1826qiiutrsitii ofCfiicagoVOL. XXI NUMBER 1NOVEMBER, 1928Why I Am For Hoover Why I Am For ThomasBy Shailer Mathews By Paul H. DouglasWhy I Am For Al SmithBy T. V. SmithBOOKSCREATION BY EVOLUTION DID LINCOLN SUCCEED?MORE CONTEMPORARY AMERICANSGALSWORTHY LAYS DOWN HIS PENBy Fred B. MillettISHED BY THE ALUMNI COUNCILPresident of the University of ChicagoWilliam Rainey HarperBy T. W. GoodspeedThe story of the life of William Rainey Harper cannot be dissociated fromthe University of Chicago; twenty-two years after his death his plans continue toshape its development. His enthusiasm, his vision, his wisdom were so extraor-dinary that they have become almost legendary with the years. Dr. Goodspeedreconstructs the actual situations in which they functioned and givesthem reality.He has made a permanent and inspiring record of a great man's great achievement.$3.00 at ali BookstoresThe University of Chicago PressTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEChicago vs. Pennsylvania — Nov. 3Chicago vs. Illinois — Nov. 17Meet your Classmatesat Hotels WindermereIf you are coming to Chicago for one of the big games,make plans to stay at Hotels Windermere.Here you will meet others from your class — becauseHotels Windermere are headquarters for university alumni.Here you will find a high standard of comfort and foodthat is unusual. Here, moreover, you will be within walk-ing distance of Stagg Field — yet only ten minutes ride fromthe Chicago loop.Special Luncheon Before Above GamesServed 11:30 A.M. to 1:30 P.M.$1.00 Per PersonOnly Six Blocks from Stagg Fieldìtjotelsfindermeremm "CHICAGO'S MOST HOMELIKE HOTELS"East 56th Street at Hyde Park Boulevard— Telephone : Fairfax 6000500 feet of Verandas and Terraces Fronting South on Jackson ParkOfficiai Hotel Intercollegiate Alumni Extension Service82 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEORGANIZATIONFOR ANY PROJECTF you are planning a new development inany field of enterprise we are prepared tohelp you ORGANIZE it.We can provide engineers to make investiga-tions, reports or appraisals preliminary to finanoing.We can provide financial plans and assist infinancing.We can provide complete designs and the con-struction personnel to carry out work of any typeor magnitude.PIONEERS SINCE 1889Stone & Webster, Inc., is the oldest firmin the power industry. Its organization fordesign and construction is large, widelyexperienced and extremely flexible. It candesign, purchase for and build develop-mentsofany size or kind. It has mademany records for speed. The power sta-tions built serve 20,000,000 people. In Utilities work over $100,000,000 is expendedannually• ' Industriai work for such companies asFord, General Motors, American Sugar,U. S. Rubber, Victor and others is meas-ured high in millions and for many clientshas beencontinuous for years. Experiencealsoincludes construction of large build-ings for such clients as The InsuranceCompany of North America, University of Pittsburgh, The First National, Bank ofBoston and others.Hundreds of reports have been madee o verin g financial r equir ements, physicalcondition, operating costs, inventories,plant extensions, earning power and otherf eatures. 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In six years,three utility companies under executivemanagement of Stone & Webster havewon the Coffin Award— the highest honorin the industry for excellence of operation.Stone & WebsterINCORPORATED^'••Ulltlimutilimtl!lliimiimiimimmmiiiiiiimuiiimimnClm.mniiimM iiimimi^niinni^nTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 3Over 100 College* are Represented inALLERTON HOUSETo Live Here is to be at Home — When Away from Home!Officiai Residence of t he Inter collegiate Alumni Association Composed of 96 Colleges7 Floors forWomen 14 Floors forMenALLERTON HOUSEMichigan at Huron — ChicagoExtensive ComfortableLounges Ball and BanquetRoomsResident Women'sDirector Circulating LibraryBilliards, ChessSpecial Women'sElevators CafeteriaFraternity Rooms Athletic ExerciseRoomsAllerton Qlee Club in Mairi Dining Monday at 6:30 P. 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SULCER, '05, PresidentThe "Bon Mot" inAdvertising CopyGustave Flaubert, French novelist,is knownnot so much because of his many tales butmore because of his insistence on the perfectusage of the right word— the "bon mot".It is said that he frequently spent hours,evendays,searching for the one word or phrasewhich would convey the thought he had inmind.Modem advertising writers cannot shout theword from their windows, testing itseuphony, as was Flaubert' s habit.But they can write copy so that it best ex-presses the thoughts which are going to selltheproduct or service they are championing.The idea first, then the best expression ofthat idea. This is the theorem which guidesthe writers in this agency.j Member: American Assocìation of Advertising Agencies & National Outdoor Advertising BureauI Al T H I ^Of the three doctdrs whose politicai pre-scriptions differ so widely, Dean ShailerMathews has just finished his twentiethyear as Dean of the Divinity School andhas just published his twenty-flrst book inthe field of religion; Professor T. V.Smith has sought, in two books and manyarticles, to apply the ancient doctrine ofdemocracy to to-day's problems; ProfessorPaul H. Douglas has recently madefirsthand investigations of United StatesMarine rule in Cuba and of the operationof the Soviet system in Russia.« » «Besides directing the University's far-flung battle-line of anthropologists, Professor Fay-Cooper Cole has made ex-tensive studies of primitive human life.His adventures in Java would providethrills enough to fili many a movie reel.His chapter, "The Corning of Man," inThe Nature of the World and of Man ismaterial for an epic.• « » »"The sleep of the just" has alwaysseemed an especially fortunate institution.The righteous man may be buffeted aboutali day; but after bedtime, at least, his virtue has always been rewarded. Hecan sleep. But now comes Dr. EdmundJacobsen with a scientific method of relax-ation that destroys this monopoly, and poursforth sleep, like rain, on the just and theunjust. The last worldly incentive tojustice is gone; but a new comfort hasbeen conferred on mortals.« » «Professor Merle C. Coulter, who re-views Creation by Evolution, has ex-perimented and written extensively onmatters relative to evolution. He teachesthe survey course in Evolution, Eugenicsand Genetics.« « «The Rev. William E. Barton, formany years pastor of the First Congrega-tional Church of Oak Park, and authorof several books on Lincoln, reviews Professor Dodd's Lincoln or Lee.« « »Joseph W. Beach, Professor of Eng-lish in the University of Minnesota, andauthor of Meek Americans and The Outlook for American Prose, reviews ProfessorBoynton's More Contemporary Americans.Events and CommentA Letter to Al Smith ; 42Alumni Affairs 43University Notes 44News of the Classes and Associations 48Marriages, Engagements, Births, and Deaths 51THE Magazine is published at ioog Sloan St.,Crawfordsville, Ind., monthly from Novemberto July, inclusive, for The Alumni Council ofthe University of Chicago, s8th St. and Ellis Ave.,Chicago, 111. The subscription price is $2.00 peryear; the price of single copies is 20 cents.Postage is prepaid by the publishers on ali ordersfrom the United States, Mexico, Cuba, Porto Rico,Panama Canal Zone, Republic of Panama, HawaiianIslands, Philippine Islands, Guam, Samoan Islands.Postage is charged extra as follows: For Canada,18 cents on annual subscriptions (total $2.18), onsingle copies, 2 cents (total 22 cents); for ali othercountries in the Postai Union, 27 cents# on annualsubscriptions (total $2.27), on single copies, 3 cents(total 23 cents).Remittances should be made payable to the Alumni Council and should be in the Chicago or New Yorkexchange, postai or express money order. If locaicheck is used, io cents must be added for collection.Claims for missing numbers should be made withinthe month following the regular month of publication.The Publishers expect to supply missing numbers freeonly when they have been lost in transit.Communications pertaining to advertising may besent to the Publication Office, 1009 Sloan St., Crawfordsville, Ind., or to the Editorial Office, Box 9,Faculty Exchange, The University of Chicago.Communications for publication should be sent tothe Chicago Office.Entered as second class matter December io, 1914,at the Post Office at Crawfordsville, Indiana, underthe Act of March 3, 1879.Member of Alumni Magazines Associated.¦e ¦:m<— <G ** 4> >¦SE|-WlJ_ g 2« c— _ «|cTCt„ Mi1 s „.s gu . « ìt -aE_¦jz-a a >•+.W ^> . °„„ M« ^ gB— E -« o >ìi; bc"> e u v rc Fi » i-I9 e 5 eJ3 <n <_T O>1? M^.= « 2 -c^i_ **-< +j o rt oaa3-C"- |*j « 0ej ed3.5 -- " 3so « -£^ M ^ co *-fi SJ5&t- o v Qo .9 g Hi 2%¦*•£ »« *O •« m 4> a* _; 4)e* E JS = ~ " 00= J3 5 5Vol.xxi No. IWt)tUntòersttp of ChicagoJfflap^ine NOVEMBER, 1928TICKING *A TRESIT>ENTThree Members of the FacultySet Forth Three OpposingViews of the PresentPoliticai Campaign.Why I Shall Vote for Mr. HooverBy Shailer MathewsDean of the Divinity SchoolTHE real ^choice between the twocandidates for the presidency of theUnited States lies not so much between the platforms as between personalityand associations. Presidential candidatesare seldom bound by their platforms, andMr. Smith has already come to regard him-self as his own platform. Furthermore, itwould be difficult to find any fundamentalcontrasts within the officiai pronouncementsof the two great parties. The campaignseems to be fought along lines which are setby the very interests which the platformstry either to soft-pedal or to treat in glitter-ing generalities.A possible president of the United Statesshould be judged in at least three partic-ulars: as an executive, as the head of aparty, and as the guide of national policies.Picturesque careers, while not to be ignored,are really of little weight compared with ability to meet questions that arise in thesethree fields.I shall vote for Mr. Hoover first of alibecause of his exceptional training and ability as an executive. It would be difficult toname any man who has had a more variedexperience in the field of constructive business than he. Mr. Hoover's experience isnot that of a mere trader. As an engineer,as the organizer of vast undertakings, as theadministrator of incomparably large phil-anthropic operations, he has shown that heis an executive of unique power in preciselythè sort of activity demanded by the head ofa great business like that of the UnitedStates. No one can read the life of Mr.Hoover or the skeletonized list of hisachievements in WhoJs Who without beingimpressed with his phenomenal range ofexperience and success in business adminis-tration.7THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEOver against this, Mr. Smith was for afew years the president of a truckingcompany in New York.A great business genius is more than amoney-getter. He must have a gift for or-ganization. We have seen Mr. Hoover'sability recently in this regard during theMississippi inundation. He has given hisdepartment new efficiency. Probably noman ever was a candidate for the presidencyof the United States who has had anythinglike his training. I do not belittle Mr.Smith's services as Governor of New York,but the problems which the president ofthe United States must face are vastly morecompiicated and intensive than those of agovernor.Second, I shall vote for Mr. Hoover because I think he will make an able and trust-worthy head of his Party. Everybody willadmit that the Republican Party needs suchleadership. The scandals of the Hardingadministration will not be forgotten,although Mr. Coolidge has done much tocorrect those evils. Mr. Hoover would domuch more. He is well suited for partyleadership. It may be he lacks the personalcharm of Mr. Smith, but, we do not electpresidents because they have charm. Mr.Hoover has shown that he knows how toorganize men on a big scale. His addressesshow that he has practical politicai sagacityand his power to attach men to himselfhas been seen throughout his entire career.When I vote for Mr. Hoover I shall notbe voting for the Harding administration,but for Hr. Hoover's administration.As the head of his party Mr. Hoovermight not have the technique of a professional politician like Mr. Smith, but neitherwould he have Tammany as a politicaisponsor. And if we are to speak aboutappeal to men's imaginations, while a laun-dry may not be as picturesque as a fish-market the rise of a poor boy who workedhis way through college, who single-handedbuilt up engineering operations ali over theworld, who became the friend of govern-ments, and the organizer of a food servicewhich kept millions from starvation is cer-tainly not negligible even when compared with the rise of Mr. Smith. For partyleadership the experience of one career isas truly valuable as the other.What is quite as important is that Mr.Hoover is essentially a man of ideals andis ready to make sacrifices to carry forwardthose ideals. He has never advertised thematter, but one has only to remember whathis service to humanity cost him in actualfortune to realize that he has sincerely de-sired to be of use to his time. I should liketo vote for that type of man.In the third place, I shall vote for Mr.Hoover because I believe that he can betrusted to favor and organize intelligentnational policies for both domestic and in-ternational affaire.So far as prohibition is concerned, it isof course true that a president cannot changethe Constitution, and it is also true that bothmen believe in some sort of improvement ofthe situation. But the proposai which Mr.Smith makes that states shall be given theright to determine their enforcement of theEighteenth Amendment and that thereshould be therefore wet and dry territoryin the United States is, to my mind, a sublime illustration of ineptitude. I want theprohibition question handled intelligently,but if there is to be readjustment of anysort I prefer to have it made by a man whois really sympathetic with efforts to controlthe curse of drink rather than by those ofother sympathies. I think the cause of intelligent control of the liquor situation is,safer in the hands of Mr. Hoover, with hisexperience and his broad sympathies, than inthe hands of Mr. Smith. For while it istrue that the president cannot change thesituation, he is in a position to hinder or aidthe enforcement of laws which carry theConstitution into effect. It would be hardlyless than a calamity to have in the presidencyof the United States the same sort of policyrelative to prohibition and the law that Mr.Smith has introduced into New York. Theprohibition question is hard enough at thepresent time without being further con-fused by Mr. Smith.I feel the same about the religious issue.Personally, I am opposed to any assaultPICKING A PRESIDENT 9upon Mr. Smith, because he holds to theteaching of the Catholic faith, or upon Mr.Hoover because he is a Quaker. Of course,I do not believe that the Pope would evercontrol the White House, but Mr. Smithhimself has brought the religious issue to theforefront and asserts that he is a victim ofwhat he calls bigotry. I know too muchabout ecclesiastical history not to see theorigin and meaning of his technique. Thereis no need to discuss it, but I do not mean tobe deceived by it. Any man who willadopt such tactics in the field of religionbefore election would in my opinion be indanger of adopting them after election. Onthis entire position, I think Mr. Hooverboth in acts and words evinces a better bal-anced and freer mind and a much saferattitude. I believe that national politicsunder Mr. Hoover would be less exposedto subservience to organized religion,whether Roman Catholic, Methodist, orany other, than they would be under Mr.Smith. My acquaintance with the presentEuropean situation gives vigor to this con-viction.In the field of international policy thereis no comparison between the experience andpreparation of the two men. I have metMr. Smith personally and have been im-pressed with his magnetic personality. Ihave respect for the reforms he has been ableto carry forward in New York. In pre- ferring Mr. Hoover I do not belittle Mr.Smith. But I must choose between the twomen in no small degree on the basis of myestimate of their ability to handle international affairs. I am just back from Europewhere I have been in a position to get anew appreciation of the international situation at the present time. I doubt if it everwas more complicated or more inclined toenter new phases. The readjustmentswhich are going on in Europe are certainlyperplexing, and practically every such read-justment, from reparations to naval affairs,involves the United States. I do not believe the country as a whole begins to seethe delicate and some ways alarming situation into which we are drifting. It wouldbe a tragedy to have inexperience at thehead of our international affairs. A mancannot learn international policies overnight or get the feeling for internationalaffairs at second hand. And it is for thisreason that it seems to me most fortunatethat there should be a possibility of puttingat the head of our government a manwho has been an international figure foryears, and who has had more experiencein dealing with foreign nations than anyman who has ever been a candidate for thishigh office. To elect a man president inorder to educate him in international affairswhen we have at our disposai a man of thisexceptional character, experience, and ability would be bad economy.Let Smith Do ItBy T. VProfessor ofWHEN during the late President Bur-ton's administration the University ofChicago became fully conscious of its ar-rested development, its leaders sat down in acool hour to counsel with one another as toits future. Disdaining short views of daysand weeks and months, they projected theUniversity 's needs for at least fifty years asthe regulative ideal toward which theywould begin at once to strive. Already theUniversity is daily profiting by virtue oftheir bold prevision. The only way to meetthe future adequately is to meet it in ad-vance: it is always too much for us if welet it get too much with us.There are immediate ends and there areremote ends to be considered in the presentnational stock-taking. It is the primaryhonor of educated people to become custo-dians of the distant values, partly becausethey are better prepared to see and appre-ciate them and partly because others willtake care of the more immediate goods.Moreover, immediate goods can often bebetter conserved by attention to the lessimmediate ones.While the American people are almostif not quite unprecedentedly fortunate inthe high qualities of the present candidatesfor the presidency, there is, I think, clearground for choice between them, particu-larly with reference to the developmentsof the next few decades. Herbert Hoover —humanitiarian, engineer, efficiency expert,exponent of laissez faire — is extraordinarilywell fitted to accelerate our already dizzyproductive system, repairing with privatecharity the human breaches made by mili-tant industrialism. Norman Thomas — gen-erous, disillusioned, able publicist, apostleof social justice, innocent of means, avidof ideals — is finely fitted to keep before theAmerican people what the world might be ifit were not what it is. Alfred E. Smith —child of city streets, quick witted, clairvoy-ant of justice, master of men and of politicai means — Alfred E Smith is superbly . SmithPhilosophyfitted to unite the ideal ends of socialismwith the concrete means of democracy forthe sake of ali our citizens as rapidly asis humanly possible.In Governor Smith the extremes repre-sented by the other candidates meet, andtheoretical incompatibles are made practicalaffinities. There is more ground and justi-fication, not to say necessity, for compromise in politics than elsewhere. For poli-tics represents the transaction of commonbusiness by uncommonly diverse personsand interests. Norman Thomas could notrepresent the great business interests thattake Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hooveras the Lord's annointed. The lamb wiselyavoids the lion. Herbert Hoover cannotrepresent the large body of our fine citizens whom he regards as foes of societybecause of their sympathy with Thomasand socialism. When the lion snuggles upto the lamb, only one arises where two laydown together. Governor Smith, however,cosmopolitanly nurtured under the shadowof the Great Stone Face of Wall Street andin the midst of immigrant children frommany lands, is the lamb in sympathy andthe lion in effectiveness and power. In along record as Governor of the EmpireState, he has literally proved himself —mirabile dictu! — both director of businessand friend of the people. He has beengifted enough to perceive and audaciousenough to express what is actually commonto the possessed and the unpossessed classes.This rare gift to discern and to express thecommon and sharable in diverse humanityhas made him the politicai leader, par ex-cell enee , in America today.IThe politicai leader must know bothmeans and ends. To know ends demands asensitive moral nature; for ends are ideals,and only the generous in heart see them.Smith does not surpass Thomas in thiscapacity. But it is significant that ali ofPICKING A PRESIDENT ilthe great socialized ideals for which Thomasstands theoretically have motivated Smithpractically, as far as they can now be madeoperative. Under the general formula ofsaving for the people what is theirs, he hasproceeded to very specific action in NewYork state. His generous park program hassaved from high iron fences the great out-doors for millions of men in a future thatotherwise would have been ali indoors.Moreover, with no appeal to doctrinairesocialism but with practical effectiveness,he has lent his power and prestige towardmaking available for wage earners a re-spectable indoors through humane andprogressive housing legislation. But mostsignificant of ali for the long future, hehas dramatized electrical power as thewealth of the future and struggled nightand day to keep it common property againstthe time when it will be or will typify thewatershed between subjection and freedom.About this, let me speak presently in moredetail. But first a word regarding hisknowledge of means.I have cited the foregoing evidences ofGovernor Smith's sensitiveness to ideals.Ideals are impotent things. But how beautiful ! To make beauty into power is thetask of men like gods. There are twosecrets in this supreme achievement. Theone is such sympathy for men of ali sortsas induces them to accept leadership. Ihave referred to Governor Smith's first-hand knowledge of both the seamy and theprosperous side of our civilization. But hestrides across politicai lines as easily asacross economie lines. Though himself agreat party leader, willing in practice toaccept party responsibility, he has givenNew York a bipartisan rule, has reorgan-ized the state government on principles ofmerit, and over a period of years throughsheer performance^ pitiilessly public, hasgraduated from provincial Tammany Hallinto unrestricted public service with uni-versal acclaim. Equally spectacular, he hascarried Tammany Hall no little distancewith him. I know of no record to match itin our American life. But knowledge ofmen is of course not enough. One must know things as well as men; he must beable to marshal ali the power of naturai aswell as social science for politicai and human ends. In sheer scientific knowledgeGovernor Smith must perforce modestlytake off his hat to Herbert Hoover. Atleast Herbert Hoover knows more aboutthings. in the earth (for he has been aminer as well as a mining engineer) andthings over the earth (for he has been oflate devoted to aviation and radio) ; butwhether he knows more about things onearth is suspect from the evident lack ofenthusiasm for him among the economiste.Be that as it may, however much a president may know in his own head, it is insig-nificant compared to the amount of knowledge that must go into his administrationif it is to be scientifically successful.Here the ability to challenge the loyaltyof men is again the cruciai factor. Sci-entists are after ali men. If you doubt it,try to co-operate with a diverse group ofthem; or, better stili, ask any universitypresident and then dose your ears, if yoube at ali tender-minded. Herbert Hoover'sgreatest success has been with subordinateswho look up to him or with business menwho take orders. So at least it is "whis-pered" among not a few scientists. Governor Smith, on the other hand, has had hismost brilliant success in enlisting the aid oftechnicians for ali sorts of problems in NewYork state. I think that there is goodsense in the observation, supplementing theadmitted differences in the temperaments ofthe two leading candidates, that GovernorSmith knows his scientific limitations andstands in awe of better informed minds thanhimself while disdaining politicians througha superior mastery of their trade; whereasSecretary Hoover judges other scientistsno better than himself and is too deferentialto politicians of whose arts he is largely in-nocent and awe-ful. One of my learnedsocial science colleagues has said that theideal arrangement would be to have Smithpresident and Hoover his chief admin-istrator ; but since we have no such arrangement, he went on, Smith is a far better ad-ministrator than Hoover is politicai leader.12 , THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBe such informed comment as it may, itgoes without saying that the availability ofscience for politicai purposes is the deepestconcern of ali educated men. Ali of ourcandidates have such merits as to inviteinspection on this point, since each of themintroduces almost a new opportunity . inour national life ; and the least suspicion ofinability to command the fullest co-opera-tion of scientific men in any one of themcompels criticism., • ¦ IIRetUrning now to the postponed powermotif, let us observe that it is precisèly indealing with economie problems that thereexists the most imperative necessity to securescientific knowledge through the fullest co-operation of scientific men. To such knowledge and such co-operation must be addedone other assurance if we are to make nomistakè in selectihg a president. And thatassurance is that the power that accruesfrom combined knowledge must be put topublic rather than to private uses. If thekindly democratic emphasis upon equalityand fraternity does not drive us to thisrecognition, we shall be driven to it even-tually by the logie of circumstances. Thegrowth of socialism throughout the civil-ized world, yea the triumph of socialismin the Old World, presages the eventualtriumph in America at least of a distributivesystem far more democratic than our present one, in which the great majority ofcitizens own little property and less than"20% of income receivers get as much eachas; $1,800.00 a, year, Neither the desira-bility nor the : likelihood of this outeome isser'onsly' arguable, but certainly arguableis the meansi tbit. Shàll it be peaceful pressure of under classes by constitutionalmeans, or the disruptive forces of revolutionthrough embittered men? The eventuationis of course not for today or tomorrow orday after tomorrow, but today is none tooearly for thoughtf ul ; citizens to begin tochoose a path for evolution toward this goal.Tò embrace socialism means to put one'strust so much in ideals as later to risk ac-cepting violence as a release from disillusionat the impotence of pure ideals. To put one's trust in the laissez faire of republicanrism— nowhere more perturbingly set outthan in Mr. Herbert Hoover's little bootentitled Individualism — is to expect thèprosperity qf a limited class to reprqduceitself indefinitely, and eventually to distri-bute itself against the combined wit and willof its powerful possessore, Not even deitytackles a job like that except with the ai'dof thunderbolts of violence. It is only fairto say, that this is an interpretation ratherthan an exposition of socialism and repub-licanism, as well as of deity. The social-ists, ii at ali orthodox, as Mr. Thomas isless or more, say that the final just distri-;bution will come inevitably. But thetechnique of revolution is a part of the in-evitability. Republicanism holds the theorythat the prospect of prosperity for the dis-possessed is conditioned upon continued andincreased prosperity for the possessed classes."The invisible hand" of the more religiousgeneration of Adam Smith has now becomethe gloved hand of benevolence. Benevo-lence always threatens to become charity,and charity a vice between any except economie equals. The doctrine of magic justice through some inevitability — a doctrineshared by standpat republicans and orthodox socialists— can be tfusted only byfore ordaining the Democratic Party topower. "But suppose," said the Calvinistmissiorìary to a remonstrance against hisfirearms on the ground that if an Indianshot him it was a sign that hrs "time hadcome." "Suppose," said he, "that I met anIndian who se iimé had comef'JWise men do not trust fate where theirown fortunes are concerned ; and humanemen do not trust fate when other men'sfortunes are concerned. Norman Thomas;with the Karl Marx tradition behind him,will be disposed to let production take careof itself in order to distribute goods moreor less equally; Herbert Hoover, with thèRepublican Party and a laissez faire tradirtion behind him, will tend to let distribu-tion take care of itself in order to producèand sell more and more goods. Both oìthese men are admittedly better than, theirtraditions, and both of them mean welljPICKINjG A PRjESID^NT 13but, well, you knowMthe old story about thepaying business. T^he t^uth is that, neitherproduction , nor distributjion wil]L take careof itself.* There 1$ ? aetually , , no. "manif estdestiny" ; prpvisipri is.the on}y safc ^epend-ence for naanlpn^ badenough when we rinate theni as good as yyecan. Governor Smith, , witl} t d.emocratictraditions jbehjncì hirn.^ with. the ; LowerEast Side and )^alì .Street > mingling inhis memory, can be counted, ,upon to pushthe, principle of justice in distribution asfar as the principle of efficiency in production will allow.. How, far that is, nobodywill know until Communism and Capitalismhave settled their^ contrpversyas to humanmqtivation,' an4 tnait controyersy is ; notlikely to be settled by warring wprds. Theonly way to settle it without undue hazardis in one field after another tq put to thetest the age-old faith that justice can be self-supporting, if given a chance. I have saidin a recent article : "Thai men will livefor private ends we know; that they willdie for public ends We know; but whetheraverage men in the .continuous long runwill live fqr public^ ends. ,we do not know.We know but rthi« of ali we would we knew,Democracy's a dream unless this dream is-. true.'N . ir ¦ { ¦ ¦ ''^ r :•• u> j. *- I have spoken of , G-overnot fSmith's parksystem in 'New York/ of his expériment-instate assistance 'for housing, ancLI.now re?turn to the pivotal issue of electrical power.Governor Smith wàé 'a pioneer in thispioneer \ field. As !Steam • has imade the ¦ present industriai age,^ so- by corhmon consentelectf ici ty is r to make the: «ext. , 0 Whateverthe chief charàcteristic pf this .next .-age; mayturn ©ut to be, we sknow that its ethicaleharacteristic will be* determinéd by its dis-;tributive system. , Accensibili ty;' of ali1 thè;people to the benéfits. , ò£ ; super-power isconditiqned by > their owfoership of it. * So-cruciai is the advarìtage that ownership r€rceives from tràdition and institutional/lag:that no, politicai way hasiyet been found ofneutralizing its < .economie ; povver . ; v So un-Ijkèly indeed; is ^thèiriossibility of, genuineT>tìbUe, control of great private power, that *iinfe hard,ly, unf aij; ,tq rsay t tJiat the .suryjvali^democp:acy;cQriceiyed as equaiity qr frater-. nity :4?pends upon the, public ownership ofpower. And even stand-pat^republicans havefìnally admitted, through a, Supreme ,Qourtdecision , the; , legitjmacy of public, - controlover ptoperty;affecting, public interest., Xhefirst logicai ; implicatipp, pf that ,grudgingadmission is publiaownership^for unlessthe controller is; the pyyner, the Qwjìer, ismore powerful in the;last. anajysis thaa/thecpntrpller. iw<; ( ,- >^, .,..,.., e,,-, ;>r,r; ,, ,,Why not Jthenfat once.; nationalize :coalmines, take over ( the railroads, età, /etc>?Thatisof cpursse one option. Other greatnations are heing^ driver* to thàlt alternativeeither by insight Qr by • intimidation, n'Jt- isnQt our American way; it viplàtes deeplyour individualistic tràdition. , • Moreover^for government without a tràdition to takeover an industry already organized, ^com-petitively exploited, not to say gutted; bank-riipt in morale but judicially entrenched isnot in gqod faith to try what seems to manythe indicated alternative. The age pf steamand coal has been an age of private ex-ploitation with illustrious progress r andglory, with colossal was té and shame. Letit stand forwhat it is- and pass of its dwnattritionv -If we wish- to see how far moreImmane distribution ^may go' without jedrj-ardfeing production, ;wé shdtild start witha new, industry that promilses to be basic,-develop traditions asit develops, and hirilda public servicr morale that ìvould over-match the too much va un fed morale Qofprivate exploit ation/ Tosay that. ttós( cannot be done is tò prejudge an issue ithat, if itmust be settled >b^ such prejudice, will be^settled finally by - the^ prejudices of^'the;massesv That the power issue i^ p©rma-;nently- basic is unquestionable ; not improb-;ably the èlectric'problemiwill veryshortlynot • merely include^ as already it idoes, : coahand^iwater ¦ power, :but_ ialso . air I currénts,iocéan tides, and atomici irrimensity. ;Multi-hillionaites >vi 11 r, . afise ^s, t , easily , ; from ; thetouch o£ ., this , Alad4in . as: - millionaire^ ( ^e,arjsen, f rom the ^oot, pf.cpal tand th^ .h^siijgof s^eam. r . Shalls, this/, [da^ling .vy^ealth, , be;qrnament.fpr the f^w jqi, J^ealth and;happi-^n,ess>;fpr «ali?;. , :Th^t, weri)iaye, (here a basic.,iss^e, I, repeat,, : is ; not, ppen,, to argumeritr.14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThat common interest as represented bygovernment is not in on the ground floorof its development is no fault of GovernorSmith, who has throughout his public lifebeen crying out like a watchman on im-perilled walls. November 6 is not a daytoo early to begin the recovery of whatso quickly we are losing. Private enterprisealready economically intrenched, is now ex-ploiting every propaganda resource knownto an advertising age to intrench itself spirit-ually. From the university to the firstgrade its propaganda has gone forth as gos-pel truth. Tomorrow may witness the re-writing of the Mother Goose Nurseryrhymes. I am quite prepared to hear anyday now this version of one of our oldfavorites, —There was a man in our town, he would notInsullize ;He read by kerosene and gas until he lost hiseyes,But when he saw his eyes were out, with ali hismight and main,He filled his house with electric lights and sawthen just the same.If you think that bad poetry, I suggestthat you compare it with the ethics used bythe power trust in its crusade of salvation.Theirs is a holy cause. Did not Goethecry prophetically "Mehr licht, mehr licht?"And doth not even Scripture itself plainlycommand ; "Let there be light" ?This strained effort to make the selfishappear the human cause would ali be indeedconvulsingly funny if it were a game withno consequences save for the victor. Butin it one scents tragedy if it goes one way;civilization and culture for ali men if it goesthe other. To have a man sympathetic withprivate enterprise, with no doctrinaire com-mitments, so wedded to ideal ends as sin-cerely to try from the beginning of a world-revolutionizing industry to find a goldenmean between private initiative and publicgood — to have such a man to choose forpresident is America's good fortune. Oncecommitted, as Governor Smith is, to thebasic faith of as just distribution as is experi-mentally and progressively compatible withefficient production, our national leadershould be for the rest of the way an eco nomie and ethical opportunist. GovernorSmith has an unprecedently mobile mind —note the spontaneity of his campaign, andfor that matter of his whole life. He startswith great caution, on one industry, de-manding only government ownership of sitesand machinery; but he will march forwardwith breathtaking strides if, when, andwhere, but only if, when, and where, statis-tical faets interpreted by scientific collaboratore point the way. What is more,he will carry the nation with him: businessmen are fortunately not afraid of him; theunder-dog instinctively trusts him ; even thefarmer believes that as he learns, he willperform — if plausible performance is herepossible short of an act of God. GovernorSmith is made to order for this job; thepower industry is made to order for the ex-periment. It would be a pity for us notcautiously to move to resolve the issue ofCapitalism and Communism by discoveringwhether public good can motivate maximumendeavor as hope of private gain sustainspresent endeavor — endeavor which, as Mr.Hoover's own committee found, is hardlymore than 50% efficient. Incidentally, itwould be interesting to find whether ourreligion merely leads us on a fatuous chaseafter a hypothetical other-world or prom-ises something for a kingdom of heaven ina democracy of common men.IliWhatever one thinks of the eventuationof the issue, Governor Smith's religion willbe a genuine asset to the enterprise. Prot-estantism by an early emphasis upon workscarne to emphasize property as a holy en-signia. Puritan sobriety became capitalisticthrift and prosperity in a far-reaching sensethe mark of divine favor. Quakerism,which Secretary Hoover incarnates, inten-sified this economie motif by having to makeup in prosperity what early it lacked in re-ligious respectability. Catholicism forcauses that might be set out never succumbedto the economie fetishism. Conservativeenough about institutionalized values, ithas nevertheless in confliets between person-ality and property rather uniformly takenPICKING Athe side of personality. This pointed quo-tation from the encyclical Rerum Novarumof Leo XIII could be duplicated in almostevery generation of the Church's life.There underlies a diciate of naturai justice more imperious and ancient than anybargain between man and man, namely, thatremuneration ought to be sufficient to sup*pori a frugai and well-behaved wage-earner.If through necessity or fear of a worse evilthe workman accepts harder conditions because an employer or contractor will affordhim no better, he is made the victim of forceand injustice.Only of late and in the most radicai cir-cles alone does Protestantism thus speak.Seasoned with this long and wholesome tràdition, Governor Smith can, without theself-consciousness that troubles even radicaiprotestants, deal with great property issueswithout losing sight of the human valuesconcerned.Both his religion and his social philos-ophy will likewise help him in dealing withthe vexing prohibition question. Let no onesuppose that this question is settled or willbe soon settled. It is the kind of issale thatno generation ever quite settles for another,try as it may through constitutional or otherdevices. Was the ròle and the rights ofnegroes settled by the 14th and I5th amend-ments? Yes, so far, as the South is concerned, in exactly the opposi te way fromthat constitutionally prescribed. GovernorSmith's religion will help with regard toprohibition by making him tolerant enoughto look at the issue through cosmopolitaneyes with ref erence to ali tastes involved ; hissocial philosophy has already helped by giv-ing him insight enough to see and to strike PRESIDENT i5at one of the basic evils connected with thedispensing of stimulàting drink. The saloonregime tied up the dispensing of alcoholwith the hope of private gain, and thuscaused the intemperance of some to con-tribute to the prosperity of others. Thepresent regime by constitutionally satisfyingrespectable consciences turns over the ac-tual dispensation of bad liquor to worsemen than saloon keepers, worse at least forlack of public control. Recognizing thatliquor has always been dispensed, that it isnow being dispensed, and that in some formit most probably always will be dispensed,Governor Smith proposes to legitimatizewhatever dispensation of it given commun-ities want and then to divorce completelythe gain motive from its distribution bymaking what Socrates called the mother ofus ali — the State — our guardian in tempta-tion. Whatever inevitable difficulties thisprogram entails, it wisely recognizes goodin what satisfies human wants and strikesbodily at one basic evil connected with itsadministration.IVIf we were to elect Norman Thomas asour next president, we would have an idealiste and impotent administration; if we doelect Herbert Hoover, we shall have aconservative, respectable, and uninspiredadministration dedicated to making andselling more goods; but if we should electAlfred E. Smith, we shall have started anecessary and inspiring experiment in ex-panding social vistas and enlarging theborders of human good. Eventually, wemust start it; why not now? Let Smith doit.A Vote For Anyone but Thomasis Thrown AwayBy Paul H. DouglasProfessor of Industriai Relations^HE average American progressivewho fancies himself to be an intellec-tual continually deplores the fact thatwe have no labor party here comparableto that of England, and yet votes, withgreat solemnity, at every election for theless reactionary of the two old parties.This is amusing enough, but what is evenmore mirth-provoking, is the guileless be-lief of these towering intellects that theyare consistent. From the rapt adorationwith which they swarm around the lumi-naries of the British Labor Party whenthese dignitaries visit our shores, the un-sophisticated observer might conclude thatan American labor party was about to ariseby the process of spontaneous combustion.But these religious ecstasies have in factlittle effect upon the actual politicai be-haviour of this species. Its members mayday-dream of a strong labor party whichwill recognize their merit by calling themto leadership (and who, they- ask, can bebetter qualified?) but in practisé they willnot support any party in which theré is notthe promise that the seed sown in Augustshall ripen into politicai victory by No-vember. Calling themselves realists, theyturn their backs on any movement which,aiming at the same ends they espouse, istainted with the sin of being numericallyweak. In mortai terror lest they should"throw away their votes," they instead support that candidate with a chance of successwho promises to give them a few reforms,/ 'As these gentlemen now seern to be prepar-^fng to go through their quadrennial performance with* great complacency, it mayinòt be inappropriate to cast an eye overJlreir gyrations dùrihg the last two decadesiti order to' determine whether pr, not they!?tre so wisé* after ali. ' :" ~'iV.Thus we find them in 1908 supporting*Bryan because of his promises to curb in*jjuhctions? but by 19 12 they had persuadedIthemselyès that fhey were indeed standing at Armageddon not only with Rooseveltbut with the Lord as well. Four yearslater, however, it was again the Democraticparty under Wilson which was the hope ofPacific liberals. In 1920, .with an extern-ally composed manner, the liberals, likeStephen Leacock's hero, mounted theirhorse and rode off in ali directions. Somesupported Cox in order to ensure our en-trance into the League of Nations. Othersrallied behind the statesman from Marionat the advice of Messrs. Hoover and Hughesin order to obtain the same end more effec-tively. Stili others ielt that because of hisimpassioned denunciation of marine ruleHarding was just the man to end the im-perialistic policy in the Caribbean which hadbeen fostered by their erstwhile liberal hero,Woodrow Wilson. A few supported thestruggling Farmer-Labor party only to de-sert it immediately after election.In 1924 hopes beat high for the hastilyorganized candidacy of LaFollette, butwhen the liberals found that only {ive mil-lion others had vòted similarly, or approxi-mately as large a proportion of the votesas the Socialist Party has ever commandedin France, they were immediately plungedinto the deepest dejection. Some took theboat for Europe ; others, like Candide, culti-vated their gardens. AH agreed that itwas hopeless to go farther. Now we findEastern liberals enthusiastic about Smith because he is humane, believes in the publicownership (through not distribution) ofpower, and has denounced the Coolidgepolicy in Central America, while some òfthe Western libef als lean to Hoover becauseof tfie igenuinely pacific and humanitariarìpromptings of his Quaker heart.. *,;. Now since ali this running hither an<|thithér has been -justified atv the time in thenamè of politicai realism," it is only prppei?!to use that standaro* in dètermining whethe|pr not liberàlveèds hàye been- as well furithered bjt^hisr^à^ti^. as ^v'ould the investj16PICKING A PRESIDENT 17ment of the same ehergy ; in - fost ering anindependent party < based solidly on theeconomie interests of rural, urban, and intellectual worke re, An analysis of theBritish and American experience givesalmost conclusive; evidence upon thisquestion.In the first place, our pseudo-realists intrying to pick a winner have supported cari-?didates who have had little more chance ofsuccess in the large majority^of cases thanthe humbler parties which, on the groundsof expediency, they have rejected. Despitethe truly gallànt efforts of Governor Smithto pump politicai vitality into his candi-dacy, there is every prospect that the liberals who now support him will have no betterluck. Secondly, in those few instanceswhen a darling of the liberals has been successali, events have almost invariably shownhim to be far less liberally spirited thanthe intelligentsia have credited him with be-ing, and that they have totally underesti-mated the terrific pressure from selfish business and nationalistic interests to which heis inevitably subjected. Woodrow Wilsonis here of course the crowning example.For almost a generation, therefore, theAmerican liberals have, by their aimlesspoliticai philandering, thrown away theirvotes and they now find themselves at theend weaker than when they began and without a politicai home.If we turn to England and consider notmerely the brilliant maturity of the LaborParty but also its slow growth over nearlyforty years, even an American intellectualcan see that this has largely been due tomaintenance of an independent organizationthrough years in which there was absolute-ly no prospect of politicai success. Therewere Worldly Wisemen galore in Englandduring the nineties who whispered tó Keir-Hardie and his followers that it was follyto set up an Independent Labor Party andthat labor should instead pin its faith uponeither the social-reform sympathies of Joseph Chamberlain or thè Gladstonian Lib-eralism of Morley and Campbell Banner-man. But Keir-Hardie and his men hadwhat is rarer than intellectual subtlety, namely moral courage, and they knew thatthey were building/not for a few years onlybut for decades and indeed for ali time itself. It was the presehee of the Independent Labor Party which later furnished thepoliticai nucleus upon which the Trade-Unions, in their resentment over the Taff-Vale decision, could build, and it has eversince impregnated the larger body with thestimulus ,of its own imaginatiye Jevotion.Thus both the negative : experience piAmerica and the positive; experience ofEngland demonstrate that if ^ }^]trpng labprjparty is desired, the way to secure itls ip.a^tiently to build through the years an independent and aggressive politicai party andnot to run constantly from one of the oldparties to the other for those short-run gainswhich are generally illusory. ,AH this would seem definitely to demonstrate that it was the duty this year ofevery economie liberal to support NormanThomas and the Socialist Party. Before onecan finally accept this conclusion, however,at least three further questions need tp beanswered: (i) Whether, despite our ver-bal' allegiance to the idea ofa labor party,such a group is really needed in .so prosper-ous a country as America, i(z^ Whether itis possible to build up such a party, and (3)Whether the Socialist Party, as at presentconstituted, should be encouraged to be-;come its nucleus.The Labor parties of Europe owe their;impetus tp the positive misery of most oftheir working-classes, They are, as Patten,would say, the product of a pain economy.Does the high level of real wages in America (which is from 60 to 75 per cent abovethat pf Great Britian) and the recentextraordinary increase in production,amounting, as it has to over 40 per centper employee, rempve the necessity for anysuch party here ? The answer to this isthat while the material progress of , theworkers has in the last ' fifteen years been0real, the situation is by no means as favpr-ableas Mr. Hoover and his ielloyv pros-:per ity shóut ere would have us believe. Alarge proportiòrì of thè f àmilies of urban un--skilled labor, as the late Miss Hqughtelingri8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEhas definitively shown, are stili below thesubsistence level of living and the othersare precariously dose to it. There isvirtually no collective protection againstthe hazards of illness, unemployment andindigent old age, while the distributionof wealth and income is grossly unequaland demands rectification. Many indus-tries, such as coal, textiles, and farmingare very definitely in a mess and needcollective measures to pulì them out. Anorientation in our foreign policy towardspeace is moreover imperatively demandedsuch as only the recognition of an international solidarity between the workerscan give.These are changes which only a partyfounded on the solid economie interests ofthose who are to benefit from them cangive. They cannot, of coursé, come fromthe Republican party, which is quite definitely the party of property, nor can theypermanently be fostered by th&t hodge-podge of the reactionary South and theboss-ridden Irish-Catholic machines of theNorth which oDerates under the name ofthe Democratic Party. To vote for Smithreally means to perpetuate a contradictorysymbol and thereby to postpone that realign-ment of voters on the basis of real differ-ences of interests and ideals which liberalshave on countless occasions pointed out asperhaps the greatest need in our politicailife.The failure thus far to create an effectivelabor party has led many to disbelieve inits ultimate possibility. The difficulties inits way certainly should not be minimized.The present indifference of the skilledcrafts and the individualism of the farmersare great impediments, while the politicaiobstacles are many. The temptation to believe that the old parties can be capturedthrough the direct primaries, the task ofgetting national unity out of the forty-eightstate policies, and the direct election of theexecutive are ali difficulties which the Brit-ish Labor Party is not compelled to face.But these are not insuperable. If the un-skilled and semi-skilled could be unionized,their naturai desire for legislative protec tion would probably force the A. F. of L.to support a labor party.This was precisely the effect in Englandof the organization of the unskilled, and ifthe laissez faire philosophy of HenryBroadhurst can be overcome there, then thesimilar philosophy of Gompers can in timebe superseded here by the less skilled ifthey can once be orgànized. The spread ofproportional representation would moreover free the timid and short-sighted votersfrom their fear of throwing away theirvote.If a strong independent politicai nucleusis moreover encouraged, it can by its agita-tion hasten the coming of this larger laborparty and can provide a politicai frame-work which will help it to get started.The only question which should thereforeremain for a realistic liberal is whether theSocialist Party is worthy of being encouraged as the evangel of the coming laborparty. An obvious answer is that it nowis the only party in the field which canfulfìll that mission. The Farmer-Labor Party of 1920 collapsed becausethere was not enough spiritual devo-tion in its members. Even a poli of fivemillions did not give the LaFollette move-ment sufficient courage to continue. TheSocialist Party, with ali its faults, has alonepossessed the vitality to endure and what hmore to improve. Many liberals have irthe past been deterred from supportineit because in so doing they were requirecto give adherence to a dogmatic Marxisnwhich, so far as the labor theory of valuwas concerned, had no more to do with thbasic principles of Socialism than the tenetof the fundamentalists have with the me;sage of Christianity. The present platfornhowever, wisely dispenses with ali theconomie theology and bases its prograisolely upon realities. It calls not only f<the public ownership of power, as doGovernor Smith, but also for its distibution by the public, which Smith does nadvocate and the absence of which woulargely prevent the economies of the supepower system from penetrating to the ulmate consumer. It advocates the nation;PICKING A PRESIDENT 19ization of the coal industry as the surestmeans of closing down the excess mines andof joining the industry up with the develop-ment of power. Alone among the parties,it demands a thorough-going system of socialinsurance and the skimming off, throughtaxes on large incomes, inheritances, andeconomie rent, of those socially appropri-able surpluses which are not necessary toensure the carrying on of production andwhich are instead merely tolls levied byreason of monopolistic position. Finally itsforeign policy is a very model for liberalism,calling as it does for the withdrawal of ourtroops from Nicaragua and Haiti, thelimitation of armaments, the cancellation ofthe debts provided European armamentsare reduced, and if the Treaty of Versaillesis revised affiliation with the League of Na-tions. It has further modernized its ownmachinery by abandoning a belief inMarxism as a prerequisite for membership,which now rests solely on a belief in the de-mocratization of industry and in independent politicai action by the workers of handand brain. It has given a further earnestof its sincerity in pledging itself to cooperate with ali groups which may laterwish to combine in a labor party and by itsaction in the LaFollette campaign hasshown that it is willing to take its place,like the Independent Labor Party, in alarger whole. Finally, in Norman Thomas,it has nominated a man who is intellectuallythe equal of Hoover and of Smith and whodespite their real virtues is morally theirsuperior.Finally, supporting Thomas is not onlythe best way of helping to create a laborparty, but it is also the best way of wring-ing concessions from the old parties. Alarge Socialist vote would put far more pressure upon the Republicans and Democratsto liberalize their policies lest they suffer further losses than could any inchoate andunorganized collection of liberals withouta party to give them effectiveness. Thisagain is borne out by the experience ofEngland. The pressure of the Labor Partyhas actually compelled the ConservativeParty itself to put into effect legislation suchas mothers' allowances and the loweringof the pensionable age to 65. A liberal can,therefore in general, exercise more inrluenceupon the old parties from without thanfrom within.If in the face of ali this, the liberals per-sist once again in supporting one of the oldparties, they will demonstrate anew thatthey are in fact neither intellectuals norrealists but merely politicai Babbits whoworship immediate and visible power andwho lightly sacrifice an ultimate promise ofAmerican life for highly hypothetical concessions. In no other walk of life would theyexpect to gain their end so cheaply, norcan they in fact do so in politics. Theyneed most of ali to ponder and to adopt thepoliticai as well as moral implications ofWilliam James' famous passage:As for me, my bed is made; I am againstbigness and greatness in ali their forms,and with the invisible molecular moralforces that work from individuai to individuai, stealing in through the crannies ofthe world like so many soft rootlets, orlike the capillary oozing of water, and yetrending the hardest monuments of manspride, if you give them time. So I am againstali big organizatìons as such, national onesfirst and foremost; against ali big successesand big results; and in favor of the eternaiforces of truth which always work in theindividuai and immediately unsuccessfulway, underdogs always, fili history comes,after they are long dead, and puts them onthe top.Making the Past Live AgainBy Fay-Cooper ColeProfessor of AnthropologyPERHAPS the best evidence of thechange which is taking place in educational methods is found by surveying theactivities of the graduate students of asingle division of the University, that ofAnthropology.In recent years the University has stressedthe need of allowing the student to partici-pate in research work. "Learn by doing"has become the motto in many departments,and the laboratory and the field have cometo occupy places of even greater importancethan the class room or of stated instruction.Through the aid of the Locai Community Research, the Committee on American Indian Linguistic Research, and byarrangement with various American andCanadian museums and Research Boards,the division of Anthropology has found itpossible to give practically ali its graduatestudents field experience, while carrying onstudies of importance to science.The work in Illinois archaeology is per-haps of the greatest locai interest, for in thisstudy the University is attempting to re-covefr the prehistory of our own stateAn Early IUinoian. Nearly every village has its locai collector,and Indian mounds have been opened inevery locality, yet on the archaeological mapsof the United States Illinois is stili marked"unexplored." Except for a few sites noscientific work had been attempted in thestate until three years ago when the archaeological survey of Illinois was undertakenby the staff and students in Anthropology.Since that time an intensive survey hasbeen made of the northern and north-eastern counties. Ali existing mounds andvillage sites have been plotted on the mapand to these have been added ali formersites and Indian trails which could be defi-nitely located. In addition, locai collec-tions have been studied and photographedand the distribution of types of pottery,stone work, and other articles worked out.In this survey undisturbed sites were located and each season has seen a numberof the students engaged in excavation. Thispast summer a field party consisting of W.M. Krogman, Richard Snodgrass, GeorgeNeumann, Wm. H. Gilbert, Robert Jones,Thorne Duell, Henri Deninger, and Robert Engberg, spent eighty days in surveyand excavation work. The first site to beopened was a large undisturbed mound located within the limits of Oakwood Ceme-tery near Joliet. Here an even one hundredskeletons were unearthed and after a pre-liminary field examination were transferredto the University for detailed study. Ob-jects of daily use while not in abundancemade it possible to establish the cultural re-lationships of this group of Indians andalso gave evidence that the mound wasentirely prehistoric. Several small moundsopened in the vicinity of Quincy yieldedvaluable material relating to tribal move-ments prior to the coming of the Whites.Work of a similar character was startedthis year by the Indiana State HistoricalSociety, and Frank Setzler of the University was placed in charge.20MAKING THE PAST LIVE AGAIN 21While the locai parties were in the field,Alonzo Pond was in the Gobi Desert serv-ing as archaeologist for the Asiatic Expe-dition of the American Museum of NaturaiHistory. Thousands of polished stone andbone implements of Neolithic age rewardedthe search and added greatly to our knowledge of that portion of the world fromwhich our American aborigines are believedto have come. Meanwhile Paul Nesbit wasin charge of the excavations of the Logan-Beloit Expedition in Algiers, North Africa,and was recovering evidences of man whooccupied that region twenty-five thousandyears ago. In addition to great quantitiesof worked stone, six skeletons were re-covered which add vastly to our knowledgeof early man. Stili further to the East inthe Hittite field, Richard Martin was amember of the expedition of our OrientaiInstitute. In the Maya ruins of Yucatan,Paul Martin, who was spending his secondyear with the expedition of the CarnegieInstitution, was completing the restorationof the tempie discovered by him a year ago.Northeastern New Mexico offered an inter-esting field for Gerhardt Laves, who wasattached to the Paleontological expeditionof the American Museum of NaturaiHistory, to survey the region surroundingthe Folsom bison quarry in which an extinct species of bison has been found associatedwith artifacts of human manufacture.Not ali the activities of the Division weredevoted to archaeology, for Wendell Ben-nett and Paul Diefenderfer have been forseveral months engaged in ethnologicalwork in the Pacific Islands, and CorneliusOsgood started in May for a stay of a yearand a half among the little-known Harelndians in the vicinity of Great Bear Lakeof northern Canada, a region practicallyunknown to science. F. K. Li also wentto the North to Lake Athabaska in Albertawhere he made a study of the Chipewyanand Hare languages, both of which areneeded for the reconstruction of the Atha-baskan group of languages to which theDivision has given much attention for sometime. The last of the group, Harry Hoijer,carried on linguistic work among the rem-nant of the Tonkawa lndians now livingin Oklahoma. The language of this tribeappears to be distinct from that of anyother known American Indian Language,and its study was important at this timeif a record was to be obtained before itdisappeared.It was stated at the beginning of thisarticle that our students are learning bydoing. The record shows that they are like-wise accomplishing important results forscience.Uncovering a Pre-Historic Joliet.Newer Studies of Relaxation and SleepBy Edmund Jacobson, Ph.D., M.D.Hull Physiological Laboratory, The University of ChicagoRELAXATION, partial or complete,is an event that occurs many thou-sands of times each day in one oranother of the various muscle-groups ofevery vertebrate. It has therefore been thesubject of manifold studies by animaiphysiologists who have sought to explain itin terms of physics and chemistry. Butabout twenty years ago, when the presentstudies were begun, students of the prob-lem of sleep had generally given little orno attention to the subject of relaxation;and what may seem stili stranger to thelayman, physicians who dealt with func-tional nervous maladies generally neglectedthe subject almost completely. Indeed tothis very day, the word relaxation is absentor scarcely mentioned in the index of mosttexts which treat of such disorders. In spiteof this relative neglect, it is becoming in-creasingly apparent that the study ofmuscular tension and relaxation is likelyto constitute the very backbone of our un-derstanding and treatment of many commonnervous disorders.During the course of the present studiesa method to produce an extreme degree ofrelaxation has been evolved. The subjector patient lies on his back in a fairly quietroom and is shown how to relax the various muscle-groups of his body, one by one intemporal order, until he becomes able torelax ali of them simultaneously. A common way to begin is to have him flex onearm against resistance made by the experi-menter, while the subject notes the sensa-tion of tenseness in the flexor muscles. Bysudi simple exercises he becomes familiarwith the experience of tenseness, in contrastwith other experiences, so that he is ableto recognize it and localize it when it ap-pears anywhere in his body, much as hemight become familiar through repeated experiences with a certain shade of color orsome particular sound. He discovers, alsothrough direct experiences, that to relax issimply the negative of holding a muscle-group tense, and can be properly done onlyif effort is completely avoided. In this waythe sensation of tenseness can act as a signalto the individuai of a locality that is to berelaxed.The complete relaxation of a muscle-group, even in the trained individuai, doesnot generally occur instantly, but may re-quire fifteen minutes or more. Daily prac-tise periods therefore are required, usuallyof about an hour, in which the individuaiseeks to improve his technique. In conse-This illustrates a procedure preliminary to relaxation. The subject is shownflexing his hand against resistance offered by the physician in order to bring to hisattention the sensations during contraction of the flexor muscles. Later he practicesat relaxing those muscles.22NEWER STUDIES OF RELAXATION AND SLEEP 23quence he may finally attain a state of relaxation more general over his body andmore complete than what is commoniyJoiown as muscular relaxation. For variousreasons the process has been named "Progressive Relaxation."In certain studies and in the treatment ofcertain disorders, including insomnia, thecourse is but half complete when the individuai has learned to relax lying down. Thènext procedure is to direct his practise inthe sitting posture. Finally he is trainedin relaxation while engaged in such activi-ties as reading or writing. Under suchconditions it is obvious that relaxation cannot be general and complete; for the handsmust continue to hold the book or movethe pen, the eyes must continue to followthe words and the back must maintain acertain posture. Bue while during such ac-tivities certain muscles must be somewhattense, it is possible to avoid an undue degreeof tension in them while at the same timerelaxing such other muscles as are notneeded for the activities in question. In thisway an economy of nervous or muscularenergy is brought about, which is of con-siderable importance in certain states ofdebility and fatigue as well as of nervousirritability and excitement.The present experiments have shown thatas the individuai relaxes his external musclesto an extreme degree, emotions subside orvanish. Indeed mental activities themselvesfail to go on in the presence of extremerelaxation. This experimental fact is notto be confused with a current theory popu-iar in psychology that we think with ourmuscles. Whatever the future may bring inregard to that theory, it is to-day little more than a speculation. Definite experimentalproofs have not been advanced, exceptingthat the present studies have indicated, aspreviously said, that thinking dwindles orceases in the presence of extreme muscularrelaxation. Such relaxation must involveparticularly the small muscles of the eyes,and of speech. .When the average individuai lies down tosleep, his muscles automatically relax toa certain extent. If this relaxation pro-ceeds to an advanced degree, sleep sets in.There are a certain few muscles whichhabitually remain in contraction duringsleep but this contraction must be steady,else the individuai awakens. Indeed almostany muscle-group may be in contractionand yet permit sleep, provided that thecontraction is moderate in degree and steadyin nature. There are suggestions that itis the marked fluctuation in contraction ofany muscle-group that is responsible forawakening. Accordingly, the average individuai may fall asleep when a certainstage of relaxation is reached, although relaxation is not complete. It is probablethat dreaming occurs during such states ofincomplete relaxation.In order to avoid mere speculations inthe studies of relaxation and sleep, it is nec-essary to devise means of measuring thesefunctions so that results and conclusionscan be checked. A brief account of some ofthe experiments may make clear why I havebeen led to believe that our subjects are se-curing a greater degree of relaxation thanwhat is commoniy called by that name.In 1908 we began to study the mechanismof the start which the average person commoniy gives upon the occurrence of a loudThis figure illustrates the effect of relaxation in quieting the start caused by asudden, unexpected sound. At 3 the subject was directed to contract generally themuscles of the limbs, trunk and head ; at o he was relaxed, while at 1 there was anintermediate degree of general contraction. The most marked start is here shownwhere the preceding contraction is greatest, while with relaxation there is no start.24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEand sudden unexpected noise. It was evi-dent that this tended to occur when theindividuai was giving his attention to somematter, or as is commoniy said "was lostin thought." At such moments tensionscould generally be observed in the regionof the forehead, brows and eye-muscles andin the muscles which maintain posture. Thissuggested that the previous state of muscular tension was accountable for the extentof the jerk produced when the sound wassuddenly made. To test this hypothesis,the subject was directed at various timesto contract these same muscle-groups or torelax them markedly. During marked relaxation it was generally found that thestart was diminished or failed to occur andthe subject reported an absence of dis-agreeable experience.Similar tests were made in 1925 with asudden painful electric shock applied tothe finger tips of one hand of the subject.The naturai reaction of course is to with-draw the hand. This movement wasmeasured in its extent and its speed interms of thousandths of a second. Everysubject withdrew the hand sharply whenlying upon the couch in the state which isordinarily termed relaxation. But duringextreme relaxation in the sense of the present method of training, the movement ofwithdrawal was often greatly diminishedand the sense of disagreeable shock and painwas sometimes absent altogether. One subject who was most proficient at relaxationfailed to show any movement of withdrawalin 96% of the instances in a series of tests.Subjectively it seemed to her almost in-credible that the electric current which hadproduced the stimulation was the same instrength as that which had previously produced the pain. These experiments support the conclusion that even responses topain may be favorably influenced by extreme relaxation.Tests of the knee-jerk reveal that it becomes markedly diminished in extent at themoment of extreme relaxation. These areperformed by having the subject sit in acertain type of chair with the right leghanging loosely. Taps are delivered withan electrically driven hammer to the tissue under the knee-cap, causing the leg to givekicks in an automatic manner. The heightof these kicks can be measured in graphicrecords. With most individuai, at anymoment when something occurs to arouseattention, surprise or other emotion, thekick becomes increased in height. But asmental activity decreases, the jerk generallyalso tends to diminish. As sleep comes onthe jerk is likely to disappear completely;even though the taps remain the same inforce as previously. However, in light sleepsmall kicks generally can be elicited. Thisshows that light sleep is not a state of complete relaxation and is evidence that thepresent method, which results in an absentknee-jerk, produces a deeper state of relaxation than that during light sleep.Stili further tests of the efEects of relaxation of the external muscles have beenmade on certain muscles of the digestiveorgans. It is well known that divers nervous conditions can give rise to certain digestive disorders. X-ray studies of patientsthen may reveal the presence of spasms,that is, of chronic tensions in the digestiveorgans. A common seat of such spasms isthe esophagus, a muscular tube which leadsfrom the mouth to the stomach. VariousX-ray and other tests during such conditions of spasm with patients who have re-ceived special training to relax have indi-cated that the esophagus is responsive torelaxation. Some subjects have learned toswallow a small rubber bag attached to arubber tube in such a way that the bagcan be slightly inflated after it has passeddeep down into the esophagus. As theesophagus contraets, the balloon is com-pressed, forcing air out of the rubber tube,so moving a little pointer which writes arecord on a revolving drum. In this wayit is possible to obtain a measure of thecontractions and relaxations of certainviscera. It is found that the esophagus re-sponds by contraction at the moment of theslightest emotion: a fly alighting on theface, a period of fear and even a passingthought process is attended by a correspond-ing contraction of the esophagus. Generalextreme relaxation, in which the esophagusparticipates, as previously said, is markedNEWER STUDIES OF RELAXATION AND SLEEP 25by the absence of such thought processes andemotions.From these and other similar laboratoryobservations, it is possible to infer a fairlycharacteristic picture of how we conductour activities of thinking and of going tosleep. The external muscles of our body arethe so-called voluntary muscles. It is theythat enable us to carry out our "will." Indeed what is called the "will" is in partbut an abstract way of describing the activities of these muscles. Whatever else wedo, in the ordinary sense of the word, in-volves their action. If we move a hand ora leg or look in a certain direction, someset or sets of these muscles are responsible.Reflection largely consists in a sort of replicaof such acts: we desire to see some objectin imagination, as for instance the head-lines in this morning's newspaper and wemove our eye-muscles in a slight way as ifwe were actually seeing the headlines. Direct evidence for this point of view has notbeen secured, except that complete relaxation of eye muscles renders such imageryfor the time. being impossible. If this iscorrect, we guide the direction of ourthought-processes in much the same way as we guide our sense-organs and the otherparts of our bodies in our actual activities.Upon lying down to sleep, in the normalman gross tensions of the external musclesare likely to subside within a few minutesor more. Gradually also the finer tensionsof the eyes and speech-organs and otherparts engaged in activities of thinking andemotion tend to subside. When a certainstage of relaxation is reached, probably de-pending largely upon the amount of fatiguesubstances in the blood and tissues, sleep setsin. But if the individuai has been hyper-tense during the day, the degree of relaxation necessary for sleep may fail to appear.Then he is likely to toss about while hismind continues to remain active far intothe night. Since the nervous system is highlysusceptible to habit and tends to repeat aprocess that has happened once or twice,the condition of insomnia is likely to recur,particularly if for any reason he continuesto be hypertense during the day. It is evi-dent that the treatment of such habitualconditions should consist of cultivation ofhabits of repose both during daily activities and at night. This is a matter of nervous re-education, which may require monthsor years.Left. Spasm of the esophagus, confirmed under the fluoroscope (x-ray), as seenbefore relaxation. Later, after about 20 minutes of general relaxation, the esophagusappeared wide and relaxed under the fluoroscope, emptying in normal manner prac-tically at once.Right. Spasm of the esophagus. After a period of general relaxation, theesophagus appeared relaxed under the fluoroscope and emptied in normal time whenbarium was again given.Early Banking and Big BusinessBy James Westfall ThompsonProfessor of Medieval HistoryFLORENCE never developed a statebank, though her state debt wasfunded as early as 1345 and herbonds were current negotiable paper.Fiorentine laws were strict and the courtswere vigilant in maintaining the integrityof commercial relations. Breach of con-tracts, fictitious sales, short weights andmeasures, price cutting, misrepresentationof quality of goods, like using shoddy incloth of first rate quality, were heavilypenalized. In consequence of these strictregulations Fiorentine commercial honorwas the highest in Europe in the fourteenthand fifteenth centuries. The bill of ex-change was widely used and stabilized bythe government.State banking as distinguished from private banking was peculiarly a Venetiancontribution to fiscal history. Government,not private initiative, was the rule in Ven-ice. The earliest incident in Venetian financial history which illustrates this statementoccurred after the First Crusade when theVenetian fleet under command of the dogeDomenicho Michael was besieging Tyre.The siege was a long and obdurate one ; thesummer passed and winter was approach-ing ; the doge's supply of money was nearlyexhausted and the sailors and marines wereon the verge of mutiny. In this crisis, withthat masterful spirit which so characterizedhim, Domenicho Michael stamped the sealof Venice upon bits of leather and pledgedhis word that the Senate would redeemevery one of these leathern rags — which itdid. So far as I know, this is the earliestinstance of fiat money in history. The mar-vel is that the device was not seized uponby Italian princes every where to recouptheir finances.Thirty years later (1157) in time offinancial stress Venice raised money by aforced loan and established a bank to handlethe certificates, which were guaranteed bythe state and circulated as bonds. The originai subscribers to the loan were the first stockholders of the bank, the first statebank in history. But Venice's commercialenterprise was so active, her wealth sogreat that many private banking housesarose, like the Soranzo, Priuli, Pisani, Lip-pomani, Sanudo and Tiepolo families. Thebank of St. George in Genoa, a partlyprivate and partly state institution, was notestablished until 1407.From Italy capitalistic enterprise passedto Germany, where in the fifteenth centurythe Fuggers, the Welsers, the Hochstettersbecame masters of finance and captains ofindustry. These houses, and especially thefirst, are of interest in many ways, butnot the least important fact in their historyis that they were closely identified withGerman mining, something unknown inItaly except on a minor scale in Calabria.. The Fugger f amily arose in the firstdecade of the fifteenth century from simplelinen weavers in Augsburg. Originallyinterested in cloth weaving, the Fuggersof the fifteenth century branched out intothe spice and linen trade. They had con-nections with Venice, where Jacob Fugger,first real head of the f amily, learned histrade. The Fuggers became interested in theopening up of the German mines, and withthe Welsers and Hochstetters were one ofthe three or four great contributing factorsin the progress of capitalism in Europe. Theworking of the silver mines in Tyrol beganin 1487; copper mining in Hungary wasbegun in 1497; the money the Fuggersmade in commerce was now available forthe working of the mines. In 1494 theFugger company was incorporated underan imperiai charter.The Welsers were also interested in thesilver mines of Tyrol and Saxony. Theybegan the working of the mines atSchwartz in 1448; at Salsburg in 1460; inSaxony in 1471; in Bohemia in 1492. InBohemia the mines had been closed foreighty years because of the Hussite Wars.The Welsers also operated iron forgers in26EARLY BANKING AND BIG BUSINESS 27Thuringia. Ali this mining enterprise ofthe Welsers could not have been possiblewithout the early experience of the familyin trade. The money earned through pre-vious commercial activity was now avail-able for the working of the mines, theoperation of which, in turn, afforded newfacilities for the formation of capital. Thematerial resources of Germany were in thelands of these Augsburger capitalists. Theywere the Guggenheims of the fifteenth andsixteenth centuries. The resources of Tyrol,Steiermark, the Alpine lands, Saxony, theHarz Mountains, Bohemia, in gold, Silver, iron, copper, tin, salt — in other words,"die deutsche Erde" was privately ownedby these men.Modem monopolistic tendencies in business are strikingly illustrated in the opera-tions of these German capitalists. Smallmine competitors were bought out by thehuge Fugger organization by the paymentof the debts of the small operators. Afterthe mines fell in their hands, they spreadout into the metal trade. In 1498 we findthe first attempt to build up a syndicate byagreement. The result was a copper com-bination. At the beginning of the sixteenthcentury the Fuggers controlied the minesand metal sources of Germany, Austria,Bohemia, Hungary and Spain — the California, Nevada, Colorado and Montana ofEurope. They owned the quick-silver andsilver mines of Almaden and Guadalcaucalin Spain.The Fuggers also established commercialand banking connections with the SpanishHapsburgs, and even branched out into theenormously profitable spice trade of Spain'sEast Indian Empire, notably in the Mo-lucca islands. But their vessels, for fear ofthe Portuguese and French, instead ofreaching Europe around the «Cape of GoodHope, crossed the Pacific to Chile, thenceto Panama (where the cargoes had to betransported across the isthmus) and thenceagain by galleon to Spain. The highestpoint of prosperity and power of the Fuggers was attained in the time of AntonFugger (1525-60) who left a fortune of sixflorins as the inventory of his will, publishedin 1562, shows. Not ali the Fugger loans to kings andprinces, however, were profitable. Thebalance sheet of the house in 1577 shows6,558,059 florins of sound investmentsagainst 1,244,906 florins of bad -debts, thechief insolvents being Philip II of Spain,and his great commercial city of Antwerpin the Spanish Netherlands. Sixteenth century governments were inclined to stretchtheir credit in time of war and to scaledown or even repudiate their debts. International finance was a ticklish business in theperiod of the Reformation.Philip II of Spain twice partially repu-diated, and in 1607 Spain went completelybankrupt, owing the Fuggers then 3,500,-000 ducats. Besides these Spanish debts, theHapsburgs during the years 1 574-161 7borrowed to the extent of 615,000 florins.In ali the Hapsburgs contracted debts whichamounted to -8, 000,000 florins by the middleof the seventeenth century. Thus, much ofwhat the Fuggers earned during a periodof 150 years (1409-1560), was lost becauseof their banking operations with the faith-less governments of Europe. Let us hopethat history may not repeat itself.It might be added the discovery of America had some effect upon this condition. Forthe flood of silver and gold which pouredinto Europe in the sixteenth century fromSpanish America demoralized the moneymarket. Between 1492 and 1544 $56,000,000 of gold and silver was dumped onEurope. In the single year 1545, when thefamous mines of Potosi were opened, goldand silver to the enormous amount of $98,000,000 was brought to Europe. The pur-chasing power of money owing to thischeapening of money is estimated to havef alien 25 per cent, between 1520 and 1540,and to 50 per cent, by 1600. The effectwas not unsimilar to the effect upon theworld of the opening of the Klondike andthe Rand in the "nineties" of the last century. On the other hand, of course pricesrose. Between 1500 and 1600 the price ofwheat advanced 400 per cent, while work-ingmen's wages in the same period increasedonly 30 per cent. The sixteenth century wasan age of "hard times,,, a condition which28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEhad great influence upon the Reformationwhich often was a vehicle for the expressionof economie discontent under the cloak ofreligion.The shrinkage of purchasing power ofmoney across the centuries, at the same timethat the volume of capital in Europe greatlyincreased, is an interesting phenomenon.For example, a fortune of 22,000 francs in1200 was worth 16,000 francs in 1300;• 7500 francs in 1400; 6500 in 1500. But inChicago, Illinois,August 23rd, 1928.To the Editor:Last March issue containing article byRobert Redfield on Among the MiddleAmericans was interesting to me. A bangedup leg from the last practice prior toIllinois game in '97, followed by éxposurelying on wet ground at Wisconsin gamesame year brought on very severe coldwhich settled on lungs. Doc. Small gaveme a ticket to cemetery, good prior to fol-lowing spring, but Dr. Bayard Holmes saidto get a ticket to Mexico instead. TookHolmes' advice. Was in Mexico about ayear. Spent several months in general vi-cinity of Redfield's location, — aroundCuernavaca. I enclose a rather interestingcoincidental picture taken by myself in pos-sibly February or March, 1898, at Tepoz-tlan. If you will refer to the March, 1928,issue of magazine you will see that the en-closed picture was taken within four or five the sixteenth century, that is to say in theepoch when Europe was flooded with Spanish American silver that fortune of 6500francs shrunk to 2500 francs! It is nowonder that the seventeenth century wascharacterized by emigration of Europe'spopulation to the New World. The settle-ment of New England, Virginia, indeedali our seaboard states, was largely due tr>the economie distress and social discontentin Europe.hundred feet above the point where Redfield took his.Interesting part of my own picture isthat I never had slightest recollection oftaking a single picture at Tepoztlan thatday. It happened that I had a partial sun-stroke that day, resulting from weakenedcondition following prior éxposure andhardship, and I was what is sometimescalled "nutty" for most of the day. At thattime Cuernavaca was end of the railroad.We, of course, horsebacked it across thelava beds from Cuernavaca to Tepoztlan. Ido recali riding out of way to Santa Catarina to get water but there was no water forsale and ali we could get was some mightypoor cerbeza, — warm and insipid. Ali drink-ing water at Santa Catarina had to belugged in on burros in goatskin gourds orbags. (Better delete the word "cerbeza."Such words are obsolete now-a-days. Doyou suppose Smith has any chance?)Truly yours, Arthur StocksAnother Adventure in TepoztlanThe Story of the University of ChicagoBy Thomas Wakefield GoodspeedReprinted through cojurtesy of The University of Chicago PressXVII. The University's UnfoldingLifeTHIS story has been for the mostpart concerned with the externaldevelopments of the University's life.The ordinary university pursues the eventenor of its way without eventful or interesting incident in its inner educationallife. But in the University of Chicago newthings were constantly occurring withinas well as outside the quadrangles through-out its first third of a century.The educational work was committedentirely to the faculties. "It is clearly recog-nized," President Harper wrote, "that thetrustees are responsible for the financialadministration, but to the faculties belongsto the fullest extent the care of educationaladministration." Beginning with this under-standing, the relation between the board oftrustees and the faculties was one of unin-terrupted confidence and co-operation.Once a year the trustees gave a dinner tothe prof esso rs, and this was made an occa-sion for the cultivation of acquaintance andthe exchange of views in after-dinnerspeeches.The second year of instruction had hardlybegun before the desire to be of serviceto the community began to seek expressionamong both students and professors. Itquickly found this in the establishment ofthe University Settlement in the Stock-yards district several miles distant. MissMary E. McDowell became the head; aboard was organized, property secured, anda building erected. A University SettlementLeague of women was formed and theSettlement performed a constantly growingservice for a great community.The principle of affiliation with otherschools was notably illustrated in the history of the Divinity School. In 1894 tneDisciples' Divinity House was established,and in 191 1 the theological work formerlydong at Lombard College was organizedat the University as the Ryder (Universal- ist) House. The most noteworthy of theseaffiliations was that which in 19 15 broughtto the quadrangles the Chicago Theological Seminary, the western divinity schoolof the Congregationalists. The Seminarybought property extending from Universityto Woodlawn Avenue along the north sideof Fifty-eighth Street and in 1923-24 built,on the Woodlawn Avenue corner, a com-modious and attractive dormitory, thetower of which was named the VictorFremont Lawson Tower, for the editorand proprietor of the Chicago Daily News,who was one of the large contributors tothe cost of the building.I have already said that the Universitybegan with a large library. It was made upof what was known as the Berlin collec-tion, bought in that city in 1891, the libraryof the Divinity School, and that of the oldUniversity, which had been bought andgiven to the new one by John A. Reichelt.These collections aggregated more than200,000 volumes. From the beginning, theUniversity acted on the principle that oneof the essentials of a university was books,more books, and stili more books. Professor Ernest D. Burton was appointed director of libraries in 19 io, and retainedthe office even after his promotion to thepresidency in 1923. By that year the num-ber of volumes in the libraries had in-creased to about 1,000,000, and the visitsof students to the reading-rooms for read-ing, study, and books amounted annuallyto about 1,600,000. The addition of build-ings to the library group had become, bythe end of the first third of a century, animperative necessity.It will be recalled that President Harperdreamed of great graduate schools in whichoriginai investigation should be pursued inmany departments of knowledge, and whichshould do a great service to mankind. Hewas gravely assured that eastern graduates29A RealityThe University Chapel was dedicated on Sunday, October 28. John D. Rockefeller,Jr., was a speaker at the exercises.30THE STORY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 3iwould not go West ; that he would not liveto see any considerable number of graduatestudents in Chicago, and one distinguishedscholar said in print that to put a graduateschool "in Chicago would be only the nextthing to putting it in the Fiji Islands." Alithese things only illustrate the foolishnessof the wise. Instead of establishing onegraduate school, the University organizedtwo : the Graduate School of Arts and Lit-erature, and the Ogden Graduate Schoolof Science. There was also a graduate division of the Divinity School, and latercarne the graduate work of the School ofEducation, the School of Commerce andAdministration, and the School of SocialService Administration. The enrolment inthe first year, 1892-93, was 217. Thisgrew steadily, and at the end of the firstthird of a century the students pursuinggraduate courses in the University num-bered 3,717 for the year 1923-24.That the work of originai investigationwas pursued with eager devotion, conspicu-ous success, and high service to mankind ismade evident by the discoveries of Ricketts,by the winning of the Nobel Prize by Mi-chelson and Millikan, and by wonderful resulta accomplished by scores of other scholarswhich the limits of this story do not allowme to record.The fame of the graduate schools spreadfar and wide, and requests for teachers began to come in from universities, colleges,normal and high schools. These so increasedfrom year to year, that in 1899 a board ofrecommendations for teachers was formed,the work of which assumed such propor-tions that it secured teaching positions an-nually for more than five hundred graduatesof the University.The number of students needing helpin securing employment to enable them tocontinue their studies increased to such anextent that an employment bureau was organized, and, when this story was written,was finding outside work for more thantwo thousand students every year, as wellas for many graduates and former students,the combined earnings of the two classesexceeding $160,000 a year. In addition toali this, student service was so extensively employed by the University itself that, in1922-23, 1,059 students were able to earnin this way $62,166.This story has had little to say thus farof athletics. But it would be quite incomplete if it failed to give some account ofthis important part of student life. Asidefrom the regular exercise required in thephysical culture department, mudi attention was given to athletics. Among thewomen students this included such activities as basketball, indoor and outdoor baseball, hockey, skating, tennis, golf, rowing,fencing, running, and swimming. Amongthe men, instruction was given in swimming, wrestling, and fencing. Class, department, and fraternity teams were organized in many lines of competition.Teams for intercollegiate competition weretrained in baseball, football, track and fieldathletics, basketball, swimming, wrestling,fencing, tennis, golf, cross-country running,and other sports. Basketball won its way togreat popularity, but football was far andaway the great game. Since basketball wastaken up seriously in 1904, Chicago haswon seven championships. In footballwhich began earlier the teams were leadèrsin 1896, 1899, 1905, 1907, 1908, 1913,and 1924. The important- football gamesoften drew crowds of more than thirtythousand spectators, the number being lim-ited only by the seats provided. It was notthe policy of the University, during its firstthird of a century, to emphasize footballby providing such accommodations on StaggField as would invite immense concoursesof people. These games awakened ali thestudent enthusiasm. Great mass meetingswere held, and new college yells practiced.The University may fairly be said to havedivided honors with the best teams of theWest, not only in football, but in ali othergames. Athletics and other student activities were under faculty control.It was, however, the purpose of the University to make the students, as far as possible, self-governing bodies. It was greatlyto the credit of the students that one ofthe first traditions they established was thatthe hazing and student riots which disgraced33 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmany institutions should have no place inChicago. If newcomers tried to start any-thing of the sort, they were not only told bythe authorities that they had brought theirwares to the wrong market, but werepromptly discouraged by the public opinionof the student body. To look after under-graduate affairs, student councils were organized, which represented the studentswith the University in considering and act-ing upon affairs affecting the entire under-graduate body. In 1895 the first studentannual appeared, happily named Cap andGown. The Junior class assumed the re-sponsibility of issuing the volume, whichbecame a very fully illustrated publicationof four or five hundred pages. In it thestudents gave their views of the contem-porary history of the University, and it willbe a mine of information to future histor-ians on classes, clubs, fraternities, athletic,and social events.The student paper, the Weekly, startedat the very beginning, held on its way suc-cessfully for ten years. The Daily Maroon,first appearing in October, 1902, was thecontinuation and successor of the Weekly,and, with many ups and downs, went on itsway to the end of the first third of a century with every prospect of continuance. In1913 a new student publication appeared,the Chicago Literary Monthly. In 1915a Freshman paper made its appearance, theGreen Cap, taking its name from the colorof the cap traditionally worn by the Fresh-men. Later carne the Phoenix, and theCircle, in which the literary instinct of thestudents found expression.One of the interesting things in the storyof the University was the graduai growthof undergraduate sentiment against dishon-esty in college work. This sentiment so increased that, in 191 3, the undergraduatesvoted more than four to one in favor of theformation of an Honor commission. ThisCommission was a committee of studentsto investigate instances of cheating andrecommend to the authorities penalties forthe guilty. It was the hope of the studentsto create a sentiment against cheating whichshould render dishonesty impossible. Suchwere the beginnings of a noble tràdition calling for high honor in ali student rela-tions with the University.One of the divisions most fully illustrat-ing the University's unfolding life was -itsbusiness department. From very small beginnings it grew to great proportions. Thefirst business manager was Major HenryA. Rust, who served from 1894 t(> !903.The second was Wallace Heckman, whoseterm of service extended through more thanHarold H. Swift, '07twenty-one years. Mr. Heckman was anable and successful lawyer. In conductingthe business of the University he had theConstant assistance of the wisest of advisers,Martin A. Ryerson, the president of theboard of trustees, of an able finance committee, of the University auditor, TrevorArnett, and later of Mr. Arnett's able successor, Nathan C Plimpton. I cannot speaktoo highly of the ability and success withwhich Mr. Heckman conducted the University's business interests. Under his administration the assets grew enormously, astold in this story, and the funds were notonly well cared for, but so wisel . ^nvestedthat they increased in value. TI businesswas handled by him so skilfully that theTHE STORY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 33administration of the University's financescommanded universal confidence. Mr.Heckman continued in office till 1924,being retired on his own insistence.He was succeeded by Trevor Arnett, whobegan his term of service in August, 1924.Mr. Arnett, after eighteen years' serviceas auditor of the University, had with greatreluctance been surrendered to a very important service with the great benevolentfoundations of Mr. Rockefeller in NewYork. On the retirement of Mr. Heckman, Mr. Arnett's services were felt to beso necessary to the University that, aftermuch negotiation, he was made vice-presi-dent and business manager of the institu-tion, and was in turn surrendered to it bythe New York interests. He was the fore-most expert on educational finance in thecountry, and had written for the GeneralEducation Board a widely circulated bookon that subject. While he was auditor ofthe University it was a common occurrencefor his office to be engaged in explainingto the business officers of colleges and uni-versities the financial system of the University, and its methods of accounting. Hewas frequently called not only to colleges,but to great universities, to assist theauthorities in improving their business andaccounting systems. His work in NewYork had added to his experience andknowledge, and he was welcomed back tothe University with general acclaim.The development of the University hadresulted in the increase of its assets from$1,000,000 in 1891,, to more than $53,000-000 in 1924. The officers of administrationhad increased to more than eighty, andthe officers of instruction above the rank ofassistant, to more than six hundred. Therewere forty-four buildings and a dozen morewere imperatively needed. The twenty-threedepartments of instruction had developedinto thirty-four in the colleges and graduateschools, and there had come to be six professional schools: those of Divinity, Law,Medicine, Education, Commerce and Administration, and Social Service Administration.In nothing has the University's development had more striking illustration than in the growing attendance of students. Theattendance of the first year, 742, had increased, in 1903-4, to 4,580. In 1916-17 ithad become 10,448. Then carne a halt.The world-war had involved the UnitedStates, and students from every college anduniversity flocked into the army. The University laboratories were placed at the disposai of the government for purposes of re-search and experiment. Members of thefaculties gave themselves to the service onbattlefields in France and in every kind ofpatriotic service at home and abroad. Nearlyor quite frvt thousand membérs of the University — students, aliimni, and instructors —were in the service of the government.Nearly one hundred of them laid downtheir lives in the struggle.The war reduced the student attendancethe first year from 10,448 to 9*032, andthe second year to 8,635, of whom, 4,821were women. With peace, progress againbegan, and continued during the next fiveyears at the rate of nearly a thousand newstudents a year. In 1923-24 the attendancehad risen to 13,357.At that date more than 93,000 studentshad matriculated in the University and pur-sued studies for one or more quarters. Someof these carne for the Summer Quarter, orfor two or three Summer Quarters, and,having got what they carne for, did not gopn and secure degrees and thus become whatare technically known as alumni. The University was organized to serve such studentsas well as to carry young people through aregular course to graduation and to higherdegrees. They became loyal friends of theinstitution, felt themselves to be the childrenof the Alma Mater, and were cordiallyrecognized as such. Thousands, of course,went on through the regular college course,and other thousands passed through the professional and graduate schools and won thehigher degrees. And thus, while large numbers got what they entered the Universityfor and left it without degrees, so many re-mained through years of study, that thenumbers of the regular alumni increasedamazingly, and in 1924 exceeded seventeenthousand.34 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWhile in the University, the students de-veloped a fine spirit of loyalty. This spiritmanifested itself annually in class gifts ofmany kinds. The class gift became one ofthe traditions. The interest of the alumniin their Alma Mater led to the early or-ganization of alumni clubs. Wherever theyfound themselves in sufficient numbers theygot together and organized, with the resultthat in 1924 there were fifty or more alumniclubs. I say "fifty or more" because theirnumber increases so fast that when thisstory reaches its first readers I cannot sayhow many there will be. They alreadyexist in most of the states of the Unionand in several foreign countries.The alumni early realized that they sus-tained a peculiar relation to the University.The statement of President Judson in thefirst number of the Alumni M agazine that"the real strength of a University dependsin the long run on its body of alumni"echoed their own sentiment. The institutionwas stili very young, and the alumni werevery young also, when they began to feelthat they should be represented on the managing board. It was true that three alumniof the first University were trustees, oneof them, Eli B. Felsenthal, '78, continuingthrough the entire period covered by thishistory. But this, gratifying though it was,did not wholly satisfy them. They wishedto see someone graduated in their time fromthe new University made a trustee. Thisattitude gratified the trustees. They feltthat it indicated a living interest among thealumni in the University, of which theyformed a great and rapidly increasing part. In 1914, therefore, Harold H. Swift, ofthe class of 1907, was elected a memberof the board, the first of the new alumnito be made a trustee. Later Trevor Arnett,Dr. Wilber E. Post, Albert W. Sherer,William Scott Bond, and Charles F. Axel-son, ali alumni of the University, weremade trustees, and, on the retirement ofMartin A Ryerson from the presidency ofthe board in 1923, Mr. Swift was electedhis successor.In 1909 the Alumni Council was organized to have charge of ali matters whichafitected the alumni in general. The publication of a journal had already been begun.The first number of the Chicago AlumniM agazine appeared in March, 1907. Itdeveloped in 1908 into the University ofChicago Magazine, which being admirablyconducted annually increased in interest, cir-culation, and influence.While the former students of the University were stili young, as early, indeed,as 19 14, they began to feel that they hadfinancial responsibilities in connection withtheir Alma Mater, and on their own motionbegan to raise funds for various causes connected with the University which particu-larly appealed to them : the magazine, schol-arships, and other things. The University,in 1924, held $78,000 of these funds. Thealumni had then come to be a great body,some of them representing large wealth.They were interested in seeing the University go forward to a leading place amongAmerican institutions of learning, and gavepromise of being among the foremost inpromoting ali future steps in advance.The Perennial Mr. StaggAn editorial from the New YoPeople who were interested in collegeathletics as far back as the first Bryan campaign must have rubbed their eyes whenthey read that Amos Alonzo Stagg, cele-brating his sixty-sixth birthday, is preparingfor a busy football coaching year. It hap-pens that this is true, and there is no sentiment about it. Whatever Mr. Stagg'scount in years, he asks and needs no con-sideration from any football coach on that rk Times, August 20, 1028.ground. The mentor of Eckersall, Steffenand Herschberger has never been out-modedby the youngest, newest coach of them alLOf course, part of the everiastingness ofthe University of Chicago's great athleticdirector is ascribable to personal genius inhis line of effort. But behind there is anintellectual force which has evolved forMr. Stagg a philosophy that suits his work.Lincoln or LeeLincoln or Lee, Comparison and Contrast of the Two Greatest Leaders in the Warbetween the States: the Narrow and Accidental Mar gius of Success, by William E.Dodd. Century Company, $2.00.ABOOK by Professor Dodd on sucha subject is certain to attract attention, and the reader will begin itwith an interest that will not flag to theend. Indeed, the end may be said to cometoo soon. It is a rapid sketch and not atreatise. One could wish that it werelonger and that it dealt more profoundlywith some of the questions discussed.The title at once challenges the reader'sthought. Why Lincoln and Lee? Espe-cially, Why Lincoln or Lee? Why notLincoln and Davis, or Grant and Lee?The answer is not wTholly to be found onthe title page, which asserts that Lincolnand Lee were "the two greatest leaders inthe war between the states." The bookis a tract, defending the thesis that theCivil War in the United States was a greatand needless conflict from which both sidesemerged losers. That is the first and alsothe last thought in the book. "Was themarvelous country lawyer of 1854 reallyvictorious? Would his 'plain men' rise tothe levels of their plain, if inspired, leader?"Evidently, Dr. Dodd doubts it. And whenhe asks at the dose whether it is Lincolnor Lee that the country today honors byimitating, we are aware that this questionand its implied answer have really beenrunning through the undercurrent of ali thepages.Prof. Dodd does not write like an impaniai historian. He lets it be evident whatare his sympathies and prejudices. On thevery first page is this fling, — "Abraham,son of poor Nancy Hanks, and trifling TomLincoln, who had hired his boy to hard-fisted farmers on Pigeon Creek, Indiana, for twenty-five cents a day and put the pro-ceeds into his own dirty pockets." Thisis effective rhetoric. But have we any certain knowledge that Thomas Lincoln didanything unusual in expecting that Abraham would bring home his wages, in wholeor in part? In that day and locality a boy'stime belonged to his father till the sonwas twenty-one, and if he worked awayfrom home he was expected to help thefamily with his wages. We have no reasonto suppose that Abraham Lincoln resentedit, and we do not know that he was expectedto bring home ali that he earned; we havesome reason to think the contrary. Itmight be better to state what we know andlet it go at that, but while that would havebeen better history, it would not be so goodrhetoric.There are places in the book that showundue haste. We are told that after theChicago Convention of 1860 "a committeefound its way slowly a few days later toteli the plain Lincoln the well known fact."Lincoln was nominated on Friday, and theofficiai delegation went to Springfield onSaturday. There are other instances whererapid description displaces sober narrationof the fact; they are not important, butthey show a certain lack.There are places where one could wishto know what sources of knowledge Prof.Dodd possesses which the rest of us have notbeen able to discover. He and Prof. Na-thaniel Wright Stephenson teli and reiterate, and Prof. Dodd tells again in this bookthat "On December 20 (I860), ThurlowWeed, emissary of William H. Seward andthe great compromise committee of the35^ THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESenate in Washington, knocked at the doorof the Lincolns in Springfield," and advisedLincoln to accept the Crittenden Compromise. "Weed went sorrowfully back toSeward, and Seward sorrowfully told thegreat Senate committee that their work wasin vain." I do not know how Prof. Doddknows this, or how Prof. Stephenson knowsit, or which of them discovered it and toldthe other. I wish they had told the rest ofus how they know. Prof. Stephenson, in abook which attempts to reconstruct the mindof Lincoln after the similitude of Dr.Stephenson's mind, has convinced himselfthat Lincoln's reply to Weed was "thecrisis" that brought on the Civil War, andProf. Dodd implies much the same withoutusing the words. But Weed in his accountof this interview makes no such statement,and Lincoln never publicly said it. Ifthe Crittenden proposai was mentioned between them it must have been in very in-cidental fashion. Furthermore, Lincoln hadalready announced his position on thisquestion before Weed's visit; and hechanged his inaugurai address on the verymorning of his delivery to say that if theprinciple of the Crittenden compromiseshould become the thirteenth amendmentto the Constitution, as he thought likely,he would support it. Besides ali of which,the Crittenden measure was introduced onDecember 18, and Weed's visit of the 20thhad already been planned, and there hadnot been time for any such conference withSeward as is implied in Prof. Dodd's theory.If he is right, I wish he would teli us howhe knows. I have no particular reason forcaring to deny it ; I merely should like toknow on what basis of documentary proofthis statement is made with such confidence.Appearances are certainly against it.The real difficulty is not in accountingfor Lincoln's rejection of the principle ofthe Crittenden compromise; Lincoln haddone that six years previously; and he hadno inclination after the election of 1860 toaccept a compromise on the basis of a further extension of slavery into the territories,or even of a government permanently halfslave and half free. And the name of Crittenden, which Lincoln held in high re-gard, did not in that particular add weightto the proposal. Crittenden had alreadycompromised once too often for Lincoln'speace of mind. Lincoln believed that ifSenator John J. Crittenden, Nestor ofKentucky Whigs,, from whose loins theOld Line Whigs of Illinois were begotten,had kept out of Illinois politics in 1858,Abraham Lincoln and not Stephen A.Douglas would have gone to the UnitedStates Senate. Lincoln's failure to holdthe Old Line Whigs of Illinois found itshumiliating evidence in the letter of SenatorCrittenden to T. Lyle Dickey. Lincolnthen said, and said to Crittenden, that hebelieved this to have been the occasion ofhis defeat. But before Crittenden had pro-posed his compromise of 1860, Lincoln hadwritten to Weed in answer to Weed's letter of December 1 1, covering the very pointswhich Crittenden proposed in his bill ofDecember 18. And Weed appears to haveaccepted the statement of Lincoln withoutargument. The real difficulty is in under-standing how after ali this Lincoln couldbave accepted the essential principle of thatcompromise in his inaugurai address. Theexplanation is, as one may reasonably guess,that the Congress, in its last moments beforeadjournment on March 3, 1861, voted bya constitutional majority in favor of anamendment to the Constitution providingfor the essential things which Crittendenproposed, and Lincoln felt compelled to saywhat he would do if that amendment wereadopted. He did not like the amendment,of course, but as Congress had adopted it bymore than a two thirds vote of both Houses,it seemed almost certain to be adopted bythe. states also. It fitted ili with the restof his address, but Lincoln on the morningof March 4, 1861, took pen in hand andwrote what he was to read to the worldbefore the ink was dry, saying that "holdingsuch a provision to now be implied constitutional law, I have no objection to itsbeing made express and irrevocable." HowLincoln could have said that is the realproblem. But the solution doubtless is thatas this Thirteenth Amendment was in ap-BOOKS 37parent process of becoming a part of theConstitution, and he was in the very act ofswearing to support the Constitution, hewould accept this.The book is a clevèr piece of writing. Itcontains apt chafacterizations and forcefulaffirmations. It gives the reader realpleasure. I have read it at a sitting with noapproach to weariness. But now and thenI wish I were a little more sure of theauthority on which Prof. Dodd makes hisstatements.Prof Dodd gives us an attractive por-trait of Robert E. Lee, and I think a justone. His unfeigned admiration for thatgreat soldier is one which his readers willshare. Nor does he indulge in indiscrimi-PROFESSOR Boynton. answers to thedescription of a good critic: a lover ofliterature who makes intelligent distinc-tions. He answers to the description of agood university professor: one who is notafraid of the present and not oblivious ofthe past; as well as to that of a goodAmerican : one aware of our shortcomingsbut not ready to give up the ship. Hisvolume of "More Contemporary Ameri-cans" is artfully compounded of generalessays on the state of American culture in-terspersed with essays on nineteenth century writers who carne too early -to beappreciated and twentieth century writersborn in good season for contemporary fame.Professor Boj-nton nate praise; he realizés that Lee was a com-plex character, realizés it more than herealizés that the same is true and even moretrue of Lincoln. Only to the superficialstudent can an interpretation of Lincoln beeasy. Prof. Dodd has also some words ofappreciation of Grant. It is so common tohear that Grant was merely a butcher,one reads with satisfaction Dodd's frankstatement that Lee miscalculated at Mal-vern Hill, and that Grant proved thereand in the crossing of the James at CityPoint that he could on occasion show himself a strategist of no mean ability. It isa readable and clever book. I wish it werelonger and deeper.William E. BartonHerman Melville and Lafcadio Hearn andAmbrose Bierce, Hergesheimer and Anderson and Lewis are so many gaudy andexotic pictures hung on the walls of a galleryof which the sober architecture is furnishedby more general considerations of publictaste and thought. But they are perfectlyrelevant exhibits ; for we are reminded howlittle Melville's doubts of the benefits ofChristian civilization in the Pacific islandsor Bierce's doubts of the benefits of phil-istine democracy made for their literary success in a time that shouldered the ReverendGeorge Hills out of his pulpit for havingDarwin and Spencer and Drummond in hislibrary ; and we hardly need to be remindedof the pertinence of Mr. Hergesheimer'sDower House, with its associations of aristocratic ideals, or the pertinence of MainStreet and Elmer Gantry to the recurringproblem of American culture.What gives perhaps a wider significanteto this volume than to Mr. Bóynton's earlier<cContemporary Amerieans" are the generalessays, particularly those on "The Publicand the Reading Public" arid M Democracyand Public Taste." In the first of theseContemporary American CultureMore Contemporary Amerieans, By Professor Percy H. Boynton. The Universityof Chicago Press. $J.OO.38 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMr. Boynton makes clear that, while thegeneral public of our day is as cheap andfrivolous as ever, there is a select "readingpublic" of proportions undreamed of in1900, an encouragement to serious writersand an evidence of a wholesome nationalself-consciousness. The final essay is a welcome antidote to the despair so prevalentamong certain superior persons with regardto adult education amòng us and the general state of public taste. Mr. Boyntonbrings a competent knowledge of our cultural history to bear upon these matters,and if for example he is reasonably cheer-full in regard to the present theatrical situation, it is because he has in mind what thetheatrical situation was in 1800, say, or in1880.Mr. Boynton is a critic who never for-gets his manners and never loses his head.In most criticai controversies he is, as heSUFFICIENT interest in evolutionstili remains to insure the popularityof Macmillan's latest collaborativevolume on the subject. Under the direction of Frances Mason, an ali-star cast hasproduced "Creation by Evolution." It isbeyond doubt authoritative and readable.Parts of it are thrilling.A foreword is provided by* Henry Fair-field Osborn (Columbia), and an introduc- Theodore Dreiseronce calls himself, "the dispassionate andinnocent bystander." In his judgments onindividuai writers and on general tendencieshis most marked quality is judiciousness.If there is a defect of this quality, it is anexcess of dispassionateness, or mildness,which sometimes means a lack of force. Butthe force of the quality is itself great; forbeing judicious, being fair, means generallybeing right. And in Mr. Boynton's casethis quality is supported by qualities of stylecongenial to it. He writes with supplenessand ease ; and if he does not care to sharpenhis epigrams into cruel and killing point,neither does he hide the smile which is mostlikely to accompany his "meditations." Itis a gentle smile so far as his victims areconcerned; and so far as the author isconcerned, it is the smile of one who, whilehe takes his subject seriously, does not assume that he has the last word to sayupon it.Joseph Warren Beachtion by C. S. Sherrington (Oxford).David Starr Jordan (Leland Stanford),building upon the "Isolation Theory"which he himself has made famous, con-cludes that Evolution is merely anothername for Nature. J. Arthur Thompson(Aberdeen) argues that the cumulativeeffect of the many different lines of evidencefor evolution forces us to accept it as fact;then furnishes the f aint-hearted with the fol-A Modem GenesisCreation by Evolution. A symposium by twenty-four scientists. Edited byFrances Mason. Macmillan. $$.00BOOKS 39lowing encouragement : "There are greattrends discernible in organic evolution, andthe greatest of these is toward health andbeauty; toward the love of mates, parentalcare, and f amily affections; toward clear-headedness and healthy-mindedness ; and themomentum of these trends is with us at ourbest."H. S. Jennings (Johns Hopkins) verysimply and clearly demonstrates by his ownexperiments that we can actually see evolution occurring among simpler animals.Following G. H. Parker's (Harvard)fascinating cases of vestigial organs, E. W.MacBride (London) and E. G. Conklin(Princeton) divide the task of outlining theembryological evidence for evolution. Theformer apparently weakens his argumentfor the sophisticated reader by utilizing theunlikely assumption of inheritance of ac-quired characters. Conklin effectivelypoints his discussion with the followingthought: "Religious faith has been able tosurvive the knowledge of the fact that everyhuman being in the world has come intoexistence by a process of development. Whyshould it be supposed that the recognitionof an equallymatural development of groupsof individuai or species would be destruc-tive of religion?" W. B. Scott (Princeton)temperately undertakes to support the hy-pothesis of evolution with the known factsof present and recent geographical distribution of animals; and more than attainshis objective. His story of the mammals ofNorth and South America will interest thereader in much the same way as does anhistorical novel. In the simplest terms, F.A. Bather (British Museum) explains thevalidity of fossil evidence in general.J. W. Gregory (Glasgow) gives reasonsfor abandoning the unnatural and anti-evolutionary term "species," and hopefullysuggests an interesting substitute of his owncoining.The evolution of animai and plant king-doms is then sketched by Sir Arthur SmithWoodward (British Museum) and C. S.Gager (Brooklyn), respectively. The lat-ter contrasts the lay mind, which merelyinquires, "By whom have our living organ- isms been created ?" with the scientific mindwhich insists on knowing how they werecreated. E. W. Berry (Johns Hopkins)follows with "The story told by fossilplants."Several special groups of animals aretreated in the following chapters. E. B.Poulton (Oxford) has a splendid chapteron butterflies. Surely one must agree thata study of the habits, development, and recent history of this group alone is sufficientto convince the student of the truth ofevolution. Sir A. E. Shipley (Cambridge)follows the evolutionary steps among beesfrom primitive types to the bumble bee,with its almost human society, and beyondto the honey bee, with its decidedly super-human social organization. W. M.Wheeler (Harvard) tells of the stili moreremarkable ants, whose evolution hadalready carried them to a state of socialperfection millions of years ago. F. B.Loomis (Amherst) gives an animated out-line of the complete and convincing fossilrecords of horse and elephant. In business-like style, D. M. S. Watson (London)sketches the evolution of the bird from thelizard ancestor, through the dinosaur-likestage to Archaeopteryx, the toothed fossilbird which was no more efficient at flyingthan the modem aeroplane, culminating inthe bird of the present, which provides amodel for the aeroplane of the future.R. S. Lull (Yale) and W. K. Gregory(Columbia) divide the task of describingwhat we know of man's own direct ancestry,and explain why we do not as yet knowmore. Gregory concludes, "When manfully realizés what he has come from andthe long, slow steps by which he has reachedhis present condition, he will be better ableto apply intelligent measures toward cor-recting his infirmities and toward guidinghis evolution along profitable paths in thefuture."S. K. Holmes (California) shows us thatour cousins, the apes, are more human thanwe had suspected. J. F. Huxley's (London) evaluation of evolutionary progressis a bit of fine literature. C. Lloyd Morgana (Bristol) vague chapter on "Mind in40 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEEvolution" will prove more useful to thepreacher than to the lay reader.In the concluding chapter H. H. New-man (Chicago) illustrates how the numer-ous separate lines of evidence for evolutionare corroborative not only in principle butin detail.,TWENTY-TWO years ago, Gals-worthy published The Man of Property, the first of the series of studiesof the Forsyte family, which is now broughtto its dose in Swan Song. The persistenceof the man and the sheer mass of the shapedand pointed material would cbmpel attention, were it not for intrinsic excellencies.No little skill was necessary to keep themany figures on this series of canvases dis-tinct and steadily recognizable after thelapse of actual and fictive years. Gals-wòrthy's grasp upon his material and charac-ters is nowhere mòre evident than in theperfect continuity between The Man ofProperty and In Chancery which werewritten a dozen or more years apart. Inalmost every instance he has kept his char-acters at once true to themselves and tothe ihevitable action of time and circum-stancè upon them. In fact, I can think ofno other piece of recent English fictionwhich represents so movingly the power ofTime to modify character, to destroy awhole view of life, and to contrive intricaterepetitive patterns of persons and circum-stances.It is obvious, then, that Swan Song cannot be considered in isolation ; three quartersof its meaning must be lost on any readerwho knows nothing of the five novels andfour interludes which have preceded thisfinal piece. To be sure> the book has itsindependent theme and a degree of interest,but Galsworthy ; is too consciòus an artist Just why no chapter on experimentalevolution among. higher organisms was inicluded is puzzling to the reviewer. Per-fhaps the volume was designed to reveal whatevolution has accomplished, rather than to,analyze how the process is carried out., Merle C. Coulterto miss the chance to heighteri and deeperfthe significance of the ultimate act by con^stant reference to the inescapable past/ ¦'*Throughout the history of the Forsytéfamily, Galsworthy 's method has remainecPsingularly Constant. He builds his story 'bufiof ségments of ^experience viewed througfrthe personality of now a major and now;:àaminor character. A strict fidelity to this^method relinquishes objéctivity, but reveals5s-hades of character with àn intimacy and8reality denied tò cool analysis. For Gàls^worthy thus gives us not merely what hapJpenéd,-but how it appeared to a particular1person and affected him. Possibly the most^telling instances of this method in SwaÀSong 'are Soames' quest bf his ancéstors^ ànB3Gradman's stay overnight ih the house in!which Soames is dying. Both these passages1are suffused with thè warmest light uporrboth incident and character. —The method and style of Swan SongarVdistinctly superior to its f able. Probably1no earlier section of the saga utilizes such7banal and tawdry stufi. The Stainfordtheme never becomes an integrai elemérit*in the story, despite its value as illùstratiòfPof the low moral tone of the present àgè42We may accept Fleur's calculating pursiiiPof Jon as an action eminently appropfiStetò her character; but it is hard to put ufi)with the. threadbare sentimental device ..Jfejfwhich Anne wins Jon back: And &op$®readers will regatd as cheap and rnelojjdramatic the fire through which Soame$in mv opinionBy FredB. Millett, Assistant Professorof EnglishBOOKS .4*Ipses his life, even though Galsworthystruggles to tie it tight to action andcharacter. *,, ; /„:,iFor the weak invention of Swan Song,there is compensation in its characterizatiòn. •,To more recent acquaintances of. the, -For-,sytes, Fleur may seem the center of interest.To me, she is a competent and consistehtcharacterizatiòn, but an uninteresting' andunimpressiye character. If she has ìnfiniteìy,]ess character than her father, Galsworthyshould blame, I think, not only the age sherépresents, but- -himself .' T Bui EleuE S^moie^-significant as a figure in the complex For-syte pattern than as % heroine in her ot^nright. Her fate is "the inexorable secretculmination of an old, 0I4 story." Soameshimself recognizes thè hèrèditary principle-1in his awareness that Fleur's pursuit pf Jonhas "something .deadly, about it, and some-thing that almost touched him, rousing thememory of his own pursuit of that boy'smother, — memory of a passion that wouldnot, could not let go; that won its, ends,and destroyed in winning." Soamesemerges as the Jtruly centralfigure of thelater Forsyte/stories, and he is perhapsGalsworthy 's most distinguished characterizatiòn. I can think of no more interestingexperience in current English literature thanto watch Soames change from the insensitive hateful figure of The Man of Property to4he mellowed and actually lovable hero ofISiéaniSong. It is not Fleur's heartbreak,but the unspoken devotion of taciturn lonely: Soames, that matters. If his dilemma is not,, tragic,.it. comes as near it as we are likely tòget in realistic literature.Readers will disagree amicably as to the,_ pnmarjr meaning of The Forsyte Saga andits t series of sequels.. The fact prohably \ hthat, like any piece of rich humane art, ithas not one but several meanings. It depicts-with rare skil! tfie life and thought Ine feeling of the English middle, class through4;hree generations. It is likewise a study ofthe workings of that urge to possess which, brings Soames and his daughter near totragedy. Even more impressively, it isanother illustration of the truth that character Js destiny, a truth particularly apposite,Cìalsworthy, might say, in an age whem tohave; character is to be out of fashion. Wemay disagree with Galsworthy's findings asta jtlje moral atmosphere of our time,; wemay. f eel .that the latter end of the Forsytestpr^y lacks.the body and force of the beginning^ but it would be unreasonable not toconsider these novels as the crown o,f Galsworthy's achievement and the most sensitiveand .subs^ntial representation of our timesin English fiction.The Electron for Freshmenéj^r.st C°urse in Physics for Colleges, \byBridge Laboratory of Physics (formerly ofGale of the University, and Professor' versity. Ginn & Co^HIS text provides a full year'sworkin elementary physics. It is intendedprimarily for students who begin theirstiidy of physics in college; it is also recom-Wided for those who studied.f physics inWgh school but .ranked below the> upperpartile 0f their class.;The adaptation to college b'cginners ise&cted. not by abridging a mòre difficult Robert Andrews Millikan of the Normanthe University), Professor Henry GordonCharles W. Edwards of Duke Uni-676 paaes. $3.72. ., ..-'"'' .text but by còrrelating the subject matterto the beginner's ability to assimilate. Besides thè many applications tó everyday lifewhich a high-school course would contain,there is a grèat deal of material which everycollege student of physics should know,including an exceptionally full treatment ofpute^physics and discussions of the atom,tfiré elèctron, and new phenòmena.tKfje ^ntbersttì» of Chicago Jfflasa?meEditor, Allen Heald, '26Business Manager, Charlton T. Beck, '04EDITORIAL BOARD : Commerce and Administration Association— Donald P. Bean,'17; Divinity Association— C. T. Holman, D. B., '16; Doctors' Association— D. J.Fisher, '17, Ph.D., '22; Law Association— Charles F. McElroy, A.M., '06, J. D., '15;School of Education Association— Lillian Stevenson, '21 ; Rush Medicai Association—Morris Fishbein, 'ii, M.D., '12.A LETTER TO AL SMITHWHEN you called last month at ouroffice — the office of the Americanbusiness man — you found a confus-ing, fascinating place. You found usmanufacturing goods for the world, lendingthe world money, developing the world'sresources. You found us studying to makemore goods, and to make them f aster. Youfound us staring at a stock-ticker that hadrun wild.When you spoke, many of us paid littleattention. You warned us against certainenemies who were making away with ourproperty in rather startling sums — racket-eer prohibition officers who protected gangsof bootleggers, thieves who had crept intostili higher offices of our government andhanded out leases of our public propertyin exchange for bribes, other high cfficialswho had known of the theft and kept silent.You told us that respect for law — thecornerstone of our prosperity — was beingundermined. We ourselves had heard thesesounds of tampering with our safety-de-posit vaults; but we were too busy at ourdesks to go and investigate.You urged us not to forget some of ourold friends, who needed our help. Thereivas the farmer, whose wheat sold for lessthan the cost of production, because hewas underbid in the Liverpool market byragged European peasants. He neededsome remedy other than a protective tariff, you said. There was the honest, willinglaborer who could not find a job; nothingshort of the simple device of unemploymentinsurance would protect him and his family.But we had little time to worry about thesepeople's affairs.Another man called at our office. Hesaid nothing about bootleggers or racket-eers. He ignored dishonest leases of publicproperty (though some of his closest col-leagues were involved in such operations.)He said that a tariff would cure the farm-er's ills. He said that the army of the un-employed had been reduced to 800,000(though our government reports stili showfrom 3,000,000 to 4,000,000 men out ofwork). He did not talk about these mat-ters in detail. But he offered to make usmore efficient in business. He offered tohelp us to produce more goods, and to produce them faster. And we listened to him.Perhaps we shall elect him. Perhapswe are so eager to eliminate the waste in ourfactories, that we will overlook greaterwastes: our futile attempt at prohibitionenforcement, the economie perii to ourfarmers, the idleness of several millionsof our workers. Perhaps a majority ofus stili distrust you. Perhaps we cannot help shuddering at the striped Tammany that gave you birth, though weswallow whole the spotted William Varewhose machine nominated your rivai.43EVENTS AND COMMENTS 43Have you fought in vain, then, GovernorSmith ? Will your challenges be f orgotten ?Perhaps ; but there is one thing we can neverforget.We have seen your smile.We were threatened by a danger greaterthan the bootlegger, more deadly than thecorrupt cabinet officer. So fascinated werewe by the great game of business, that wewere in danger of forgetting the greatergame of living. We were losing the art ofenjoying each other 's company, of making pleasant little jokes, of passingquiet evenings with our friends. We feltthat if we could only become efficient, ourproblems would be solved. Our President,when he spoke at ali, said dull words in afiat, uninteresting voice. We admired himfor it. We were forgetting that great,humane President who had a homely yarn for every occasion. When an old pai carneto cali on us, he would find, as likely as not,a sign that read, "This is my busy day."Then we saw your smile. It is the smileof a man who likes his fun, who enjoysmingling with a jolly crowd, who delightsin friendly banter. It is not the grin of ademagogue. It is a cairn smile, that seemsto understand. Life, it seems to say, is ajumbled affair; it's no use trying to reducelife to rule and rote ; even business methodsdon't teli the whole story; we can only doour best at a tough job. "And meanwhile,"it seems to say, "let's be enjoying ourselvestogether."Though ali your gallant assaults mayhave failed, Governor Smith, neverthelessyou have done us a magic service. Youhave taken away our hearts of storie andgiven up hearts of love. You have taughtus to smile.ALUMNIPresident James Rowland Angeli of YaleUniversity and Dr. George E. Vincent,President of the Rockefeller Foundation,addressed the New York Alumni andAlumnae Clubs on Saturday afternoon,October 6. The meeting was held on thegrounds of the Edgewood School, Green-wich, Connecticut. The clubs were theguests of Miss Euphrosyne Langley, ex-'o6,Principal of the School.Both President Angeli and Dr. Vincentwere formerly deans in the University.About ioo fnends of the University werepresent. Doctor Vincent and PresidentAngeli made short speeches which entertain-ingly recalled some of their experiences inthe earlier days of the University. Mr.Frank J. Miller, Professor Emeritus ofLatin, and Mr. Trevor Arnett, recentlyVice President of the University, were alsopresent and spoke briefly. Miss LucineFinch, who will be remembered as the di- AFFAI R Srector of the pageant at the dedication ofIda Noyes Hall and for her many othercontributions to University dramatic life,told stories and sang songs. Messages weresent at the direction of the meeting to Mrs.Davida Harper Eaton and to ProfessorThomas C. Chamberlain, the meeting beingheld on the latter's eighty-fifth birthday.Alumni expecting to reside in New YorkCity or vicinity for any reasonable time mayaffiliate themselves with the locai association by communicating with Mr. George S.Leisure, 50 Broad Street, Secretary for themen's association, or Mrs. HamiltonRogers, 155 E. 72nd Street, Secretary forthe women's association.James W. Nicely.C. S. Boucher, Dean of the Colleges ofArts, Literature, and Science, spoke at aluncheon of the Peoria Alumni Club onOctober 12.A collection of photographs of the newUniversity Chapel will appear in thenext issue.DISCOVERY of the famous stables ofSolomon during the excavations ofthe ruins at Armageddon, Palestine, whichhas recently been announced by the OrientaiInstitute, is described in a full report tothe University by Mr. P. L. O. Guy, fielddirector of the Institute's Megiddo expedition.The 3,000-year-old stables on the townsite of the great battle city of Armageddon,north of Jerusalem and about ten milesinland from the Mediterranean Sea, coverhalf an acre. "Solomon laid out his stablesvery systematically," says the report, "thestalls being arranged in doublé rows. Thehorses, about twelve to the row, stood fac-ing each other, with a passage between thetwo rows of heads for the grooms and feed-ers. In front of each horse was a manger,and the rows oi mangers were divided bymassive stone hitching posts, which stili con-tain the originai tie holes for the insertionof the halter ropes."Dr. James Henry Breasted, director ofthe Orientai Institute, who learned of thediscovery by cablegram before leaving forOxford, England, to represent the UnitedStates at the International Congress ofOrientalists, declared that "such a discoverywill be of the greatest historical importance.Few people are aware that Solomon was notonly an orientai sovereign, but likewise asuccessful merchant. Not the least of hisactivities was his enterprise as a horse dealer."His marriage to the daughter of aPharaoh of Egypt gave him a close connection with the Egyptian court and he therefore enjoyed inside opportunities for secur-ing the finest breeds of Egyptian horses." The Megiddo expedition is in the thirdyear of a five-year campaign toward whichJohn D. Rockefeller, Jr., contributed $215,-000 in 1925. Working under the presentfield director at Megiddo are seven mem-bers of the University, a staff of trainedEgyptian diggers, and two hundred nativesof Palestine.PLANS for publishing the now famousRockefeller- McCormick manuscript ofa complete Byzantine New Testamentiwhich by chance was discovered in a Parisantique shop by Professor Edgar J. Goodspeed, and generously purchased by Mrs.Rockefeller McCormick for study by University scholars, contemplate the productionof three volumes.The earliest home of the manuscript wasthe imperiai library in the Palace of thePaleologi in Constantinople. In the chaosat the end of the Byzantine Empire it founda refuge in a monastic community in theBalkans or in Asia Minor. Sometime in thepost-Byzantine period it acquired two splen-did, ill-matched, metal covers which havesince been its protection.Curiously enough, in its monastic homethe manuscript was used as a magical bookfor the cure of sickness. Water was pouredon the covers, and the patients were madeto drink the water. Too much of the water,unfortunately, penetrated the book itself,so that many of the fine vellum leaves arein a crumpled condition.In 19 io the manuscript was acquired bythe dealer who, after holding it for nearlytwenty years, sold it somewhat unwillinglyto Mrs. McCormick. The final negotia-tions with the dealer were intrusted to Dr.Harold R. Willoughby, Assistant Professorof New Testament Literature in the University, and the purchase was completed inLondon.44Here,Gentiemen of the Committee^is the answerof one industryNo. 6 of a series inspired by the report o/the Secretaryof Commerce/ s Committee on JElimination of WasteLOOKING OVER vs. OVERLOOKINGIT is the broad conception of industriai responsibility thatoverlooks no small detail of manufacture.Is a ten-thousandth of an inch in the thickness of a mica con-denser sheet important? Does a time-interval of a thousandth ofa second matter? A thousandth of an ampere of electric current?That Western Electric thinks so is manifested in its rigid in-spections. Defects are detected at the source. Waste is con-fined to the stage of manufacture in which the defect occurs;and its cause soon discovered and removed.Not only that. The principal user of Western Electric tele-phone apparatus — the Bell System — is safeguarded againstcumulative operating difficulties. With the ever-growing com-plexity of the nation's telephoning machinery, the tendencyof mechanical errors to multiply must be compensated for bygreater accuracy in manufacture — and, in terms of inspection,by ever-increasing vigilance.Western ElectricVurckasers. . Manufacturers... Y>istributors45THE ALUMNI COUNCIL OFTHE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGOChairman, Walter L. Hudson, '02Secretary, Charlton T. Beck, '04The Council for 1928-29 is composed of the following DelegatesiFrom the College Alumni Associations, Térm expires 1929: Elizabeth Faulkner,'85; Harry N. Gottlieb, '00; Herbert P. Zimmermann, '01; Paul H. Davis, '11;William H. Kuh, 'n; Mrs. Marguerite H. MacDaniel, '17; Term expires 193° "•Grace A. Coulter, '99; Frank McNair, '03; Earl D. Hostetter, '07, J. D. '09; Mrs.Margaret Haas Richards, '11; William H. Lyman, '14; Arthur C. Cody, '24; Termexpires 1931: John P. Mentzer, '98; Walter L. Hudson, '02; Mrs. Martha LandersThompson, '03 ; Henry D. Sulcer, '06 ; Harold H. Swift, '07 ; Mrs. Phyllis FayHorton, '15.From the Association of Doctors of Philosophy, W. H. Osgood, Ph.D. '18; Wm. S.Gray, '13, Ph.D. '16; Herbert E. Slaught, Ph.D. '98; D. Jerome Fisher, '17, S.M.'20, Ph.D. '22; T. V. Smith, Ph.D. '22.From the Divinity Alumni Association, Rev. W. D. Whan, A.M. '09, D.B. 'io;James B. Ostergren, A.M. '18, D.B. '23; Charles T. Holman, D.B. '16.From the Law School Alumni Association, Thurlow G. Essington, J.D. '08; WalterP. Steffen, 'io, J.D. '12; Charles F. McElroy, A. M. '06, J. D. '15.From the School of Education Alumni Association, Logan M. Anderson, A.M. '23 ;Wilbur Beauchamp, A.M. '23; Jessie M. Todd, '25.From the Commerce and Administration Alumni Association, Frank H. Anderson,'22; Donald P. Bean, '17; John A. Logan, '21.From the Rush Medical College Alumni Association, Frederick B. Moorehead,M. D. '06; George H. Coleman, 'n, M. D. '13; Ralph C. Brown, '01, M. D. '03.From the Chicago Alumni Club, Harry R. Swanson, '17; Arthur C. Cody, '24;Frank H. Whiting, '16.From the Chicago Alumnae Club, Mrs. Nena Wilson Badenoch, '12; Mrs. Geo. W.Swain, '09, A.M. '16; Mrs. C. Muller Koeper, '25.From the University, David H. Stevens, Ph. D. '14.Alumni Associations Represented in the Alumni CouncilThe College Alumni Associations: Pres- F. McElroy, A. M., '06, J. D., '15, 1609ident, Walter L. Hudson, '02, Harris Westminster Bldg, Chicago.Trust and Savings Bank, Chicago; School of Education Alumni Associa-versTt^'of Chfca'011 T* ^^ '°4 ^ TI0N: Presìdent> R' L- ^^^ PhD"y ¦' '17, University of Chicago; Secretary,Association of Doctors of Philosopht: Mrs. R. W. Bixler, A. M. '25, Uni-President, Henry Gale, '96. Ph.D. '99, versity of Chicago.of Chicago Association: President, Frank H.Anderson, '22, Hamilton Bond & Mtge.Divinity Alumni Association: President, Co ? 7 So Dearborn St., Chicago;J. W. Hoag, D. B., '04, 24 Winder, Secretary, Hortense Friedman, '22, 230Detroit, Mich; Secretary, R. B. David- So Clark gL Chicago.IowD' B' '9?' 5°8 KdI°SS AVC" ^^ RUSH MEDICAL .C0LLEGE ALUMNI ASS°'owa*ciation: President, Samuel R. Slay-Law School Association: President, maker, M.D. '92, 517 W. Adams St.,Thurlow G. Essington, J.D., '08, 231 So. Chicago; Secretary, Charles A. Parker,LaSalle St., Chicago; Secretary Charles M. D., '91, 7 W. Madison St., Chicago.Ali Communications should be sent to the Secretary of the proper Association or to the AlumniCouncil, Faculty Exchange, University of Chicago. The dues for membership in any one of theAssociations named ' above, including subscription to The University of Chicago Magazinc, are $2.00per year. A holder of two or more degrees from the University of Chicago may be a memberof more than one Association; in such instances the dues are divided and shared equally by the Associations involved.46UNIVERSITY NOTES 47The Founder's BirthdayTo the Editor:On July 8th I dispatched the followingtelegram to the beloved Founder of ourAlma Mater:"Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada,Royal Alexandria Hotel,July 8th, 1928."John D. Rockefeller,Tarrytown, N. Y.Minneapolis-Saint Paul University ofChicago Alumni send love and best wisheson your birthday."I received the following reply :"Many thanks for your beautiful mes-sage on the occasion of my eighty-ninthbirthday. I cordially reciprocate ali thegood wishes for each and every membef ofyour association.John D. Rockefeller."Cordially yours,Albert J. Johnson The Clark and BrewerTeachers AgencyBREWER TEACHERS AGENCYFounded 1882CLARK TEACHERS AGENCYFounded 1885The Two Agencies United1926CHICAGO, ILL. KANSAS CITY, MO.Lyon & Healy Bldg. New York LifeBldg.MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. NEW YORK, N YGlobe Bldg. Flatiron Bldg.PITTSBURGH, PA. SPOKANE, WASH.433 Jenkins Arcade Chamber of CommerceBldg.Ali six offices are members of the National Association of Teachers Agencies.Enrollment in one office means permanent enroll-ment in ali the offices so far as enrollment fee isconcerned. There is no renewal fee.Our six offices blanket the country. Thousands uponthousands of teachers have secured through us increased salaries — better positions, more desirablelocations— ali that goes to make teaching worth while.May we not unlock the doors for you?N. B.—Ask us about the Brewer National Educational Directory, the only thing of its kind inprint, a listing of approximately 10,000 school ex-ecutives. It is of great value to the teacher making applications. Per copy, $ 1 .00 .A Few of OurBOOK BARGAINSFiction 45c; 5 for $2.00Houston — Eight Years with Wilson's Cabinet. 2 Voi. $10.00 now $2.95Beebe— Pheasants 2 Voi. $15.00 now $7.50Alien — Israfel, Life and Times of E. A. Poe2 Voi. $10.00 now $5.00Library of Poetry and Song3 Voi. $11.00 now $3.95Brandeis— Goethe 2 Voi. $10.00 now $4.50Huxley — Autobiography and Memoirs ofB. R. Haydon. 2 Voi. $7.50 now $4.50Donaldson — History of the Adirondacks.2 Voi. $10.00 now $5.00Asquith — Fifty Years of British Parliament2 voi. $8.00 now $4.00Selections from Correspondence of Rooseveltand H. C. Lodge. 2 Voi. $10.00 now $7.50Postage ExtraLet us know your interests and we will keep you inforni ed when books come inthat you might like. Shop by MailThe University of Chicago Bookstore5802 Ellis Ave.Guthrie MarcabrunMannin PilgrimsPrichard Working BullocksComstock Speak to tbe EarthE. L. White LukundooK. Millay WayfarersFletcher Daniel QuayneJoad The Babbitt WarrensClifford In Days that are DeadBrady Web of SteelPerutz Marquis de BolivarO'Higgins Clara BarronBorden Jericho SandErvine Alice and a FamilyO. Orions In Spite of HeavenNEWS OFTHE CLASSESAND ASSOCIATIONSCollege'96 — John F. Voight, who practices Lawt 1412 Marquette Building, Chicago, waslected Chairman of the Hoover Committeeif Amerieans of German origin fot twenty-ight centrai western states.'02 — Annie Mead Fertig is Dean ofiVomen at the State College of Washing-:on, Pullman, Washington.'03 — Charles Collins has written in col-[aboration with Gene Markey a romancesntitled "The Dark Island," which waspublished in September 1928 by DoubledayDoran & Company.'06 — Albert W. Sherer, for the last fouryears manager of the Chicago offices of theCurtis Publishing Company, has beenelected Executive Vice-president and a director of Lord & Thomas & Logan Advertising Agency, 400 N. Michigan Avenue,Chicago.'n— H. M. Cunningham, A. M. '13,writes "Doing same old thing! TaughtSummer School. Cut weeds, stack hay formy cow, raise chickens and rabbits. Toota horn and scrape a flddle for recreation." His address is 1213 N. Cedar, Hastings,Nebraska.'12 — J. Elmer Thomas has become asso-ciated with Fenner & Beane, members ofthe New York Stock Exchange. His officesare located at 602 Fort Worth ClubBuilding, Forth Worth, Texas.'15 — Hazel E. Field is Assistant Professor of Zoology at Occidental College,Los Angeles, California.'17 — Anna Grill, who sailed July 2dfrom Seattle for a trip around the world,will spend several months in Ceylon andwill study in a university in Germany.'18 — Leona W. Logue, 92 LinwoodAvenue, Columbus, Ohio, is the author of abook entitled "Recent War Lyrics" whichhas just been published by the GraftonPress.>l9_Mrs. Ralph W. Stearns (S. MarieWilliams), Medford, Oregon, recently re-turned from a two-year trip around theworld with her husband. During theirtravels they met a number of people whohad attended the University of Chicago.Commerce and AdministrationLetter from a Graduate in a Piedmont Cottoti Milling Community.BECAUSE I feel that the Universitymakes an investment in ali of its students and especially in those who have heldfellowships. I am very glad to report con-ditions on the locai stock market.Grasping my diploma in one hand and asuit case full of mimeographed pages fromPoi. Econ. 43 in the other I carne back tothe land of "hog and hominy" in 1923 toresumé my personnel work with the cottonmill people. I have applied lots that I hadabsorbed under Professors Douglas and Millis and thanked Heaven for Dean Spen-cer's law when the employee's group insur*ance and the company's casualty businesswere put into my department.In 1926 I went up to Columbia University and landed my Doctor's degree in So-ciology, writing "Cotton Mill People of thePiedmont" as my dissertation.Now Fm back on the job again and inthe role of Community Director try myhand at ali kinds of interesting jobs thattouch ali phases of the lives of the employees48NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONS 49of two mills : such as working out recrea-tional health and educational programs,organizing a Baptist church (being a luke-warm Episcopalian myself), taking housingunder my wing, and listening to and actingupon ali kinds of personal problems.Last fall I was called before the National Association of Manufacturers meeting in convention at Chattanooga to give anaddress about the cotton mill people, soonI am- to go to the University of NorthCarolina to do a similar stunt, now andthen Fm called upon by various socialworkers' clubs and once in awhile Fvebroken into print on my pet subject, thecotton mill people of the South.Fm living in the midst of a mill villagein the cutest and tiniest house in the world,which I had the fun of building. Twogood Airdales are my boon companions andI ride horseback a lot. Ali in ali it's agreat life and I adore it.Marjorie A. PotwineLawUrban A. Lavery, attorney for the Boardof Election Commissioners for the past twoyears, has resigned that office to devote histime exclusively to private practice. Hewill give special attention to public lawmatters and election cases. His office is inthe First National Bank Building, Chicago.Guy Van Schaick, J.D. '09, has removedhis law office to the City State Bank Building, 130 North Wells Street, Chicago.DivinityG. C. Crippen, A. M., 'n, D. B., 'n,for more than fìve years pastor of theIrving Park Baptist Church, Chicago, resigned Aprii ióth in order to accept a position with the University of Chicago^ Press.He will have charge of religious publica-tions. Mr. Crippen was connected withthe University of Chicago Press in the samecapacity before accepting his last pastorate.James M. Lively, A. M., '14 D. B., '14,is beginning his thirteenth year at Mattoon,Illinois. THE J. M. HAHNTEACHERS AGENCYA Western Placemènt BureauElementary, Secondary, CollegeAlways in quest of outstanding educatorsfor important positions. Teachers with higher degrees in demand. Doctors of Philosophy urgently needed for college anduniversity positions.J. M. Hahn and Bianche TuckerManagers2161 Shattuck Ave. Berkeley, California¦ JOHN HANCOCK SERIES -Sntering QollegeTHOUSANDS of young men andwomen this fall begin their collegecareers. Many of them will beable to finish. Others may not. It isa good time to cali attention to thefact that a LIFE INSURANCEPOLICY can be a guarantee thatthey will finish.The cost of putting aboy or girl through collegeat the present time is es-timated to be betweenfour and five thousanddollars.Nowadays parents arelearning how to providethis educational fundthrough insurance takenout when the children arevery young.But here we are considering onlythe youth just entering college, withhigh hopes for the future which maybe thwarted by the sudden loss of thebreadwinner. Small would be theadditional cost in premium for suffi-cient insurance to secure the familyagainst needless disappointment.Just another way of purchasingsecurity. The father will know thathe has done his full part. Themother will be assured that whatever happens she can see her childrenthrough.Ask us for details as to costs, formsof policies, etc. Please give applicante date of birth.Inquiry BureauHLife Insurance Company^or Boston. MassachusettsI am interested in your pian forguaranteeing a college education.Name Address Date of Birth - OVER SIXTY-F1VE YEARS IN BUSINESS !THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPaul H. Davis, 'n Herbert I. Markham, Ex. '06Ralph W. Davis, '16 Walter M. Giblin, '23Paal RDavis &<90*MEMBERSNEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGECHICAGO STOCK EXCHANGE37 South LaSalle StreetTelephone Rand. 6280CHICAGOTHE YATES-FISHERTEACHERS' AGENCYEstablished iqoóPaul Yates, Manager6l6-620 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVENUECHICAGOOther Office; Qii-12 Broadway BuildingPortland, OregonMOSERSHORTHAND COLLEGEA business school of distinctionSpecial Three Montris' IntensiveCourse for university graduatesor undergraduates givenquarterlyBulletin on RequestPaulMoser,J. D., Ph. B.116 S. Michigan Ave. ChicagoUNIVERSITYCOLLEGEThe downtown department of The University of Chicago, 116 S. Michigan Avenue,wishes the Alumni of the University andtheir friends to know that it offersEvening, Late Afternoon and Saturday ClassesTwo-Hour Sessions Once or Twice a WeekCourses Credited Toward University DegreesPublic LecturesDowntown at Art Institute, 6:45 to 7:45 P. M.For Information, AddressThe Dean, University College,University of Chicago, Chicago, II1. Earl Riney, D. B., '14, is pastor of theFirst Baptist Church, Cofieyville, Kansas,which has completed a new education build-,ing and a new parsonage.S. G. Cole, A. M. '19, D. B., '20, is Professor of Religious Education in CrozerTheological Seminary. He also conducts areligious day school in connection with thepublic schools of Upland, Pennsylvania.Doctors of PhilosophyIn MathematicsNels J. Lennes, who is Professor andHead of the Department of Mathematicsat the University of Montana, is author orco-author of a series of textbooks for collegesnow being published by Harper andBrothers.Frederick W. Owens, formerly at Cornell University, is now Head of the Department of Mathematics at Pennsylvania StateCollege.1908 — Mary E. Sinclair has been onleave of absence from Oberlin Collegeduring the past year and has held a tempo-rary position for the year at the new university located in Miami, Florida.1909 — Arnold Dresden, formerly of theUniversity of Wisconsin, has accepted aprofessorship of mathematics at Swarth-more College, Pennsylvania.1910 — T. H. Hildebrandt, Professor ofMathematics at the University of Michigan, has been abroad on leave of absenceduring part of the past year.Anna J. Peli, who is now Mrs. A. L.Wheeler. has resigned as Head of the Department of Mathematics at Bryn MawrCollege, but will give one advanced courseof lectures during the coming year.191 2 — Edward W. Chittenden, Professor of Mathematics at the State Universityof Iowa, recently participated in a symposium on Analysis Situs at Princeton University.1913 — Wilson L. Miser, formerly ofArmour Institute in Chicago, is now professor of Mathematics at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee.Elton J. Moulton, Professor at Northwestern University, has just left for EuropeNEWS OF THE CLASSESwith his entire family, and they are pro-posing to take their automobile with themand motor for six months in Europe. He isco-author of a new trigonometry with Professor D. R. Curtiss.19 14 — Forbes B. Wiley is Professor andHead of the Department of Mathematicsat Denison University, Granville, Ohio.191 5 — Jasper O. Hassler, who is Professor of Mathematics at the University ofOklahoma, recently attended the Bostonmeeting of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. He is a member of theBoard of Directors of this organization,which has just been incorporated under thelaws of' Illinois.Olive C. Hazlett, who is Assistant Pro-,fessor of Mathematics at the University ofIllinois, has been granted a GuggenheimFellowship for study abroad during thecoming year.MARRIAGESBIRTHS, ENGAGEMENTSDEATHSMarriagesGertrude E. Nelson, '12, to Alvin J.King, June 21, 1928. At home, MonteVista, Colorado.Miriam M. Taylor, '14, to EllsworthG. Paster, June 2, 1928. At home, 19 WestView Place, Colorado Springs, Colorado..Mildred Lambert, A.M. '16, Ph.D. '24,to James T. Hillhouse, June 14, 1928. Athome, 515 W Marion Street, South Bend,Indiana.George M. Curtis, M.D. '20, to LucileAtcherson, January 16, 1928. At home,1330 East 56th Street, Chicago.Ruth E. Westlund, '23, to Dr. FredericT. Jung, Ph.D. '25, September 8, 1928.At home, Chicago.Henry Hieronimus, '23, to CharlotteSmith, January 11, 1928. At home, 7856Colfax Avenue, Chicago.Fannie J. Deutelbaum, '24, to EdwardI. Friedman, February 16, 1928. At home,5135 Ingleside Avenue, Chicago. ATWOODWORTH'SChristmas CardsBeautiful andDistinctive!GiftsISSovel and Individuai!TypewritersColorful and UsefullBooksFiction and Recent lWOODWORTH'SOpen Evenings1311 E.57thSt. H.P.1690TEACHER PLACEMENTSERVICEFISK TEACHERS' AGENCY28 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago.For many years a leader among teachers'agencies. Our service is nation wide.AMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU310 South Michigan Ave., Chicago.A professional teacher placement bureau,limiting its field to colleges and univer-sities.EDUCATION SERVICE811-823 Steger Bldg., Chicago.A bureau chiefly concerned with theplacement of administrative officials,such as financial secretaries, businessmanagers, treasurers, registrars, directorsof Red Cross work, etc.The aboye organizations are under the management of C. E. Goodell, for nine yearspresident of Franklin College, Ind., andMrs. Bertha Smith Goodell, for thirteen yearssupervisor and teacher of English in the HighSchool of Oak Park, 111.52 THE UNIVERSITY OFMountainsoflceIMAGINE a huge cake of ice acity block square and higherthan the Washington monu-ment ...Picture ice enough to supplyChicago's 700,000 families with 60pounds a week for a wholeyear ...That's the amount of refrigera-tion required in one year at Swift& Company's Chicago plant alone— so that Premium Ham andBacon, Brookfield Butter, Eggs,Poultry, Cheese, and other prod-ucts may be prepared and dis-tributed under right temperaturesand in the proper condition.Chilling temperatures for plantand packing house coolers — aquarter of a million tons of naturai ice for the refrigerator cars- —and stili more chilling temperatures at the branch houses.From first to last Swift &Company's refrigerating facilitiesare on the job, making coolnessthat is equal to mountains of ice.This is only a part of the nation-wide service Swift & Companyrenders— but it is an absolutelyessential part.The profit derived from alisources is only a fraction of a centa pound.Swift 85 CompanyVisitors are welcome at Swift & Company plants CHICAGO MAGAZINEJeannette S. Hash, '24, to Clarke M.Shaw,/24, June 19, 1928. At home, 5734Race Avenue, Chicago.Ellen LeCount, '25, to C. MullerKoeper, '25, J.D. '27, September 29, 1928.At home, 1446 East 56th Street, Chicago.Rose V. Selig, '26, to Henry Felsenthal,Jr. At home, 5465 Everett Avenue, Chicago.May Yeoman, '26, to Lieutenant HarryTownsend, June 2, 1928. At home, FortWinfield Scott, San Francisco, California.Ethel M. Weiss, '27, to Dr. HerbertRattner, June 20, 1928. At home, 540Briar Place, Chicago.Louise Merrill Watson, ex '29, to Dr. T.Ogden .Mills, September 22, 1928. Athome, Apt. 3 W, 8212 Drexel Avenue,Chicago.EngagementsHaskell S. M. Rhett, '15, to EuniceEmery, ex '23.Harold Lewis, '23, to Catherine Braw-ley, '31.Dorothy Grosby, 26, to Milton Gerwin,'26, J.D. '28.Lester T. Beali, '26, to Dorothy W. Miller, '27.Birth sTo Jose W. Hoover, '08, J.D. '09, andMrs. Hoover, a son, Herbert, September21, 1928, at Chicago.To Mr. and Mrs. H. J. Burkhart (EllaBurghardt, '15) a daughter, September 16,1928, at Chicago.To Thomas M. Simpson, Jr., Ph.D. '17,and Mrs. Simpson, a son, Thomas Mc-Nider III, May 15, 1928, at Ashland,Virginia.To Albert J. Johnson, J.D '19, and Mrs.Johnson, a daughter, Arline Olga, July 8,1928, at Minneapolis.To Emil D. Ries, '20, and Mrs. Ries, adaughter, Gay Dixon, July 29, 1928, atState College Pennsylvania.To Mr. and Mrs. Avery A. Morton(Zelma Owen, '21) a daughter, Elizabeth,May 29, 1928, at Boston, Massachusetts.To Arthur J. Goldberg, '23, and Mrs.Goldberg, a daughter, Gwendolyn Joyce,March 12, 1928, at Chicago.SK Nation's Building StoneMulvane Art Museum, Washburn College, Topeka, Kansas. Built ofVariegated Indiana Limestone, Random Ashlar.No Beauty Like Thatof Naturai Stoner"pO build of Indiana Limestone means that your building will become•*• a worthy part of the permanent architecture of this country.The modem production methods of the Indiana Limestone Companyhave greatly lowered costs. Rough-sawed strip stone for Random Ashlarbrings the cost of a stone building down very dose to the cost of thesame building if constructed of other less desirable material. Let us sendyou our illustrated booklet giving full information about this beautifulstone. More than 65% of ali the building stone used in the UnitedStates is Indiana Limestone. For the booklet address Box 806, ServiceBureau, Indiana Limestone Company, Bedford, Indiana.General Offices: Bedford, Indiana Executive Offices: Tribune Tower, Chicago^-.««•«4»» ?\This monogram appearson a multitude of productswhich contribute to theefficiency and comfort ofboth factory and home. Itis your assurance of elec-trical correctness and de-pendability. NOMADSThe top of the pass! To-day, just as in the remote Bib-lical age when herdsmen tended the flocks of Abraham,these nomad tribes drive their flocks each season up fromthe parched desert to the high table-lands of the Cau-casus, green with life-giving grass.We moderns of the West make no such forced marchesin search of food. In our lands of little rain, electricitypumps water to make the desert bloom. Electricity lightsthe herdsman's home and milks the cows in his stable.Electricity powers the great network of transportationand communication which binds city and country intoone complex system of civilized living.Yet, as Thomas A. Edison has written, "The electricaldevelopment of America has only well begun. So longas there remains a single task being done by men andwomen which electricity could do as well, so long willthat development be incomplete."GENERAL ELECTM'95-475 E