 — Raymond C. Dudley is in the railway supply business in Chicago and chairman of the board of the Charta IndustrialCorporation. '97 — Wallace Walter Atwood, presidentof Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts, found the inaugural ceremonies inNovember a sufficient excuse for a returnto the campus.'98 — George H. Sawyer is Superintendent of Schools at Osage, Iowa. He is promoting a gathering of Iowa alumni withAmos Alonzo Stagg as guest of honor.'99 — Jonathan E. Webb, A.M. '00, is apublic accountant in Berkeley, California,and spends his vacations in mountain climbing.'00 — LeRoy T. Vernon, Washingtoncorrespondent for the Chicago Daily News,is, according to Time, one of the threenewspaper men to have been a guest ofPresident Hoover in his country retreat.'01 — George G. Davis, chief surgeon forthe Illinois Steel Company of Chicago, isan ardent fisherman, and is famed for hisaccomplishments in many a casting tournament.ex '02 — Frank L. S laker is with theCalifornia Board of Fire Underwriters,with headquarters in San Francisco.ex '02 — Bert J. Cassels lives in Chicagowhere he is president of B. J. Cassels &Company, merchandise jobbers. He has ason in the University.ex '02 — Edward P. Rich is a member ofthe firm of Neiler, Rich & Company, consulting engineers for the University.ex '02 — -James R. Henry is general manager of the Chicago branch of the NationalBiscuit Company.'02— Alvin B. Snyder, M.D. '06, ispracticing medicine in Blue Island, Illinois.'02 — Alfred W. Place is sales managerfor the Universal Machine Company,Bowling Green, Ohio.ex '02 — Daniel P. Trude, a member ofthe Alumni Council and for years a judgeof the Municipal Court, was elected Judge216NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONS 217of the Circuit Court at the Novemberelections. Congratulations are extended tothe people of Cook County.ex '03 — James G. McNab is located inChicago where he is an executive with theKellogg Switchboard & Supply Company.ex '03 — Frank O. Horton owns andoperates the H F Bar Ranch, Buffalo,Wyoming, famous as a place of rest and recreation for debutantes and dudes.ex '03 — Herbert F. Ahlswede owns a bigdepartment store in Long Beach, California, and has served on the local Board ofEducation.'03 — James M. Sheldon, J.D. '05, is amember of the Chicago brokerage house ofFarnum Winter Company. He has a sonin the University at the present time.'03 — Frank McNair is vice-president ofthe Harris Trust and Savings Bank, Chicago.'03 — Thomas J. Hair is vice-presidentand treasurer of Elam Mills Inc., 304South Robey Street, Chicago.ex '03 — Victor Leroy Duke is Presidentof the University of Redlands, Redlands,California.'04 — Sarah L. Patterson, A.M. '27, isassistant in the order department of theUniversity of California at Los Angeles.'04 — Oliver B. Wyman practices law inSan Francisco, with offices in the UnitedBank and Trust Building.'05 — Evaline Dowling is head of theEnglish department, Jefferson High School,Los Angeles.'06 — Frank Von Tesmer is an investment banker with offices in the First National Bank Building, San Diego. Hishome is at 1037 Star Park, Coronado.'06 — Bertha Elizabeth Pierce is with theDepartment of State, Washington, D. C,where she is engaged in bibliographical andresearch work in the field of official documents published by foreign governments.'06 — Elizabeth Munger is located atNiantic, Connecticut, where she is superintendent of a state institution for women whotransgress the law.'07 — Florence R. Scott is Assistant Professor, Department of English Languageand Literature, at the University of South ern California, Los Angeles, where she isfaculty sponsor of the Cosmopolitan Cluband secretary of the Faculty Committee onStudent Organizations.'08 — Mary Bostwick Day is librarianof the Museum of Science and Industry(Rosenwald), Chicago.ex '08 — Frederic L. Lothrop, 1452 East66th Place, Chicago, has been promoted tothe rank of major in the QuartermastersReserve.'09 — Daniel W. Ferguson has offices inthe Van Nuys Building, Los Angeles, wherehe is sales manager for Toole, Tietzen &Company, Investment Bankers.'10 — Mattie Louise Hatcher, A.M. '20,is on the faculty of the State NormalSchool, Paterson, New Jersey, as a Specialist in Reading. During the summer shetaught at the University of Maine.'12 — Frances A. Shambaugh is executive secretary of the Travelers Aid Society,Long Beach, California.'13 — Louise Cherry Robb is principal ofthe high school at Glendale, Ohio.'13 — Anna E. Moffett, secretary of theAmerican Presbyterian Mission in Nanking, China, is again in Shanghai, a refugeefrom Nanking.'14 — Jeannette Thielens Phillips is located at 9215 South Damen Avenue, Chicago. She imports etchings, engravings,woodcuts, lithographs and the charming oldprints of the 17th and 18th centuries fromthe art centers of Europe, and lectures before many a woman's club and art societyin Chicago and the middle west, giving aninterpretation of the graphic arts.'14 — William B. Bosworth has beenelected assistant secretary of the ChicagoBoard of Trade.'14 — Mary Olive Gray, A.M. '20, isdoing editorial work in connection withtext books for Hall & McCreary PublishingCompany, Chicago.'14 — Melva Latham retired from theUniversity of California at Los Angeles inJune, 1929, and is now living at SanGabriel, California.'15 — Florence N. Heacock is teaching inthe Los Angeles city schools, after a leaveof absence spent abroad.2l8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE'15 — I. J. Gaines, A.M., head of theLatin department in the Senior High Schoolof Savannah, has been elected president ofthe Classical Association of Georgia.'16 — George K. Shaffer, 1958 GlencoeWay, Hollywood, California, is PacificCoast correspondent for the ChicagoTribune. Mrs. Shaffer (Rosalind Keating) '17, is doing newspaper syndicate andmagazine writing.'17 — Walter Gingery, A.M., of theGeorge Washington High School, Indianapolis, was recently elected president of theCentral Association of Science and Mathematics Teachers.*I9 — John S. Cranor, former superintendent of the Wheaton Public Schools,has resigned to accept the superintendencyof the Illinois State Reformatory at Pontiac.'19 — During the past summer KennethMacpherson resigned as assistant to theSecretary of Commerce to become secretaryto the Postmaster General of the UnitedStates.'19— Frank P. McWhorter, S.M., isnow stationed at Oregon State AgriculturalCollege, Corvallis, Oregon, where he is engaged in investigation on diseases of ornamental plants.'20 — Lillian Cherniss, A.M. '28, isspending the winter with a sister in Council Bluffs. She is recuperating from anillness that followed an automobile accidentof last summer.'20 — John Q. Thomas, for the past nineyears superintendent of the city schools atFlagstaff, Arizona, is the newly electedpresident of the Arizona Education Association.*2I — Elizabeth L. Mann, who has beendoing graduate work at Chicago for thepast year has become Assistant Professorof English at Rockford College.'21— Wendell S. Brooks, A.M., has beenelected president of Intermountain UnionCollege of Helena, Montana.'22— K. N. Parke, A.M. '24, will devotefull time for the balance of the year tovisiting the schools of northeast Nebraskain the interests of Wayne State TeachersCollege.'22 — Helen Weber Ramm teaches his tory in the Carl Schurz High School, Chicago.'22 — Elizabeth Powers is an elementarysupervisor in the schools of Cadillac, Michigan.J22 — Charles Beckwith is associated withthe Acme X-Ray Corporation, MedicalArts Building, Indianapolis.'22 — Fredericka Blankner, A.M. '23, isthe author of three studies on Luigi Pirandello, recently published in the Yale Review, Poet Lore and Theatre Arts Monthly,'23 — Paul W. Morency has resigned asfield representative of the National Association of Broadcasters to assume management of the new high-power station, WTICat Hartford, Connecticut.'24 — Sherman D. Wakefield reports thathe has recently moved to 411 West 114thStreet, New York City.'24 — M. Aline Bright is chairman of theEnglish department in the Mobile, Alabama,High School, and state president of Quilland Scroll, the national honorary societyfor high school journalists.'24 — Mrs. Lorin B. Alford (GlennStiles) S.M., is connected with the schoolsof Oxnard and Ventura, California, as asubstitute teacher.'25 — Rama Virginia Bennett, A.M., isDirector of Health Education and Nutrition Work with the Los Angeles CountyTuberculosis and Health Association.'25 — Two members of the class of '25are teaching in the Charleston, West Virginia, High School. Mary E. Davis teacheshistory and Carolyn M. Campbell is headof the French department.'25 — Mari H. Bachrach is doing secretarial work in the Research Division ofParamount Famous Lasky Corporation,New York City.'25 — George Terborgh, A.M., has movedfrom Oberlin to Yellow Springs, Ohio,where he is Associate Professor of Economics in Antioch College.'25 — George R. Pell Jr., is principal ofthe high school at Brazil, Indiana.'26 — Fan L. Randlette is teaching in theart department of the Mobile, Alabama,High School.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 219Greatest ENCYCLOPAEDIAValueever offered theAmerican People. . . Completely NewEncyclopaediaBritannica $45 BOOKCASE INCLUDEDThis handsome bookcase table?, made ofgenuine Brown Mahogany, is includedwith every set of the new Britannicaexcept in the Special Library form.EVERY FAMILY, every wide-awake man or woman, cannow own this newest, finest Encyclopaedia Britannica!Mass production on a scale never before possible bringsyou this superb 14th Edition at a new low price — the lowest at which any completely new Britannica has been offered in more than 60 years !Never before has suchan opportunity been givenAmerican readers.More for your MoneyA $2,000,000 WorkWhen you buy the new Encyclopaedia Britannica you buysound built-in value that islittle short of amazing.You get the equivalent of500 ordinary books in textmatter alone— and at one-tenththeir cost. Here is literally thesum total of human knowledge in 24 compact readablevolumes ! 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But it _ DOWNOFFER— onlyLarge scale production makespossible the present amazinglylow price. $5 brings the 24volumes and table to yourhome. Balance may be paidin convenient monthly payments.Send for Free BookletSend for the handsome new56-page booklet containing numerous color plates, maps, etc ,from the new edition and givingfull information about it, withdetails of bindings, low pricesand easy payment plan.You needn't risk a cent. Thebooklet is yours FREE, without theslightest obligation.Now — while youhave this pageat hand — tearout the coupon and sendit in.1SEND FOR FREE BOOKLET TODAY L±ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA, Inc.342 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. U.C.M 3-E2Please send me by return mail, withoutany obligation on my part, your 56-pageillustrated booklet describing the newBritannica together with low price offer, etc.Name..^ . Address.City. .State...220 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE'26 — Nina Streeter, A.M., is Director ing her study at the School of Libraryof Residence Halls at the University of Science of Western Reserve University,Southern California. Cleveland. She is preparing for advanced'26 — Mary Winner Hughes is continu- work in children's librarianship.Rush'89 — We are in receipt of the 20th Annual Report of the Madison State Hospital,Madison, Indiana. James W. Milligan ismedical superintendent of this institutionwith its 1,450 beds, and his report for theyear is mest interesting.'03 — Ciark D. Baker is engaged in general practice at 4695 Hollywood Kvd., LosAngeles.>IO — Robert L. I. Smith, who specializes in obstetrics, has, offices at 511 Professional Building, Pasadena, California.>IX — Rex R. Frizzell is located at 709Professional Building, Pasadena, California, where he is engaged in general practice, emphasizing obstetrics and proctology.>!! — Harry J. Schott lias recently beenelected a Fellow in the American Collegeof Surgeons. He is located at 657 SouthWilton Place, Los Angeles.>I2 — E. J. Sirick is engaged in privatepractice and maintains his own hospitalin Amoy, China.>I2 — William A. Swim is practicingmedicine in Los Angeles, with offices in thePacific Mutual Building.9 j 6 — Albert G. Bower is located at Glen-dale, California, where he is engaged in thegeneral practice of medicine.'18 — Johanna Heumann Needelman isspecializing in children's diseases. Her office is at 5470 Hyde Park Blvd., Chicago.'19 — Harry J. Isaacs has offices at 310South Michigan Avenue, Chicago. Hispractice is limited to internal medicine. Dr.Isaacs is also Assistant Professor of Medicine at Rush Medical College.'20 — Richard Hofstra is in charge of amission hospital in Amoy, China.'20 — C. Kirke Russell is practicing medicine at Falfurrias, Texas. He is CountyHealth Officer, and as a side line superintends the operation of his large ranch. Hewould be glad to hear from any Rush manin his section of the country. '21 — Alfred H. Swan has recently returned to the United States from Chinawhere he has been in private practice at 264Victoria Road, Tientsin. His temporaryAmerican address is 1003 Wilshire Boulevard, Santa Monica, California.'22 — Vinton A. Bacon of Detroit celebrated the New Year by moving into a newhome at 18984 Fairfield Avenue, Detroit,where, as we remember it he is five minutes*walk from the famed Detroit Golf Club.'25 — Reno W. Backus, after a year'sstudy of the Chinese language, has begunwork in medicine at the Hopkins MemorialHospital,- Peiping, China. The hospital isa Methodist institution of sixty-seven beds,a large dispensary, a nursing school, and atuberculosis sanitarium in connection.'25 — Harold A. Henke is superintendentof the Hugh O'Neill Memorial Hospital,Shuntehfu, Hopeh, China.'25 — Herbert F. Fenwick is practicingobstetrics and gynecology at 185 NorthWabash Avenue, Chicago. He served asan army pilot during the World War andis now Flight Surgeon for the Thirty-thirdDivision Air Service, U. S. A.'26 — Vernon E. Mrazek is spending twoyears in Vienna, doing post graduate workin dermatology.'26 — Hilger P. Jenkins is assistant resident physician at the Billings Hospital,University of Chicago.'27 — William C. Egloff is assistant inmedicine, Harvard Medical School, and isconnected with \he Peter Bent BrighamHospital.'27 — P. A. Gray is in Santa Barbara asassistant to Dr. W. D. Sansum, M.D. '15,in the Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital.'28 — Paul H. Smitgen, after a year'sresidency in orthopedics at the Los AngelesGeneral Hospital, has been placed in chargeof all orthopedic clinics in the County ofLos Angeles.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 221Jointhe Book-of-the-Month Clubnow— while you can get«• First Book FREEA special offer — see reason for it belowGREAT many people (we know)have been on the verge of joining theBook -of- the -Month Club, but haveneglected to do so largely throughoversight. This special offer is made, frankly, toovercome this procrastination by making it worthwhile for you not to delay longer. We suggestsimply that you get full information at onceabout what the Book-of-the-Month Club doesfor you, and then decide once for all whetheryou want to join. The mere fact thatmere tact mat over100,000 judicious book-readers already belong tothe organization — that they represent the elite ofthe land in every profession and every walk oflife — that not a single one was induced to joinby a salesman or by personal solicitation of anykind, but did so after simply reading the factsabout what the Club does for book-readers — allthese are indications that it is worth your whileat least to get these facts as quickly as possible,and then (if you want to) join and get your firstbook free. You assume no obligation in sendingthe coupon below for full information. Six distinguished foreign authors now serve as an International Advisory Committeefor the Book - of - the - MonthClub. The function they perform is to keep our judges advised about what they considerthe significant new books published abroad, each in his owncountry. The Committee consists of:FOR ENGLAND:H. O. WellsandAtnold BennettFOR FRANCE:Andre MautoisFOR GERMANY ANDAUSTRIA:Thomas MannandArthut SchnitzlerFOR SCANDINAVIA:Sigrid UndsetHenry Seidel CanbyChairman William AllenWhiteTHE EDITORIAL BOARD OF THE BOOK-OF-THE-MONTH CLUB BOOK OF THE MONTH CLUB, Inc.386 Fourth Avenue, New York, N. Y.Please send me, without cost, a booklet outlining how the Book-of-the-Month Cluboperates. This request involvt s me in no obligation to subscribe to your service. 119-2Name .....—.Address . ......——-City State Books shipped to Canadian members thronghBook-of-the-Month Club (Canada) Limited222 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE'28 — Maryan Allan Durham is practicingmedicine at Walden, Colorado.'29 — Thomas Hill is resident physicianat the County Hospital, Ventura, Calif.'29 — Louisa H. Bacon is doing patholog ical and roentgenological work at the Red-lands Community Hospital, Redlands, California.'29 — H. I. Burtness is interning in theSanta Barbara Cottage Hospital.Commerce and AdministrationCommerce and Administration alumni inand near Chicago, and those planning tovisit the city next summer, will be interested in the series of lectures to be given atthe School during the First Term of theSummer Quarter.E. G. Hourse, of the Brookings Institute,will talk on the work of the Federal FarmBoard; Leland Rex Robinson, outstandingauthority in the field of investment trusts,on Investment Trusts; Guy C. Smith, advertising manager for Libby, McNeil andLibby, on Radio Advertising; and ArthurYoung, of Industrial Relations Counselors,New York, on Technological Factors inrelation to personnel. There will be twoother speakers, whose topics will be announced later.>I7 — John Slifer has been operating hisown contracting Business in Watertown,Massachusetts, since early in 1929.>! 8— Walter A. Frost is district salesmanager in Billings, Montana, for the Investors Syndicate of Minneapolis.'21 — Bryan E. Gossett owns and managesthe Gossett Music Company at Riverside,California.52i — Richard S. Strauss became merchandise and sales manager of the Sundries Department of the Plymouth Rubber Company, Canton, Massachusetts, on DecemberI, 1929.'21 — Gerald R. Wallick has been general manager of the Sterling WholesaleGrocery Company, Sterling, Illinois, sinceearly in 1929.J2i — John A. Logan is now sales manager for Ames, Emerich & Company, investment bankers in Chicago. '22 — Thomas L. Shreeve left in December for Cape Haitien, Haiti, where he willbe office manager for the Haytian Pineapple Company, a subsidiary of the California Packing Corporation.'22 — R. H. Ballinger is engaged in public accounting with Haskins & Sells at Cincinnati, Ohio.'22 — W. H. Trout has been assistantcontroller in charge of finance for MandelBrothers, Chicago, since May 1, 1929.'23 — James Lyle McCormick is ownerand manager of an advertising agency atAmarillo, Texas.'23 — L. T. Claridge was appointed executive secretary of the Chicago DentalAssociation in the spring of 1929.'24 — C. L. Dwinnell is branch managerfor the Meyercord Company in KansasCity.'25 — S. M. Croonquist is manager of theCentral Van and Storage Company, Seattle,Washington.'25 — William Lindsay, A.M., is nowteaching accounting and economics at CraneJunior College, Chicago.'26 — -Nathan W. Levin became controller and assistant treasurer for the JuliusRosenwald Fund in September, 1929., '26 — Ralph H. Meyer is a travelingauditor for the Public Service Company ofNorthern Illinois.'27 — Everett J. Crews has been operatinghis own insurance and investment agencyin Enid, Oklahoma, since 1928.'28 — Jerome H. Debs is assistant salesmanager for the Chicago Metallic Manufacturing Company.Divinity'oo — Colonel Julian E. Yates, D.B., formerly chaplain at Fort Oglethorpe, is thenew Chief of Chaplains in the United States War Department. He succeedsColonel Edmund P. Easterbrook who retired in December. Colonel Yates hasTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 223THE YATES- FISHERTEACHERS' AGENCYEstablished 1906Paul Yates, Manager6l6-62o SOUTH MICHIGAN AVENUECHICAGOTHE J. M. HAHNTEACHERS AGENCYA Western Placement BureauElementary, Secondary, CollegeAlways in quest of outstanding educatorsfor important positions. Teachers with higher degrees in demand. Doctors of Philosophy urgently needed for college anduniversity positions now listed.J. M. Hahn and Blanche TuckerManagers2161 Shattuck Ave. Berkeley, California Albert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoLast June a Dean of a large College spent three days in Chicago withnine positions to fill — one Head ofDepartment and eight Instructors.Seven of these, including the Headof the Department, were filled bythis office. He is only one of themany College Heads that call hereevery year for assistance. Our regular clients from year to year are thebest Colleges, Universities, Teachers'Colleges, City and Suburban HighSchools, Private Schools, — the bestschools from all parts of the country.The alertness of our Managers andthe efficiency of our service play alarge part in securing and holdingour patronage. University of Chicago students who want to get welllocated are invited to call at ouroffice or send for free booklet.Other Offices: New York, Spokane, WichitaCHICAGO COLLEGIATEBUREAU of OCCUPATIONSA non-profit organization sponsored by University Alumnae Clubs in Chicago.Vocational Information and PlacementSocial Service — Scientific — Home EconomicsBusinessWell qualified women, with and without experience come to us from all over the countryfor new positions.Service to Employer and EmployeeMrs. Marguerite Hewitt McDanielManaging Director5 So. Wabash Ave., Chicago, Illinois Clark-Brewer Teachers AgencyEstablished 1882College Department for Masters and Doctors.Large suburban clientele. Attractive opportunitiesin the best secondary schools. Grade supervisionand critics for city systems and normal colleges.Each member registered in all six offices permanently. Get Brewer's Nat. Ed. Directory —10,000 names for $1.00.Chicago, 64 E. Jackson Blvd.; New York, Flat-iron Bldg.; Pittsburgh, Jenkins Arcade; Minneapolis, Globe Bldg.; Kansas City, N. Y. LifeBldg. ; Spokane, Chamber of Commerce Bldg.AH members National Association of Teachers'Agencies.MTTjL Jf TEACHERS 2B zastjackson blvd.Our service is nation-wide in its scope and our connections include many of the largestand best institutions throughout the United States. Our college department is mannedby university trained appointment heads who have had years of experience in collegeandf university work. Because of our connections, we are in a position to rendervaluable service to you, no matter what type of position you are seeking. We wouldappreciate a personal call at our office before registering, but if this is not feasible, wesuggest you write now for our registration material.Address: G. E. Goodell, President and General Manager 28 East Jackson Blvd., Chicago224 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEalready assumed the directing reins of hisoffice.'02 — Edwin Simpson, D.B., Ph.D., '05,who has been for six years pastor of FirstBaptist Church, Green Bay, Wisconsin,has accepted the call of the First BaptistChurch, Yakima, Washington. He beganhis work January first. The Green Baychurch made remarkable progress numerically and financially under Dr. Simpson'sleadership.'06 — Walter I. Fowle, D.B., after a successful pastorate of several years in FirstBaptist Church, Greeley, Colorado, hasaccepted the call of the First BaptistChurch, Alhambra, California, and has already settled on the field.'13 — Chester W. New, Ph.D., Professorof History at McMaster University, Toronto, has recently published through theOxford University Press a biography of"Lord Durham." In its review the London (England) Times says "This book isadmirably done. Great but unobstructiveuse is made of an abundance of manuscriptsources. " Life and Letters (London) includes it in its selection of the hundred bestbooks.'14— L. D. Weyand, A.M., PH.D. '19,is Professor and Head of the Departmentof Social Science at Louisiana PolytechnicInstitute located at Ruston, Louisiana.'18— J. W. Shepard, A.M., has just concluded his 2 1st year of service as presidentof Rio Baptist College and Seminary atRio de Janeiro, Brazil. The present student body in preparatory and other departments numbers about seven hundred.'21 — C. E. Burns, A.M., is now engagedas pastor of the Milligan College Churchand is also Dean of Men at Milligan College.'23— Fred Baldus, A.M., D.B., '24, aftera remarkably successful pastorate of overn\e years at First Baptist Church, Urbana,Illinois, has accepted the call of First Baptist Church, Greeley, Colorado.'23— J. F. Findlay, A. M., formerlyDean of Men's work at Grinnell Collegehas entered upon the same work at TheUniversity of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma. ,24— E. P. Westphal, A.M., on December first became director of Adult ReligiousEducation for the Board of Christian Education of the Presbyterian Church in theU. S. A., with headquarters at Philadelphia.'24 — Edwin F. Lee, A.M., is ResidentBishop of the Methodist Episcopal Churchat Singapore and Manila.'24— George B. Davis, A.M., D.B., '25,is pastor of the South Baptist Church, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, which dedicated abeautiful new Gothic building with a weekof services, Sunday, September 29, to October 4.'25— James W. Fifield, Jr., A.M., ispastor of the East Congregational Church,Grand Rapids, Michigan, which recentlydedicated the parish house which is thefirst unit of an elaborate plant which thechurch plans to erect.'25 — Isabella Bux, A.M. has resignedher teaching position at Isabella ThoburnCollege, Lucknow, India, and expects tospend next winter in the School of Tagoreat Shantiniketan, India.'26— Eliot W. Porter, Ph.D., has resigned the pastorate of First PresbyterianChurch, Lincoln, Illinois, to become assistant editor for young people's publicationsfor the Board of Christian Education of thePresbyterian Church in the U. S. A.'28— Frank B. Herzel, A.M., sincegraduating from the Divinity School hasreceived the B.D. degree from the LutheranSeminary at Gettysbury, Pennsylvania, andis now pastor of the Mount Calvary Lutheran Church of Westernport, Maryland.'29 — Eva Iona Nelson, is serving the. Minneapolis Church Federation as a teacherin the Week Day Schools of ReligiousEducation, and also as a member of theCommunity Training School. She is alsoassisting with a religious education surveyof Minneapolis Church Schools which is being conducted under the auspices of the International Council of Religious Education.'29 — Henry E. Allen, A.M., will spendthe ensuing year in Constantinople,Turkey, where he will study the religiousattitudes of the people. Mr. Allen holdsa Fellowship of the National Council onReligion in Higher Education.NEWS OF THE CLASSES'29 — C. D. Rockey, Ph.D., sailed withhis family October 17 for India and arrivedat Moradabad just before Thanksgiving.Dr. Rockey goes back to India as superintendent of the Moradabad District, NorthIndia Conference.Hal E. Norton, D.D., has resigned thevice-presidency of Ottawa University tobecome pastor of the First Baptist Church,Janesville, Wisconsin, in succession to JamesB. Ostergren, A.M., '18, D.B., '23.Ross W. Sanderson has joined the staffof the Institute of Social and Religious Research as Project Director. The Institutehas just begun a two year study of thestrategy of city church planning with Mr.Sanderson in charge of it.Margaret Clark is teaching in the WeekDay Church School system of Oak Parkand River Forest, Illinois.W. Wendell Duff sailed for India October 17, 1929, and is engaged in districtevangelistic work at Moga, Punjab, India.Robert M. Light is serving as Secretaryfor Young Men in the Ft. Wayne, Indiana,Y. M. C. A.Doctors of Philosophy'06 — William Kelley Wright, Professorof Philosophy at Dartmouth College, hasrecently completed a General Introductionto Ethics, published by MacMillan. Incollaboration with Professor T. V. Smith,Ph.D. '22, of the University of Chicago,Mr. Wright has edited a volume of Essaysin Philosophy, written by seventeen doctorsof philosophy of the University.'18 — James H. Hance who is with theSchool of Mines, Oregon State College,Corvallis, Oregon, spent last summer intesting mineral property in northwesternNevada.'19 — C. H. Milligan has resigned fromthe Champion Coated Paper Company,Hamilton, Ohio, and accepted an appointment as research chemist for the AmericanAgricultural Chemical Company, Newark,New Jersey.'28 — Edward G. Kaufman is Professorof Education at Bluffton College, Bluffton,Ohio. AND ASSOCIATIONS 225Does Appetiteor Habit RuleYour Diet?HpHERE is evolution in eat--*¦ ing as well as in otherthings.Swift 85 Company's 1930Year Book contains an interesting article on "Evolutionin Eating."This, however, is only asmall part of the fascinatingnarrative of a year's businessof a great corporation.Students of business administration especially will findthis Book of value.A copy of the Year Bookwill be sent you free. Just fillout the coupon below andmail.Swift & CompanySwift & Company4035 Packers AvenueChicago, Illinois.Please mail me free a copy of Swift& Company's 1930 Year Book.Name __. .Street Address City and State .THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEJOHN HANCOCK SERIESYOUR ESTATEand tomorrowtodayYoIOU naturallyexpect your present estatewill grow considerably beforeit is turned over to your heirsand dependents. Why notguarantee that growth, withlife insurance? You can createany desired estate today witha John Hancock policy.^Life Insurance Companyof Boston. MassachusettsINQUIRY BUREAU197 Clarendon St., Boston, Mass.Please send booklet, "ThisMatter of Success."Name Address..- OVER SIXTY-FIVE YEARS IN BUSINESS -GIFTSFor All OccasionsBooks Ends - PennantsStationery - Paper KnivesWall Shields - JewelryTable RunnersAll With U. of C. CrestUniversity of Chicago Bookstore5802 Ellis Avenue Law'14 — Gifford K. Kirsch has gone intoprivate practice after six years of probatework for the Citizens National Bank ofLos Angeles. He specializes in Probate andInheritance Tax Law. His offices are inthe Citizens National Bank Building.'21 — William D. Campbell resigned asSpecial Assistant to the Attorney Generalof the United States in 1926, and has sincebeen practicing law at 1233 Citizens National Bank Building, Los Angeles.'23 — Steadman G. Smith is practicinglaw at 648 Title Insurance Building, 433South Spring Street, Los Angeles. Mr.and Mrs. Smith (Margaret B. Kuhns) '24,are now living at 1423 North Alta VistaBlvd., Los Angeles.Ex '24 — Leslie F. Kimmell is practicinglaw at Laguna Beach, California.'26 — Paul Basye is located at 5529Brooklyn Avenue, Kansas City, Missouri.'27 — ^Martha McLendon is practicing inKansas City, with offices in the ScarrittBuilding.'29 — Fred H. Mandel announces theopening of his offices for the general practice of law at 1 108 Guarantee Title Building, Cleveland, Ohio.MARRIAGESBIRTHS, ENGAGEMENTSDEATHSMarriagesMarie Goodenough, '15, to Dr. AllanCraig, September 12, 1929. At home, 1265Norwood Avenue, Chicago.Johanna Heumann, '16, M.D. '18, to Dr.S. Needelman, December 29, 1928. Athome, 5470 Hyde Park Blvd., Chicago.Mabel Hicks, ex '16, to James Stout,October 25, 1929. At home, Palembang>Sumatra, Dutch East Indies.Warren W. Ewing, S.M. '18, Ph.D.'20, to Adah Shawver, in July, 1929. Athome, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.Rosebud Elkan, '26, to Herbert Wolf-ner, October 20, 1929. At home, 7706Kingston Avenue, Chicago.NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONS 227Luella" Malbert, ex '26, to Hildahl I.Burtness, M.D. '29, August 23, 1929. Athome, Santa Barbara, California.Helen King, '28, to Kenneth A. Rouse,'28, January 21, 1930. At home 5612Ingleside Avenue, Chicago.Cora Seville McReynolds, A.M. '29, toWilliam Scott Millar, July 9, 1929. Athome, 323 Marine Avenue, Brooklyn, NewYork.EngagementsBernard Wagner, '22, to RosalieSchwartz of Los. Angeles.William D. Mabie, '24, to Florence Bud-dig, ex '30.Dorothy Stellwagen, '25, to Arthur E.York.Ruth G. Daniel, '27, to Ben Z. Ginsbergof Chicago.Leo Rane, '28, to Dora Saslavsky ofChelsea, Massachusetts.Dartnell Trine, '28, to Gordon H. Mills,of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.Ernest S. Stevens, '29, to Dorothy L.Moulds, '31.Stuyvesant Butler, M.D. '29, to PaisleyBall, of Winnetka.BirthsTo Vinton A. Bacon, '19, M.D. '22,and Mrs. Bacon, a son, William Richmann,October 21, 1929, at Detroit, Michigan.To Mr. and Mrs. J. E. Taggart (Isa-belle Watson) '20, a daughter, Isabelle,September 28, 1929, at New York City.To William Zorn, '24, and Mrs. Zorn,a daughter, Amy Lou, August 16, 1929,at Eau Claire Wisconsin.To Frank J. Hardesty, '27, and Mrs.Hardesty, a daughter, Linda Mae, November 7, 1929, at Los Angeles, California.DeathsJohn C. McClintock, M.D. '79, June 28,1929, at his home in Topeka, Kansas. Dr.McClintock was a pioneer in surgery in thewest and made many contributions to theprofession. He was the founder of theKansas Medical College and Christ's Hospital in Topeka, and made important contributions to the civic development of Stephens CollegeColumbia, MissouriA Junior College forWomenFully Accredited by theUniversity of ChicagoLet Us Tell You About theFour Year Junior CollegeCourse for Your DaughterJAMES M. WOODPresidentPaulH. Davis, 'nRalph W. Davis, 'i6 Herbert I Markham, Ex. 06Walter M. Giblin, '23Pa&l RDavte &<9<xMembersNEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGECHICAGO STOCK EXCHANGE37 South LaSalle StreetTelephone Franklin 8622CHICAGOUNIVERSITYCOLLEGEThe downtown department of The University of Chicago, ii6 S. Michigan Avenue,wishes the Alumni of the University andtheir friends to know that it offersEvening, Late Afternoon and Saturday ClassesTwo-Hour Sessions Once or Twice a WeekCourses Credited Toward University DegreesThe Spring Quarter begins Mon., Mar. 31, 1930 .Registration Period, March 22 to 30For Information, AddressDean, C. F. Huth University College,University of Chicago, Chicago, 111.228 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETopeka. Dr. McClintock was past president of the Kansas Archaeological society,and was a member of the Topeka Board ofHealth and various other civic bodies.Thomas Corwin Robinson, M.D. '82,October 13, 1929, at Amsterdam, Missouri.Dr. Robinson was in active practice up tothe time of his death.Edwin Washington Reagan, M.D. '85,June 12, 1929, while visiting at FortSheridan, Illinois. Dr. Reagan hadpracticed medicine at Canton, Illinois, forthirty years.,Horace Milton Cunningham, '11, A.M.,;]3, August 10, 1929, at Hastings, Nebraska. Mr. Cunningham was struck bya Burlington train and was instantly killed.Joseph Bartholomew Rick, M.D. '88,November 22, 1929, at his home at Mishi-cot, Wisconsin.John Duncan Taylor, M.D. '93, September 16, 1929, at his home at Grand Forks,North Dakota.MOSERSHORTHAND COLLEGEA business school of distinctionSpecial Three Months' IntensiveCourse for university graduatesor undergraduates givenquarterlyBulletin on RequestPaulMoserJ. D., Ph.B.116 S. Michigan Ave. ChicagoJ. Alton Lauren, '19J. Alton Lauren and Co.139 N. Clark St. Randolph 2068 Bertha May Scullin, '06, A.M. '23, inMay, 1929. Miss Scullin had taught forseveral years at the Fenger High Schoolin Chicago.Robert A. Smith, M.D. '03, December15, 1929, at his home, 672 Irving ParkBlvd., Chicago. Dr. Smith practiced medicine in Chicago for twenty-five years, wasa member of the staff of the John B.Murphy Hospital and of St. Joseph's Hospital, and served as a captain in the MedicalCorps during the war.Philbrick Jackson, '17, January 2, 1930,at Salt Lake City, Utah, of an infectionfollowing a tonsil operation. Mr. Jacksonwas captain of the 19 16 football team atthe University and that year was an all-conference .and all-western tackle. Heserved in the U. S. Marine Corps duringthe war, and had risen to the rank ofcaptain at the time of his discharge.Abbot Academy1828-193®For a Century One of New England'sLeading Schools for Girls.National PatronageAdvanced Courses for High SchoolGraduates. College Preparation. Exceptional Opportunities in Art andMusic. Outdoor Sports.Address: Bertha Bailey, PrincipalBox P, Andover, MassachusettsJohn J. Cleary, Jr., '14175 W. Jackson Blvd., Wabash 1240Eldredge, Carolan, Graham &. ClearyTHE FAULKNER SCHOOL FOR GIRLSA DAY SCHOOL FOR GIRLS OF ALL AGESCo-operative with the University of ChicagoThe school prepares its graduates for all colleges and universities admitting women.The College Board examinations are given at the school.4746 Dorchester Avenue MISS ELIZABETH FAULKNER, PrincipalTel. Oakland 1423 MISS GEORGENE FAULKNER, Director of KindergartenALUMNI PROFESSIONAL DIRECTORYReal Estate Insurance