1--- l-iVOL. XX NUMBER 7MA Y, 1928REUNION: AN INSIDE VIEW OF THE UNIVERSITYSOME POLITICAL PROBLEMS FOR THE CHICAGOANHOW CHICAGO VOTESBy J. G. KerwinSHALL WE HAVE CITY - STATES?By Charles E. MerriamAN OPEN LETTER TO THE DEVILBy T. V. SmithMr. Millett on Disraeli A UNIVERSITY ART GALLERYUBLISHED BY THE AIJUMNI COUNCilBOOI(S FROM CHICAGOJesusANew BiographyBy SHIRLEY JACKSON CASE"Not the Jesus of the stained-glass window, butthe Jesus who lived and walked with men."Professor Case is a scholar who has studied morefruitfully, perhaps, than any other, the socialbackgrounds of early Christianity. Among in­numerable biographies of Jesus, his has stoodthe tests of criticism and controversy. Its fameincreases. With fairness, simplicity, and pre­cision, he disentangles the truth from the myth,and gives us a fine, accurate portrait of Jesus,the man. $3.00The Old TestamentAn American TranslationBy J. M. P. SMITH, THEOPHILE J. MEEK,ALEX R. GORDON, and LEROY WA'fERMANVicissitudes and unskilful handling have besetthe Old Testament in its centuries of existence.Its whole meaning has become blurred. Thisfresh, accurate version brings the Old Testamentdirectly from its original language to our ownwithout the hindrance of intervening translations.In the best tradition of modern English writingthis more accurate, more perfect translationinterprets the impressive, eloquent Hebrew ofcenturies ago. It gives new meaning to one of themost important books the world has ever known.Cloth $7.50, Leather $10.00 New Essays, byOliver GoldsmithEdited by RONALD S. CRANEHere is a new Goldsmith first edition. Eighteenessays, printed anonymously in various periodi­cals of the eighteenth century, have been dis­covered and identified by/Professor Ronald S.Crane as authentic Goldsmith materiaL They arepublished now for the first : time under Gold­smith's name and together constitute the largestsingle addition to the canon of Goldsmith'sessays that has been made for more than acentury. Leather $10.00, Cloth $3.00More ContemporaryAmericansBy PERCY' HOLMES BOYNTONSetting aside the prevailing pessimism on thesubject, Mr. Boynton declares himself in de­fense of American life and letters. His moreoptimistic interpretation of the current situationis based on sound" discriminating judgment.Beginning with Melville, Bierce, and Hearn, menwho wrote before their time and who belong inspirit to the present day, Mr. Boynton proceedsto Hergesheimer, Anderson, and Sinclair Lewis.Connecting and supplementing these chapters isdiscerning comment qn the more general phe­nomena of the American scene-Paul Whiteman,the movies, the college insurgents, the manvvarious traditions and innovations of Americaillife. $2.50The Nature of the World and of ManBy SIXTEEN SCIENTISTS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOA clear, connected, reasonable explanation of all the physical world andman's place in it. The Nature of the World and of Man is the answer ofscience to the persistent curiosity of this generation, a complete picture ofthe world as it .appears in the light of man's increased understanding. Itis the work not of one, but of sixteen eminent scientists at the Universityof Chicago. Each has written his own part to fit a well-defined plan; theresult is in every sense a co-operative enterprise. It sets the stage for allthat has been said or done since the world began. $5.00THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESSTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE ,I•/,It's Mayon the MidwayRemember those bright May days when you were inschool? When the air was balmy, and fresh with the smellof spring. . when you stood in front of Cobb withthe rest of the crowd. . and you played golf inJackson Park. and you walked along the lake­front with her by your side?Never was the Midway school as glorious as it is now!Come-live again those good old days! Come back to theMidway .where you'll meet old friends-where you'll see theold sights-new ones, too. And by all means, see Black­friars! They say it will be almost as good as the showyou helped put on.Your logical headquarters, of course, are Hotels- Winder­mere. Here you are within easy walking distance of theUniversity, and only ten minutes from the Loop by thenewly-electrified I. C. Here you enjoy the famous Winder­mere hospitality, and the cuisine that is always favored byuniversity people.Whether you come to Chicago for "one night or a thou­sand and one," a cordial welcome awaits you at HotelsWindermere.inder-mer-e"CHICAGO'S MOST HOMELIKE HOTELS"East 56th Street at Hyde Park Boulevard-Telephone Fairfax 6(}00500 feet of Verandas and Terraces fronting South on Jackson Park* Official Hotel Intercollegiate Alumni Extension Service 349THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE350An organization of a/most fifty people, with specialists in ail branches of advertisingVANDERHOOF&' ':COMPANY QeneralcfldverlisingVANDERHOOP BUILDING.· � • l�? I!.ONTAJU?-ST •. CHICA�OHENRY D. SULCER" ·05, President100 Million DollarsTHE composite advertising mindof this organization daily con­centrates on its clients' problems theexperience gained in spending 100million advertising dollars.Headed by a group of seasonedbusiness men, supported by a staffof highly. specialized technicians,Vanderhoof & Company providesevery facility for expert execution ofthe unusual plans incubated in this100 million dollar advertising mind.Member: American Association of Aa'vertising Agencies C5 National Outdoor Ad'llertising Burell.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"I'm glad you 'phoned me,jim!"Of course he is happy about it. And any classmate of yours will be de­lighted to have you phone him when you are in his town and have sometime to kill. Particularly if you have �ot seen each other for years ...This is only one of the pleasant things that the Intercollegiate AlumniHotels make possible. At each of these hotels is an index of the residentalumni of your college. When you are travelling and have a moment tospare, this index is a treasure trove of information for reviving friend.ships that mean much to you ... Stop at Intercollegiate Alumni Hotelswhen you travel. You will enjoy the experience. And you wal behelping the Alumni Office in furthering the work which it is doing.INTERCOLLEGIATE ALUMNI HOTELSBaltimore, SouthernBerkeley, ClaremontBethlehem, Pa., BethlehemQ"ston, Copley. PlazaClncago, BlackstoneChIcago, WindermereCh,cago, Allerton HouseClfYeland, Allerton HouseColumbuJ, Neil HouseFresno, CalifornianKansas City, MuehlebachLincoln, LincolnLos Angeles, Los Angeles BiltmoreMadison, ParkMmneapolis, NicolletMontreal, Mount Royal. HotelNew Orleans, MonteleoneNew York, Roosevelt N� York. Waldorf AstoriaNorthampton,MaS5.,North�ptonOakland, OaklandPeoria, Ill., Pere MarquettePhiladelphut, Benjamm FrankhnPittsburgh, SchenleyPortland, Ore., MulencmahRoihester, SenecaSacramento, SacramentoSan D,ego, St. JamesSan FranCISCo, PalaceSeattle, OlympicSt. LOUIS, CoronadoSyracuse, OnondagaToronto,.Kmg EdwardUrbana, Ill., Urbane-LincolnWashington, D. C, New WillardWilliamsport, Pa., Lycoming INTERCOLLEGIATEALUMNI EXTENSIONSERVICE, INC.18 E. 41st St., New York, N. Y.Mail this coupon to the Alumni Office----------------_._-_.-,IIIII·CJ'{ame Class.. IIe/lddress ;................................. IIrlty � Stale...•.. IIKindly send me an Introduction Card to themanagers of Intercollegiate Alumni Hotels.------------_ .... , ._ ....... ----'352 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEOver 100 Colleges are Represented inALLERTON HOUSETo See it is to Want to Live There-To Live Here is to be at Home - When Away from Home!6 Floors for 1 7 Floors forMenWomenALLERTON HOUSEChicago, IllinoisMichigan at Huron-ChicagoExtensive ComfortableLounges Ball and BanquetRoomsCirculating LibraryResident Women'sDirector Billiards, ChessSpecial Women'sElevators CafeteriaFraternity Rooms Athletic ExerciseRoomsAllerton Glee Club in Main Dining Room Monday at 6:30 P. M.The World's Largest Indoor Golf CourseOfficial Residence of the Intercollegiate Alumni Association Composed of 96 Col legesALLERTON HOUSEWEEKLY RATES PER PERSONSingle • • $12.00-$20.00Double.. $8.00-$15.00Transient. $2.50-$ 3.50Descriptive Leaflet on RequestCHICAGO CLEVELAND NEW YORKIN TH I�I c/J U CThe life of our colleges and universitieshas proved more than a mouthful for manynovelists, reporters, and editorial writers.Though accustomed to see life steadily andto see it wholesale, these men recount theachievements of scholars and the frolicsof undergraduates in frightened tones.Such an alumni day as PAUL S. RUSSELL,'16, and his Reunion committee have out­lined for this year may well give us a clearerand even a more interesting picture. Bytalking with very human professors wemay learn that their discoveries are notmerely awe-inspiring; by watching thor­oughly human undergraduates on the stageand on the athletic field we may be re­minded that they are not just another prob­lem in ethics. And a rendezvous with ourown classmates at the buffet supper inHutchinson Commons or at the UniversitySing should bring back to us the days whenwe, ourselves, were a part of this mystery.The details of the program appear on thepages following,The Chicagoan has lately faced thatmost disagreeable of his duties-an election.He has acquitted- himself well, on thewhole. To be sure, he is not quite rid ofhis old habits of bombing and machine-gunfire; and he held back some of his electionreturns for a suspiciously long time. Butthe results encourage us. And observationsat the polls by University students haveshown a steady decrease in fraud since 1924(interrupted by a slight increase in therecent election).A summary of these observations onApril 10, by JEROME G. KERWIN, AssistantProfessor of Political Science, and a dis­cussion of some serious problems of metro- politan government by CHARLES E. MER­RIAM, Chairman of that Department, seemin order.When something annoys us, one of ourfirst impulses is to write a letter about itto our Congressman. When somethingbothers a philosophy professor, however,he tells his troubles to a more famous con­fidant. At any rate, Professor T. V.SMITH, looking for an answer to an oldphilosophic problem, has addressed his in­quiry to no less an authority than TheDevil. Strangely enough, he has chosen thisMagazine as the medium for his letter.A gallery for the exhibition of paintingsand statues is one of the latest additions tothe University. MRS. HENRY GORDONGALE (AGNES COOKJ '96) tells how theRenaissance Society, the creator of thegallery, plans to place students on speakingterms with the masters, old and new. Herarticle is illustrated with several reproduc­tions of works of art that the gallery hasexhibited.Professor ERNST FREUND, whose ap­preciation of the late Dean Hall appearsin this issue, is one of the original facultyof the Law School.One observer can not form anything likea complete picture of so complex an institu­tion as the University. However clear hisview, it must be to some extent limited tohis own quadrangle. Some other memberof Chicago's varied family must see otherquarters of the City Grey more clearly. Acomposite picture would instruct the best­informed of us. The first contribution tosuch a picture-Impre$sions of the Uni­uersity, by WINFIELD FOSTERJ '29-appearsin this issue.353THE CHAPEL NAVEThe University Chapel will be open for the first time at the AlumniReunion.VOL. XX No.7m:beWnibetsitp of C!Cbicago.-aga?ineMAY, 1928--------------------------------------------------------------+-A Day With the UniversityThe Alumni Return on June 9 to Watch their Alma Materat Work and Play.THE alumnus who returns to the Uni­versity on June 9 will find something'more than memories.He will meet his classmates, of course,(whether he belongs to a fraternity or not) ,at the rally on Stagg Field, at the buffetdinner in Hutchinson Commons, and at theUniversity Sing about the historic fountain.He may steal sentimental glimpses of CobbHall, the well-worn steps of Haskell, orthe spot where Sleepy Hollow used to be.He will talk with his old professors at teain the Reynolds: Club. But most of theadventures of Alumni Day will be new forhim.He will see the University's Comptonsand Carlsons at work on problems thatwere not even recognized in his collegedays. He will follow Professor Breastedamong relics of ancient life that lay burieda few years ago. He will listen to PresidentMason's statement of plans that look aheadto a still greater University.In the vaudeville show and the trackmeet on Stagg Field he will .see a changedstudent life. Whether it is more colorfulthan his own, as some observers think, ormore civilized, as others contend, he maydecide for himself. New buildings will surprise him at al­most every turn. The towers and rampartsof the Medical Group will catch his eye,if he. drives out from the Loop, long before,he has passed Washington Park. WieboldtHall now completes a solid line of buildingsfrom Harper to Cobb. Its vaulted passage­way will mystify him, and its carvings willremind him of the dragons and chimerasin J urgen. Bond Chapel, smallest of theUniversity buildings, closes a new quad­rangle. He will be surprised that even aUniversity building can be so richlyadorned.Finally, he will stand before UniversityChapel. Buttresses, vast windows, proces­sions of statues, and a tower will lead hiseye skyward; and small boys, playing onthe Midway, will wonder if dat guy neverseen a big build ink before. Luckily, thesematter-of-fact urchins will not see himwhen he has entered, and stands under thebrightly-colored vaulted ceiling, seventy-fivefeet high, and listens to the choir.The alumnus will do more, on June 9,than live his college days again. He willlive a day in the life of the new Universityof Chicago.sssTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe Reunion ProgramI I A. M. Alumnae Breakfast.2-4:30 P. M. Rally on Stagg Field.Initiation of the Class of '28 with ceremonies byR. O. T. C. Unit.Dancing.Refreshments under the class umbrellas.Intramural Track Meet.Features and novelty races.'16-'17 and '24-'28 ball games.Vaudeville acts by the Mirror girls' chorus, andby Blackfriars stars from Henry Sulcer tothe 1928 cast.4:30-6 P. M. The University at Work.Open House in the Departments.Inspection of Wieboldt Hall, Medical Group,and other new buildings.First Public view of the interior of the Univer­sity Chapel.Music by the Choir.6-8 P. M. Buffet Supper in Hutchinson Commons.Seating by classes.Alumni-student accordion trio.Blackfriars quartette.Farewell to President Mason.8-10 P. M. University Sing.The fraternities.Investiture of Marshals and Aides.Award of HC" Blankets.Dancing in the Reynolds Club.A DAY WITH THE UNIVERSITYTHE NEW GATEWAY TO THE QUADRANGLESThe passage under the tower of Wieboldt Hall is now a principalentrance to the University from the Midway, 357The NewSome Surprises in StoreAngels on the Joseph Bond Chapel. The Medical Group from the Midway.T he Classics Building and the Divinity Hails.UniversityFor Returning AlumniA glimpse of Cobb Hall throughthe Bond Chapel Cloister. The Chapel as it will look from theMidway.A bit of carving on Bond Chapel.A section of the New University Art Gallery,359THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECenter of research in English, Romance and Germanic literature. It joinsHarper Library on the east and the Classics Building on the west.FROM THE CHAPEL TOWERThe Women's Halls, the Humanities Quadrangles_, and the Medical Groupas seen from a height of seventeen stories.THE NEW UNIVERSITYA NEW READING ROOMThe Divinity Library' in Swift HallPolitics in ChicagoThe Sovereign VoterSome University Students Observe H ow He Uses His Power,and How Others Use It For Him.By JEROME G. KERWININ THE presidential election of 1924students from two of the politicalscience classes at the University were sentout as special deputies of the County Courtto watch the progress of voting and tosupervise the count of the ballots. About175 students in all took part in this firstexperiment. For the most part they weresent to those sections of the city whichwere suspected of corrupt elections. Thereports which these students turned inwere so revealing of bad conditions at thepolling precincts in Chicago that it wasdeemed advisable to continue the practiceof sending students out as watchers. Thereports which these students returnedamazed members of the faculty and otherpeople to whom they were revealed. In agreat many cases responsible people refusedto believe that such conditions as reportedcould possibly exist in a city such as Chi­cago. Many people claimed that the irregu­larities reported were simply the result ofextraordinary imaginations which certainstudents possessed. Students themselvesobtained, through their service as watchers,a lesson on election procedure which couldnot have been imparted to them throughtext-book assignments or the regular lec­tures. General interest was shown not onlyby the students who acted as watchers but,also by other students about the campuswho were very anxious to get an opportun­ity to serve as watchers the next time theexperiment was carried out. At every pri­mary and election since the general electionof 1924 students in increasing numbershave served as watchers at the polls.The observations of the students at eachelection have been tabulated and reportedto the County Judge of Cook County. For the primary election of April 10,1928, about 350 students from the Polit­ical Science classes served as deputies ofthe County Court at the polls. Two stu­dents were assigned at each precinct andwere instructed to observe conditions fromthe time the polls opened in the morning atsix o'clock until the last ballot was counted.They were further instructed to divide upthe time so that each one serving at a pre­cinct would have a certain number of hours'relief. The territory covered by the stu­dent watchers was mainly the fifth sena­torial district which comprises part of thethird ward, all of the fourth and fifthwards, parts of the sixth, seventh, andseventeenth wards. The University is lo­cated in this Senatorial district. Most of thesection covered is ordinarily looked uponas law abiding, quiet and orderly on elec­tion days. Certain portions of the territory,however, while not notorious for crimes ofviolence, have been known in the past forcertain irregularities in election procedure.At everyone of these places which weremarked because of irregularities studentswere placed. Certain precincts in the third,seventeenth and west side of the fifth wardswere placed under special scrutiny.The larger number of errors observed onApril 10 in those precincts which the stu­dents watched might very properly be setdown as due to carelessness or to stu­pidity. Errors of the latter type were thepermitting of people to vote outside of thevoting booths, the allowing of other peoplebesides the election boards to handle ballots,the failure to check the display of candi­dates' badges within the polling places, thetabulating of votes on papers other thanthose provided by law, and similar irregu-POLITICS IN CHICAGOlarities.: I t might be noted here in passingthat many irregularities that took place can­not be set down as definitely due either toignorance or to wilful violence of the law.For instance, the weary clerks, after hoursof counting, count threes as eights and onesas sevens. It is not easy for one to deter­mine the cause of such errors. A greatmany mistakes occur because the judges andclerks do not know the rules of electionsand because many of these same judges andclerks have served in the precincts over along period of years and have become ac­customed to doing things in an irregularmanner and will refuse very often to heedthe warning of people who know the lawsimply because they cannot see any reasonfor departing from what they regard asaccepted traditions of the neighborhood.This is particularly true in two types ofviolation of the law which watchers report.The first type deals with the assistanceallowed to illiterate voters and the secondtype deals with the compelling of votersto vote in the voting booths. With re- gard to the former, very seldom is an oathrequired from the illiterate voter that he isincapable of reading or writing, and veryoften he is assigned an assistant who goesinto the voting booth, marks the ballot andleaves the illiterate voter standing outside.When this manner of conducting the elec­tion is protested the judges will reply"Well, we have always done it this way."In the latter case, of people voting anywherebut in the voting booth, it was. reported bythe students that the number of people vot­ing was so great at certain hours of the dayand the ballot so exceedingly long thatvoters were permitted to vote at tables, inadjoining rooms, and in one case the judgeswere so kind as to send a ballot out to a sicklady.As to the more serious violations of thelaw, evidence of the chain ballot fraudwas reported in two precincts. This fraudis often difficult to detect. By some trickor other a corrupt political leader will ob­tain early in the day a blank ballot whichhe will mark for his favorite candidates. AtA STUDY IN POLITICSCharles Cutler, President of the Class of '30, and] ohn McDonough, '28,quarterback, basketball guard, and Head Marshal, watch at the polls.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEsome distance from the polling place hewill meet from time to time floaters whoare willing to sell their votes; he will handone of them the ballot which he has alreadymarked. The floater will stick this into hisinside pocket, go into the polling place,give the name of someone already registered,obtain a blank ballot, and enter the votingbooth. While in the voting booth he willtake from his inside pocket the markedballot handed to him by the politician, andwill then fold the blank ballot and put itin his pocket. The floater then deposits themarked ballot, walks out with the goodballot and obtains his reward when hehands the blank ballot to the politician whoproceeds to mark it and hand it to thenext floater. One student reported that thisfraud was evidently started by a womanentering the polling place, receiving the ballot, going into the booth and faintingthere. When she had fainted she was carriedout and so was the ballot which she had.Neither the ballot nor the lady returned.The same system was evidently started inanother precinct where a student reportedthat three specimen ballots turned up inthe count. The watchers reported that theyprevented innumerable irregularities at thecount. At least half of the students re­ported that they were called upon to assistin the count. Many of these students didnot leave their posts of duty until seven oreight o'clock the morning following theelection. In every case the watchers werecompletely satisfied with the work they haddone and felt fully repaid for the time andeffort spent in checking up on the electionerrors.Metropolitan RegionsThe 150th Convocation AddressBy CHARLES E. MERRIAMAMETROPOLITAN district is de­__ fined by the United States CensusBureau as "rhe city proper and the urbanportion of the territory lying within tenmiles of the city limits."These regions of the type of N ew York,Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, and Lon­don, Paris, Berlin, are unities in the eco­nomic sense of the term and they also rep­resent types of social and cultural unities.From the governmental point of view', how­ever, their organization is highly decentral­ized. Each of these regions contains a largenumber of independent governments, oftenoverlapping and often conflicting and with­out any central administrative control orsupervision. In the Chicago region, forexample, which we construe as fifty milesfrom State and Madison, there are notless than 1,500 independent governingagencies undertaking to carryon thegovernmental functions incidental to thelife of a community of three and a halfmillion people. Metropolitan Chicago ex­tends into four different states, Illinois, Wisconsin, Indiana and a corner of Mich­igan; it includes fifteen counties and aninnumerable array of cities, villages, towns,townships, school districts, park districts,drainage districts. New York extends intothree states, New York, New Jersey, andConnecticut, with a wide variety of countyand local governments within her borders.There are already ten million people in theN ew York region and it is estimated, some­what optimistically I suspect, that therewill be twenty-five million in the NewYork area within another generation. Itis conservatively estimated that the pop'ula­tion of the Chicago area in 1950 willapproach eight million. Problems of regionalorganization are presented not only inAmerican cities such as Boston, Phila­delphia, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, San Fran­cisco, but in the great cities all over theworld.I t is obvious that some more compactform of organization is necessary in orderto enable these groups to carryon theirgovernmental functions effectively. This isMETROPOLITAN REGIONSat once evident in fields like those of cityplanning, public health, recreation, police,finance, transportation ;-in fact, in almostthe whole range of public activities. Thehealth of Chicago, for example, is caredfor by at least four states, to say nothingof the United. States government and 350local health organizations of varying sizeand importance. City 'planning soon reachesits limit in the corporate sense of the term,and under modern conditions planningmust enter the larger field of the region far Ibeyond the confines and jurisdiction of anyone municipal corporation. A modern rec­reation plan involves almost immediatelya projection of interest and activity farbeyond the limits of anyone city. In thepolicing of the community, our local Cicerois only a term for a type of similar areafound in every metropolitan region under.some other name, multiplying the difficul­ties in the local administration of the law.Again the development of water supply, ofsewerage system, of garbage and wastedisposal raise questions which no one citycan begin to answer but which can bemet only by the concerted action of a con­siderable group of municipalities. Fromthe financial point of view, the haphazarddealing with revenues, expenditures, budg­ets and indebtedness in an overlappingseries of great and small communities pre­sents insuperable difficulties and leads in­evitably to shocking forms of waste. Fromthe point of view of political responsibilityand control, the presence of a series ofconflicting and competing local loyaltiesmakes the problem of government increas­ingly difficult, for in the concentration ofinterests and responsibilities is found thekey to that intelligent and discriminatingpublic opinion which the democratic ex­periment presupposes.Equally serious is the loss of citizensdrifting from the central city to its en­virons. Many persons profess to find thecause of urban ills in immigration fromforeign shores. An impartial observer mightconclude that the problem of the emigra­tion from' the city to the suburbs was amore important factor. There. are moreBostonians outside of Boston than inside the corporate limits, in the ratio of 750,-000 in to 1,000,024 out. There are 205,-000 Cincinnatians outside the city and400,000 inside. There are over 600,000Pittsburghers outside the city. There aretwo and a quarter million N ew Yorkerswho are outside the town. Chicago hashalf a million Chicagoans who are not inthe city and three million who are.These urban emigres owe the city aheavy debt. The city is their economicbasis of supply and their social and culturalcenter; but politically they do not assumeresponsibility for the conduct of its affairs.PROFESSOR CHARLES E. MERRIAMWhat happens is that as citizens becomemore prosperous, better situated, moreeasily available for political or other leader­ship, they are disfranchised and disconnectedfrom the active political life of the com­munity. Their loss is a very heavy drainon the civic resources of the urban com­J}lunity-a loss which goes a long way toaccount for the condition of many cities.Unquestionably if all these seceding groupswere to remain parts of the urban com­munity, the prospects of urban advancewould be very materially improved. Thesecommunities on the fringe have sometimesbeen called satellite cities. I am not sureTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthat parasite cities would not be a betterterm to apply to them.The difficulties of urban developmentare still further accentuated by the fa,ctthat for half a century since the beginningof the modern urban movement, cities havebeen harshly treated by the states of whichthey were parts. 'They have been deniednecessary power of local self-governmentor granted these powers only tardily, oftenat the hands of incompetent, partisan, andcorrupt legislatures.In the United States we have experi­mented elaborately with various systems ofso-called home rule for municipalities,hoping in this manner to free the urbancenter. These plans have often given somerelief to cities as in Ohio typically, but ingeneral they have fallen far short of themark at which they aimed. The courtshave very materially narrowed the rangeof local autonomy, as a rule, and thusoften defeated the hopes of the cities. Buteven more serious has been the failure ofthe state to set up appropriate methods andinstrumentalities for administrative super:vision of municipal activities. The statehas found difficulty in administrating itself,to say nothing of the task of supervisingthe administration of its municipalities, andhas been guilty of non-feasance at thispoint. Cities have usually had what iscommonly called either a feast or a famine.Cities have been given too much powerwithout supervision, or not enough withwise and temperate supervision. In anycase it is too much to expect N ew York tosupervise New York or Illinois to superviseChicago, when these cities are half of thesupervising body itself.Cities have been' benevolently protectedby constitutional and statutory restrictionsagainst almost everything except dead-lockand paralysis. There is today on the statute;of Illinois a measure giving specific author­ity to the City of Chicago to license theselling of peanuts and popcorn on themunicipal pier, and the checking of hatsand coats ; otherwise the power could notsafely have been undertaken. States have had the powers of life and death over cities,but have not been willing to assume pater­nal responsibilities. If a state could beguilty of a crime, some of these would longago have been brought before some courtof competent jurisdiction and punished asare neglectful parents in a modern juvenilecourt.N at only is this true but cities have beenrefused adequate representation in thecommon councils of the state where thecommon policies of the commonwealth aredetermined. Most of the larger cities havebeen deliberately deprived of proportionaterepresentation by a perfectly bare-faceddenial of equality in representation. Ineed not remind you that in Illinois, Chi­cago still has the same number of represent­atives in the Legislature of 1928 as in 1900,and consequently that all the astoundinggrowth in numbers and wealth during aperiod of 28 years count as for nothing, andthat too in spite of a perfectly plain con­stitutional provision which is bienniallynullified. At the same time we have one'Judge of the Supreme Court, in fact, onlya part of one, in a total of seven.Far be it from me to decry the virtuesof the country-side. That they are numer­ous, substantial and indispensable, we mayhasten to concede. Whether they warranta rural dictatorship over urban commu­nities may be questioned, however. In fact,in my particular field at least, we knowlittle about the specific differentials attrib­utable to urban and rural environmentsand living conditions. It is easy to comparecertain types of urban areas with certainother types of non-urban, but most of theseassume that bad housing and poverty areessentially urban; and there are many othercomplicating factors into which it is im­possible to enter here.It is probable that in the near futurethere will be heard a strong plea for ther organization of certain metropolitan re­gions as independent states. I venture topredict that some such experiment will bemade in the next generation and for mypart I should watch the trial with greatinterest. It would be interesting to observethe fortunes of the state of New York, orMETROPOLITAN REGIONSNew New York, or whatever name itmight assume; or the State of Chicago; orthe State of Philadelphia; or the State ofCincinnati. Such an experiment would giveadequate scope for the development ofmetropolitan regional planning, includingcommunication, transportation, housing;for the development of constructive recrea­tional or leisure time policies adapted tourban conditions; for the development ofpreventive as well as repressive police func­tions, for the expansion of the public wel­fare system appropriate to urban conditions;for the development of a metropolitan sys­tem of jurisprudence, differing from thenow dominantly rural type.The immediate pressure of urban situa­tions, responsible control by an urbanizedopinion, the presence of experts, who aretechnically competent and experimentallyinclined, the availability of adequate finan­cial resources, constitute conditions favor­able to the type of experiment indicated.The question will promptly be raised,are cities capable of governing themselves,and would they not be worse off as statesthan they now are as municipalities? Isthe municipal population capable of dis­criminating between sound and unsoundleaders and policies. Certainly there wouldbe no guaranty of the political millennium,and there would be this advantage: Re­sponsibility would be definitely fixed andthe chief loser, if any, would be the cityitself. There would be no twilight zoneof responsibility except that between thecity and nation, and the metropolitan areawould go up or down with its own controlover its own local institutions.The truth is that the state itself is stand­ing upon slippery ground as a political unit.Thirteen of our states have an historicbackground, but as Burgess pointed outthirty years ago, the others are the crea­tures of the surveyor's chain, with a fewexceptions. Since the states risked all in awar with the nation over their alleged sov­ereignty and lost magnificently, they havegone steadily down the gentle slope. Inthe new German constitution the states losteven more heavily than here. ° Most statesdo not now correspond to economic or so- cial unities and their validity as units oforganization and representation may beand has been seriously challenged. Thenation and the city are vigorous organs, butthe state is not, comparatively. Certainlyas guides and guardians of cities, the stateshave been singularly ill-equipped and ill­qualified. Conceivably states might bevery useful to cities as administrative su­periors, supervising such affairs as financesand police, but practically they have nosuch function as a rule and it does not seemprobable they will in the near future, sofar as metropolitan regions are concerned.From another point of view, those in­terested in preserving the balance of powersbetween national and local governments,might find the urban community a moreeffective counter-weight to the centralizingtendencies of Federal government than thefeebly struggling states which now makesuch ineffectual resistance to the continuouspressure of national consolidation.To make a city a state would not be asnotable a promotion as it would have beenin the days when state and nation wererivals for power and prestige. A citywould not be obliged to climb far to gobeyond a state. Already there are seven­teen cities of a population of over 500,000;nine states with less population than that.And if economic resources and culturalprestige are added to numbers, the con­trast is far more striking.Of course, the question may be raised asto whether the large urban aggregation isa desirable form of human association, andwhether we ought not to use every effortto prevent the concentration of populationupon limited areas. Perhaps we shouldstrive for a garden city type of aggrega­tion and discourage the skyscraper city. Allthis mayor may not be true, but the over­whelming tendency has been and continuesto be in the direction of still greater con­centration; and I see no likelihood of anyimmediate change toward decentralization.In America the agricultural areas were al­most ruined by the War, and the recoverywill be a slow one, while on every hand,THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe revolutionary tendencies of science aredriving the, ancient types of agriculturalproduction farther and farther into thebackground. No one knows whether thefarmer will become a chemist or the chemistour farmer.In any event it is clear that the futureUnited States will be dominantly urban.More than one-half our population is al­ready in the cities and the curve sweepssteadily upward in the same direction. Inanother generation, unless the rate or di­rection changes, two-thirds of the popula­tion of the United States will be urban.We may as well recognize now a situationto which many insist upon closing theireyes, namely that the tendencies, the atti­tudes, the aptitudes, the political standardsof America, will be predominantly andcharacteristically those of the cities in thenear future. The combination of wealth,numbers, and prestige in the urban regionsmakes this inevitable. If these new urbangroups really prove to be constitutionallyincapable of self-government, America alsowill be incapable of self-government unlesswe suppose that political leadership isevolved from something else than the so­cial, economic and cultural material ofwhich our society is made up-an illusionupon which many ideologies have beenshattered.Can the cities produce and utilize effec­tive political leadership, and can they as­sume the guidance of our political destinies?A portentous question, this, for on theanswer to it depends the future of Amer­ica, the future of democracy and perhapsof western civilization itself. There is.eminent authority for the conclusion thatcities are inherently inclined either towardtyranny on the one hand or mob-rule anddemagoguery on the other, and many im­portant illustrations might be found in sup­port of this position. It might fairly besaid that thus, far, in the United States,cities have not produced their fair share ofstatesmen, but we are concerned not withwhere we are so much as with where weare going, as we are with the trend or curve,the direction. There are striking examples of urban leaders in the person of Cleve­land of Buffalo and of Roosevelt of NewYork, not to speak of many contemporaryfigures in national life. If we were toconsult the records of European statesmenwe should find the urban group stronglyrepresented in the national gallery of states­men, as in the case of Joseph Chamberlain,whose most enduring fame was attained asMayor of Birmingham, or Herriot, Mayorof Lyons.One of the most dramatic and fatefulstruggles of our time is that for the leader­ship of modern urban communities, in abroader sense a struggle for the guidance Iof human behavior, between tradition andscience. We need not minimize the seri­ousness and sharpness of the struggle, butneither need we wail and wring our handsif victory does not welcome us, unsought.The stoutest heart and the strongest headwill win in the end.The, future of cities will not be deter­mined by considerations involving the ques­tion whether they are more or less dry orwet; or more or less Catholic, Protestantor Jewish; or more or less radical or con­servative; but by much deeper and broaderconsiderations involved in the level andtype of urban living conditions and in thesurvival value of these vivid urban com­plexes of social, economic and culturalforces.The urban community commands manypowerful civic and social reserves, nowmobilized only in emergencies, but capableof far more continuous and sustained serv­ice under the urban flag. New groups arerapidly coming in to cooperate in urbangovernment and control. New faces willbe found around the urban conferencetable, and new voices will be heard in thedetermination of policy. City mothers aswell as city fathers will take their seatsin the city's legislative body; are alreadyfound in most urban communities. Laboris assuming a greater degree of responsi­bility for common affairs than ever before.Likewise business, which often holds localgovernment at its call but will not take onMETROPOLITAN REGIONSthe direct and personal responsibility formanagement, will be forced into a moreresponsible participation in common affairs.And finally the advice of science is moreattentively considered than ever before, ina wide range of administrative services.The coming city will understand how toutilize the old elements and the new in thestructure of a modern government.Vice and crime supply the headlines forurban news on most occasions, but the lessspectacular but fundamentally more signifi­cant elements in the growth of great metro­politan areas pass unnoticed or are littleregarded. One hundred years from nowthe historian may fix his attention uponquite other factors in the social, economicand political life of the urban center thanthose now flaring in the front. Whateverthe city's vices, they are not those of ageand decadence, but of youth and vigor,undisciplined sometimes and ill oriented.On the other hand, its excellencies are thequalities of which modern Civilization isbeing formed.I t may not surpass the bounds of modestyto say that my experience with forms ofurban aberrations is fairly immediate, com­plete and accurate, but I have always feltthat these disorders were not constitution­al difficulties, and that adjustment mightcome quickly as it often has. Those ofus who watch the ups and downs of a widerange of cities are ourselves often as­tounded at the sudden recoveries of munic­ipalities after dramatic periods of debauch.We need not indulge in any soft spirit ofeasy toleration toward obvious abuses, andthere are times for righteous indignationand its forthright methods of action; timeswhen wishing well feebly is a cardinal sin.But by and large and despite all tempo­rary diversions, the progress of cities is oneof the striking facts of our civilization, andbefore our eyes a transformation in sociallife is going 011, the significance of whichfew grasp. I lanced in Arizona a fewweeks ago in the midst of the heaviest snow­storm I had ever seen, and commentedfreely on the weather. But I mistook a fewbad days for the climate. I am well aware that what I have saidabout the city state may be neither politicalscience, prudence, prophecy nor invention.The setting up of a city as a state is afterall only one of a series of alternativemeasures by which the life of the metro­politan region may be given fuller andfreer expression. Many other devices havebeen tried and experimentation will con­tinue, undoubtedly, until some more satis­factory equilibrium is reached. There aremany structural and other difficulties inthe way of any change in the status of anurban center, and they will not be settledby a wave of the wand,' but by a long seriesof trials under various conditions, out ofwhich will come the invention of new de­vices and the re-education of the whole com­munity in terms of the new political worldin which we live. For transcending theutility of a particular mechanism of or­ganization, it is of supreme importance thatwe begin to consider more carefully thenecessary readaptations and readjustmentsthat must be made in political habit andorganization.In any case the intensive study of themetropolitan region is a matter of primeimportance. Its geography, its history, itseconomic processes, its social, cultural andpolitical forces and tendencies, mustinevitably be more and more minutelyexamined. The various drives attitudesdispositions, the subtler charadteristics ofurban behavior ;-all these must be subjectsof most careful analysis, with the use ofevery skill progressively developed by mod­ern intelligence. A notable beginning ofphysical surveys has already been made bythe striking work of the Sage Foundationon the N ew York region. A more modestundertaking is the work of the Universityof Chicago Committee on local CommunityResearch. We have already studied thegeographic background of the Chicago re­gion, the trends of population in the region,some aspects of the growth of basic indus­tries, many features of the neighborhooddevelopment, some of the aspects of publicwelfare work, and some of the character­istics of its political behavior. In the course370 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof a few years we hope to have examinedsome of the most significant of the socialfactors involved in a metropolitan region,and to be able to present a helpful analysis.This process is slow and expensive and thetechnical difficulties involved very great.Yet important social attitudes, inventionsand experiments should rest upon this typeof data, large-scale controls must be workedout, such as planning, housing, intercom­munication, plant location, while the deter­mination of the range and content of socialeducation and the re-education is implicitin these materials.Successful work in this field presupposesthe cooperation of a very wide range ofscholars and scientists, for it is necessaryto bring to bear upon these problems allof the skills and techniques in any way con­tributory. We trust that our colleagues onthe borderlands of social science will bepatient with us. We hope that they willlook upon us as seekers for help whereverwe can find it, however left-handed ourmethods or however bizarre our ideas of thesocial implications of science may be.Between the natural and the supernatural,the role of the unnatural or social sciencesis admittedly difficult.Finally, however great the contributionsof organized intelligence, the building ofthe metropolitan region will not be thework of scholars alone. The great demo­cratic experiment of which we are a partpresupposes that the founders of an urbanfuture shall be many. The builders ofgreat cities are found in many ways andwalks of life. They include all the up­right, downright, forthright defenders ofthe city that is their home, the inconspicu­ous makers of mores, the creators of atti­tudes and dispositions upon which law andjustice rest. When they lag, the city lags;when they stop the city stops;' when theydesert the city falls. At a lecture recentlygiven on our great University chapel, someunexpected guests appeared. Many hadsurmised in vain who they might be, butit appeared that they were the men who,were building the cathedral, and come' toknow more about 'it. In the mass of our THE BOBBY AND THE PROFA. L. Dixon (left), English policeauthority, and Professor LeonardWhite.citizens the building of a great city doesnot spring from the urge of ambition orthe' hope of individual recognition. Theimpulse is the expression of their affectionfor a community of which they are proudto be a part. They are the city and the cityis theirs. They rejoice in its growth; itspower; its beauty; its justice; its majesty.The city is one of the great loyalties oftheir lives and they find in it an expressionof the longing for beauty and power per­haps unrealized and never to be realized intheir personal lives. The great cities willrise to greater heights with those who say,"'If I forget thee, 0 Jerusalem, let myright hand forget her cunning. If I donot remember thee, let my tongue cleave tothe roof of my mouth."In this sense it will be true .that themetropolitan region may owe its technicalinventions and advances to intelligence andscience, but its inspiration and its ideals toa pervading spirit of fellowship and co­operation without which the democratic ex­periment will fail.A Course for PolicemenBRITISH and American police systemsare being compared in scientific dis­cussion by practical policemen this springat the University. A. L. Dixon, C.B., C.B.E., Assistant Secretary of State in the HomeOffice, London, and supervisor of policeadministration for the whole of Great Brit­ain, gives a course of lectures in the Polit­ical Science Department with twelve policeofficials from cities around Chicago _in hisclass.Secretary Dixon accepted the invitationof the University to teach a graduate coursein police administration for five weeksstarting in April under the title, "PoliceAdministration in Great Britain." He willdiscuss general police organization, methods of preventing crime, the function ofwomen police, traffic regulation, the train­ing of policemen, and Scotland Yard.Because Mr. Dixon wishes to study theAmerican police situation and because hehas something to offer American policeofficials, the University has invited policeheads from neighboring cities to take thecourse. Acceptances have been receivedfrom Cincinnati, Dayton, Kenosha, andJanesville, and Cleveland has indicated thatit will probably send a man. Enough in­vitations will be sent to insure the presenceof twelve police administrators. The restof the class will be made up of graduatestudents in political science and a few pickedundergraduate leaders.ChangeBy DEXTER WRIGHT MASTERS, '30(Reprinted by courtesy of The For ae )ONCE, ages ago, when you and IWere young as the freshest breeze that whippedYour curls across your face,And free as the wind which followed,We built wide castles out of sand, .And spiralled them,And turreted them,And dug great ditches to protect themFrom the waves. And then we'd lieFlat on the sandAnd watch the waves run nearer,And flick across the towers and bring them downTo a shimmering level.Then we'd laugh and run to the water's brimAnd flail it with great pebbles.But that was years ago, and timesHave changed since then, and nowIt's harder to build the castles, and they fallMore quickly.And we have no pebbles now.371An Open Letter to the DevilFrom a Professor of Pht"losophySir:I t is now some years since I addressedmy first letter to you. I have heard noword from it. On what principle of rela­tivity your calendar is based I know not:perhaps with you as with your eminent op­posite a thousand years is as one day. Ifso, I beg you to respect the shorter termin the comparison; for I cannot wait athousand years. Long before that periodis passed, I shall have moved to parts un­known; and no insurance advertised bymundane promoters is sufficient to justifythe forwarding of inflammable mail to thedead, such is the influence of your prestigeupon business enterprise among us. I crave,nevertheless, to open a line of communica­tion with you, for reasons that must remainundisclosed until I am certain that my con­fidence reaches a goal more responsive thanthe unanswering vastness of empty space.My earlier letter was dispatched throughan uncertain channel, an organ . that hassince been won over by the other side fromyours; and so there is ground for suspect­ing that it fell into hands other than thoseintended.This time, however, I take 'no risk thatprevision can avoid. It is from Chicagothat I write-ay, devil, Chicago} where mil­lions of men veritably believe Satan's seatis. I choose the season of elections when,as we democrats say, the sovereign peopleexpresses its will. That you will be nearseems probable. I choose this time an or­gan that, if pious opinion in what we Amer­icans call the Great Middle West can betrusted, represents an institution not totallyunknown to you. Not without reason sure­ly do I hope this time to hear from you.nI t is not, I hope, out of any maudlinsentiment that I address this letter to you.The view I hold of your character obligesme to such a feeling of respect as risesabove any mere sentimentality. It is truethat as a child I did mix into the mosaic of your character a certain sentiment born, Ithink, of hearing the expression "give thedevil his dues." This popular saying seemedto my childish mind to imply that you didnot always receive from men what exactjustice required. And then, too, so manycourses upon which my youthful heart wasset were attributed to you that I formed acertain colorful estimate of what you likedas well as what men denied you. But ifearlier I might have inclined to become youradvocate and to speak only of your merits,the years have brought to me, I hope, anicer discrimination of what you yourselfwould approve as well as of what is per.mitted me.It was during the late Christmas seasonthat I first began to meditate this secondletter to you. But if this letter is born of thespirit of Yuletide, it is only in the mostgeneral and indirect way. True it is thatduring those holidays when I had only sorecently returned from Europe I thought ofyou again and again, Sir-e-such is the in­spiration of being again on friendly soil.But my not infrequent preoccupation withyou first took active form to address thisletter to you when I had thrust into myhand a letter that a friend and fellow-phi­losopher had addressed to God. (A copyof that letter is appended hereto for yourinformation and guidance.)I hope, Sir, that you will pardon thissecond allusion to him whom men do nameyour dearest foe. But you must know that,whatever the exact historical relation be­tween you two gentlemen-I try in myhuman way to be impartial-your name isoften linked with his by way of a not alwaysuninvidious contrast. But if my maturerappraisal of you be just, you are not oneto blink any fact, although its unpleasant­ness might make a man feel justified inoverlooking it. I doubt indeed if you aresensitive to many things that touch men tothe quick; for as notions of God change,372AN OPEN LETTER TO THE DEVILeven so I note here and there, Sir, a grow­ing reappraisal of your character. But ifyou were every whit the aspiring but de­feated rebel that pious legend has painted,I doubt that you would have just cause tofeel ashamed of that titanic struggle withdeity, a struggle forever lost but foreverrenewed with courage unspeakable. Evenmen know that there are circumstances inwhich to lose a battle is to win the victory.I do not say, if I may be pardoned theboldness, Sir, that your life shall succeed inthat it seems to fail. Frankness compels.me to say that I think you shall fail ulti­mately as you have failed successively. Ibelieve that the inexorable Fates are eternal­ly set against you. But allow me, deardevil, to say how profoundly your more thandivine valor moves me. From your unre­lenting struggle against what seemed tyr­anny to you, men have caught an irrepress­ible enthusiasm for freedom. A torch hasbeen lighted from the fire of your heroicexample that shall never be put out until thedarkness of tyranny is dispelled by the gra­cious light of human liberty. It is due inno small way to your inspiriting rebellionthat men have steadfastly refused to counselwith despair, even in hopeless circumstances;as an answer from oppressors; that the un­controllable contagion has spread fromearth to heaven, and men now refuse to callheavenly . felicity what would be earthlytyranny. And if from the inspiration youlong ago gave unyielding Prometheus, wehave so profited as to dethrone tyrants oneby one, terrestrial and celestial, we win notgive in to Mussolini, nor even to you whohave forged for lis the esprit of our achieve­ment. �hose who think to subdue man withcastor oil or even with crude oil-under­estimate what humanity can stomach andstill be able to shout victory over the graveof the perpetrator. Even if you should fi­nally win a decision over deity, you, thanksto an influence larger than you knew, muststill reckon with man. I pray pardon forthese bold words, Sir; but as man hascaught your spirit, they are true. This isdefiance that praises more than it censures, 373Sir, if you will but see it this once fromour human point of view.But it is not this that I most wanted tosay to you in this epistle. I should notgreatly wonder, indeed, if all this story ofyour splendid rebellion is but a way manhas found, through telling myth, to projecton cosmic scale traits inherently human. Itadds to man's respect for himself to seehuman impulses and powers catch gran­deur by being objectified in higher heavenor in lowest hell.IIIThe way in which I most like to think ofyou is far removed from such legends asgo up and down the earth about you. Theselegends put you too far away. You arenot far away, but ever near-quite as nearas Him in whom, we have been told, welive and move and have our being. You,too, are a very part of man, the part whichforges not forever on. When, great issuesimpending, the human heart is torn be­tween divergent paths, and shadowy shapesstand in each path as smiling tokens offuture joys, the troubled soul must chooseat last. From many inviting ways it cantake but one. The ways that man mightgo, but does not-you are the rejectedways. You are the stifled part of man.Or, in more picturesque mood, I. some­times think of you as the embodiment ofthe many selves that I have passed on theway to becoming the self I am. The infantstarts in quest of selfhood with rich possi­bilities.A wedding or a festival,A mourning or a funeral;And this hath now his heart,And unto this he frames his song:Then will he fit his tongueTo dialogues of business, love, or strife.How many different persons he might be­come! But every act of his early years,every choice of his later ones, at the sametime commit him to the ever narrowing roadahead and close irrevocably the open doorsto many other inviting landscapes of per­sonality.The tragedy of life is that man whowould be so many personalities can ade­quately become but one .. Fully to exploit374 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEone desire he must forswear how many,many others! At the price of what small­ness does he purchase his meagre greatness!You are the heart of this tragedy of man.The selves that might have been but arenot marshal themselves as -invisible legionsto form the mocking background of everyself that is. The self of the first choicemoves perpetually on to realization. Youare the self of the second choice. Youare the ever living God of the OtherAlternative-the one man did not choose.For the growing bud to themselves, then,men ever reserve the name of good; butfor the ungrowing stalk that supports thebud they save the name of evil. Men riseon stepping stones of their dead selves tohigher things. You are these dead selves;you are the stepping. stones that man hasmade for his ascent.IVI would not understand how you could sohumbly accept this role did I not see howcannily you use it for your own ends. Mr.Lincoln Steffens, whom you may perhapsrecall after hearing, this story, has recentlyrevealed something of your technique."We were walking along the avenue oneday,' says he, "the devil and I, and we weretalking. That is to say, I was talking; Iwas asking questions. Satan didn't answer;and he had promised to answer."'I will answer truly any question youreally ask me,' is the way he had put it.'I will tell you anything you can under­stand.'"My question was simple enough." 'How did you defeat the great prophetsand balk the religions so?'"He looked at me with a curiously quiz­zical expression, as if he didn't understandwhat I meant or doubted that I did. Iillustrated, therefore."'The founders of the great religions,Moses, ] esus, Mohammed: they had thetruth or parts ,of it. That showed that theycould grasp more. How did you keep themfrom going on and getting it all?'"He didn't answer; he looked as if hewished me to explain further. I did."'But what they saw, they announced. They gave their visions to the people, andthe people heard them, gladly, and believed.And then-'"He was looking across the street, idly.I could not make out that he had evenheard what I was saying. It was very un­pleasant, the silence and all. I went on:" '] esus, for example; Christianity tookhold of men. Rome trembled for a whilefought the Christians, persecuted them'drove them underground; in vain. Christi�anity conquered Rome; the emperors bowedto it and believed; and Rome was the worldthen. And yet, just when the Christianreligion had gained the whole world, it lostsomething. It became-what it is today.'"No answer." 'What did you do?' I persisted. 'Andhow did you do it?'"My question was almost a plea. I reallywanted to know. And still he did notanswer; he only smiled faintly. He seemedto be interested in the great crowds of work­ingmen who were out for their nooning onthe avenue. He watched them come andgo; he frowned; he smiled. Maybe he wasthinking of labor. I tried that." 'And then there's the great labor move­ment, which has shaken the world againand again. The workers rose, becameaware of their wrongs, of their rights, oftheir might. And Rome trembled again,just as the modern world trembles, andthen, in Rome, nothing happened. Whatdid you do? And now, here. What's thematter with organized labor today? Whatare you doing to its leaders, for example?'"Silence. He was still looking acrossthe street, but not as before, not idly. Hisattention seemed to be fixed upon a spot.I looked where he looked and I saw-"What I saw startled me. I saw a manreach up into the sunshine and grasp apiece of truth. It was a little bit of apiece, but it was truth. No wonder thedevil was interested."I looked at him, expecting to see alarmon his countenance. There was none. Hewas so utterly untroubled that I couldn'tbe sure he had either seen or understoodwhat had happened. I sounded him.AN OPEN LETTER TO THE DEVIL"'Did you see that man get that pieceof truth?' I asked."He nodded, but he made no reply." 'You don't seem to be disturbed by it.'" 'No,' he answered absently." 'But you see how it would hurt business,don't you?' I urged.."'Yes,' he said and smiled. 'It would. .,rum mme,"'Well, then,' I persisted impatiently,'Why do you take it so easily?'"'Because,' he answered .patiently, 'Iknow what to do about it.'" 'What will you do?'"'Why,' he said, 'I shall tempt him toorganize it.'"I should sympathize, Sir, with all yourwoes did you not thus so astutely embodyyourself in our habitual nature and thwartboth the urge of our impulses and the claimof our aspirations with the inertia peculiarto sacred institutions; In this one point atleast God deals with us more kindly; forthose whom h� loves die young .. Thosewhom you love, however, live to becomedeans and directors and thus freeze thestream of life they mean to free. Such atleast is the word that circulates betweenthe grey towers among men who are wickedenough to be easily listened at. You, Sir,will know how much of this I should be- 375lieve. But for even this which touches meclosely I cannot bitterly blame you. Forafter all, I suspect, you are the clay whichthe cosmic potter has reserved for dishonor.Can the clay choose what it shall become?We have made your name mean that whichis less than the best, and because you arelimited, yea constituted, by our definition,I can find no blame for you. I can deeplyrespect you, indeed, since in distributingroles for the unfolding drama of my life,I make you play the invariable part ofvillain. My respect even leans toward af­fection when I remember how long I havepaused over some of the rejected selveswhich you now personify, how reluctantlyI have paid the price of choice, the tragedyof giving up all for only one. When Igeneralize my experience, as a philosophershould, I cannot doubt that it is not thatman loved you less but that he loved theongoing impetus more that he has grimlydefined you into irremediable mediocrity.But at the end as at the beginning, Sir,I must link your name with that of God.You are coeval with him, you are his greatconcomitant. But you are but a by-productof the human process, the process that isMan. Of the process, then, let me sing­that I may glorify God and vindicate you,his devil and ours.Darkly within the slimy mire the crayfish works his spell,To weave around him silently an ever hardening shell ;Such as bequeaths his softness to the mud where it belonps,A nd fits himself to take his place with toilers brown and strong.But once his growth is fully uion, his early end attained,He finds all further growth denied by that already gained.Then face he must anew the travail of rebirth,Or find his goal become his doom, through the encrusting girth.I n mystic darksome ways this cycle is for men:A II growth must end in growthJ or harden into sin.A II systems and all thoughts involve a larger whole/Man too must grow for grounh, or lose in you his living soul.University of Chicago T. V. SMITHAn Art Gallery at the UniversityThe Renaissance Society Enables Students to Make Friends WithPainting and SculptureBy AGNES COOK GALE, '96IN ALL communities of human beingsthere is a natural hunger for the pres­ence of beautiful original works ofart-"real live pictures"-to live with. Forthe art student in Chicago, the treasuresof the Art Institute are incomparable. Forthe busy general student in the U niver­sity, the Art Institute is too far away. Hecannot often spare a half-day to go down­town and browse in the galleries. At besthe can only go on Saturday or Sunday,when the crowds are like the circus, andthere is no possibility of study or any peaceat all. Recognizing the need arising fromthis situation, the University authoritieshave co-operated with the RenaissanceSociety this year, and the result is the Ren­aissance Society Gallery, Room 45 in theClassics Building.I t is an admirable place for showingworks of art-this ample room, forty feetlong by thirty wide, with its skylight, itsmullioned Gothic window on the north,and its more than one hundred feet of wall­space. A.good place to loaf and invite yoursoul, and incidentally let painting andsculpture speak to you in their own lan­guage.For those who have not followed thework of the Renaissance Society, be itsaid that the Renaissance Society of theUniversity of Chicago was formed in thespring of 1915 as "a Society devoted' toproviding influences that will contribute tothe cultivation of the arts and the enrich­ment of the life of the community."During the thirteen years of its existencethe Society has carried out these expressedpurposes by means of lectures, usually il­lustra ted; by exhibitions of painting, sculp­ture, prints, manuscripts, books, and otherobjects of beauty and historical interest;by special visits to studios, to the Art In­stitute, and to private collections in the city; and by encouraging gifts to the U ni-.versity of works of art and of funds fortheir purchase. In years when exhibitionshave been given plentifully, the Society has-flourished-another comment upon the needfor "the friendship of art" in our com-munity. This year, before the new gallerywas available, the first exhibition was heldin Ida Noyes Hall, and consisted, to every­one's great surprise and pleasure, of aboutforty water-color paintings and drawingsby Professor Michelson. * On the openingevening, Professor Raney, Director of theU niversity Libraries, gave a reading ofpoetry, and the combination of arts andartists proved exceedingly attractive. Oneappreciative guest said, "This is the kindof thing that I have always wanted in theUniversity." During the two weeks whenthis exhibition remained in Ida Noyes Hall,it was visited by hundreds of people fromall over the city, attracted by their interestin Professor Michelson and his work.While we were waiting for the galleryto be prepared for our use, three lecturesfilled the time-a talk, on January 25, byWilliam B. Owen, the painter, whom weheard in the Birch-Bartlett Room of theArt Institute, and who commented uponthe paintings of the Birch-Bartlett Collec­tion; another talk at the Art Institute, byMrs. Bertha E. Jacques, etcher, upon "HowTo Judge an Etching"; and an address inIda Noyes Theater by Charles J. Connick,designer of stained glass windows for theBond Chapel, upon" Jewelled Windows."In all these talks, given as they were byaccomplished. artists, there was a fine op­portunity for the layman. to gain an insightinto the artist's point of view-that mostdesirable of rapprochements.* A group of these drawings was reproducedin the February issue of the Magazine.AN ART GALLERY AT THE UNIVERSITYIn March the new gallery was finallyready for use. A very fine collection ofmodern French paintings and sculpture,lent by the Chester H. Johnson Galleriesof the Fine Arts Building, was installedand opened with a tea on March 7. Mr. R.A. Lennon in The Chicago Evening Postwrote of this exhibition, "No more pro­vocative or educational available group thanthese modern French paintings from theJohnson galleries could have been obtainedfor this exhibition, which was visited byhundreds of students"-as it was by hun­dreds of other people, during its two weeks'stay in the Gallery. The artists representedwere Degas, Fantin Latour, LeSidaner,Henri Martin, Guillaumin, Andre, Signac,Gaugin, Moret, Cottet, Redon, Forain,Derain, Loiseau, Modigliani, Verdilhan,Matisse, Picasso, Laurencin, Survage, Sou­verbie, Pruna, Pascin, Hermine David,Chana Orloff, and Bourdelle. It was agroup of artists. representative of theirtimes.During three weeks of April, tile Gal­lery has shown about forty pieces by paintersand sculptors of Chicago, including someof the best things from the Art InstituteAnnual Exhibition of the works of Artists 377of Chicago and Vicinity. A number ofthese things are the work of alumni andformer students of the University of Chi­cago, Ruth Sherwood and William B.Owen-and two pupils of Walter Sar­gent-Increase Robinson and Agnes PotterVan Ryn. Mrs Martin Schutze (Eve Wat­son Schutze), had a flower arrangement,"Canterbury Bells," and Edmund Giesbert,Instructor of Painting in the University,showed two landscapes. Among other artistsrepresented were Albin Polasek, LoradoTaft, Nellie Walker, Emory Seidel, FredTorrey, Agnes Fromen, Elizabeth Hasel­tine, Frank V. Dudley, Anthony Angarola,Karl Buehr, Ethel Coe, A. Lou Matthews,James Topping, Beatrice Levy, Jean Adams,Lucie Hartrath, Saleia Bahnc, J aroslav Bro­zik, Jeffrey Grant, Paul Trebilcock, JohnN oerdinger, Ethel Spears, Florence WhiteWilliams, Theodore Johnson, Tunis Pon­sen, E. Martin Hennings, Lucile Katenbach,Ka thleen Blackshear, Joseph Fleck, CharlesWilimovsky, Josephine Reichmann, W. V.Rousseff, Edna Hotchkiss, and RichardBarthe.At present the gallery contains a beauti­ful collection of old and modern Japaneseprints and old temple brocades, lent by Mr.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINES. H. Mori of the Fine Arts Building. MissHelen Gunsaulus, Keeper of JapanesePrints of the Art Institute, will give atalk on the collection Sunday afternoon,April 29, in the Gallery.The interest and delight of our visitorswould convert any sceptic as to the valueof this part of the work of the RenaissanceSociety. More than a thousand people havevisited the exhibitions, some of them comingback again and again. The students ofcourse have made up the greater part ofthis number, and that is just as it shouldbe.An exhibition in prospect is that of thepaintings of Edmund Giesbert, who is nowpainting a portrait of Professor Henry C.Cowles. Both Mr. Rothschild, now chair­man of the Department of Art, and Mr.Giesbert have been of the greatest assis­tance to the Society in many ways, and itis the intention of the officers of the societyto co-operate in every possible way withthe Department for the good of the studentsand of the University. Naturally it hasnot been entirely an easy matter to get theexhibitions under way in a place that wasnever intended for them. In this connection, the generous helpfulness, and gay goodhumor of Mr. Giesbert, as well as of theSecretary of the Society, Professor RobertMerrill, have served to cut many a Gordianknot of apparently impossible difficulties,from hanging pictures which positivelyswore at one another, to pacifying an ele­vator that goes on strike regularly everySunday morning. Because of the expense ofelevator and guard service the gallery isopen only in the afternoons. As the member­ship increases, resources will increase, andeventually it will be possible to keep openall day and evening, as of course we shoulddo. I t is not difficult to increase the member­ship, if adequate return is offered. The So­ciety now numbers two hundred six. Itshould have a membership of five hundred.The art league of Northwestern U niver­sity has a thousand members. We have madeonly a beginning toward that. The fact ofour more than a thousand visitors makesus look forward ·with longing to the ArtBuilding of the future, which shall containboth temporary and permanent collectionsof the highest quality, and which shall beopen all of the time.THE READING TABLEBooks on art, some of them rare, are ready for use here.AN ART GALLERY AT THE UNIVERSITYOur OpportunityThe Renaissance Society has a tremen­dous opportunity to do fine things for artin Chicago. The suggestion has been made_that a fund be started, to establish a fellow­ship for some young artist of greatest prom­ise, who has good training, but who mustgo through the usual starving time beforehis name becomes known. To buy his pic­tures would be the best encouragement, andoften it is a very good investment in everyway.Another plan which might sometimedevelop out of the activity of the Renais­sance Society is the opening of a studio nearby, where anyone who wants to work atthe arts will find a place to work anda model if he needs one. In Paris there areseveral studios where, for a small fee, anyartist may come and draw or paint ormodel from life, or from imagination, withor without criticism as he desires. Themasters sometimes give criticisms withoutcharge. It is a perfectly possible project. These are a few of the many possibilitiesof service opening before the RenaissanceSociety. But of course, we must have morelife members, at one hundred dollars, moresustaining members, at ten dollars a year,and more annual members, at three dollarsa year. How many alumni would like tojoin? Mr. George O. Fairweather, Treas­urer, 189 West Madison Street, willgladly receive memberships.But whether you are ready to be, or notto be, a member, please come and see theGallery. Furnished always with somethingfine to see, and to read, with comfortableseats from which to enjoy the view, andalso, with a hostess-attendant. in the personof Mrs. Whitmore, it is a hospitable andfriendly place for spending a leisure hour,and a stimulating and inspiring place forthe study of art. If you are glad, it willgive you a reason for being so, and if you aresad, you will find there "the medicine forheartache that lies in lovely things."The Giant KillerBy JESSICA N ELSON NORTH(Reprinted by courtesy of The Forge.)NOW in the early grayLight, in the cold dew,Let me go forth to slayGiants for you.They who have never swungLanterns can never knowHow a stout arm and youngCan slay at one blowShadows of elms that fallMile-long as the moon diesOf. turkeys on a wallWith wings droopt slumberwiseOr the low, fearsome shadeOf hay-ricks in a fence-angleOr the big darkness madeBy plum-trees, all in a tangle.Oh those who never killGiants will never seeHow in a world so stillShadows move mightily.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECANTERBURY BELLSBy Eve Wauon Schulze (wife ofProjessor Martin Schiitze.)I;)UNE HUMORESQUEBy Increase Robinson (Josephine Reichmann, '13) FOUNTAIN FIGUREBy Ruth si.«AN ART GALLERY AT THE UNIVERSITYTHE GREEN KNOLLBy Agnes Potter Van RynIN GERMANYBy Edmund Glesbert of the Department of Art.The Story of the University of ChicagoBy THOMAS WAKEFIELD GOODSPEED(Reprinted by courtesy 0/ the University Press)XIV. SOME IMPORTANT EVENTSIN THE course of this narrative the rooms, with entertainments of many kinds.story of many important events in the In 1916 the Club made an arrangement inhistory of the University has been told. accordance with which its property passedThere are, however, others which are so into the possession of the University, and inessential a part of that history as to de- 1922-23 a larger and finer clubhouse wasmand attention and for which no place has built on the southeast corner of Universityyet been found, Events so crowded upon Avenue and Fifty-seventh Street. In thiseach other in the history of the University, home the Quadrangle Club, with greatlythe historical material is so superabundant, improved facilities, promised to occupythat it has been necessary to make careful a place of increasing usefulness and powerselection, and, passing by many events that in the developing life of the University.might be I)f interest, direct attention to The next important event not hithertothose that touched most vitally the life of considered was the institution of the Sum­the institution.The first of these occurred in the firstyear, The professors, strangers to one an­other and feeling the need of better ac­quaintance and closer fellowship, got to­gether and organized in 1893 the Quad­rangle Club. Its first president was HarryPratt Judson, later president of the U ni­versity. The first clubhouse was built onthe southeast corner of University Avenueand Fifty-eighth Street and was finishedand occupied in the spring of 1896. OnChristmas morning of that year it waspractically destroyed by fire. A new build­ing, nearly or quite twice the size of theold one, was begun at once and was readyfor occupancy within six months.The constitution of the Club stated thatit was "instituted for the association ofmembers of the faculties of the U niversityof Chicago and other persons interested inLiterature, Science, or Art." This purposeof acquaintance and fellowship it accom­plished with very large success. It is nottoo much to say that it was to the Quad­rangle Club that the University largelyowed the extraordinary spirit of unity andfellowship that prevailed between schools,departments, professors, officers of admin­istration, trustees, and alumni. The Clubgave to its members the advantages of ten­nis courts, a reading-room, dining-room,billiard-room, living-rooms and committee mer Quarter. Few things so interesting, orso extraordinary in results, occurred duringthe early history of the University. Itwas an absolutely new thing in universities.There was only one Summer Quarter any­where, that of the University of Chicago.The University -year consisted of fourquarters, summer, autumn, winter, spring,of eleven or twelve weeks each. Thus theSummer Quarter was not a summer school,but a University quarter, during which theUniversity was in regular session, with afull corps of instructors in all departments,and with students doing their regular work,from the Ereshman just entering the JuniorCollege up through all grades and all de­partments to the man doing the most ad­vanced work and earning at the end of ithis degree as a Doctor of Philosophy. In1892 such a Summer Quarter was whollyunknown. Its incorporation into the planof organization of a university was an un­heard-of innovation. To instit"ute it wouldbe a new experiment in university educa­tion. This was done in the summer of1894, the first quarter of the University'sthird year. From the first it was inspir- .ingly successful. One of the surprises ofits development was the great and annuallyincreasing number of graduate students itattracted. There was no Summer Quarterin University College, the down-town de­partment. But because of its attractionTHE STORY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOfor graduate students, this quarter, in thequadrangles, came to be the great quarterof the year, drawing to the Universityevery summer more than 4,000 men andwomen studying for higher degrees. In thisfirst third of a century the total attendanceof graduates and undergraduates rose toabout 6,500 every summer.With the four-quarter system of whichit was the heart, the Summer Quarter wasthe greatest inspiration of President Harp­er's educational plan. It not only gave tocapable students the chance to take a com­plete college course in three years, but it alsogave the opportunity to ministers, professorsin universities, colleges, and normal schools,teachers in high schools, academies, andelementary schools, to continue their studiesin a university during one of its regularsessions when all its activities were in opera­tion and courses of instruction we're offeredwhich met the needs of the most advancedstudents. The service of the SummerQuarter to this great class was inestimable.It enlarged mental horizons, it quickenedintellectual pulses, it refreshed and en­riched minds, it reformed methods of teach­ing, it kindled ambition for further prog­ress, and sent preachers and teachers backto their churches and classrooms with en­larged resources, filled with new ideasabout their work, their minds fertile in newplans, and in many ways equipped for in­creased efficiency.For the first seven years the SummerQuarter opened July I, and continued tillSeptember 22. As this left no vacation pe­riod, the calendar, after 1900, was sochanged that the opening of the quarterwas carried to the middle of June and itwas made to end with the close of August,three weeks earlier than before. Thischange, providing the whole of Septemberfor a vacation, greatly increased the valueand attractiveness of the quarter. The sec­ond term of the quarter showed a greatlyincreased attendance.The authorities gave constant study tomethods of increasing the value of theSummer Quarter to students. Increasingnumbers of eminent instructors from otheruniversities were employed. The number of courses of study multiplied. Public lec­tures, sometimes numbering 200, were givencovering many departments of learning,and were open without charge to all stu­dents and to the public.In July, 1896, the first anniversary cele­bration of the University was held-theQuinquennial. Haskell Oriental Museumwas dedicated, the cornerstones of the fourHull Biological Laboratories were' laid.On July 4, the national colors were pre­sented to the University by the First Reg­iment of Infantry of the Illinois NationalGuard and an oration was delivered byProfessor Bernard Moses of the Universityof California on "The Condition and Pros­pects of Democracy." On the final day ofcelebration, Sunday, July 5, sermons werepreached by Dr. George Adam Smith, ofGlasgow, Scotland, and Dr. W. H. P.Faunce, of N ew York, in the Convoca­tion tent.But perhaps that which made the Quin­quenrual Celebration most interesting tothe University was the presence of theFounder. Mr. Rockefeller had never' be­fore visited the institution. The studentssang with great enthusiasm : "John D.Rockefeller, wonderful man is he, Givesall his spare change to the U. of C.," andthey were anxious to see his face. Hewas given a great reception, and by hismodest demeanor, affable manner, andevident enjoyment of the celebration wonall hearts. The Convocation was held ina large tent pitched in the central quad­rangle. Responding to congratulatory ad­dresses, Mr. Rockefeller made an address,in the course of which he said:I want to thank your board of trustees, yourpresident, and all who have shared in this mostwonderful beginning. It is but a beginning,and you are going on; you have the priv­ilege to complete it, you and your sons anddaughters. I believe in the work. It is thebest investment I ever made in my life. Whyshouldn't people give to the University of Chi­cago money, time, their best efforts? Why not?It is the grandest opportunity ever presented.Where were gathered, ever, a better board oftrustees, a better faculty? I am profoundly, pro­foundly thankful that I had anything to do withthis affair. The good Lord gave me the money,and how could I withhold it from Chicago?THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESunday religious services were a part ofthe University program from the begin­ning. With no fitting assembly hall theywere sustained under adverse conditions.With Mandel Hall in prospect, however,came a change. An appropriation of $4,000a year was placed in the budget to enablethe University to engage the services of themost distinguished preachers of all denom­inations, who should reside at the U ni­versity one, two, three, or four weeks,speaking on week days at the chapel assem­blies, preaching on Sunday,. and consultingat definite hours with any of the studentswho wished to talk with them. These emi­nent men became known as the UniversityPreachers. The U niversity Preacher grewto be so much a part of the University lifeand so useful a part that he came to beregarded as an essential part of it.In June, 1901, the University commem­orated its tenth anniversary. The layingof the cornerstones of Hitchcock, the PressBuilding, and the Tower Group, the dedi­cation of the addition to Foster, and theformal opening of the School of Educationwere a part of this Decennial Celebration.One of the student contributions to theinterest of the celebration was the presenta­tion in the open air, north of Haskell, onthe site of the Theology Building (whichis going up as this is written) of As YouLike ItJ which was so well done as to callfor a second presentation. Another wasthe gift by the "decennial class" of a bronzetablet showing a likeness of Stephen A.Douglas, who gave the site of the earlierUniversity. This tablet was later placedon the wall of the cloister of the TowerGroup. Educational conferences were held,and there were many lectures, sermons,and addresses.The Decennial like the Quinquennialwas made memorable by the presence ofMr. Rockefeller. This was the second, andas it proved the last, visit of the Founder.The Convocation was held in a great tentin the middle of the central quadrangle.Following the other speakers, Mr. Rocke­feller spoke. He congratulated the U ni­versity, spoke sympathetically and wisely to the students, and concluded as follows:Citizens of Chicago, it affords me greatpleasure to say to you that your kindly interestin, and generous support of this Universityhave been of the greatest encouragement to allthose interested in its welfare, and have alsostimulated others to contribute to its advance­ment. It is possible for you to make this Uni­versity an. increasing power for good, not onlyfor the CIty of Chicago, but for our entirecountry, and indeed the whole world.The success of the University of Chicago isassured, and we are here today rejoicing inthat success. All praise to Chicago! Long mayshe live, to foster and develop this sturdy rep­resentative of her enterprise and public spirit!Far and away the most important eventconnected with the celebration of the tenthanniversary was the issuing by the U �iver­sity Press of the Decennial Publications.President Harper felt that there could beno more appropriate way of celebratingthe anniversary of a University than theproduction and publication of books by itsscholars. At the outset it was proposed topublish three volumes. But in the end theseincreased to ten quarto vol urnes, whichwere equivalent to twenty octavo volumesof five hundred pages each, and eighteenother octavos, making the total number, ifall had been in octavo, thirty-eight, andinvolving an expense of above $50,000.I t was not expected that the DecennialPublications would return a financialprofit. They did not. A very large numberof volumes were distributed gratuitouslyamong the libraries of the world. But itshould be added that thousands were alsosold. A number of books went to severaleditions. More than half the expenditureinvolved was returned from the sale ofthe publications, and this sale had notceased at the end of the first third of acentury. The Decennial Publications con­tained the work of eighty-one contributors.President Harper said of them:It is safe to say that no series of scientificpublications so comprehensive in its scope andof so great a magnitude has ever been issuedat anyone time by any learned society or in­stitution, or by private enterprise.There was one great tragedy in theseearly years of the University-the deathof President Harper. In 1903, with no sus-THE STORY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOpicion of the nature of his trouble, hisfriends began to see that his labors werewearing on him and persuaded him to goabroad for rest. He was absent from theUniversity fifteen weeks. On his return hemade a written report of extraordinary ac­tivities in the interest of the University,which had taken him to London, Berlin,and Constantinople. He had spent fiveweeks in rest and ten in arduous service.Quite unconscious himself of his hiddenmalady he wondered why his sense ofweariness continued. In January, 1904, thetrustees gave him six months' leave ofabsence which he did not take. On MarchI, he underwent a serious operation forappendicitis from which he made a quickrecovery and presided on March 18, at thepresident's dinner to official guests of theFiftieth Convocation, at the QuadrangleClub. Hopes of his recovery, however, weredisappointed. About the middle of the year,1904, he sent for Major Rust and me andsaid to us: "I have asked you to come tosay to you that I have today received mydeath sentence from my physicians. Theyhave discovered that my trouble is internalcancer." Thus a year and a half before hisdeath he knew what was before him. Everymeans of relief was tried in vain.The story of the heroism of those eight­een months is well known He labored tothe last. In February and March, 1905,four new books from his pen appeared­The Trend in Higher Education,' a re-A Doorncay in Harper MemorialLibrary vised and enlarged edition of The PriestlyElement in the Old Testament/ The Struc­ture of the Text of the Book of Hosea, andthe Commentary on Amos and Hosea. Hecontinued to meet with trustees regularlyuntil August 29, 1905, and to preside atmost of the quarterly Convocations up toand including that of September I, 1905.In the autumn of that year he published an­other book: The Prophetic Element in theOld Testament. In December, the lastmonth of his life, he began to prepare thequarterly statement for the January Con­vocation, but was able to make a beginningonly. This fragment contained about sevenhundred words and was printed in the U ni­versity Record of January, 1906. PresidentHarper died on January 10, 1906, in thefiftieth year of his age and the fifteenth ofhis presidency.Rarely has a man met death in so serenea spirit. It did not come as a surprise. Inconsultation with Dr. Judson he preparedin full detail the program for his funeral.It was like him :to request that except thehalf-day of the funeral "all U niversityregular exercises be continued." It fell tome as secretary of the board to call on hima day or two before his death to tell himof the business transacted by the trusteesat a meeting they had just held, in which hewas much interested. Some foolish state­ments that have been made as to Dr.Harper's religious experiences during theclosing days of his life lead to the relationof the following part of this interview. Heintroduced the subject of his death, thenso imminent, and said, in answer to aquestion, that his "faith was infinitelystronger and sweeter than ever before" andrepeated twice over "infinitely, infinitely,"with a depth of feeling his hearer can neverforget. The only thing that seemed to betroubling him was the question whetherthere was anything more he could do forcertain members of the University whomhe named. So, seeking to the last to dosome service to others, "passed the greatheroic soul away." It was the end of an erain the University's life.DEAN HALLBorn in 1871 at Jamestown, New 'York ; died in Chicago, 1928.James Parker HallBy ERNST FREUND(Reprinted by courtesy of The University Record)WHEN in 1902 the makeup of thenew law faculty of the Universityof Chicago was discussed, the very firstname suggested by Professor Beale, whohad undertaken the work of organization,was that of James Parker Hall, then aboutthirty years old. Hall had been graduatedwith a brilliant record from the HarvardLaw School five years before; he had beengraduated with an equally brilliant recordin 1894 from Cornell; tradition ranks himas one of the three ablest undergraduatesin the history of that university of whichin 1922 he was elected the first faculty rep­resentative trustee. He had a taste forengineering, and he recently told us thathe was offered an instructorship in' Greek;but he chose the law. He practiced for afew years in Buffalo, near his native cityof Jamestown (also the birthplace of Presi­dent Judson), teaching at the Buffalo LawSchool at the same time; and he definitelyabandoned practice for teaching when in1900 he was called to the Stanford U ni­versity Law School. This preference foran academic career could not have been dueto lack of qualification for practice, andthere is every reason to believe that hecould have risen to eminence at the bar.From the beginning of his connectionwith the Law School Dean Hall took in­terest in administrative work and displayeddecided fitness for it, and it soon becamemanifest that he would become Beale'ssuccessor. He had no hesitation about ac­cepting the deanship when it was offeredin 1904, although he realized that it wouldentail SOII:le sacrifice of scholarly produc­tivity. "There is more than one kind ofwork to do in a law school," he said. Thepost he then assumed he held to the end ofhis life, not counting the months that heserved as Major Judge-Advocate during thelatter part of the World War. His faith inthe future of the school made him declinerepeated calls elsewhere, particularly to the law school from which he had been gradu­ated. His academic work was supplementedin later years by activities in connectionwith legal reform and research organiza­tions, first as member of the Council ofthe American Judicature Society, then aschairman of the Legal Research Committeeof the Commonwealth Fund, finally asmember of the executive committee of theAmerican Law Institute. To the ambitiousundertaking by the last-named organiza­tion of a restatement of the common lawhe gave a considerable part of his time andattention in the last six years of his life.Dean Hall's main legal interest lay inthe fields of torts and of constitutional law;he was greatly drawn toward the morefluid problems of the law, where it has toadjust itself to changing social and eco­nomic conditions: problems of liability inconnection with labor agitation, and prob­lems of constitutional limitations in thecontrol of capital and business enterprise.His students regarded his presentation ofthese questions as masterly. His gift oflucid exposition was extraordinary, .and hehad a keen sense of "reasonableness." Hisviews were liberal and forward-looking,and he stood for that theory of constitu­tional power which in the decisions of theSupreme Court is now generally associatedwith the names of Holmes and Brandeis.While he confined his literary productionto an elementary book on constitutional lawand a collection of cases on the same sub­ject, his teaching gave him the opportunityof molding and influencing the opinions ofa considerable number of present practi­tioners, judges, and law teachers, and thatinfluence was all for the good.Dean Hall's personality was in many re­spects remarkable. He might have appro­priated to himself the saying attributed toHarriman, the financier, that all he asked387THE UNIVER,SITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEin order to carry his point was to have asmall group of able men around the table.I well remember an incident that happenedshortly after he assumed the deanship.The Law School had not fulfilled the ex­pectations that. had been somewhat rashlyentertained of immediate striking success,particularly in drawing large numbers ofstudents, and the Trustees felt somewhatdiscouraged. Dean Hall met them andtalked to them for several hours. Mr.Charles L. Hutchinson later on said thathe had never listened to a statement ofgreater force and vision, and the confidenceof the Trustees was entirely restored. Hecombined gentleness and firmness in a re­markable degree, and it was not easy toresist his persuasiveness; he was always con­fident that things that he thought necessaryor desirable couid be managed, and he'didmanage to have hi" way. Although he had a winning smile, the students sometimescalled him the marble-faced dean, and hewas certainly not communicative; but hewas capable of inspiring. devotion, and ofgiving affection to a few chosen friends;the charm of his manner, particularly inthe days of his physical vigor, will not beeasily forgotten.In the history of the University DeanHall's name will be identified with thegrowth of the Law School. That growthunder his guidance was steady, and on thewhole along traditional lines. He was opento new ideas, but was skeptical of paperschemes that had not been tried out inpractice; probably he was wise in makingthe path of the reformer not too smooth oreasy. The handsome portrait in the readingroom of the Law School Building will belooked upon with increasing veneration, asthe generations go by.THE LAW SCHOOLImpressions of the UniversityBy WINFIELD FOSTER, '29T he author of this article-s-the first of a series-spent two years at another universityo] the Big Ten before coming to Chicago. He is just completing his first year here.My RESPECT and admiration for theUniversity is largely directed towardthe students, and toward the undergradu­ate students in particular. I know thatChicago is generally considered by out­siders as primarily a graduate school; andthe general excellence of its faculty, partic­ularly as regards achievement in research,is a matter of common knowledge. But asan undergraduate, my natural sympathiesare with other undergraduates. I do notfeel qualified to judge the merit of a fac­ulty or of the body of graduates; they arenot beyond my knowledge, but they areabove any estimation I could give to them.The student here misses a great deal ofthe pleasant, frothy side of undergraduatelife, which he could get at a smaller. school,or at a school in a small town, where thecollege is the center of interest. But as Isee him, he is wise enough to want to missit, to deplore a collegiate atmosphere anda shrill hysterical loyalty. (At Chicago suchatmosphere is commonly to be found onweek-ends only, and is strangely dormantfrom Monday to Friday, inclusive.) Hesees loyalty to his school in quite anotherlight; he prefers to do his instructors thecourtesy to attend their classes and studytheir ideas, rather than to cut their classes(the criterion of a collegian in other places),and show his loyalty to dear old Insert­nameof by breaking something, accompaniedby appropriate noises, on his nights out, orby wearing proudly an armband bearing thecolors of a school to which he is linkedthrough the stadium, and the CollegeSong.I would enjoy showing one of these jazzcollegians from another school around the campus at Chicago. His comments wouldsum up the things Chicago can be proud of."Why, no two of the men (he wouldsay in wonder) dress alike, do they? (No,dear.) They dress almost like businessmen, I think. Where are the men wear­ing knickers? (Somewhere else, thankHeaven!) And how quiet they are! Thereis no one yelling to someone else, or any­thing like that. What odd buildings! Allbuilt the same, aren't they? And how manyolder people! Awfully dull, I say. Aren'tthere any fraternities? I don't see any pins.(Yes, there are fraternities, but the mem­bers don't wear their coats unbuttoned toshow their pins.) Isn't there some placewhere they all Get Together? (Thankgoodness, no!) "It doesn't really seem likeschool to me, at all." (Thank you for thecompliment; I don't suppose it reallywould.)I find here an abundance of respect forthe University on the part of the students,without any manifestations of that insid­ious disease known as "College Spirit." Ifind students wise enough to see that thefaculty does not want them to swallowthe idea of college whole. I find studentsable to adapt the school to their personalneeds, and to take from it just enough tosatisfy themselves. I find students who feelno urge to fit in with everything that is go­ing on, who rather see their relation to theuniversity as a personal equation, whichthey alone can work out. And I find aUniversity whose front gates are not thestadium and Fraternity Row, but the lec­ture-hall and the library. I had not hopedfor the existence of such a place, but here itis. I am proud to attend it.A Novel of the MississippiOld Father of Waters) by Alan LeA,Jay) )22. New York) Doubleday) Doran. $2.NOW ADA YS, when a young manwrites a novel, his friends think littleor nothing of it, for a first novel has cometo be regarded as an inexpensive cure forthe fever to do creative writing. But whenhe writes and publishes a second novel, heforces his friends and his wider public toattend to him, and drives his reviewers tosearch for comparisons. Extravagant com­parisons do the young author some dis­service, for his claim upon our attentionrests in his solution of the fundamentalproblems of novel writing rather than onfleeting resemblances to Conrad or Her­gesheimer.In Old Father of Waters) Alan Le­May has written a' thrilling. yarn of steam­boat days. on the Mississippi just beforethe Civil War. His story has to do withan upstanding young man with little capitaland great ambition, and his struggle tomake a place for himself, in the crowdedprofitable traffic of the great brown river.As we should expect, there are not a fewobstacles, a venomous but well to do half­brother, a business partner who turnstraitor, and a shadowy terror whichthreatens the happiness of a dark-browedlady from Santo Domingo. Not the leastof his adversaries is the river itself whichis not only the setting but the center of thelong thrilling climax which determines thefates of the major characters.The novel develops plot and settingrather than character. Mr. LeMay hasseen fit to meet the demands for a thrillingstory by creating not only a major situationbut many minor ones from which the max­imum thrill is elicited. The destruction byfire of a river boat is followed quickly by duels and murders, by a nocturnal excuj-,sion to a deserted ancestral home and visitsto a hermit-like swamp-dweller, by en­counters with a masked and horribly dis­figured enemy, and the splendidly contrivedand sustained climax of a race of rivalsteamboats for huge stakes. (And the out­come is not what ninety-nine out of ahundred readers would expect.) PerhapsMr. LeMay creates too many mysteries forhis somewhat simple-minded hero. He keepshim in the dark about so many vital mattersthat he wanders in a maze of incomprehen­sible mysteries, and struggles with an in­ordinate number of inexplicable hostileforces. The introduction of a false lead inthe character of Caroline Shepherd seemsgratuitous, and the story would have gainedrather than lost if the hero had understoodhis partner's estrangement. Moreover, Mr.LeMay is so skilful in the handling oflegitimate situations that he need not wastehis time on complicated inventions. Hisspecialty seems the mingling of horror, mys­tery, and fear, and his novel furnishes asuccession of authentic flesh-creepings andshivers.I t is perhaps inevitable that he shouldbe more successful with situation than withcharacter since he is primarily interestedin the former. Of the major characters, heis most successful -with his. heroine who,despite much that is conventional, has apersistent flavor of romantic allurementand mystery. With his hero, he is moder­ately successful, with his villains, hardly atall. It is the incidental figures who take onthe sharpest outlines, and possess the great­est vitality. A minor back-ground figure hedescribes thus:"Pumpernickel was aged, it appeared,390beyond all reckoning, but he retained theskin of an over-washed child. His cheekswere drooping rounded folds, his nose ashorter and more bulbous fold, but equallydrooping, laid in the middle. Beneath theapparently boneless nose his mouth was analmost circular pucker. He was the onlyman Huston had ever seen that held a cigarstraight out under his nose as he smoked."Even more skilfully visualized is WaltGun, the hermit of the swamps:"At a scarred table sat a massive man,his shaggy head bent over a great book thatHuston presently recognized as the Bible,bound in heavy leather and hasped withbrass. A big blunt finger, dirty-nailed, wastracing the lines by the wavering light ofa candle stuck in a whisky bottle. The manwas droning through his beard, a slow pain­ful reading of the words, accompanied byspelling aloud. Huston interrupted him­Then suddenly he surged to his feet like ananimal. W al t Gunn was a man like a bear;and when he had pulled off his glasses witha sweep of one big hairy paw his eyes' werelike those of a bear, 'small and pig-like, wide­set beneath the heavy slope of his brow. TheBOOKS 391shag of his beard bristled downward tocollar bones like axe handles. His body waslong and barrel-like, his legs short andtwisted; and all over the man were greatballs and swells of muscle, lumpy under hisclothes."An equal skill Mr. LeMay shows in thetreatment of setting and the evocation ofatmosphere. Through the book runs thebroad treacherous current of the coffee­colored river, and we are never allowed toforget its presence or escape its moods."When he roused himself there was asilver of frosty dew on the blanket overhis shoulders. The twisting river wasrunning northward now. On its right thesky was mauve, violent, and white gold.Nearer, on the left bank of the sweepingriver, lay New Orleans. A west wind tookthe long pall of the steamboat smoke to theother shore, leaving the city minutely clearacross the Mississippi reaches. The low­lying buildings were like flat. cut-outs, look­ing bright and clean, pale violet against thedark western reflections of the dawn."Even more suggestive, perhaps, are theOLD MAN RIVERSteamboats, villains, cotton-bales, and most of the other ingredients that A ZanLeMay skilfully combines in Old Father of Waters appearon the jacket of the book.392 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEglimpses, especially at night, of exteriorsand interiors in old New Orleans, prob­ably to Northerners the most romanticcity in these states.Mr. LeMay's style, though frequentlypraised, is not impeccable. He is carelessabout admitting rhymes within the sen­tence; he is fond of "glimpse" as a verb, andlays an uncertain hand upon "disinterest."But the sensory richness of his writing theabove passages indicate" and what he can dowith applied style, with style meeting thedemands of vivid and powerful movement,a final quotation may suggest."A reaching stab of flame had shot outof the firedoor from a bursting resin lump,driving flaming bits like burning shot intothe eyes and face and throat of the man before. The hurt man reeled away from hisfurnace in an agony of pain and terror,caromed with driving skill from a stanchion,lunged toward the guards. "Craig was there already. He seized thebig negro about the waist, struggling tohold him as he drove across the guards. Abackward swung fist like a maul caught themate in the temple, dropping him in adazed huddle. The rail crashed and shud­dered as the stricken fireman struck it; thenthe man plunged over into the black waterthat swirled past under the chocks. For amoment they glimpsed a bobbing bullet headthat seemed fleeing suddenly astern, likea passed snag; then the paddles of thethirty-foot wheel struck it out of sight for­ever into the thrashed water below . . ."It is time for Mr. LeMay to put asidethe alleged demands of plot-avid readers,and write of men and women whose essen­tial histories are in quietness no less than'in violence of speech and conduct. I t is timefor him to have the courage of his con­siderable gifts.FRED B. MILLETTA Book for the Cross-RoadsCurrent Christian Thinking, by Gerald Burney Smith.University of Chicago Press, $2.To THE considerable number of people that seem to open out most promisinglywho are trying to find their way about ahead. The differences between the Cath­in the realm of religion, but are confused olic and Protestant views of religion, andand perplexed by its many bypaths and its the causes that have produced the centro­apparently conflicting sign-posts at all the versy between Modernism and Fundamen­main cross-roads, this handbook of barely talism, are clearly traced. Particularly val-200 pages is likely to prove as welcome as uable is the discussion in several chapters ofa reliable road-map on an auto trip into the present relations between science and re­new country. One does not want to ring ligion; and there will be many readers,a doorbell at every fork in the road; and especially of the younger generation, toone has learned by experience that the whom the chapter on "The Modern Questdirections volunteered by chance acquaint- for God" will seem the most helpful inances or passersby-especially those who the book. Those who find it difficult ifare most eager to direct-are not always not impossible to define their religiousdependable. And yet one must have some beliefs with very much precision, but whoguidance at least, if one is to find the best nevertheless rely upon religion as a realroads, not only across country but through force in their personal experience, will belife. reassured by Dr. Smith's final emphasison Christianity, "not as a formal system,but as a Christlike way of living. Thosewho know the power and the joy of thisway of life are the real representatives ofevangelical Christianity."CHARLES W. GILKEYThe great merit of Dr. Smith's hand­book is that it marks plainly in untechnicallanguage the main roads by which theChristianity of to-day has come down to usfrom the past, and the routes of progressGilbert and Sullivan Come to ChicagoBy GAIL BORDENSO RAN the theatrical headlines whenWinthrop Ames did Chicago the honorof bringing his most artistic players to thecity. The honor came at a most opportunetime, and we cannot help wondering ifsome of our erstwhile demagogues took itas a pill to purge their melancholy. AsGilbert himself puts it, "He who'd makehis fellow-creatures wise should alwaysgild the philosophic pill."And if ever the pill of wisdom weresugar-coated it is in Gilbert and Sullivan.The same buffoons are extant today thatwere when the operas were first presented,and if human nature doesn't change thechances are that those same fools will bewith us always. And while they live sowill the delightful works of the two Eng­lish artists.How easy it would be for any Chicagoanto substitute a fellow-townsman's name for that of Pooh-Bah, the "Lord HighEverything" of T'itipu, who upon being"grossly insulted" by a cash-down paymentis willing to indorse any fiction which theno less corrupt Lord High Executionermanufactures. Furthermore, how many ofus enjoy satire On those fortunate ones who,like the same Pooh-Bah, can "trace theirancestry back to a protoplasmal primordialatomic globule." At least one small sec­tion of our city will find that it has muchin common with this noble Titiputian.These high-born ones will find a morekindred feeling, however, in the exaltedPeers in Iolanthe-those who sing to theaccompaniment of brasses, "Bow, bow, yelower middle classes. Bow, bow, ye trades­men, bow ye masses." The law, too, comesin for some advice in the same play whenthe Lord Chancellor tells the young boy,"professional license, if carried too far, your"We are peers of highest station,Paragons of legislation,Pillars of the British nation!Tantantara! tzing! Boom!"-Iolanthe393394 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEchance of promotion will certainly mar­and I fancy the rule might apply to theBar."One could so through all of Gilbert'sverses and find satire of all kinds-fromsatire on the military to quips about theDuchess who signs her name on soap ad­vertisements-but this delightful jollyingmust be heard along with Sullivan's charm­ing melodies to be enjoyed completely.(( Will the insult be cash-down or paymentat a date?"-The Mikado Philosophy, Music, Poetry, Action, andScenery make Gilbert and Sullivan the well­nigh perfect entertainment, and whetherwe be in accord with Aristotle as to whetherthese things are essential makes little differ­ence. The fact remains that we cannothelp but be amused when the "excellentfopperies ,of the time" are held to the mir­ror, and when Winthrop Ames is holdingthe magic glass there is no doubt as to thereflection.{(A policeman's lot lS not a happy one."-The PiratesPsychosisBy HELEN A. MULHALLIF I had a farm (butI never had a farm:(Reprinted by courtesy of The Forge, a magazine founded by the Poetry Club of the University)He loved me for a year-orWas it for an hour?-Then set his rovin' blue eyesTo catch another lass.In a sullen little city yardI taught my soul to thrive)I'd lay me out my fine fields=-.One-two-three-four­Plough me up my own fields­Three-four-five-I'd sow me my fields toA blue, blue flower,Color of a lad's eyesThat would not let me pass; And now, in my dark days,I'm sittin' and I'm dreamin';N othin' but my queer dreamCan save my soul alive;Countin' up my blue fields­One-two-three-four­Color of a lad's eyes­Three-four-five-BOOKS 395• • •In lilY 01)llIJOnBy FRED B. MILLETT� Assistant Professor of EnglishIN Disraeli M. Maurois has not been so. fortunate in his subject as he was inA rie I. It is doubtful if it is possible towrite a dull book about Shelley. Whetherregarded as the proper hero for a sophisti­cated romance, or as the long-suffering ob­ject of an official or scholarly biography,Shelley is perhaps the most persistentlycharming of all English men of letters. Thecharm of Disraeli, if not quite non-existent.is at least less apparent. He was a politician,and the gap between glamor and politicshas widened steadily since the death ofByron. He was faithful to his wife, as nohero of modern biographical romance ispermitted to be. Moreover, his entire ca­reer, or a large portion of it, lies open to thecharge of insincerity, and to the conven­tional reader, nothing is more disconcertingthan scepticism, especially when wittilyexpressed.Of his somewhat difficult subject, Mau­rois has drawn a delightful and winningportrait. It has the qualities which we havecome to expect in biography, since, as myfriend Sherburn remarked, it was "bril­liantly ruined by Lytton Strachey." It isnever dull, not even when it goes in forpolitics. I t is adroitly designed, and grace­fully if not smartly written. It has the sus­pense and climax, the humor and pathos ofthe well bred novel of the old-fashioned vari­ety. It has the air of seeing not only intobut through his subject that no currentbiographer dares dispense with. It is, likethe urbane writing of our time, witty,though most of the wit is Disraeli's.Only when one tries to find the manbehind varnish, paint, and canvas, does onebecome aware of the inadequacies of Mau­rois' work. The Victorian biographer com- bined adulation �ith such facts as seemedfit for maiden ladies to read. The Georgianbiographer combines a supercilious atti­tude to his subject with all the facts theVictorian suppressed. If one is so illadvised as to ask for interpretation or il­lumination of facts, suppressed and un­suppressed, where is he likely to find it?Certainly not in the romances of M. Mau­rois,.I suggest that two major problems ofDisraeli's career are hardly touched uponand certainly not solved here. The firstis the degree of Disraeli's sincerity. "It iscurious, Walpole," he remarked as theycame from a sitting where he had defendedthe Church, "that you and I have justbeen voting for a defunct mythology." Sin­cerity is a slippery and, the analysts suggest,a useless word. But one may at least askwhat if anything Disraeli believed in, andif the answer is, nothing except himself,then we must ask what motives drove himon through an arduous and painful life. Isuspect that he was stirred, not by principlesbut by a passion for power. Early in life,I fancy, he determined to conquer hisnatural dislike for men, and achieve aposition of unquestioned supremacy overthem. (Adler no doubt would find him aclear example of the "masculine protest.")"They're nothing but boys," he murmuredto himself in a childish dilemma, "nothingbut boys like myself, and I must be masterover them." When he grew older, he said,"To govern men, you must either excelthem in their accomplishments, or despisethem."The other unsolved problem is that ofDisrae1i's unquestioned success with women.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEIt is quite clear that he preferred the com­pany of women to that of men. "There aremany dreadful things in life, but a dinnerof men is the worst of all." No side ofDisraeli is more revealing than his inter­minable correspondence with femininefriends. Nothing in his career is more gro­tesquely diverting than his senile devotionsto a pair of grandmothers, and his proposalto one when he realized that the other,happily married and daughtered, wouldhave none of him. Nothing is more touchingthan the inscription, "His favorite flower,"on the wreath of primroses the Queen hadplaced upon his grave. I have no answer tothe problem, though I suspect it is concealedin the remark that he made to his· wifewhen she was seventy-seven, "My dear, youare more of a mistress to me than a wife."Disraeli apparently treated every woman,even the Queen, as though she might in ahappier world have been, if not his wife, at least his adored mistress, and othersthan Victorian ladies have responded almostautomatically to such Oriental flatteries.To the end of time, I suppose, readers'and politicians will be adherents of eitherDisraeli or Gladstone. At the moment,the Disraelians have it, for nothing is morecompletely out-moded than the apostolicsolemnity of Gladstone, holding a long con­versation on religious matters with a newcook, and bewailing the great want of "asense of sin" in modern life. We suspectGladstone, however unjustly, of the mostdangerous of all hypocrisies-the uncon­scious. So I cast my vote for Disraeli. Hemay have combined Byronic romanticismwith the political cynicism of the eighteenthcentury, but he did say, "No dogma, nodean, Mr. Dean," and "My dear lady, youcannot have a terrace without peacocks."Chinook WindBy ETHEL ROMIG FULLER(Reprinted by courtesy of The Forge.)AT dawn, Chinook Wind strode over the hills.The black feather in his hair sang to the swiftness of his coming.His bare knees gleamed like copper suns.With a lash woven of mists, he herded the wild cattle of winter out of themountains.He tore the storm clouds from the heights and tossed them into canyons.He poured flagons of warm rain down the throats of valleys.He laughed, and woke a waterfall; he shouted, and blue-eyed lakes peeredthrough rifts in the ice; he leaned on the huge flank of a fir; it shookthe snow from its mighty mane and pawed the sky.Where he ran down the furrows of a field, wheat sprouted; where he restedon a meadow, it was clothed in sudden green; where he slept over aswamp, willows became gold wands, osiers crimson-tipped arrows; wherehe circled a hazel copse, pale yellow mist fringed the bushes.At dusk he departed swiftly-With his going, limpid sea-water flowed into the hollow of the sky, a crystalram's horn swung on the highest branch of a cottonwood; a tracery offrost limned every shadow.There was a tang of wild honey in the air.�bt mnibtr�it!' of C!Cbicago ;ff1aga?intEditor and Business l'tfanager.l ALLEN H·EALD.I '26A dvertising Manager, CHARLES J. HARRIS, '28EDITORIAL BOARD: Commerce and Administration Association-DONALD P. BEAN,'17; Divinity Association-C. T. HOLMAN, D. B., '16; Doctors' Association-D. J.FISHER., '17, Ph.D., '22; Law Association-CHARLES F. McELROY, A.M., '06, J. D., 'IS;School of Education Association-LILLIAN STEVENSON, 'ar ; Rush Medical Association­MORRIS FISHBEIN, 'II, M.D., '12.ef/eJ\(TS � COMMe:A(I----------------------------�----------------------------THE Al umni Reunion tempts usstrongly to imitate our Eastern rivals.The glitter of commencement time atPrinceton and Cornell catches our eyeacross the prairies, and we sometimes striveto reflect it. . We try to transplant theProspect Street Parade to the Midway; weurge unwilling alumni to don class costumesand whoop her up.These attempts have brought us no glory.The parade, despite the spirited part takenby a, few enthusiastic classes, has been un­impressive as a whole. Our very soil seemsill-adapted to a general hullaballoo. Mostof our Eastern models are located in smalltowns. Their alumni (men only) leavehome, and often wife and children, behind:for a long week-end in a place far fromoffices and cares. They drink deep of en­chanting memories, and of other things. in the day's headlines, as well as the teachersOther ties than those of sentiment bring that he remembers.the Chicago alumnus back. The UniversitySing, to be sure, calls eloquently to his The Chicago alumnus regards his U ni­memories; and the splash of the fountain, versity as a shrine of youthful memories;the gentle odor of the lilies in the Botany but it interests him also as a dynamo ofPond, and the dark parapets looming in the mature productivity.397 moonlight recall . to life spring eveningslong past. But the University of today in­terests him as much as the University ofyesterday. At the 1927 Reunion, five hun­dred alumni visited the various departments,where the research and teaching staffs wereat their posts, and where the latest. workof the University was on exhibit. ProfessorBreasted conducted three capacity crowdsthrough the Oriental . Museum; he re­marked on the intelligence of their ques­tions. The Medical Group was inspectedby 350 alumni. Still newer achievements'of the University will be on view at thisyear's Alumni Reunion. The Chapel, re­garded as one of the greatest contributions. to the architecture of today, will be openfor the first time. The returning alumnuswill talk with the men whose names he seesALUMNIProfessor G. A. Works, Dean of theUniversity's Graduate Library School, wasthe guest and speaker of the Kentucky'Alumni Club at its second annual luncheonon April 20 at the Pendennis Club, Louis­ville. The affair was held in connectionwith a meeting of the Kentucky Educa­tion Association. Mr. Leon P. Lewis pre­sided.The University of Chicago Club ofDetroit held its annual dinner at theWardell Hotel on April 12, with Profes­sor David H. Stevens, assistant to PresidentMason, as speaker. There were presentabout twenty-five representative membersof our three hundred.At the meeting, Miss Clara Starr, super­visor of music in the intermediate schoolsof Detroit, led the singing of Universitysongs. Our president, Mr. Albert Graham,reviewed the year, .which has counted muchunder his exceptional leadership towardputting the club on a definite basis ofgrowth. He presented a bronze trophy,quite suggestive of the University in ap­pearance and workmanship, which the Clubwill give the high schools of Detroit forchampionship in basketball. "In this way,one of many ways," said Mr. Graham, "wehope to keep the University of Chicago be­fore the senior high school pupils of De­troit."A plan was suggested by Mr. LesterRich and was accepted, whereby the Club,in consideration for a contribution, canbecome a member of the advisory boardof a scholarship and loan fund, sponsoredby the Board of Education. At presentthis fund is helping support several stu­dents at the various. universities, two of AFFAI RSthese now being at the University of Chi­cago.The officers elected for the coming yearare as follows: president, Mr. B. ]. Rivett,principal of Northwestern High School;vice-president, Mr. Lester Rich of the De­partment of Finance of the Board of Edu­cation; secretary-treasurer, ]\1 iss ClaudiaE. Crumpton, head of the language de­partment of Hutchins Intermediate School.The event of the evening, of course, wasthe very interesting address by ProfessorStevens. He told us particularly of thenew buildings at the University, explainedthe limiting of the freshman class, andstated the University's present needs andproblems. He spoke with especial apprecia­tion of Detroit's part in the $2,000,000endowment fund, which, he said, helpedgreatly toward increasing the faculty'ssalaries. He paid high tribute to PresidentMason, who is appreciated especially for hissense of justice and for his ready sympathyfor the average member of. the University. body, and to Vice-President Woodward,who is remarkable for his judgment of men.We of the Club of Detroit have beenmost fortunate in having had with us thelast several years, through the generosityof the University, some of Chicago's rep­resentative men-Dean Wilkins, Presi­dent Burton, President Mason, Vice-presi­dent Woodward, and Professor Stevens.The members who have attended all thesemeetings have noted a steady growth ofinterest of the kind that attaches to newsfrom home. We in Detroit are findingthat it is this sort of interest which will fur­nish, as time passes, the unifying basis ofClub membership for so wide a variety ofcallings as are represented in the DetroitClub.THE SECRETARYWITH the recent appointment of fivemembers of its Faculty to JohnSimon Guggenheim Memorial FoundationFellowships, the University has receivedthirteen awards since the Foundation wasestablished in 1925, five more than havebeen awarded to faculty men of any othercollege or university in the country.Former United States Senator and Mrs.Simon Guggenheim established the Founda­tion as a memorial to a son who died onApril 26, 1922. The fellowships "areawarded only to young scholars and artistswho have given unequivocal evidence .ofmarked gift for research or for creativework, and who are engaged in constructiveprojects requiring special facilities avail­able abroad," according to the an'!ounce­ment.The five University men who receivedthe most recent awards are Otto Struve,William Weldon Watson, Lionel Dan­forth Edie, Louis R. Gottschalk, andLeonard D. White.Mr. Struve, who is assistant professorof astrophysics, is to make. a theoreticalstudy of the distribution and physicalproperties of diffuse matter in interstellarspace, principally with Professor A. S.Eddington of Cambridge University. Mr.Watson, assistant professor of physics, isto study the molecular spectra under Pro­fessors Franck of Gottingen and Sommer­feld of M unich, �th a view to leamingmore about the structure of molecules andthe nature of chemical reactions in gases.The project of Mr. Edie, professor offinance, is a study of the influence of open­market transactions and the discount policyof the Bank of England upon industry andtrade, with special reference to a com­parison of central bank control of prices,credit, and business in' England. AssociateProfessor G�ttschalk, of the Department ofHistory, will make a study of the career and influence of General LaFayette, havingas its purpose the determination of his influ­ence on the several revolutionary move­ments with which he was associated. Hisresearch will be conducted principally inFrench libraries arid archives.Professor Leonard D. White, of the De­partment of Political Science, is to completea study of the trade unions and professionalorganizations in the public service of GreatBritain. .Among the' other Chicago men who havereceived fellowships from the GuggenheimFoundation is Professor Arthur H. Comp-'ton, co-winner of the 1927 Nobel Prize inPhysics./\ T THE recent annual meeting of the£1 Association of American Colleges inAtlantic City, Mr. Trevor Arnett, Trus­tee and former Vice President of the U ni­versity, was elected president of the As­sociation for the coming year. Mr. Arnettas chairman of the Commission on Perma­nent and Trust Funds made a report tothe Association, and among the other 'speak­ers were President A. Lawrence Lowell,of Harvard University, and PresidentBernard 1. Bell, of St. Stephen's College,who is an alumnus of the University ofChicago.Mr. Arnett, formerly secretary of theGeneral Education Board, is now associ­ated with Mr. John D. Rockefeller, Jr.,in the administration of various educationaland philanthropic funds. He has becomean authority on college finance, and amonghis publications in that field is a well­known volume on College and UniversityFinance.Mr. Arnett has graduated from the U ni­versity in 1898 and served the Universityas Auditor from 1901 to 1920 and as VicePresident and Business Manager from1924 to 1926.399THE ALUMNI COUNCIL OFTHE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGOChairman, HERBERT P. ZIMMERMANN, '01A cting Secretary, ALLEN HEALD, '26The Council for 1927-28 is composed of the following Delegates:FROM THE COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONS, Term expires 1928: John P. Mentzer, '98;Clarence W. Sills, ex-'os; Hugo M. Friend, '06, J. D. '08; Harold H. Swift, '07;Mrs. Phyllis Fay Horton, '15; Mrs. Barbara Miller Simpson, '18; Term expires1929: Elizabeth Faulkner, '85; Harry N. Gottlieb, '00; Herbert P. Zimmermann,'01; Paul H. Davis, 'II; William H. Kuh, 'II; Mrs. Marguerite H. MacDaniel,'17; Term exp,ires 1930: Grace A. Coulter, '99; Frank McNair, '03; Earl D.Hostetter, '07, J. D. '09; Mrs. Margaret Haas Richards, 'II; William H. Lyman,'14, Arthur Cody, '24.FROM THE ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OF PHILOSOPHY, Henry G. Gale, '96, Ph.D. '99; B.L. Ullman, '13, Ph.D. '08; Herbert E. Slaught, Ph.D. '98; John F. Norton, Ph.D.'II; D. J. Fisher, Ph.D. '22.FROM THE DIVINITY ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, Charles T. Holman, D. B. '16; Orvis F.Jordan, D. B. '13; Edgar J. Goodspeed, D. B. '97, Ph.D. '98.FROM THE LAW SCHOOL ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, John W. Chapman, 'IS, J. D. '17;William J. Matthews, J. D. '08; Charles F. McElroy, A. M. '06, J. D. 'IS.FROM THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, R. L. Lyman, Ph.D. '17; W., C. Reavis, A. M. 'II, Ph.D. '25; Logan M. Anderson, A. M. '23.FROM THE COMMERCE AND ADMINISTRATION ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, Frank H. Anderson,'22; Donald P. Bean, '17; John A. Logan, '21.FROM. THE RUSH MEDICAL. COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, Frederick B. Moorehead,M. D. '06; George H. Coleman, 'II, M. D. '13; Ralph C. Brown, '01, M. D. '03.FROM THE CHICAGO ALUMNI CLUB, Roderick MacPherson, ex-'I6; Harry R. Swanson,'17; Sam A. Rothermel, '17.FROM THE CHICAGO ALUMNAE CLUB, Mrs. Nena Wilson Badenoch, '12; Suzanne Fisher,'14; Helen Canfield Wells, '24.FROM THE UNIVERSITY, David H. Stevens, Ph. D. '14.Alumni Associations Represented in the Alumni CouncilTHE COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONS: Pres­ident, Herbert P. Zimmermann, '01, 731Plymouth Ct., Chicago; Secretary, AllenHeald, '26, University of Chicago.ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OF PHILOSOPHY:President, Henry Gale, '96. Ph.D. '99,University of Chicago; Secretary, Her­bert E. Slaught, Ph.D. '98, Universityof Chicago.DIVINITY ALUMNI ASSOCIATION: President,J. W. Hoag, D. B., '04,' 24 Winder,Detroit, Michj Secretary, R. B. David­son, D. B. ''97, 508 Kellogg Ave., Ames,Iowa.LAW SCHOOL ASSOCIATION: President, Wil­liam J. Matthews, J. D., '08, 29 So.LaSalle St., Chicago; Secretary, Char­les F. McElroy, A. M., '06, J. D., 'IS,1'609 Westminster Bldg., Chicago. SCHOOL OF EDUCATION ALUMNI ASSOCIA­TION: President, R. L. Lyman, Ph.D.,'17, University of Chicago; Secretary,Mrs. R. W. Bixler, A. M. '25, Uni­versity of Chicago.COMMERCE AND ADMINISTRATION ALUMNIASSOCIATION: President, Frank H.Anderson, '22, Hamilton Bond & Mtge.Co., 7 So. Dearborn St., Chicago;Secretary, Hortense Friedman, '22, 230So. Clark St., Chicago.RUSH MEDICAL COLLEGE ALUMNI Asso­CIATION: President, Dallas B. Phemister,'17 M. D., '04, 950 E. 59th St. Chicago;Secretary, Charles A. Parker, M. D.,'91, 7 W. 'Madison St., Chicago. \All communications should be sent to the Secretary of the proper Association or' to the AlumniCouncil, faculty Exchange, University of Chicago, • The' dues for membership in anyone of theAtsociations named above, including subscription to The University of Chicago Magazine, are $Z.OOper year. A holder of two or more degrees from the University of Chicago may be a memberof more than one Association j in such instances the dues are divided and shared equally by the As­sociations involved.By VICTOR ROTERUS� '29A FTER a number. of preliminary games done. The relay teams of I9 11 and 191511 Coach Fritz Crisler's baseball nine hold the best Chicago time to date withopened its conference season by stinging 3 :21.5·Northwestern with an 8 to 5 defeat. Ledby Captain Kyle Anderson and Priess thevarsity nine stamped itself as being capableof winning a fair share of their games thisseason. Zimmerman, bespectacled athlete,pitched for the Maroons, but he wasbumped for fourteen safe hits and it wasonly the good fielding of his team-matesthat saved the day.The hurling problem of last season againconfronts Coach Crisler this spring. Zim­merman and Kaplan have been doing mostof the pitching but they are only mediocre.So far Crisler has been playing the follow­ing lineup: Cooper, first base; Halohan,second; Anderson, short; Gordon, third;Priess, left field; Hoerger, center; Knowles,right; and Wingate catch.� � �Virgil Gist, center and high-point manon the basketball team, was elected tocaptain next year's quintet. He is a junior,and has played on the varsity the last twoseasons. He prepped at Hyde Park wherehe led the team that won the city title in1924. Gist is also a track man of unusualability. Of the major award men onlyKaplan and Cooper, both forwards, willreturn to form a team nucleus with Gistnext season.Coach Stagg has entered what has been­called' the best one mile relay team thatChicago has had since 1911 in the Pennrelays. The team consists of Gist, Schulz,Hayden and Root. Besides entering themile relay the team will enter the sprintmedley; and Stagg plans on entering allfour boys in individual runs. The milerelay team is expected to negotiate thedistance in' less time than 3 :20 which wouldbe better than any Chicago team has ever Captain Jim Flexner and ex-CaptainFloyd Davidson of Coach Dan Hoffer'sgym team are expected to make the 1928American Olympic squad. These two ladsconclusively proved at the national col­legiate meet at Boston that they are thebest college gymnasts in the country, andincidentally reflected more. glory on theircoach. Kaare Krogh who won the BigTen heavyweight wrestling title IS an­other Maroon Olympic possibility.The recent basketball interscholasticwhich was won by' Ashland, Kentucky,stirred up much sentiment on campus andoff in favor of a new and more spaciousfield house for Chicago. Bartlett Gym inrecent- years has proven hopelessly inade­quate. During the Interscholastic hundredswere turned away each night until even thedowntown papers asked why they were notbuilding a new field house on the Midway.The Twenty-Fourth Annual Interscho­lastic Track Meet will be held June I and2 on Stagg Field. Wilfred Heitmann, '28,manager of the meet, and his committeeshave planned an elaborate program for theentertainment of the contestants. A paradeof the fraternities and clubs, a vaudevilleperformance in Mandel Hall, a banquet,'and a dance will help the boys to whileaway the spare moments before and afterthe meet.Alumni interested in athletics, especiallyC-men, are urged to attend the meet andhelp in acquainting the contestants withthe University.401NEW"S OF THEQUADRANGLESThe Alpha Delts Discover Eugene O'NeillADRAMATIC production by an under­graduate fraternity, unsponsored bytheir elders, is the spectacle witnessed at theUniversity early this month. The activemembers of Alpha Delta Phi conceived theplan, arranged the program, and stagedtwo one-act plays in honor of the alumniof their fraternity. Is Made, was enacted by John Gerhart,'28, Lafayette Marsh, '28, Clarence Fox,'29, and Cameron Eddy, '30; the cast ofthe other play, Quare Medicine, by PaulGreen, consisted of Sidney Collins, '27,Wilfred Heitmann, '28, Norman Eaton,'30, William Gartside, '30, Fred Goff,'30, and Robert Graf, '31. ProfessorGordon Jennings Laing, Dean of theGraduate School of Arts and Literature,was master of ceremonies on May 5.George Hartman, '23, and William Glea­son, '23, were the guests of honor. Anumber of students, not members of thefraternity, were invited. On May 4Professor Edgar Johnson Goodspeed actedas master of ceremonies; a reception washeld at the chapter house after the plays.In the third dramatic production, on The Honorable Otis F. Glenn, HenryMay 4 and 5 in the Reynolds Club theater, W. Austin and Scott Brown, '97, wereEugene O'Neill's play, Where the Cross . the guests of honor.This was not the first such performance.The fraternity began the experiment witha group of plays in 1926. Professor JamesWeber Linn, master of ceremonies on thatoccasion, remarked with considerable satis­faction that "the boys had taken the bit intheir teeth and plunged headlong towardsculture." The se�ond group of plays wasproduced in 1927.A FRATERNITY ON THE BOARDSRobert Gra], N orman Eaton, Sidney Collins� and Wilfred Heitmann In ascene of Eugene O�N eill' s Where the Cross is Made.402NE\vS OF THE CLASSE SAND ASSOCIATIONSCollegeChicago and Her SonsBy WALDO P. BREEDEN, '97Tune: All Hail the King DivineILet all her sons awake and singLet voices of joy gladly ringSwelling with praise of her noble waysLet echoes resound as loyal we singHer sons are true where'er they areHer light shining for them afarWe proudly name herWith song proclaim herChicago shines like morning star.Chorus.All hail! All hail! Chicago's starThe happy chorus swell, while of her deedswe tellWe sing ! We sing! While echoes ringChicago's name we joyfully proclaim afar.IIHer praises and her glorious worthWe love to tell to all the earthHer love of the right bringing truth to lightThe wonder of her magic birthTo her we gladly homage payHer name and fame will live alwayOur voices swellingHer deeds are tellingAnd with full hearts we love to say.Chorus.IIIWe join to sing her virtues rareThe glories of her name so fairFrom her mighty store of life's wondrousloreShe gives to us a noble shareO'er life's wide sea her beacon brightShines out to give the world more light A guide to our youthShe taught us the truthHer learning gives us strength of might.Chorus:'03-Beulah I. Shoesmith, 1404 East56th Street, continues her teaching at HydePark High School, Chicago.'06-Mrs. Frank W. Allen (MurielShenkenberg), 225' E. Marquette Road,Chicago, teaches Geography, History andArt in the J. L. Marsh Elementary School,Chicago.'r z-s-Hazel Hoff Keefer has opened adress shop at 1372 East 55th Street, Chi­cago.'I5-Genevieve M. Edmonds, 240 E.Delaware, Chicago, is research assistant inthe Bureau of Research and Education, ofthe International Advertising Association.'IS-Stanley Roth, formerly of Indian­apolis, Indiana, on April 15, assumed hisduties as General Manager of GimbelBrothers department store at Milwaukee,Wisconsin.'I9-Carl B. Nusbaum, 5124 KenwoodAvenue, who practices law at I I I W.Monroe Street, Chicago, has organized ahunt club at Hartland, Wisconsin.'I9-Ellen A. Reynolds, A.M., is Di­rector of Home Economics at LouisianaState University. Her address is Box 466,University Station, Louisiana.'24-Hugh S. Bonar, A.M., is CitySuperintendent of Schools at Manitowoc,Wisconsin.'26-Helen . W. Henderson teachesHome Economics in the State Normal Col­lege at Bowling Green, Kentucky.'26-Elinor D. Ross, 321 Belden Ave­nue, Chicago, is an Art instructor at Roose­velt Junior High School.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE'27-A. A. Bass, 810 Park Avenue,Omaha, N ebrasaka, is a chemist employedby the Cudahy Packing Company.'27-Herbert N. Blakeway has acceptedthe pastorate of the Auburn Park Feder­ated Church at 77th Street and NormalAvenue, Chicago.'27-Bruce N. Crandall, 515 WarwickRoad, Kenilworth, Illinois, is spendingthree months at the Red Beds of Texas, where he is a member of a party huntingfor fossils of the Permian period.'27-Bessie L. Crowley, 4521 N. AlbanyAvenue, Chicago, is a teacher at the Roose­velt High School, Chicago.'27- John W. Davis has accepted a posi­tion on the faculty of the Western KentuckyTeachers' College at Bowling Green,Kentucky.Commerce and AdministrationStudying "Homo Sapiens"MAY R. FREEDMAN, '19, Becomes an Industrial Engineer.If I must give an account of myself, letme preface it by remarking that jobs arenot necessarily as mechanical as the criticsof the present order would have us believe.As a matter of fact, even graduates of C.& A. may follow imaginative "careers."As for myself, for the past two years Ihave been a member of the firm of D. D.Fennell & Associates, consulting industrialengineers. For our clients, the majorityof whom are furniture manufactures, Ihave made statistical examinations of theirsales and production departments, aided inthe preparation of programs of manage­ment, and developed merchandising plansas an outgrowth of these programs.Besides having been able to observe notone but several business interprises, I havebeen fortunate enough to make trips out of Chicago. I have called upon our clientsin Indiana, Massachusetts, Kentucky, andOhio particularly. In fact, I have been anactive, if not deliberate, exponent of theSee-America-First idea. (That gives noclue as to my politics, however.)The professional nature of my work hasgiven me membership in the Society of In­dustrial Engineers, an association neitherconservative nor liberal, but more partic­ularly scientific.The best reason for liking what I havebeen doing is that it has given me a uniqueopportunity to study that modern genusof the homo sapiens, the American businessman, in his own habitat. That experiencecontinues to be as stimulating as humannature itself.DivinityJoseph C. Hazen, D.B., '02, pastor ofthe North Orange Baptist Church, Orange,New Jersey, had conferred upon him thehonorary degree of D.D. by Colgate U ni­versity at the 1927 convocation.W. D. Whan, A.M., '09, D.B., '09, ispastor of First Baptist Church, Waukegan,Illinois. Fifty new members were receivedinto Mr. Whan's church on Easter Sunday.P. G. VanZandt, D.B., '10, formerlypastor of West Park Baptist Church, St.Louis, Missouri, is now pastor of the FirstBaptist Church, Joliet, Illinois, where hesucceeded Reverend Raymond S. Carman. The First Church, Joliet, has a fine $250,-000 building.H. Hishinuma, A.M., 'I I, has beenelected Dean of Kobe College, Kobe, Japan.1. G. Mathews, Ph.D., '12, Professor ofOld Testament at Crozer TheologicalSeminary, spent his sabbatical year in atrip to Europe, Egypt and Palestine.Daniel A. Hastings, A.M., '14, D.B.,'16, has been for the past eleven years amissionary under the Missao Evangelica,Bailundo, Angola, West Africa. He issenior pastor of the Bailundo Church whichhas grown from a membership of 425 toNEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONS2031 with hundreds in preparatory classeswaiting for admission. He is also the Treas­urer, and with the Portuguese GovernmentDirector of the Mission.Raymond A. Smith, D.B., '22, Ph.D.,'26, is Director of Religious Education ofthe Centenary-West End Methodist Epis­copal Church, Winston-Salem, North Caro­lina. The Centenary-West End Churchwas recently formed by a merger of the twolargest down town churches in Winston­Salem. They are planning to build in thenear future a "Cathedral Church" at acost of over $500,000.Forest E. Wit craft, D.B., '20, Ph.D.,'27, has been appointed Professor of So­ciology and Economics in Hastings College,Hastings, Nebraska.Alva Vest King, pastor of the RoselandPresbyterian Church, Chicago, was electedJesse D. Coon, '14, J.D. '15, practicingat Sioux Falls, South Dakota, formerlystate's attorney of Minnehaha County, isagain a candidate for the Republicannomination for that office.J. Chandler Burton, J.D. '23, is engagedin the practice of Law at Birmingham, Ala­bama, with Mr. Horace Wilkinson, underthe firm name of Wilkinson & Burton.Immediately on leaving law school he be­came associated in Birmingham with Mr.Hugo Black until the latter was elected tothe United States Senate to succeed SenatorOscar W. Underwood. Mr. Burton mar-Rush'80- John A. Badgley, 134 South 4thStreet, DeKalb, Illinois, writes "Workinghard practicing Medicine and Surgeryeveryday. I have been Health Officer forthe City of DeKalb since June 1927."'94-Campbell M. Chapman is specializ­ing in Internal Medicine at 301 KraftBuilding, Des Moines, Iowa. Moderator of the Chicago Presbytery at itsmeeting on Tuesday, April roth.A. W. Wishart, D.D., has been pastorfor many years of the Fountain Street Bap­tist Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan. Lastyear the church raised $126,878 for allpurposes. Its property is now valued at amillion dollars. An elaborate series ofmemorial and symbolic windows are beingplaced in the new building.A. C. Bro, who has been a missionary inChina since his graduation and is now onfurlough, is teaching this year in N orth­land College, Ashland,' Wisconsin.T . Vassar Caulkins closed a seven -yearpastorate in Factoryville, Pennsylvania, toaccept the pastorate of the Baptist Churchat Bolton Landing, N ew York, early thiswinter.Lawried Miss Margaret Lillian Woodruff ofGrand Rapids, Michigan. They have twochildren, J. Chandler Burton, Jr., and JeanWoodruff Burton.Morris E. Feiwell, '13, J.D. '15, hasretired from law practice to become a vice­president of the Foreman Trust and Savings'Bank, at Chicago. Since graduation Mr.Feiwell has been associated in law practicewith Samuel B. Epstein, J. D. '15, underthe firm name of Epstein & Feiwell. Hehas been connected with many phases ofcommunity and welfare work, particularlyin boys' activities.'15-Walter H. Rietz was appointed byPresident Glenn Frank of the Universityof Wisconsin to represent the Universityat the inauguration exercises for Earl E.Harper, the new president of EvansvilleCollege, at Evansville, Indiana, on March22, 1928., I 8-E. D. Abraham, formerly locatedat Gibson, New Mexico, has moved to Los406 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEandMEAT"DESPITE the temporarilyfashionable belief that a largeamount of meat in the diet isharmful, medical science hasdiscovered nothing which shouldcause the great majority to de­prive themselves of the meatdiet which they now enjoy."This statement in the Journalof the American Medical Asso­ciation by Dr. Clarence W. Liebof New York, a distinguishedinvestigator, was quoted by Mr.Louis F Swift in his address tothe shareholders of Swift & Com­pany at the Forty-third AnnualMeeting, January 5 (Swift &Company's 1�28 Year Book), Itis an indication, as Mr. Swiftpointed out, of the growingappreciation of the value ofmeat in the diet.Swift & Company has led inthe packaging and branding ofmany meat products to insurethe consumer highest quality.Premium Ham and B a con.Brookfield Pork Sausage, and"Silverleaf" Brand Pure Lard,for example, have long bee nfamous. Recently fresh beef andlamb have been branded andwrapped.Swift & Company's 1928Year Book also includes an. in­teresting discussion of the essen­tial value of meat in the diet. Itwill be sent free upon request.Swift & CompanyOwned by more than 47,000 shareholders Doctors of PhilosophyIn Philosophy (continued)Angeles. His mailing address is Box 494,Los Angeles, California.'2I-William F. Schroeder practicesMedicine at Newton, Kansas.'23- J. L. McCartney has gone to Chinafor an indefinite stay. His address is Chung­king, China.'26-Abraham A. Brauer is practicingMedicine at 3952 W. Jackson Boulevard,Chicago.'27- J. C. Thomas Rogers, formerly ofChicago, is a Fellow at the Mayo Founda­tion. His address is 426 znd Street, Roch­ester, Minnesota.Sterling Price Williams, '18, is teachingin Lake Forest College, Illinois.Holly E. Cunningham, '18, is now Pro­fessor of Philosophy and .Head of the De­partment, University of West Virginia.Rufus Norman Boardman, '19, is nowwith Rand and McNally, Chicago, in aneditorial capacity.Edith Ayres Copeland, '21, is now secre­tary of the Society for Medical Progress,III W. lith Street, New York City.Edgar Z. Rowell, '22, is now AssistantProfessor of Public Speaking at the U ni­versity of California.T. V. Smith, '22, Professor of Philos­ophy, University of Chicago, has just pub­lished a book on The American Philosophyof Equality.W. B. Mahan, '23, is now Professor ofPhilosophy and Head of the Department,University of Arkansas.Armand Joseph Burke, '23, is doing re­search in Aesthetics in Florence, Italy,where he has lived for several years.John Goodwin Locke, '23, has returnedafter a three month's visit to America in­cluding the American Philisophical Associa­tion at Christmas, 1927, to resume his resi­dence and study in France.Van Meter Ames, '24, instructor in theUniversity of Cincinnati, read a paper be­fore the American Philosophical Associa-NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONStion, Chicago, Christmas 1927, on "Art andLife." He is publishing a book throughthe University of Chicago Press on A est het­ics of the Novel.Charles Flinn Arrowood, '24, has re­signed his position at Rice Institute to be­come in 1928 Professor of the History andPhilosophy of Education at the Universityof Texas.Donald Ayres Piatt, '25, Associate Pro­fessor of Philosophy, University of Texas,will teach at the University of Chicago thefirst half of next year during the absenceof Professor Addison W. Moore, '98, at theUniversity of California, where the latteris to deliver the Mills Lectures.Charles William Morris, Jr., '25, in­structor in Philosophy, Rice Institute, willteach at the University of Chicago the lasthalf of next year during Professor G. H.Mead's absence at the University of Cali­fornia, where the latter is to deliver theMills Lectures.C. M. Perry, '26, left an instructorshipat Minnesota to become· this year an Ad­junct Professor at his alma mater, theUniversity of Texas.John Daniel Wild, Jr., '26, is an instruc­tor in Philosophy at Harvard University.Harold C. Blote, '27, sometime instruc­tor in Philosophy at Princeton University,now lives at Oakland, California, and de­votes his time to study.Yi- Pao Mei, '27, is studying philosophyin Germany this year before returning tohis home in China.MARRIAGESWarren Thompson, '14, M.D. '14, toHelen E. Smith, March 7, 1928. Athome, Omaha, Nebraska.Pauline Berthe Hay, '22, to Oscar T.LeBeau, October 22, 1927. At home,5712 Kenwood Avenue, Chicago. 407" What would youd · '(i)"a tnsetHow many times have you been askedthat question by undergraduates lookingforward to their careers- and seriously con­sidering the bond business?Of course, the first thing for a young manto do in such a case is to carefully consider hiscapabilities and temperament-to determineif he is genuinely attracted to the bond businessand suited to it.Assuming that he has reached a studied de­cision to enter the bond business, your bestadvice to him would be to choose a reliablebond house-one which is old and well known,whose experience covers a wide field of con­servative investment, whose record goes backfor a long period of years.An investor, dealing with such a house, notonly protects himself, but also greatly sim­plifies his investment problem. Similarly, theman considering the bond business as a career,through connection with such a house, is pro­vided a substantial background for his ownefforts. It enables him to reach more quickly anassured position and a substantial earning power.As a help to those considering the bond businessas a life ework, ewe ha-ue published a pam­phlet, s<Tbe Bond Business, as an Occupationfor College Men." If interested, for yourselfor for others, storit« for pamphlet A P-S8Every 7hursday EveningHALSEY, STUART & CO.1{_adio Programscombine musical entertainment of distinguished character withinteresting discussions on the subject of sound investment9:00 P. M. Central Standard Time10:00 P. M. Eastern Standard Timeover the Red Network and associated stationsHALSEY, STUART&,COINCORPORATEDCHICAGO 2.01 S. La Salle St, NEW YORIC 35 Wall St.PHILADELPHIA III South 15th St. DETROIT 601 Griswold St.CLEVELAND 92. 5 Euclid A"". ST. LOUIS 319 North 4th St.BOSTON 85 Deoonsbire St. MILWAUICEE 42.5 East Water St.PITTSBURGH 307 Fifth Ave. MINNEAPOLIS 608 Second Ave., S.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBIRTHSVERY LITTLE (��)'rhe SPECIAL SAILINGS of5.5. "ESTONIA" & S.S. "LITUANIA"ONLY TOUR;=;�RY;�SSENGERSIN-FORfot'ERCabin and Second Class SpaceAT TOURIST THIRD CABIN RATaSAILING DATESJUNE 16- JUNE lO-from NEW YOR.KtoCHERBOURG VCOPENHAGENAUG. IS-AUG. 14-from COPENHAGENAUG. III-AUG. 27-from CHER.BQURG VPORTLAND. HNGOrchestra-Dancing-SportsSwimming PoolAll ExpenseStudentand University'I'ouyswith. College Credit if DesiredSCHOOL OF FOREIGN TRAVEL,IAI ..... u ........ .;'" 'rounr NUOEaat41dStnet New York, N. Y. C."I have had notice of my appoint­ment at ------- University and haveaccepted. You may rest assured Ishall endeavor to merit all you havesaidinmyfavor. IfIneedgoodserv­ice again, I know where to get it."The man who wrote the above re­ceived his Ph. D. in 1926. Throughother means he accepted a minorposition. It remained for The Al­bert Teachers' Agency to secure forhim his real job in 1927.Hundreds of University of Chi­cago graduates and graduate stu­dents have been equally fortunate.They are in Colleges, NormalSchools,Cityand Suburban Schools ,Private Schools--everywhere. Weinvite correspondence or a call.Forty Third Year.The Albert Teachers'. Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago535 Fifth Avenue, New York City To Arthur L. Adams, 'I I, J.D. '14, andMrs. Adams, a daughter, Bernice Diana,January 13, 1928, at Jonesboro, Arkansas.To Dunlap C. Clark, '17, and Mrs.Clark (Bess McFalls) ex '21, a son, Dun­lap Cameron, J r., April 9, 1928, at Chicago.To Samuel C. Henn, Jr., S.M. '19,M.D. '21, and Mrs. Henn (Helen B.Roe) '19, a daughter, Dorothy Jean, March2, 1928, at Chicago.To P. Arthur Delaney, '21, Ph.D. '25,M.D. '26, and Mrs. Delaney (Elinor I.Perley), '25, a son, Dallas Lane, February16, 1928, at Chicago.To William r. Newman, ex '24, andMrs. Newman, a daughter, Ruth L.,December i3, 1927, at Hemet, California.DEATHSWilliam E. Dawson, M.D. '64, Decem­ber 27, 1927, at El Dorado Springs, Mis­soun.James N. Clarke, M.D. '85, August 21,1927, at Moscow, Idaho.Michael P. O'Malley, M.D. '88, atMilwaukee, Wisconsin, March 2, 1928.William B. Owen, D.B. '91, Ph.D. '01,February 17, 1928, at Chicago. Mr. Owenhad been Principal of the Chicago NormalCollege since 1909 and previous to thattime had served on the Faculty of theSchool' of Education of the University.In 1922-23, he was President of the Na­tional Education Association. In 1923As Near As YourMailbox!WOODWORTHSThe Mail OrderBOOK STORE1311E. 57th St. NEAR- KIMBARK AVE.NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONShe served as head of the Illinois StateTeacher's Association.Judson E.· Hetherington, M.D. '95, atMontreal, Canada, January 29, 1928. Dr.Hetherington was an outstanding figurein Canadian political circles, having beenelected to the Canadian Provincial Legisla­ture in 1917, made Speaker in 1919, andre-elected to the Legislature in 1920.Joseph H. McGovern, M. D. '97, Janu­ary 13, 1928, at Lenzburg, Illinois, wherefor seventeen years he had practiced medi- .cine.Julius W. Kuhne, A.M. 'oS, at Oxford,Ohio, December 29, 1927. Mr. Kuhne,who was a member of the faculty of MiamiUniversity at Oxford, was the author ofmany textbooks in Spanish and French,among them George Sand's Le Meunierd' A ngtbault, published by the AmericanBook Company in 1909.Charles H. Viol, Ph.D. '12, April 6,1928, in New York City. Dr. Viol, whoselectures on radio-activity as applied toradium-therapy made him known whereverradium was used, was Director of theRadium Research Laboratory of the Stand­ard Chemical Company of Pittsburgh.The development of a case of cancer ofthe hand and arm, presumably as a sacri­fice to radium, resulted in his death.Mary E. Pierce, '13, at Chicago, March17, 1928. Miss Pierce, who was a teacherfor more than forty years, was for manyyears a member and an officer of the Chi­cago Teachers' Federation.Charles Sumner Winston, '96.Born. September 18, 1876,' died March 21,1928By CHARLES F. WELLERA golden hearted gentleman.Instinctively and wholly kind.A life of unselfconscious and outflowingsertnce.Virile and vigorous' but as clean and pureas a beautiful young boy.An athlete} a man's man} but gentle to allliving creatures. EverythinginLeather GoodsGifts of Luggage or Leatherare always appreciated for inmost cases they last a life time�HEWYORtc. EST 1859 CH1CA130...---- JOHN HANCOCK SERIES ---�WIVES ofBUSINESS MENTHE difference between office andhousehold economy often causes as­tonishment and confusion to �)Usmessmen. Their wives mean well. but as formethod-lThe household budget is the answer.VVe have sent thousands of our budgetsheets to wives who have attacked thisproblem.To business men who care aboutordered and reasonable expenditure andsaving-that is. the introduction of busi­ness methods into the home-we rec­ommend the John Hancock Home BudgetSheet.Your local John Hancock office will beglad to send you a copy. or one can beobtained by writing toINQUIRY BUREAU197 CLARENDON STREET. BOSTON. MASS.A.G.SIXTY· FIFTH YEAR OF BUSINESS410 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPaul H. Davis, 'II Herbert 1. Markham, Ex. '06Ralph W. Davis, '16 Walter M. Giblin, '23MEMBERSNEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGECHICAGO STOCK EXCHANGE37 South LaSalle StreetT elephane Rand. 6280CHICAGOTHE YATES - FISHERTEACHERS' AGENCYEstablished 1906PAUL YATES, Manager616-620 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVENUECHICAGODtker Office; 911-12 Broadway BuildingPortland, OregonMOSERSHORTHAND COLLEGE. A business school of distinctionSpecial Three Months' IntensiveCourse for university graduatesor undergraduates givenquarterlyBulletin on RequestPAUL MOSER, J. D., Ph. B.116 S. Michigan Ave. ChicagoUNIVERSITYCOLLEGEThe downtown department of THE UNIVER­SITY OF CHI<CAGO, 116 S. Michigan Avenue,announcesPUBLIC LECTURESDowntown 6:45 -7:45 P. M.April 3 to JuneTues: International RelationsThurs: Religions and CivilizationsFriday: Nature of World and of ManAIDMISS10NCourse Ticket $3.00 Single SOc 1l10dest, democratic, faithful to his ownclear strong convictions but friendly withpeople of differing opinions and waysof life.A true Sir Galahad in the modern businessworld:-"My strength is as the strength of tenBecause my heart is pure;"A successful life.He achieved his high purposes,' he realixeahis clean and serviceable ideals.Without compromising any of his truly­noble standards, he climbed the heightsand lived upon a wholesome high plateauof comfort and assured power, shared inperfect comradeship with a lovely wife,beautiful children, admiring relatives,devoted friends.He was himself the animating center .. thesustaining strength and leadership in alarge «household of [aith;' a great .. wide­ly extended family of friends.Born in the village of Forreston, Illinois,(about a hundred miles west of Chicago)his early schooling was in his mother'slittle home class where all of her sevenchildren, four sons and three daughters,were taught the first rudiments of learningand prepared, very successfully, for college.In the University of Chicago, beginningin its second year, Charlie Winston didgood work in his classes and won lastingrenown by playing for three years as thirdbaseman on the varsity baseball team.Fraternity brothers and other friends ofhis college days remained his friendsthrough all the years. One of his character­istics was that change of scene and ofcircumstance did not change his friendships.At each stage of progress new loyaltiesdeveloped, but they never were accompaniedby disloyalty or indifferences towardsformer comrades.After winning his A.B. at the Universityof Chicago, he worked a while in the West­ern Electric Company in Chicago, begin­ning at $7.00 a week, winding wire ontoTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 4IIfJ'Ee NATION'S BUILDING STONEAngell Hall, University of Michigan, Ann Aroor, Mich. Built entb'eIy of Indiana LimestoneU sed for Great Buildings EverywhereTHE fine-grained, light-colored naturalstone known as Indiana Limestone nowconstitutes more than 65% of the buildingstone of all kinds used in this country.Our leading college buildings, churches,skyscrapers, and other fine structures arebuilt of it. The new Riverside Church inNew York City, the great Washington­Cathedral, the magnificent buildings of theUniversity of Chicago, all are Indiana Lime;stone from the quarries of the IndianaLimestone Company. Modern production methods used by thiscompany have reduced costs. There isreally no need to consider any material ofless beauty or permanence. Indiana Lime­stone quite often can even compete in pricewith rough local building stone.Let us send you our illustrated bookletgiving full information about the use ofthis fine natural building stone for col­lege buildings. Address Box 819, ServiceBureau, Indiana Limestone Company, Bed,ford, Indiana.General Offices: Bedford, Indiana Executive Offices: Tribune Tower, ChicagoTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGRADUATIONFor High School orCollege Grads a mosta ppropria te giftThe New U. of C.SONG BOOK($2.10 postpaid)C Jewelry, Pillows, Pennants,StationeryAll the Lates(BooksOrder today from theU. of C. Bookstore5802 Ellis Ave.TEACHER PLACEMENTSERVICEFISK TEACHERS' AGENCY28 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago.For many years a leader among teachers'agencies. Our service is nation wide.AMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU77 W. Washington St., Chicago.A professional teacher placement bureau,. limiting its field to colleges and univer­sities.EDUCATION SERVICE811-823 Steger Bldg., Chicago.A bureau chiefly concerned with theplacement of administrative officials,such as financial secretaries, businessmanagers, treasurers, registrars, directorsof Red Cross work, etc.The above organizations are under' the man­agement of C. E. Goodell. for nine yearspresident of Fran'elin College, Ind., andMrs. Bertha Smith LIcodell, for thirteen: yearssupervisor and teacher of English in the HighSchool of Oak Park, Ill. spools. Then he took a year's course IIIelectrical engineering at the University ofIllinois. Returning to humble employmentat the Western Electric, he climbed steadilyuntil, as chief engineer of the Kellogg. Switchboard Company, he directed thework of a large group of men, made manyclever inventions, earned a good salary,saved money, bought stock and developed asound basis for material prosperity.More essentially characteristic than thismaterial .prosperity was that unhesitatingloyalty to just and unselfish principleswhich led him to resign a splendid positionand great prospects because he would notdischarge two of his employes, unjustly, atthe command of a superior officer.In New York City he tried several linesof service and, finally, devoted many yearsof hard work and cheerful burden bearingto the creation and successful establishmentof the Cornell Utilities Company sellingN okol Automatic Oil Furnaces. He al­lowed himself no vacations, worked longhours, spending no time for noon luncheons,risked his own resources, toiled for longyears without salary, and served with loyalunselfishness the interests of sick partnersand their families and the interest of hisemployes. At last, success crowned his yearsof able and devoted labor. Some monthsbefore his death, he turned his work overinto. other hands and helped them to becomefully masters of the situation.Again, as always, his ideals prevailed.He went for two costly years without agood deal of available and profitable busi­ness because he stoutly refused to pay bribes.He was told that he would better leave thefield of keenly competitive business if hewould not stoop to play the game accord­ing to what he was assured were prevailingpractices. But, altho he never boasted orposed or even talked about his moral stand­ards, he never even dreamed that he couldpossibly be unfaithful to his conscience.Leadership, with profitable power, inimportant fields of business service wasoffered by several companies competingeagerly for his allegiance when he wasfinally called away.HEREMR. SECRETARYIS THEANSWEROF ONEINDUSTRYr �the report of SecretaryElimination of Waste.MEETING THE STANDARDS OF AN AUTHORITYTHE business world hascome to look upon the re­port of Secretary Hoover'sCommittee on the Eliminationof Waste in Industry as anepochal document.Were Western Electric· toput into words its own eco­nomic creed it would be butfollowing out the principlesstressed in that great contribu­tion to industrial progress.This company, as makers ofthe nation's telephone equip­ment, has long made it a prac- tice to plan manufacturing so as.to reduce to a minimum timerequiredforproduction, to leveloff ups and downs of factory op­eration, to standardize purchas­ing throug h sim plificatio n, to in­spect and re- inspect materials,methods and equipment, andto distribute at minimum cost.In these and �ther waysWestern Electric has soughtto measure up to its three-foldresponsibility as purchasers,manufacturers, and distributorsfor the Bell System.wester» ElectricPurchasers ... Manu acturers.. , DistributorsHow civilized are we?UTHE extent to which the world ('has cbhadnged the laborer kwho .uses his 0 y into the wor man Iwho uses his head, is the index ofcivilization.' ,So said Edward Everett Hale.In the measure that America's m­dusrrialists appreciate and adopt theeconomic advantages of electric power,light, and heat, they advance thenational standards of civilization andincrease the revenue of their business.Perhaps the time will come when wecan point to completely' electrifiedindustry as our answer to the question"How civilized are we?" I,I\ \This civilizing processhas begun in homes aswell as in factories­but it has only begun.There are' millions ofdwellings in which thereare no electric appli­ances. The GeneralElectric Company's spe­cialists will cooperatewith you in the applica-GENERAL ELECTRIC201·10BE