VOL. XX NUMBER 6AP,RIL, 1928CLIMBING THE AMERICAN MATTERHORNSBy Rollin T. ChamberlinAMONG OUR REPTILE ANCESTORSBy A. S. RomerFINNISH FAIRY - TALESBy Archer TaylorBOOKSA Political Scientist Reviews TI7e RacketJohn Gunther's Eden jor One Mr. Millett on Sean O'Casey's PlaysPUB 'L ISH E D B Y THE A L U M N leo U N c r LThe University of Chicago PressChinese PaintingBy JOHN C. 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LEE, M.D.Reliable and practical infor­mation for the person mostconcerned with the processof being born-the mother.It is based on the sound medical practiceof a clinician and teacher of obstetrics ofwide experience. $3.00��Great Britain andthe DominionsBy SIR CECIL j.n. HURST, HON. TIM­OTHY A. SMIDDY, JOHN W. DAFOESIR WILLIAM A. MOORE, J. B. CONDLIFFE, ERIC LOUW, and ANGUS SFLETCHER.The internal structure and foreign policyof the Empire as a whole. $3.00'1 he heart of the Middle Ages is hererevealed. It is the only work in Englishon this subject that has been publishedin twenty-five years. $5.00SuicideBy RUTH SHONLE CAVAN. enough melodramas and Americantragedies for a five-foot shelf of fiction."-Oakland Tribune.$3.00Current ChristianThinkingBy GERALD B. SMITH".. an excellent survey of the state ofreligious thinking in the United Statestoday. His sections on Fundamentalism,Modernism and the controversy overevolution a re especially good."-The A;"erican Mercury.$2.00Problems of the PacificEdited by J. B. CONDLIFFEIn Honolulu last summer the represent­atives of nine diverse civilizations con­ferred upon matters of mutual concern.The proceedings of this second Confer­ence of the Institute of Pacific Relationsare complete in this book. $3.005750 ELLIS AVENUE CHICAGOTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 301��l'm glad you 'phoned me,jim!"Of course he is happy about it; And any classmate of yours will be de­lighted to have you phone him when you are in his town and have sometime to kill. Particularly if you have not seen each other for years .••This is only one of the pleasant things that the Intercollegiate AlumniHotels make possible. At each of these hotels is an index of the residentalumni of your college. When you are travelling and have a moment tospare, this index is a treasure trove of information for reviving friend­ships that mean much to you ••• Stop at Intercollegiate Alumni Hotelswhen you travel. You will enjoy the experience. And you will behelping the Alumni Office in furthering the work which it is doing.INTERCOLLEGIATE ALUMNI HOTEISBaillmore, Southern8trfteley, ClaremontBethlehem, Pa., BethlehemBoston, Copley-PlaaaClncago, BlackstoneCh,cago, WindermereClncago, Allerton HouseCJt'YelanJ, Allerton HouseColumbus, Neil HouseFresno, CalifornianI<ansas City, MuehlebachLincoln, LincolnLos Angeles, Los Angeles Biltmore. 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Class .cAddress..(ity Stale , ..._------------_., .. _,-----'302 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAn organization of a 1m os t fifty people, with specialists in all branches of advertisingVANDERHOOF& COMPANY QeneralclldverlisingVANDER.HOOP BUILDING ••• 161 B.ONTARJO ST •• CHICAGO@HlNHENRY D. SULCER, '0;, PresidentIdeas! Ideas!Member: American Association of Advertising Agencies & National Outdoor Advertising BureauYesterday's plan is in ashes. The call is for today's idea.And - the idea that will double sales today is not soeasily cracked.Yet an idea can life a correspondence school to theethical level of a university - and swamp it with in ..quiries in a failing market.-an idea can reduce inquiry costs, from $3.60 to .52 each.-an idea can change pianos to furniture and sell moreof them as such,-an idea can single out a class of 20 million peopleand sell them separately and alone-in the most highlycompetitive field of existence.If these four ideas were the total 1927 output of thisorganization the year would have been well spent. Forthese, like every merchandising idea advanced by thisorganization, are basically sound -logically applicablein today's constantly changing market conditions.If your yesterday's idea is in ashes-today's idea maybe lurking in our collective mind.THE ALUMNI COUNCIL OFTHE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGOChairman� HERBERT P. ZIMMERMANN, '01Acting Secretary, ALLEN HEALD, '26The Council for 1927-28 is composed of the following Delegates:FROM THE COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONS, Term expires 1928: John P. Mentzer, '98;Clarence W. Sills, ex-'05; Hugo M. Friend, '06, J. D. '08; Harold H. Swift, '07;Mrs. Phyllis Fay Horton, 'IS; Mrs. Barbara Miller Simpson, '18; Term expires1929: Elizabeth Faulkner, '85; Harry N. Gottlieb, '00; Herbert P. Zimmermann,'01; Paul H. Davis, 'II; William H. Kuh, 'II; Mrs. Marguerite H. MacDaniel,'17; Term expires 1930: Grace A. Coulter, '99; -Frank McNair, '03; Earl D.Hostetter, '07, J. D. '09; Mrs. Margaret Haas Richards, 'II; William H. Lyman,'14, Arthur Cody, '24.FROM THE ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OF PHILOSOPHY, Henry G. Gale, '96, Ph.D. '99; B.L. Ullman, '13, Ph.D. '08; Herbert E. Slaught, Ph.D. '98; John F. Norton, Ph.D.'II; D. J. Fisher, Ph.D. '22.FROM THE DIVINITY ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, Charles T. Holman, D. B. '16; Orvis F.Jordan, D. B. '13; Edgar J. Goodspeed, D. B. '97, Ph.D. '98.FROM THE LAW SCHOOL ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, John W. Chapman, 'IS, J. D. '17;William J. Matthews, J. D. '08; Charles F. McElroy, A. M. '06, J. D. 'IS.FROM THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, R. L. Lyman, Ph.D. '17; W.C. Reavis, A. M. 'II, Ph.D. '25; Logan M. Anderson, A. M. '23.FROM THE ·COMMERCE AND ADMINISTRATION ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, Frank H. Anderson,'22; Donald P. Bean, '17; John A. Logan, '21.FROM THE RUSH MEDICAL COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, Frederick B. Moorehead,M. D. '06; George H. Coleman, 'II, M. D. '13; Ralph C. Brown, '01, M. D. '03.FROM THE CHICAGO ALUMNI CLUB, Roderick MacPherson, ex-'il6; Harry R. Swanson,'17; Sam A. Rothermel, '17.FROM THE CHICAGO ALUMNAE CLUB, Mrs. Nena Wilson Badenoch, '12; Suzanne Fisher,'14; Helen Canfield Wells, '24.FROM THE UNIVERSITY, David H. Stevens, Ph. D. '14.Alumni Associations Represented in the Alumni CouncilAll communications should 'be sent to the Secretary of the proper Association or to the AlumniCouncil, Faculty Exchange, University of Chicago. The dues for membership in anyone of theAHociations named above, including subscription to The University of Chicago Marazine. are $2.00per year. A holder of two or' more degrees from the University of Chicago may he I memberof more than one Association; in such instances the dues are divided and aha red equally by the A.­sociations involved.THE COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONS: Pres­ident, Herbert P. Zimmermann, '01, 73 IPlymouth Ct., Chicago; Secretary, AllenHeald, '26, University of Chicago.ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OF PHILOSOPHY:President, Henry Gale, '96. Ph.D. '99,University of Chicago; Secretary, Her­bert E. Slaught, Ph.D. '98, Universityof Chicago.DIVINITY ALUMNI ASSOCIATION: President,J. W. Hoag, D. B., '04, 24 Winder,Detroit, Mich ; Secretary, R. B. David­son, D. B. '97, 508 Kellogg Ave., Ames,Iowa.LAW SCHOOL ASSOCIATION: President, Wil­liam J. Matthews, J. D., '08, 29 So.LaSalle St., Chicago; Secretary, Char­les F. McElroy, A. M., '06, J. D., 'IS,1609 Westminster Bldg., Chicago. SCHOOL OF EDUCATION ALUMNI ASSOCIA­TION: President, R. L. Lyman, Ph.D.,'17, University of Chicago; Secretary,Mrs. R. W .. Bixler, A. M. '25, Uni­versity of Chicago.COMMERCE AND ADMINlsnATIO)l ALUMNIASSOCIATION: President. Frank H.Anderson, '22, Hamilton Bond & Mtge.Co., 7 So. Dearborn St., Chicago;Secretary, Hortense Friedman, '22, 230So. Clark St., Chicago.RUSH MEDICAL COLLEGE ALUMNI Asso­CIATION: President, Dallal B. Phemister,'17 M. D., '04, 950 E. 59th St. Chicago;Secretary, Charles A. Parter, M. D.,'91, 7 W. Madison St., Chicago.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEOver 100 Colleges are Represented inALLERTON HOUSETo See it is to "{Vant to Live There-To Live Here is to be at Home _._ When Away from Home!1 7 Floors forMen6 Floors for\VomenALLERTON HOUSEChicago, IllinoisMichigan at Huron-ChicagoExtensive ComfortableLounges Ball and BanquetRoomsCirculating LibraryResident W omen.'sDirector Billiards, ChessSpecial Women'sElevators CafeteriaFraternity Rooms Athletic ExerciseRoomsAllerton Glee Club in Main Dining Room Monday at 6:30 P. M.The World's Largest Indoor Golf CourseOfficial Residence of the Intercollegiate Alumni Association Composed of 96 CollegesALLERTON HOUSEWEEKLY RATES PER PERSONSingle • • $12.00-$20.00Double.. $8.00-$15.00Tran.sient. $2.50-$ 3.50Descriptive Leaflet on RequestCHICAGO CLEVELAND NEW YORKIN TH I�I .r.> U EThe thrill of conquering unconqueredpeaks is not Professor CHAMBERLIN)S onlyobjective in climbing the Cariboos and theAlps. His study of glaciers in Canada,Alaska, and Switzerland has resulted inproving the validity of a theory of glaciermotion first advanced more than thirtyyears ago by his father, T. C. Chamberlin,first Chairman of the Geology Departmentand formulator of the Planetesimal Hy­pothesis.Mr. Chamberlin's mountain explorations,begun in I910 on the Horseshoe Glaciernear Lake Louise, in the Rocky Mountainsof Alberta, and continued in Alaska andSwitzerland, have shown that glaciers moveas a solid, and not, as contended by somegeologists, as a liquid of high viscosity,such as tar.He invented a clock-driven device thatmade the glaciers write their autobiogra­phies as they moved down their valleys.Balked in his first efforts by imperfectionsof the apparatus, poor weather conditions,and unfavorable conditions on the glaciers,he was successful in Switzerland with animproved instrument-a clock-driven diskon which two needles scratched tell-talelines. One of the needles traced the twenty­four hours of the day, and the other, re­ceiving through a lever the thrust of theadvancing glacier, recorded its movement.Arduous work was required to anchor thedevice properly so as to record movementalong sheer planes, and it often was a dif­ficult job to find a favorable location. Pro­fessor Chamberlin finally was able to an­chor the device rigidly by boring holes intowhich he fitted hollow steel tubes, filledwith a freezing mixture.The stories that unlettered peasants telltheir children before the fire, like the maga- zmes that more cultured people sell eachother over the news stand, reveal muchabout their tellers and their hearers. Tostudy such stories in detail, and to learnhow different peoples changed them in there-telling, would seem a decided benefitto the historian.Professor ARCHER TAYLOR of the Ger­manics Department has lately returnedfrom Finland, a country where folkloresfrom two different parts of the world met.He has secured for the University an ex­haustive �ollection of Finnish folk-talesin many versions. His article discusses theirsignificance.It was a great day for the animal king­dom when the first edaphosaurus crawledout of the water (where all respectableanimals then lived) and tried his luckashore. Columbus' vaunted voyage mayhave made America possible for us; but dowe not owe a greater debt to that earlierancestor who discovered terra firma?The University is trying to pay that debt.For many years Walker Museum has sentexpeditions to a fossil field in Texas, datingfrom that momentous age when dry landwas becoming a fashionable residence sec­tion. The skeletons of many of those am­phibian pioneers-the world's finest collec­tion of them, in fact-now occupy places ofhonor in the Museum. To assure them allthe honor that is their due, we reproducethe portraits of some of them, and anarticle by one of their collectors.CARROLL H. WOODDY, who reviews Bart­lett Cormack's The Racket, is a member ofthe Political Science Department and astudent, especially, of Chicago politics. Hisbook, The Chicago Primary of 1926, ap­peared last year.A lien Carpe, Professor Chamberlin's partner) prospecting a route through the lower ice-fall of the Kiwa Glacier.VOL.XX No.6m:beWnibersitp of ctCbicago.fflaga�ineAPRIL, 1928--------------------------------------------------�-------------+-More Cariboo ClimbsBiji ROLLIN T. CHAMBERLINTHE Fraser River of British Colum­bia flows northwestward along theRocky Mountain trench and thenmakes a grand fish-hook bend to continueits way south across the Interior Plateauand pierce the Coast Range near Van­couver. The great bend is necessitated bythe impassable Cariboo Range around whichthe drainage must go. Because of the ex­cessively rugged nature of this mountainousstrip, very little was known about it till1924. In the summer of that year, AllenCarpe, of New York, and the writer ex­plored the heart of the Cariboos, and fromthe highest summits mapped the loftiestportion of the range. Favored by exception­ally fine weather, we were fortunate enoughto make the first ascents of seven of thehigh peaks. One of these, which we namedMt. Titan (II, 750 ft.), proved to be thehighest peak in all the interior ranges ofBritish Columbia. It was indeed a sur­prise to find in the Cariboos a range which,for rugged mountain topography of thetruly Alpine sort and for majestic snowfields and glaciers, has few rivals on theentire North American continent outsideof Alaska and its immediate vicinity. Fascinated by the superb mountain rangeof which there was need for further ex­ploration, Carpe and I returned to BritishColumbia in 1927. L. E. (Slim) Goodell,packer and cook of the 1924 party, and hispartner Sam Clifton met us enthusiasticallyas we alighted from the Canadian NationalRailway train at Shere, in the FraserValley, on June 25th. Access to the heartof the range is only by a few canyon-likevalleys which are tributary to the Fraser.This year we chose the valley of the Kiwa,which we knew headed in the Kiwa Glaciercoming down from Kiwa Peak, the highestunclimbed mountain in the group. Aclumsy wagon conveyed 'our provisionsabout four miles up a loggin.g road to alumber camp in the lower reaches of Kiwavalley, the farthest outpost of human activ­ity.Beyond the lumber camp, dense forestsof spruce and balsam made progress slowand toilsome, but bear and caribou trailsaided materially. Where destructive snow­slides from the steep valley walls had sweptall before them, new thickets of youngalders provided tangles in places muchmore troublesome than the primeval forest.308 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe provisions, sleeping bags and equip­ment had been carefully weighed andapportioned between us so that each mancarried a pack of fifty pounds. Softshoulders and untrained muscles were a bitsore and quite weary when a halt was madeat seven in the evening of the second dayto pitch camp for the night.On the third day the going became better,for the upper reaches of the valley, morerecently occupied by the glacier, were widerand flat-bottomed and, with a moderateamount of wading, the gravel bars of thestream-bed could be utilized here and therefor more rapid progress than was possiblein bucking alder thickets. About the middleof the afternoon we reached the lower endof the great glacier which, descending fromthe high peaks, fills the upper portion of thevalley. Base camp was established underan overhanging cliff a quarter of a mile fromthe glacier terminus at an elevation ofabout 4800 feet.On the morrow Slim and Sam returnedto the lumber camp to bring up more pro­visions, while Carpe and I explored theglacier to pick out the practical routes toCamp between moraine and mountain side.Slim Goodell does the cooking. the upper snow-fields. For the first twomiles on the ice the going was ideal, forthe glacier-surface was comparativelysmooth and crevasses were troublesome onlyin a- few places. But beyond, the glacierdescends from the upper snow-fields in twogigantic leaps or ice-cascades. The brittleice, passing over these giant steps in thevalley bottom, has been torn and twistedinto a vast labyrinth of deep cracks andsharp pinnacles of wondrous variety andjaggedness. Beautiful these ice-falls un­questionably are, but picturesqueness ofform is poorly appreciated when nearlyevery step of progress is a problem in ice­craft, and the ice-fall is all but an im­passable barrier to the goal of the expedi­tion. Not less than 2000 feet of verticalelevation had to be gained through theintricacies of the two ice-falls before thesmoother surfaces of the high snow-fieldscould be reached. Rain came on and bythe time two-thirds of the lower ice-fallhad been surmounted, it was raining sohard that we had had enough and returneddown the glacier to the base camp.From camp we watched a drizzle, withoccasional hail and snow squalls, all nextday, but were off the following morningin doubtful weather to discover a way, ifpossible, to climb Mt. Welcome, secondhighest of the unclimbed Cariboos, withoutgoing up the ice-falls. What appeared tobe Mt. Welcome rose beyond a tributaryglacier which came in from the southeast.After trying several possibilities, the dif­ficulties of approach were solved, and atthree o'clock we were advancing up themiddle of the tributary glacier at a heightof 8500 feet when suddenly we became en­veloped in the clouds and it began to snow.On the return, however, the disappointmentof the defeat was dispelled by the discoveryof a superb camp-site, with a clump oftimber and a brook of crystal-clear water,nestled between the huge eastern lateralmoraine of the main Kiwa glacier and themountain side. A mile and a half nearerour objectives and approximately a thou­sand feet higher in altitude, it wouldshorten the long climbs in prospect veryappreciably. On the first of July, Carpe,MORE CARIBOO CLIMBSSlim, and I moved up most of the pro­visions from the base camp, while Sam,having done his part, wished us success andreturned to civilization.The luxuriant forest growths, whichbeautify the lower slopes of the CaribooMountains, and the magnificent glaciersand snow-fields which deck their higherportions are, of course, the result of thevery heavy rainfall and snowfall of theregion. The warm, moisture-laden windsfrom the Pacific Ocean drop a great dealmore moisture on the Cariboos than on theRockies farther inland. Hence their fargreater beauty. Accepting the superlativequalities of the Cariboos, one must acceptalso the rain and snow. The bad weathercontinued in fitful fashion.First Ascent of Mt. Welcome (11)50 ft.)A second attempt on Welcome was de­feated by rain after less than three hoursof climbing, but on the Fourth of July,after very unpromising early prospects, theweather seemed on the mend and we gotoff to a very late start at 7 :50 A.M. Anhour and a half of swift climbing up the rocks brought us to the edge of the trib­utary glacier, above its ice-fall, at a heightof 7500 feet. Here we roped together, fora thin covering of soft snow concealed mostof the dangerous crevasses in the ice be­neath, and the possibility of one of usplunging through a weak snow-roof intoa concealed cavern was always present.While experience and vigilance enable theexpert to avoid many covered crevasses, yetall cannot be recognized, and the rope,kept tight between climbers as they walkover the snow-covered glacier, will bothcheck the fall of an unlucky climber aftera moderate drop, and then make it possibletor his companions to haul him out.We crossed the glacier diagonally to arocky ridge which led toward the summitof our peak. The mists soon closed in, buta rock ridge is much easier to follow suc­cessfully in the fog than a broad glacier.Soon after noon we stood upon the summitwhich we had supposed was Mt. Welcome.But a momentary clearing of the mists soonrevealed the true Mt. Welcome still beyondand towering high above us. After buildinga cairn and leaving a record of the ascentChamberlin on the lower Kiwa Glacier. Ice-falls in the distance.P halo by A llen CarpeTHE UNIVERSITY'OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEon this summit (which we will call Mt.Goodell, 10,450 ft.) it was necessary todescend exceedingly steep, soft snows to thesaddle between our peak and Welcome. Itwas like descending a ladder; with face tothe slope, each successive foothold was madeby several hard kicks till the toe of theboot was deep in the snow. Tiresome itwas for the leader who did all the work;his companion merely had to be careful indescending the staircase. A steady pull upthe south ridge of M t. Welcome placed usat 2 :I5 on the flattish snow mass whichconstitutes its summit. Victory was cele­brated with a lunch of bannock, sardines,chocolate, and cheese.At times the mists thinned, and fleetingloopholes gave brief glimpses of the worldat our feet. Only two peaks within viewexceeded us in elevation. Titan was superb,but Kiwa Peak never came out in full.During a clearing spell, Mts. Challenger,Dogtooth, Gunboat Ridge, Penny Peak andother points climbed by us in I924, recalledmemories of strong hours which will standout during a life-time. It was with a thrillthat we glimpsed the wild northern prec­ipice of Bivouac Peak on whose tiny topwe had spread out our sleeping bags on amuch finer Fourth of July evening threeyears before, preparatory to the first ascentof Titan next day.The summit of Mt. Welcome in I927was double: a flattish snow mass with largecornice overhanging Sand Creek Valley onthe northeast side, where the prevailingsouthwest winds had gradually built outthe snow banks into a position of great in­stability; and a few steps to the northwest,a peaked snow-cornice rising a dozen feetabove the rocks on the southwest slope. Onthe highest rocks exposed beneath thepeaked cornice, we built a small stone manand enclosed the official metal tube contain­ing a filled-out record sheet of the Amer­ican Alpine Club. Descending about 30feet to the nearest rocks on the south slopeof the main summit, we piled up a some­what taller stone man, but left no recordin it.A snowstorm hastened the descent. We followed our tracks in the snow across thesaddle between Welcome and Goodellwhere the clouds and snow flakes were sothick for a time that the visible worldwas scarcely more than a dozen feet inradius. The snow staircase led us again overthe summit of Goodell after which weretraced at full speed the route of the morn­ing and reached camp shortly after 6o'clock. Slim had a hot fire going and sa­vory odors from his frying pan reinforcedhis hearty greeting.Two days of intermittent showers nowkept the heights enveloped in clouds, butafforded opportunity for the continuation ofresearches on the nature of glacier motion.Reconnoitering also disclosed a practicalroute by which the lower ice-fall could besurmounted by climbing the rocks of theeast valley-wall, which gave access to theflatter portion of the glacier above thecascade. And even better, it appeared pos­sible to avoid most' of the difficulties of themore formidable upper ice-fall by takingto the rocks again, thence crossing the trib­utary ice stream from M t. Goodell, andproceeding over the thick drifts of wintersnow that still remained between the ice­cascade and the bordering rock cliffs."Where there's a will there;s a way." Theattack on Kiwa Peak now had to wait onlyon the weather.First Ascent of Kiwa Peak (11 �400 ft.)On the 7th the weather did not showmuch improvement, but Kiwa Peak, owingto the uncertainties of route and weather,was a two-day job at the very least, and itseemed necessary to take a chance. Accord­ingly Carpe and I finally set out from campwith packboards to establish a bivouac some­where on the rocks adjoining the Kiwasnow-field which we knew lay above theupper ice-fall. The two ice-falls weresuccessfully turned, first by slippery glacier­smoothed rocks and, higher up, by the softsnows of last winter. Finally on the vastKiwa snow-field, we rounded the curvingmountain side to the east and took to therocks. An exposed but grand bivouac-sitewas found on the flattish top of a rockridge at an elevation of 8500 feet.MORE CARIBOO CLIMBSA shelter for the night was the first need.We built a low wall of rock slabs to breakthe high wind and, eight feet in the lee,another pile of slabs. The tent canvas wasthen stretched across from wall to rock pileand tied to the rocks at many points to pre­vent an exceptionally strong gust of windfrom carrying it away. A striking sunsetraised hopes for the morrow and lightenedthese efforts. Mt. Titan and Kiwa Peakwere inexpressibly grand. But in the earlyevening it began to rain.Much rain descended during the night.A pool of water collected in the hollow ofthe sagging canvas-cover, filtered through,and made us uncomfortable below. Themorning broke cold and dismal with apiercing wind and poor prospects for moun­tain work. Toward noon, however, thethreatening skies brightened and we startedfor Kiwa Peak, either to explore the lowerslopes and pick a route, or to climb themountain if conditions and the late startpermitted.To avoid concealed crevasses where thewinter snow-covering of the glacier hadbecome thin, we circled far up the snow­field and crossed the broad .glacier by acircuitous route to the northeast base of Kiwa Peak. Long snow-slopes now tooktheir toll of time and strength. We kepttoo close to the base of a great rock rampartwhich descends from the heights, and gotinto a broken bit of glacier. Creepingcautiously beneath a huge block of ice,considerably overhanging, we worked leftout on the main rounded snow-slope. Thesnow here was very soft and at times nearlyevery step went in to the knee or evendeeper. No sort of climbing, except actualstep chopping in ice, is more laborious. Thetop seemed very far off, but a bite to eatrestored strength.Eventually a small plateau-like area, likethe Petit Plateau on Mont Blanc, wasreached. Here the full sweep of the windwas on us but, with increased elevation, thetemperature sank below freezing, the" snowbecame more firmly frozen and fewer stepsbroke through the crust. The weather wassiding with us and steadily improving, andfor the first time we began to have stronghopes of conquering our mountain that day.I t was becoming a contest between speedand strength against time and we put allwe had into the effort. The top of Mt.Challenger (one of the 1924 conquests)now peered encouragingly above BivouacBivouac on the rucks above the ice-falls. Photo by Carpe.312 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPeak and we looked down upon most ofthe country to the north.We steered a fairly straight course,heading a little to the left of the summit,now visible. The last part of the climbup the sharp summit ridge we well knewwas likely to prove difficult and perhapsbeyond our powers. Not liking the appear­ance of the northern end of the ridge near­est to us, we passed in front of the summitcomb to try the southern approach, whichwas not likely to be worse and might beeasier than the forbidding northern knifeedge.A snow-slope led up to the beginning ofthe final south ridge. Though very steep,the footing was good in the lower part, buthigher up the snow covering became thin,and slippery ice lay beneath. Laboriouslythe man in advance chopped deep steps intothe underlying ice with his ice-axe. Atone time some protruding rocks in the ridgeseemed likely to afford relief from thetedious step cutting, but a coating of icemade them wholly impracticable. Weveered to the right out on the east snow­face where the clinometer gave a slope of47°. One of us with crampons (ten one­inch-and-a-half sharp steel spikes in a framestrapped on each boot) felt secure in kick­ing deep steps up the snow slope, giving theother the advantage of the rope in case of aslip. Finally we worked over a narrowsnow saddle and up a short arete, till thesummit snow-cap effectively blocked the wayjust below the top. Two alternative meansof circumventing the final obstacle presentedthemselves-to crawl around under thesnow-boss to a uninviting snow slope on theleft, or to climb about ten feet of nearlyvertical rock on the right. We chose thelatter, got up the ledge with some difficulty,and at three minutes after five' stood to­gether on the splendid summit of KiwaPeak.I t was a piece of great good fortune inthis rainiest of seasons that, during the fewminutes spent on the summit, the view wasunobstructed in all directions. Large cumulus clouds, traveling fast in a highwind, missed the highest peaks by narrowmargins. The eastern Cariboos, mappedin I924, were viewed with lively satisfac­tion- and a renewed appreciation of theirexceptional grandeur. Beyond them, along stretch of the less beautiful but stillrugged Rockies framed the picture in thatdirection. Quite a large portion of thelittle-known northern Gold Range was infull view to the southeast. But the un­known regions to the southwest, west, andnorthwest commanded most of the timeavailable. Beneath the western sun a vastarray of serrate peaks and glittering snow­fields stretched as far as the eye could se.e.They will afford an enticing field forfuture exploration, but the mountain­building to the west has been on a less ma­jestic scale which makes it finally certainthat the grandest of the Cariboos have beennow mapped and climbed. It was possibleto work out satisfactorily much of the Shu­swap drainage system to the west of KiwaPeak.A tiny, snowy platform, perhaps tenfeet square, was the summit of Kiwa Peak.As there were no rocks whatever on thesummit and the small ledge of firm rockexposed just below the top afforded toolittle loose material, no cairn could beerected and no record of the ascent wasleft on top. The record was later left atour bivouac where we arrived in the even­ing after a swift descent.Soon after turning into the sleeping bags,snow began to fall again and continuedintermittently through the night. It tookthree days to reach the railroad on the re­turn, but even the continued drenchingrains could not lessen the jubilant feelingof victory. We had succeeded in spite ofthe rainiest early summer in the memoryof the settlers of the upper Fraser Valley,and to this was added the satisfaction ofknowing that we had stood on Kiwa'sgrand summit during one of very few clearintervals in all the seventeen days spent inthe Cariboos.MORE CARIBOO CLIMBSKiwa Peak photographed by Allen Carpe during the fine weather of 1924 ..Ink line shows the route of ascent in 1927. The bivouac above the upper ice­fall was to the right of the edge of the picture and somewhat lower down.View toward the south from summit of Kiwa Peak.Cinderella and HistoryFinnish Folklore with Many Versions of Such Tales, Throws NewLz'ght on European Culture.By ARCHER TAYLORONE fine day last month the mail­man brought to the University anunassuming parcel from Finland, the fore­runner of many similar shipments to come.The parcel contained a hundred or moreFinnish versions of a widely told fairy-tale,How the Six Champions Made their Wayin the World, a story which is found inthe Household Tales of the BrothersGrimm. Later the University will re­ceive some additional texts which willbring the total for this particular storyup to 175 and will thus put at the disposalof American students every version of thisstory which has been taken down in Fin­land.I t is merely the chance convenience ofour European helpers that this story is thefirst to he sent. Within the next sixmonths all the ordinary fairy-tale's whichhave been recorded in Finland will havebeen copied and translated for the Uni­versity; more than a hundred texts both ofPuss in Boots and Cinderella are thus tobe made available. Some stories arecuriously enough much less abundant; thereare about twenty versions each of Beautyand the Beast and of Little Snow-White.These stories are first copied in fullfrom the original Finnish manuscripts;then a translation into English is writtenin between the lines. Already more thaneight thousand pages of text have beentypewritten and twenty-five hundred pageshave been translated. The total numberof pages (somewhat smaller than the ordi­nary sheet of typewriter paper) is estimatedat twelve thousand. Rouva Helmi Krohn,one of the best translators from Englishinto Finnish, has done a large part of thetranslating. She is known among theFinns as the author of a book on JackLondon and as the translator of Grimms'Household Tales. It may occur to some one to ask why somany tales have been collected in Finland,and why they are of any importance to us.When one reviews the history of the col­lection of popular lore throughout the pastcentury, one notices almost immediately acurious fact: the interest in traditionalmaterials is in direct proportion to theefforts which the group exerted to maintainits existence. During almost all the nine­teenth century the Finns were strugglingto assert themselves against Swedish andRussian influences which threatened tooverwhelm their cultural life. In the sameway the Lett and the Lithuanian foughtagainst the Russian tide, the Norwegianendeavored to free himself from Danishinfluence, the Dane felt himself endangeredby German culture, the Low Germanstruggled against High German tendencies.One and all collected folktales, ballads, andevery scrap of traditional and' popularmaterial as evidence of a distinct cultureand language. From Italy and Greece wehave an abundance of material for the samereason. On the other hand we have rela­tively little from such countries as GreatBritain, France, or Spain, which felt theirnational and linguistic peculiarities to be inno danger. In such countries it is the sub­ject nationalities which strive for self-ex­pression: the Welsh, the Irish, and theScotch, the Bretons, or the Catalani. N 0-where in Europe was this struggle fornational existence more bitter than in Fin­land and here, too, it was most definitelyand completely associated with nationaltraditions, for the rallying-point of allFinnish factions was the Kalevala, an epicformed of folksongs.The collection of these Finnish tales isa chapter in the long and stormy history ofthe struggle for a Finnish national culture.Only a score of texts is older than 183 I,3l.lCINDERELLA AND HISTORYthe year of the foundation of the FinnishLiterary Society. From that year on col­lectors were constantly being sent out towrite down the folk songs which Lonnrotwas combining into the national epic, theKalevala. In their idle moments when nosongs were to be found a few collectorsrioted down fairy-tales, and by 1850 thenumber had become sufficiently numerousto justify their publication. The appear­ance of this collection in the years from1852 to 1866 proved to be a great stimulusto the collection of tales and materialspoured into the archives of the Society.Interest later subsided, until ProfessorKaarle Krohn made his journeys through­out Finland in 1883, 1884, and 1885 tocollect tales. His efforts added no lessthan 8,500 new items to the list and rough­ly doubled the size of the collections.Everywhere he went he found the greatestinterest in his undertaking. In one villagehe had written down all the tales his in­formants could give and had ordered hishorse brought to the door to ride on; butwhile he was waiting for the horse to come,some one thought of a new story. Onestory led to another, and for "three days hefound it impossible to leave the village.On another occasion he had written downall the stories current in a village and wasbeing rowed across a lake to his nextstopping-place when he noticed that the boywho was rowing him was weeping. Onasking the reason he learned that the boyhad not had his chance to tell a story. Theboy's story, a version of the Cupid andPsyche legend, is in the collection.Since the addition of Professor Krohn'scollections to the treasures of the FinnishLiterary Society, its resources have grownslowly and steadily. There has been nospectacular increase such as marked thedecade 1800-90, in which period aloneperhaps 15,000 texts were added. To­day probably 30,000 to 35,000 storiesare available, although of these perhapshalf are simple jests or animal stories whichare usually of less value. The Finnish Liter­ary Society has generously consented to thecopying and trarislating of such of these tales as might interest us, and the Universityhas been fortunate in enlisting the help ofProfessor Krohn to supervise the wholeundertaking. All the magic tales are beingcopied and translated.In answer to the second question-whythese stories interest us-one can say im­mediately that the investigation and studyof Finnish folktales has a direct and veryimportant relation to the history of folk­tradition in general. "From southern andwestern Europe, tales were carried northto Denmark and then, after passingthrough Sweden, they found a final rest­ing place in Finland. In the same way theSlavic stock of tradition made its waynorthward across the plains and marshesof southern Russia to leave an ineffaceableimprint on east Finnish tradition. Finnishtradition represents therefore a fusion ofeastern and western traditions, a minglingof Latin, Germanic, and Slavic cultures.One can no longer hope to recover manyversions of the familiar tales from the folkeither in Germany or in England. More­over, such English or German stories aswe might find are likely to be so fragmen­tary and so corrupt that we can put littlereliance on them. The Finnish versionsseem in general to preserve an earlier andmore perfect stage in tradition.But in answering one question we haveraised another: why do we need such largenumbers of texts? To this the answer is thatthe method of study consists in the detailedcomparison of the smallest elements in thetales. By tabulating all the variations inone element of a folk-tale it is often possibleto recognize immediately a drift in the tra­dition, a progressive corruption which tellsus the path over which the story has trav­eled. Thus in a simple story which occursto me at the moment we can see howChristma:s in "the versions from Protestantwestern Finland yields place to festivals ofeven more distinctly religious associationsas we go eastward toward Greek Catholicdistricts. Elsewhere we can see the south­ern scenery fading out of the picture as thestory gradually makes its way toward theNorth: orange and lemon trees become lessTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEand less frequent, and nut trees takes theirplaces. Occasionally we can trace the in­fluence of a single book on popular tradi­tion. Perrault's, French version of Cin­derella (1697) is probably the first versionin which the heroine wears glass slippersto the ball. All versions which come direct­ly or indirectly from this book can beidentified at once by this detail. The ex­planation for the strange material of Cin­derella's slippers is found in a misunder­standing of a French word for fur whichhad become obsolete and which sounded verymuch like the word for glass. Clearlyenough such a confusion is only possible inFrench, and it follows that every versionin which this confusion appears must betraced back to a French original. Anyoneof a story's myriad details will yield in­formation on close study. Sooner or laterwe will find a trait which gives some indi­cation of the country or age in which thestory was invented. We may find thatoranges are essential to the story and thenconclude that it came from the Mediter­ranean or that, since the story involves chiv­alry, it must have been invented in the Middle Ages. Of course we must not goso far as did that impetuous scholar whodeclared that Cinderella's jealous sistersare faint reminiscences of the quarrels ofpolygamous wives in a Hindu household.These Finnish tales afford a convenientstarting point in studying the history ofEuropean popular tradition. When wehave thus traced the history of several taleswe shall learn a great deal about the natureof European culture and the forces whichshaped it. We may hope to learn, for ex­ample, which stories are characteristic ofGerman tradition and which of Frenchand in this way come to some sound notionregarding the essential differences betweenthe German and the French ways of look­ing at life. We may hope to learn theextent to which Hindu story altered andenlarged the stream of European tradition.We may discover the relations of thesefolk-tales to medieval romance and to thechanging cultures of later ages. On theseimportant problems the seemingly insignifi­cant parcel from Finland with its handfulof tales will throw new light.A recent view of University Chapel.A Cathedral in the MakingWork on the vaulted ceiling of theChapel.The tiles, shown in the picture to theleft, are of many colors.The Story of the University of ChicagoBy THOMAS WAKEFIELD GOODSPEEDXIII.Reprinted through courtesy of the' University of Chicago PressSOME INTERESTING BUILDINGSTHE year Ig01 will always beremembered in the annals of theUniversity as the year of the De­cennial Celebration. Nothing in the historyof that year stands out more prominentlythan the fact that it introduced anothergreat era of building.Ellis Hall, standing on the southwestcorner of Ellis Avenue and Fifty-eighthStreet, a temporary brick, one-story struc­ture with a flat roof, covering 20,000 squarefeet and having thirty large rooms, was thefirst building completed. It was built pri­marily for the School of Education. It wasneeded in a hurry. The contract was letAugust g, Ig01, and on October I thecompleted building was occupied by thenew School. It cost $25,000 and did notadd to the architectural beauty of the quad­rangles, but for a quarter of a century itserved many useful purposes.The next two buildings were providedby the bounty of Mr. Rockefeller. Findingthat the University, which had adaptedvarious makeshifts to supply its buildingswith heat, was in the most distressing needof a heat, light, and power plant, he senthis own engineer to Chicago and throughhim, at a cost of $445,000, built the greatplant running north of Fifty-eighth Streeton the west side of the alley between Ellisand Ingleside avenues. When finally com­pleted, it covered an area of I 7,000 squarefeet, the great smokestack rising I 75 feetinto the air.For many years the University Press washoused in the temporary gymnasium andlibrary building. Its quarters were dark,cramped, and wholly inadequate. If theyhad been called a' disgrace to the U niver­sity there would have been no adequateanswer. As the University grew and thedemands on the Press increased thesequarters became more and more impossible.Once more, therefore, Mr. Rockefeller came to the relief of the sorely pressed trus­tees, and provided the funds for what wasknown as the University Press Building.I t was located on the northwest corner ofEllis Avenue and Fifty-eighth Street. AsMr. Rockefeller was to be at the U niver­sity during the Decennial Celebration, thefoundations were prepared for the layingof the cornerstone at that time. The cere­mony took place on June 15 in the pres­ence of a large attendance of spectators.The building was finished and occupiedOctober I, Ig02. It was built of red pressedbrick, four stories in height, with a fronton Ellis Avenue of I40 feet, and it cost$I05,852. It furnished classrooms for theLaw School for two years, offices for theauditor, registrar, secretary of the board,and superintendent of Buildings andGrounds for many years, and for ten yearshoused the general library. On the firstfloor the Press conducted the bookstoreuntil that growing concern found largerquarters in Ellis Hall and was replacedby the Information Office and the FacultyExchange, or post-office.In 'IgOO 'Mrs. Charles Hitchcock gavethe University, on an annuity basis, $200,-000, of which $150,000 was designated forthe erection of a dormitory for young menas a memorial of her husband, who hadbeen .a prominent Chicago lawyer. He hadbeen the president of the convention ofI86g-70 which framed the present stateconstitution of Illinois. The plans for theCharles Hitchcock Hall were prepared byArchitect D. H. Perkins. The cornerstonewas laid by Mrs. Hitchcock, June IS, IgOI.The hall was completed and occupied bystudents October I, I g02. It was the largestof the residence halls, having, not onlyrooms for ninety-three students, but a club­room, infirmary, breakfast room, and alarge and attractive library room. A cloisterrunning along the south front united theTHE STORY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOfive divisions and gave unity to the whole.The building was at the northwest cornerof the original site, looking north on Fifty­seventh Street.The cornerstones of six buildings werelaid during the Decennial Celebration ofJune, IgOr. It was at this time that DeanGeorge Vincent said in one of his speechesthat the makers of the program for theCelebration had evidently been controlledby this principle: "When in doubt lay acornerstone." Four of these cornerstoneswere laid on June 18, the last day of theCelebration. These represented the fourbuildings on the southwest corner of Fifty­seventh Street and University Avenue,known as the Tower Group-HutchinsonHall, Mitchell Tower, Reynolds ClubHouse, and Mandel Assembly Hall. Thefunds for this noble group were providedby Charles L. Hutchinson, John J. Mit­chell, Harold F. McCormick, LeonMandel, Mr. Rockefeller, and the estate ofJoseph Reynolds.The Mitchell Tower was made the cen­tral feature of the group. It was modeledafter the famous Magdalen Tower of Ox­ford. To Oxford also the architect, CharlesA. Coolidge, went for the plan of the din­ing-hall, finding the original in the diningMitchell Tower and part of HutchinsonCommons .)19hall of Christ Church. In the grouping ofthe four buildings Hutchinson Hall wasplaced west of the Tower along Fifty­seventh Street. East of the Tower andrunning south on University Avenue wasthe Reynolds Club House. The entrancethrough the Tower led to a cloister twentyfeet wide extending along the west sideof the Club House and leading to MandelAssembly Hall, which was the southernbuilding of the group. The Tower gaveentrance to the Commons, and the cloisterto the Commons Cafe and the Club Houseas well as to Mandel Hall. Two doorsalso connected the cloister with HutchinsonCourt. Mandel Hall opened on the streetand on the court at both front and rear,giving ample entrances and exits. The for­mal opening of the Group took place De­cember 22, 1903, though the various build­ings had been occupied in the precedingOctober. The cost of the entire groupwas $424,000. The University never ex­pended money more profitably than in theerection of this beautiful group of buildings.In the Tower were installed the AliceFreeman Palmer Chimes. In the great hallof Hutchinson were hung portraits of theFounder, presidents, and others. Therethe men students took their meals, Con­vocation receptions were held, alumni ban­quets, football feasts, and other festivitiestook place, making it a center of U niver­sity social life. Reynolds was the centerof the social life of the men students,while Mandel with its concerts, dramaticperformances, lectures, educational con­ferences, oratorical contests, intercollegiatedebates, athletic mass-meetings, daily chapelassemblies, Sunday preaching services, Con­vocations, and other assemblies was a placeof multiplied interests.While the Tower Group was going upanother interesting building was provided.The gymnasium was made possible by thecontribution of $150,000 from A. C.Bartlett, a member of the board of trustees.Mr. Bartlett had lost his well-lovedyounger son in July, I900, and, desiring tobuild a memorial of his boy, who, at thetime of his death was a student in Harvard,he made this large donation for the erection320 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof the Frank Dickinson Bartlett Gym­nasium. It was located on UniversityAvenue north of Fifty-seventh Street, open­ing to the east on the avenue and to thewest on the athletic field. The cornerstonewas laid on Thanksgiving Day, November28, Ig01, in the presence of a crowd ofenthusiastic students. The dedication tookplace January 2g, I g04. The building cost$238,000. The memorial window, givenby J. G. Hibbard, over the front entrance,representing the crowning of Ivanhoe byRowena, and the mural painting in theentrance picturing athletic contests wereattractive features.On the wall above the door facing thefront entrance Was a shield bearing thefollowing inscription:Litt erae ViresTOTHE ADVANCEMENT OFScientiaPHYSICAL EDUCATIONANDTHE GLORY OF MANLY SPORTSTHIS GYMNASIUM Is DEDICATEDTO THE MEMORY OFFRANK DICKINSON BARTLETTA.D. 1880- I gooThis shield and inscription and themural painting of which they were thecentral features were the work of FrankBartlett's brother, Frederic C. Bartlett.The Law Building of the Universitydoes not bear the name of any donor. Itwaits a contribution from someone who hasthe honorable ambition of connecting hisname with the Law School and the Uni­versity. That the School should, have abuilding was taken for granted, but noone being found to supply the funds, Mr.Rockefeller advanced them until 'some pa­tron should appear who would pay for thebuilding and give it a name. The U ni­versity is still looking for such a patron.The Law Building had the great distinc­tion of bringing to the University PresidentTheodoreRoosevelt to lay its cornerstone.On the day of that ceremony a special Con­vocation was held and the degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred on the illustriousguest. The day was April 2, Ig03, a red­letter day in the history of the University.Mr. Roosevelt said in the course of hisaddress:We need to produce; not genius, not bril­liancy, but the homely, commonplace, elementalvirtues . . . Brilliancy and genius? Yes,if we can have them in addition to the othervirtues . . . You need honesty, you needcourage, and you need common sense. Aboveall you need them in the work to be done inthe building the cornerstone of which we havelaid today, the Law School out of which are tocome the men who at the bar and on the benchmake and construe, and in construing make, thelaws of this country; the, men who must teachby their actions to all our people that thisis in fact essentially a government of orderlyliberty under the law.The Law Building was finished andoccupied at the opening of the SpringQuarter, 1904. Its cost was $248,653. Itwas three stories high, 175 feet long, and80 feet wide, built like the other buildings'of Bedford stone in the English Gothicstyle of architecture. It was designed byShepley, Rutain & Coolidge.Adolphus C. BartlettThe first permanent. building of theSchool of Education was a part of the greatcontribution of Mrs. Emmons Blaine. Theplans were made by the 'architect, JamesTHE STORY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOGamble Rogers. The building was finishedand occupied in October, 1903. It cost$394,500. In January, 1904, it was namedEmmons Blaine Hall in memory of Mrs.Blaine's deceased husband, .Emmons Blaine,son of Hon. James G. Blaine. The dedi­cation of the building, delayed until MayI, 1904, was celebrated with elaborate cere­monies continuing through two days. Thehall covered the entire Fifty-ninth Streetfront of the block between Kimbark andKenwood avenues, and, with its wings, ex­tended 160 feet north on both theseavenues. The main building was designedto give the best possible accommodationsfor the College for Teachers, the Ele­mentary School, and the Kindergarten,laboratory schools for the College.The plan of organization of the Schoolof Education made the Chicago ManualTraining. School and the South Side Acad­emy constituent parts of it and contem­plated the union of these schools into theUniversity High School. A building wasneeded, therefore, for the High School, andplans for it �ere made.The cornerstone was laid with much cer­emony in connection with the June, 1903,Convocation, and the building was finishedin May, 1904, and was dedicated at thesame time as Emmons Blaine Hall. In thededicatory exercises the Commercial Clubof Chicago, which founded the ManualTraining School, was officially representedby Mr. A. C. Bartlett, who made an ad­dress on behalf of the Club. The cost ofthe building was $220,000 and was de­frayed almost entirely by the proceeds ofthe sale of the old Manual Training Schoolproperty on Michigan Avenue and TwelfthStreet. The new building was named Bel­field Hall in honor of H. H. Belfield, whowas principal of the Chicago ManualTraining School from its establishment in1882 until it became the University HighSchool in 1903, and who continued as adean of that School until his retirementin 1908, a period of twenty-six years.Belfield Hall was located north ofEmmons Blaine Hall and extended acrossthe middle of the block, fronting on both 321Kenwood and Kimbark avenues. The three­story structures on these avenues were con­nected by the' one-story shops devoted tomanual training, making a single buildingfour hundred feet in length, along theentire south side of which ran a widecorridor giving convenient access to all therooms of the first floor. The High Schoolsoon outgrew even this large building andcompelled the transformation of a large ad­jacent apartment building on KimbarkAvenue into recitation rooms.When in October, 1902, the Universityadopted what was popularly known as thepolicy of segregation, in accordance withwhich the men and women students of theJunior Colleges were to meet in separateclasses, two buildings were needed for thetwo sexes. Ellis Hall was assigned to theJunior College men and another temporarybuilding was erected for the Junior Collegewomen. I t was located on the east sideof Lexington, now University Avenue,midway between Fifty-eighth and Fifty­ninth streets, and was named LexingtonHall. It was built of pressed brick andmade a better appearance than Ellis Hall.I t contained fourteen recitation rooms, a'library room, a large luncheon room, arest room, executive offices, and cloakrooms. The Young W omen's ChristianLeague and other organizations of womenstudents were assigned rooms in the build­ing. Connected with the main structurewas a women's gymnasium. Lexington Hallwas built during the wi�ter of 1902-3and was occupied in the Spring Quarter of1903·The thirteen buildings of the period hereunder review cost $2,313,000, a sum con­siderably in excess of that of the first twoeras of building combined. They addedimmensely to the external equipment of theUniversity, making that equipment, notentirely, but more nearly commensuratewith its needs. The architectural plan,which had been looked upon as a dream ofenthusiasts that might be realized in a hun­dred years perhaps, was actually material­izing in enduring stone before men's eyes,and nothing any longer seemed impossible.Among Our AncestorsSome Leading Citizens of an Earlier World Come to Life.By ALFRED S. ROMERHOUSED in Walker Museum is acollection of fossil vertebrates thatdespite its small size ranks among the mostimportant in the country. Two or threeof the old established museums on the At­lantic seaboard must be acknowledged assuperior in value to it, and lack of spaceand money prevent us from exhibiting.some of the large and "showy" types, suchas dinosaurs. But it is probably not anexaggeration to say that from a scientificstandpoint the collection is the most valu­able one west of the Alleghanies.Work in vertebrate paleontology hasbeen incorporated in the university programalmost from the beginning. Among thegroup of distinguished men who came toChicago in 1892 from Clark Universitywas Dr. George Baur, a German by birthwho had been trained at Yale Universityunder Marsh, one of the pioneers in fossilcollecting in this country. Baur soon fellill, 'however, and after a few years returnedto Germany and died. He was a compara­tively young man, of great promise, andhis loss was keenly felt.Vertebrate paleontologists are none tooplentiful, and some years elapsed before, in1902, the place was filled by the appoint­ment of the late Dr. Samuel W. Willis­ton. He too had been trained by Marsh,but finding irksome Marsh's pleasant habitof publishing all the work done in his de­partment under his own name, he hadstudied medicine as well, and had finallyreturned to his home state (Kansas) tobecome dean of the medical school as wellas paleontologist. Williston was at thattime one of the greatest authorities on fossilreptiles in the world, and at the time ofhis death here in 1918 was the unques­tioned leader in this field; his posthumousbook on the reptiles, recently published bythe Harvard University Press, is the stand­ard work on the subject. After Williston's death the teachingpost was again vacant until the writer cameto the University from the AmericanMuseum of Natural History in 1923.But paleontology cannot be taught with­out bones, and one professor does not makea museum. One cannot be at the sametime a scientist and a skilled field andlaboratory man; the collection and preser­vation of fossils is a task for a skilledtechnician. During Dr. Baur's time twocollecting trips were made by one of hisstudents (Professor E. C. Case, now ofthe University of Michigan). Little wasdone with the collection after Baur's death·one chunk of rock which later proved tocontain a fine skeleton now mounted inthe Museum, was used by a janitor foryears as a stepping-stone to reach a base­ment window! When Dr. Willistoncame, it was thought that connections withthe Field. Museum (then in Jackson Park)might supply the lack of specimens. Buteven. at that time it was certain that thatinstitution was to move to the Grant Parksite, and it was seen that it would benecessary for the University to build upits own collections. So in 1907 Mr. PaulC. Miller, then of the American Museumwas added to our staff, and the collectio�and preservation of fossil vertebrates hasbeen in his hands during the past 20 years.Miller, by birth a Dane partly of Eng­lish descent, felt the wanderlust whenyoung and eventually became a Wyomingcowpuncher. Meeting one summer aparty from the American Museum col-·lecting dinosaurs near Medicine Bow, hebecame interested, took a job as a memberof the party and entered on what was toprove his life work. For such a position,two things are necessary: ability to findand collect fossils in the field, and to dothe delicate work of preparing and mount­ing them once they have reached thelaboratory. As a "prospector" he is, I322AMONG OUR ANCESTORSthink, unequalled; and as to his laboratorywork, the specimens speak for themselves.Nearly every vertebrate specimen inWalker Museum has been collected andmounted by him; the Museum is a monu­ment to the interest and industry of oneman alone.As one looks at a mounted skeleton in amuseum, it would seem that not muchlabor is involved. The general idea is, Ithink, that the collector merely goes outand picks up a skeleton, brings it backand sets it up. But it is' not as simpleas it seems.Finding fossils is the first, and oftenone of the most difficult tasks. They donot "grow" everywhere. Many greatregions in the west are absolutely barren;while even in regions which are consideredgood collecting grounds there are oftenstretches where no fossils will be found formiles. Almost never does the collectordig into the ground without first seeinga projecting piece of bone; for in eventhe richest of spots, the chances are thatthere will not he a .bone between you andChina. And often even fragments leadingto a "prospect" are scarce. Except forthe lack of financial rewards, the gameis not unlike that of hunting gold. Andfinding a really good specimen after daysor sometimes weeks of discouragement,has a "kick" in it that is hard to' describe.But when the specimen is found, thedirty work begins. If the inexperiencedcollector should try merely to pry thebones out of the ground, he would findthat he would' have little to reward him;for the fossils are often soft and crumbly,and such an attempt would leave him withnothing but hopeless fragments in hishands. Once the "prospect" is located,it is "explored"; the earth and rock arecarefully worked away all around it, atfirst perhaps with the prospector's pick,then, when dangerously near the fossil,with smaller tools, until it can be seenhow much of the animal is there. Oftenthere is next to nothing; one charges thetime up to profit and loss and goes on tothe next prospect. But if there really isa skeleton or skull or something else worth while, the bones are left as far as possibleundisturbed in a block of rock, with atrench cut around its sides.Then an old burlap bag and a pot offlour paste come into action. The burlapis cut into strips, dipped in the paste, andthen patted down over the top and sidesof the block. A few hours in the hotprairie sun, and the "bandage" is as hardas iron; the block can be pried loose fromthe rock underneath, the bottom similarlytreated, and the final product is usuallytough enough to stand the roughest han­dling. (Incidentally, this trick-quitesimple once you know it-was inventedby a collector who had previously been asurgeon; his first attempt was an imitationof a plaster cast for a broken limb.)In the early days collecting entailedconsiderable hardship. There was oftendanger from Indians (on one of Williston'searly trips the Indians spared the party,because of awe �f the expedition leader'sfalse teeth), and even later an expeditionwas far from a picnic. For fossils, theremust be good outcrops; for good outcropsthere must be an arid country; this meansno civilization and usually not much water.An expedition would trek out of thenearest town with the entire expedition'ssupplies and camp near some water hole,the contents of which were often none toopalatable. With the advent of the flivver,.however, much of the old unpleasantnessof' the task is gone. It is often possibleta>' put up with the nearest rancher or even.enjoy the comparative luxury of the small.town hotel.Once the specimen has reached thelaboratory and the burlap removed fromthe block, the most delicate part of Miller's.task begins. The matrix containing thebones is often a very hard rock, while thefossils themselves are usually compara­tively soft and brittle. This matrix mustall be carefully cleaned away. A slip ofan awl point, or a wrongly directed chiselblow, and the specimen may be ruined.The bones must be hardened with shellacor gum arabic. Broken fragments must bepieced together (sometimes this is moreintricate than the most complicated j ig-THE UNIVERS1TY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEDA-The skeleton of a flesh-eating lizard as it was found in the rocks of Texas. Thiscreature lived when vertebrates were beginning to emerge from the water. B-A smaller lizardas reconstructed by Paul C. Miller, Assistant Curator of Walker Museum. The beginningof an armor-like structure may be seen on its back. C- The Two-Horned Rhinoceros assembledby Mr. Miller from such a mass of bones as is shown in G. These animals roamed theplains of Nebraska in great numbers. D- The skull of the fin-backed lizard Dimetrodon.Almost all the animals of the Permian Age went to make up this creature's diet. E-Mr.Miller at work upon a family group of Oreodons. Great herds of these animals, distantlyrelated to the pig. the camel, and the deer. once filled the Western Plains. F-The Ship­Lizard, so called because the spines with their lateral projections resemble the mast of a shipAMONG OUR ANCESTORSwith their yard-arms. The spines were connected by a membrane so as to form a fin. Thisanimal's teeth and claws were not adapted to a meat diet. It is believed to have livedin the uplands where it would be safe from the attacks of the Dimetrodon, shown opposite.G-A slab taken from the famous Agate Spring Quarry in eastern Nebraska-a layer of bonesfrom 6 to 20 inches thick and underlying an entire hill with an area of 4,000 square feet. Thebones are those of rhinoceroses that came to drink in a pool. The quicksand in which theywere caught protected their bones from decay and from washing away, but its shiftingmovement shuffled them till only an expert can reassemble them. H-The Dimetrodon, terror ofthe Permian Jungle. Many of his bones, broken and healed again, give evidence of a warlikeexistence. This specimen is about fifteen feet long. .THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEsaw puzzle). And then finally comes thetask of assembling the parts and mountingfor exhibition. All this takes time andpatience. In one case, for example, sixmonths of Miller's time was consumed inthe prepatation of a nodule little biggerthan a man's fist. But the result was aunique specimen, and scientists from asfar away as Russia have come to Chicagowith the study of this skull as the mainobject of their visit.Seeking a field where the greatestscientific value could be obtained, and lack­ing both space and money for collectionof the larger and more showy types, theMuseum early specialized on the collectionof fossils from the Permian Red Beds ofTexas. At the time these beds were laiddown, the vertebrates had just emergedonto the land from the water, and werebeginning to diverge into types leading notonly to the dinosaurs and other reptilesbut into the line leading to the mammals,and eventually to man. This was fromthe scientific point of view a period ofabsorbing interest, and in the finds madeby Miller and described by Williston andhis students much new light was shed uponthis early period of our ancestry. Many of the forms discovered in these beds bythe Museum are unique, and have neverbeen found before or since by otherworkers. Most of them are of modestsize, but in a few cases (such as the longspined reptiles illustrated here) they di­verged into weird specializations. Inorder to round out the teaching collections,work has been done in other fields inrecent years, and a series of fossil mammalsis being built up. But the Texas field;on which the scientific reputation of thecollection has been made, has not beenforgotten, and work will be going on thereat the time that this statement appears.For the American Permian our collectionis the best in the world. The only othercollecting field of importance in thePermian is at a slightly later horizon inSouth Africa, where remains have beenfound indicating that our mammalianancestors were beginning to emerge fromthe reptile stage. No professional col­lector has ever entered that field, and it isour hope that some day it will be theprivilege-and duty-of. Walker Museumto contribute by our collections and stud­ies to this related chapter in the evolutionof life.A portion of the upper ice-fall encoun­tered by Professor Chamberlin in theascent of Kiwa Peak. A buttress of thePeak in the distance.A Real ChicagoThe Racket: Melodrama in Three Acts, by Bartlett Cormack. Samuel French,New York, 1927. $1.50.T HOSE who enjoyed. the game of"Hidden Names," popularized bySamuel Hopkins Adams in "Revelry" willfind new and exciting material in this grislyphotograph of Chicago politics and crime.The author, to be sure, denies, in his pref­ace, both of the implications of the forego­ing sentence. His characters, he says, areimaginary; he is immensely annoyed thatthey have been identified with various per­sons 'mighty in authority and means'­rightly so, if we can believe the rumor thatthis identification is responsible for the factthat we have been denied the privilege ofwitnessing a performance of the play inChicago! Nor is the author, he maintains,a photographer, phonograph, or dictaphone,but a playwright, who has produced appar­ent verity from unrelated and essentiallyfictitious incidents. Unrelated the incidentsmay be, but even a casual spectator of themoving pageant of Chicago's gangland mustunavoidably be reminded of actual occur­rences fresh in his memory. There is the"bootleg king," brazen in the immunity hehas purchased from local and federal author­ities; the "gluttonous Republican" faction,so-called because of its refusal to concedeits rivals a single place on the ticket, protect­ing the gang leader in return for his deliveryof the vote of the "river wards." There isthe police captain transferred to the "sticks"because he dared to assert that he and notthe redoubtable "Nick" was boss of hisdistrict; the assistant State's Attorney, can­didate for County Judge, decent at bottombut suppressing his occasional qualms ofconscience by the reflection that since "youcan't beat the Organization you've 'got toplay with it." There is the "Old Man"lurking powerfully in the background; his "secretary" who got "too big for his shoes"and had his head blown off in consequence.There are the "pre-election raids" on housesof prostitution, the slimy attorney readywith his writ of habeas corpus at the mo­ment the gangster's failure to report at theswitchboard made it known that he hadbeen "pulled in."But why continue? Scarce a page of theplay is devoid of a biting allusion, a cynicalreflection of the Chicago that stares at usevery day between the lines of the dailypress. Reality is here; whether it arisesfrom a recital of observed events or from"the exigencies of the intrigue" is not ofparticular concern to the reviewer . Yet heis constrained to admit that, in his unin­structed opinion, the play achieves successas drama apart from the contemporary ac­curacy of its data. Faults there are, to besure. Primary elections in November area novelty, to say the least. Genuine as arethe portraits of the "Tribune" and "Ex­aminer" reporters-or so the press testifiesthe naivete of the cub graduate of a N e­brash school of journalism seems a bit-overdrawn. And the threatened revela­tions of the trapped gangster in the final actseem a little fiat. Would the world of Chi­cago politics have been rocked by the newsthat the Organization has "made thatspecial investigatin' grand jury 0' prominenthigh-hats fold up last month by condemnin'the elevators in a couple 0' million dollardepartment stores," or that it had made thegangster "pay ten grand a head for pardonsand paroles?" The denouement, however,is powerful enough. There is no happyending; the king of gangland is quietly dis­posed of in order that "gover'ment 0' theprofessionals, by the professionals, and forTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe professionals, shall not perish from theearth."More convincing than "Broadway,"painted on a broader canvas than "Chi­cago" and as salty and thought-provoking as "What Price Glory," Mr. Cormack's playjustifies in the reading its success on Broad­way. And where is our boasted "freedomof speech" if we may not see it in Chicago?C. H. WOOnDYA cartoon which appeared in it recent issue of The Phoenix.• Zooe'A Tale of WishesEden for One, by John Gunther, '22. Harper & Brothers, New York, 1927.Reprinted by courtesy of The Chicago Daily News.JOHN GUNTHER'S new "Eden forOne" is a book as charming as its title.I t is the miraculous tale of a youngman who is granted his wish that all hiswishes be granted. Every child, I suppose, has made thesame wish and Peter's early use of thepower is just what yours or mine wouldhave been at that age. Later Peter's wishesmature and his gift plays curious tricks onhim in the world of his own conjuring.The book has delicacy and charm andhumor and excitement. Its manner is sim­ple and its content wise. Following on theheels of "The Red Pavilion," "Eden forOne" is a surprise. It is as though Mich­ael Arlen, after publishing "The GreenHat," had written James Stephens' "Deir­dre."Though the manner and dress of the twobooks are completely unlike, there is a defi­nite family resemblance between Richard of""The Red Pavilion" and Peter Lancelot.Their strivings are to determine the reasonof things. Though Peter looks for thetruth of the whole and Richard for thebasis, the reason of things, Peter's and Rich-BOOKS 329ard's (and doubtless John Gunther's) de­sire is always to see clearly, and theirprocesses toward this end are admirablyand, in a sense, similarly unrolled. Rich­ard's efforts require the conquest of manyconcrete social obstacles. Peter unwittinglycreates many similar obstacles for himself.The book will perhaps be compared toJ urgen, and it is high praise to say thatPeter Lancelot will not suffer. Gunther'sbook lacks Jurgen's ferocious brilliance andits recondite collection of sociological,mythological and pseudo-mythological data.But "Eden for One" is written with great­er care. Its style is more simple and itsirony more tempered.LEONARD D. WElL• • •10, lilY 01)ll1JOnBy FRED B. MILLETT, Assistant Professor of EnglishSEAN O'CASEY, the bricklayer­dramatist, is the most importantacquisition of the Irish drama sinceYeats persuaded Synge to abandon theFrench decadents for the Aran islanders.In the nineteen years since the tragic deathof Synge, no conspicuous talent has ap­peared to renew one's interest in theAbbey Theatre. Though O'Casey is "nota talent of the same magnitude as Synge,yet the recent exhibition of two of hisplays in America demonstrated that hiswork is of international importance.I must confess that O'Casey's plays arethe most disquieting dramas I have en­countered since Werfel's Goat-Song andGranville Barker's The Secret Life. Andthe grounds for the disquiet are not dis­similar: in each instance, it is one's abidinguncertainty as to the precise intention ofthe author. If Werfel veils his meaning inambiguous symbolism, and Barker leavesto his reader the solution of his tangentialdrama, O'Casey remains bafflingly aloo-ffrom the world he sets before one, and ifthat world is breaking his heart, the audi­ence will never know it. To adapt a witticism of Rebecca West's, The Ploughand the Stars is not Mr. O'Casey havinga good cry over the Easter Week Rebellion.Does he find it futile, pitiable, exasperating,or tragic? Who will dare designate onecharacter among many as O'Casey's spokes­man?I suspect that these new Irish plays areprofoundly disturbing because they embodya dispassionateness which makes Gals­worthy's vaunted impersonality sound likeelectioneering. Both Juno and the Paycockand The Plough and the Stars end in dis­aster, but who shall say that the disasteris caused by English or Irish stupidity, or astupidity which O'Casey may deem uni­versal? Another cause of one's bewilder­ment is, I am sure, the diverse emotionsrepresented in the plays and aroused bythem. One need not be a true or a falseclassicist to feel distressed by the sharpjuxtaposition of farce and melodrama inJuno and the Pavcock, or of ribald humorsof the public house and Junker patriotismin the latter play. In the former case, theelements are not merely inharmonious butoutrageously discordant; the admixture is330 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEplainly inexpert. In the latter case, thecombination has an acridity more pungentthan the final emotion evoked by TheLower Depths or The Three Sisters. Ifancy it rises out of a dispassionate dis­illusionment which the recent history ofIreland might well develop in a sensitivenon-participant. Like modern music, thisnew drama refuses its hearers the consola­tion of a happy ending, a resolution of itsfundamental discord.But I would not imply that an eveningat one of Mr. O'Casey's plays is an entirelyuncomfortable experience. Noone writingfor the English or American theatre to-dayhas so deep a sense of character as thisyoung Irishman. With a fascinated atten­tion, he has conducted microscopic studiesof the denizens of the tenements. His sensi­tive nature may recoil from their vulgarityand meanness and futility, but his feelingdoes not prevent his quest for the truth.Nor does his awareness of his townsmen'sweakness blind him to their inexhaustible humor and gayety and vitality. His draw­ings, to be sure, are not all masterpieces.The school-teacher in Juno and the Pay­cock is as conventional and incredible as thevillain in Way Down East or Why GirlsLeave Horne, and the betrayed daughter isa vestige of sentimentality. Moreover, theyoung wife who goes mad in an ample Vic­torian nightgown seems an inadvertent re­turn to Sheridan's Tilburina.But any young dramatist might pointwith pride at the drunken loyalist, BessieBurgess, or the depressing but fairly re­spectable Mrs. Gogan, the class-consciousCovey, Fluther Good, the Paycock, and theutterly unsentimental but heroic Juno.And, as I suggested above, O'Casey hasmixed a drink with a decidedly new flavor.If it went to the heads of the Dubliners,one has but to imagine the effect on anAmerican audience of a serious drama onthe Ku Klux Klan, the coal strike in Penn­sylvania, or the trial of Sacco and Vanzetti.�bt mntber�ttp of C!Cbtcago jfflaga?tneEditor and Business Alanager, ALLEN HEALD, '26Advertising Manager, CHARLES J. HARRIS, '28EDITORIAL BOARD: Commerce and Administration Association-DoNALD P. BEAN,'17; Divinity Association-C. T. HOLMAN, D. B., '16; Doctors' Association-D. J.FISHER, '17, Ph.D., '22 j Law Association-CHARLES F. McELROY, A.M., '06, J. D., 'IS;School of Education Association-LILLIAN STEVENSON, '21; Rush Medical Association-�ORRI� FISHBEIN, 'II, M.D., '12.---------------------------�----------------------------HONOR scholarships providing tui·tion for the two years of Junior Col­lege work will be awarded to. sixteen menthis year on the recommenda­The Alumni tions of their high schoolExpress principals and the alumni ofThemselves the University. The alumniclubs, whenever possible, willinterview the candidates and co-operatewith principals and teachers in selectingthe men to be recommended.The alumni have here a new opportunityto determine the materials of which theUniversity shall be built. The class of '32will probably find many of its leadersamong the chosen sixteen.Plans for the improvement of the U ni­versity can be applied in their selection.WHEN it was reported that theState's Attorney had threatened direconsequences upon the production of Bart-lett Cormack's play TheThe Racket Racket in Chicago, seasonedand theater-goers shook the i rThe Racket heads. "Another press-agentstunt," they muttered.The play was unmistakably a study ofthe corrupt practices that interfere withChicago's enforcement of the law. Some of its incidents were remarkably similar toevents reported on the front pages or dis­cerned between the lines of Chicago news­papers - though Cormack insisted that hischaracters were imaginary. Broadway audi­ences and critics had seen in the playa tell­ing commentary on Chicago government.Produced in Chicago just before electiontime, The Racket would have been moredangerous than a bomb on the State'sAttorney's front porch. But many a playhas been reported "suppressed," only toblossom into a brighter popularity thanever. Theater-wise observers wondered ifthe story of the State's Attorney's threatsmight not be a publicity man's invention,paving the way for a season run in Chicago.But The Racket did not come to Chi­cago. In its home town, in the arena of itsaction, where good box-office receiptswould seem certain, it is not to be produced.A question now occurs to the seasonedtheater-goer: If the suppression report wasonly a publicity stunt, why do the pro­ducers of The Racket neglect to cash in?Some one asked Mr. Cormack a similarquestion. "Press agents be damned," hereplied. "You mean suppress agents."In the light of the evidence consideredabove, Mr. Cormack's words seem nonetoo vociferous.ALUMNIDean C. S. Boucher addressed the alumniin Springfield, Ill., at a dinner on April 9.He summarized the late developments inundergraduate guidance at the University.David H. Stevens, Assistant to the Presi­dent; reported on the. University's activ­ities at a dinner of the Alumni Club ofDetroit on April 12.The Alumni Club of Massachusetts metwith Dean Shailer Mathews at a tea onSunday afternoon, March 25. 'DeanMathews gave a short talk on Universityaffairs.The ReunionThe Alumni Council has appointed PaulS. Russell as Reunion. Chairman for 1928.Below is given a biographical sketch ofRussell. His plans for' the Reunion willbe announced in the next issue.PAUL S. RUSSELL was born at OakPark, Illinois, in 1893. He attendedthe public schools of Oak Park and theOak Park High School, where he first drewthe attention of the football world. TheOak Park High School team, on whichRussell played right halfback is remem­bered as an outstanding one among the pre­paratory schools of the country. Coachedby the famous Robert E. Zuppke, it nevermet a defeat. Seven of its members (in­cluding Russell) became college captains.Russell played quarterback at the U ni­versity for three years, including the cham­pionship year, 1913.The Bond medal for athletics and schol­arship was conferred on Russell in hisSenior year. He is a College Marshal, aBlackfriar, and a member of Delta KappaEpsilon and Owl and Serpent.After graduation he entered the serviceof the Harris Trust and Savings Bank. A F FA IHe has been in the Bond Department ofthat institution ever since. He is nowAssistant Manager and Vice-President ofthe N. W. Harris Company.The only interruption to his inv.estmentbusiness was his service in the UnitedStates Army. After going through theFirst Training Camp at Fort Sheridan hereceived a provisional Second Lieutenancyof Infantry in the regular army. He Wasassigned to the fifth regular army division,and spent about fifteen months in Franceseeing action all along the line from th�Vosges Mountains to St. Mihiel in theArgonne. On the t r th of November,1918, he was one of two officers left in hisbattalion. He was a captain of Infantryat the time of his discharge.After returning from the war he marriedCarroll Mason, '19. Three children, twogirls and a boy, now make up the Russellfamily.332A n account of the life and services of thelate James Parker Hall Dean of the LawSchool, will appear next month.r I MIT A TI 0 N of the Freshman classL to 750 and revision of the admissionrequirements have been voted by the U ni­versity, the regulations being effective nextautumn. The new admission requirements,although raising the acceptable minimumaverage for the last three years of the appli­cant's preparatory school work, will ineffect permit wider discretion in doubtfulcases.THE TRAG I C death in the ChicagoLoop of Associate Professor EmeritusS. H. Clark, of the Public Speaking De­partment, removed an educator who formany years had a wide influence upon meth­ods of teaching reading and literature.Not only in his courses and public read­ings at the University of Chicago was Pro­fessor Clark an outstanding figure in hischosen field, but as principal of the Chau­tauqua (N. Y.) School of Expression forthirty years and a successful interpreter ofliterature on the public platform he helpedto develop an appreciation of good litera­ture throughout the country. ProfessorClark was educated at the College of theCity of New York, Queens University,Canada, and the University of Chicago.TWO books by members of the facultyof the University have been named onthe list of "Forty Notable American Booksof 1926," compiled by the Amercian Li­brary Association for the League of N a­tions. Both were published by the U ni­versity Press. The list was made at therequest of the International Institute ofIntellectual Cooperation of the League,which provided that the works chosen"should deal with an important subject,in an original and interesting manner andbe capable of being read by a person of average culture." The University of Chi­cago books selected were Brains of Ratsand Men, by Charles J. Herrick, Professorof Neurology, and The Nature of theWorld and of Man, edited by ProfessorHoratio Hackett Newman. Sixteen mem­bers of the scientific faculties contributedchapters in the latter volume.ENVIRONMENT influences intel­ligence, University investigators havedetermined after an extended study of agroup of 800 children, of whom half werefoster-children. Professors Frank N.Freeman and Karl J. Holzinger found thatfoster-parents are of a standard of intelli­gence above the average and that theimproved environment of their homes issufficient to offset a heredity of adoptedchildren that is below average.The influence of the improved environ­ment is most effective when the childrenare adopted at an age of five years oryounger. By testing a group of childrenbefore placement and again after severalyears of residence in their foster homes,the investigators found a significant im­provement in intelligence, with children inbetter foster homes gaining considerablymore than those in the poorer grade ofhomes.Though available information on theparents of the children offered for adoptionindicated that a large number were of de­fective mentality, the intelligence of theadopted children was equal to the standardfor children in general. Both parents of onegroup of twenty-six adopted children wererated as feeble-minded, but only four ofthe children were found to have a low in­telligence rating. Likewise, though a largepercentage of the . children adopted hadparents who were morally defective, butfew cases of serious misbehavior were notedamong the children.333NE\vS OF THE·QUADRANGLES'(Reprinted by courtesy of the Phoenis.)ON MARCH 23, the whistle blewonce again, and the boys who takethis college seriously knocked off work fora week's respite. The rest just kept onsitting. It is good of the University totake official cognizance of the fact thatSpring's here. Many of us have shownour belief somewhat in advance of the ad­ministration that the bright days were come,chiefly i� manifesting an increased useless­ness. The second of April the cross-coun­try run resumed its course, and once morewe waste our pants and Eves away sittingin Cobb Hall's hard chairs. But, provi­dentially, there is even cheer on hand torelieve this prospect. No one familiar withthe scene around here needs to be remindedof the interscholastic basketball tourna­ment, which annually' disrupts classes for aweek. Yearly the student turns inveteratetournament hound, and in full force regis­ters his interest in the proceedings at Bart­lett Gym. Glassy-eyed he sits, hour afterhour, books and teachers forgotten, untilthe gym swims before his eyes, and phan­tom basketballs slip in monotonous succes­sion into nothingness.We were considerably surprised theother evening at the Mirror show when atroupe of robust damsels came out andstaged an interlude of gymnastic perform­ances and exhibitions of agility. This was'something of a shock to us. We thoughtthat it was customary for women to find aplace in the home (some home) and there,sitting in flimsy frocks with a copy of SmartSet and the poodle, develop feminine delica­cy on a bonbon training table. But herewere obviously well nurtured young ladies,strong of leg and sound of wind, puttingon such exercises as might well put any frat house sofa punisher to shame."Someone," we thought, observing thisspectacle, "is going to get a good little wifesome day." And we smiled, knowing thatit would not be us, for we have too muchconsideration for ourself to ever serve asthe base of a human pyramid, with the little. woman standing on our shoulders and thetwo kids balanced on our thighs wavingAmerican flags.When this publication. appears, it willbe Spring Quarter, and presumably thesun will be shining and the little birdswill be circulating and the club girls willbe sailing by with' their noses in the air intheir big open cars. We who stand on thecurb and watch them sail have only onerecourse-and that we have always had.We cannot drive in Jackson Park, we can­not steam out to Phil's, but at least nobodycan deprive us of our constitutional right ofbumping off a milk shake in the CoffeeShop. So we will do that. But it will bedark and stuffy in the Coffee Shop, as ithas a habit of being on Spring days, .andthe only breeze that will blow will cornefrom the electric fan. . And we will sitand long, as perennially we have, for thetables to be moved out on the pavement ofHutchinson Court, and we will wonderwhere (for the big cars will still sail bythen, too) we can go in the evening, andimagination will fail us. The Maroon hastraditionally waged the battle on thesematters in its editorial column. Hereagain is its yearly opportunity to be useful.334WITH forty teams representing thirty­six states the tenth annual nationalbasketball interscholastic eclipsed in interestthe beginning of the spring quarter forstudents on the Midway. This hectictournament for which students desert class­rooms and fraternity board to watch goggle­eyed from morning till night is becomingmore popular than ever before.Only state champions and a fevv teamswith outstanding records are invited.Manager H. O. Chrisler had a difficulttime with teams seeking entrance. Longdistance telephone calls and floods of tele­grams from local Chambers of Commerce,and in several instances mayors and stateofficials, pressed the claims of teams.Thirty-two of the teams are state cham­pions. Among the non-champion partici­pants are two Chicago schools: Englewood,runners-up for the city title, and Oak Park,claimant of the suburban' title. Canton,the Illinois champion, is among the en­trants. The teams come from . all cornersof the Union; there are entrants fromMaine, Florida, Washington and Arizona.A team from the United States IndianSchool, Albuquerque, N. M., with fourtribes represented on its squad, won thechampionship of New Mexico. Prior totheir embarkment for the Windy City,several coaches of the state assisted in pre­paring the squad for the tournament bygiviJ;lg them intensive drills. Another color­ful team is entered from Carr Creek ofKnott County, Kentucky, "the countywithout railroads, telephones, or tele­graphs." The boys are typical mountaineers.They practiced outdoors wearing overallsin place of the regulation suit, and theironly coaching came from a busy doctorwhenever he visited the community. At thestate meet in Lexington the team lost inthe finals to Ashland * after four overtimeBy VICTOR ROTERUS '29the good people of Lexington are footingtheir expenses to the tournament.Austin, Texas, who won the state titlein a field of 600 high schools, has a 6-foot,6-inch center and a 5-foot, 4-inch foward.The two of them have scored 679 pointsbetween them this season.I t is out of this picturesque lot at theend of a weird, nerve-racking week thatA. A. Stagg, "the Grand Old Man,"crowns what is officially and universallyaccepted as the national prep school cham­pion basketball team. Morton high ofCicero won the highest honors last year.While the rest of the students were homespending the spring vacation in eatingmuch and sleeping more, Coach FritzCrisler's ball team spent the last three daysof March in the wilds of Arkansas andMissouri hunting baseball victories. Theirthree games with St. Louis University andthe University of Arkansas ball teams areexpected to help whip them into shape forthe Conference season. Last season, the firstseason Crisler was head coach, the teamfared disastrously, getting but a single win.On April 20 and 2 I the Maroons willagain take the road, this time to playKalamazoo Normal and Michigan State.At Evanston the Maroons will engageNorthwestern in a sociable battle to openthe Big Ten season April 24. Crisler willselect as hurler one of these four: Kaplan,Zimmerman, Knowles and Ward. Thenine headed by Captain Kyle Anderson,second baseman, is comparatively inexperi­enced.The following is the schedule: At home-May I, Purdue; May 9, St. Louis; MayI 2, Northwestern; May 15, Wisconsin;May 22, Indiana; May 31, Ohio; andJune 6, Kieo University of Japan. Away­April 24, Northwestern; April 28, Purdue;MaY,5, Wisconsin; May 8, Ohio; May19, Indiana; May 26, Minnesota.periods, and made such an impression that"Winners of the 1928 Interscholastic.335NE-WS OF THE CLASSESAND ASSOCIATIONS'CollegeCandidates for the offices of the CollegeA lunini Association have been nominatedin accordance with the constitution of theA ssociation. The election, as usual, will bejust before the Reunion in June. Ballotswill be mailed to members with their Re-union notices.The nominees are listed below, with a noteof information about each.For PresidentT a Serve Two YearsWALTER LAWRENCE HUDSONwas born in Springfield, Illinois, 48years ago.At the University he served as Head College Marshal, Chairman of the Wash­ington Prom and Editor of the Cap andGown. He is a member of Delta KappaEpsilon, Iron Mask, and Owl and Serpent.He received the degree of Ph.B. in 1902.He has been connected with the HarrisTrust & Savings Bank since 1915. He isnow Manager of the Bond Department ofthat bank. An account of his observationsof college graduates in the bond businessappeared as a symposium in the July issueof this magazine upon the problem of therecent graduate in business.Mr. Hudson has taken an active part inUniversity and Alumni affairs. He wasChairman of the Alumni Reunion in 1919.He has been a member of the Alumni Coun­cil. He resides at the Hotel WindermereEast.HENRY D. SULCER, '05, is pres­ident of Vanderhoof & Company,Advertising Agents, Chicago.Mr. Sulcer has had a long and variedcareer in advertising and is widely known.For ten years previous to joining Vander­hoof & Company he was in the advertisingdepartment of the Chicago Tribune wherehe specialized in markets and merchandis­ing. He was for several years in advertisingin N ew York and for a time was connectedwith the sales department of Bobbs Merrill& Co., publishers.Mr. Sulcer's home is at 5627 KenwoodAvenue. His wife is Charlotte ThearleSulcer, 'I I. They have three children, twoof whom are in the University High School.As an undergraduate Mr. Sulcer wasactive in music and dramatics. He belongsNEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONSto Psi Upsilon and Owl and Serpent.Since graduating, Mr. Sulcer has beenclosely identified with University affairs,serving on the Alumni Council, in charge ofalumni reunion and more recently on theGeneral Development Committee of theUniversity.Mr. Sulcer is interested in civic affairs,is secretary of the North Central Associa­tion, a member of the executive board of theAdvertising Council of the Chicago Associ­ation of Commerce. He is a member of theUniversity Club, Quadrangle Club, Exec­utives Club, South Shore, 'and RidgeCountry Clubs.For Second Vice-PresidentTo Serve Two YearsAnne Davis, '07, is Director of the Vo­cational Bureau of the Chicago publicschools. She has always been interestedespecially in the vocational problems ofchildren. She has published "OccupationsOpen to Children between Fourteen .and 337Sixteen." In 1914-15 she served as Secre­tary of the Vocational Education Associa­tion of the Middlewest. Besides her Bach­elor's degree from the University she hasreceived a certificate from the ChicagoSchool of Civics.At the University she was a member ofSpelman House.She belongs to the Woman's City Club,the College Club, and the Cordon Club.She lives at 9040 So. Robey St.Mrs. Bernard E. Newman (TheoGriffith, '17) lives at 137 I E. 48th St., andwas a member of Mortar Board.J. Milton Coulter, '18, is head of theanalytical service department of Halsey,Stuart & Co. He has been connected withthis organization ever since his graduation.At the University he served on the U nder­graduate Council and was elected Presi­dent of his class in 1917. He was a CollegeMarshal, and a member of Kappa Sigma,Skull and Crescent, Iron Mask, and Owland Serpent. His address is 1065 Chat­field Road, Winnetka, Ill.His college career was interrupted byservice in the United States Army.For the Executive CommitteeTo Serve Two Years,' Two to be ElectedMrs. Irvin McDowell (Ethel Remick,'02), is with the Cook County Hospitalin social service work. Her address is I 153E. 56th St. She is a member of the Chi­cago Woman's Club, the College Club, andthe Woman's City Club.Mrs. Robert Valentine Merrill (MaryLetitia Fyffe, '14), has served as Directorof social activities for the University. Heraddress is 5824 Drexel Ave.She is a College Aide and a member ofMortar Board and Nu Pi Sigma.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHarold John Gordon, '17, is a salesmanfor Halsey, Stuart and Co. He has been intheir employ since his graduation exceptduring his service in the army during thewar. His address is 1242 Madison Park.He is a member of Delta Kappa Epsilonand Owl and Serpent.Howell W. Murray, '14, is Vice-Presi­dent of A. G. Becker and Co., investmentbankers. His address is 31 Linden Ave.,Highland Park, Ill.He'is a member of Chi Psi and Owl andSerpent.For Delegates to the CouncilTo Serve Three Yean, Six to be ElectedJohn P. Mentzer, '98, is President ofMentzer, Bush & Co., publishers. His ad­dress is 4720 Greenwood Avenue. He isa member of the University Club.He belongs to Chi Psi, Iron Mask, andOwl and Serpent.Mrs. James Westfall Thompson (Mar­tha Landers, '03), was in the service of theUniversity as a member of the Committeeon Development. In college she belongedto the Dramatic Club, and is a member ofSigma Club. She is also a member of theChicago College Club. Her address is5718 Dorchester Avenue.Clarence W. Sills, ex-'05, is Vice-Presi­dent of Halsey, Stuart & Co. His addressis 1223 E. 50th St.He is a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon.Harold H. Swift, '07, is Vice-Presidentof Swift & Co. His address is 4848 EllisAve. He is a member of the University,Chicago, and Quadrangle Clubs.He has been President of the Board ofTrustees of the University since 1922, anda member of that Board since 1914. In his Senior year he was President ofhis class. He is a member of Delta KappaEpsilon, Iron Mask, and Owl and Serpent.'Earle A. Shilton, '14, J.D. '16, isPresident of the General Realty Trust Co.. In 1926 he was a Director of the HamiltonBond and Mortgage Co. His address is5021 Dorchester Avenue.He is a member of Sigma Alpha.Epsilon,Phi Delta Phi, and Owl and Serpent.Mrs. Horace B. Horton (Phyllis Fay,'15), lives at 1229 E. 56th St. She is amember of the Apollo Musical Club. Incollege she belonged to the Signet Club,Glee Club, and Dramatic Club. She is amember of Wyvern and Phi Beta Kappa.Olive Greensfelder, '16, is Head of theEnglish Department of the Gary HighSchool, and lives at 5730 Blackstone Ave.Mrs. George Northrup Simpson (Bar­bara Miller, A. B. ' 18), was a College Aideand a member of Phi Beta Kappa. Shelives at 5842 Stony Island Avenue.Robert L. Willett, '20, is Business Man­ager of .the Christian Century. His addressis 1369 E. 50th St.He is member of Delta Tau Delta.Allen D. Holloway, '22, is connectedwith Johnson and Higgins, insurancebrokers. He lives at 5540 Kenwood Av­enue.He is a Blackfriar and a member 9£ PhiKappa Psi, and Owl and Serpent.Kenneth ·Laird, A.B. '25, is Director ofthe Merchandise Department of the Chi­cago Herald and Examiner. Before takinghis present position he worked on the edi­torial page of that publication. His addressis 223 Scottswood Road, Riverside, Ill.In his Senior year he was Head CollegeMarshal, President of the UndergraduateCouncil, Managing Editor of the DailyMaroon, and President of the undergrad­ate Phi Beta Kappa. He is a member ofPsi Upsilon, Iron Mask, and Owl andSerpent.NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONS 339College Alumni Notes'99-Mrs. O. F. Brauns (MinnieLester) writes "Just home-making at IronMountain, Michigan."'03-Livonia Hunter, 608 E. Broadway,Monmouth, Illinois, is teaching Latin inthe High School at Monmouth.'05-Vernon C. Beebe is President of theBeebe Advertising Agency located at 17N. State Street, Chicago.'06-William G. Matthews is Secretary­Treasurer of The Castleman-MatthewsCompany, Printers. and Publishers, 9 WestGrand Avenue, Chicago.'08-George F. Cassell, 136 S. HamlinAvenue, Chicago, is Principal of theWilliam Penn School, Chicago.'08-Robert R. Williams, Roselle, NewJersey, is Chemical Director of the. BellTelephone Laboratories, 463 West Street,New York City, and conducts research onvitamins as Research Associate in TeachersCollege of Columbia University.'og-Mrs. Charles L. Brown (LillianCushman), 254 Seaman Avenue, NewYork City, conducts courses in Child Guid­ance for the Child Study Association ofAmerica -.'09-Loretta Smith, 307 N. Oak ParkAvenue, Oak Park, Illinois, heads theEnglish Department of Proviso TownshipHigh School at Maywood, Illinois.'09-Paul Wiiliams, 803 Main Street,Ventura, California, is engaged in the realestate and insurance business.'I4-Mrs. William H. Wiser (Char­lotte Viall), Mainpuri, U. P., India, waslisted in the King's New Years Honoursfor a Kaiser-i-Hind Silver Medal, whichis issued in recognition of public service.'I5-Mildred Peabody, who is Directorof Physical Education at Greenwich Aca­demy, Greenwich, Connecticut, lives at185 Milbank Avenue, Greenwich. 'I7-Lillian Barbour, 5000 DorchesterAvenue, Chicago, recently returned from aseven months' tour of Europe.'I8-Francis L. Copper teaches Psychol­ogy at the Northern State Teachers Col­lege, Marquette, Michigan.'zo=Paul W. Birmingham, 7908 EastEnd Avenue, Chicago, is a salesman for theMcGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 7 S.Dearborn Street, Chicago.'zo-e-Philip H. Salzman is Secretary­Treasurer of the Salzrnan-Peisert Company,4030-40 Elston Avenue, Chicago.'z.r-e-Lucilc P. Biebesheimer, J.D. '27,7250 Merrill Avenue, Chicago, is practic­ing law with the firm of Netherton &N etherton, Marquette Building, Chicago.'22-Elsie Wolcott Hayden, 8214 Ingle­side Avenue, is Vocational Adviser at theWestcott Junior High School and CurtisJunior High School, Chicago.'23-Emma A. M. Fleer, 5514 Black­stone Avenue, teaches Physiology at Chi­cago Normal College, Chicago.'24-Thaddeus H. Baker, 7212 Ridge­land Avenue, Chicago, is a ResearchChemist for the Universal Oil ProductsCompany, Riverside, Illinois.'24-Helen McPike, Wartenburgstr. IF, Berlin S. W. 6 I, Germany, is studyingpiano under Artur Schnabel.'24-Edena E. Smith, 1060 36th Street,Des Moines, Iowa, is Principal of LauraCoffee Memorial School, Des Moines.'25-May B. Clark teaches English inthe Lincoln High School, Manitowoc, Wis­consin.'25-Paul R. Griffith, formerly ofOmaha, Nebraska, is now located at 1635Cherry Street, Huntington, Indiana, wherehe is doing special sales work with theMajestic Company.'25-Mildred E. Hipskind, 646 N.Spring Street, Wabash, Indiana, is teachingin the High School at Wabash.Commerce and AdministrationWHAT happens to the men and women who come to the University, study in theSchool of Commerce and rl dministration, and then depart with one of its degrees?What sort of business experiences do they have, where does their training lead them,and for what does it /it them?In the next few months the Magazine will publish a number of short biographies offormer C. & A. students. In some cases these will be interviews with men and Womenwhose progress since graduation has reflected credit on their ability and the trainingthey received. Some months the subjects will speak for themselves in letters andmore formal documents.If you enjoy these little glimpses of what a C. & A. education has led to, the Maga­zine would appreciate a note to that effect. If you know of someone who is doing an in­teresting job somewhere, tell us his story or get him to tell it for you.The Editor.Sun-Maid SalesWhat ELLSWORTH BRYCE has been doing since 1913You ask me to grant you a half hourinterview about myself since I left C. & A.term-paper days. This is a most uninter­esting subject but if it will be of any helpto you I will be glad to give you a briefoutline of my work since graduating in1913·0The first eight months after leaving thecampus was spent in the City Hall underMajor Miles on the efficiency bureau ofthe Civil Service Commission, endeavoringto decrease costs through standardizationmethods. Early in 1914 I left this workto enter the employ of the Cudahy Pack­ing Company as a salesman, working outof Chicago, under the canned goods andpharmaceutical department. In 1914 and1915 I was in Michigan in charge of theirMichigan territory; and 1916, 1917, andthe early part of 1918 was spent in thenorthwest with headquarters in Seattle asDistrict Sales Manager for the states fromColorado west and north to the border.In 1918 I entered the United StatesArmy Air Service, taking ground trainingat the University of California and flyingtraining at Marsh Field, Riverside, Cali- fornia. After an honorable discharge thelatter part of November, 1918, I returnedto the Cudahy Packing Company, takingcharge of their Chicago District as SalesManager of twenty-two central and west­ern states.In 1921 I accepted a position with theSun-Maid Raisin Growers as DivisionalSales Manager covering the northwesternstates. I was transferred to Pittsburgh inthe fall of 1922 as Sales Manager of oneof their largest divisions. In January,1924, upon the re-organization of theSun-Maid Raisin Growers, I was trans­ferred to Fresno, California, as Managerof Sales Administration of Sunland SalesCooperative Association, which Companytook over the entire sales organization ofthe Sun-Maid Raisin Growers. SunlandSales, at the present time, sells all the prod­ucts of the Sun-Maid Raisin Growers oofCalifornia, and the California Peach &Fig Growers Association. Sales Adminis­tration has the administrative responsi­bility of the entire organization whichcovers practically every civilized country inthe world.340NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONS'91- J F. Shelley is in general practiceat Elmdale, Kansas.'9I-Frank C. Wiser, who is practicingMedicine at 1000 Garland Building, LosAngeles, is actively engaged in the ReserveCorps of the U. S. Army as commandingofficer of General Hospital No. 144.'I2-William H. Riley, formerly lo­cated at Gold Hill, Nevada, is in practiceat 2624 West 6th Street, Los Angeles,California.'Is-Lowell D. Snorf, who specializesin Internal Medicine at 25 E. WashingtonStreet, Chicago, is Assistant Professor ofMedicine at Northwestern University.'Is-Leon Unger, who is an AssistantProfessor in the Department of Medicineand is in charge of the Asthma and HayFever Clinic at Northwestern UniversityMedical School, is located at 185 N.Wabash Avenue, Chicago, where he spe­cializes in Internal Medicine.'16-Paul H. Rowe is in practice at 610Yeates Building, Minneapolis, Minnesota.'17-Henry A. Keener writes, "TheAlumni Magazine has had to travel somein the last year to reach me aboard the U.S. S. Gold Star, for in the past year wehave traveled over 22,000 miles and visitedfourteen ports in the Orient." His presentaddress is U. S. S. Gold Star, Guam, M.1., c/o P. M., San Francisco, California.'19-Robert H. Stanton practices Inter­nal Medicine. His address is 425 EastGreen Street, Pasadena, California.DivinityEdwin Bruce Kinney, D.B., '97, has justpublished two attractive booklets under thetitles "Twenty-five Years on AmericanFrontiers" and "The New Indian." Dr.Kinney writes out of a remarkable experi­ence of 25 years of service as a frontiermissionary pastor, as a missionary to theIndians and as State and General Superin­tendent of Baptist missions in the West.The missionary sketches contained in thesetwo booklets make fascinating reading.Alva J. Brasted, D.B., 'os. is Chaplainwith the rank of Major in the United 341Rush, I9-:-Lester E. Garrison is located at 30N. Michigan Avenue, Chicago.'20-S. John House has removed hisoffice to Suite 1201 Medical Arts Building,119 Seventh Avenue, North, Nashville,Tennessee.'z r-e-Louise Leiter, 5473 GreenwoodAvenue, is an Assistant Professor in theDepartment of Medicine at the U niver­sity of Chicago.'23-Frances Johnson is in general prac­tice at 141 E. Wisconsin Avenue, Milwau­kee, Wisconsin. She has charge of threeinfant welfare stations in Milwaukee,examines school children at Lake Genevaand Williams Bay, and is Physician to "1:IeWisconsin Industrial School for Girls.'24-Robert L. Johnston has changed hisaddress from Henry Ford Hospital, De­troit, Michigan, to 7856 Bennett Avenue,Chicago.'24-Charlotte McCarthy has opened anoffice for the practice of Internal' Medicineat Suite 618, Medical Arts Building, Rich­mond and Cathedral Streets, Baltimore,Maryland.'2S-C. Baxter Brown is a Fellow inSurgery at the Mayo Foundation. Hisaddress is No. 23, 7th Avenue, S. W.,Rochester, Minnesota.'2s-Ethel F. Cooper recently returnedfrom a nine months' trip to Europe, ofwhich five months was spent in study andthe balance in touring and sightseeing. Heroffice is located at 3023 South Adams Street,Peoria, Illinois.States Army and is stationed at Manila inthe Philippine Islands. He is ranking Chap­lain of the Philippine Department.Matthew Spinka, A.M., ' 19, Ph.D., '23,librarian of the Chicago Theological Semin­ary, has published "The Church and theRussian Revolution," Macmillan, 1927.L. Hekhuis, D.B., Ph.D., '25, is Pro­fessor of Religious Education in the Muni­cipal University of Wichita, Kansas.John S. Stamm, A.M., '26, of Naper­ville, has been elected to the Episcopacy inthe Evangelical Church.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEO. B. Swift has been called to the pastor­ate of the Church of the Messiah, Buffalo,New York.James M. Coon, at the time of his death' one of the oldest graduates of the DivinitySchool, died November zoth, 1927, aged83. He had a remarkable career as pastor,editor and author.Doctors of PhilosophyIn ZoologyFrank Rattray Lillie (1894) has resignedfrom the position of Director of the MarineBiological Laboratory at Woods - Hole,Mass., which he has held since 1908. Mr.Lillie has been appointed President of theCorporation controlling the Laboratory andwill remain in close contact with the gen­eral conduct of the Laboratory.Warder Clyde Allee (1912) has beenmade Secretary of the local Department ofZoology. Mr. Allee spent last autumnquarter at Woods Hole where he continuedhis analysis of the physiological phases ofanimal aggregations.Lewis Victor Heilbrunn (1914) hasbeen granted leave of absence from the U ni­versity of Michigan in' order to accept aGuggenheim Fellowship for 1927-28. Mr.Heilbrunn plans to continue his researcheson the colloidal chemistry of protoplasm­principally with Dr. Herbert Freundlich ofthe Kaiser Wilhelm Institute at Berlin.Carl Richard Moore (1916), LincolnValentine Domm (1926), W. C. Young,(1927) and F. W. Appel (1927) togetherwith Dr. Mary Juhn and Dr. L. C. McGeeare associated with Professor F. R. Lilliein the prosecution of an extensive sex re­search program for which Professor Lilliehas secured financial support from the SexResearch Committee of the NationalResearch Council. . Edwin ]. Cohn (1917), Assistant Pro­fessor of Physiological Chemistry at Har­vard Medical School, in association withDr. George R. Minot has succeeded inisolating from the liver of animals a specificfor pernicious anemia which has a specificeffect on bone marrow, stimulating the for­mation of red blood corpuscles. Mr. Cohn'sparticular work has been upon the isolationof the active principle, which is testedclinically under the direction of Dr. Minot.He has obtained an alcoholic precipitatewhich concentrates into one-half gram allthe active substance from 500 grams ofliver. Harvard University has patented theprocess.Wilfred Hudson Osgood ( 1918) re­cently returned from an extended collectingexpedition in Abyssinia undertaken to addto the mammalian and bird collections ofthe Field Museum of Natural History.Mr. Osgood is Curator of the Departmentof Zoology in the Field Museum. -Leigh Hoadley (1923) has been ap­pointed Assistant Professor of Zoology inHarvard University. After taking his doc­torate, Mr. Hoadley remained with theUniversity of Chicago for two years asNational Research Fellow in Zoology. Hespent one year in Europe as traveling fellowand has been assistant professor of zoologyat Brown University for the last year.THE Magazine is published at 1009 Sloan St.,Crawfordsville, Ind., monthly from November to July,inclusive, for The Alumni Council of the Universityof Chicago, 58th St. and Ellis Ave., Chicago, Ill. Thesubscription price is $2.00 per year; the price of singlecopies is 20 cents.Postage is prepaid by the publishers on all orders fromthe United States, Mexico, Cuba, Porto Rico, PanamaCanal Zone, Republic of Panama, Hawaiian Islands, Philip­pine Islands, Guam, Samoan Islands.Postage is charged extra as follows: For Canada, 18cents on annual subscriptions (total $2.18), on singlecopies, 2 cents. (total 22 cents): for all other countriesin the' Postal Union. 27 cents on annual subscriptions(total $2.27), on single copies, 3 cents (t@taI 23 cents).Remittances should be made payable to the AlumniCouncil and should 'be in the Chicago or New York exchange, postal or express money order. If local check isused, 10 cents must be added for collection.Claims for missing numbers should be made within themonth following the regular month of publication. Thepublishers expect to supply missing numbers free onlywhen they have been lost in transit.Communications pertaining to advertising may be sentto the Publication Office. 1009 Sloan St., Crawfordsville.Ind., or to the Editorial Office, Box 9 Faculty Exchange.The University of Chicago.Communications for publication should be sent to theChicago Office.Entered as second class matter December 10, 1924, atthe Post Office at Crawfordsville, Indiana, under the Actof March 3, 1879.Members of Alumni Magazines Associated.NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONSI n PathologyAaron Arkin, '13, has returned fromVienna, where he worked for several yearsin the clinic of Dr. Wenckebach, and hastaken up the practice of medicine in Chi­cago.Louis H. Braafladt, '23, was one of thenumerous American medical men forcedto leave China by the recent antiforeignuprisings in that country. He was Pro­fessor and Head of the Department ofPathology at the Shantung Christian U ni­versity. He is at present in the UnitedStates but plans to go to England for study.Louis Leiter, '24, who has been engagedin study and research work in Europe, hasrecently returned to Chicago to take a posi­tion as Assistant Professor of Medicine inthe new medical school.James P. Simonds, '23, is Professor ofPathology in Northwestern UniversityMedical School in Chicago. He has' beenactive recently in the organization of hisnew laboratories.George T. Caldwell, ' 18, is Professorof Pathology at Baylor University Medi­cal College in Dallas, Texas. At the re­cent meeting of the American Medical As­sociation he and Mrs. Caldwell, formerlyJanet Anderson, Rush, 1920, were awardeda certificate of merit for their exhibit illus­tratmg the bacteriophage.Emanuel B. Fink, '18, is now Professorof Pathology in the Chicago Dental Col­lege. He has recently published severalpapers dealing with the pathology of thehypophysis.H. Gideon Wells, '03, has published abook on the Chemical Aspects of Immunitywhich has recently been translated intoGerman by R. Wigand.Julian H. Lewis, '15, associate memberof the Otho S. A. Sprague Memorial Insti­tute, has returned from Basle, Switzerland,where he has worked in the laboratory ofProfessor Doerr, while holding a Guggen­heim Fellowship. andMEAT"DESPITE the temporarilyfashionable belief that a largeamount of meat in the diet isharmful, medical science hasdiscovered nothing which shouldcause the great majority to de­prive themselves of the meatdiet which they now enjoy."This statement in the Journalof the American Medical Asso­ciation by Dr. Clarence W. Liebof New York, a distinguishedinvestigator, was quoted by Mr.Louis F Swift in his address tothe shareholders of Swift & Com­panyat the Forty-third AnnualMeeting, January 5 (Swift &Company's 1928 Year Book). Itis an indication, as Mr. Swiftpointed out, of the growingappreciation of the value ofmeat in the diet.Swift & Company has led inthe packaging and branding ofmany meat products to insurethe consumer highest quality.Premium Ham and B a con,Brookfield Pork Sausage, and"Silverleaf" Brand Pure Lard,for example, have long bee nfamous. Recently fresh beef andlamb have been branded andwrapped.Swift & Company's 1928Year Book also includes an in­teresting discussion of the essen­tial value of meat in the diet. Itwill be sent free upon request.Swift & CompanyOwned by more than 47,000 shareholders 343344 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"I have had notice of my appoint­ment at ------- University and haveaccepted. You may rest assured Ishall endeavor to merit all you havesaid in my favor. If I need good serv­ice again, I know where to get it."The man who wrote the above re­ceived his Ph. D. in 1926. Throughother means he accepted a minorposition. It remained for The Al­bert Teachers' Agency to secure forhim his real job in 1927.Hundreds of University of Chi­cago graduates and graduate stu­dents have been equally fortunate.They are in Colleges, NormalSchools,City and Suburban Schools ,Private Schools=-everywhere. Weinvite correspondence or a call.Forty Third Year.The Albert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago535 Fifth Avenue, New York CityAbbot Academy1828 - 1928For a Century one of New England'sleading Schools for GirlsNational PatronageAdvanced Courses for High School grad­uates. College Preparation. Exceptionalopportunities in Art and Music. OutdoorSports.Address:Bertha Bailey, PrincipalAndover, Massachusetts- As Near As YourMailbox!WOODWORTHSThe Mail OrderBOOK STORE1311E. 57th St. NEAR. KIMBARK AVE. In Physics'oz-s-Frank B. Jewett, President of theBell Telephone Laboratories and Vice­President of the American Telephone andTelegraph Company, has been developing,with his associates, new inventions of farreaching importance, such as wireless andcable transatlantic telephony, television,etc.'o5-CarIeton J. Lynde is the authorof a new text-book, "Physics for theHousehold."'o6-Major Wm; R. Blair, SignalCorps, U. S. Army, is now stationed inWashington in charge of the army workin meteorology.'I I-H. De Forest Arnold, Director ofResearch, Bell Telephone Laboratories isresponsible for many of the recent telephonedevelopments.Harvey Fletcher is in charge of a groupof workers in sound at the Bell Laborato­ries. Among other devices, they have pro­duced the audiometer, the audiphone, andthe artificial larynx. He has been awardedthe gold medal by the Franklin Institutefor his investigations of audition.Harvey B. Lemon contributed the chap­ter on physics in "The Nature of theW orld and of Man" recently published bythe University of Chicago Press. He hasrecently returned from four months' motor­ing in Europe where he visited sixteen ofthe leading laboratories of physics andastrophysical observatories of Italy, France,Switzerland, Germany, and England.'I6-Arthur J. Dempster has been con­tinuing his positive ray work and somefundamental investigations on the durationof light emission processes., I6-Leonard B. Loeb is the author ofa large volume on the "Kinetic Theory ofGases" which has just been published byMcGraw-Hill Book Company.'I7-Karl K. Darrow's "Introductionto Contemporary Physics" has· receivedmany favorable reviews, and is a valuablebook for everyone interested in modernphysics.'Ig-Mervin Joe Kelly, who is directingthe research and development activities ofNEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONSa large group at the Bell Telephone Labora­tories, returns to Ryerson Laboratoryannually to look over the graduate students.'I9-Ralph A. Sawyer is spending hissabbatical year as a Guggenheim Fellow inPaschen's laboratory in Berlin.'zo-e-Ira J. Barber is now the managerof a large department at the Hawthorneplant of the Western Electric Company.'2o--H. H. Sheldon, head of the depart­ment of physics of Washington Square Col­lege, N ew York University, is co-authorwith three other physicists of a new text­book of college physics. His name appearedfrequently of late in the Scientific A mer­ican in connection with attempted trans­formation of mercury into gold.'21- John P. Minton has been profitingby the radio boom, and is the inventor of anumber of radio devices.'2I-Thomas R. Wilkins is now Pro­fessor of Physics at the University ofRochester. He recently spent a year at theCavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, Eng-land. .'22-Fabian M. Kannenstine is busilyengaged in perfecting new devices for theGeophysical Research Corporation for dis­covering oil.L. W. Taylor, head of the physics depart­ment at Oberlin College, is the author ofseveral recent texts: "College Manual ofOptics," "Numerical Drill Book in Phys­ics," and, in collaboration with WilliamW. Watson, '24, and Carl E. Howe, "Gen­eral Physics for the Laboratory."Forrest G. Tucker has moved fromCornell University to Oberlin College.'23-Roscoe E. Harris has just equippeda new laboratory at Lake Forest College.Dr. Harvey B. Lemon, 'I I, delivered thededicatory address on April 5th.'23-Melvin Mooney, National Re­search Fellow for the past three years, hasreturned to the Western Electric Company.'25-Ralph D. Bennett holds a NationalResearch fellowship at Princeton U niver­sity.'26-Stanislas Chylinski has produced anumber' of promising electrical inventions.'26-Ann B. Hepburn is an instructorat N ew York University. EverythinginLeather GoodsGifts of Luggage or Leatherare always appreciated for inmost cases they last a life time�HEWYORI< EST 1859 CH1CAGOr---- JOHN HANCOCK SERIES ------,Declaration of ·· IndependenceWE have issued an offi­cially approved fac­simile parchment copy ofthe famous Declaration,suitable for framing.You may have one ofthese, Free of charge, uponwritten application toINQUIRY BUREAUOF BoSTON. MAsSACHUSE.TTS197 Clarendon St., Bost�n. Mass.Please send me FREE facsimile ofthe Declaration of Independence. (Ienclose 5c. to cover postage.)Name .Address ..A.G.SIXTY.FIFTH YEAR OF BUSINESS 345THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPaul H. Davis, 'II Herbert I. Markham, Ex. '06Ralph W. Davis, '16 Walter M. Giblin, '23Paul I"'LDavts & @o.MEMBERSNEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGECHICAGO STOCK EXCHANGE37 South LaSalle StreetTelephone Rand. 6280CHICAGOTHE YATES-FISHERTEACHERS' AGENCYEstablished H)o6PAUL YATES, Manager616-620 SOUTH MICHrGAN AVENUECHICAGOOther Office,' 911-12 Broadway BuildingPortland, OregonMOSERSHORTHAND COLLEGEA business school of distinctionSpecial Three Months' IntensiveCourse for university graduatesor undergraduates givenquarterlyBulletin on RequestPAUL MOSER,]. D., Ph. B.116 S. Michigan Ave. ChicagoUNIVERSITYCOLLEGEThedowntowndepartment of THE UNIVER­SITYOF CHlCAGO, 116 S. Michigan Avenue,announcesPUBLIC LECTURESDowntown 6:45 - 7:45 P. M.April 3 to JuneTues: International RelationsThurs: Religions and CivilizationsFriday: Nature of World and of ManADMISSIONCourse Ticket $3.00 Single 50C In PhilosophyArthur Kenyon Rogers, '98, for someyears retired from teaching, remains veryactive in philosophical production. Hislatest book is Morals in Review.H. W. Stuart, 1900, Professor of Philos­ophy at Stanford University, after a recentillness is active again at teaching.William Kelley Wright, '06, Professorof Philosophy at Dartmouth College andauthor of A Students Philosophy of Reli­gion� spent last summer and the first semes­ter of this year abroad.Ernest Lynn Talbert, '09, Assistant Pro­fessor of Psychology and Director of Ad­missions, University of Cincinnati, spenthis sabbatical leave of absence in Englandlast year.Elijah Jordan, 'II, Professor of Philos­ophy at Butler College, has published a newbook, Forms of Individuality.Clarence H. Hamilton, '14, until latelyProfessor of Philosophy and Psychology atthe University of Nanking, China, taughtat Columbia University during the firstsemester of this year and at the Universityof Chicago during the spring quarter.Clarence Edwin Ayres, '17, author ofScience, A False Messiah� is at present inNew Mexico and devoting his time exclu­sively to writing.MARRIAGESENGAGEMENTSBIRTHSDEATHSMARRIAGESLawrence G. Dunlap, '13, M.D. '15, toInez Ileene Irwin, January 28, 1928. Athome, Anaconda, Montana.WHHam B. Leach, Jr., '13, to Helen E.Phelps, September 7, 1927. At home, 323Jefferson Avenue, Niagara Falls, NewYork.Ruth V. Thomas, '16, to Robert Spurgin,jr., March 3, 1928. At home, II 17 Lex­ington Avenue, Fort Wayne; Indiana.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 347we NATION'S BUILDING STONEMassachusetts Institute of 'Technology, Cambridge, Boston, Mass.Built entirely of Indiana Limestone.More Than Ever in Demand.L\L THOUGH the use of Indiana Lime'� stone for buildings of monumentalcharacter is' so well established as to bepractically standard, yet recent years haveseen an amazing increase in popular de'mand. Today this fine-grained, light, colorednatural stone from the hills of southernIndiana' constitutes more than 65 % of thebuilding stone of all kinds used in.this country.The modern production methods of theIndiana Limestone Company have reduced costs. Indiana Limestone is now practicablenot only for large buildings, but for clubs,fraternity houses, residences, apartments,and all kinds of so-called medium-coststructures.We will gladly send you an illustratedbooklet showing a fine collection of colle­giate buildings constructed of Indiana Lime'stone-or a book on residences if you prefer.Address Box 819 Service Bureau, Indiana, Limestone Company, Bedford, Indiana.General Offices: Bedford, Indiana Executive Offices: Tribune Tower, ChicagoTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThis Month's Specialsin BooksKammerer - Inheritance ofAcquired Characteristics$4.50 Now $1.25Hudson - France .... $6.00 Now $3.00Krutch - E. A. Poe, A Study inGenius $3.00 Now $1.50Tarbell- In the Footsteps ofthe Lincolns $4.00 Now $2.50Young - Biology in AmericaFully Illustrated .... $7.50 Now $3.00Kaunitz - Philosophy for PlainPeople $3.00 Now $1.00Reeve - Mod. Econ. Tendencies$12.00 Now $2.50Cohen - Lyric Forms of France$2.50 Now $1.00Marvel - Reveries of a Bachelorand Dream Life (Beautifully Illus-trated Editions) $2.00 Now .75Order TodayTHE U. of C. BOOKSTORE5802 Ellis Ave.TEACHER 'PLACEMENTSERVICEFISK TEACHERS' AGENCY28 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago.For many years a leader among teachers'agencies. Our service is nation wide.AMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU77 W. Washington St., Chicago.A professional teacher placement bureau,limiting its field to colleges and univer­sities.EDUCATION SERVICE8H-823 Steger Bldg., Chicago.A bureau chiefly concerned with theplacement of administrative officials,such as financial secretaries, businessmanagers, treasurers, registrars, directorsof Red Cross work, etc.The above organizations are under the man­agement of C. E. Goodell, for nine yearspresident of Franklin College, Ind., andMrs. Bertha Smith Goodell, for thirteen yearssupervisor and teacher of English in the HighSchool of Oak Park, m .. John D. Morrison, '21, to Edith O.Drevdahl, June 25, 1927. At home, Mar­quette, Michigan.Joseph E. Jensen, '23, M.D. '25, toAimie L. Bigelow, February 22, 1928. Athome, Momence, Illinois.Joseph B. Kingsbury, Ph.D. '23, toKatherine G. Bryant, January 4, 1928. Athome, Columbus, Ohio.Sidney A. Sheridan, '24, to DianaRichards, '27, December 24, 1927. At home5737 Kenwood Avenue, Chicago.Elsa L. Allison, '25, to William A.Douglas, December 28, 1927. At home553 I 28th Avenue, N. E., Seattle, Wash�ington.Angus C. McDonald, M.D. '26, toEthelynne Smith, December 25, 1927. Athome, Huntington Park, California.ENGAGEMENTSCatherine F. Morgan, A.M. '24, toEdgar Sad ring.BIRTHSTo Mr. and Mrs. Junius A. Coarsey(Margaret T. Weller) '2-1, a daughter,Margaret Elizabeth; February 9, I928, atBradenton, Florida.To Edward W. Griffey, '22, M.D. '25,and Mrs. Griffey, a son, October I, I927,at Houston, Texas.To Dr. Henry E. Swantz, ex '23, andMrs. Swantz (Ethel M. Palmer) '22, ason, Henry Eugene, J L, September 25,I927, at Oak Park, Illinois.To Herbert N. Massey, A.M. '25, andMrs. Massey, a daughter, Miriam Anne,January 12, 1928, at Gaffney, South Caro­lina.DEATHSJohn P. Munson, Ph.D. '97, February27, 1928, at Ellensburg, Washington. Atthe time of his death Dr. Munson wasdirector of the Department of BiologicalSciences at the Ellensburg Normal School,which position he had held since 1889.John P. McCoy, '14, March I, 1928, atKingman, Kansas.Moses R. Staker, A.M. '17, March 6,1928, at Normal, Illinois.In the Day's WorkAn Advertisement of theAmerican Telephone and Telegraph CompanyTHE Mississippi was nsmg sul­lenly-ripping jagged crevasses ineven the most stoutly built levees,inundating wide areas of farm lands,mak­i ng thousands homeless.At one of the many towns facing thecrisis, a b r eak came spreading ruinthrough the streets. A governmentsteamer rescued 900 refugees, but thefour telephone operators refused to for­sake their posts. The telephone companynotified the operators that they werenot expected to stay. Friends warnedthem to leave at once. They decided toremain on du ty, and the exchange wasthe only thing in town that continuedto carryon. The world hears little of "thespiri tofservice"until timesofemer­gency and disaster ... when a floodon the Mississippi or in New England, astorm in Florida or St. Louis commandsthe attention of the whole nation. Butbehind- the scenes this spirit is alwayspresent. Each hour of every day, tele­phone calls of life or death importancespeed over the wires of the nation-widesystem, and telephone users confidentlyrely upon the loyalty and devotion todu ty of the men and women who makethis service possible."Get the message through." That isthe daily work of the more than 310,000Bell System employees,L .JCrude implements for baking-those hotstones! And even when. ovens came into use,success still depended on close watching oftemperature and time.But now, electric heat has made baking an exactscience, and modern bakeries are installingelectrically heated ovens.In every industrial plant there is at least oneprocess which electric heat will Improve andmake more economical.When a King forgotEVERYONE knows the story of KingAlfred the Great-how, lost in reverie, helet the cakes burn as they baked on the hotstones.The huge bake oven is onlyone of many applications ofelectric heat. General Electricengineers have helped hundredsof manufacturers to benefit byits economies. There is prob­ably some job in your plantthat electric heat can do betterand at less cost. Ask GeneralElectric specialists to help you.GENERAL, ELECTRIC570-38E