LHVOL. XX NUMBER 9JULY, 1928CON�ENTIONSA Political Scientist Gives an Eye-Witness ReportFIVE CHICAGOANS IN THE ORIENTTHE CHAPEL AND THE CITYBy Henry Justin SmithBOOKSGrown-up Detective Stories The Great God O'NeillElinor Wylie's LatestI'UBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI COUNCIL1928-Books for Fall-1928Hows and Whysof CookingBy Evelyn G. Hallidayand Isabel T. NobleA new kind of cook book.It eliminates chance in cook­ing; it insures the prepara­tion of really good food; itsupplies a solid foundationfor all culinary accomplish­ment. $2.00Aesthetics of theNovelBy Van Meter AmesBelieving that literary criti­cism cannot be sound unlessit is placed on a philosophicalbasis, Mr. Ames 'has setabout to correlate both sub­j ects, $2.50Swindlers andRogues in FrenchDramaBy Hilda NormanHere is the romance ofroguery. The French moneyplay, with its amusing get.rich-quick schemes and itsrogues and swindlers is forthe first time the subject of abook in English. $3.00 The Life ofGeorge Rogers ClarkBy James A. James'Written neither in defencenor in eulogy of the greatex:plorer, this biography pre­sents for the first time asympathetic interpretation 'Ofthe personality of Clark, andhis influence. $5.00PrimaryElectionsBy Charles E. Merriamand Louise OverackerThe results of the observa­tion and reflection of a manwho knows not only thetheory but the practice ofpolitics. $3.00ChildbirthByWilliam George Lee, M. D.With a deep personal con­viction of the necessity forimproved obstetrical practice,Dr. Lee has written for thebetter information of every­one who is concerned - andwho is not ?-with the uni­versal process of being born.$3·00 CharacterDevelopment:A SymposiumThe Chicago Association forChild Study and Parent Edu.cation discussed four goalsin the character developmentof children-physical health.emotional balance, intellect­ual alertness, and a spiritualview-point,Paper, $I.OO Cloth, $2.00FeudalGermanyByJames Westfall ThompsonThe heart of the MiddleAges is here revealed in thehistory of the dramaticstruggle between the Papacyand the Medieval Empire.$5·00Virginia and theFrench and IndianWarBy Hayes Baker-CrothersNo other book concerningthe relations between Eng­land and the colonies duringthe French and Indian Wartakes, as this does, the colo­nial point of view. $2.00The University of Chicago PressTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE��l'm glad you 'phoned me, Jim!"Of course he is happy about it. And any classmate of yours will be de­lighted to have you phone him when you are in his town. and have sometime to kill.' Particularly if you have. not seen each other for years ...This is only one of the pleasant things that the Intercollegiate AlumniHotels make possible. At each of these hotels is an index of the residentalumni of your college. When you are travelling and have a moment tospare, this index is a treasure trove of information for reviving friend­ships that mean much to you ..• Stop at Intercollegiate Alumni Hotelswhen you travel. You will enjoy the experience. And you will behelping the Alumni Office in furthering the work which it is doing.INTERCOLLEGIATE ALUMNI HOTELSAmherst, Mass., Lord JefferyBaltimore, SouthernBerkeley, ClaremontBethlehem, Pa., BethlehemBoothbay Harbor, Maine!:prucewold Lodge (summer only)Eos/on, BellevueChicago, BlackstoneChicago, WindermereChicago� Allerton HouseCheland, Allerton HouseColumbus, Neil HouseFresno, CalifornianK"nsas City, MuehlebachLincoln, LincolnMadison, ParkMinneapolis, Nicollet Montreal, Mount Royal HotelNew Orleans, MonteleoneNew Y.rk, RooseveltNew York, Waldorf.AstoriaOakland, OaklandPhiladelphia, Benjamin FranklinPittsburgh, SchenleyRochester, SenecaSacramento, SacramentoSan Diego, St. JamesSan Francisco, PalaceSeattle, OlympicSyracuse, OnondagaToronto, King EdwardUrbana, Ill., Urbana- LincolnWashington, D. c., New WillardWilliamsport, Pa., Ly,ominS INTERCOLLEGIATEALUMNI EXTENSIONSERVICE, INC.18 E. 41st St., New York, N. Y.Mail this coupon to the Alumni Office-------------------_ . ..,. IKindly send me an Introduction Card to the Imanagers of Intercollegiate Alumni Hotels. IIW.._ame " Class .. "........ IIc/lddress , :.................... IIrity � "" Stale..... I1 ., ._. JTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAn organization of almostfifty people, with specialists in all branches of advertisingVANDERHOOF& COMPANY QeneralcJldverlisfngVANDBRHOOP BUILDING _ .-. Aa 161 B.ONTAJUO ST •. CHICAGO- �'HENRY D. SULCER, '05, PresidentThe 100 Mttlt·onDollar IdeaEVERY advertising dollar wespend for our clients is backedby 100 million dollars of advertisingexperience. This hundred milliondollar advertising mind can pro­duce for you an eye-arresting ad ver­tising campaign or a sales-inducingmerchandising plan - or both .•Member: American Association of Ad'C'ertisillg Agmcies C:f National Outdoor Advertising BureauTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE*A Worth-whileVacationA vacation can be enjoyable, and profitable, too. Here;sa suggestion you can follow, and a vacation that you canremember the rest of your life. How about this?-Come back to the old university, and take a course insummer school. Review a subject upon which you havegrown rusty; or take a subject that will prepare you forfurther steps in your life work.-Then, if you are staying at the Hotels Windermere, youhave the rest of the time for utter relaxation and enjoyment.Perhaps you would like a dip in the lake, or a canterthrough the wooded lanes of Jackson Park; perhaps youwould like a round of tennis OF golf; perhaps you wouldlike to see the down-town shows. Whatliver you wish todo-you have ready access to it.And your vacation will have as a background, the quietrefinement, the unusually fine service, the excellent cuisine-for which Hotels Windermere are known. Whether yourstay, in Chicago is "one night or a thousand and one," acordial welcome awaits you.Ten Minutes Walk from the University-Ten MinutesRide from the Loopinder-mer-e"CHICAGO'S MOST HOMELIKE HOTELS"East 56th Street at Hyde Park Boulevard-Telephone Fairfax 6000500 feet of Verandas and Terraces fronting South on Jackson Park* Official Hotel Intercollegiate Alumni Extension ServiceTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAllerton HouseAn Ideal ResIdence For Summer Students6 FLOORSFOR WOMEN 15 FLOORSFOR MENALLERTON HOUSEChicago, IllinoisMICHIGAN AT HURON - CHICAGOSUMMER STUDENTS who take up residence at ALLERTONHOUSE will be pleased with the very reasonable cost and manyopportunities afforded for social pleasures.The Monday night programs by ALLER­TON HOUSE Glee Club; the . Wednesdaynight complimentary dances; the bridge,riding and swimming parties, lectures,movies and other activities, all combine tomake ALLER TON HOUSE a happyplace of residence. ALLERTON HOUSE is just an easy wal kfrom Chicago 's loop district and its largemusic schools.Rooms may be had weekly by two perSO:LSfor $8.00 each. Music practice room forguests 25C an hour.Cafeteria and a la carte service in thebeautiful dining room.Seven clay tennis courts.Ample parking facilities adjoining.Booklet Upon Request.WEEKLY RATES PER PERSONSingle - - $12.00-$20.00 Double - - $8.00-$15.00Transient - - $2.50-$3.50Come and see - or ask for leafletCLEVELANDCHICAGO NEW YORKI N TN I �I c/J LL LClaude G. Bowers has, flung a challengeout across the ether, accusing the admin­istration of "privilege and pillage," and asilence that "is golden-for thieves." Sen­ator Moses has welcomed the opponent ofthat administration to battle withoutquarter. Brass bands have played appropri­ate airs. Exulting delegates have ignoredmighty raps of the gavel. And now anastonished America turns its radio dialsback, and listens in a's before while HackWilson makes home runs and Guy Lom­bardo syncopates.Among the crowd at one of the Conven­tions was RODNEY L. MOTT, AssistantProfessor of Political Science at the U ni­versity of Chicago. His ears caught somesounds that the microphone may havemissed; his conclusions may show us somemeaning in last month's two tornadoes.We have come to assume that prosperityis almost universal in America these days;that no large group (except, of course, thefarmers) is suffering from hard times. ThePresident has told Congress that unemploy­ment is negligible. One party's platformdoes not even mention the problem of theman out of work. After such soothing treat­ment of the subject, the less optimistic re­port of ANDRf-W ]. STEIGER, a student whoworked at Detroit last summer, disconcertsus a little. We therefore publish it.The college student has turned the tableson Columbus. He sets out, when vacationcomes, to discover the Old W orId. Hestands before St. Mark's as unconcernedlyas ever he stood before Cobb. The Alps' arehis Dunes; the Cafe d'Harcourt his South Shore Country Club. Among the pioneersof the hegira were five Chicago men whosailed to Japan in the summer of 1923 asmusicians aboard the S. S. President Grant.They sent Chicago songs floating out acrossthe Pacific; they displayed Chicago's Phoe­nix, painted on their drumhead, at Kobe andShanghai; they were in J apan ten days afterthe Earthquake; they weathered a typhoon;and on the home journey 'they talked phi­losophy with their shipmate, Professor Fred­erick Starr.This summer, with the college voyagersailing more seas than ever, it seems properto commemorate the historic cruise of THEMAROON FIVE.ALFRED V. FRANKENSTEIN, who at­tended the University in 1925 and 1926,has written considerable musical criticism,including a book called Syncopating Saxo-. phones. From music he has ventured intothe study of the clavilux-the instrumentthat plays symphonies in color. He pre­scribes a richer musical diet for the Uni­versity student.A new tower has pierced Chicago'ssmoke, and taken its place on Chicago'sskyline. What sort of neighbor will it be?Will the crowds look on it as a friend, whenthey race past it toward the Loop? Or canonly a learned few hope to understand itsbeauty?HENRY JUSTIN Sl\fITH, '98, whose workas Director of the University's Public Rela­tions and as Managing Editor of The DailyNews has made the University and the City, closer friends, sees a good neighbor" in thenew Chapel.TROUBADOURH. Grenville Davis) )23 makes himself at home on a rainy day in Hong Kong.(See page 4-71-)VOL.XX No.9tl[;beWniber�it!' of C!Cbicago.maga;ineJ U L Y, 1928Party ConventionsImpressions of an Observer at Kansas CityBy RODNEY L. MOTTFEW people realize how expensiveour democratic institutions are.Many will be shocked to learn thatthe Republican Party spent over two mil­lion dollars in nominating their candidatefor the presidency at Kansas City this June.Nor does this estimate include the expendi­tures in the pre-convention campaigns or thecost of conducting the primaries and con­ventions in the various states. Were theseexpenses included the total would be astaggering amount. Unfortunately we areunable to determine how much is spent inselecting the delegates to the national con­ventions. It is impossible to separate thenational costs from those incurred in thenomination of state officers, for both pri­maries occur at the same time. Some con­ception of the expense of the entire processmay be had, however, from the expenditureof two millions of dollars in a single weekof a convention which was more remarkablefor its frugality than its extravagance. Theaverage amounts spent at recent Republi­can conventions would certainly be abovethat spent at Kansas City, and it is esti­mated that the Democrats spent four timesas much in nominating their candidate in1924·The first, and possibly the largest, item in the expense of the convention is the timeof those attending it. That this expense isfrequently overlooked does not make it anyless important. Kansas City boasted ofentertaining thirty-five thousand guestsduring the week of the convention. Therewere over two thousand delegates and alter­nates, fifteen hundred reporters, five hun­dred farmers, besides the thousands of offi­cial and unofficial observers; lobbyists, andother hangers-on. The business interests ofthe city felt that the convention would beof tremendous economic value to the city,and donated a quarter of a million dollarsfor the privilege of having the conventionuse their municipal auditorium. The va­rious aspirants for the nomination easilyspent a half million dollars in their effortsto win the support of the delegates. Oneaspirant had five luxurious headquarters,each with its staff of attendants, its longtable laden with literature, and its easychairs in which the weary might rest. Inone of these headquarters, which was locatedon the roof-garden of one of the best hotels,orange-ade was served free of charge to allcomers. In another headquarters, which oc­cupied a beautiful suite of rooms on themezzanine floor of one of the most expensivehotels, bound volumes extolling the vir-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtues of the aspirant were freely distributed.Besides these major items of expense therewere many minor costs which in the aggre­gate must have bulked very large. Everydelegate, alternate, sergeant-at-arms, page,and reporter was presented with a beautifulsilk and bronze badge as a souvenir. Thesefive thousand badges gave a neat contract tosome manufacturer. Hotel rooms are noto­riously expensive in a convention city, andwhile in most instances the rates were suf­ficiently controlled to prevent the grosserforms of extortion, top notch prices weregenerally prevalent. The convention proveda bonanza to the dispensers of ginger ale,not to mention the bootleggers who reapeda rich reward even in a dry convention. Theamount paid for telegraph and telephoneservice would have endowed a professor­ship in one of our large universities.The cynic will at once conclude that thisterrific "waste" is but another evidence ofthe failure of democracy and the decline ofour American civilization. But was theexpenditure at Kansas City entirely a socialwaste? Is it not possible that an equal orgreater sum would have been required toperform the social functions of the conven­tion, if they were done in some other way?Few people look upon the expenditures offraternal orders as "wasteful," but a con­vention has many points of similarity to alodge. Both rest upon an emotional appeal,both are highly ritualized, and both makeuse of the fundamental need of giving dis­tinctions to common people in a democratic.society. Lacking an indolent and parasiticnobility, we have invented a system of dis­pensing honors in even our party conclaves.The highest honors in the gift of the con­vention are, of course, the nomination forPresident and Vice President. But in addi­tion to these prizes, there is the permanentchairman and the temporary chairman, bothof whom have conspicuous places in theconvention hall. Some of the delegates arepermitted to address - the convention, anhonor which is the mark of high prestige.Others with lesser standing are permittedto make the formal motio-ns of congratula­tions or thanks, while the ordinary delegatewithout great support or unusual ability had to be content to follow his leaders, in­fluencing them as best he might in the hotellobbies. In spite of the minor role playedby the delegate, it was no small honor to theeditor of the village weekly, the keeper ofthe country store, the justice of the peace,or the building contractor to be sent as adelegate to the national convention of hisparty. He might appoint one of his friendsas an assistant sergeant-at-arms, and heusually could command a few tickets of ad­mission for his other friends. After a weekof association with the great and the neargreat, in which he experienced the thrillof actually making history, the averagedelegate might well prize his attendance atKansas City as one of the great achieve­ments of his life.The great function of the party conven­tion, however, is the arousing of partyenthusiasm rather than the granting ofhonors. Every party is confronted with theamazing task of recruiting and inspiring anentirely new body of voters every two de­cades. One-fifth of the electorate is newat each presidential election, and it is noeasy matter to bring these young voters intothe party. Unless a political organizationcan capture the allegiance of the youngergeneration it is doomed. 'I t is evident, there­fore, that the successful convention mustutilize- to the full its educational andpropagandist possibilities. I ts sessions mustbe broadcast by radio to listeners in thecigar store, club, or home. The reporters ofthe press must be given the finest facilitiesfor conveying the party principles andenthusiasm to their readers. Young menand women must be given positions asushers, tally clerks, or assistant sergeants-at­arms, thereby insuring their presence at theenthusiastic speeches in which party reg­ularity is lauded by the great politicalorators of the day. This very contact withthe leading men of the party has in itselftremendous propaganda value. Many ayoung man was made a Republican forlife by merely shaking hands with a Borah,Moses, Butler, or Curtis.In. many respects a convention remindsone of a religious camp-meeting. Parades,demonstrations, symbolism, and songs allCONVENTIONSadd to the enthusiasm and emotionalism ofthe occasion. It matters not if this enthu­siasm be for the opposing candidate. In anatmosphere charged with emotion, the rea­soning faculties become dulled and blindparty worship is quickly made a virtue.Thus even the opposition to the candidatewho is nominated contributes to his finalsuccess. If it appears that his opponentsare strong, he becomes the more powerfulonce they are vanquished. A Sampson isstrongest when he has won a surprisingvictory, and the dazzled delegates throwreason to the winds in the frantic effort tostampede to hi� banner. This explains thefailure of the Hoover leaders to 'discouragethe opposition of Lowden, Watson, Goff,and Curtis to their candidate. Since theywere confident of ultimate success, theHoover forces realized that the show ofopposition would in the end do their can­didate more good than harm.National conventions were orginallybattlefields on which the quadrennial strug­gles centering around great personalitiesand important issues might be fought. Some­times the convention still performs thisfunction, but it often happens that thepolitical joust is won or lost long before thedelegates assemble. Even the struggles of itsleaders for prestige are rarely carried tothe floor of the main body. Usually a settle­ment is reached in caucus. Each state dele­gation caucused regularly during the con-.vention at Kansas City, but much moreimportant were the informal caucuses orconferences held in hotel rooms, at whichonly the leaders were present. The meetingsof the various committees frequently pro­vided the occasion for the ascendancy of avigorous individual like Assistant AttorneyGeneral Mabel Willebrandt, or SenatorBorah. More frequently, however, the realconflict occurred in a sub-committee of aconference of leaders. Thus the destiny ofmany an individual was determined in smallbodies far removed from the convention.One of the cleverest moves at the KansasCity convention was the striking way inwhich young. Senator LaFollette used theoccasion to enhance his prestige. He foundhimself in a hopeless minority of. the Com- mittee on Resolutions. I t was obvious thatthe convention would reject his proposals,and the only way out was to appeal to theAmerican public. Clearly he could notafford to lose the chance to present his ideasthrough the radio broadcasting system theconvention bad secured. For this reason heinsisted on presenting a minority report fromthe Resolutions Committee. He shrewdlytimed the report so that it was given afterthe hall was well-filled but before the dele­gates were wearied by long debate .. Hissplendid voice and vigorous manner enabledhim to command a good hearing, and bothhis program and his prestige were therebypromoted.It was evident, however, that the minor­ity report from the Committee on Resolu­tions was merely a gesture. Even thesubstitute planks which were subsequentlyproposed as amendments by the farm andwet groups were pre-ordained to failure.The convention did not, and in fact, couldnot, settle public issues. To do so mightembarrass the candidate, who of course musthave the final word on the great nationalissues which he is to present to the public.Furthermore, to expect a platform framedin one hectic night by a distraught com­mittee sitting in secret session to settle anyimpoj-tant issue is to expect the impossible.Many of the planks, were fully written be­fore the convention met. Some were slightlychanged as the result of preliminary con­ferences of leaders in Kansas City. The mostthat the Committee could do, to say noth­ing of the body of the convention, was toratify what the leaders had proposed.N or did the convention determine theparty nominee. Every press correspondent,and practically every interested delegateknew who would be nominated fully twelvehours before the gavel fell to call the firstsession to order; Much had been determinedin the state conventions and primaries, andall that remained was the question whetherPresident Coolidge would join the group ofaspirants bent on blocking Hoover or wouldthrow his strength with that of the Secre­tary of Commerce. Mr. Mellon and Mr.Yare informed the Pennsylvania delegationof the President's determination to do the470 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINElatter on Monday evening. When the con­vention met for the first time the followingday it was evident that the nomination ofHoov-er was inevitable. Even the Vice Presi­dential nominee was determined not by theconvention itself, but in a series of hotelconferences lasting most of Thursday night.All that remained was to swing the con­vention into line after the candidate wasselected. This was done by cleverly arrang­ing the withdrawal of some of the strategicaspirants for the Vice Presidency immedi­ately upon the presentation of the name ofCharles Curtis.That the National Convention is notthe real battleground where presidentialnominations or national issues are settled,does not mean it is useless. Men who aspireto high office must be placated. Leaders ofimportant factions must be brought intoline. Without a great meeting place suchas is provided by the Convention it is doubt­ful if the agreements, trades, and bargainsnecessary to effect this would be possible.The unfortunate thing is that such .impor­tant matters must be adjusted with sucha short time for consideration. The arrange­ments made at Kansas City were completedin a few crowded hours, but they maydetermine the occupants of important cab- inet posts for four years. I t is certainlynot too idealistic to wish that matters ofsuch importance should be given more con­sideration and should be determined onlyunder the blaze of publicity. The hurrieddiscussion in a stuffy hotel room is not con­ducive to the most satisfactory settlement ofmomentous problems. We cannot hope toeliminate political maneuvering, but wemight be able to safeguard the process to in­sure a fair contest.The Convention is more than a battle­field, an educational device, or a system ofhonors; it is a great pageant. Perhaps thatis its most. important social function. Mod­ern life needs dramatic scenes to relievethe monotony of a machine age. Our poli­tics would be drab indeed without the theat­ricals involved in electing a President everyfour years. If the show is a good one it iswell worth the price, however excessive itmay seem to be at first sight. Unfortunatelythe Convention in Kansas City lacked manyof the spectacular features which one hascome to associate with such gatherings. Inspite of the relative drabness of the proceed­ings, due to the lack of humor, there wasno lack of picturesque scenery, dramaticactors, and a vital plot in the play.Autos and JobsBy ANDREW]. STEIGER, ex-'28'This essay was awarded first prize in a contest conducted by The Nation for Americancollege students who spent the summer in industry or agriculture.I CAME to Detroit in a big motor-bus.Sitting beside me on a massively up­" holstered, shock-absorbing seat wasJack Hagerty from Massachusetts. j acksaid that he had made three trips to Chicagoin the past six weeks. He worked in theautomobile shops and had made these tripsbetween jobs, He had quit his last job be­cause the pace was too stiff-ten hoursdaily and seven days a week. Only a mar­ried man who was tied down with a homeand family would stay on under such con­ditions. As he was unattached, he couldassert his freedom by quitting and takinganother place for less money but with bet­ter conditions. I was thus introduced to awage-earner of a type I was to see more ofin the employment lines at the auto shops­the young, unmarried, transient workerwho hopes to better himself by moving fromjob to job, but who actually finds his posi­tion growing daily worse.My first week in Detroit I spent lookingfor work and so I had time to become ac­quainted with the varieties of men who weresimilarly engaged. There are normallysome 15,000 men unemployed, due to sick­ness, injury, or change of jobs; HenryFord had laid off about 20,000; a numberof refugees had come up to Detroit from theflood areas of the Mississippi Valley. Itwas said that last winter (1926-1927) atleast one company had 'advertised all overthe country for workers to come to Detroit.This resulted' in flooding the city withthousands of jobless men. The Sundayprevious' to my arrival in Detroit this samecompany had advertised in the local news­papers for men. Eight' huridred men. cameout, some of them desperately in need ofwork; they stood around all day; finallyabout twenty were hired. These tactics areexcellent means' of finding out how manymen are out of work in the city. They "alsowarrant the belief that an- effort has beenmade to maintain a surplus of labor by means of advertisements which bring meninto the city.I made it a point to ask the personnel_men at the factories where I applied forwork this question: "How many men do youinterview a day?" I learned that between1 ,000 and 3,600 men were being passedthrough the employment offices daily. Ofthis number sometimes ten, sometimesfifty, and occasionally 200 might be takenon.IIThe employment offices have been builtto facilitate the handling of large numbersof men. At one factory, notorious for itscheap-labor policy, the office opens flushupon the street and no artificial lanes areconstructed to help the formation of anorderly line of waiting men. Instead, themen in search of work collect. about thedoor in a dense mass, through which apoliceman must force a lane so that fore­men may come out and select some friendor acquaintance and obtain for him an in­terview ahead of the rest. Most of theother offices have been built with a space be­tween parallel lines of pipe through which asingle file of men move slowly toward thepersonnel men. It is physically impossiblefor workers to be hired according to theirfitness for the jobs; employment officerscannot learn enough about each man in thecourse of the few words that are exchanged.The applicant usually advances, meeklyasking, "Are you hiring body men today?"or "Have you any work for a press hand?"If he is 1 ucky enough to ask for the rightthing, or if the officer takes a liking to thecolor of his eyes or his general appearance,he may be questioned further; otherwise hewill be dismissed with a negative shake anda cool stare, This haphazard method ofselecting workers on isolated and unrelated'points can never result in the right job forthe' right man. But in an industry likeautomobile manufacturing, where the proc-471THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEess is subdivided and mechanized to the lastdegree, each operation can be learned in afew minutes even by a child, and it mattersrelatively little which men are chosen orwhat work is assigned to them.However, men are not selected for jobsmerely on the basis of appearance, nor is thefirst man who gets to the plant sure of ajob. I discovered promptly that a workmanmust either ask for a particular job forwhich men were being hired, or he mustwin some . special consideration from theemploying officer. Although I was amongthe first three hundred applicants inter­viewed on my first day and succeeded inworming my way, the second day, to thehead of the line, I was turned away fromthe employment office with a curt nod.Twenty-five hundred other men wereturned away on that first day. The gallingpart of this experience was that the per­sonnel man stood with a device in his handfor counting heads-like a sheep-herder inthe stock-yards. He even encouraged someof us to come back by such phrases as "Mayneed men of your ability tomorrow." Tobe told definitely, as I was, to return atseven o'clock the next morning, and thento be unrecognized and sent away, is an ex­perience which beats down the jobless man'sself-respect. He begins to realize by howthin a thread he holds any job.After a week's fruitless search, I foundwork, not by walking through an employ­ment lane ignorantly, but by getting somespecific information about the employmentsituation on a particular day. A youngstraw boss, to whom I was introduced by amutual friend, told me that in a certainline about fifteen men would be hired aspress hands. With this knowledge to helpme, I was promptly taken on.IIIThe acute unemployment in Detroit ismade worse by the unorganized state of theworker. Without a job he is also withouteffective knowledge of how to get one. Hehas no means of obtaining employment ex­cept by individual application at somefactory. He has no idea what jobs areavailable or how much his work is worth. His fellows are all pitted against him,scrambling for the same jobs.The employers, who find co-operationsufficiently valuable to induce them to jointhe Employers' Association, are zealous intheir efforts to prevent the workers fromorganizing a union. The high wages paidin Detroit's factories have made the citywidely known in other industrial centers asa satisfactory city for wage-earners. Mem­bers of the Chamber of Commerce boastthat Detroit workers are contented and donot need labor unions. Good. workingconditions, absence of strikes, and freedomto speed up production without the checksimposed by labor unions-these are thefactors which the secretary of the Em­ployers' Association believes have broughtabout the tremendous development of theautomobile industry in Detroit, where ascore of factories produce 10,000 cars dailyand employ 225,000 men.But what is the sequel to this deafeningclamor about high wages? The lay-off!Unemployment is the acid which corrodesthe fine metal of good pay for day and piece­work. As the applicant for work acceptsthe wages offered, so does he acquiesce whenhe is told what hours or how many dayshe can work. I was hired at four o'clockin the afternoon. I had been up since fivein the morning looking for work. The em­ployment officer, when he engaged me, askedif I were able to go to work right away and,without waiting for an answer, said "You'dbetter be able." There were fifty menoutside the door who could have had thejob, so I merely nodded and resigned my­self to the unpleasant prospect of workingfrom 4 :30 in the afternoon until 3 in themorning. I was given no idea how longmy job would last. The man who workedbeside me at a press had been employed sointermittently that during the past yearhe had saved only $89. The four-day weekat the Ford plant was not so much atriumph of scientific management, enablingworkers to have more leisure, as a necessityto avoid laying off thousands of men whoseproduction on a five-day week basis wouldhave overstocked the market.'Lack of permanence in employment is ac-AUTOS AND JOBScompanied by lack of stability in residence.I t would be interesting to know what per­centage of automobile workers are home­builders. A majority of the men whom Imet were single, unattached workers livingin cheap boarding and rooming-houses.Uncertainty of employment has created thisclass of men who are called the "suitcasebrigade"; it has helped produce habits ofcrime and vice among those men who areforced to loaf around waiting for jobs; andit has made it practically impossible for aworker ever to own his home. Those whohave tried to build homes during seasonsof regular work were described during aperiod of depression by the secretary of theEmployers' Association as "persons whosuffer because, they have secured too muchproperty to enable them to move freely insearch for other work." The struggles ofworkmen who have a house and family aretragic. Often they take in boarders whentheir houses are already overcrowded. Ilived with a worker whose three small bed­rooms in a five-room house were used by sixgrown people. Others are forced to giveup their homes for which they have almostpaid, and move into cheaper, rented'�arters. These facts must be faced bythose who advocate the "American Plan"and enforce it by their drastic control of theproductive process.IVToday twenty-three million cars, almostone to every family in the United' States,shove their way through our overcrowdedcity streets or hurry along the network offine automobile roads that bind the citiestogether by a cordon of solid concretefrom one end of the country to the other..H undreds of thousands of men have lefttheir farms, their trades, the mines to workas mechanics, tire-makers, salesmen in theautomobile industry. The manufacturerscould stop producing cars for a while andlet people use their old models. But fac­tories have been .built, expensive machineryis housed, millions are invested, and men areemployed, and the way out seems to be toincrease the demand. This is done by de- 473signing a new model and selling it to peoplewho can afford to buy a new car each year.While the new model is being designed andthe dies made, production slows down andmen are laid off. Then they are hired againwhile the car is being manufactured. TheFord plant was shut down and the Fordworkers were loafing all summer because ofthe change of model. The daily productionof 1,500 new-model Essex cars producedat the Hudson plant was increased to 1,800by the addition of some two hundred men:I was hired with this group. About twomonths later these same men were laid offbecause production was cut down to normalagain.The workers are just a mechanical unitin a productive process over which they ex­ercise no control. The worker is valuable aslong as he performs a given set of muscularmotions upon a regular schedule-so manynumber of seconds per piece. The time­study man hands each new worker a cardfor his machine-from 100 to 500 piecesper hour-but I have seen men who hadmade more than the required 340 pieces perhour have their schedule increased to 400pieces per hour without any increase inwages. I have seen other men put out onthe streets because they could not make thepace in so rigid a regime.Here are a few suggestions to humanizethe productive process based on my expe­rience in Detroit:I. Stabilize 'production by reducing thenumber of new models. Stable productionwould relieve the need for surplus labor,and eliminate the odious employment-lineswith their degenerating influence upon theself-respect of the men. It would give theregular workman a steady job, and providea higher class of citizenry for the city. Itwould eliminate the insane speeding-up ofthe productive process to meet special orders.2. Unemployment insurance. It couldbe paid and administered jointly by theworkmen and by the employers.3. Workers' organization. This wouldseem likely only under conditions of steadieremployment, h�Y' it" may come in spite of orbecause of the conditions under which theworkers now suffer.College On TourSome Pictures that Recall the Summer when FiveChicagoans Played Marco PoloA Chicagoan plays sahib.The Maroon Five at a monastery in Manila.474COLLEGE ON TOURRight: The Kamakura Buddha greets somewestern pilgrims.Below: The historic Maroon Five aboardthe S. S. President Grant, which carriedthem and their syncopation to Japan in thesummer of 1923. John F. Combs, '20,'Benjamin Turner, '27,' Wilfrid D. Combs,"24/ H. G. Davis, '23/ and Rogers M.Combs, i-; '22. 475The University ChapelChicago Its Relation toBy HENRY JUSTIN SMITH(A talk given on May 2� in Bond Chapel.)IT was about four years ago that I heardthe late President Ernest D. Burtonmention a number of the big things thathad to be done, and remark calmly, "Be­sides, we must start work on the greatchapel."At that time I was very sketchily in­formed about the University so that ref­erence to a great chapel puzzled me. Whatchapel? Did not the University alreadyhave one, and had it not long been in usefor religious services, not to speak of con­certs and the Blackfriars show? A lot ofus alumni, four years ago, were still underthe delusion that the University was prettywell built up, except on Stagg field. Whatwas this chapel project?Very soon, we began to hear more aboutit. We learned,' what we should havegrasped long before, that the new chapel wasto be of cathedral type, though not, ofcourse, an actual cathedral. It was going tooccupy the greater part of a city square. Itwas going to have a tower 200 feet high. Itwas to be marvelously embellished, some­thing like the cathedral at Reims. We wereshown tentative pictures; handsome pictureswhich, however, we were assured, were notnearly as wonderful as the reality would be.Soon came blue prints. I never learnedto read blue prints as easily as an EddieGuest poem; yet those plans were certainlyimpressive. And every time a committeelooked at them, or whenever an officialtalked about "the big chapel," as it was I say, I do not know whether we shalloften called to distinguish it from the chapel ever be big enough ourselves to interpretin which we are meeting this evening, there the chapel as a symbol; perhaps the futurecarne a spark of excitement into their eyes, alone can furnish an interpretation; but atand a tone of delighted awe into their voices. least we shall corne nearer success if we tryAs for President Burton, how he toiled on to place this building in its perspective illthe plans of the "big chapel!" How he relation to the city, if we see it, not lonelypored over those blue-prints, and how on a high hill, but a shrine on the roadmany midnight hours he passed, seeking to which millions of people are traveling.476find more elements of perfection to intro­duce into the plans! He, the architects,and many others, were collaborating in asort of epic poem, to be eventually writtenwith huge stones, by caisson workers inrubber boots and masons in dungarees.One cannot grasp such a big idea all atonce. It was months before the real splen­dor of the conception began to grow clear;but when it did, I became one of the en­.thusiasts, going around town, waylayingfriends on the street to ask them if theyknew about the superb cathedral-I amafraid I called it a cathedral-that was tobe built on the Midway, and if they couldrealize what it signified. Of course theycould not realize this. No more could I..Perhaps even now, in this hour, after allthat has been written and said, and with thegreat white building tracing actual outlinesagainst the clouds, we fall far short of com­prehending the chapel as a symbol. So truea work of art, and one which fairly breathesthe spirit of its purpose, must baffle one whoseeks' the right phrases. And its location,here under the smoke-pall of Chicago, with­in the corporate borders of a city where liferuns so fast and so turbulently, where dread­ful things are quite as likely to happen assplendid things, makes it surely one of themost astonishing and challenging featuresof this Chicago of Amazing Contrasts.· THE UNIVERSITY CHAPEL1 t always gives one a bigger thrill, whenlooking at the Chicago of today, to recallwhat Chicago used to be. First, a wilder­ness, with a forked river running past mud­flats into the lake. Then a log-built fortand a collection of cabins. In a few years,a village where trappers rested, and wherea few Indians and Frenchmen formed anucleus of population; a trading-post, anda far western dot on military maps. A fewmore years, and here was the little strug­gling community calling itself a city andtalking ship canals and whatnot, while stillits streets were such morasses that in manyblocks teams �nd wagons would get mired.almost beyond rescue; while on the out­skirts were still forests, and people who ap­proached in little boats on the lake did soperilously in the face of violent storms andbitter cold. Twenty years more, beholdChicago a city already well populated, acivilized place, if you please, with schools,churches, and at least one railroad; a cityless strident than' it is now, yet a primitiveplace compared with older settlements in theeast, and, owing to its frenzied growth andthe madness of many newcomers to get richin it, a scene already' of commercial strife,of flourishing wickedness-and of mud holesstill. Real estate speculation raged like aninsanity. Fortunes were emptied into men'spockets, and lost again. A financial pa�icor two made credit totter, but the CItysurvived. The passions and griefs of theCivil War swept over it, and still it pro­gressed. In 1871, as you have often read,a fire somehow kindled among its flimsywooden buildings made ashes of an areathree and a half miles square, and turned100,000 people into the October chill; butthe unbeatable spirit of the place-as ex­pressed by one man who put on his ruinedbusiness house a sign, "All gone but wife,children and energy"-soon accomplishedits rebuilding.No disaster could convince adventurouspeople of New England, of southern states,or of Europe, that Chicago was anythingbut an El Dorado'. Its position as the gate­way to grain fields and rich mines had longbeen recognized. In Europe. discontented 477myriads heard that, in Chicago, everyonecould earn a living, and enjoy it withoutoppression by kings. So that, into this com­munity, there poured the most astoundingtangle of races that an American city hasever known. The founders, descendants ofFrench pioneers, or heirs of the Puritans,faced competition with venturesome andshrewd people from abroad. Germans,Scandinavians, Russians and Poles elbowedthe Irish, while seeking prosperity under theharsh winds from Lake Michigan.' Latercame floods of people from Southern andEastern Europe, from the Orient, fromeverywhere; the Italians, the Slavs, thestrange folk from the Balkans ; Turks,Armenians, Arabs, Asiatics; and the begin­ning of the great migration of the Ethio­pians. No one in the early days of Chicagoforesaw all this. Not Gurdon S. Hubbard,that daring trader, not John Kinzie, log­cabin pioneer, not even perhaps "LongJ ohn" Wentworth, famous mayor in earlydays, could dream of the tumultuous andbizarre blending of people of which we to­day see the climax.Among these hordes nearly every humantype was represented. It wasn't alone colorand speech that differentiated them. Somebrought ignorance and selfishness; somebrought charity, and European culture, andlove of refinement. Thousands engaged ina bloodthirsty scramble' for dollars; othersdevoted themselves to building good govern­ment, and beside that, they insisted on de­veloping art and music. (You know, Chi­cago had' its symphony orchestra as earlyas 1879.) There were people who putup nice stone-front houses, still to be seenon quiet streets, and planted shade trees indefiance of poor soil and factory smoke;there were others, alas! the great unfor­tunate multitude characteristic of all get­rich-quick cities, who, in such a struggle forthe survival of the fittest, were hound to. godown. They inhabited. regions of foulstreets and tottering houses, regions wherelandlords jeered at' complaints· and defiedthe "sanitary .inspector, little hells dominatedTHE UNIVERSITY· OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEby cheapskate politicians and consequentlyareas of misery if not of murder. Some ofthose little hells still exist. Generation aftergeneration has pulled itself up to respect­ability; race after race has migrated fromthe slums to decency; but there are stillunder dogs whose griefs make capital for thehard-boiled landlord and the brutal politi­cian. The city conquered the swamp, it tri­umphed over panic and fire, it became kingover a domain of railroads, and it is veryproud of itself; but no more than any othergreat city, less indeed than some, has itsolved the problem of the people who mostneed protection.The city swarm was a fierce and danger­ous mixture long before it' was counted inmillions. More than now, perhaps, therewere in decades past the elements of con­flicts between bosses and workers; so foryears capital and labor had it out, sometimesbattering at each other in the very streets,where the going was bad enough withoutthat. No doubt you have read, about theanarchist riots of the '80S, when one bombmade more commotion, and brought swifterjustice than all the scores of bombs of thisidyllic period of ours; and it may be some of.you are familiar with the railroad strike of'94; when trouble at the Pullman shops wasseized on by discontented elements as anopportunity to. unite the railroad unions,and as a result heads were broken, federaltroops called out and, finally, the warfareended by action in the United States courts.That trouble was more extensive but littlemore violent than later strikes, such asthose of the teamsters, street-car men andpacking house workers, during which, as Ican very vividly remember, the streets werefilled with mobs and it was almost danger­ous to put one's head out of his officewindow.There has been plenty of political war­fare, too. Stealing ballot-boxes is nothingnew. In the bad old days, it is said, folkssometimes made bonfires of them; and thereused to be sluggings with loaded dubs andbrass knuckles before the handy little ma­chine gun was invented.As for civic arguments, quarrels, plots, briberies and such things, the city's historyis full of them. Looking back, one canhardly think of a single great public measurewhich has got by without a fearful ruction.1 mention all these things, not with an. idea of painting a dark picture of this citywhose past has been so memorable andwhose great destiny is so certain, but onlyto illustrate a fact which I think no onewill contest: That by its mixture of peoples,its miraculous development, and the im­mense stimulus of its geographical locationand climate, Chicago was bound to become,and did become, above all else, a dynamicand belligerent sort of city and not in anysense a peaceful, sleepy, compromising oreffeminate sort of city. It is a city of highvoltage. Watch out if you touch it! It isa place where direct action is more popularthan finesse. I t is· still largely a vat ofprimitive emotions, all ready to explode.Its feelings are open and above board, andpretty violent, all of them; and it has allthe feelings there are. I ts vice is candid asits morals, its joys are as conspicuous andbrilliant as its sorrows are keen and franklytold, its generosity is as impulsive and veryoften as complete as its selfishness; it rejoicesin living for its own sake, although, toconfess the truth, many of the conditions oflife here-such as transportations and thedirt on streets and in the air-are worsethan exasperating.And all the time, year after year, goeson the battle: The battle to get to workon time, the battle to do as much as theboss wants, the battle to get home out ofthe "loop," to build dwellings and holdthem despite high rates of interest and out­rageous taxes, the battle to keep the childrenalive to ward off the myriad diseases ofcity life, to find in daily existence a littlepleasure, a little variety, a little beauty.That is not the battle of the privileged few;it is the' never-ending conflict waged by theordinary multitude. In such a conflict, the1 ucky handful reach the top; they move tothe nice regions, they clip their coupons andhave season tickets to the Opera, they buyTHE UNIVERSITY CHAPELpolitical office or palaces in the country.And, in the meantime, hospitals, asylums,and cemeteries are filled with the casualties.For the great masses, the war goes on,generation after generation, and a majorityof them never see even a mirage of victory.I t is not surprising that when thousandsare resigned to such a life the city shouldhave become an Ugly City, as a magazinewriter once termed it. (And, to my .personalknowledge some people tried to make himregret the term.) What seems at firstthought astonishing is that the Ugly Cityshould ever have found time or spirit toconsider beauty at all. Could this inscru­table soul of Chicago, writhing with con­flicting motives and darkened by many aquarrel, ever dream?But cities have always done that. Manygreat monuments of Europe come down tous from blood-spattered days. Many amighty structure rose out of revolution.Public works are bound to express, more orless, the degree of aspiration that lies inindividuals. And it is a law more or lessrecognized, at least by poets, that the thirstfor beauty is not destroyed, but sharpened,by the rigors of life. Early man, who hada much harder time than his descendants,adorned the walls of his cave with rudepictures. The housewife in the slums todaywaters her scrawny geraniums on the sixth­floor window-sill of the tenement. Theyfollow the same urge; and the more bittertheir experience the greater the urge. Youremember Masefield's "Dauber," the poorpainter aboard ship, who, kicked about,ridiculed, and his canvases spoiled, wasdriven into only a greater determination tofind "new realms of beauty."He dipped his brush and tried to fix a' line,And then came peace, and gentle beauty came,Turning his spirit's water into wine,Lightening his darkness with a touch of flame;Oh joy of trying for beauty, ever the same,You never fail, your comforts never end;Oh balm of this world's way; 0, perfect friend.Dissatisfaction with ugliness, determina­tion to create beauty, came upon Chicagovery quickly. In some parts of the worldthe birth of that ideal required centuries.In Chicago it came after only a few de- 479cades. Great parks were laid out, as anoffset to miles of cheerless landscape. Theredeveloped a fondness for handsomer homes,nicer streets, landscape adornments. Finallythere sprang up the idea of a great exposi­tion. At first mainly a commercial project,it became an architectural miracle, a sortof explosion of long-frustrated longings fora Paradise on Earth. Like the frail palacesthey sometimes build in Hollywood, thoselovely but impermanent creations rose,grouped about a classic Court of Honor,and mirrored in lagoons. There 'have beensarcastic things said about them, but theywere really beautiful, according to thecritics of that time. So clear-sighted aperson as Sir Walter Besant called the­World's Fair "the greatest and most poet-.ical dream that we have ever seen"; andhe wrote shrewd lines about the fact thatit was the masses, the thousands of un­cultured but beauty-hungry folk to whomthe Fair gave the most value; and he saidit would "remain in their minds as thevision of St. John-an actual sight of thenew Jerusalem."Well, the Fair vanished like a discardedscene in Opera; like the climax of Gotter­daemerung, for many of the buildings wentup in flame after the gates had closed. Butit proved to be the basis of something per­manent after all, a mere prelude' to theChicago Plan, that tremendous conceptionof Daniel H. Burnham and others whichproposed nothing less than to turn a sprawl­ing, uncouth and, in the main, hideous messof wood and stone into a splendid harmony.You see now, and will see for many yearsthe outline of the Chicago plan pushing itsway up through the layers of earlier Chi­cago and being carved through the chaos.When you drive over the Michigan bou­levard bridge, or along Wacker Drive, orwhen you see dredges making a string oflakefront islands, that is what you see­the Chicago Plan. And besides Burnhamand his group, there have been at workother armies of architects and artists, notafraid to put bold ideas of beauty intobusiness structures, into railroad stations,hotels and banks, carving delicate corniceshigh in theair, where they can scarcely bef80 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEseen; or pamtmg murals in skyscrapers;or introducing into the unlikeliest ·placesmasterpieces in statuary or fresco-work.For a generation, but especially during thelast few years, Chicago has been in a feverof building and beautifying; its sky linehas been changing so rapidly that occasionalvisitors get a new thrill every time; andthese visitors may well wonder what it willlead to, just as they wonder how it hap­pened. But as it seems to some of us,there is no mystery about why it came.Although the planning has been in the handsof civic leaders or officials, the original im­pulse has to be traced back to the compositesoul of the city, in which live the yearningsof millions.N ow it is no trouble to define the relation­ship of the University of Chicago with thecity of which it is literally a part. TheUniversity has never been a walled town,protecting itself against intrusion by thevulgar world. It has been a partner of therest of the city, at every stage. It has beenbuilt up stone by stone, while elsewherebuildings meant for commerce, art, or pleas­ure were rising. The first of its buildingswere occupied in the very year when theWorld's Fair was dedicated; Burnham andHarper were contemporaries and compan­ion-dreamers. Chicago the city and Chicagothe University have advanced together, andalways will.N or has the key-note of the city-astruggle for the perhaps unattainable­been left out of the history and mood ofthe University. The efforts to win, thestraining to grasp a fascinating but elusiveglory of some sort, are just as real in theintellectual field as in any other; and I don'tthink the trials of the average business mancan compare with the long-continued striv­ing, the setbacks and sacrifices of an earnestresearch scientist. I wish more people innon-academic .life could understand that auniversity like this tranquil though it usu­ally seems, is in fact a reservoir of. hotambitions, and that they really do boil.: Ifthose people understood it, they would think. of the serene towers of the quadrangle as expressing victory over the drawbacks, theexasperations and the disagreements whichbelong to life in any setting.'1 'he new chapel surely expresses all that.It is the greatest existing structural monu-.ment to a man (John D. Rockefeller) whofound in religion his escape from trialswhich were no less acute because he wasa multi-millionaire; who wished this build­ing to express the idea that religion shoulddominate a university. The building itselfhas not risen, I fancy, without trouble andanxiety. I have mentioned how Mr. Bur­ton, despite a thousand other cares, worried.and toiled over this chapel. I have heardabout engineers who tested the clay, andbuilders who reluctantly decided to go downto bedrock. There must have been manyother difficulties since. But there it is, allbut an accomplished thing, a "serene andlovely image," as one of you studentsphrased it, a climax of all the beauty that hastaken form in and about this quadrangle.There stands upon the highest hill ofParis the Basilica de Sacre Coeur. Itsoriental towers overlook Montmartre andsurvey the whole of Paris. Seen from closeby, it may not satisfy a critic, but viewedfrom Montparnasse and other remote pointsit is like a pearly legend among the mist.For thousands of Parisians, whose conflictsand bereavements we should never forget,it is a constant reminder of a patron saint­St. Denis-of a protecting power, and ofthe fact th�t Beauty survives the worst thatman can do, that it emerges from the veryconditions of turmoil and despair whichthreaten to destroy it.Some day, no doubt, a similar reverence­though untarnished by superstition-will beentertained by most Chicagoans toward theUniversity Chapel. Instead of riding by inmotors and throwing careless glances overtheir shoulders, they will recognize it as apure and perfect emblem of their own ideals.They will read in its noble features the maj­esty both of religion and of scholarship.So much the better for their faith in thiscity, and their faith in the endeavors of menand women everywhere .Music at the UniversityThe Student Demands a Speaking Acquaintance withWagner and Beethoven.By ALFRED V. FRANKENSTEININ 1924 Dean Ernest Hatch Wilkins,assisted by committees of the faculty ofthe University of Chicago, conducted aninquiry among the undergraduates of theUniversity to determine what changes, im­provements, and additions to the activitiesof the schooL were desired by the studentsdirectly concerned. "Better Yet" was thetitle of the campaign."Better Yet" Committee NO.2 dealt withthe musical aspirations of the undergradu­ate body. Its report contains significantfacts, figures, and hopes.The first part of the questionnaire sub­mitted to the students asked what coursesin music they desired at the University. Byfar the greatest number answering re­quested "courses which offer such knowl­edge about music as could be acquired with­out either technical study or actual practice-that is. . generally educational"courses.The second part of the questionnaire wasdirected toward those students already en­gaged in the study of music outside theUniversity. These undergraduates weretaking technical courses, and a great major­ity of them expressed a desire that the U ni­versity might provide them with the same"generally educative courses" demanded bythe students who had no desire to learnmusical technique.Thus it appears that the "generally edu­cative" course in music is the course whichis most needed.· The fascinating featureabout this need is that nobody knows howto fill it, including the respected and hon­ored faculty members of "Better Yet" Com­mittee NO.2.A distinction was made in the Com­mittee's questionnaire between the historyof music and "musical appreciation." If onecould define the second of these terms allwould be well. As it is, "musical appre­ciation" is an ambiguous phrase, in the practice of which one musician will analyzechords and another devise poetic "pro­grams" for the symphonies of Beethoven,and each will lay claim to the true gospel.If the report of the "Better Yet" Com­mittee is taken seriously and its recommen­dation for the establishment of a music de­partment at the University of Chicago isever acted on, this confusion must be clari­fied. If the University can discover amethod for imparting musical culture, itwill have done something utterly unique,and more important to the community atlarge and to the progress of education thanthe erection of a chapel more beautifulthan the cathedral of Cologne, the verifi- .cation or destruction of the Einstein theory,or even determining beyond a doubt (bymeans of ardent perusal of whole libraries ofmanuscripts) the exact influence of the cultof Isis upon early Christianity.That the method at present employed bycertain doctors of music (and their lesslearned camp followers) in creating musicalcul ture is fallacious is easy to demonstrate.I refer to those teachers whose ideas are ex­emplified by the so-called "Audio-Graphic".piano roll. Here, as the perforated paperunrolls and causes the instrument to play,a literary commentary on the "meaning"of the music is reeled off before the hear­er's eyes. At the same time the roll in­forms him of all the mutations of the musicthat can easily and tersely. be analyzed.Thus he may read at once that the musicnow proceeding from the piano consists ofa variation in the key of D major of thesecond subsidiary theme, and that in thisvariation the poet is dreaming of the eyesof the village barmaid as he drifts in hiscanoe down the Elbe. If he is able to listento the music on top of all this, it is not the·fault of the roll.This minutely explanatory attitude is anunfortunate heritage from an esthetic atti-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmore space than is available for all the copythat must be included in this magazine. Butto feel that it is wrongly directed requiresonly a minimum knowledge of music. Thevaguer the subject of a tone poem, the bet­ter music it is likely to be. The more ex­plicit .its "program" the less its musicalinterest. Over and beyond all literary ex­position of the "meaning of music," lies apurely musical meaning, which one may feelonly through the experience of the ear. Be­hind and explaining all modulation, varia­tion, deformation of musical material isthe dynamic form of the whole, which canbe discovered only through hearing musicplayed. Even the definition of some mu­sical terms is purely a matter of feeling.'Realizing this fact, that the "apprecia­tion" of music is a matter largely of intui­tion and receptivity, certain worthy prac­titioners of the musical art scoff at the ideaof inculcating musical culture. The vastand important names of A. Eaglefield-Hulland Ernest Bloch are typical of this camp.But Bloch and Eaglefield-Hull are personsin whom musical technique, esthetics, his­tory and practise blend with native person­ality to make the man. Their musical in­tuition and receptivity have been sharpenedto the highest degree by the extent of theirmusical experience.The provision of the largest amount ofmusical experience possible is thus the taskof the teacher who is to give a course inmusical culture. Such a course must be thatrare thing in university curricula, a seriesof daily excursions in pure pleasure. Suchinformation handed out, noted down, for­gotten, and re-read before examination canconsist only in such historical and estheticdata as intelligence demands. The meat ofthe course must be constant music in theaIr..My mind jumps to a thousand ideas forputting the above paragraph into action.But I remember now that the report of"Better Yet" Committee NO.2 is in a filein Cobb Hall, and nobody but the inti­mates of that file knows where it is, andMack Eo ans, Untoersity organist and choir-master.tude prevalent among many, if not most,of the composers of the last hundred years.Because Wagner intended this musical frag­ment to represent a sword and that tofigure forth fear, because Strauss and Ber­lioz and a hundred others turned theirorchestras into a means for the painting ofscenery and the expression of definitelylimited psychological states, their contem­poraries found themselves impelled to dis­cover a similar intent implicit in the musicof other men, and other ages. Thus it isthat Sir George Grove discovers in thefirst theme of the first movement of Bee­thoven's fifth symphony a musical sketch ofBeethoven himself, and in the second themeof the same movement the figure of thenotorious "Immortal Beloved." Thus it isthat other commentators are sure that thevery same opening theme represents thehand of fate. Thus it is that names like"Consolation" are tacked on to otherwiseinoffensive piano pieces. Thus it is thatsuch titles as "The Sea and Sindbad's Ship"are repeatedly given to symphonic move­ments over the repeated protests of the com­posers of the works. Even the compositionof Gounod's famous "Ave Maria" on aBach prelude may be traced eventually tothe same attitude.To prove this activity wrongly directedis difficult, and would require a great deal nobody else seems to care.1 For instance, the word "prelude" as usedby Chopin, and later composers for the piano.Early Banking and Big BusinessBy JAMES WESTFALL THOMPSONIIBUT the greatest financial operationsof the Bardi and Peruzzi were inEngland. Isolated instances of Ital-ian loans to the English kings go as farback as the twelfth century. Richard theLion-hearted seems to have borrowed fromthem; for his brother and successor KingJohn promised to pay the merchants ofPiacenza a sum of money which they hadadvanced on- the order of Richard to twoEnglish envoys sent to Rome, and in 1219a certain Pietro Guibertini of Bologna cameto Henry III and demanded payment ofanother loan which he alleged to have beenmade by himself and others to Richard.But the real period of Italian finance inEngland began in the thirteenth century.Then Italian merchants flocked to Eng­land to purchase- wool or to negotiate loanssecured upon wool. The first occasion onwhich they played a prominent part was inconnection with the effort of Henry IIIto secure the German and imperial crownfor his son Richard of Cornwall. Almost atthe same time these Italian merchant-bank­ers made Henry III another loan of 135,000 marks, which was expended in the vainendeavor to put his oldest son Edward,afterwards Edward I, upon the throne ofSicily. Edward borrowed Italian money toconduct his Scottish wars and there is anintimate connection - between the fall ofWilliam Wallace and the history of Flor­ence. The king found loans more convenientthan - struggling with a reluctant parlia­ment for subsidies. During the first fouryears of the reign of Edward I, the Luc­chese merchants were largely employed inthe financial operations of the crown. Fromhis coronation in 1272 until January 23,1276, Lucas of Lucca advanced to EdwardI, sums aggregating £17,236 I3s. 4d. TheMozzi of Florence became important dur­ing the period .from 1277 to May 6, 1309,during which they lent £79,941 6s. 8d.During a shorter period (June 25, 1285-November 18, 1293) the Riccardi of Lucca lent Edward I £56, 240 I8s. r d, Otherfirms of lesser importance may be brieflynoted: the Pulei, of Florence, with whomwere associated the Rimbertini of the samecity, the Ammanati of Pistoia, the Ballardiof Lucca, the Cerchi , Gianchi of Florenceand the Cerchi N eri. The Bardi and Per­uzzi of Florence also appear in this period,laying the foundations of the royal favorwhich was later to be so disastrous to them.The two firms which seem to have ex­ercised most influence during the reign of. Edward I were the Riccardi and the Fres­'cobaldi, with the latter gradually forgingto the fore. They virtually controlled thefinances of the realm during this reign. Dur­ing the period between September 13, 1290and May 30, 1311, "there was disbursedto them in repayment of loans made by themto Edward I and his son, and as compensa­tion for the losses which they had sufferedby the delay in the repayment of EdwardI's loans, no less a sum than £110,207 6s.5,?id. Their loans probably amounted to atleast £121, 941 2S. II,?id." It was duringthis period that the king resorted to thedevice of turning over the revenues to theItalian merchants as security for their loans.In the year 1 299 the whole of the revenueof Ireland was turned over to them in pay­ment of a loan of £II,OOO. And from AprilI, 1304, to May 30, 131 I, "nearly - thewhole of the receipts from the customs werehanded to them."A condition such as this at last grew in­tolerable, and in I3II Edward II (1307-1327) turned against them, and the Ric­cardi and Frescobaldi were driven fromthe realm after suffering severe persecution.They were never fully requited for theadvances they had made to the crown, yetsome effort seems to have been made topay the debts, for down to 1303 four pay­ments were made to Italian bankers to theamount of £7,333 6s. 8d. Edward's motiveTHE UNIVERSTY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEseems to have been entirely selfish, however,as he was interested in keeping the firmssolvent so that they might lend him furthersums rather than pay his obligations in full.The difficulties which have been indi­cated were sufficient to cause the with­drawal of most of the Italian bankers fromthe English field, or at least to restrict theiractivities to private operations apart fromthe court. Two houses, however, main­tained their connections with the crown andwer.e ruined in the end. These were theFlorentine firms of the Bardi and Peruzzi.They had appeared in England in the timeof Edward I and continued their opera­tions through his reign and into that of hissuccessor. The Bardi were the more impor­tant of the two houses, and after 131 I suc­ceeded to the' position which had been va­cated when the Frescobaldi and Riccardiwere driven out of England. Between 1290and 1326 they advanced to the kings sumsaggregating at least £72,631, of which only£4,926 was lent before 131 I. As time wenton the advantages of combination becameapparent and they began to act in concertwith the Peruzzi. This custom began about1337 and was established by 1340. Theystood well in the graces of Edward III(1327-77) during the early years of hisreign and were accorded many privileges.The laws of the land were relaxed in theirfavor on several occasions so that they mightbe safeguarded in the collection of theirdebts. An example of this took place in1327 when "the customers of Southhamp­ton were ordered to send to the King atonce any money in hand of the customs ofwool, hides arid wool-fells, and of the newcustom, and previous assignments notwith­standing, � except those to the merchants ofthe Society of the Bardi of Florence.' JJThis action of the king was taken in theface of statutes which limited the residenceof foreign merchants in the realm and ab­solutely forbade the assignment of thecustoms to their credit.The Peruzzi seem to have taken littleactive interest· in financing Edward IIIbefore 1336. They made advances in thisyear which were guaranteed by the incometo be derived from certain parliamentary promises to the king. By the end of the firstsix months of the year it appears that theking' was in their debt to the extent of£32,000. In 1337 their dealings took onadded importance owing to the increaseddemand for money growing out of theimpending war with France. The only wayin which the king could secure an adequateand extended supply of cash was throughthe manipulation of the wool trade, whichwas an operation possible only with theconsent and cooperation of the Italian mer­chants who were deeply invol�ed in thatbranch of business. In March, 1338, theking agreed with the two firms that hewould deliver to them all the wool grantedto him in England, which they were to sellfor his profit.This situation marks the high-water markof the fortunes. of the Italian bankers inEngland. Even at this time forces were atwork in Italy, in France, and in Englandwhich conspired together to make theirposition increasingly untenable. The out­break of the long war between France andEngland in 1337 .placed the merchants inan embarrassing situation. They could notkeep on good terms with both powers. Theformal declaration of war saw the arrest oftheir representatives in France, a durancefrom' which they escaped only by the pay­ment of huge sums to Philip of Valois. Atthe same time Edward III began to be morethan ever remiss in payment of his olddebts, while at the same time incurring newones. This double trouble was aggravatedby the situation in the kingdom of Naplesalready related. Florentine investments inNaples were endangered. The next develop­ment which has also been observed was awar with Pisa, the financing of which putseveral of the smaller banking houses outof business (1341) though the more im­portant ones, such as the Bardi and Peruzzi,.managed to keep their heads above water.I t is evident in the years after 1343 thatthe situation of the Bardi and Peruzzi wasbecoming more precarious in equal ratioto the ever-mounting debts owed them bythe English king. Edward Ill's wars withEARLY BANKING AND BIG BUSINESSScotland and France not only preventedhim from making payment on the debtswhich he had already contracted, but placedhim in position of requiring more andmore funds. To this was added a growingresentment on the part of the rising nativemerchant class at the favors which the for­eigners were receiving from the crown. Theactual circumstances are uncertain; there isa possibility that there was a merchant con­spiracy in which the king was involved. Atany rate the deluge overtook the Italians.They seem to have requested an audit oftheir accounts at some time between 1343and 1345. The next development found alltheir agents in prison, without having anyspecific charges lodged against them exceptthat they were indebted to the king for largeamounts, which, however, Edward IIIacknowledged were much smaller than thesums he owed them. He demanded pay­ment by a fixed date, but later pardonedthem. He did not take any measures to­ward alleviating their distress. It is plainlyevident that the imprisonment of the Ital­ians was not based on any misdoings whichcould not have been condoned, but wasrather the result of a wish on the part ofLondon merchants and financiers to get ridof a group which had become obnoxious tothem.This episode practically ended the activeconnection of these two great Florentinefirms with the crown, though they con­tinued to trade .in England in a privatecapacity for some time afterward. Somebelated payments' were made to both theBardi and the Peruzzi after the crash, andthey were enabled to make some recompenseto the smaller companies which had beeninvolved by their downfall. The Bardi faredless well in this respect than the Peruzzi,as they appear to have received only £150in return for an acknowledged debt of£50,493 5s. 20d. In June of 1346 thePeruzzi received £6,375 and in August of1352 a further payment of £100. The repu­diation of the English debt brought mattersto a head and it was found necessary toliquidate the assets of the two firms. Apanic resulted in Italy as the result of thisfamous bankruptcy and a meeting was held in Florence which resulted in an agreementof September 6, 1347, whereby the Bardipaid about 30% on their obligations andthe Peruzzi about 20%. Thus we have seenhow four great Italian banking houses wereruined by their dealings with the kings ofEngland-the Riccardi of Lucca under Ed­ward I, the Frescobaldi of Florence underEdward II and the Bardi and Peruzziunder Edward III.Theeffect of Edward Ill's repudiation ofhis Italian debts and the subsequent panicin Europe may be compared with the crashof the Barings in 1892 ·and our panic of1893.The panic in Florence extended far be­yond Tuscany. For the ruined firms hadbranches almost everywhere. The Peruzzialone-and they were not' so large a houseas the Bardi-had sixteen exchanges: Lon­don, Bruges, Paris, Avignon, Majorca,Pisa, Genoa, Venice, Cagliari, Naples,Palermo, Clarentza in the Morea, Rhodes,Cyprus, Ceuta and Tunis. We have therecord of two English students studying atthe University of Bologna who got theirremittances from home through the Bardi.Only one important banking firm inFlorence survived this famous "Black Fri­day." This was the Medici. As the trans-.actions of the Bardi and Peruzzi grew inmagnitude, partly in order to help themswing the ventures, partly perhaps in orderto assure themselves against too great liabil­ity, the two major firms had drawn manyother banking houses of Florence into theirEnglish deals, nearly all of which were in­volved in the final collapse except the Med­ici, who at that time were not prominentenough to be considered. The obscurity ofthe Medici saved them and upon the ruinsof the other Florentine banking firms theyrose to riches and to fame. Although theMedici became the princely dynasty ofRenaissance Florence, gave two popes tothe Holy See and two queens to France,their memory is today preserved principallyin the three gold balls of the pawnbroker,for six gold balls were the banking and laterthe heraldic device of the Medici house.(To be concluded next month.)Back to the MidwayThe Alumnus Fz'ndJ· Hz's U'llz'ver�z'ty Stt'll on tile JobFIVE thousand alumni lived the life ofthe University on June 9. Research,teaching, the buildings, and undergraduatesports and dramatics were centers of realinterest.Trackmen competed for intramural tro­phies, and Blackfriar and Mirror starsgave songs, dances, and impersonations be­fore an audience of 1500 alumni on StaggField. Nor were the alumni a mere audi­ence. A dance floor in the middle of theField made them, for the moment, under­graduates again.More serious phases of University activ­ity were now in order. There were friendlytalks with members of the Faculties, dis­cussions of research and teaching, and in­spection of laboratories and libraries. Morethan seven hundred alumni visited a dozendepartmental teas. The alumnus proved thathe is still a student.The Medical School and Wieboldt Hall,both dedicated since the last Reunion, at- tracted some five hundred visitors. SwiftHall and Bond Chapel, completed the yearbefore, still commanded interest. But theMecca of every Chicagoan's pilgrimage wasUniversity Chapel. At the end of the after­noon, when President Mason spoke andthe choir sang, the great nave was filledto its capacity, and an equal throng stoodoutside. 'The University of yesterday had its placein the day's program. Classes from 1875to 1928 met at the Buffet Supper in Hutch­inson Hall. The total attendance was 510,more than twice the attendance at theAlumni Dinner last year-despite the com­petition of the fraternity dinners. And inthe evening, as on spring evenings long ago,fraternities marched down to HutchinsonFountain singing lustily of bonds eternal,the President invested the Marshals andAides, and the Old Man flung C-blanketsover departing warriors.I t was a day of Chicago life.A winter snetu of Billings Hospital.T he Bobs Roberts Hospital for children, another building for which groundwas broken on Convocation Day, will adjoin this building on the west.486THE UNIVERSTY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEChicago Still BuildsGround is Broken for Three More Buildings, andPlans Approved for a FourthWork was begun on the Bernard E. Sunny Gymnasium for the University.Laboratory Schools on Convocation Day, June 12.On May 29, ground was broken for the George H. Jones ChemicalLaboratory, Mr. Jones is shown at the shovel; President Mason and DeanGale are below.Jones Laboratory as it will look from the south. Thebuilding is under construction just west of Kent Labora­tory.The approved design for the Social Science Building.I t will adjoin Harper Library on the east.the Story of the University of ChicagoBy THOMAS WAKEFIELD GOODSPEED(Reprinted by courtesy of the. University Press)XVI THE BUILDINGS OF PRESIDENT ] UDSON�SAmvnNISTRATIONI HAVE told only a part of the story?f t.he University's progress underPresident Judson. Not the least im­portant part of the story, that which tellsof the buildings erected, remains to berecorded.The first building- under President J ud­son Was the Harper Memorial Library.The University had a great library to be­gin with, but twenty years passed beforeit had a library building. President Har­per's anxiety for such a building was tragic.The intensity of his feeling on the subjectm� be judged from the following quota­tion from the Convocation statement ofApril I, 1899:There is another need the greatness of whichI am entirely unable to express. In anotherpart of the decaying building used for a gym­nasium have been placed over two hundred andfifty thousand books and pamphlets...Thousands of these volumes, if destroyed, couldnot be replaced. The building is so bad thatevery severe storm does injury through the roofto many volumes. If a fire were to break out,nothing could save these hundreds of thousandsof books. I confess to you, I never retire forthe night without the terrible dread that per­haps before morning the library will have beendestroyed. Pledging the friends of the Uni­versity that as its president I will spare no painsto discover the benefactor who will thus liftfrom 'us this heavy load, I, nevertheless, hereand now, wash my hands of all moral responsi­bility for a calamity the magnitude of whichwill only appear when it shall occur, whichcalamity mayan all-generous Providence forbid.Recalling after his death that a librarybuilding was the thing nearest his heart,it was the most natural thing in the worldthat President Judson and the trusteespromptly decided that the building so muchdesired by him must be erected as a specialmemorial of the University's first president.The trustees, the faculty, the alumni, thefriends of the University, and the Founderall united in the project. The subscriptionwas completed in January, 1909. The plans were drawn by Mr. Coolidge, thearchitect, and the contracts were let in J an­uary, 19 10. Ground was broken on J an­uary, 10, 1910. Quite unintentionally itthus happened that actual work on theMemorial Library began on the fourthanniversary of the death of PresidentHarper. The cornerstone was laid June14, 1910. Addresses were made by Clem­ent W. Andrews, librarian of the JohnCrerar Library, and by Professor Ernest D.Burton. The cornerstone was laid by Mrs.William Rainey Harper. The buildingwas completed in June, 1912, two yearsand five months after the breaking of theground. The formal dedication occurredin connection with the June, 1912, Convo­cation.There were more than 2,000 contrib­utors. The final figures showed that thetotal amount of the fund was $1,045,052.The cost of construction and furnishingwas $815,506. Deducting some incidentalexpenses, $216,000 remained in the main­tenance fund.The building was dedicated with elab­orate ceremonies on June 10, and 1 I, 1912,in connection with the Eighty-third Con­vocation. The Library was described bythe architect as giving the University an­other illustration of English Gothic archi­tecture of the collegiate type, inspired bythe examples of King's College Chapel atCambridge, and Magdalen College andChrist Church at Oxford. The Library wasnot copied from· any particular building,but the features of its design had theirorigin in the motives of those ancient build­ings and it was wrought in that style ofarchitecture to meet present-day needs. Thebuilding was 262 feet in length and 8 Ifeet wide. The towers were 135 feet inheight and had seven floors. Inside theentrance of the West Tower was a bronze490THE STORY OF THE UNIVERSTY OF CHICAGOtablet given by the class of 1908, bear­ing the . following inscription beneath theUniversity coat-of-arms:TO HONOR THE MEMORY OFWILLIAM RAINEY HARPERFIRST PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOBORN 1856 DIED 1906THIS BUILDING WAS ERECTEDBy GIFTS OF THE FOUNDER OF THE UNIVERSITYMEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEESALUMNI, STUDENTS, AND OTHER FRIENDSA. D. 1912Over the north central entrance the fol­lowing inscription was carved:IN MEMORY OFWILLIAM RAINEY HARPERFIRST PRESIDENT OFTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOOn July 26, 1910, Mr. Ryerson, whosixteen years before had built the RyersonPhysical Laboratory, informed the trusteesthat "on account of the progress of thescience of physics, and because it wasevident that the demands upon the labora­tory space would soon exceed its capacity,"he proposed to make improvements in thebuilding and its equipment, and to erectand equip an annex. This annex wasreally a separate building and of a mostattractive exterior. It was built in 1911-12.Its cost, which, with the improvements inthe original building, amounted to about$200,000, was wholly met by Mr. Ryerson,and did not pass through the treasury of theUniversity. The authorities did not askMr. Ryerson to provide this additionallaboratory for Physics. It was built byhim because of his intimate knowledge ofthe needs of the department and his deepinterest in its work. The contract was letand work on the Annex was begun in Sep­tember, 1910. The Annex was locatednorth of the main Laboratory with whichit was connected on the first floor. Itoccupied 64 by 56 feet of ground area,with a basement and three floors. Theconstruction was fireproof, and was designedto match and supplement the architecturalfeatures of the original Laboratory. Greatimprovements were made in the latter. Thefirst floor and basement were completelyreconstructed. President Judson stated inhis Annual Report for 1911-12 that by 491these improvements the available space forresearch work had been increased at least·threefold. The Ryerson Annex was dedi­cated in connection with the exercises ofthe December, 1913, Convocation, thoughit was finished and occupied before that date.The building was opened for inspectionon the evening of December 19 during theConvocation reception and also on themorning of Convocation Day. The manyvisitors found much to excite their interestand wonder in the new equipment. Briefaddresses were made by President Judson,Professor Michelson, head of the Depart­ment of Physics, and Mr. Ryerson, thedonor of the building.I am not here telling the story of the in­adequate accommodations the students ofthe University were compelled to put upwith for their athletic contests-football,baseball, field events-for twenty years; butI must tell how the miserable facilities of all. those years were finally replaced by thegreat wall around the twelve-acre athleticfield and by the grandstand. It was onJune 26, 1912, that the plans for them wereapproved by the trustees. The grandstandwas occupied in part on November 23,1912. On that day occurred the closingfootball game of the season, and the Chi­cago team celebrated the opening of thenew stand by winning from Minnesota, bya score of 7 to o. But the stand was 'still farfrom being finished, and the wall aroundthe field still farther from completion.The dedication did not take place till Octo­ber 4, 1913. This event was one of great in­terest to the entire University, particularlyto the students. The interest was in­creased by the fact that the dedication pre­ceded the opening football game of the 1913season. While the public was filling thestands a great procession of students, inwhich every class from 1896 to 1917 wasrepresented, marched from Bartlett to re­served sections in the new stand. Thetrustees and many guests occupied boxes infront of the grandstand. Brief addresseswere made by President J udson, whoturned over the new equipment to the De­partment of Physical Culture and Ath­letics, by Mr. Stagg, who received it for492 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe Department, and by William Scott. Bond, 1897, who spoke for the alumni.Perhaps the real dedication was made bythe football team, which won from Indiana21 to 7, and,' continuing its good workthrough the season, won the 1913 champi­onship. The grandstand was in reality animmense building with an imposing anddignified front on Ellis Avenue. It con­formed in general type to the other build­ings. It was of reinforced concrete con­struction with a rough surface, the colorbeing that of the Bedford stone of theUniversity buildings. It had a seatingcapacity of about 8',000 spectators.The entire field was surrounded by areinforced concrete wall varying from 14to 17 feet high as the grade of the streetsrequired, connecting with the Frank Dick­inson Bartlett Gymnasium. The wall wasof the same type as the stand and abouthalf a mile in length. There were numer­ous gates for entrance and exit. The en­trance opposite Hull Court on Fifty­seventh Street had two round, flankingtowers between which was a large gate tobe used for the entrance of the studentbody, with a small gate on either side.These gates were. the gifts of the class of1912 as the inscription over the centralone records. Harold F. McCormick con­tributed the racquet courts at an expense ofabove $10,000. A gift of $5,000 fromFrederick H. Rawson made possible thecompletion of the squash courts. By anadditional expenditure of $19,51:1 the spaceunder the grandstand was transformed, inthe words of President Judson, into "asecond cammodiou's gymnasium." The costof the grandstand and wall was $256,550.This sum, less the special gifts named above,has since been provided by the athleticreceipts.The grandstand and wall in additionto giving the liveliest satisfaction to thestudent body and providing admirable fa­cilities for athletic contests, immensely im­proved the University's external equipment.In 1914 a very large, one-story red bricktemporary building was erected on the westside of Ellis Avenue between Fifty-seventhand Fifty-eighth streets as a laboratory for Pathology and Bacteriology, and eightyears later, in 1922-23, the growth of thedepartments made it necessary to. put upa similar building immediately south of itas a.Jaboratory for Bacteriology and Hy­giene. The cost -of the two was a little aver$100,000. They are mentioned together be-. cause both were named in honor of HowardTaylor Ricketts, a zealous and able scien­tific investigator of the University, the dis­coverer of the germ of typhus fever, oneof the most important achievements in thehistory of medical research. That thescientific world recognizes his merit isshown by the fact that it has given to thebacillus of this dread disease the name ofRickettsia. His life was cut short by typhusfever contracted during his investigationof that disease in the City of Mexico in. his fortieth year. The number of lives hisdiscovery will save is beyond estimate. Allthe money that has been put into the U ni­versity and all that ever will be put intoit is as nothing in comparison with the in­estimable value of his discovery to OUfrace.On August 12, 1912, Julius Rosenwaldwrote a very unusual kind of letter to theUniversity trustees. He was himself atrustee and knew the situation and itsneeds. The letter recited the "pressingbuilding requirements of the University"and to assist in meeting them said, "On thismy fiftieth birthday I take pleasure in offer­ing you the sum of $250,000." This giftwas employed in providing a building forthe departments of Geology and Geogra­phy, which had carried on their work fortwenty years in the Walker Museum undervery serious handicaps. Plans were preparedby Holabird and Roche, architects; thebuilding was located immediately west of,and connected with, the Walker Museum.The cornerstone was laid on ConvocationDay, June 9, 1914. The dedication occurredin connection with the Spring Convocation,March 16, 1915. Addresses were made byPresident Judson, Professor Chamberlin,Dean Salisbury, and seven former studentsin the departments who had risen to posi­tions of eminence, including the heads of thegeological surveys of the states of Illinois,THE STORY OF THE UNIVERSTY OF CHICAGOMinnesota, and· Iowa and professors of­geology at Harvard and at the state uni­versities of Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota,Wisconsin, Michigan, and Illinois. Beforethe dedication the departments had re­quested the trustees to giv·e Mr. Rosen­wald's name to the hall.In concluding his dedicatory statementPresident Judson said:As President of the University and represent­ing the board of trustees, I declare this buildingduly dedicated for, all time to sound learningand to the advancement of knowledge, and itsname shall be known throughout the years tocome as the Julius Rosenwald Hall.The amount expended in the erection,equipment, and furnishing was $305,000.It will be recalled that Mrs. ElizabethG. Kelly had contributed in 1892 and 1898the funds for the building of the Kelly andGreen dormitories. When she died in 1904it was found that she had bequeathed tothe University the sum of $150,000 to beused in providing a memorial of her hus­band, Hiram Kelly. As soon as the be­quest was -- paid to the U niversi ty, it wasinvested· and the income annually' added tothe principal. The fund was eventually de­voted to the erection of a building for theClassical departments. This hall was lo­cated on the northeast corner of Ellis Ave­nue and Fifty-ninth Street, south of, andconnected with, Goodspeed Hall, andfronting on the Midway Plaisance. It wasthe westernmost of the proposed librarygroup which was to occupy the entire Mid­way front from Ellis Avenue to UniversityAvenue. Shepley, Rutan, and Coolidge pre­pared the plans and the cornerstone waslaid June 9, 1914. The hall was dedicatedon June 14, 1915. Over the north entrancethis inscriptionwas placed:CLASSICS BUILDINGHIRAM KELLYMEMORIALThe building with its equipment andfurnishings cost $285,448.Ida Noyes Hall, "to be used as a socialcenter and gymnasium for the women ofthe University," was erected through thegenerosity of La Verne Noyes as a me­morial of his wife who. had died in 19 I 2.The- purpose of Mr. Noyes was communi- 493cated to the trustees in June, 19 I 3. It wasin consequence of conferences between Pres­ident and Mrs. JUdSOIl and Mr. Noyesthat the views of the donor were so enlargedthat the proposed building grew in scopeand size to what it finally became-the idealwoman's building. It was built in 1915-16, and dedicated in connection with theQuarter Centennial Celebration of theUniversity in June, 1916. The architecturewas Tudor-Gothic.Ida Noyes was not a single building, buta group of buildings, combining the fa­cilities provided for the men by the BartlettGymnasium, the Reynolds Club House, andHutchinson Commons. It was more do­mestic in feeling than the other buildings,giving the general effect of a great Tudorhouse. It was located on Fifty-ninth Street,between Woodlawn and Kimbark avenues,and had a frontage on the Midway Plais­ance of 240 feet. From the middle of themain structure the gymnasium extended110 feet to the north, making the totaldepth of the building 160 feet. The struc­ture for the swimming pool extended westfrom the north end of the gymnasium. Foradministrative purposes the Hall was di­vided into three departments, each with aseparate head, the Commons, the Depart-Julius Rosenwald494 THE UNIVERSTY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEment of Physical Education, and the Club­house. All the. privileges of the Clubhousew-ere open without fee to every Universitywoman and it was the center of the sociallife of the women students and, indeed, ofthe University. The total attendance atscheduled events at the close of the periodof which I am writing was about 50,000a year while the daily or occasional visitorswere innumerable.I have already referred to a gift of $300,-000 by an anonymous donor for a Theologybuilding. When the plans for this buildingwere prepared, it was found that the extra­ordinary rise in the cost of building madethe sum provided totally inadequate. Itwas invested, and the income added to the principal for several years. In 1924 anothergift was added to the accumulated fund inthe name of the original donor to enablethe University to go forward with thebuilding. Ground was broken for it, east. of Cobb Hall and north of Haskell, in July,1924, and the walls were going up as thiswas written. One of the most attractivebuildings on the campus, it faced KentChemical Laboratory across the centralquadrangle, and completed Harper Court.The Theology building belongs to the ad­ministrations of President Judson andPresident Burton, and was the last greatbuilding of the first third of a century ofthe University's story.To a Professor of PhilosophyBy H. R. BAUKHAGE, 'I IDear Doctor,Yours of recent dateReceived. Thanks for the good intentions, .The paving business booms of lateAnd I'm attending the conventions.You link me with my Ancient Foe.That's no offence. At least I mean HeIs worthy metal. But go slowOn classing me with Mussolini!I'm used to flattery, I guess,But such evokes slight titillation­A Borgia or a Mafia, yes,Not this late-latin imitation.Well, passing that, your words are sooth,You pay fair homage to my pageant,What chance, without their help, has Truth?Sans lobby, gang or good press-agent?I've done with souls, I -oh, excuse!The Senator (he's on the level)is calling and I can't refuse,In haste;'Your busy friend,The Devil.A Worth-While HazardMr. Hodge and Mr. Hazard) Elinor Wylie. New York. Alfred A. Knopf. $2.50.SO possessed by a desire for self-denialwas Mr. Hazard that he even allowedhis name to appear last in the title of thebook. Elinor Wylie should never have per­mitted this, for he is her character-superior.Fearfully fascinating with his appalling eyesand grey hair twisting into Satanic hornsabove his stark cheek bones, he slips likea wistful wraith through his charminglyeccentric life. When de Mussets andTennysons were writing for a breathlessliterati, Mr. Hazard decided to forgetcivilization. But this was not hard for aman whose being was already separatedfrom a grasping world by several dream­sogged veils. Guided into other-world nessby the bright cruel laughter of Allegra andthe low music of Penserosa, he had almostsucceeded in his escape from life when hemet the calculating Mr. Hodge, a man whohad the build of a general and the heartof a reformer. His first look at Mr. Haz­ard shattered the latter's happiness for­ever. Misinterpreting Hazard's amiable andthoroughly Platonic attitude toward thegirls for love, he snatched away Allegra,Penserosa, and their semi-sympatheticmother, and left nothing but a hazy andfaraway ideal to blur the emptiness inHazard's life.Elinor Wylie has made of Mr. Hazarda thoroughly human character, And at thesame time, he is distinguished-not only bythe pistol ball which he carried somewheresoutheast of his Adam's apple, but also byhis flawless and much more admirable maskof pride. Against it the mild quizzmgs of the hat-eyed Mr. Hartleigh dropped backabashed. Against it the hate-pointed in­sults of Mr. Hodge lost their cruel glamor.His was the power to cover the quiveringsensibilities that tortured his spirit intolongings unheard and unanswered. On theother hand, Mr. Hodge, asserting his sizeand personality, complacently wrecked alife because he thought that he was right.Fortunately, Elinor Wylie chose Mr. Haz­ard as her favorite and relegated Mr.Hodge to the final third of the book.However, Mr. Hazard would not behalf as charming were he not an ElinorWylie creation. She has sprinkled his rev­eries and zigzagged his whole life withpolite but poignant asides of her own onevery subject from the type of people whodrink gin-in private, to the tepid thoughtsof a man who is mortally wounded. Notonly is the Elinor Wylie stamp on thecharacters and style of the book but it isalso indelibly present on the chapter titles.Would you care to "Tiptoe on a Tomb­stone" or would you rather have "Plentyof Cream with Strawberries" or merely"Dry Bread and Radishes"? Such a tableof contents suggests to the reader a sortof panoramic circus-festival. Instead it isonly snatches of chapters glorified untilthey have become symbols of the whole.Obviously, Elinor Wylie gave her chapterheadings the same quaint charm which shecaught in Mr. Hazard when she drewhim away. from his visionary heights to slipapologetically proud through the too briefpages of her book. ELOISE T ASHER495Murder Tales For AdultsAn Art Critic Conceives a Twentieth-Century SherlockBy SIMON O. LESSER, '30GRANTED the ability to concoct in­volute and yet logical plots, what otherqualities would one demand of the idealwriter of mystery tales? Answer: the abil­ity to characterize and a flair for wordswhich few button-button authors seem topossess. Granted all three qualities com­bined in very gratifying proportion, andwhat have you? Answer (in chorus) : S.S. Van Dine.lVan Dine, as everybody knows, is a pseu­donym. Various opinions regarding hisidentity were advanced. Some believed hima famed New York architect, and pointedto the importance and technical knowledgeof architecture, characteristic of each ofVan Dine's books. Others called the booksthe diversion of a famed American educator.J ames Weber Linn was planning to refutethe rumor that he was Van Dine in a tenthousand word article for The AtlanticMonthly, in which Mr. Linn pointed outthat he hasn't read the books in question.Very recently, however, Van Dine has beenexposed. He is an art critic, and his realname, Willard Huntington Wright, is asufficient explanation of his erudition. VanDine weaves <esthetics and psychology intothe warp and woof of his story. The culpritof The Canary Murder Case reveals him­self in a poker game which might well havebeen staged in a psychological laboratory.The Greene Murder Case solves itself, onceit is realized that a crime is comparablenot to a photograph but to a work of art.Significant crimes are so subjective that, tothe connoisseur, they have almost a signa­ture.Van Dine's Sherlock is Philo Vance.I like to' fancy that Van Dine deliberatelyevoked him from abstractions in a searchfor a perfect hero. He is rich so as to haveleisure, intelligent so as to play his detective1 Author 'Of The Benson Murder Case The"Canary" Murder Case, The Greene MurderCase: Scribners, each $2.00. The Greene Mansion. New York. as it appeared at the: time of the notorious Greenemurder case. From an old woodcut by Lowell L. Balcom.One of the illustrations that help VanDine to thrill his readers.role properly, and whimsical so as to havecharm. "He drawls, diverts, digresses."2He is suave, electric, aristocratic. N atu­rally, once an author has posed such a hero,it is not difficult to give his work literarytone. Vance himself, ready to expound hisideas with or without provocation, suppliesit. Van Dine himself is Vance's Watson,an inseparable friend, devoting all his at­tention to Vance's business matters and artpurchasing.Van Dine not only has a better hero andstyle than his competitors: he beats them ontheir own ground-plot construction. Themuch despised mystery genre demands thehighest finesse of technique. Novelists mustat once tell us what we expect and yetmaintain suspense. If an author's causationis too transparent we become too bored toinquire, "What next?" If it is impossiblyMURDER TALES FOR ADULTSsubtle we give up the chase. If he helps ustoo much we tell him, as I have heard chil­d ren tell those giving them hints in a guess­ing game, to make the game more difficult.He must keep the mystery unsolved to thevery end; yet when it is solved he mustmake us nod our heads with an involuntary"Of course." It could have come out no 497other way! How stupid of us not to haveseen!Such reading combines the keen zestheticsatisfaction which artistic sequitors alwaysgive with the animal thrill of the chase.Beggar on horseback! I t is no anomaly thatVan Dine's stories first appeared in sucha magazine as Scribner's.Eugene O'NeillBy VERNON GRANT, '28.WITH the publication of "StrangeInterlude," lit is interesting to glancein retrospect at the development of O'Neillinto premier American dramatist. If thereexisted any doubt as to his claim to thetop niche this play should certainly dispelit. It is bigger, deeper, and longer thananything he has so far produced, and prob-ably the highest ascent of the nationaldrama to date.O'Neill has traveled a long distancesince 1914 and his earliest rather crude one­acters-"Thirst," "The Web," and a fewothers. His first significant work was prob­ably the five plays of the so-called Glen­cairn Cycle, beginning with the "Moonof the Caribbees." The Cycle is largely akind of descriptive dialogue, and O'Neillwas still working with the surface of hismaterial-the vivid pictures that the seaand the men of the sea had left with him.From this point he has gone increasinglydeeper in psychological skill, and increas­ingly wider in his departures from theaccepted forms. There was the study ofillusions, the lure of far-off things, in "Be­yond the Horizon"; of the blind gropingof a mind, abysmally ignorant, against awall of negations, in. "The Hairy Ape";'Boni f$ Lioeriaht, $2.50. of panic fear in the colorful dramatic mon­ologue of "The Emperor Jones." Thelanguage of O'Neill is usually direct andvigorous, the words mere symptoms of theforces and conflicts of forces that producethem: love and pride in "Lle'"; love andrepulsion in "Anna Christie"; the claimsof a woman's love and maternity upon thescientific absorption of her husband, in"The First Man"; the conflict of love withpersonal selfishness, and the final triumphof the former in "Desire under the Elms."In these latter plays, O'Neill is primarily apsychologist of the passions.The vein of symbolism and mysticismin O'Neill's more recent work, notably,"The Fountain," and "The Great GodBrown" is the expression, I think, not somuch of a mystical interpretation as ofan essentially poetic reaction to life, a reac­tion tending to clothe itself naturally inimaginative metaphor. In "The Fountain,"the symbolism is tenuous and scarcely artie-ulate; in "The Great God Brown," it issubtle and complicated, though in broadlines fairly clear: the fervid pagan affirma­tion of life, sensitive to beauty, employingto the full every capacity· for happiness"distorted by morality from Pal! intoSatan" and finally : driven into ChristianTHE UNIVERSITY, OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEresignation for refuge-and the subordi­nate symbol of the "Great God" himself,the American Moloch of material success,blind to ends in the preoccupation withmeans.O'N eill has the faculty for compact ex­pression, as a dramatist must have. Hispower lies chiefly in the portrayal of psy­chological situations, conflicts and develop­ments, in the color, richness and virilityof his language, and in the lucidity of hisinsight. He has been accused of lacking inhumour, and certainly most of his workis eminently serious, "Marco Millions,"perhaps, a possible exception. But thefollowing jibe at the Sage of Vienna, from(Llt��,,----.......---,-- __a reverie in the "Interlude," is unusualenough to be quoted: "-a lot to accountfor, Herr Freud I-punishment to fit hiscrimes, be forced to, listen eternally duringbreakfast while innumerable plain ones tellhim dreams about snakes-pah, what aneasy cure-all I-sex the philosopher's stone-0 CEdipus, 0 my King, the world isadopting you !-"The most notable violation of conventionin "Strange Interlude"-where the ordi­narily silent thought flow of the charactersbecomes a kind of auxiliary drama-rep­resents a tendency slowly growing inO'N eill. It is fore-shadowed in' occasionalmonologues in "The Hairy Ape"-stum­bling mental futilities not ordinarily ex­pressed aloud; again in the terror strickenbabblings and fantastic hallucinations. ofthe "Emperor Jones," and again, in a dif­ferent manner, in the masks of "The GreatGod Brown." O'Neill seems to have beentrying for some time, consciously or uncon­sciously, to bring these hidden things toutterance; their' frank emergence in the"Interlude" is a logical, if not a predictableconsequence. He has at least one precedentin the soliloquies of Shakespeare; he hasdone, or is doing, for the drama what Joyce has done for the novel-in a twin stream ofpsychological realism.In the "Interlude," as has been said,O'Neill brings the inner background of theorthodox dialogue-the covert stream of·thoughts and emotions-into spoken con­currence with the main stream, interplayingwith it, giving a deeper meaning to theindividual characters and their words. Itis hardly psychoanalytic, rather merely acut below into the less superficial layers ofthe mind, clos'er to the elemental forceswhich pattern human behavior. By itsmeans are revealed what the mask of lan­guage often veils, and the actual complexityof the reactions of one person to another.It puts a strain on stage production whichmust be considerable, and which shouldcertainly test the possibilities of such anattempt in the theatre itself.The play is long and the plot is involved.I t is a dramatization of life at its fullest,charged with passion, pain, and irony. Ofthe four principal characters, three areyoung at its inception; they move togetherthru a succession of conflicts; experiments,and failures in a sustained struggle forhappiness and individual fulfillment to afinal contented weariness and satiety in thetwilight of old age-"the hour before sun­set when the earth dreams in afterthoughtsand mystic premonitions of life's beauty."Here, if ever, life has been brought to thedrama; one is left with the sense of havingwitnessed, as an' unaging spectator, a full­length section of the human tragi-comedy.O'N eill, the poet-philosopher, has put muchof the wisdom of life into this play. Hevoices a premise: "-life is___:_and the isbeyond reason"; an ethic: "Being happy,that's the nearest we can ever come toknowing what's good"; and a, cosmology:"our lives are merely a strange dark inter­lude in the electrical display of God theFather"-an anomalous flare of conscious­ness and desire amidst the timeless con­course of matter and energy.While O'Neill at times envisions lifepoetically he sees it also empirically. Hisrealism is neither selective nor mealy­mouthed; comeliness and ugliness-"thesplendor and the' cruelty'l-c-are both ofthem integral parts of the whole picture, thedramatized transcript of reality.-"to ignorethe megaphone men and what goes withBOOKS 499them, to follow the dream and live forthat alone" as he wrote to George JeanNathan, has been his purpose; it is the credoof artistic sincerity. There is no catering topopular tastes, no hawking of sure-firemelodrama. "The Great God Brown" waswritten, I think, for an audience which hasyet to quite arrive in this republic; certainlyit proved O'Neill to be lacking in the finerpoints of box-office discretion as, in the"Interlude," he takes little enough thoughtfor the acting profession or, for that matter,the audience. The study is his concern, andthe stage someone else's; he rarely sees hisown plays. It is a speculation, it wouldseem, as to whether the theatre will provesufficiently resourceful to cope with thesedepartures-whether it is big enough tomeet this advent of free-reined originality.A Symposium on GermsThe Newer Knowledge of Bacteriology and Immunoloov, by 82 contributors, edited byEdwin O. Jordan and I. S. FalkJ The University of Chicago. The Uni-versity of Chicago Press, II33 pages+index. $10.PROFESSOR JORDAN and his as- own special field. The contents, therefore,sociate, Dr. Falk, have done a genuine fully justify the title, for it does containservice 'to those who are interested in bac- an adequate summary of the newer knowl­teriology by the publication of this volume. edge and the current concepts in theseI t consists of 83 chapters covering practi- SCIences.cally the whole domain of bacteriology and The book is handsomely printed andimmunity, each chapter contributed by bound, and (thanks to a grant from thesomeone actively engaged in investigation Rosenwald Fund) the price is quite reason­and therefore able to write authoritatively able. The University of Chicago Press ison the most recent research work in his to be congratulated on its work.ANew Book on Religious EducationReligious Education, by Theodore Gerald Soares, Ph. D. '94. University of ChicagoPress. $2.50.T HI S volume issued a few weeks agoby the University Press has beenlong awaited by the professional groupmost interested. The substance of the vol­ume was presented as the Earl Lectures atPacific School of Religion ,last year and atthat time made a profound impression. Thevolume preserves to a: large degree the fresh­ness of public address. ,It seeks to interpretto the intelligent public the principles of modern religious education. The authorseeks also to provide a usable text for classesin religious education and for this purposeoffers at the close of each chapter a seriesof vital and stimulating topics for discus­sion and also an autobiographical sectionwhich will recall for deliberative judgmentexperiences in the earlier life of the reader.Dr. Soares has for twenty years beenprofessor of religious education at the Uni-500 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. MAGAZINEversity of Chicago and has. taken an activepart in the development of the modernmovement in this field which is but little.older than the author's span of Universityservice. He is a recognized leader and hisvolume will be closely read by all interestedin this growing field.In chapter I the author passes in reviewcurrent theories of human nature and findsin general that neither the older theologicaldogmas of depravity nor the newer con­ceptions of man's essential divinity providean adequate basis for a scientific religiouseducation. Nor does he find that the em­phasis on instincts so prevalent in the edu­cational theories of the last twenty yearsis wholly convincing. He finds that recenttheories of modifiability through directedsocial interaction provides a working for­mula for education. He does not ignoreheredity and eugenics, but develops his prin­ciples very largely in terms of. consciouslymodified environment. In a discriminatingstudy of the individual. and the group hepreserves the value of personality and re­veals the significant factors of imitation,authority, and prejudice, the latter largely'growing out of the folkways. "ReligiousEducation is from this angle the continuousremaking of the mores of the group."Chapter III saves for the educator the va­Iidityof ideals, and calls attention to the factthat .the past is studied properly only whendramatized. He calls for a technique bywhich ideals may be taught, including prac­tice and. assurance of resulting conduct."Habit is achieved social relationship, idealis the better behavior still sought for." Inhis discussion of religion as folkways theauthor recognizes the existence of groupsand expresses the conviction that for a longtime our technique of religious educationmust work through' these existent groups orsects; Although there may be regret thatthe author feels the relative permanence ofthese folkways he .provides in his later dis­.cussion at almost every step of the way, bothin curriculum and organization for widedepartures from existent organization.'Indeed, his method is non-authoritarianand places deliberative conduct high in the scale. The remedy for the situationis found by the .author to lie in the "purifi­cation and 'socialization of adult religion."Chapter V is an illuminating discussion ofpresent day Christian idealism and takes aconstructive and sympathetic attitude to­ward the churches. He recognizes the con­flicting loyalties in the many groups of pres­ent day life and asks for the removal ofcompetitive activities among the basic or­ganizations of human society in the edu­cative process.Chapter VII develops education as di­rected experience. The author finds sixgreat interests which are significant in char­acter development-play, work, money,�art, worship and knowledge, and pointsout with balanced judgment salient inconnection with each of the s e in­terests. "Nobody has knowledge unless hehas 'entered into the original experiencesthat have been handed down as knowledge."He gives consideration to the current argu­ments against the Bible in the religious cur­riculum, but recognizes significant positivevalues which make it desirable to introducethe child and youth in a graded method tothe experience here contained. "Thecurriculum thus becomes the program ofactivities through which experience will beorganized and directed toward the progres­sive realization" of social relationships. Theauthor suggests that this program shouldbe developed through a community councilallocating to the various groups their partsin the recommended program. "Thosephases of study of human life which belongin the realm of common. human experienceswould be carried on in the schools. The re­ligious interpretations and ecclesiastical ex­pressions of the huma� experience would becarried on in the churches." Chapter XIon "The Revolution of Prejudice" presentsthe technique of progress, and carries theyouth into the position of self-direction inthe cultivation of his personality. Author­ity becomes an inner reality and personalityis achieved in the search for the will of Godand its realization in self-activity.In the significant chapter on "The Expe­rience of Churchmanship," Doctor Soaresmakes constructive suggestions concerningthe ordinances, confirmation, conversion,and decision days, and outlines a plan bywhich children and youth may enter pro­gressively into the experience of churchmembership. The two closing chapters areon worship as an organizive experience, inwhich worship is considered as a social prod­uct, its relation to social duty, and as anBOOKS 501escape from an unfriendly society. Con­structive suggestions are offered by whichreality may be achieved.The volume throughout is vital andtrenchant and will reward careful reading.I t is the significant volume of the year inits field and will make a profound impres­sion on its field.HERBERT FRANCIS EVANSJ,Ph.D. '09",--..... " . .In lilY 01)llIJOnBy FRED B. MILLETT)A ssistant Professor of EnglishOtherwise intelligent citizens seem to lose the Theatre. The Theatre is a business;their reasoning faculty whenever the Good- the Drama is an art. The Theatre is con­man Theatre is- mentioned. Even in aca- cerned primarily in the full houses and fulldemic circles where the light of reason purses; the Drama is devoted to the seriousshould burn most clear, the famIliar· opin- representation (whether in comedy orion is that the plays are dull, the voices tragedy) of the adventure of the humanare distressing, and the direction is uncer- spirit.tain. The attitude to it of Mr. Donaghey, Where Theatre and Drama meet, therethe Grand Mogul of dramatic criticism in are Euripides and Shakespeare and Moliere.Chicago, can hardly be described in words When they do not meet, there is a livingfamiliar to chaste ears. (Incidentally, that death for actors and playwrights, audiencesattitude seems born of the union of igno- (and critics).ranee and malice-a profound ignorance of The question, then, of how perfectly thethe drama, which is obscured for most of Goodman Theatre fulfills the function ishis readers by his wide knowledge of the relatively unimportant. The Company istheatre, and a malice which does not spare voung in years and in experience; its fundseven the Theatre Guild.) But despite the are not unlimited; it needs more talent thanview of this reigning authority, I am in- it can afford to buy in the open market.dined to believe that the Goodman Theatre Granting these conditions, who wouldis the most important dramatic event in choose to see the trivial, expertly presentedChicago since the Fire. rather than the significant sympatheticallyThe unsoundness of the prevalent crit- though imperfectly embodied? Surely thereical opinion arises from a misconception of is more solace for the spirit in a fair per­the function of the Goodman Theatre. formance of a good play than in an adroitThat theatre has a single function-to presentation of utter cheapness.bring the Drama back to the Theatre, to A glance over the Goodman's third seasonoffer for the contemplation of Chicagoans will show that this modest company hasplays which the commercial producers are rendered the drama in Chicago a memor­too ignorant or too canny to present. This able service. On two occasions, the coin­function of the Goodman arises from the pany's production has compared favorablyeternal opposition between the Drama and with that of its professional competitors.502 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe local performance of Juno and thePaycock, though inevitably less rich andreal than that of the Irish Company, wasactually superior to the latter in unity andcoherence of tone. Mr. Arthur Sinclair'sinfatuation for the spot-light and the laughwon at any cost threw the latter per­formance out of proportion and revealedcrudities in the play which the more artfulGoodman production obscured. She Stoopsto Conquer at the Goodman was far morespirited and intelligent than the perform­ance given by the many-styled all-star castwhich boasted the worst Tony Lumpkin incaptivity.But the greatest service the GoodmanTheatre has tendered is the presentation ofplays no commercial manager, not eventhe Theatre Guild, would think of offeringa Chicago audience. The Goodman, aloneof Chicago theatres, marked the centenaryof Ibsen, probably the one indisputably greatdramatist of modern period. T he WildDuck is always successful, when intelli­gently presented, for it is packed full ofriches in characterization and symbolismand irony. The choice of The Vikingsshowed even more courage and imagination.I t is not a great play: it is, in faet, twoplays-one an heroic drama, and the othera psychological problem-play. But thoughIbsen was only twenty-eight when he wrote it, it reveals unmistakably the seeds of hisgreatness-the dawn of the problems thatwere to preoccupy him to the end of hiscareer. The demands of this drama couldhardly be met by any group of actors as­sembled in America. But despite the in­superable difficulties, the scenes on the cliff,thanks to Mr. Stevens and the Clavilux, hadmoments of epic power and beauty. In thetheatre of the whole season there has beennothing so thrilling as the finale of thisproduction.As. a' further evidence of this generosity,the Goodman Theatre offered, at the closeof its season, the Hindu classic, The LittleClay Cart. No play could illustrate betterthe eternal urge of the creative spirit totake form in drama. At first the playseemed merely quaint and naive, but acloser inspection revealed its essential hu­manity, its rich if grotesque humor, theeffectiveness of its technique (granting itsconventions), and its romantic elevation.If you go to the theatre for the sakeof the piay and not merely for the Pro­duction, you are bound to find the GoodmanTheatre an exciting institution. At anyrate, the Goodman Theatre has offeredChicago this season a more distinguishedprogram of plays than any commercialmanager has sent here.A scene in the Hindu pla», The Little Clay CartIN MY OPINIONA tense moment in A Midsummer Night's Dream, as performed at the Good­man Theatre.The sausage scene, in [uno and the Paycock: Art Smith as loxer; WhitfordKane as Captain lack Boyle.Editor and Business A1anager, ALLEN HEALD, '26Advertising Manager, CHARLES J. HARRIS, '28EDITORIAL BOARD: Commerce and Administration Association-DoNALD P. BEAN,'17; Divinity Association-C. T. HOLMAN, D. B., '16; Doctors' Association-D. J.FISHER, '17, Ph.D., '22; Law Association-CHARLES F. McELROY, A.M., '06, J. D., '15;School of Education Association-LILLIAN STEVENSON, '21; F-ush Medical Association­MORRIS FISHBEIN, 'II, M.D., '12.,ef/eJ\(T S f?' COM MeJ\([ALEXAN'DER MEIKLEJOHN,former President of Amherst, recentlytold the Chicago chapter of Phi Beta Kappaabout the Experimental College that he isconducting at the University of Wisconsin.By way of introduction, he spoke of theneed of a clearer view of the aims ofscholarship. Scholars, he said, often tell usthat they engage in research for the purejoy of research. They refuse to considerwhat benefits mankind may derive fromtheir study. Roentgen and his colleagues,they argue, were interested in physical laws,and let others worry about the radio or theX-ray that were to grow out of those laws.Why, they ask, should the scientist of todaybother about posterity's use of his studies?Professor Meiklejohn considers this anunscientific view of thescientist's role. Thescholar who studies his subject only becausehe likes to study that subject, ProfessorMeiklejohn says, plays a part comparableto that of a bee or a cow. The bee makeshoney not with a view to the honey market,but because it likes to make heiney. Cleverhuman beings keep bees and gather thehoney; but the bee neither knows, or caresabout the ultimate use of its product. Noris the cow interested in the hunger of thosehuman beings who will consume her milk-and eventually the cow herself.The scientist, Professor Meiklejohn says,ought to be the master of his work. Heought not wholly to trust posterity to finduses for his discoveries. He ought to con­sider the needs of mankind and decide just what studies mankind most needs. He oughtnot to leave this decision to the men whofinance his work.� � �WE suspect that very few scholars areguilty of Meiklejohn's charge. Ahuman being is not apt to look too romanti­cally at a difficult piece of work to whichhe devotes his life. Its details will tire him.I ts problems will annoy him when they failto come out right. Something besides asentimental love of the work must keephim at it. He must have considered carefullywhether man's concrete gain will be worthhis labor.One renowned American scholar, ina farewel1 to those with whom he hasworked, describes his University as onethat"believes in scholarship for a purpose, andits effort is to educate for deeper insight, not totrain for the practice of formalisms .... Itsfunction is to find knowledge and to train othersto find and to use knowledge. Its ultimate func­tion is to co-operate in the great adventure ofhumanity, a conscious control of the evolutionof civilization. . . . Research is demandedwhich is not merely sufficient unto itself, butwhich is vitally significant in the world ofreality. We seek to train our students to atechnique of living, to aid them to form a phi­losophy of life that they may become eager,active, and happy participators in the work ofthe world."Perhaps the alumnus, more than thescholar, needs Professor Meiklejohn's cor­rection. Newspaper articles, hurriedly readand sometimes hurriedly written, tempt usto believe that research is second cousin toEVENTS AND COMMENTmagic. Some romaritic philosopher has toldus that research needs no practical value,that the scholar is after something vague,called Truth. The scholar, we are likely toconclude, must belong to a unique species.He must live in a far-away world. LikePresident Coolidge and the artists in Green­wich Village, he must be unknowable.Once we have talked with the scholar andhave learned that he is a human fellow afterall, once we have read intelligent accountsof his work and realize that he is guided bycommon sense (though of an uncommonlyfar-seeing sort), President Mason's fare­well wish will be nearer to realization.WHILE six thousand students fromfifty countries gathered at the U ni­versity for the opening of summer schoollast month, three hundred faculty membersand advanced students of the regular schoolterm prepared to leave for all parts of theworld in the University's annual summerresearch migration, with their goals rangingfrom Siberia, Samoa, and Mongolia to thecultural centers of the Old World and thestill older archaeological world of AsiaMinor and Egypt.Most widespread are the activities of theAnthropology Department. Paul Diffen­derder, graduate student, will leave to studythe ethnology of the Samoan Islands atPago Pago; Alonzo Pond has gone withthe Roy Chapman Andrews expedition tothe Gobi" Desert to study ancient man inChina; Paul Martin will accompany theCarnegie Institution's expeditions to Chi­chen I tza, Yucatan, Mexico, to unearth theMaya civilization; Paul Nesbit has alreadygone to Algiers to take charge of the workof the Logan-Beloit expedition; WendellBennett has left for Hawaii to study racerelations there. "Cor n eli u s Osgood, whose article,"Glimpses of the North," appeared in thismagazine last winter, is off on a dangerousmission to the: Canadian coast of the Arctic 505"I hope that alumni will keep permanentrelationship with the University by continuingtheir education after they leave with the helpof the University, and most important 'Of all thatthe alumnus will be identified with the Univer­sity by continuing the method of thought whichhe learned in college years. Life is a continualcombination of learning and doing. The studentshould both learn and perform in the universityyears, and he should both perform and keep onlearning after he leaves. The institution shouldbe at his command and his intellectual servicethroughout his life. Unless reorganization of thealumni groups proceeds with such foundationand reality, it is useless to promote it. Thereis every opportunity to promote the participationby alumni in the intellectual purposes" of theUniversity."Ocean to live with the Hareskin Indians fora year; Charlotte Gower -will leave for anobscure community in Sicily on a SocialScience Research Fellowship to study it fora year; and Gerhart Laves will go with theexpedition of the American Museum tostudy the fossilized finds of humans andanimals of Folsom, New Mexico.Ten members of the department willstart the third year's work of a ten-yearproject for uncovering the life and cultureof the precolumbian Indians of Illinois, inthe mound districts. F. K. Li will studyIndian language in the Mackenzie Valleyand Harry Hoyer their language in Okla­homa. Nine other University faculty mem­bers have foreign research fellowships, fourin the political science department, one inpsychology, one in finance, one in physics,one in astronomy and one in history.Twenty history students will be working ontheir theses outside Chicago, six of them inEurope. Four members of the EnglishFaculty will carryon work in literarysource material in England. Dean Soph­on isba Breckinridge of the Department ofSocial Service Administration will representAmerica at the Conference of SocialWorkers in Paris, and Professor JeromeKerwin will represent the Association ofAmerican Municipalities at Seville, Spain.THE ALUMNI COUNCIL OFTHE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGOChairman, WALTER L. HUDSON, '02A cting Secretary, ALLEN HEALD, '26The Council for 1927-28 is composed of the following Delegates:FROM THE COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONS, Term expires 1929: Elizabeth Faulkner,'85; Harry N. Gottlieb, '00; Herbert P. Zimmermann, '01; Paul H. Davis, 'II;William H. Kuh, 'II; Mrs. Marguerite H. MacDaniel, '17; Term expires 1930:Grace A. Coulter, '99; Frank McNair, '03; Earl O. Hostetter, '07, J. D. '09; Mrs.Margaret Haas Richards, 'n; William H. Lyman, '14, Arthur Cody, '24; JohnMentzer, '98; Walter Hudson, '02; Mrs. Martha Landers Thompson, '03; HenrySulcer, '06; Harold Swift, '07; Mrs. Phyllis Fay Horton, 'IS.,FROM THE ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OF PHILOSOPHY, Henry G. Gale, '96, Ph.D. '99; B..L. Ullman, '13, Ph.D. '08; Herbert E. Slauzht, Ph.D. '98; John F. Norton, Ph.D.'r r ; D. J. Fisher, Ph.D. '22; W. H. Osgood, Ph. D. '18; T. V. Smith, Ph. D. '22.FROM THE DIVINITY ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, Charles T. Holman, D. B. '16; Orvis F.Jordan, D. B. '13; Edgar J. Goodspeed, D. B. '97, Ph.D. '98.FROM THE LAW SCHOOL ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, Thurlow G. Essington, J.D. '08; WalterP. Steffen, '10, J.D. '12; Charles F. McElroy, A. M. '06, J. D. 'IS.FROM THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, W. S. Gray, '13, Ph.D. '16;R. L. Lyman, Ph.D. '17; W. C. Reavis, A.M. 'II" Ph.D. '25; Logan M. Anderson,A. M. '23 .. FROM 'THE COMMERCE AND ADMINISTRATION ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, Frank H. Anderson,'22; Donald P. Bean, '17; John A. Logan, '21.FROM THE RUSH MEDICAL COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, Frederick B. Moorehead,M. D. '06; George H. Coleman, 'II, M. D. '13; Ralph C. Brown, '01, M. D. '03.FROM THE CHICAGO ALUMNI CLUB, Roderick MacPherson, ex-'16; Harry R. Swanson,'17; Sam �. Rothermel, '17.FROM THE CHICAGO ALUMNAE CLUB, Mrs. Nena Wilson Badenoch, '12; Suzanne Fisher,'14; Agnes, G. Prentice, '19.FROM THE UNIVERSITY, David H. Stevens, Ph. D. '14.Alumni Associations Represented in the Alumni CouncilAll communications should be sent to the Secretary of the proper Association or to the AlumniCouncil Faculty Exchange University of Chicago. The dues for membership in anyone of theAssocia;ions named above: including subscription to The University of Chicago Magazine, are $2.00per year. A holder of two or more degrees from the University of Chicago may be a memberof more than one Association: in such instances the dues are. divided and shared equally by the As­sociations involved. . i�,THE COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONS: Pres­ident, Walter L. Hudson, '02, HarrisTrust and Savings Bank, Chicago;Secretary, Allen Heald, '26, Universityof Chicago.ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OF PHILOSOPHY:President, Henry Gale, '96. Ph.D. '99,University of Chicago; Secretary, Her- .bert E. Slaught, Ph.D. '98, Universityof Chicago.DIVINITY ALUMNI ASSOCIATION: President,J. W. Hoag, D. B., '04, 24 Winder,Detroit, Mich; Secretary, R. B. David­son, D. B. '97, 508 Kellogg Ave., Ames,Iowa.LAW SCHOOL ASSOCIATIONS: President,Thurlow G. Essington, J.D., '08, 231 So.La Salle St., Chicago ; Secretary Charles F. McElroy, A. M., '06, J. D., 'IS, 1609We§_tminster Bldg, Chicago.SCHOOL OF EDUCATION ALUMNI ASSOCIA­TION: President, R. L. Lyman, Ph.D.,'17, University of Chicago; Secretary,Mrs. R. W. Bixler, A. M. '25, Uni­versity of Chicago.COMMERCE AND ADMINISTRATION ALUMNIASSOCIATION: President, Frank H.Anderson, '22, Hamilton Bond & Mtge.Co., 7' So. Dearborn St., Chicago;Secretary, Hortense Friedman, '22, 230So. Clark St., Chicago.elATION: President, Samuel R.. Slay-RUSH MEDICAL COLLEGE ALUMNI Asso-maker, M.D. '92, 517 W. Adams St.,Chicago; Secretary, Charles A. Parker,M. D., '91, 7 W. Madison St., Chicago.506NEWS OF THE CLASSE SAND ASSOCIATIONSCollegeTHE following officers of the CollegeAlumni Association were elected inJune:President: Walter Hudson, '02.znd Vice President: J. Milton Coulter, 'lg.Executive Committee:Howell Murray, '14Harold J. Gordon, , I 7Delegates:John Mentzer, 'g8Walter Hudson, '02Mrs. Martha Landers Thompson, '03Henry Sulcer, '06Harold Swift, '07Mrs. Phyllis Fay Horton, , I 5'76-W. G. Hastings, 116 N. 16th St.,Omaha, Nebraska, writes he is trying toadminister justice in the Fourth JudicialDistrict of N: ebraska.'I5.,-Madelyn M. Weidman'is living inTrout Creek, Michigan. She has open housefor any University of Chicago alumni driv­ing her way., I 7__':Charles F. Allen, supervisor ofsecondary education in Little Rock, Arkan­sas, is completing the Allen and Murphylanguage test and drill exercises, a series.'zo-e-Stanton Speer and Mrs. Speer(Marj'Orie Schnering) , I 9 are enjoying thePhilippine Islands. He has the ManilaOffice of Getz Brothers, Inc.'Ig-David Annan has just returnedfrom a trip through Africa.'zo=-George D. Stout has just taken hisPh.D. in English at Harvard University.N ext year he will be Assistant Professorof English at Washington University inSt. Louis.'21�Marjorie S. Logan is Director ofthe Department of Art in Milwaukee­Downer College, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.'22-Elvis L. Hicks is principal of theAndrew Jackson School in Chicago.'22-0scar L. Holmgren is a bond sales­man with Chapman, Grannis and Co., 112W. Adams St., Chicago,'22-Edward B. Logan is teaching in the Walton School of Commerce, University ofPennsylvania, Philadelphia.'23- T. Louise Viehoff is teaching Latinin the Milwaukee University School, pre­paring students for college' entrance exam­inations.'23-Arthur ]. Goldberg has returnedfrom N ew York to his practice in Chicagoas certified public accountant, 160 N. La­Salle St.'25-Frances J. Carter, 5740 StonyIsland Avenue, is engaged in adult educa­tion work at the Readers' Bureau of theChicago Public Library. She assists stu­dents who are taking extension courses fromvarious universities.'26-Seward A. Covert is teaching in theHawken Country Day School, Cleveland,Ohio, and reports that he is "having agreat time." ,'27-Eleanore Marie Wheeler, 5217Fairmount Ave., Downers Grove, Ill., isemployed in the Education Department,National Association of Real Estate Boards.'27-Mabel A. Magee is research as ...sociate in the University of Chicago.'27-0liver N. Cord is teaching account ...ing in the Harrison Technical High School,Chicago.'27-M. Pearl Porterfield is teaching artat the Hirsch Junior High School, Chicago,and is living at the Southmoor Hotel.508 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERush Medical CollegeRush Alumni DinnerRUSH Alumni and friends to the numberof 367 attended the Annual RushAlumni Dinner at the Auditorium Hotelon June 9.Dr. Dallas B. Phemister, President ofthe Alumni Association, spoke on the workat the University of Chicago and Dr.Daniel L. Stormont responded for the classof 1928 and Dr. Gustav L. Kaufmann forthe class of I908. The address of the eve­ning was given by Dean Shailer Mathewson "The Amateur and Social Service."A portrait by Seyffert of Dr. James B.Herrick was presented to Rush MedicalCollege by Dean Ernest E. Irons for theclass of 1928 and members of the Facultyand Alumni, and was accepted by Vice­President Frederick C. Woodward. Follow,ing the presentation Dr. Herrick spoke onsome of the ideals that influenced him in hismedical work.JAMES H. HARPER,RegistrarAnnual Meeting of the Associatt'onThe meeting was called to order by thePresident, Dr. Dallas B. Phemister. Thereport of the annual meeting of I 927 andthe secretary's report were read and ac- .cepted. In the absence of the treasurer andhis report, Dr. Post moved that it be re­ceived by the directors when presented withpower to act. Seconded and passed. Therewas no necrologist report, Dr. Meents hav­ing died shortly after his election last year.No special matters of interest coming beforethe association, the following nominees forofficers for the ensuing year were presentedand unanimously elected.President-Samuel R: Slaymaker, '92,Chicago.First Vice President-s-Gatewood, 'I I,Chicago.Second Vice President- J. S. Kauffman,'75, Chicago.Third Vice " President-Joseph Dwaine,'03, Peoria. . Necrologist-Frank Allin, '05, Chicago."Directors for three years:Dallas B. Phemister, '04, Chicago.R. R. Ferguson, '03, Chicago.Delegates to Alumni Council:Ralph C. Brown, '04, Chicago.. Frederick B. Moorehead, '06, Chicago.George H. Coleman, '13, Chicago.Adjourned.CHARLES A. PARKER, SecretarySecretary's ReportAdopted at Annual Meeting June 91 I928The past year has been one of quietprogress for our association. The mostoutstanding' event being the opening ofthe Billings Hospital and the teaching ofclinical medicine on the University campus.Meanwhile clinical medicine continues tobe taught in the west side plant Includingthe Rawson Laboratory, Senn building andthe Presbyterian hospital. It will be ofinterest to our members to learn that con­versations relating to the removal of thisgroup, or its personnel, to the Universitycampus have taken place during the year.The pros and cons have been discussed onseveral occasions and presented to the trus­tees of the involved institutions. Muchinteresting argument both ways has beenpresented at these meetings. So far it hasbeen a no decision bout.The association has suffered the inevi­table losses by death during the year. Wewill pause to refer to one in particularwho had given so much. of his time andenergies to our association during the manyyears he was secretary and 'during his manyactive years since. I refer to Dr. BirdMcPherson Linnell. The alumni are for­tunate to have known such a man, butRush men are that way.The work of the departmental secretaryis now so well done by the general secretaryof the Alumni Council that there is littleNEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONSleft for the local secretary to do especiallywhen everything is running smoothly, butthe machinery of our organization is in- tact and ready for any emergency or goodwork that may from time to time cornebefore it.Doctors of PhilosophyIn MathematicsIS96-Leonard E. Dickson was the re­cipient recently 'of the Nelson Cole Prizegiven by the American Mathematical So­ciety for the best published work in Algebraduring the past three years. 'John 1. Hutchinson is Professor of Math­ematics at Cornell University. ProfessorsDickson and Hutchinson were the first twodoctors in the Department of Mathematics.IS9S-Herbert E. Slaught is the authorand editor of a series of mathematical text­books for schools and colleges. He has re­cently delivered on numerous occasions anaddress on the "Evolution of the NumberSystem and the Relation of Mathematics toModern Civilization."1900--Gilbert A. Bliss is a member ofthe committee which has in charge theselection of candidates for National Re­search Council fellowships in mathematicsand physical sciences. John H. McDonald has been promotedto a full professorship of mathematics at theUniversity of California.190 1 -Thomas M. Putnam is Professorof Mathematics and the Dean of the U n­dergraduate Division of the University ofCalifornia at Berkeley.1903-0swald Veblen has been appointedto a research professorship at PrincetonUniversity. He is a delegate from PrincetonUniversity to the International Mathemat­ical Congress to be held at Bologna inSeptember, 1925.1904-William H. Bussey has been doingan excellent piece of work as editor-in-chiefof the American Mathematical Monthly.1905- Thomas E. McKinney, Professorof Mathematics and Astronomy at theUniversity of South Dakota, will retire atthe close of the present school year on ac­count of failing eyesight.LawThe Twenty-Fifth AnniversaryON June 12, 1925, the Law School As­sociation celebrated the twenty-fifthanniversary of the first graduating class, inconnection with its annual dinner, held atthe Stevens Hotel, Chicago.The principal features were the presen­tation of the portrait of Professor HarryA. Bigelow, and the inauguration of amovement to endow a chair of Constitu­tional Law in the Law School to bear thename of our late Dean James Parker Hall.The attendance was 192, the largest onrecord, the best previous attendance being166 in 1925. President William J. Mat­thews J.D. 'oS presided. The portrait of Professor Harry A.Bigelow was presented to the Universityof Chicago by President Matthews in be­half of the alumni, and was accepted inbehalf of the Board of Trustees by Pro­fessor Frederic C. Woodward, Vice-Presi­dent of the University, also a member ofthe Law School faculty. The portrait waspainted by Mr. Theodore Johnson of Chi­cago, and is distinguished by certain mod­ernistic features. The portrait stood nearMr. Bigelow at the dinner, and, as one per­son expressed it, the likeness was so faithfulthat one might fancy it a mirror.510 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe Law School Association previouslyof Dean Hall, Professor Mechem, andhad presented to the University the portraitsProfessor Freund. It was desired by thealumni that Professor Bigelow's portraitshould be added at this time so that theportraits of the four men who have beenon the faculty practically from the beginningshould be completed by the time of the. twenty-fifth anniversary.Professor Joseph H. Beale, of HarvardLaw School, was to have been the guestof honor and had accepted. He foundedthe Law School in the fall of 1902, beingborrowed from Harvard for the purpose.He was Acting Dean for two years, and wassucceeded by Dean Hall.I t was the desire of the late Dean Hallthat Mr. Beale be present on this occasionto speak of the school's beginnings. Unfor­tunately for us-but, mayhap to the ulti­mate benefit of the country at large-Mr.Beale was sent as a delegate to the Repub­lican convention at Kansas City, and foundthe task of nominating Herbert Hooverfor President too exacting to permit himto leave there. Accordingly, he sent a letterto be read at the dinner, as follows:June II, 1928My dear Mr. McElr'Oy:It is with the keenest regret that I am obligedto give up the opportunity to be with you atyour Law School dinner, but having engagedmyself to the work in Kansas City, I find thatto go through with it I must be there on Tues­day.My connection with the Law School was slight,and except for one thing quite unimportant;that one thing however insured its success. WhenPresident Harper finally induced me to help himstart the school I made only one stipulation:that Professor Hall, then at Stanford, be madea member of the faculty. I think you will agreewith me that the school was thereafter boundto succeed. The great contribution to legaleducation which the school has made underDean Hall has made me very proud of thesmall part I had in it.The first I faculty was very congenial, andI doubt if many faculties in any branch oflearning have been more excellent. The highprofessional and personal qualities of the reg­ular professors, Freund, Hall and Whittier, andthe next year Mechem and Bigelow, it is needless for me to commend; but I cannot forbearspeaking of the delight I felt in my association with them, and of the warm personal affectionwe have since then felt for one another. Ofthe late dean I cannot adequately speak; Icared for him too much, and I grieve S'O muchfor his untimely death. T'O the others my col­leagues, for my pupils in the school, for all thegraduates of the school I can only send my re­gfets that I cannot see them and my best wishesfor them.Sincerely yours,JOSEPH H. BEALEThe program as originally planned lastfall at a conference between Dean Hall andthe officers of the Law School Association,contemplated that the five men who wereconnected with the faculty in its earliestyears should participate-Professor Bealeas founder, Dean Hall and ProfessorErnest Freund of the original faculty inthe fall of 1902, and Professor Floyd R.Mechem and Professor Harry A. Bigelow,who came a year later, in 1903. ProfessorFreund at almost the last minute was calledto N ew York, and the death of Dean Hallwith the absence of Professor Beale leftonly Professor Mechem and Professor Bige­low of that group present.Professor Mechem related the visit ofPresident Harper to Ann Arbor to securehis services, followed by Mr. Mechem'svisit to Chicago. Although the physicalsurroundings at Chicago then were forbid­ding, and the facilitiies so meager as to bealmost invisible, yet the ability of PresidentHarper to visualize here the greatest lawschool of them all so hypnotized Mr.Mechem that he agreed to come. When hereturned to Ann Arbor, however, the auth­orities at the University of Michigan LawSchool refused to release him, and he wascompelled to wait another year before join­ing the faculty here.Professor Bigelow in acknowledging thegift of his portrait went on to speak ofchanges in the curriculum which are con­templated by a committee of which he ischairman.Acting Dean E. W. Hinton spoke of theearly system of teaching law by text books,and of how Harvard accomplished a revolu­tion by adopting the case system in the faceof much doubt and even opposition fromwithin. It was next adopted at Columbia,and then at Chicago. For a time Harvard,NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONSColumbia and Chicago were the only LawSchools confining themselves to the casemethod, but now the great majority of theleading schools have adopted it.As this was the first meeting of the LawSchool Association since the death of DeanHall last spring, it was in a sense a memo­rial to him, All the speakers had much tosay of him, because of course the history ofthe first twenty five years of the LawSchool cannot be told without rehearsing agreat deal of his work and influence.Mr. Henry Porter Chandler, J. D. '06,particularly voiced the tribute of the formerstudents to Dean Hall. It was not merelya eulogy but an analysis of the ability andcharacter of the Dean, and appears else­where in this issue at the request of a largenumber of Law School alumni. Mr.Chandler was secretary to President Harperat the time the Law School was launched,and was one of the earliest students. Hehas taught in the Law School at varioustimes, and probably is the best fitted of allthe alumni to speak intimately of DeanHall.Mr. Frederick W. Schenk, who has beenlibrarian of the Law School from the be­ginning, was present as another of thetwenty-five-Yfar exhibits. Although the pro­gram committee had counted on him for atalk, he limited himself to bowing to theapplause, which proved that his long andfaithful service was appreciated.Music was furnished by Mr. LeonardAldridge, baritone of the choir of the U ni­versity Church of Disciples, accompanied byMrs. Hazel Quinney, organist of the samechurch. Mr. Aldridge sang several groupsof songs. At the close of Mr. Chandler's 511tribute to Dean Hall, Mr. Aldridge sang"Requiem," by Robert Louis Stevenson.Mr. Laird Bell, ]. D. '07, presented aresolution indorsing the proposal to createa chair of constitutional law in honor ofDean Hall, which was adopted unani­mously as follows:RESOLVED: by the members of the Law SchoolAssociation That the establishment of a chai rof law at the University of Chicago bearing thename and in memory of James Parker Hallwould be a fitting expression of the deep affec­tion in which the memory of Dean Hall is heldand a lasting tribute to the work of a great lawteacher and scholar; and be it furtherRESOLVED: That the President of this Associa­tion be directed to request the President of theUniversity to appoint a committee to raise thenecessary funds therefor; and that this Associa­tion hereby pledge to the University its full co­operation to the end that the proposed chair oflaw may be established at an early date andwith an ample endowment.Officers for the coming year were electedas follows: President: Thurlow G. Essing­ton, ]. D. '08; Vice-President: JudgeWalter P. Steffen 'ro, J.D. '12; Secretary­Treasurer: Charles F. McElroy, ]. D. '15.The same persons were made delegatesto the Alumni Council of the University ofChicago.The Chairman of the Committee on Ar­rangements was David Levinson, J.D .. 12,and acknowledgment should be made of theassistance of Leo J. Carlin, '17, J. D. 'I g.Clay Judson, ]. D. '17 had charge of thearrangements for painting the portrait ofProfessor Bigelow, ably assisted by Mrs.Judson, while Rudolph E. Schreiber, J. D.'06 is handling the financial arrangementsthereof as per usual.CHARLES F. McELROYDean Hall(A speech by Henry P. Chandler at the Annual Dinner of the University of ChicagoLaw School Alumni Association, June 12, 1928.)THERE is something intangible in aman of parts like Dean Hall that de­feats any effort to express it. We are allconscious of' his presence tonight. For a(luarter of a century we have associatedhim with the Law School, We cannot yetthink of it without him. Hi" countenance, his voice, his sense of humor, his wisdomare as vivid almost as if he w.ere here. Itis no exaggeration to say that we can seehim, we can hear him. And yet to describehim, to appraise him in words, how can we?No painter however skillful can adequatelytransfer even the physical lineaments to can-512 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEvas .. How much more beyond human powert� portray the mind and the spirit?Yet we come with a common sense of. loss, a common impulse to utter howeverimperfectly our appreciation of James Par­ker Hall. May what is here set down besupplemented in each of us by that wealthof recollection and sentiment in whichthought so far transcends expression.Dean Hall became first to us a teacher.We might have met him as dean upon ourentrance into the Law School, but registra­tion was simple, the course 'of study for thefirst year uniform, and hence our contactwith him as dean brief and incidental. Butour association with him in the course inTorts was anything but "incidental.I t seems to me fortunate that at the out­set of our study of law, we came underDean Hall's influence. Much of the subjectmatter of the course in Torts has beeri for­eign to my field of practice. Probably fewof us have had occasion to bring a suit fordamages for assault or battery, the problemwith which the course opened, nor have webeen much concerned with intrinsicallydangerous agencies, like wild animals, res­ervoirs and the like discussed in the case ofFletcher 'D. Rvlands. But for discipline instraight thinking the course was invaluable.The course afforded to the dean a ve­hicle for developing the habit of analysis offacts, selection of the essential. from the cas­ual, and sound discrimination in the appli­cation of rules, which are involved in legalreasoning and in which he excelled. Nosuperficial reading of cases, no formulalearned by rote would avail when the deanwith those· neutral gray-blue eyes behindspectacles and that mild voice which be­trayed no hint of the answer, propounded aquestion. Only definite knowledge andclose thought could serve .. A student couldnot be long in the class without realizingthis, and he was moved to exert his besteffort not to be found wanting. Bettertraining for the serious facing of legal tasksthere could not be.It was not merely that the dean's methodwas sound but that his own example in thediscussion of cases and of principles was ofsuch a high order of excellence. He attained clearness in statement by economy of wordsand almost perfect adaptation of. thoseselected. He did not half. or defectivelystate a principle three or four times in orderto make up for ·looseness by repetition. He. stated it once in sharp relief the way hemeant it and that was enough.Furthermore he had the very great meritof sound emphasis. There are many varia­tions of legal doctrines and corollaries ofevery leading case. For comprehensivenessit is necessary that these be brought out.But it is easy for a teacher in seeking tomake the development of a point complete,to confuse his students with a mass of de­tails and lose the sense of proportion. DeanHall did not do this. He never lost track ofthe forest in the trees. No matter how nu­merous the ,ramifications of a principle, hewas able to suggest them in a way that didnot blur the controlling element.I was not fortunate enough to take thecourse in Constitutional Law and canreadily believe that it was peculiarly con­genial to the dean's great gifts. I havespoken of Torts because of that I carry anindelible impression. It stands out witha very few others, like Colonial History ofthe United States under Channing and Eco­nomic Theory under Taussig, both at Har­vard, not to mention other Law School sub­jects, as one of the memorable courses inmy life as a student.But if our acquaintance with Dean Hallwas really made through his teaching, sooneror later we came to feel his influence asdean. His aim for the School seems to mewell expressed in the following quotationfrom an address which he gave before theSection of Legal Education of the Ameri­can Bar Association in 1905:"The most valuable possession a stu­dent can carry away from a law schoolis that ability to analyze complicatedfacts, to perceive sound analogies, toreduce instances to principles, and- totemper logic with social experience,which we call the .power of legalreasoning. Superficial study is fatal to.the acquisition of this power whichalone makes truly effective any amountof legal information."NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONSIn other words what Dean Hall and theSchool sought to cultivate in its studentswas the ability to pierce beneath the sur­face to the center of legal situations, andto reason soundly in the light ·of essentialfacts and decided principles. None of uswho takes the profession of the law seri­ously can entertain any less ambition forhimseif in practice, and we are eternallygrateful that the School pitched our intel­lectual aims high. Too often under thestress of a practical age we compromisestandards. To turn out volume of work weare content with good enough rather thanthe best. Haste, indolence, laxity of judgesor other lawyers, prejudice outweighingreason, are subtle foes of professional thor­oughness and excellence. But down in ourhearts success attained by meretriciousmeans is no substitute .for desert. Weareconvinced that only as the bar is actuatedby sincerity, and causes are presented ontheir merits by lawyers qualified and pre­pared to bring out the merits, can the baraid in the attainment of justice. We cravethis social justification for our activity andwe honor Dean Hall and the School because. they held it before our minds in the periodof our tutelage.Dean Hall made important contributionsto the development of the law outside ofhis work as teacher and dean. I t was ahappy term which he used in connectionwith the description of legal reasoningalready quoted: "to temper logic with socialexperience." He recognized that law wasnot, at least was not typically an abstract,a priori set of rules evolved out of some­body's inner consciousness, but was ratheran outgrowth of the experience of the peopleadopting it, an effort at adaptation ofconduct to common needs. In certainphases of the law of Torts, such as interfer­ence with the employment relation bystrikes, boycotts, ·picketing, and the like,and in constitutional law, this is conspic­uously true. In course of time those prac­tices in industrial disputes which publicopinion tends to accept as legitimate inci­dents, tend also to be sanctioned by law,and those which seem unduly oppressiveand harmful are likely to be prohibitedeither in the application of the common law by the courts or by statute. 1n constitu­tional law power in government to meet amanifest social need will usually be recog­nized by the courts notwithstanding invo­cation of the due process clause. The de­cisions in recent years upholding zoningordinances are an illustration. We are re­minded so often of the famous definitionby Justice Holmes of the 'police power, assomething which"may be put forth in aid of what issanctioned by usage, or held by theprevailing morality or strong and pre­ponderant public opinion to be greatlyEverythinginLeather GoodsGifts of Luggage or Leatherare always appreciated for inrrost cases they last a life time�t;&WYORK EST 1859 CH1CACiPAs Near As YourMailbox!WOODWORTHSThe Mail OrderBOOK STORE1311E. 57th St. NEARKIMBARK AVE.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEand immediately necessary to thepublic w�lfare."I t is clear that the validity of any par­ticular law regulating business or extendingthe functions of government can be de­termined only by weighing the social ne­cessity on the one hand and the freedom ofthe individual on the other. The sound law­yer in such matters is he who combinesknowledge of legal precedents with an ac­curate valuation of the social factors in­volved. Only such a lawyer has thefoundation for reliable judgment.Dean Hall possessed this ability to a re­markable degree. An example of his powerto see both sides of a Question and at thesame time to assign them their relativeweight is his address on Free Speech inWar Time, delivered at the convocation ofthe University of Chicago in March, 192 I.I t is so characteristic of the clearness andentire honesty of his thinking that I Quoteit in part as follows:"As so often in human affairs, wehave to choose between competinggoods and ills. In war time, speechfor everyone cannot be as free as intime of peace without the certainty ofits abuse to the detriment of our warpolicies. Likewise, speech cannot berestricted in time of war to preventthis danger, save by methods so drasticas to be also readily susceptible of mis­takes and abuse. Which is for the timebeing the more important social inter­est-a speedier successful ending of thewar or a freer public discussion of it?I t may be that no finite mind can becertain of the answer, but answeredit must be, and by such minds as areresponsible for what is going on."Through the kindness of Mr. Scheck Ihave been furnished with a complete bibli­ography of the Dean's writings and I havebeen interested to read a number of his com­ments on cases, book reviews, and discus­sions of legal education .in law periodicals.In all of these forms I have noted hiscareful balancing of opposing views andestimate of their weight. His true sense Paul H. Davis, 'II Herbert 1. Markham, Ex '06Ralph W. Davis, '16 Walter M. Giblin '2,�Paul I'LDavls &. eO.MEMBERSNEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGECHICAGO STOCK EXCHANGE37 South La Sa I!e StreetTelephone Rand. 628nCHICAGOTHE YATES - FISHERTEACHERS' AGENCYEstablished IQo6PAUL YATES, Manager616-620 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVENUECHICAGOOther Office; 911-12 Broadway BuildingPortland, OregonMOSERSHORTHAND COLLEGEA business school of distinctionSpecial Three Months' IntensiveCourse for university graduatesor undergraduates gi venquarterlyBulletin. on RequestPAUL MOSER, J. D., Ph. B.116 S. Michigan Ave. ChicagoUNIVERSITYCOLLEGEThe downtown department of THE UNITER­SITY OF CHICAGO, 116 S. Michigan A venuewishes the Alumni of the University andtheir friends to know that it offersEvening, Late Afttrnoon and Saturday ClassesTwo-Hour Sessions Once or Twice a WeekCourses Credited Toward University DegreesCourses also offered in the evening on theUniversity Quadrangles.Autumn Quarter begin» October 1Registration-Sept. 20-29For Circular of Information AddressThe Dean, University College.University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONSof values made his judgments peculiarlyreliable.You may recall that a few years ago,one Grossman, convicted of contempt byJudge Carpenter .for violation of an injunc­tion against the sale of liquor, was pardonedby the President. Judge Carpenter afterdeliberation and in a reasoned opinion, re­ported in Ex parte Grossman, I Fed. (znd )94 i, declined to recognize the pardon on theground that the pardoning power appliedonly to convictions of crime, and that theindependence of the judiciary required free­dom from executive interference with judg­ments for contempt. Dean Hall. in a notein the Illinois Law Review of November,1924, drew a distinction between con­tempts which interfered with the deter­mination of cases by the court, in otherwords with the exercise of the judicial func­tions, and con tempts which were in essenceviolations of criminal law and made con­tempts only by statute. As to the latter, inwhich the Grossman case fell, he observedthat the reasons for the existence of the par­doning power in ordinary' criminalcases applied. When the Supreme Courtcame to decide the matter in March of thefollowing year (267 U. S. 87), is came toa similar conclusion and sustained the par­don. Many instances of the Dean's accur­ate judgment coupled with his clarity ofstatement and appropriate diction, satisfyme that if it had fallen to his lot to be ajudge of a reviewing court, even the Su­preme Court of the United States, he wouldhave been among the few most eminentjudges in his generation.Because he saw the law as an evolvingbody of principles, he doubted the fea­sibility or the wisdom of trying to fix it bycode. On the other hand he enthusiasticallysupported the movement represented by theAmerican Law Institute, to give to bothbench and bar the materials for the devel­opment of a consistent American commonlaw. None except his associates in theCouncil can ever know how much his in­sight, patience, and steady devotion throughthe years contributed to the advancement ofthis enterprise.In closing I leave with you this thought. I"I have had notice of my appoint- Iment at ------- University and haveaccepted. You may rest assured Ishall endeavor to merit all you havesaid in my favor. If! need good serv­ice again, I know where to get it."The man who wrote the above re­ceived his Ph. D. in 1926. Throughother means he accepted a minorposition. It remained for The Al­bert Teachers' Agency to secure forhim his real job in 1927.Hundreds of University of Chi­cago graduates and graduate stu­dents-have been equally fortunate.They are in Colleges, NormalSchools ,City and SuburbanSchools,Private Schools-everywhere. Weinvite correspondence or a call.Forty Third Year.The Alhert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago535 Fifth Avenue, New York City.,.----- JOHN HANCOCK SERIES _' --�PENSIONSDid you ever think aboutPensioning Yourself?At a surprisingly low cost you can use theresources of life insurance to provideyourself with an adequate pension. It isa form of insurance known as "Annuities,"an entirely different thing from the pay­ment of money to your relatives at yourdeath.You would be interested to read of theexperience of others. We shall be pleasedto send you our booklet, "Life IncomeThrough Annuities." which tells theirexperiences and explains the plan. AddressINQUIRY BUREAU197 CLARENDON STREET. BOSTON, MASS.SIXTY-FIFTH YEAR OF BUSINESS516 THE. UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEShop by Mailfor yourSUMMER.READINGfrom theU. of C. BOOKSTORE5802 Ellis Ave.TEACHER PLACEMENTSERVICEFISK TEACHERS' AGENCY28 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago.For many years a leader among teachers'agencies. Our service is nation wide.AMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU310 South Michigan Ave, Chicago.A professional teacher placement bureau,limiting its field to colleges and univer­sities,EDUCATION SERVICE811-823 Steger Bldg., Chicago.A bureau chiefly concerned with theplacement of administrative officials.such as financial secretaries, businessmanagers, treasurers, registrars, directorsof Red Cross work, etc.The above organizations are under the man­agement of C. E. Goodell, for nine yearspresident of Franklin College, Ind., . andMrs. Bertha Smith Goodell, for thirteen yearssupervisor and teacher of English in the HighSchool of Oak Park, IlL The work of jurists consists in their deci­sions, of lawyers in advocacy, but the greatability of Dean Hall went primarily into theLaw School and the men and women whoissued from it. How then can we best honorhim .? By being the kind of lawyers hewould have us be: thorough, fair, under­standing, friends rather than enemies ofsocial progress. There should be some tan­gible memorial of the Dean, but beyond thatand greater than that will be the ongoing ofthe Dean's spirit in the graduates of theSchool. If above material gain we put thefurtherance of justice, if we so practice ourprofession as to make it what it should be,an instrumentality for the preventi. nandadjustment of differences and the further­ance of co-operation among men, then welive out the Dean's thoughts after him.Thus the relationship betweer- a greatteacher and his students need not be severedeven by death, and in truth we may keepDean Hall with us as a wise and sympatheticmentor all our days.LawThe firm of Montgomery, Hart & Smithhas moved from the Rookery Building tothe new building of the State Bank ofChicago at 120 South LaSalle Street. Thepersonnel of this firm includes: Wm. P.MacCracken, Jr. (Assistant Secretary ofCommerce, now located at WashingtonD. C.) '09, J.D. 'II; Norman H. Prit­chard, J.D. '09; John R. Montgomery, Jr.,J.D. '25; Victor C. Milliken, '22, J.D.'24·Netherton & Netherton have moved theiroffices from 140 South Dearborn Street tothe new Bankers Building at 105 WestAdams Street, Chicago. The firm consistsof Claude O. Netherton, J.D. '09, andRoss D. Netherton, '14, J.D. '15.Charles F. McElroy, J.D. '15, andWalter Wm. Pearson, LL.B. '25, are mem­bers of a new firm just organized, knownas. McEIr.oy, Rollo, Ehrhardt and Quigley.The other members are Robert P. Rollo,Alwin W. Ehrhardt, and Walter T. Quig­ley. They have moved to suite 1048, 29South. LaSalle Street, Chicago.fJlje NATION'S BUILDING STONEPhi Kappa Psi Fratemity House, University of Chicago. Built of Variegated Indiana LimestonePracticable when Funds are LimitedYOU perhaps think of natural stone as rather too expensive for such astructure as a fraternity house. Yet the modern production methodsof the Indiana Limestone Company have so lowered costs that this fine­grained, light, colored building stone is now used for club houses, residences,apartments, and all sorts of medium-cost buildings.When the incomparable beauty, the greater permanence, and the absenceof upkeep cost are taken into consideration, the use of Indiana Limestoneis an actual economy. The buildings constructed of it become a worthypart of the permanent architecture of the college community.We'll gladly mail without obligation an illustrated booklet showing finecollegiate buildings of Indiana limestone, or if you are interested in a resi­dence, ask for our book of hom'es. Address Box 819"Service Bureau,Indiana Limestone Company, Bedford, Indiana.General Offices, Bedford, Indiana Executive Offices: Tribune Tower. ChicagoANOTHER MEMBEROF THE TELEPHONEFAMILY em em � em eo»MANY a radio set has found a new and richervoice in the golden-throated Western Electricloud speaker.Produced by the world's foremost experts in soundtransmission - Bell Telephone Laboratories and theWestern Electric Company - this loud speaker isresponsive both to low bass notes and high treble,reproducing them with fullness of tone and absolutefidelity.The same engineering skill which developed thetelephone has thus removed a serious shortcoming inradio loud speakers.Here again the name Western Electric is an assur­ance of mechanical. and electrical reliability­whether on loud speaker or on telephone; micro­phone; public address system; music reproducer; theorthophonic horn and electrical recording for thephonograph; audiometer; audiphone and the talkingmoving picture. As manufacturers of the nation'stelephones, this Company is applying the skinthus gained to making a widening rangeof communication apparatus.wester» ElectricPurchasers ... Manu acturers ... Distributors