VOL. XX NUMBER :lJANUARY, 1928THOMAS WAKEFIELD GOODSPEEDEXPERIMENTS IN RELIGION, by SHAILER MATHEWSWALTER SARGENT'S LAST PAINTINGBOOKSA Chicago Novelist A Chicago PoetIn A1y Opinion, by Fred B. MillettA SCULPTURED HISTORY OF MEDICINE*(]nLISHED BY THE ALUMNI COUNCIl,Seventeenth=CenturyLyricsEdited by A. C. JUDSON"Gather ye rosebuds while ye may:Old time is still a-flying"This sort of carpe diemphilosophy is being re­peated over and overagain in much of ourmodem poetry. Re-readJohn Donne, RichardLovelace, Robert Herrick,and the rest. They weremore modern than theyknew. $'2.50.More Con=. temporaryAmer-icansBy PERCY H. BOYNTONSetting aside the prevail­ing pessimism on the sub­ject, Mr. Boynton sets outto defend American lifeand letters. His six chap­ters on certain literaryspokesmen who have. gained recognition are in­terspersed with discerningcomment on the manyvarious innovations ofAmerican life. $13.50 Plays forThreePlayersByCHARLES RANN KENNEDYIn the classic tradition,but startlingly new IIImanner and presentation,each of these three plays isan idea dramatized. "TheChastening," "The Ad­miral," and "The Saluta­tion" are fine and originaladditions to the drama asit is heard or read. $2.50 The OldTestamentAn American TranslationBy J. M. P. SMITH, T. J.MEEK, A. R. GORDON,AND LEROY \VATERMANThis fresh, accurate ver­sion brings the Old Testa­ment directly from itsoriginal language to ourown without the hin­drance of interveningtranslations. It gives newmeaning to one of themost important books theworld has ever known.Cloth $7.50, Leather $10.00JesusA New BiographyBySHIULEY JACKSON CASEThe newspapers say,"blasphemous," "silly,"and "heretical." TheChristian Century says,"not the Jesus of thestained glass window, butthe Jesus who lived andwalked with men."Thoughtful readers willfind it a straightforward,stimulating account of thereal Jesus of history.$8.00 TheTen PrincesTranslated from theSansleritByARTHUR 'V. RYDERUnfaithful wives, sages,rakes, kings, gay girls andgods, court ladies, mer­chants, nuns, and courte­sans troop through thesepages in gorgeous pro­cession. Their views uponthe wise conduct of livingprovide undiluted enter­tainment for the trulycultivated reader. $2.0URooseveltand theCaribbeanBy HOWARD C. HILLHarry Hansen in the NewYork World calls it "thesober second thought ofthe historian . . . . a veryable study of this presi­dent's policies and poli­tics." And the HeraldTribune says, "ProfessorHill has turned the X-rayof historical criticism uponRoosevelt's Caribbeanpolicy." $2.DO The Natureof the Worldand of Man"•... fascinating reading...•. The book .has takenon the unity, the coher­ence, the march, of onegreat epic. poem:'-Chi­cago Tribune. ".. .• thestory is well told, well il­lustrated, and well col­ored with human signifi­cance .... popular with­out being diluted."-ThcNation. $5.00THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESelected by the Inter­collegiate Alumni Exten­sion Service as officialheadquarters for Alumniactivity on the SouthSide of Ch icago,Your next business tripto Chicago�Make it a pleasure trip!Don't miss the chance to visit your university the next timeyou come to Chicago. New Midway sights will greet youreyes-the marvelous Medical group; the new chapel, one ofthe finest pieces of Gothic architecture in the world; the newWieboldt hall of modern languages. You must see them all!Come to the campus and greet old f riends-e-make new ac­quaintances-e- talk over old escapades in the shadow of CobbHall.You can enjoy this visit and still fulfill your business obliga­tions-if you stop at Hotels Windermere. For there you arewithin easy' walking distance' of the campus, and' only tenminutes from the loop.There the same old-time hospitality, the same excellent cui­sine await you. In more ways than one, a stay at the Winder­mere will make it a pleasure trip.Whether you come fo� the day, or stay for the week, a cordialwelcome comes from the Hotels Windermere.inder-mer-e"CHICAGO'S MOST HOMELIKE H·OTELS"56th Street at Hyde Park Boulevard - Phone Fairfax 6000500 feet of verandas and terraces fronting southon Jackson Park 125126ROOSEVELTNew York, N. YWILLARDWashington, D. C.CORONADOSt. LOUIS, Mo.OAKLANDOakland. Calif.WOLFORDDanvllle,lIl.NEIL HOUSEColumbus. 0CLAREMONTBerkeley. Cahf.LJRBA'NA·LfNCOLNUrbana,llISCHENLEYPittsburgh, P,. THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMOUNT ROYALMontreal, Can RADISSONMmneapohs. Mmn. SENECARochester, N. Y. BLACKSTONECbrc.rgo, Ill.These hotels are your hotelsSpecial features are provided for our AlumniOur alumni are urged to use Intercollegiate Alumni Hotelswhen travelling, and when arranging for luncheons, ban ..quets and get .. togethers of various sorts.You will find at each Intercollegiate Alumni Hotel anindex of the resident Alumni of the participating colleges.Think what this means when you are in a strange cityand wish to look up a classmate or friend.You will find at these hotels a current copy of yourAlumni publication.You will also find a spirit of co .. operation and a keendesire to see you comfortably housed and adequately pro ..vided for. Reservations may be made from one Intercol ..legiate Alumni Hotel to another as a convenience to you.Intercollegiate Alumni Hotels are a new and vital forcein assisting your Alumni Secretary. He urges you to sup ..port them whenever and wherever possible. He will be gladto supply you with an introduction card to the managersof all Intercollegiate Alumni Hotels, if you so request.THE PARTICIPATING COLLEGES PERE MARQUETTEPeoria. iiiThe alumni organizations of the following colleges and universities are partIcipantsin the Intercollegiate Alumni Hotel movement:Akron Colorado Mame Oregon State VirginiaAlabama Columbia M. [. T. Penn Stare VirginiaAmherst Cornell Michigan State Pennsylvania Polytechnic InstituteAntioch Cumberland Michigan Princeton Washington and LeeBates EmOJy Mills Purdue Washington StateBeloit Elmira Minnesota Radcliffe Washington (Seattle)Bowdoin Georgia MiSSOUri RollinS Washington (St. LoUis)Brown Georgetown College . Montana Rutgers WellesleyBryn Mawr Goucher Mount Holyoke Smith Wesleyan CollegeBucknell Harvard Nebraska South Dakota Wesleyan UniverSityBuffalo. Illinois New York University Southern California Western ReserveCalifornia Indiana North Carolina Stanford WhitmanCarnegie Institute Iowa State College North Dakota Stevens Institute WtlliamsCase School Kansas Northwestern Texas A. and M. WinthropChicago Teachers' Coil. Oberlin Texas WisconsinCollege of the Kansas Occidental Tulane WittenbergCity of New York Lake Ene Ohio State Union WoosterColgate Lafayette Ohro Wesleyan Vanderbilt WorcesterColorado Lehigh Oklahoma Vassar Polytechnic InstituteSchool Mines LOUisiana Oregon Vermont YaleII ICALIFORNIAN :"INT PAUL MULTNOMAH PALACE SINTONFresno, Cehf. S:.. Paul, MInn. Portland, Ore. San Francisco. Cahf. Cincmnatlt O.ST JAMESSan Diego, Ca hf. WALDORF. ASTORIANew York. N. Y THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEONONDAGASyracuse, N. Y WOLVERINEDetroit. Mich. BENJAMIN FRANKLl:-<Phrladelplua. Pa.Intercollegiate Alumni HotelsEvery.Dot Marks an Intercollegiate Alumni HotelBaltimore" Md., SouthernBerkeley, CaL, ClaremontBethlehem, Pa .• BethlehemBirmingham, Ala., BankheadBoston. Mass., Copley. PlazaChicago, Ill., BlackstoneChicago. Ill., WindermereCincinnati, Ohio, SintonColumbus, Ohio, Neil HouseDanville. Ill., WolfordDetroit. Mich., WolverineFresno. Cal., CalifarnianKansas City, Mo., Muehlebach Lincoln. Nebr., LincolnLos Angeles, Calif., BilnnorcMadison, Wis .• ParkMinneapolis. Minn .• RadissonMontreal. Canada. Mount RoyalNew Orleans. La., MonreleoneNew York, N. Y .• RooseveltNew York. N. Y .• Waldorf·AstOrlaNorthampton, Mass., NorthamptonOakland, Cal., OaklandPeoria. Ill., Pere MarquettePhiladelphia, Pa. ,BenJamin FranklinPittsburgh. Pa., S€henley Portland, Ore., MultonomahRochester, N. Y .• SenecaSacramento. Cal., SacramentoSt. Louis. Mo., CoronadoSt. Paul, Minn .• Saint PaulSan Diego, CaL, St. JamesSan Francisco, CaL, PalaceSeattle. Wash .• OlympICSyracuse, N. Y., OnondagaToronto, Canada, King.EdwardUrbana. Ill., Urbana-LincolnWashington. D. c., WillardWilliam�port, Pa. LycomingThe Intercollegiate Alumni Hotel movement is sponsored by the Alumni Secretariesand Editors of the participating colleges and directed byINTERCOLLEGIATt: ALUMNI EXTENSION SERVICE, 18 E. 41st St., NewYork,N.Y.DIRECTORSSTEPHEN K. LITTLE J. L. MORRILLPnncecon Alumni W ukl, Alumni SecrecaryPnncecon UnI�ersic1 OhiO Scace Unl<ersiryJ. O. BAXENDALiAlumni SecretaryUniversity ofV.,,-molllA. C. BUSCHAlumni Secrecary!iIwlgers CollegrR. W. HARWOODHarvard Alumni BuUeclnHarvard UnwersiryE. N. SULLIVANAlumni SecrecaryPenn Scace CollegeKINO EDWARDTO'I'oRto. Can BANKHEADBurningham. AId. W.B.SHAWAlumni SecretaryUnlVers.'cy of MichiganJOHN D. McKEEWooster Alumni BullecinIV ooster College WR. OKESONTreasurer ofLehigh University ROBERT SIBLEYAlumni SecretaryUnwemty of Cal,f<muaHEL�N F. McMILLINWellesley Alum""" MagatineW el�sle1 College FLORENCE H. SNOWAlumnae SecrecarySmith CollegeR. W. SAILORCornell Alumni NewsCornell UnIVerSityLEVERING TYSONAlumni FederanonColumbUl UnlverSlc1 E. T. T WILLIAMSBrown Unwer"tyBETIlLEHEMBethlehem. Pa LYCOMINGWUhamsport, Pa. MONTELEONENew Orleans, L .. SOUTHERNBalnrnore, Md. 127!����.ijl��k�MU�HLEBACH1\,In:�JS City. Mo.BILTMORElos Angeles. Calif.COPLEY· PLAZABoston, Mass.LINCOLNlincoln. Neb.WINDERMERECh,�ago, Ill.OLYMPICSeattle. Wath,SACRAMENTOSacramento. Calif.PARKMadison. WI&.NORTHAMPTONNorthampton, Mali.128 .THE UNIVERSITY OF.CHICAGO MAGAZINEAn org a n i z.a t i o n of almost fifty people, with specialists in all branches of advertisingMember: American Association of Advertising Agencies & National Outdoor Advertising BureauVANDERHOOF.& COMPANY QeneralclldverlisingVANDERHOOf BUIL·DING • ••. 167 .B.O·NTAR.lO ST •• CHIC.h�O�ilH!�HENRY D. SULCER, '05, PresidentIt is significant that the world'sgreatest candy manufacturer ..tJ ·'�'AM. all';l/)���J)IE';and the world's largest manufacturerof fine pianos . . .GULBRANSENPia n (isas well as the world's greatest hotel, haveall chosen merchandising headquarters astheir advertising and merchandising counsel.THE STEVENSCHICAGO'I'h e eJ.teven,s is the Largest Hotel t n the WorldIN TH I�I c/JU L:The story of Thomas Wakefield Good­speed's share in 'the building of the, Uni­versity will never be told in full. The manwho first dreamed of a new University of,Chicago has said little in his historiesabout his own share in making that dreamcome true. There is danger that posteritymay overlook his contribution.Such an estimate of these services as wasmade by Professor SOARES at Dr. Good­speed's funeral pays a debt to the futureas well as to the past. It has the leadingposition in this issue.For years Walter Sargent had workedat the painting of a tree. I t was not aparticularly graceful tree: its trunk wasthick and crooked; its boughs had greatknots. Serpents coiled about its roots. Butit seemed at peace. Some of its foliagehung low, and deer were eating it. Itsshade was comfortable. And N orns­creatures like nymphs-poured water uponthe tree's roots.Walter Sargent worked upon the paint­ing of the tree whenever he had a holiday.Finally, one night last fall, he completed it,and signed his name. His tree had reachedits full height. So had his life.MISS JESSIE TODD, '25, who posed hrthe N orns, tells this story of a masterpiece.Religion, for many University men andwomen, has become something more thanthe business of saving one's soul. It puzzlesthem with deep questions; it sometimeswithholds its answers altogether.Yet Dean SHAILER Mx'rrmwssays thatthe University is religious. I t must notstifle these questions, he says; it must helpto answer them by its own scientificmethod-experiment. He describes someof Chicago's experiments in religion.A circle of faces that look alive, even ifthey are carved in stone, looks down upon the ,court of the new Medical School.They are the faces of men who have madethe present-day sciences of medicine; phys­iology, and surgery. The discoverer of thecirculation of the blood peers 'out from the.keystone of an arch. The founder of mod­ern bacteriology, and the surgeon who firstused asepsis, are on the lookout for moreGreat Principles to discover. The inven­tor of vaccination shrinks politely into thecorner of a niche.Some of the busts from this hall of fameare pictured in this issue.Life is nine-tenths routine. That is asit should he; for nine-tenths of life is thusmade comparatively easy. But routinemust be improved, to keep pace with thegrowth of life.Professor MANLY sees some clear andurgent duties tor schools, teachers, andstudents, in such a world. His- views con­cern alumni as much as they concern thegraduating seniors who heard him lastmonth at Convocation. We reprint extractsfrom his address.A Kentucky girl with a degree from theUniversity has published her second novelof the South. Her first was a story of poorwhites; this one deals with ' decayed firstfamilies. LENNOX GREY, '23, now a mem­ber of the English department-a South­erner himself-reviews the book.Another fe�low who came from Dixiefor a Chicago degree has published a book ofpoems. MAURICE LESEMANN, '22, poetand critic has reviewed it.Chicago audiences, convalescent from aseason of four or five Shaw plays, will findan attempt toward diagnosis of the maladyIn Mr. �IILLETT)S page this month.129.A Maker and Writer of HistoryDr. Goodspeed was born in 1842 at Glens Falls, New York; he diedDecember 12, 1927, in Chicago.130VOL.XX No.3�beWniber�itp of (bicago.maga?ineJANUARY, 1928--------------------------------------------------------------------+-Thomas W akefield GoodspeedAYEAR ago President Lowell told methat Harvard regarded Chicago as agenuine rival. The oldest University inthe country, with the dignity of its threehundred years of brilliant learning, and itsfinancial resources the greatest that theworld has ever known, looked across thecountry to this commercial city and foundits peer in the institution that forty yearsago existed only in the vision and hope andfaith of one man. Before the genius ofHarper, the unparalleled generosity ofRockefeller, the sagacity of Judson hadcombined to make the University of Chicagoone of the world's great centers of learn­ing, Thomas Goodspeed said that the oldUniversity of Chicago ought to be revived.He told the great church that had stood be­hind the old institution that it should berevived. He told the city that had beenproud of its early university, that it shouldbe revived. He urged upon Mr. Rocke­feller his friend and helper in the develop­ment of the theological seminary that theUniversity should be revived. He heldbefore the mind of the young professor ofHebrew in that seminary that he was the man to be the educational leader in the uni­versity that was to be revived. Largely outof his faith and his indomitable couragethe dream became true.Why should Dr. Goodspeed want theBaptists to establish a University in Chi­cago? To some people today, to many ofthe younger men on the faculty, that seemsa narrow ambition. What has a great in­stitution of scholarly research to do witha denomination? The question illustratesthe extraordinary lack of historical imagina­tion that is so common among even ablemen. Forty years ago a university meant tomost people a college with associated profes­sional schools. The vital conception of re­search which is now dominant in scholar­ship was then only beginning to make itsway. The old University of Chicago wasa college for the training of citizens, withwhich was connected certain professionalschools. Dr. Goodspeed and the men whoworked with him were concerned to havea similar institution only upon a much noblerscale. The almost unbroken tradition ofAmerican education was that such an in­stitution should be founded by a church.132 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEIt was the glorious faith that the educationof young people should be far more thanIearning. It should be character, civicdevotion, human service. It was this thatinspired religious men and women to foundcolleges; they wanted to make Christiancitizens. There was no sectarianism about'it. They never dreamed of any religioustest upon faculty, students or teaching. Dr.Goodspeed wanted the Baptists to make acontribution to higher education.I t is doubtful if a university could havebeen established in Chicago at that time ex­cept with the support of a church. No onewas interested in making Baptists, but theydid desire that the spirit of the institutionwould be religious. When the conceptionof the college gave way to that of the re­search university and the limitation of thepresidency was found to be unwise, thosemen who wrote the charter were the mostwilling to seek its change. It is only sillyto think of the University securing liberationfrom a sectarian bondage. Anyone who�nderstands the development of Americaneducational life knows that in these fortyyears we have come through a radical changein the conception of higher learning andhave so developed the interest of the citizensin education. that the major responsibilityfor university development no longer restsupon the church; and the interest of the citi­zens of Chicago in educational beneficenceto no small extent is due to Dr. Goodspeed.Ten years before the old University failedfor lack of funds, our friend, then a youngminister in Chicago, was asked to lead acampaign to put the Baptist TheologicalSeminary on a firm financial foundation. Itwas hoped that the year of the national cen­tenary would be a fitting period. His heartwas in the ministry, for he wanted to sharehis deep religious experience with others;yet he saw the significance of preparingyoung ministers for their tasks, and he con­sented to give a year to the financial effort.That was a difficult period in Chicago, justreviving from the Fire; and the panic of)77 made contributions to education impos­sible. But Dr. Goodspeed believed in God.Very simply and profoundly he believed thatGod wanted things to be done that ought to be done. The adequate preparation ofyoung men for the Christian ministryseemed to be a thing that ought to be done.It was God's enterprise, and this man ofduty gave himself to it.For ten years he labored to build up theSeminary and for those ten years he sawthe University decline. He had no part inDr. Goodspeed at the Alumni ReunionLast Junethat unfortunate catastrophe, but no soonerwas the old impossible situation cleared thanhe conceived a new university on a hroClderbasis. He had already interested Mr.Rockefeller in the Seminary; indeed he hadsecured him as vice-president of the Boardof Trustees. Dr. Goodspeed saw that ifthis man of expanding wealth and enlargingphilanthropic purpose could see the possibil­ity of a' Christian institution of learning inChicago, something far beyond . the oldfoundation was possible.But Mr. Rockefeller, while deeply in­terested in the establishment of a university,THOMAS WAKEFIELD GOODSPEEDwas not clear as to its location. Manythought it should be in N ew York. Many,including at that time Mr. Judson, wereconvinced that it should be in Washington.Dr. Goodspeed was sure that it should be inChicago; and a company of earnest citizenswere with him. This great advancing me­tropolis was not to be a mere commercialcity; it must have the spiritual quality ofa great seat of learning. Mr. Fred T.Gates, secretary of the American BaptistEducation Society, was studying the matterfor a report to Mr. Rockefeller. Probablythe courage, the faith, the readiness of thatlittle group of men in Chicago to undertakeresponsibility went far toward determiningthe issue. We now see that influences whichhave determined the educational life of theentire Middle West hung upon that de­CISIOn. Of course these men did not ap­preciate all that they were doing; but theydid see great beginnings.In these days of millions of endowment,the significance of the first financial effortcannot be measured. Thirty-six menformed a committee and called Dr. Good­speed to lead the enterprise, Mr. Gatesagreeing to cooperate. Our friend gave uphis assured position and accepted the secre­taryship of a committee, which had not adollar in its possession. The great Baptistleaders of the day said to him, "You go outlike Abraham who journeyed not knowingwhither he went."To Dr. Goodspeed it was God's enter­prise, and so he presented it to the men ofthat day. Very significant is it that in onlyone important case did he meet a rebuff.Not all whom he asked contributed money,but all were impressed by this man whocame not as a solicitor but as a messengerof opportunity to offer them the privilegeof a great enterprise. They felt the pres­ence of his glowing personality, they feltthe power of his vital faith.His was a religious home. The goodold fashioned custom of family prayers wasthere observed. A common expression uponhis lips was the prayer of faith, "0 Lord,establish Thou the work of our hands uponus." The work of his hands which heprayed God to establish was the building 133of the institution of light and learning.His friend and colleague, Dr. Fred T.Gates, sends this telegram: "Dr. Good­speed's death removed from me a friend ofmore than forty years, during all of whichour intimacy was close and unbroken. Hewas the first to "work for the establishmentof the University of Chicago and lived to benear the last of the group which laid itsfoundation and promoted its development.The memory of Dr. Goodspeed must everremain among the most cherished of mylife."After the founding. came those marvelousexpanding years with William Rainey Harp­er in the van, seeing visions, making plans,carrying on enterprises far beyond even theample resources of the University to meet.Difficult, terrible years with recurring finan­cial deficits. To Dr. Harper- a deficit wasonly the temporary failure of the supplytrain to keep up with the advancing army;.to . Mr. Rockefeller a deficit was the col­lapse ocf the whole campaign. These twogreat souls did not understand each other.Dr. Goodspeed stood between them, under­standing both, sympathizing with both" try­ing to keep them together. There can beno higher testimony to his statesmanshipthan that he kept the confidence of Mr.Rockefeller and Mr. Gates; there can beno higher testimony to his devotion thanthat he kept his loyalty to his chief. Everyone recognized it at last. He has writtenthe story with insight, generosity, and ap­preciation, and with a marvelous ability andwillingness to leave himself out. Onlythose who know can read between the lines.Then came the years of consolidation un­der Judson when the great endowmentscame in, and the University for which Dr.Goodspeed had lived and prayed and workedwas established upon an enduring founda­tion.But he had reached the threescore yearsand ten and insisted upon retiring. Itseemed absurd to us. When was ever manmore vigorous in body and in mind? Hecould spend untiring days at his desk.He could playa vigorous round of golf. Hecould hew down a tree on his island in anorthern lake. He could tire the younger134 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE. In the Vision of One ManNDr. Goodspeed about r887-when he first called Mr. Rockefeller's attention to theeducational opportunity at Chicago.men in a day's tramp. He could talk to theundergraduates at a football pep session,and get the boys on their toes with eagerness.He could speak in a prayer meeting so thatthe very presence of God was in our hearts.He could still raise money with all his oldardor and enthusiasm. Why should he re­tire? But he said it was right and a fittingexample to others.Those who were near to him feared theeffect of sudden inactivity. But happily itwas not to be. Dr. Judson, himself ahistorian, realized the unparalleled oppor- tunity of gathering the data of the early his­tory of the University, and asked Dr. Good­speed to undertake the task-not to bethe Historian; that was not then thoughtof. Vigorously and effectively he gatheredthe material and it was soon evident that hemust write the history himself. In his de­lightful whimsical way (his humor waspart of his greatness of soul) he apologizesin his preface for breaking into literatureat seventy-four years of age. And it wasliterature. Fascinating, keen, interpreta­tive, illuminating is that story. Then fol-THE STORY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOlowed the masterly sketches of the benefac­tors of the University, like cameos in theirclear presentation; almost a biography of theCity of Chicago. Then the history of hisgreat friend Ernest D. Burton, the thirdPresident of the University. Then the lastand crowning task, the life of his friend andchief, that unique personality, whom heloved and understood so well, WilliamRainey Harper-almost finished when thepen dropped from his hand a few days ago.Fifteen years of this vital literary activityand the great story of the University ofChicago is told. 135But there is one great omission; his partis not told. He has left himself out, savefor the merest necessary references. It isa great loss, for now his part in the storynever can be told. He has written the his­tory so well that no one will ever write itagain. His contribution, therefore, willnever be recorded. It will live in the mem­ory of a few who knew him. It will onlyremain, as he would have it remain, a .partof the work of our hands, here establishedby God in the place of learning that willnever die.The Story of The University of ChicagoBy THOMAS WAKEFIELD GOODSPEEDReprinted through courtesy of The University of Chicago PressX. THE STRUGGLE WITH THE DEFICITTHIS chapter might have anyone ofseveral names. It might be called "TheUniversity and Its Benefactors," or "TheExpanding Plans of President Harper,"or "The Munificence of Mr. Rockefeller."All these things will emerge as the storydevelops. But the thing that is always inevidence in the record of the fifteen yearsthat followed the opening of the Universityis the struggle with deficits. The begin­nings of that fifteen-year struggle weretouched upon in the preceding chapter. Itwas then told how Mr. Ryerson had offered$100,000 on condition that the sum was in­creased to $500,000 by the contributions ofothers and how Mr. Rockefeller followedwith a contribution of $150,000 for currentexpenses. This was the opening of thatlong struggle with a deficit that became amonster threatening to devour the institu­tion.The summer of 1893 was one of themost trying in the history of the University.Nothing had been added to the Ryersonfund. The country was suffering from oneof the worst panics in its history and itwould have been lunacy to try to raisemoney. One man indeed could still make contributions, and on the last day of Oc­tober of that year Mr. Rockefeller sent theboard a new subscription of $500,000 con­ditioned on raising of the Ryerson fundbefore July 1, 1894. It was to be devotedto the general purposes of the institution andto providing for the deficit of 1894-95.The Ryerson half-mill ion-dollar fund hadnow become the Ryerson million-dollarfund. But the financial ·depression con­tinued, and it was not till May, 1894, thata new beginning could be made in solicitingsubscriptions. It was finally found im­possible to comply strictly with the con­ditions of Mr. Ryerson's subscription. Theentire sum, indeed, required was raised andmore, but it was necessary to admit somecontributions for purposes not orginally con­templated by Mr. Ryerson.I was associated with President Harperin the raising of this subscription and cannever: forget its difficulties and discourage­ments. I recall one of the incidents thatgreatly depressed us at the time, but latergave us many a hearty laugh. We called ona well-known citizen, trustee of a well­known school, and began by saying, "Weare calling on you because we know you areinterested in education." We got no farther.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEQuick as lightning he burst out: "Not aparticle! Not a particle! Not a particle!"But almost invariably we. were received, notonly courteously, but with cordial friend­liness.While the effort for the Ryerson millionhad been going on, the obligations of theUniversity had been increasing at an ap­palling rate, until they had approached halfa million dollars. It was the knowledgeof this situation which had moved Mr.Rockefeller to make his proffer of half a mil­lion to encourage, and, if possible, insure theraising of the Ryerson fund.I t was raised at last and the young in­stitution rescued, not from bankruptcy, forit was perfectly solvent, but from a loadof obligations that threatened to cripple itsactivities, if it did not compel the tempo­rary suspension of its educational work.The authorities had been so disturbedand alarmed by the dangers that had threat­ened that the mistakes of the first and secondyears were never repeated. Temptationswere not lacking. The number of studentsincreased astonishingly. N e� departments,new schools, clamored for establishment.It was only by setting their faces like a flintagainst them that the authorities were ableto resist the temptation to embrace mostalluring opportunities for branching out invarious directions. And yet, with the bestintentions in the world to pursue a conserva­tive policy, the trustees, while guardingagainst the earlier peril, found, to theirgrief and dismay, the annual expensesmounting up by leaps and bounds. In 1894-95 these were, in round numbers $544,000;in 1895-96, $637,000; in 1896-97, $692,-000. The income for the correspondingyears showed deficits of $53,000, $47,000,and $97,000, a total for the three years ofnear ly $200,000. This alarming resultoccurred notwithstanding the fact that Mr.Rockefeller made the following specialcontributions for current expenses for theexpress purpose of providing against deficits:in 1894-95, $175,000, in 1895-96, the sameamount; and in 1896-97, $100,000, a totalfor the three years of $450,000. It wasalso in the middle of this period on Oc- tober 30, 1895, that Mr. Rockefeller madehis great three-million-dollar subscription.This was an unconditional pledge of $1,000.000 for. endowment, which was paid twomonths later, and a further subscription,to quote the language of the pledge, of$2,000,000 for endowment or otherwise as I maydesignate, payable in cash, or, at my option, inapproved interest-bearing securities at theirfair market value, but only in amounts equalto the contribution of others, in cash or itsequivalent, not hitherto promised, as the sameshall be received by the University. Thispledge shall be void as to any portion of thesum herein promised which shall not prove tobe payable on the above terms on or beforeJanuary I, 1900.Mr. Rockefeller had noted with ap­prehension the growth of the annual expens­es and the increasing deficit. He made oneeffort to call a halt. In December, 1894,he had subscribed $ 175,000 for the currentexpenses of 1895-96, but had provided that. he was to be at liberty to withhold furtherpayments on the subscription in case itshould be found that the expenditures wereexceeding the income. Ten months laterhe seems to have concluded that a better waywould be to secure such an addition to thefunds as would provide an income ample forthe annual expenses and make deficits impos­sible. It would seem as though no devicewould be more certain to accomplish thisresult than this opening of the way to add­ing $5,000,000 to the funds. It will benoted that after giving $1,000,000 outright,he proposed to duplicate every dollar thatwas contributed by others, for any purpose,during the ensuing four years, up to $2,000,-000. These were no hard conditions. Theproffer was most wisely and generouslyconceived to help the University in everyway. And in helping the University it wasmost effective. It called attention once moreand with renewed emphasis to the fact that areally great University was developing inChicago. I t awakened an assured confidencein the minds of all in the future of the in­stitution. I t led persons of large wealthto feel that it would endure and was a safeplace in which to make large investments foreducation.On December 14, 1895, only six weeksTHE STORY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOafter the announcement of Mr Rockefeller'ssubscriptions, Miss Helen Culver, having"concluded that the strongest guarantiesof permanent and efficient adminstrationwould be assured if the property were en­trusted to the University of Chicago,"turned over to the trustees properties whichshe valued at $1,000,000. They did noteventually produce that full amount andfrom time to time she added other contri­butions. The whole gift was "devoted tothe increase and spread of knowledge with­in the field of the Biological Sciences.'"In the early part of the year followingthese subscriptions and contributions, theChicago Commercial Club turned over tothe University the Chicago Manual Train­ing School, its property and endowments,the whole aggregating in value $250,000.Year by year the four-million-dollarfund grew, but not fast enough to reach thetotal sum of two million dollars on the datefixed, January I, 1900. The time wastherefore extended to April I .• During thesethree months some notable gifts were re­ceived, carrying the total to almost twomillion dollars. Among the great contribu­tions to the fund, in addition to those alreadymentioned, were the following: $206,000by Mrs. Charles Hitchcock, $I35,000 byMarshall Field, $72,000 by Elizabeth G. 137Kelly, $60,000 by Charles L. Hutchinson,$50,000 by W. F. E. Gurley, $50,000 byJohn J. Mitchell, $40,000 by Martin A.Ryerson, $34,000 by Catherine W. Bruce,$30,000 by Mrs. B. E. Gallup, $27,000 byMrs. Emmons Blaine, and $20,000 oyNancy S. Foster. There was a contributionof $50,000 from Leon Mandel for MandelAssembly Hall, which, a little later, but notsoon enough to be counted in this fund, wasincreased by $35,000 more. The very lastdays of the extension to April I came anda few thousand dollars were still lacking tomake up the full twO' million the Universitymust raise to secure the full two millionMr. Rockefeller had subscribed. On thelast day but one President Harper receivedthe following telegram:Wire me Saturday noon [March 3 I] howmuch you lack in fulfilling conditions.F. T. GATESThe information was dispatched and thefollowing answer came back without delay:'President W. R. Harper,University of Chicago:I have secured valid pledges from friends ofUniversity sufficient to cover whatever may befound on examination to be the actual shortagein the amount necessary to entitle the Univer­sity to the full amount of Mr. Rockefeller'spledge of October 30, 1895, and you can there­fore announce the success of the movement.F. T. GATESThe HistorianThe last photograph of Dr. Goodspeed. It shows him at work upon his life ofPresident Harper, four days before the fatal stroke.138 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThus was the greatest financial campaignof the first quarter-century brought to atriumphant issue. The University neverinquired who the "friends" referred to inthe foregoing telegram were. Mr. Rocke­feller considered their subscriptions "valid,"and as they were paid and duplicated byhim the University was more than satisfied.As a result of the great subscription of Oc­tober 30, 18g5, $5,000,000 came into thetreasury of the University. It wouldnaturally be supposed that with this immenseaddition to its resources the institution wouldnow escape deficits. It would be supposedthat most of this great sum must have beenadded to the endowment. As a matter offact almost the only part that went intothe endowment was $1,500,000 from Mr.Rockefeller and a part of Miss Culver'scontribution. The greater part of the twomillions given by others went into addi­tions to the site, equipment, books, supplies,collections, and- new buildings. Of MissCulver's gift $325,000 was expended on thefour Hull Biological Laboratories, and thefund was then withdrawn 'from use forabout sixteen years and allowed to accumu­late, the interest being annually added tothe principal, so that when it was finallyreleased in 1 9 1 4, the fund had so increasedthat it yielded in the neighborhood of $40,-000 a year toward the annual expenses ofthe Biological departments: Of the twomillions contributed by Mr. Rockefeller induplicating the gifts of others, some $1,-300,000 went to pay accumulated and cur­rent deficits in expenses for the six yearssucceeding the making of the subscription,and the remainder to pay for additions tothe campus, to erect new buildings-thePress Building and the Power Plant-tosupplement the gifts of others for build­ings, to purchase the law library, to providefor medical instruction, and to provide thetemporary structure for the School of Edu­cation. It was a great disappointment tothe Founder and the trustees that so littlecould be saved from the $2,000,000 gift forpermanent endowment.Mr. Rockefeller fully understood all thefactors in the situation, the genius of the president, which he did not wish to havediscouraged, the conservatism of the trusteesthe inevitableness of the U niversity's expan�sion, and the difficulty of regulating it.His interest and confidence in the ultimateoutcome were not diminished. They in­creased. He continued to care for thelarge deficits. In December, IgOO, he made anew contribution of $1,000,000 for endow­ment and once more half a million forgeneral purposes. In December, IgOI, headded another million dollars to the endow­ment, and in December, Ig02, still anothermillion, making a. total up to that date ofmore than $8,000,000 for endowment alone.Meantime since 18g7 Mr. Rockefeller hadgiven the following sums to provideagainst current expense deficits: for thethree years from 18g7 to 1 goo, $200,000each year; for IgOO-lgOI, $225,000; forIgOI-2, $253,000; for Ig02-3, $250,000and for I g03-4, $26 I ,000, a total of almost$1,600,000, for current expenses in sevenyears. And yet the deficit grew. Such wasthe expansion of the University's work thatnotwithstanding these unparalleled giftsand the contribution of several million dol­lars from other benefactors, the deficit forIg04-5, according to the budget proposedfor the year, showed an increase of $60,000.This was, in a conference between John D.Rockefeller, Jr., Dr. Gates, and a com­mittee of the trustees, cut down a little, butonly a little, and Mr. Rockefeller provided$300,000 to meet the prospective deficit.Then the conference took the followingaction to bring the annual deficits to a finalend:It is the unanimous sense of this conferencethat until this deficit is wiped 'out by endowmentor retrenchment, the University must rigidlydecline to consider the enlargement of any de­partments now existing, or the addition of anynew departments of work which do at the time,or may in the future involve the University inadditional expense, unless adequate funds areespecially provided therefor. This policy thegentlemen here assembled commit themselves tocarry out to the full extent of their ability.In adopting this policy we are not taking abackward step, nor are we conceiving the Uni­versity as remaining stationary. We conceivethis step to be a step. in advance, and the mostTHE STORY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOimportant and the most exigent now before theUniversity. If we shall demonstrate our abilityto conduct the institution within its income andthus place it on an assured and permanent finan­cial foundation, we shall have placed the insti­tution in a position to invite the confidence ofmen of means, both in Chicago and in the East,and will be in a position to assure them, notonly of the permanency of the institution, butthat it can and will conduct its affairs annuallywithout financial embarrassments and withoutfinancial crises, which may either threaten itsusefulness or embarrass its friends.As Mr. Rockefeller had for the threeyears preceding this conference added $1,-000,000 to the endowment as regularly asJanuary came round, and as the needs weregreater and more urgent than ever, and asthe responsible parties had concluded anagreement, binding on them all, henceforth"to conduct the institution within its in­come," it might have been supposed that anew and perhaps unusually large endowmentgift would now be made. But no contribu­tion whatever for endowment was made.Mr. Rockefeller subscribed $300,000 to .make the income for 1904-5 adequate, butthat was all.December, 19°4, came round and a com­mittee again visited N ew York, with thebudget for the year July I, 1905. Againthere was disappointment as to any giftfor endowment, but Mr. Rockefeller cheer­fully promised $245,000 for the currentexpenses. He was waiting to see whetherthe conference agreement of December,1903, was being faithfully observed­whether the trustees were conducting theinstitution within its income and thus in­viting "the confidence of men of meansboth in Chicago and in the East." Therewas disappointment, but perhaps this disap- I39pointment had its part in encouraging thetrustees to establish that absolute controlof the annual expenditures which charac­terized the financial management of theUniversity from that day forward.When in December, 1905, the committeecarried the budget for the next year toN ew York and with it presented the en­dowment needs, its members found them­selves in a new atmosphere. In Januarythey were able to report that Mr. Rocke­feller not only promised the funds neededto provide for the prospective deficit, but$1,100,000 for endowment. And duringthe same year, on December 26, 1906, heemphasized his confidence by contributing$3,025,000, of which $2,7°0,000 was to beadded to the permanent endowment.The day of deficits ended. The last defi­cit was provided for in 1908.On December 30, 1907, a new contri­bution for endowment was made amountingto $ I ,400,000, and a year later still anothergift in bonds of the market value of $862,-125. These bonds were given not only forthe permanent increase in endowment butalso to provide for any possible deficit. Butthere was no deficit. Mr. Rockefeller, Jr.,knew there would be none. In that joyfulconfidence he wrote Mr. Ryerson, "It iswith the utmost satisfaction that we seethe deficit in the annual budget of the U ni­versity thus permanently wiped out." Forthe rest of the period covered by this story,that is up to 1924, it was wiped out.Through the princely munificence of theFounder the long and desperate strugglewith the deficit had been brought to atriumphant conclusion.PeriodThe last lines written by Dr. Goodspeed, for his unfinished life of President Harper.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEY ggdrasil: Tree of LifeYggdrasilThe Story of Walter Sargent and his Last PaintingBy JESSIE TODDI HAVE been asked by the editor to tellmy experience in posing for the figuresin the painting called ICy ggdrasil."I t was in the summer of 1924. I wasvisiting the Sargents. I t was Sunday morn­ing, warm and sunshiny. We had an hourbefore church time. Mr. Sargent said,"I'll show you Y ggdrasil and read you thestory. Then perhaps you'd be kind enoughto pose for the figures of the Noms." Wewent to the spacious studio with its manyinteresting pictures already -begun. Heread the old Norse tale to me. He showedme the canvas which had been begun. Al­ready the figures were represented by whitespots on the canvas. We found a pitcherwhich would do for the one to be held by thefigure pouring the water. I practiced takinga few poses.Would I pose? What an opportunity!Monday, Mrs. Sargent dressed me as thefigures might be dressed for such a pictureand that day I began to pose. At intervals rwatched him paint on Y ggdrasil. I canclose my eyes and see it all again as a beauti­ful dream-the studio, Mr. Sargent paint­ing, I sitting on the floor watching him. Hesaid it did not bother him to have me watch.After a few moments he forgot that I wasthere. How much he looked at the picturebefore he added a little stroke. Then howmuch that little stroke meant. His man­ner of painting was so true to his philosophy.He used to tell us to look long at the sub­ject and paint little; look long at the subjectagain and paint little.I t was a legend which had always ap­pealed to him and a theme he had worked onfor years. He had a folder labelled "Y gg­drasil" in which were many little sketchesof drapery for the figures, a collection ofphotographs of deer in all sorts of positions,three or four pencil sketches of differentcompositions for the picture and one watercolor giving a suggested color scheme. The legend is an old Norse tale. In thepicture, Y ggdrasil, you see a tremendous oldtree with four stags eating the leaves of thelow-hung boughs. Down below in the caveare swarms of serpents gnawing at the twoside roots. Then you see three figures ofmaidens carrying jars from which they pourwater. Mr. Sargent made this little poemabout it:A round Y ggdrasil' s roots dark serpentssuiarm ;To stout Y ggdrasil' s heart they workdire harm.And yet Y ggdrasil liues ;From Odin's springThe deathless N orns eternal watersbring.I t was in 1924 that I posed for theN oms. During the years that followed Iasked Mr. Sargent often about Y ggdrasil.He would say, "I want more time to painton it." This summer he said to Mrs.Sargent, "One thing I must do this season,I must finish Y ggdrasil."On Saturday the seventeenth of Sep­tember, 1927, he wrote me a letter sayingthat he had just completed Y ggdrasil andthat he would bring it to Chicago withhim. Early the following Monday morninghe left this world. Y ggdrasil was done.Albert Bailey of Boston has said, "Themyth was Walter Sargent's interpretationof life and his confession of faith. Y gg­drasil is the life of man, of humanity. Itsroots take hold of the very kingdoms of deathwhere forces of evil seek to destroy it. I twrithes out of the ground only to meetwith other forms of destruction, the playof chance, the thrusts of adversity, the tem­pests of passion, the lighting stroke of Fate.The great tree towers up into the blue abovethe storm clouds, because its tap root hasstruck down into the spiritual substratum ofthe universe and draws its sustenance fromnever-failing waters.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"It is Walter Sargent's own portrait ofhimself. His was the calm strength ofY ggdrasil. He stood four-square to all thewinds of circumstance, grounded in theeternal verities-for the roots of his soullife were watered in secret by the ever last­ing springs of God."One of his former students has said thatMr. Sargent's going was expressed by JohnG. N eihard t in these verses:Let me go q1l:ickly, like a candle lightSnuffed out just at the heydey of itsglow.Give me high noon-and then let it benight! .Thus would I go.A nd grant that when I meet the grislyThing,My song may trumpet down the grayPerhaps,Let me be as a time-swept fiddle-string,That feels the Master' Melody­snaps!Walter Sargent, the TeacherOther Recollections by the Same AuthorMR. SARGENT used continually tourge us to try to do something excel­lent, not mediocre. How well he practicedthis philosophy himself! He never made atalk even to a small gathering of peoplewithout making as good preparation as hedid when he spoke to a thousand. He wasnot satisfied with framing a crude sketchand calling it finished. He would hang it inhis home or studio, live with it, change itmany times and finally when he did call itfinished, it represented his best efforts. Itwas not mediocre. It was excellent. In hisclasses, we students were ready many timesto call our work finished. He was readythen to show us by his demonstration or byfine examples, ways to improve our work. If he said it was "good" or "interesting"or "jolly," we were not satisfied until hesaid it was "excellent."He had infinite patience. How crude theresults of the students must have looked tohim, so sensitive to color and design. Hedid not let the students feel this. He foundsomething good to say about each pieceof work.He had a big, broad point of view. Whenwe went on trips to the Art Institute gal­leries, now and then a student would ex­claim, "I don't see anything in that picture,"or "I surely don't like that." To themMr. Sargent would say that he believedthat we should try to get the point of viewof the artist who produced the picture; thatWALTER SARGENT, THE TEACHEReach picture presented the honest efforts ofone who had something to express, althoughwe might not be able to understand it.He was interested in talking with Ex­pressionist painters. I remember of his tell­ing about one picture in which he could seenothing of beauty. He said, "The manwho made it is a very fine man. He spenta great deal of thought and time on thepicture. I shall try to understand it. Whenwe see people of his caliber producingpictures of this nature we feel that theremust be a future for a type of work whichwe may not now understand or appreciate."A man who worked with him for yearssaid, "I've worked with Mr. Sargent twelveyears and I've never heard him say a crossword."Many have said of him that he had thekeenest sense of humor of anyone theyknew. He had a never-ending source ofstories for every occasion.He never lost that calm, quiet poise­no matter how trying the circumstances.One time a chapter of his color book hadbeen misplaced. He looked everywhere.We who were in the office with him wereupset about the loss. It did not changeMr. Sargent in the least. Someone said,"I can't understand you. I'd be tearingmy hair and pacing back and forth.""What's the use?" he said with his usualsmile.He used to say, "We must have restplaces in our lives, times to think. Onewho says he does not care to have any quietmoments either has a guilty conscience ornothing to think about." I have thoughtso many times that this was one of the thingsthat made Walter Sargent such a great man.He took time to develop his personality al­though he was as busy as any professor oncampus. He was never too busy to listen tosomething interesting you had to tell him;never too busy to give a word of advice orwrite in long-hand a letter congratulatingyou on some piece of work for which youhad received recognition; never too busy tobe happy, happy because of the beautifulfriendships he had made among the children, 143the college folks, and even the very oldpeople. How he loved to hear these oldpeople tell of the early days! How theywere cheered by his sunny personality!He used to say that people who were in­terested in the ordinary things of life nevergrew old. How true this was of him. Onhis way to school he would walk on the thinice along the Midway and get real joy outof hearing it crackle. One time the leavesof the nearby trees made a lacy shadowypattern on the sheets hanging on the clothes­line. He photographed these and was verymuch gratified at the results. .He used to say that he belonged to Illi­nois and Massachusetts. He loved thewoods, the home, the leisure of NorthScituate, Massachusetts. He also lovedthe University, the city skyline, the Midway,the boulevards of Chicago. In June justbefore he left the University, we weredriving up the new Outer Drive with himone night. He said, "Isn't Chicago a greatcity? It takes one's breath away to see asight like this."He used to say, "I'd love to paint moun­tains, but since there are no mountainswhere I live, I've become immensely fond ofthe sunshine gleaming through the woods,the pool, and other themes nearby."Mr. Sargent used the same masterlystrokes in a game of tennis, baseball, jump­ing over tables, fences, or rocks on the sea­shore that he did in drawing and painting.He did all with the same joy and rhythm.When you watched him you felt that youwanted to be doing the same thing. Itlooked so easy, so graceful were his move­ments.One day as we were eating supper on theshore of the Atlantic, Mr. and Mrs. Sar­gent �nd I, Mr. Sargent said, "Let's makea color circle out of the stones." We did.We put together all those which lookedreddish, in another pile those which lookedbluish, and so on. Then we made a colorcircle which had in it the six standardcolors and the intermediate tones. We putwater on the stones. The colors gleamedout so that we had a perfect color circle.(Continued on page 176)The University as Laboratory for Religious.ExperimentationBy SHAILER MATHEWSDean of the Divinity SchoolTHAT there is a new interest in religionis undeniable. Attendance in Divinityschools is increasing, the sale of religiousand philosophical books in phenornonal,theological discussions get on the first pageof the newspapers, and the repercussion, ifone may use the term, of Dayton has beena new zeal for religious discussion, on thepart of conservatives and progressives alike.This interest is at least twofold; on theone side is the revival of conventional re­ligious forms and methods, and on the otherhand the scientific study and restatementof beliefs. Nor' is scientific interest inreligion limited to ministers and professorsof theology. As the moral problems oflife grow more pressing, men are comingto see that a religion which does not findexpression in social action is hardly morethan a phase of respectability.Yet this interest in religion is not alwayswell organized or a source of inner peace.Any wide acquaintance with the educationalinstitution will lead to conviction as to thebasal concern of thoughtful students inreligion, but not in the tenability of ortho­dox theology. About this such studentsare indifferent. Their study in psychology,history and social institutions has weanedthem from concern about the Trinity andthe Atonement. Instead of a creed theywant a philosophy of life. They wish toknow what room there is for a God in auniverse of law. If there be a God theywonder whether he can be said to be cap­able of personal relation with them. Theyare ready-after their fashion-to be moraland religious, but they want to know whythey need -to be Christians. If religion is.a search for a better life through moresatisfactory individual relations with societyor the cosmos, they want to know whatthey can expect to gain by church member­ship. But what perplexes those who really be­lieve in religion is how to organize thisinterest so that it shall be something morethan the restlessness of a fly-wheel withouta governor. The leaders of conventionalreligious movements like the Young Men'sChristian Association, are confusedly at seaas to what to do. The old types of pro­cedure are ceasing to be effective with col­lege communities. Instead of inspirationaltalks students want discussion. Instead ofhard and fast programs superimposed fromabove, they want to experiment for them­selves. If they are to have a religiousfaith it must be their own-rooted in realityrather than in authority.The University of Chicago recognizesthis new interest born of the tension be­tween a religious heritage, a new worldview, and new social forces. Research isa part of its very life. Why should religionbe predominantly a matter of forms, historyand books? As one of today's interests, �tis not exempt from experiment. If a uni­versity is to' represent the best intellectuallife of the country, why should there notbe orderly attempts to discover and to or­ganize such religious interest as may char­acterize its faculty and student bodv? Whyshould there not be a university type ofreligion as truly as an ecclesiastical?144THE UNIVERSITY AS LABORATORY FOR RELIGIOUS EXPERIMENTATION 145The answer to this question involves anumber of factors:I. The University should be treated asa group possessed of its owninterests, habits, sanctions andcomponent groups. Once this isrecognized it is clear that it can­not be organized as a church or aparish. I ts religious life cannotbe assumed to be exclusively ec­clesiastical.2. I ts religious expressions will be asvaried as the dominant life in­terests of its members. Howvaried these are can be found onlyby study and experiment. Thefailure to recognize this aspect ofthe life of a university accounts forthe all but universal opposition tocompulsory chapel. Both facultyand students feel the incongruitybetween an officially establishedreligious service and their ownwants. Student assemblies fornotices, institutional morale andallied purposes are a natural ex­pression of the corporate life andmay properly be as much requiredof undergraduates as attendanceupon classes. But there is generalunrest at· compulsory attendanceupon a religious service that canrepresent only one type of religiousattitude.I t follows that, lacking prece­dents, a university must experi­ment in a search for such typesof religious activities as will fur­ther different idealistic attitudesamong faculty, undergraduates,graduates and professional stu­dents.3. Among such activities those foundeffective in the past will of coursebe maintained. The great major­ity of religious lives need theservices of prayer, worship, musicand address in a properly con­structed building. But here againthere must be intelligent experi- ment to discover just the sort ofchapel service which will serveand so attract members of theUniversity community.4. There must be other types of ac­tivities that will express the honestaspirations of those to whom evena modified church service does.not appeal. Why should not theidealistic loyalty to reality whichinspires those devoted to researchbe given opportunity for self­expression? To many persons thevery vocabulary of theism seemsartificial. A university can renderreal service to such persons. byhelping the spirit of research torecognize, express and organizeits basal ideals of service to hu­manity. Again without clearprecedents to guide its program itshould by a trial and failuremethod work its way to new formsof self-expression and growthfor non-ecclesiastical religious at­titudes.5. All religious activities should springfrom the varied life of the uni­versity itself rather than be super­imposed upon it. As far aspossible use should be made of themany groups already existing inthe university community.Some such philosophy as these proposi­tions include lies beneath the recent reor­ganization of the religious interests of theUniversity. The abolition of compulsorychapel in the Spring Quarter of 1927served to clear the ground for the develop­ment .of a program of experimentation on thepart of the University. The need of sucha program is especially emphasized by theapproaching completion of the magnificentnew Chapel.The first step of this reorganization wasthe establishment by vote of the Senateand Trustees of a new Board to be knownas the Board of University Social Serviceand Religion appointed by the President.This Board is equally representative of theTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEstudents and faculties-eight membersbeing chosen from each respectively. TheBoard is now composed of the followingpersons:From the Faculties: Edith Abbott, E.A. Burtt, A. H. Compton, Mrs. E. F.Flint, C. W. Gilkey, Shailer Mathews, G.B. Smith, D. H. Stevens.From the Students: Jean Dickinson,Allen Heald, Frances Holmes, KennethRouse, J. F. Stickney, F. G. Ward,Eleanor Wilkins, with M. D. McLean,Secretary of the Y.M.C.A., and MissMargaret Clark, Secretary of the Y.W.­C.A., as associate members.This Board takes the place of the Chris­tian Union and the Committee which hashad charge of the Mandel Hall services.In a statement issued by the Board itstresses the fact that it does not aim tomaintain any single dogmatic formulationof religion, nor merely to copy existingecclesiastical models. It conceives its func­tion as that of expressing and cultivatingall forms of the religious life of the U ni­versity community itself ..Among the actions already taken is anorganization of a religious service for allmembers of the University, held on Wed­nesday evenings at 7 o'clock, in the JosephBond Chapel. This service is intended torepresent the less-ecclesiastical interests ofthe University and has been addressed bythe President of the University, the Presi­dent of the Board of Trustees, and Pro­fessors Breasted, Stagg, Boynton, Douglas,Compton, Gilkey, Lyman, and Brecken­ridge. These meetings have been well at­tended, the chapel often being more thanfilled.A University religious service is beingheld Tuesday and Friday of each week inJoseph Bond chapel under the generaldirection of- the theological faculties.The Mandel Hall services are beingattended by an increasing number of stu­dents. The new attitude of the Universityis evidenced in that a representative of somesection of the University assists the minis­ter of the day. During the present quartersuch assistance has been rendered by Vice­President Woodward, Dean Gray of the School of Education, Dr. McLean of theMedical School, Dean Spencer of the Schoolof Commerce and Administration, Profes­sor D. H. Stevens, assistant to the Presi­dent, Professor J. H. Tufts, Dean Boucher,Dean Mathews and Professor Gerald B.Smith.At the present time a committee of theBoard is engaged in arranging a new orderof service for the Sunday exercises inMandel Hall. At the same time increasedattention is given by Professor Mack Evansto the musical elements of both the week­day and the Sunday chapel.The Board also is given general over­sight of the practical work of the YoungMen's Christian Association and the YoungWomen's Christian Association, as well associal service as in the case of volunteerwork at the Settlement and elsewhere.The Board is not limiting its work toitself. It is intended that some of itsmembers shall be chairmen of committeescomposed not only of Board members, butof others as well. Several of these com­mittees are already at work and it isexpected that when the reorganization iscomplete they will comprise approximatelya hundred persons.In the meantime, careful search is beingmade for an exceptional man to head upthis program of experiment and construc­tion. The requirements for such a positionare of course severe. Above all, the verygenius of the situation demands a manwho shall be ready to experiment, who isreadily susceptible to the University spirit,who does not mistake radicalism in methodor thought for progress, and who is a goodpreacher, as well as a good organizer.Furthermore, he ought not be too old.Such requirements certainly demand an ex­ceptional character, but the Board isconfident that it will be able to discoversuch a person and recommend him for oneof the most important offices in the U ni­versity. Under wise direction, the entireexperiment of the University of Chicagoin organizing the varied religious interestsof a university, may be of value to otherinstitutions who are facing similar moraland religious problems.A RELIGIOUS LABORATORY 147A hove: The University Chapel under constructionLeft: Interior of the more intimate Bond ChapelThe cloister connecting Swift Hall with Bond ChapelEducation tha t EducatesBy JOHN MATTHEW MANLYChairman of the Depa�tment of EnglishTHE plastic period of life-the periodin which the mind is capable of acquir­ing new modes of action and new types ofknowledge-is undoubtedly limited. Psy­chologists and educators agree that, but forexceptional individuals, it does not extendbeyond the age of thirty. Moreover, theexperience of the race and the history ofinventions teach us that nearly all greatideas had their inception before their au­thors had reached the age of thirty.That most great writers have shown theirbent and developed their characteristic ex­cellences before thirty is too well known torequire comment. The same condition istrue in the world of mechanical invention.Let us consider only the great outstandinginventions of modern times. We find thatRobert Watt was in his twenty-eighth yearwhen the incident occurred which laid thefoundation of his great invention of thestationary steam engine. Robert Fulton, in1803, at Paris, "succeeded in propelling aboat by steam power, thus realizing a de­sign which he had conceived ten years pre­viously," when he was twenty-eight. GeorgeStephenson at the age of thirty-two receivedfinancial support for building his first loco­motive, a problem which had occupied histhoughts for several years. As for SamuelF. B. Morse, although his conception of theelectric telegraph did not take form untilhe was forty, his interest in electrical studiesdates from his college days under JeremiahDay and Benjamin Silliman. AlexanderGraham Bell at the age of twenty-nine ex-"hibited an apparatus embodying the resultsof his studies in the transmission of soundsby electricity. And William Marconi in­vented wireless telegraphy at the age oftwenty-three,The same is true of the great thinkerswhose ideas have transformed modern sci­ence. Charles Darwin not only manifestedhis taste for collecting' as a boy and had com­pleted his great voyage on the Beagle before' he was twenty-eight, but in his twenty-ninthyear he had begun his first notebook onevolution. Herbert Spencer published hisfirst philosophical speculations at the age oftwenty-two, and his first statement of thehypothesis of evolution at the age of thirty­two. Finally, Alfred Russell Wallace, thethird of the great trio whose names are as­sociated with the nineteenth-century doc­trine of evolution, also gave his first publicstatement of this doctrine at the age ofthirty-two.A study of the genesis of other great ideaswould only confirm the conclusion that withfew exceptions they originate with men whohave not yet passed the age of thirty. Fran­cis Bacon was obviously aware of this fact.Writing to his uncle, Lord Burghley, hesays: "I wax now somewhat ancient; oneand thirty years is a great deal of sand inthe hour glass-I have vast contemplativeends, for I have taken aU knowledge to bemy province." In like manner, accordingto his own statement, Sir Isaac Newton con­ceived the idea of universal gravitation atthe age of twenty-three.Surely in the light of these facts the dis­position made of the years from twenty tothirty is a serious problem in education.Any system which tends to fill these yearsEDUCATION THAT EDUCATESwith the routine of acquisition and to ex­clude from them the habit and the practiceof speculative activity, of creative thinking,is dangerous for the individual and supreme­ly dangerous for the race.Life's Postgraduate CourseIf education were confined to the schooland ceased with the completion of schooling,there might be reason for extending school­ing to the end of the period of plasticity.But life is full of demands upon the mindand the will which the schools cannot dupli­cate or imitate. For meeting these success­fully, life itself must give the training. Itis important, therefore, that the schoolshould not attempt to cover a field in whichit is impotent, and equally important .thatit should send out into the university oflife pupils trained in mind and will for thepostgraduate course which life, and only life,can offer. The plastic years of life are ofvalue not only for what may be learned oracquired in them; they are of even highervalue for what may be done or attempted.They are the years when the active powers,the productive powers, are at their height.As man- advances in age, not only doesthe capacity of his mind for entertainingnew ideas diminish; there is a still moreimportant and fatal loss : the loss of emotion­al power, of en'thusiasm. Great drivingpower is essential for every great intellectu­al undertaking. Without it the most fertileand ingenious mind is a mere plaything, akind of brilliant "fireworks machine," nota dynamo of accomplishment. Habits of in­itiative, of creative activity, may undoubted­ly be prolonged to very advanced age-as isshown in the careers of hundreds of greatthinkers: Bacon, Galileo, Newton, Darwin,Wallace, Samuel Pierpont Langley, Alex­ander Graham Bell and a host of others­but such habits are and must be acquiredduring the years that are now spent in col­lege and university. If not formed then,they never are formed and never can beformed. 'But how can the period of school instruc­tion be shortened? Chiefly by making ac­_ tual, in educational practice three ideas: one 149that concerns the administration, one thatconcerns the teacher, and one that concernsthe pupil.A Task for the AdministratorThe most important idea developed in'modern times for the administration of edu­cation is, in my opinion, that of ascertainingby psychological and physical tests the men­tal ages of children and the defects that haveretarded their mental development. Uponthe basis of these tests, plans should be madefor the removal of the defects if they areremovable, or for the special training of thedefective children if the defects are foundto be permanent and incurable. Recogni­tion of this duty is growing, and in many ofthe best schools special provision of teachersand methods for the mentally defective hasproduced highly encouraging results. Butthe tests have not been generally used forthe far more important' purpose of classify­ing together for educational processes chil­dren of the same grade and type of mentaldevelopment, regardless of physical age.The consequence is that even in our bestschools children whose mental processes areof lightning rapidity are placed in the same'rooms and classes with other children whosethoughts move with the speed of cold mo­lasses or a prehistoric glacier.The Teacher's Part i� Educational PracticeLet this suffice for the administrationalidea. The idea that concerns the teacheras teacher is so simple that I hardly dare:mention it. Yet it, too, is only partly rec- Iognized and acted upon. It is merely that'the teacher should teach; should train his,pupils to use their minds; should show them,how to work, instead of merely acting as:a sort of examiner to ascertain whether orlnot work assigned has been done, or of try-.ing to expound a difficult subject so clearly'that that abstract and nonexistent being, \the average pupil, ought to be able to under- ,stand it.This is no new idea.: Educators havelong cherished it, and sdme have tried tomake it effective.(Continued on page 152)ISOLister, who first guardedagainst septic microbes inoperation.Fenger, one of the fathers ofthe medical profession inChicago.·A conventional represen-tation of the heart tract. �.A� Sculptured II.Leading Physiologists, Physicians, and Sll�upon the Buildings ITrousseau, Frenchand much-quotedwriter. surgeonmedicalLudwig, who did much toadvance physiology in theNineteenth Century.Several dozen such carvings, representing men whohave contributed to medical science in many agesand many countries, adorn the new buildings betweenEllis and Drexel Avenues. Not only human figures,but symbols of chemical formulae and designs basedon parts of the body, have their places among thecornices.The Medical Schstory of Medicineeons of the Past, as Represented in Stone, the Medical Schoolol's Midway front Billroth, of Vienna, called the"surgeon of great initiatives."Bernard, best known for hisstudy of functions of the liver.These busts scattered over five buildings, allface the northern court of the medical group. Jenner, who discovered vac­cination.Pare, rational surgeon of theSixteenth Century.A design based on the nervoussystem.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE(Continued from page 149)All education should be, in the widestsense of the word, motor education. Theremust be no reception of knowledge withouta using of it. Motor consequences not onlyclinch impressions; they make the processesof education the processes of joyous life."In the joy of the actors," says Stevenson,"lies the sense of any action." And WilliamJ ames declares that "wherever a process oflife communicates an eagerness to him wholives it, there the life becomes genuinelysignificant." But eagerness, but joy, areat their height, not in receptivity but in ac­tivity. And in education even our receptiveprocesses must be active, not passive. Ourminds must welcome new ideas and newknowledge, not as a snob welcomes his poorrelations, but as a real estate promoter wel­comes a stranger who visits a boom town.The value of technique, of doing a thingin the right way, the best and most effectiveway, is too well known to require argument.Every schoolboy knows that his athletictrainer can make him run faster, jump high­er, box better by teaching him a better tech­nique, a better form. Yearly we see therecords in every sport improved, not somuch because of any general physical im­provement of the race as because the tech­nique of all sports is constantly improved,and the pace is constantly made faster.Physical training for any sport is a hardgrind, if high excellence is aimed at, butit carries with it eagerness and joy in thedoing. Mental training is also a hard grind,but it too carries eagerness and joy, if it bea genuine training, a tense activity of mind,and not merely a dull process of beingstuffed with predigested information.For the StudentThe idea that concerns the pupil I havealready anticipated in part. This is thatthe mind is not an aggregation of separatefaculties-reasoning, memory, intuition,emotion, and the like-but a unit, a powerworking and manifesting itself in differentforms and by different methods; and themost important elements of the mind arenot so much those we call mental as those we are accustomed to think of as belongingto our emotional and moral natures.EnthusiasmI do not mean to deny the fundamentalimportance of good memory, of power ofclear reasoning, of that quick ingenuitywhich we call intuition; but we daily seeinstances, and hundreds of instances, inwhich the possessors of such powers are use­less, ineffective, unproductive. And if weexamine the careers of great and successfulmen, whether in the world of thought orin the world of action, we find in every casethat the cause' of their success is what we callemotional and moral. Uniformly they aremen to whom their work is not a dull rou­tine but a series of problems calling aloudfor solution. Uniformly they are men whocarry to their tasks eagerness, enthusiasm,sincerity, and invincible determination.They do not let their minds crystallize intoroutine beliefs, routine attitudes, routinesolutions of problems that have never beenreally solved. They are constantly strivingfor the real, the true, which lies behind orbeyond the accepted opinion, the conven­tional way of doing a thing. They knowthat life-mental life-consists in keepingthe mind plastic, and active, and ready fornew impressions and new ideas; and thatcrystallization means intellectual death.Nine-Tenths RoutineEducation is obliged to prepare the indi­viduals intrusted to its training for twotypes of activity-the two types into whichall human activities may be divided: theroutine type and the emergency type.The routine type covers by far the greaterpart of human life. To the routine and thetraditional belong not only all the activities,physical, mental, and moral, of 90 per centof the community, but also 90 per cent ofthe physical, mental and moral activitiesof the rest. Civilization is preserved by un­conscious or half-conscious routine. Ourlives are ,enmeshed in a routine establishedin many particulars by the actions andthoughts of countless generations. We eatwhen we do because our ancestors have eat­en at these hours, not because we have givenEDUCATION THAT EDUCATESintelligent thought to the problem. Wechoose our clothing, we suppose, with metic­ulous care and taste, but we choose alwayswithin a routine established for us by ourparticular branch of the human race.Our moral ideas, our decisions as to whatis right and what is wrong, are so funda­mentally shaped for us by our ancestors thatwhen we first -entertain a novel or radicalidea a still, small voice-which we call thevoice of conscience, but which is really thevoice of our ancestors, the voice of tradition­al thinking-always whispers a doubt, al­ways attempts to recall us to the routineattitude of the community to which we be­long. In politics or in economics we thinkwe are deciding questions by the exerciseof pure and unbiased reason, when in realitynine-tenths of our thought process belongs,not to us as individuals, but to the generalgroup of which we are members, and is theproduct, not of individual reasoning, but ofgroup attitudes and conclusions, Any in­telligent man or woman of fifty or morecan remember, for example, when the ideawas. universal and unquestioned that a rail­road, a gas company, or any other of thebusinesses we now call public utilities hadas good a right to determine rates as a grocerhad to. determine prices, and all chargedall that the traffic would bear. All at once,without our knowing how the change cameabout, we began to think differently, to feelthat public utilities derive their values fromthe community and owe definite obligationsto the community.The ... [ncestral MindEven in purely scientific thinking, ourthinking is only in a small degree individual.Not one man in ten knows any really validarguments for believing that the sun doesnot move about the earth as the moon does.Not one man in ten could successfully de­fend the roundness of the earth against theingenious arguments of those who believethat it is flat, or of those who contend thatit is shaped like a saucer, or of those whodeclare that it is a hollow sphere and thatwe live inside. Not one in ten of us knowswhy the undulatory theory of sound, heat,light, and electricity is preferable to the 153corpuscular . We act and think and feelwith the minds of our ancestors far morethan we do with our own minds, even whenwe think we are thinking."The individual mind cannot rise muchabove the level of the group mind." "Onlyin a qualified sense is it just to attributeimportant movements, ideas, and inventionsto individuals. The extraordinary individ­ual works on the material and psychic fundalready present; and if the situation is notripe, neither is he ripe." The differencesbetween men-whether savage and civilized,or cultured and uncultured-in their think­ing and in their moral and aesthetic reac­tions, consist, not in fundamental differ­ences, in intellectual capacity, but chiefly inthe different traditional material with whicheach new conception can be 'associated. -VVe'of the Western world-Europe and Ameri­ca-set a high value upon history and uponstatistical information concerning the com­munities in which we live. The Arab and. the Turk, whose actual brain powers are asgreat as ours, do not. How queer to a mod­ern American sounds the following letteraddressed by an oriental official to a West­ern inquirer:My Illustrious Friend and Joy of My Liver:The thing which you ask of me is both diffi­cult and useless. Although I have passed all mydays in this place, I have neither counted thehouses nor inquired into the number of the in­habitants; and as to what one person loads onhis mules and the other stows away in the bot­tom of his ship, that is no business of mine. Butabove all, as to the previous history of this cityGod only knows the amount of dirt and con­fusion that the infidels may have eaten beforethe coming of the sword of Islam. It were un­profitable for us to inquire into it . . . List­en, 0 my son: There is no wisdom equal to thebelief in God: He created the world, and shallwe liken ourselves unto him in seeking to pene­trate into the mysteries of His creation? Shallwe say, Behold this star "";nneth around thatstar, and this other star with a tail goeth andcometh in so many years? Let it go. He fromwhose hand it came will guide and direct it• . • Thou art learned in the things I carenot for, and as for that which thou hast seen,I spit upon it. Will much create thee a double·belly, or wilt thou seek paradise with thine eyes?The meek in spirit,IMAUM ALI ZADA154 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEYou laugh at the absurdities of this simplesoul. You feel immeasurably superior tohim. But do not flatter yourself that. youhave a better brain than he, or that in anycontest of pure mentality you would inev­itably overcome him. Your superiority,such as it is, is not the product of your in­dividual brain, but of the brains of an armyof thinkers from Aristotle to Einstein. Youare you and the Oriental is the Oriental be­cause you belong to one routine and he be­longs to another.The routine, the tradition of the socialgroup, is then the main support of its civili­zation, and a large part of education mustbe devoted to the maintenance and. incul­cation of it in each new generation.Wanted: New RoutinesLife itself, to be sure, is tremendously ef­fective in doing this. Every social act, everybusiness, every avocation gives in largemeasure its own training and adequatelyperpetuates itself in those who pursue it.This is the reason why so many doubts existas to the value of higher education. Lifeitself being nine-tenths routine, and routinebeing most effectively established by thesimple process or repeatedly performing thesame action and thinking the same thoughts,it is clear that the higher education, in orderto justify itself, must have claims, if notsuperior to those of life as a school for life,at least supplementary in some valuable way.H it cannot inculcate routine more effective­ly, it must prepare the individual for makingdesirable changes in the routine. And thisis precisely what the higher education-andto a certain degree secondary and even pri­mary education-can and must do.Whenever and wherever the maintenanceof the routine, that is, of the acquisitions ofcivilization, has been left solely to the ac­tivities of life, those acquisitions have re­mained stationary or even have decayed.In Palestine a late American ambassador toTurkey was entertained by Samaritans whohad preserved their traditions unchangedsince the days of Abraham, and consequentlyare today as primitive in their customs andtheir outlook on life as they were four thou- sand years ago. The civilizations of Indiaand China-once the marvels of the world-have not advanced in thousands of years,because the routine has been the watchwordof education no less than of active life. Thedifference· between the Middle Ages andmodern times is not a: difference in intel­lectual power; human brains were as goodin the days of Charlemagne as they are now.The difference lies chiefly in the fact thatthe Middle Ages were thoroughly domi­nated by practical motives. There was no reolease from intellectual stagnation, and therecould be none, except through the disinter­ested curiosity of a few scientists. Thesemen, in spite of opposition, in spite of sus­picion, in spite of persecution, dated to ques­tion the ancient routine, dared to think dif­ferently from their fellows, dared to breakwith the best established traditions, and byso doing prepared the way for expansionsof knowledge and of power undreamed ofby their contemporaries or even by them­selves.Education's Chief AimsThe chief aims of education thereforemust be: (I) to keep the community thor­oughly informed of the acquisitions of therace and thoroughly equipped with the bestroutine of civilization, in science, in the artsand crafts, in business and commerce, incivic institutions and practices, in the publicand private virtues of honesty, justice, truth­fulness, courage, and courtesy; (2) to trainindividuals to a sense of reality, to a per­ception of the facts and truths which lieunder or behind the routine actions and atti­tudes and theories of life, and to a constanteffort to improve the routine, to see. thingsas they in themselves really are.The average man sees in every objectonly what he and his ancestors before himhave been accustomed to see. The geniussees the object with fresh and clear vision.The ideal condition for the operation ofgenius is the possession of the knowledge ofan expert plus the eye of a child. Not allof us are or can be geniuses, but all of uscan, in our degree, acquire the habit of try­ing to see things as they are; of trying tothink clearly and simply and sincerely; ofrefusing to stultify our intellects and destroyEDUCATION THAT EDUCATESthe powers with which we are endowed byparrot-like repetition of formulas which wedo not understand or believe. And educa­tion can be of enormous effectiveness in pro­moting or hindering these results.Mr. Hoover's report a couple of yearsago upon the elimination of waste in in­dustry emphasized the need in the industrialworld for men who are capable of the sortof training that true education will give.I quote three main points from it: ( I )"The wastes revealed are the results ofmethods, tactics, practices, and relationshipsof long standing. That is, they are the re­sult of routine instead of fresh thinking.(2) The average of management is muchbelow the standard set by individuals whohave achieved notable success. That is, theaverage man is slow to adopt the successfulinnovations developed by his fellows. (3)'More than 50 per cent of the responsibilityfor wastes can be placed at the door ofmanagement, and less than 25 per cent atthe door of labor."That is, the greatest failure of modernindustrial life is the failure in effective brainpower; and this failure is a failure in train­ing, a lapsing into routine, an incapacity forfresh, eager, joyous attack upon new prob­lems and old problems that are yet unsolved.Until a student has found some subjectat which he can work with eagerness and joyhe has not found himself intellectually; forit may be safely asserted that there is nohuman being of normal intelligence who isnot capable of interest, of eagerness, of lovefor some one of the marvelous paths ofknowledge down which the human mindhas ranged.No,: need anyone be too much cast down byth� disc�very or supposed discovery of his de­ficieney 10 any elementary faculty of the mind.What tells in life is the whole mind workingtogether, and the deficiencies of anyone facultycan be compensated by the efforts of the rest.You can �e an artist without visual images, areader without eyes, a mass of erudition witha bad elementary memory. In almost any subjectyour passion for the subject will save you. Ifyou only care enough for the result, you willalmost certainly attain it. If you wish aboveal! things to be rich, you will be rich; if youw�sh to be learned, you will be learned; if youwish to be good, you will be good. Only youmust really wish these things j and wish them I5Swith exclusiveness-not wishing at the sametime a hundred other incompatible things.WHere is the Efficient Form of Education?But where lies this efficient form of edu­cation, of which I have sketched the outlines,this fine fabric to the construction of whichexecutive, teacher, and student contribute,each in due proportion? Is it the system ofour fathers, from which, as some �ritersare never tired of telling us, we have un­fortunately fallen away? Certainly it isnot that. The system of our fathers andgrandfathers was not adequate for the sim­pler tasks of its own time. It would be evenless adequate for the far more difficult tasksof today. There has been no educationalsystem of a high percentage of efficiencysince man left the savage stage of develop­ment. In that stage, and even today wherethat stage exists undisturbed by contact withnew ideas-as in Central Africa-the train­ing, physical, mental, and moral, given tothe boys and girls of the tribe is far moreefficient than any system ever known amongcivilized races. But as I have alreadypointed out, the training of the savage isa training in routine, and in a very limitedand inadequate routine.This education of which I have spoken isthat toward which I confidently' believe weare now moving, and if we have notachieved it-if, perhaps, because the materi­al of our knowledge and our ideals aregrowing with unexampled rapidity, we shallnever achieve it perfectly-I still believethat we have made notable advances towardthis education, to the creation of which theexecutive brings his vision of the future, theteacher his guidance and inspiration, and thestudent that eagerness and joy in knowingand doing which will transform our worldin the future as it has done in the past.Meanwhile, we can draw encouragementfrom the fact that world today is, as awhole, more alive, more intelligent, and·more inspired with lofty ideals than at anyprevious time in recorded history.BOOI('-./JMiss Elizabeth Madox RobertsBOOKS 157A Southern SymphonyMy Heart and My ru,« by Elizabeth M ado» Roberts, J21. New YorkJ the VikingPress. 300 pages. $2.50.WHEN a student in the Universitywrote to Elizabeth Madox Robertslast year to ask about the artistic concep­tion of her first novel The Time of Man}Miss Roberts replied, "The Time of Manis a poem."N ow her challenge has been repeated ina second long poem and novel My Heartand My Flesh. Whoever has followed thegreat success of The Time of Man} throughits selection by the Book-a-Month club andprompt translation into foreign tongues, isaware of a wide audience alert for the.second movement of what may prove to bea masterly symphonic epic of the South.Poor whites in The Time of Man estab­lished the background of the first move­ment; decayed gentle folk provide the'theme of the second, introduced by a transi­tional prologue merging both motives.My Heart and My Flesh is not simplya challenge to that reading public whichregards poetry, rhymed and unrhymed,lined and unlined, as cake-filling. It trans­lates into dramatic poetic-prose the obvioustruth of the black-white-mulatto spectre ofthe South, and makes an omen of the title.This is daring in a Kentuckian. But herdaring is more than this. Elizabeth MadoxRoberts reveals that she, like her AnthonyBell, is "unafraid of any word or saying."Every note, indeed, vibrates with the integ­rity which appeared in Miss Robert's ownpersevering career in the University ofChicago.My Heart and My Flesh starts withchildhood, and recalls to every listener hisown forgotten precocity, for the poet-novel­ist has kept communion with the child-mind.Her book of poems Under the Tree} whichreceived the Fiske poetry prize in 192 I, wasone of the fresh-hued fruits of her harvest­ing when she was active in the Poetry clubat the University. In My Heart and MyFlesh there are the same colors as in theearlier books, even more ripened. For thereal mark of the book is maturity. Para- doxically this is true even in the child­dreams with which it begins.In Mome there was nothingcommonplace and dreary. There timenever waited upon a fly-blown after­noon. Quick sayings flashed on the lipsof men there, true finalities or brightquips-jests with the sudden tilt ofquicksilver.The book and its people pass throughseasons, through an earth which erodes anda society which evolves, to a measuredmaturity. As in all literature created in ahigh seriousness, the persons are at onceindividual and universal.Some who will hear the universal motivedominant over the individual, who willfind a paucity of solid tangible scene, notrecognizing The Time of Man as preparedbackground, and who will find less patentsubservience to a story-theme than in TheTime of Man} may judge this secondbook inferior to the first. But when wehave come to appreciate better what ourpoet-novelists are creating for us today, andto realize clearly how the writings of JamesJoyce and Gertrude Stein distort a validrepresentation of life and pervert a sound'artistic principle which Elizabeth MadoxRoberts is making her own, it is probablethat this second book will stand above TheTime of Man as the second movement ofa symphony stands above the first.'To those who are willing to surrenderthemselves to the poet-novelist, nothingwill be found lacking-mystery, suspense,swift-drama, conversation ringing with thesound of voices, a mature happy-ending.. Those, finally, who are eager for theliterary adventure of a novel conceived asa symphony, will find that in the refrain ofTheodosia Bell's incomplete career in musicand of the Brahms Concerto beyond herreach, Elizabeth Madox Roberts has notshunned her responsibility to point the way.My Hear! and My Flesh ends with ex­pectancy.LENNOX GREYTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPortrait of a CenturyXVIIth Century Lyrics. Edited by A. C. Judson. University of ChicagoPress. 113 pages. $2.50.AFEW favorite poems from the seven­teenth century have tempted somereaders to explore that period of Englishliterature, but Mr. Judson's XVIIth Cen­tury Lyrics is the first American anthologyto give these explorers any real help on theway. Donne, Vaughan, and Herbert arehere recognized as decidedly pleasing con­temporaries of Johnson, Milton, and Her­rick, all being individualists bearing someclear external marks of their generation.Eight other poets producing less materialof interest to modern readers have beenbrought into the record, with the result thatnearly three hundred poems combine toproduce a composite image of the century.The preface, biographical sketches, refer­ences, and notes give the general readerthose facts needed in his first survey of thatdelightful sequence of English lyrics.By covering the full sweep of that cen­tury the editor has made his anthology muchmore of a social picture than would havebeen possible if he had grouped his men andmaterials under their customary classifica- tions. In form and in substance this poetryhas a diversity too great for study by schools,and consequently a good mass of materialis needed to show the great variety of itsvalues. There is an inner harmony to bediscovered in passing from Donne to Her­bert, Vaughan, and Crashaw-another inthe looser relationships of Herrick and Dry­den to Johnson. But that sort of satisfactionis for the painstaking student. These writ­ers also give immediate pleasure to the nov­ice by revealing thoroughly modem pointsof view in many poems. The century wasthoughtful and observant, not devoted toits traditional ideas and images. Otherand more critical anthologies have singledout its main trends; this one has the meritof inclusiveness.As in many other recent books, the U ni­versity Press has produced a volume whosepage and binding thoroughly satisfy. Thebook is worth owning, for its attractivenesswill tempt one to read leisurely, many finestanzas, earlier scanned hastily as assignedlessons.DAVID H. STEVENSANew Poet Worth KnowingBoy in the Wind, by George Dillon, '26. New York, the Viking Press.79 pages. $1.50.Edwin Arlington Robinson was onceasked, "What do you consider the mostessential quality of poetry?" He answered,"The quality of inevitability."Though there are other essentials, cer­tainly this one is very close to the root ofthe matter-as important as the lyricalquality itself. For there are almost innu­merable poets who achieve lyricism. It is,by itself, one of the easiest qualities for apoetic talent to command. Hut to be lyric­al, and at the same time to use the exactword which will make the lines light up with meaning-that is more difficult. Thepoet who attains any sort of finality inwords is rare. And if his poems come tobe handed down among the valued culturaleffects of his time, it is usually because ofthis quality of inevitability.I t is an event, therefore, to come upon afirst book, the work of a very young poet,which has this characteristic in any greatdegree. Usually a young poet has all thenecessary qualifications for his art exceptthat one rare gift of inevitable word andphrase. Yet Mr. Dillon has it, and hisfirst book, Boy in the Wind, is good poetryfor that reason. It is not merely promisingpoetry. It is not to be regarded as studentwork, though Mr. Dillon is a very recentgraduate of the University of Chicago. Itis complete poetry, which may be enjoyedand judged without first giving the poeta handicap on grounds of youth or inexperi­ence.Here, for example, is a very quiet lyric,so lacking in portentousness that it mighteasily be passed over at first glance as com­monplace. Yet it offers, within its narrowlimits, a vivid and rather startling metaphorfor the mystery of life:No man can say what spell was thrustInto the dreamlessness of grass,To yield that holiday of dustWhere his few aimless foosteps pass.He goes aware of winds and thunders,And sets a roof against the sky,Or walks the world in search of wonders,'Or stands to watch the stars rush by.The noiseless sun makes sweet for himThe secret soil he ploughed and plantedWhere his forgotten fathers swimWith earth through darkness disenchanted.All of the poems in this book have astrong singing quality. Most of them areshort. Some are casual songs to be readchiefly for their music. Others become anintense, personal cry. These latter poems-reflecting a highly sensitive personalityin the act of facing life's deeper significancesfor the first time-are very moving. Sel­dom, it seems to me, have these first fiercequestions been put so well:Under that roofWhere thunders areI stand aloof,Watching a star.What am IThat stand and watch?­Two yards high.More than a patchOf blood and bones?For a certain space,More than a stone'sSmooth sightless face?In littlenessProud and lonely,I am' lessThan God, only.Two yards high, BOOKS 159Under a starIn a windy skyWhere the thunders are,I watch and sing IAnd the long-swayingWind-bells ring,And the churning, brayingWaters lash,And a star floats burning,And clouds crash,And the world goes turning.In this, from The World Goes Turning,as well as Enchantment, quoted. above, itwould be very difficult to alter the wordingwithout injury to the sense. Once the lineshave been read and understood, they fallinto place with perfect naturalness-as oforganic necessity. They have, in theirturns of phrase and in the choice of indi­vidual words, an inevitability. The qualityIS even more apparent in the sonnet NoQuestion:Seeing at last how each thing here beneathThe glimmering stars is lawful: having foundBy a wide watch how scrupulously DeathTo keep his tacit promises is bound,How from their vagrance the disbanded dustsResume integrity in blood or bloom,How punctually the sun-struck red rose thrustsIts rigid flame into the golden gloom;Knowing that ultimate prospect where appearsThe accurate' ebb and flood of furious water,The undirected wind's clean course, the sphere'sDeliberate strong spinning, I would utterNo question now, nor prosecute in wordsWhy birds must fly, seeing the flight of birds.I t will be noted that this poet implies,as the background of all his poems, a dis­tinctly modern world. Traditional in hisverse forms, strict in his rejection of every­thing local or topical in character, he isnevertheless in the most profound sense apoet of these times. Far away his poems arefrom the approach and language of thescientists, they still reflect the known uni­verse which science has discovered. Theydiffer in this from the work of many poets,more obviously modern; who, in moments ofemotional stress revert to a mythical cosmicstructure which is at considerable variancewith their more rational convictions.Others arbitrarily employ the terminologyof the past without actually believing in160 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEit, but finding it a means to emotion be­cause of its strong emotional associations.Looking back through Dillon's book asecond time, I have been struck by the lackof such devices and by the extreme unityand integrity of the world connoted. Hespeaks of the accurate ebb and flood ofwater, the sphere's deliberate strong spin-.ning, and of men who "swim with earththrough darkness." It is the same universe,here being reflected by a Chicago graduatein liberal arts, which men on the other sideof the Chicago campus are finding outthrough the laws and instruments of sci­ence. God, where the name appears at all,has become an impersonal, all-prevadingforce. He has, in fact, become nothingmore or less than the universe itself. Andalmost of necessity, the fact of death ismore convincing, in such a world, than thehope if immortality .. Indeed, the idea ofimmortality is scarcely touched on in thesepoems.Being then, a citizen of this modernuniverse of vast night filled with the far,impersonal movement of stars, aware ofno personal deity with whom he may com­mune, this poet finds himself alone. It is aworld in which the soul .is far more lonelythan it was to the poets of the past genera­tion. The exaltation and tragedy of thisloneliness are quite as much a stimulus tothis poet's inspiration as a devotional orevangelical attitude would have been toone of an earlier time. The poem Biog- raphy sums up a peculiarly modern spiritualexperience:The silver stars, the golden sunAre strangers' to this alien one.He would converse with them, but heIs silenced by their secrecy.To sorrow he will come, I fear,Not having learned the language here.He hails from the unhearing ground,And will not be beguiled by sound.The noiseless tumult of the springInvades him. Therefore he must sing.His sudden heart is nearly brokenWith strange words urgent to be spoken.He seeks a peace he will not findSave in the land he left behind,This homesick vagabond from dust.At last, I think, his lonely lustWith earth's undreaming lust is one,And he forgets the golden sun.And still the sun bestows the day.And the stars keep their voiceless way.I t has become the custom, in ,concludinga review of a new poet, to consign him im­mediately to his definite place in the worldof literature and hang him up there onceand for all-or else to deny him any judg­ment whatever. I would prefer not to fol­low either fashion, exactly. I would preferto say,-that whatever place the future maygive to Mr. Dillon's poetry, for the presentit is good poetry, and there are few follow­ers of the art who will not find it worthknowing. I have not mentioned its limita­tions. The reader will find them for him­self, no doubt, after he has once read thepoems and enjoyed them. .And that issoon enough to find out the defects of anywork of art-if it's worth knowing at all.MA URICE LEsEMANNThe Oldest Medical BookPROFESSOR James Henry Breasted,director of the Oriental Institute ofthe University, who has just sailed forLuxor, Egypt, to continue supervision offive research expeditions in Egypt and AsiaMinor, completed before his departure thetranslation and editing of the oldest bookof medical science in the world-the EdwinSmith Papyrus., and Egyptian medicaltreatise of the seventeenth century beforeChrist. In speaking of the papyrus, which he hastranslated for the N ew York HistoricalSociety, Professor Breasted said: "TheSociety is fortunate in possessing. the oldest'scientific book in America and the oldestnucleus of really scientific medical knowl­edge in the world. The Edwin SmithPapyrus is a roll about fifteen feet inlength. It is written on both sides, seven­teen columns on the front and five columnson the back. In its original form it wasa stately book, the columns being betweeneleven and twelve inches in height andreaching a maximum of twelve inches inwidth. In its translated form it will be aBOOKS 161book of about six hundred pages, which hasbeen printed in beautiful format by theOxford University Press and will be pub­lished by the University of Chicago Press."• • •In lilY 01)llIJOnBy FRED B. MILLETT, Ass istant Professor of EnglishTHE autumn epidemic of Shaw in theChicago theatres has set me wonderingwhether there are any good plays in. thelong row of green volumes that have spreadthe new gospel from Adelphi Terrace toChickasha, Oklahoma. To be sure, theMaster himself in the delectable Epilogueto Fanny's First Play has ridiculed a con­cern with a problem so merely aesthetic.And indeed a narrow interpretation landsone alongside the pedant who did not carewhat Fanny c�lled a piece of Shavian con­versation if only she would not call it a"play." On the other hand, it would seemthat Shaw's plays survive not for their pro­vocative or uplifting ideas but for chieflyartistic reasons. If Candida is Shaw's mostpopular play, it may be because it is con­ventional in form and manner. Further­more, since it is now only the young or thewise who take Shaw's ideas seriously, themoment may have arrived to raise thequestion of sheer artistry.To that question, The Doctor's Dilemmagives but a sorry answer. The brilliantproduction of the play here only accen­tuated its fundamental weakness,-a lackof unity, in any sense of the word. Theplay was written not by an artist namedShaw, but by a committee composed of amoralist, a portrait-painter, and a buffoon.As a consequence, the play is as scrappy,as incoherent, and not nearly so satisfyingas a patch-work quilt. Not one cook butseveral mixed that batch of dramatic hash.In the other plays, the schizo-phrenicnature of Shaw's personality is not soevident. Yet they all suffer from his lackof infinite patience of the true artist, fromhis pre-occupation with the business of the preacher, the philosopher, and the licensedfool. Had he possessed more of the artist'ssensitiveness, he might have seen thatPygmalion is only a sketch for what hardwork might have made a real play. Shawcreates his problem, proffers it with zest,then loses interest or courage, and tendersthe awakening soul the consolation of horse­play. Had he been more sensitive toartistry and less avid of ideas, he might havecaught the spirit and not merely the bodyof Tchekoff's practice in Heartbreak H ouse,his Fantasia in the Russian manner upon. English themes. The play has some of theapparent inconsequence and triviality ofthe Russian, some of the spiritual trans­parency which Tchekoff gives the least ofhis characters, plus a persuasive mysticismof Shaw's own brewing. But from theRussian's seemingly static plays, no oneemerges as he was at the beginning, where­as in Shaw's no one is changed except thegirl who found peace only through thebreaking of her heart.It is perhaps in Caesar and Cleopatrathat Shaw has stuck most closely to whatwould seem to be the chief business of thedramatist, the representation of characterthrough and in action. Of course there isthe garnish of low comedy, the fooling withthe nurse's name, the old gibes at the Eng­lish, but in the midst of the incrediblemilitary stir and bustle, the real business ofthis wise and tender comedy goes on, thedelineation of two characters and their in­evitable interactions. This play but pointsmy moral that it is only when Shaw theartist dominates the Methodist preacher,the Butler-Schopenhauer-Nietzsche philoso­pher, and the jackanapes, that we get re­currently satisfying drama.�bt Ilnibetsitp of ctCbicago jfflaga�intEditor and Business Manaaer, ALLEN HEALDJ '26EDITORIAL BOARD: Commerce and Administration Association=-Doxxr.n P. BEAN,'17' Divinity Association-C. T. HOLMAN, D. B., '16; Doctors' Association-D. J.FIS�ER., '17, Ph.D., '22; Law Association-CHARLES F. McELROY, A.M., '06, J. D., '15;School of Education Association-LILLIAN STEVENSON, '21; Rush Medical Association­MORRIS FISHBEIN, 'II, M.D., '12.eJ7eJ\(T S � COM MeJ\([THREE weeks after the Old Univer­sity of Chicago had given up a hardfight and closed its doors, a D?an wrote thesewords to William RaineyA Will Harper, "Hold yourselfand a ready to return here someUniversity time as president of the newUniversity."These words expressed no mere hope.They expressed a will. The .man who wrotethem had already begun a series of letters toMr. Rockefeller. Two years later he sat inconference with Mr. Rockefeller, and pro­posed a definite sum of money. When Mr.Rockefeller finally pledged $6,000,000 onthe condition that others give $4,000,000more, the same man led the campaign andraised the quota. When the intrepidHarper, the "man who never counted thecost," hired famous professors and creatednew departments in defiance of caution, itwas this man who counted the cost-andsaw that it was paid. Perplexed trusteesvalued his counsels; and the Founder, trust­ing his sound judgment and unfailing pur­pose as much as Harper's genius, made upthe deficit year after year. Both trustsproved justified.The will of Thomas Wakefield Good­speed has been accomplished-or, betterstill, is being accomplished.Dr. G. George Fox, '04, A.M. '15,Rabbi of the South Shore Temple, contri­butes these sketches of some University menwhose influence survives the past: To us of the older graduates of theUniversity, the passing of Dr. Th.omasW. Goodspeed was a sorrowful reminderof the great personalities thatThe dominated the University inGreat former days.Quartette "Four men stand out astowering among their c .0 1-leagues. Veritable giants they were to us,the students of those days."There was Dr. William R. Harper,himself, a rare teacher, who seemed to beable to fathom the innermost recesses ofthose men and women who sat at his feetdrinking in a knowledge that seemed tocome from an inexhaustible fountain. Ateacher, yet, one who always seemed to tellhis students that he was just one of them,always trying to learn, yes, eager to learnfrom them, as they were learning from him.A type of teacher who reminded one verymuch of the old rabbinical saying: 'Fromall of those who may have been able to teachme something, I have learned.'"Then there was that sparkling sourceof inspiration, Dr. Charles R. Henderson,goodness and sweetness incarnate. A manwho must have lived, with a rare conscien­tiousness, the fine ideals which he taught.A teacher, who. filled the hearts of his stu­dents with a love for mankind and a holydesire to translate this love into life. Amodern prophet, who made of social servicea gospel for the student who. felt that the162EVENTS AND COMMENTSsanctification of life was after all the primeduty of man."Then there was' Dr. George B. Foster,the scholarly philosopher of the contempla­tive life with a fine rationalism that some­times blended into a mysticism born ofsaintliness."And now the last of the quartette haspassed. The genial, fatherly secretary ofthe University. He who, like Moses ofold, could boast of having many thousandsof children, for to all who carne to him, hesurely was a father. That sweet smile ofhis warming us up, at times when weneeded the glow of human friendship andencouragement. Sometimes giving us agentle reproof when we carne to him withtroubles that seemed heavy, but were ofour own faulty creation, and then withsparkling eyes, telling us why we carne to'the University, and why we should not dothis and that, and why we should do thusand so. Always giving the kindly, fatherly,interested counsel that made us feel that if,Cobb Hall was made of bricks and stones,there were men in it whose hearts of kind­ness could melt their hardness into humangoodness."Certainly, it was of men like these thatthe sages thought, when they said, 'Thememory of the righteous is for a blessing.' "THE University of Chicago and Har­vard University have the largest num­ber of "distinguished" scientists on theirfaculties, according to an advance report of the Biographical Directory of AmericanMen of Science. Of the I, I 76 men listedas outstanding, Chicago has 53. Harvard,withSa, is the only institution which leadsChicago.Of the 601 men most recently added tothe "distinguished" list, the University ofChicago has furnished more men of Ph.Drank than any other institution. AfterChicago in th'is category corne Harvard andJohns Hopkins.Figures of 1926 show that the Universityof Chicago graduated more Doctors of Phi­losophy in science than any other universityin the country. Chicago gave 78 degrees;Wisconsin, 53; Johns Hopkins, 50; Co­.lumbia, 45.DR. SOPHONISBA P. BRECKIN­RIDGE, Professor of Social Econ­omy, who was recently appointed torepresent the United States at the Inter­national Conference of Social Work in Parisnext July, will address the Conference on"The General Organization of SocialWork in the United States," outlining thescope and methods of social work in itspresent stage of development, the actionand coordination of official and privateagencies, social research, the care of mothersand children, the assistance provided thephysically and economically incapacitated,and the creation of community spirit.Dr. 'Breckinridge will be vice-presidentof the section which discusses the generalorganization of social service.Aesculapius, Hygeia,and the healing ser­pent: a carving on theMedical group.ALUMNIC S. BOUCHER, Dean of the Col­• leges, will discuss Chicago's under­graduate program with alumni in four citiesthis month. He will talk to the N ew Yorkalumni at dinner January 17, the Philadel­phia alumni at luncheon January 23, thoseliving in Pittsburgh at dinner January 24,and those in Cleveland at dinner January25. He will report on the University's'ventures with honor courses, orientationcourses, and more intensive educationalguidance.THE Florida Alumni Club held. a ban­quet on December 29 at Tampa.About forty alumni from all over the state,assembled for a meeting of the FloridaEducational Association, attended. TheState Superintendent of Public Instructionwas one of the speakers.� � �COACH AMOS ALONZO STAGGwas added at the last moment to analready impressive list of speakers at thedinner of the Chicago Club of Los Angeleson December 20. Professor Percy H.Boynton of the Department of English andProfessor Henry C. Cowles of the BotanyDepartment were scheduled to speak. Un­expectedly, it was learned tha� t�e OldMan was in town; and the scientist, theman of letters, and the coach combined todepict recent doings at the University.MR. ALBERT R. BRUNKER willbe the speaker at the first meeting ofthe School of Commerce Alumni Associa­tion to be held this year. His topic will be"Europe Today," and the talk will inclu�eobservations on Italy, France, and Russiaby a man who had a private in�ervie� wi�hM ussolini and saw Lindbergh s arnval 10France and its effect on the entire Frenchnation.Mr. Brunker is a former University of AFFAIRSPennsylvania football star and is now atrustee of that school. He is President ofthe Liquid Carbonic Company.Professor CowlesDinner will be served at Graylings Res­taurant on the fi:-st floor of the WrigleyBuilding. The time is 6 :30 Friday,January 20: The cost is $2.00, which willinclude entertainment. Donald Bean is ar­ranging this and tells me he is in touch withan acrobat, a pianist, and an accordionplayer.The executive committee of the Councilhas determined on a program of two meet­ings this year, the one down town, and onein the spring on the University campus inconjunction with the undergraduates. Theyhave also determined on a program to keepyou informed about members of our As­SOCIatIOn. In each issue of the magazineduring the coming year, they will have para­graphs about outstanding alumni. Theyhope also to increase the number of smallpersonal items. If you are doing somethingof interest to the other members of theAssociation, jot it down and send it toRiUon D. Memens, c/o University of Chi­cago Press, 5750 Ellis Avenue, Chicago,Illinois.CONFERENCE ON HOUSEHOLD BUYINGMRS. ME D ILL Mc�ORMICK,prominent in Chicago's political andsocial life; D. F. Kelly, president of theFair store; George R. Schaeffer, directorof advertising of Marshall Field & Com­pany; Mrs. James W. Morrison, presidentof the Illinois League for Women's Voters;Ruth O'Brien, of the U. S. Bureau ofHome Economics; F. J. Schlink, assistantsecretary of the. American EngineeringStandards Committee, and Miss KatherineBlunt, head of the Home Economies depart­ment of the University, were among thespeakers at the Conference on Problems ofthe Household Buyer at the University onDecember 2 and 3.The conference was organized by MissBlunt to show the need of research andeducation to aid the household buyer tomake her purchases intelligently. "Thebiggest business in the world is that doneby the women of the country in their everyday purchases," Miss Blunt said.PROPOSAL TO LIMIT THE FRESHMAN CLASST IMITATION of the freshman classLof the University to 750 is one of'the proposals for revision of student ad­missions that will be shortly considered bythe University Senate, following a con­ference between members of the Universityand principals of Chicago and suburbanhigh schools.Other proposals resulting from the con­ference were that the minimum averagegrade requirement for admission to the U ni­versity on high school certificates be madeforty per cent higher than the passinggrade of the high school during the lastthree years; that a psychological test berequired of applicants whose average isbelow that average; and that a $25 fee berequired with each application. The fee is to be returned if the applicant is rejected,or is to be applied toward his tuition ifhe is accepted. This step was recommendedbecause of the practice of many high schoolstudents in applying and being accepted inseveral universities before making a finalchoice.George Moon, assistant examiner, pre­sented charts which showed correlationbetween low marks on the psychologicaltests and later failure in college. It wason this showing that the principals favoredthe tests for the applicants whose gradeswere not high enough to meet the averagegrade requirement. A proposal that stu­dents be admitted on examination only wasrejected because it was believed that a fouryear record in high school was a betterbasis of judgment than a single generalexamination.THE UNIVERSITY ADVISES ON MODEL.TENEMENT LOCATIONChoice of a site for the Marshall FieldEstate housing project in the near northside was made on the basis of research con­ducted by the Social Service AdministrationDepartment covering a period of 18 yearsand involving a canvas of 151 city blocks,5,816 tenements and 15,410 apartments.Material used by the Field estate will bepublished as part of a volume on '.'Popula­tion and Housing Conditions in Chicago"written by Miss Edith Abbott and MissSophonisba P. Breckenridge of the U ni­versity to appear next year.This district is ideal from a social serv­ice viewpoint because it is within walkingdistance of an industrial district and a bigpark. It is provided with plenty of streetcar transportation and elevated service. TheManierre school is contiguous, and there isspace for the erection of later buildings ifthis proves successful.NE\vS OF THEQUADRANGLESChicago's Two Rhodes Scholars for 1928Bill Nash, '30, who will represent Arkansas: and John McDonough, '28, selectedfrom the State of Illinois.MR. WINTER QUARTER, grim­mest of the inexorable four that pre­side by turns over our college days, hasroared his frosty blessing uponthe gang in front of Cobb, andtaken charge for a while. Pro­fessors wonder what to do with their over­shoes during class hours. Undergraduates,Boreas,'28 bereft of debut-parties and week-ends at theDunes, decide that English !O7 is ratherinteresting, after all. Joe, the nightwatch­man, has bought a new pair of ear-muffs toreplace the pair that Griffo chewed up lastMarch. And the fellow with the coonskincoat has come into his own.166By VICTOR ROTERUS, '29At the conclusion of the football sea­son which, considering the gloomy forecastsoffered by the pre-season dopesters, was nothalf so bad, the gridders got together andelected Saul Weislow, tackle, to captain the1928 Maroon eleven. Saul has played con­ference ball for two seasons, and besidesperforming in highly commendable fashionhis actual playing time in minutes this sea­son was the highest on the sqaud. Saulprepped at Hyde Park, and is a member.of the Pi Lambda Phi fraternity.Retiring-captain Ken Rouse wound uphis collegiate football career in a blaze ofglory, being awarded places on most of theall-conference elevens and placing on several'All-American lineups. For conference hon­ors he was hard pressed by Captain Reitsch,center of the champion Suckers, but onEckersall's mythical team-regarded as be­ing the most official conference team-Rousewas placed at center. He also made Eckie'ssecond All-American lineup, being beat outfor first honors by Bettencourt of St. Marys.Grantland Rice found a job for him on histhird team.But a good share of the eyes that fixedtheir stare on Stagg field of Saturday after­noons have transferred their line of visionto the Bartlett floor where Nels Norgren'sbasketball five is doing its best. So far thecage team has played two games, beatingMonmouth College 33-29 and losing to theUniversity of Pittsburgh quintet 36-26.The boys played a characteristic earlyseason game of ball, trying hard and shoot­ing a lot, but their play was rather raggedand jerky and their shots quite wild.The second game of the preliminaryseason was with the Pittsburgh five, one ofthe best in the East. This team hadwhipped, 39-29, Michigan's basketeers, again prominent aspirants for the Big Tentitle, the night before at Ann Arbor; so theworse was: expected. Pittsburgh, with theprobable intentions of saving their men fortheir games. with Northwestern and Iowa,pulled Knute Rockne's stunt by startingthe game with shock troops. When theMaroons promptly jumped into an 8-2 lead,the shock troops. becamed "shocked" troops,and they vacated in favor of the Pittsburghregulars. But the play remained quite even,and the half ended 11-10 in favor the visi­tors or Panthers as they are dubbed by theirintimates. Time after time the score wastied, until, with the count 26-24 in favorof the Panthers, a windy little chap namedW reblewski, decided it was about time formatters to come to' a close so he dumped inthree or four baskets and clinched the gamefor Pittsburgh.The lineup that played in these gameswas composed of Gist, Zimmerman, for­wards: Freeman, center; Hoerger, Farwel,guards. With the exception of Freemanthey all had experience last season. JohnMcDonough, regular varsity guard withHoerger last season, has been hampered bya severe cold, but is working out daily, andshould be in the lineup within a short time.Asst. Track Coach A. A. Stagg, j r., isquite enthusiastic over track prospects. Hesays that Dick Williams, present track cap­tain, and Virgil G.ist, now on the basket­ball team, stand a very good chance of beingtaken with the Olympic team to Holland.Three recent grads, Anton Burg, the highjumping marvel, Frieda, the decathalonstar, and Brickman, whose specialty is thehurdles, will also try for the Olympic team.THE ALUMNI COUNCIL OFTHE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO(lhairman, HERBERT P. ZIMMERMANN, '01Acting Secretary, ALLEN HEALD, '26The Council for 1927-28 is composed of the following Delegates:FROM THE COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONS, Term expires 1928: John P. Mentzer, '98;Clarence W. Sills, ex-toj ; Hugo M. Friend, '06, J. D. '08; Harold H. Swift, '07;Mrs. Phyllis Fay Horton, 'IS; Mrs. Barbara Miller Simpson, '18; Term expires1929: Elizabeth Faulkner, '85; Harry N. Gottlieb, '00; Herbert P. Zimmermann,'01; Paul H. Davis, 'II; William H. Kuh, 'II; Mrs. Marguerite H. MacDaniel,'17; Term expires 1930: Grace. A. Coulter, '99; Frank McNair, '03; Earl D.Hostetter, '07, J. D. '09; Mrs. Margaret Haas Richards, 'II; William H. Lyman,'14, Arthur Cody, '24.FROM THE ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OF PHILOSOPHY, Henry G. Gale, '96, Ph.D. '99; B.L. Ullman, '13, Ph.D. '08; Herbert E. Slaught, Ph.D. '98; John F. Norton, Ph.D.'r r ; D. J. Fisher, Ph.D. '22.FROM THE DIVINITY ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, Charles T. Holman, D. B. '16; Orvis F.Jordan, D. B. '13; Edgar J. Goodspeed, D. B. '97, Ph.D. '98.FROM THE LAW SCHOOL ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, John W. Chapman, 'IS, J. D. '17;William J. Matthews, J. D. '08; Charles F. McElroy, A. M. '06, J. D. 'IS.FROM THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, R. L. Lyman, Ph.D. '17; W.C. Reavis, A. M. 'II, Ph.D. '25; Logan M. Anderson, A. M. '23.FROM THE COMMERCE AND ADMINISTRATION ALUMNI ASSOCIATiON, Frank H. Anderson,'22; Donald P. Bean, ' 17; John A. Logan, '21.FROM THE RUSH MEDICAL COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, Frederick B. Moorehead,M. D. '06; George H. Coleman, 'II, M. D. '13; Ralph C. Brown, '01, M. D. '03.FROM THE CHICAGO ALU�NI CLUB, Roderick MacPherson, ex-'I6; Harry R. Swanson,'17; Sam A. Rothermel, '17.FROM THE CHWAGO ALUMNAE CLUB, Mrs. Nena Wilson Badenoch, '12; Suzanne Fisher,'14; Helen Canfield Wells, '24.FROM THE UNIVERSITY, David H. Stevens, PlI. D. '14.Alumni Associations Represented in the Alumni CouncilTHE COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONS: Pres- SCHOOL OF EDUCATION ALUMNI ASSOCIA-idem, Herbert P. Zimmermann, '01, 731 TION: President, R. L. Lyman, Ph.D.,Plymouth Ct., Chicago; Secretary, Allen '17, University of Chicago; Secretary,Heald, '26, University of Chicago. Mrs. R. W. Bixler, A. M. '25, Uni-versity of Chicago.ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OF PHILOSOPHY:President, Henry Gale, '96. Ph.D. '99,University of Chicago; Secretary, Her­bert E. Slaught, Ph.D. '98, Universityof Chicago.DIVINITY ALUMNI ASSOCIATION: President,J. W. Hoag, D. B., '04, 24 Winder,Detroit, Mich; Secretary, R. B. David­son, D. B. '97, 508 Kellogg Ave., Ames,Iowa.LAW SCHOOL ASSOCIATWN: President, Wil­liam J. Matthews, J. D., '08, 29 So.LaSalle St., Chicago; Secretary, Char­les F. McElroy, A. M., '06, J. D., '15,1609 Westminster Bldg., Chicago. COMMERCE AND ADMINISTRATION ALUMNIASSOCIATION: President, Frank H.Anderson, '22, Hamilton Bond & Mtge.Co., 7 So. Dearborn St., Chicago;Secretary, Hortense Friedman, '22, 230So. Clark St., Chicago.RUSH MEDICAL COLLEGE ALUMNI Asso­CIATION: President, Dallas B. Phemister,'17 M. D., '04, 950 E. 59th St. Chicago;Secretary, Charles A. Parker, M. D.,'91, 7 W. Madison St., Chicago.All communications should be sent to the Secretary of the proper Association or to the AlumniCouncil, Faculty Exchange, University of Chicago: The dues for membership in anyone of theAssociations named above, including subscription to The University of Chicago Magazine, are $2.00per year. A holder of two or more degrees from the University of Chicago may be a memberof more than one Association; in such instances the dues are divided and shared equally by the As­sociations involved.168 IINE\vS OF THE CLASSESAND ASSOCIATIONS'96-Franklin Johnson, j r., is Professorof Sociology at the University of Richmond,Richmond, Virginia. His home address is2913 Floyd Avenue, Richmond.'98-David M. Robinson, who is on ayear's leave of absence from Johns HopkinsUniversity, after exploring and excavatingin Italy, Greece and Asia Minor, is as­sisting in the work at Karanis, Egypt.'oo-Robert L. Kelly, Ph.M., who wasDean arid President of Earlham College,Richmond, Indiana, has accepted an i'l­vitation from New York University toassume direction of the University's can­didates for A.M. and Ph.D. degrees inCollege Administration.'03-M. Meroe Conlan teaches Frenchand Latin in the Morgan Park HighSchool, Chicago.'04-;-- W. W. Martin is Professor of Psy­chology at North Carolina College,Greensboro, North Carolina.'oS- Roy D. Echlin, formerly of CedarFalls, Iowa, is pastor of the PresbyterianChurch of Nevada, Iowa.'OS-Eben E. Gridley, 27 Chase Street,Orange, Massachusetts, is President of theMinute Tapioca Company, Incorporated.'os-Wayland W. Magee was recentlyappointed a director of the Omaha, Ne­braska, branch of the Federal Reserve Bank.'o6-Elizabeth A. Young, who spent theSummer in England with a trip to theNorth Cape, writes "W (; saw the MidnightSun five nights out of a possible six thatwe were within the Arctic Circle."'07-Henry E. Bennett, A.M., '22, Ph.D., '25, is research adviser for the AmericanSeating Company. His home address is7 I I I South Shore Drive, Chicago.'oS-Eleanor L. Hall recently resignedas Counsellor for Women with S. W.Straus & Company to accept the positionof Manager of the Membership Drive forCollegethe Woman's University Club of Chicago,with offices at 624 South Michigan Avenue,Chicago.'og-Glen M. Waters is President ofWaters Genter Company, manufacturersof "Toastmaster" automatic toasters, withoffices in Minneapolis, Minnesota.'r r-s-Fdna M. Feltges, 46110 DrexelBoulevard, is instructor in Mathematicsat Lindblom High School, Chicago.'I I-Mrs. Carlotta S. Lummis writes"Remodeling an old house (200 years old)in the lovely little village of Marion,Massachusetts."'I2-Freda Isserstedt heads the HistoryDepartment of Plymouth High School,Plymouth, Wisconsin.As Near As YourMailbox!WOODWORTHSThe Mail OrderBOOK STORE1311 NEARE. 51th St. KIMBARK AVE.Abbot Academy1828. 1928For a Century one of New England'sleading Schools for GirlsNational PatronageAdvanced Courses for High School grad­ua tes. College Preparation. Exceptionalopportunities in Art and Music. OutdoorSports."ddress:Bertha Bailey, PrincipalAndover, MassachusettsTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETheFACULTYProblemTHE most important angleof this problem is pay. Ifthe college teacher mustmake less money than his equalin business, how is he to provideadequately for his years of retire­ment? And for his family incase of death or disability?The Massachusetts Instituteof Technology has recently takenan interesting step in regard tothese questions.In addition to the retirementfeatures, the Tech plan providesfor a death and disability benefit.I t is a special application ofGroup Insurance as written bythe John Hancock.Alumni, Faculties, Secretaries,Deans, Trustees - all those whohave felt the pressure of thefaculty problem - will be inter­ested to know more about this.We shall be glad to furnishany information desired withoutany obligation. Write to In­quiry Bureau.Sixty-Four years in businessInsurance in force. $2,500,000,000Safe and Secure in every wayExcellent openings for ambitiousmen and women of goodcharacter and ability DivinityGeorge E. Burlingame, D. B. '99, re­cently published in the Los Angeles Times,a six-thousand word article on "The Re­ligion of Los Angeles," a statistical surveyof the church population of the corporatecity and also of the metropolitan area. Thesurvey inel uded Roman Catholics, Jews andProtestants. Dr. Burlingame began atSanta Ana, California, October first as Act­ing Pastor of the First Baptist Church.Arthur H. Hirsch, D. B. '08, Ph. D. '15,is Professor of American History and Headof the Department of History at OhioWesleyan University. He has recentlywritten a book which is about to come offthe press entitled "Huguenots of SouthCarolina."Reuben E. E. Harkness, A. M. '15,D. B. '17, Ph. D. '27, has been appointedProfessor of Church History at CrozerTheological Seminary.Frank H. Marshall, A. M. '15, is Dean,and Professor of Biblical and PatristicGreek in the College of the Bible, PhillipsUniversity, Enid, Oklahoma, which .enrollsabout two hundred divinity students.Frank Jennings, A. M. '16, D. B. '17,pastor of the University Baptist Church,Minneapolis, Minnesota, is now Chairmanof the Social Service Committee of theMinneapolis Church Federation.E. Norfleet Gardner, D. B. '20, is pastor.of the Baptist Church at the North Car­olina Thomasville Baptist Orphanage,which has five hundred children and sixtyadults on the grounds. He is also Presidentof the North Carolina Baptist YoungPeople's Union with 2000 organizationsand 60,000 members.Carl Addington Dawson, D. B. '21, Ph.D. '22, has recently been appointed Headof the Department of Sociology in McGillUniversity, Montreal, Canada.Roy L. Van Deman, '14, '20 Professorof Religious Education at Yankton Col­lege, Yankton, South Dakota, has broughtout a monograph in the curriculum field,under the title "How to Judge a ReligiousText Book."NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONSHedley S. Dimock, A. M. '25, D. B. '26,Ph. D. '26, began his work this fall as Pro­fessor of Psychology and Religious Educa­tion and Assistant in Research in the Chi­cago Y. M. C. A. College.Ernest Wiesle, A. M. '25, has begun hiswork as Professor of Psychology in theInternational Young Men's Christian As­sociation College in Springfield, Massachu­setts.L. Emma Brodbeck, '25, ·was formerlyPrincipal of the Girls' Primary and HighSchool of the Baptist Mission in Suifu,Sze., West China, but was forced to evacu­ate from there in February 1927 and is nowteaching in the Baptist Girls' High Schooland Junior College in Sendai, Japan.lone M. Mack, A. M. '27, has begunher work at Northwestern University as .Y. W. C. A. Student Secretary.John H. Stewart, Th. B. '94, is pastorof the First Baptist Church, Portland,Michigan. Mr. Stewart is now on his thirdpastorate with this church. His first twopastorates totaled nearly ele�en years, andhe is now rounding out four years of thepresent pastorate.H. M. Shouse, D. B. '99, is now prin­cipal of the Rose Hill High School, Dan­ville, Kentucky. Mr. Shouse frequentlysupplies the pulpits of neighboring churches.John Brogden, A. M. '20, is associate­minister of the People's Church, Cincin­nati, Ohio. Mr. Brogden is especially re­sponsible for a large Sunday afternoon meet­ing which takes the form of an open forumaddressed by specialists in their fields. Be­fore going 'to Cincinnati, Mr. Brogden waspastor of a Disciples church in Hamilton,Ohio, which did a rather significant pieceof work in the field of religious education.Among other things accomplished under hisleadership was the erection of the first unitof an educational building.R. F. Judson, A. M. '25, D. B. '26, di­rector of Religious Education and YoungPeople's Activities in First Baptist Church,Kansas City, Missouri, has been using thepamphlet literature of the American In­stitute of Sacred Literature and the course Fifty years agoa mysteryToday a scienceLocked doors, secret formulasthat never left the owner's pock­ets, mysterious tests and mean­ingless gestures ...A lot of hocus-pocus, as wellas a lot of sound craftsmanship,went into the curing of hams andbacon 50 years ago.Today the craftsmanshipremains but the mystery has dis­appeared. Everything is now donein the white light cf science.Swift & Company's chemistsregulate every step in the curingof Premium Hams and Bacon.Laboratory control eliminateswaste and brings forth a productfar superior to ,that of the rule 0'thumb days.For over half a century Swift &Company has continually soughtways to improve the quality ofits Premium Hams and Baconand other products, to effect econ­omies of production, and givebetter service to both producersand consumers of meat.Constant scientific research,exercised on a scale possible in alarge, specialized organization,has been a most important help.Swift & CompanyOwned by more than 47,000 shareholders171THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"I have had notice of my appoint­"ment at ------- University and haveaccepted. You may rest assured Ishall endeavor to merit all you havesaid in my favor. If I need good serv­ice again, I know where to get it."The man who wrote the above re­ceived his Ph. D. in 1926. Throughother means he accepted a minorI position. It remained for The Al­I bert Teachers' Agency to secure forhim his real job in 1927.Hundreds of University of Chi­cago graduates and graduate stu­dents have been equally fortunate.They are in Colleges, NormalSchools,City and Suburban Schools ,Private Schools-everywhere. Weinvite correspondence or a call.Forty Third Year.The Albert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago535 Fifth Avenue, New York CityEverythinginLeather GoodsGifts of Luggage or Leatherare always appreciated for inmost cases they last a life time�N'W YORO< EST 1859 CHl CAGO on (Jesus' Way of. Living" with great suc­cess in the young people's groups.L. H. Mayes, A. M., has been appointeddirector of the campaign to raise $roo,ooofor Rio Grande College, Gallipolis, Ohio.Thomas J. Golightly, head of the de­partment of education in the State TeachersCollege, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, recent­ly published a bulletin on the TennesseePlan for the Motivation of Character andCitizenship Activities in the SecondarySchools. " •A. C. Hodgson is now pastor of the Bap­tist church of Chicago Heights, Illinois, andgave up his work in Riverton, Wyoming,July 31st. He has been moderator of theCentral Baptist Association, recording sec­retary of the State Convention, managingeditor of the lVyoming Baptist Bulletin,and president of the Baptist Young People'sUnion of Wyoming.Clarence R. Williams, D. B. 'or, is pro­fessor Of history, University of Vermont,Burlington, Vermont.W. H. Jones, D. B. '03, was given thedegree of Doctor of Divinity ill! BatesCollege.John E. Ayscue, D. B. 'oS, is Head ofthe Bible Department in Campbell College,Buie's Creek, North Carolina.James B. McKendry, A. M. '16, is com­munity director of religious education inOak Park, Illinois. During the past yearthere were 3,232 pupils enrolled; 462 re­ceived diplomas at the close of the workin the eighth grade.Edward E. Domm, A. M. ' 19, has beenelected a Member of the National Councilof the Y. M. C. A. He is now Head ofthe Department of Bible and' ReligiousEducation at North Central College, N ap­erville, Illinois.Harmon M. Snyder, Ph.D. '25, is nowHead of the Department of Sociology inLenoir-Rhyne College, Hickory, NorthCarolina. His department during a singlesession had an enrollment of 258.Royal Glenn Hall, Ph.D. '26, now pro­fessor of history and head of the depart­ment in Albion College, has spent thesummer in Europe travelling with the Sher­wood Eddy party.NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONSWilliam B. Mathews, A.M., '22, D.B.,'23, became pastor of Central ChristianChurch of Des Moines, Iowa, on the firstSunday of February.Clifford Manshardt, A.M., '2I, Ph.D.,'24, is now located with the American Mis­sion, New N agpada Road, Byculla, Bombay.Dr. Manshardt spent the past year studyingthe language and writing in a little village.Osgood H. McDonald, A. M., '26, di­rector of the Flint School. of ReligiousEducation, Flint, Michigan, was marriedlast summer to Miss Violet M. Webb ofNewfane, New York. The ceremony wasperformed by the ministerial fathers of bothparties.Raymond T. Stamm, Ph.D., '26, isManaging Editor of the Lutheran Quarter­ly, published by the faculty of the LutheranTheological Seminary, Gettysburg, Penn­sylvania, at which institution he is professorof New Testament.Eliot W. Porter, Ph.D., '26, is nowpastor of First Presbyterian Church, Lin­coln, Illinois.Arthur L. Dickinson is pastor of FirstPresbyterian Church, Union, Oregon. Mr.and Mrs. Dickinson are the happy parentsof a baby daughter, Ruby Edna, born Feb­ruary sixth.Daniel Curtis Troxel has been appointedprofessor of New Testament in Transyl­vania College, Lexington, Kentucky.School of Education'og-Walter P. Morgan, Ph.M., Pres­ident of Western Illinois State TeachersCollege had recently conferred upon him'the honorary degree, D. Ed., by MiamiUniversity, Oxford, Ohio.'II-Mary Elizabeth Davis, Cert., is ateacher in the intermediate grades at Floss­moor, Illinois.'I5-Charles C. Conley, Ph.B., has beenSuperintendent of Schools at Ajo, Arizona,since I g26. '. '16- James W. Pierce, A.M., formerlyassistant state superintendent in Missouri,is now Superintendent of Schools at Para­gould, Arkansas.(Continued on page 176) BOOKSNew and Second-HandAnythingUnder the SunYou May Wantin the Shape ofa BookWe Have ItorCan Get ItorWill Try Hardat theU. of C. Bookstore5802 Ellis Ave.TEACHER PLACEMENTSERVICEFISK TEACHERS' AGENCY28 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago.For many years a leader among teachers'agencies. Our service is nation wide.AMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU77 W. Washir.gton se., Chicago.A professional teacher placement bureau,limiting its field to colleges and univer­sities.EDUCATION SERVICE811-823 Steger Bldg., Chicago.A bureau chiefly concerned with theplacement of administrative officials,such as financial secretaries, businessmanagers, treasurers, registrars, directorsof Red Cross work, etc.The above organizations are under the man­agement of C. E. Goodell, for nine yearspresident of Franklin College, Ind., andMrs. Bertha Smith Goodell, for thirteen yearssupervisor and teacher of English in the HighSchool of Oak Park, Ill. I73174 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 'MOSERSHORTHAND COLLEGEA business school of distinctionSpecial Three Months' Intensive.Course for university graduatesor undergraduates givenquarterlyBulletin on RequestPAUL MOSER, J. D., Ph. B.116 S. Michigan Ave. ChicagoPaul H. Davis, 'II Herbert I. Markham, Ex. '06Ralph W. Davis, '16 Walter M. Giblin, '23MEMBERSNEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGECHICAGO STOCK EXCHANGE37 South LaSalle StreetTelephone Rand. 6280CHICAGOUN IV E R S I TYCOLLEGEThe downtown department of THE UNIVER­SITY OF CHICAGO, 116 S. Michigan A venue,wishes the Alumni of the University andtheir friends to know that it offersEvening, Late Afternoon and Saturday ClassesTwo-Hour Sessions Once or Twice a WeekCourses Credited Toward University DegreesCourses also offered in the evening on theUniversity Quadrangles.Winter Quarter begins January 2Spring Quarter begins April 2For Circular of Information AddressThe Dean, University College,University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.THE YATES - FISHERTEACHERS' AGENCYEstablished u)o6PAUL YATES, Manager616-620 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVENUECHICAGOOther Office; 9II-12 Broadway BuildingPortland, Oregon LawN EW LAW SCHOOL DIRECTORYA BOUT the middle of November, 1927,f1.. a new catalog of all the members ofthe Law School Association was mailed toeach person appearing therein.The Directory contains the names of allpersons who have received degrees, or whohave been in residence in the Law Schoolat least three quarters; and all persons whohave been or are members of the facultyor officers of administration of the LawSchool.The Directory contains 1687 names,divided as follows:Faculty MembersLecturersOfficeAlumni and formerstudents 26272Forty-three persons are deceased and thepresent addresses of forty-six persons areunknown. The total number in Chicagois 683. We have alumni in every state ofthe union, except Delaware, New Hamp­shire, Nevada, Rhode Island and Verrnont;and in the following foreign countries­Canada, China, Egypt, England, France,Japan, Poland and South Africa.The preparation of the Directory oc­cupied several months, and' was in charge'of a committee consisting of R. E. Schrei­ber, J.D. '06, Chairman; Urban A. Lavery,J.D. '10; and Edwin B. Mayer, J.D. '12;all of Chicago.The real responsibility fell on the chair­man, and the members of the Associationwish to express their thanks and apprecia­tion for the great amount of labor andpains that were cheerfully borne by Mr.Schreiber; also for the excellence of thefinished product.CHARLES F. McELROYTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 175:rlit? NATION'S BUILDING STONEEntrance, Administration Hall, Evansville College, Evansville, IndianaMiller, Fullenwider & Dowling, ArchitectsWalls That Increase In CharmA MERICAN colleges, following the an­n. dent European tradition that institu­tions of learning should be built of lastingmaterial, generally natural stone, are se­curing permanent beauty at moderate costthrough the use of Indiana Limestone.This fine natural stone is so beautifuland well adapted to building purposes andis so economical that more stone buildingsthroughout the country are constructed ofit than of all other stones. Walls of thisbeautiful stone require little care. IndianaLimestone buildings acquire a soft, mellowtone which adds to their beauty.In the building shown above, random jointing has been used with delightful ef­fect. As the years pass, the charm of thesewalls will increase.We will gladly send you a brochureshowing fine examples of collegiate archi­tecture in Indiana Limestone, illustratingthe effects obtainable by the use of one oranother of the various grades of IndianaLimestone. A reading of this booklet willenable you to follow your own iristitu­tion's building program with greater un­derstanding and interest.For convenience, fill in your name andaddress below, tear out and mail to Box 819,Service Bureau, Indiana Limestone Com­pany, Bedford, Indiana.Name ._ .. __ Address . .. . __ __ .. __ .......•.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESCHOOL OF EDUCATION(Continued from page 173)'I8-Mrs. F. J. Clough (Beva Harris,Ph.B.) of Ponca, Nebraska, is filling theoffice of Deputy County Treasurer.'20-Myra Hall, Ph.B., was on leavefrom February to August, 1927, from herposition in Lindblom High School: Chicago.'During this time she took a Mediterraneancruise and travelled in Europe.'zz-e-Leslie O. Taylor, A.M., is a gradu­ate student in education at the Universityof Minnesota.'24-S. Edward Scott, A.M.,' is HeadAssistant in Yeatman Junior High School,St. Louis, Missouri.'24-George C. Phipps, A.M., who hasbeen connected with the Chicago NormalCoUeg,e for several years is ?ow Pr,i�cip�lof the Doolittle School, Chicago; nhno'l�.'25-Charlotte D. Sippel, Ph.B., .ISsociety editor of "Oak Leaves" a weeklypublication in Oak' Park, Illinois..'26-Margaret S. Drueck, A.M., ISChild Specialist in the schools of the La­Grange District, LaGrange, Illino�s.'26-Mrs. Smock (Florence L. RIchard-son Ph.B.) is third-grade critic in thePa;ker Practice Schoof, Chicago, Illinois.'27-Eunice Hill, Ph.B.� has a priva�ekindergarten in her home, 312 N. Eucl�dAve., Oak Park. It is called the EuclidSchool for Little Children. Mary Tem­pleton, Ph.B. '26, is assisting in the workor the school.'17-Albert H. Miner, 306 N. Ken­sington Avenue, LaGrange, Illinois, isPrincipal of St. John's Lutheran School,LaGrange.'I8-Eloise Cram, who is an associatezoologist in the Bureau of Animal Industryat Washington, is the author of a book onbird parasites, which has recently been pub­lished by the Smithsonian Institution.'I8-Arthur E. Fish, A.M., formerlyhead of the Public Speaking Departmentat Iowa State Teachers College, has ac­cepted the pastorate of the First Congre­gational Church at Osage, Iowa., I 8- Julius B. Kahn, 6034 Eberhart Avenue, Chicago, is Director of Purchasesand Production for Gordon Gordon, Ltd.,manufacturing chemists.'IS_:_Leona W. Logue, who recentlyreceived her M.A., from Ohio State Uni­versity, is Principal of the Stewart AvenueSchool at Columbus.'20- Walter A. Bowers has moved toSt. Louis, Missouri, where he is in the'employ of Halsey, Stuart & Company, 319N. Fourth Street.'20-Mrs. Carrick Castle (MarianJohnson), 1376 Pearl 'Street, Denver,Colorado, is the author of eight .shortwestern stories, which have appeared inpopular magazines under the pen name ofMonte Castle.'13-Marie G. Merrill, ex, 550 SurfStreet, is Supervisor of Community Centersfor the Bo�rd of Education, 460 S. StateStreet, Chicago.'I4-Julius V. Kuhinka, 5121 W. 22dPlace, Cicero, Illinois, is Professor of Eng­lish at Loyola University, and Head of theDepartment of English in the ChicagoCollege of Dental Surgery of Loyola U ni­versity, Chicago.'14-May B. von Zellen teaches Amer­ican History and Civics at Marquette HighSchool, Marquette, Michigan.. '15-Ruth A. Wiesinger is teac:Q.ingMathemati�s in the Beloit High School,Beloit, Wisconsin.WALTER SARGENT, THE TEACHER(Continued from page 143)Mr. Sargent could not help teaching. Itwas second nature to him. He knew justhow much to let: you experiment before hehelped you, whether he was teaching youto eat clams, run a Ford, wash paintbrushes, or paint a picture.Thousands of students have been inspiredby his teaching. Some came from the north,some from the south, the east and west.These went back home and sent others tosit in the classes of the great teacher. Chi­cago meant Mr.' Sargent, to art educatorseverywhere in our land. I t is impossibleto measure the good that he has done. Hisinfluence will go on and on.and Reservoir SystemGreat�ericanReservoirsTH E Roosevelt Dam stores up ahuge reservoir of water which canbe drawn upon as needed. The thirty­five Western Electric distributing housesstore up reserves of telephone apparatusand supplies to be drawn on as neededby the telephone companies in construct­ing lines and maintaining service.Vol estern Electric, with this outstand­ing national distribution system, does thiswork at substantial economies for thetelephone companies and the telephone­using public.In time of emergency this service, be­cause of its flexibility, aids your telephonecompany in quickly repairing the rav­ages of storm, fire or Rood.Distribution thus plays an importantpart along with manufacturing and pur­chasing - the three Western Electricresponsibilities-in supplying the needsof the Bell SystemAfter the stormWestern � I ectricstocks enable tele­phone service to beres tored promptly.Western Electricquickly supplieseverything neededinside the telephoneexchange too.A nationwide service ofsupply. Western Electricmaintains stocks at 35 im­portant points.SIN eEl 8 82 MAN U F ACT U R E R S FOR THE BEL L S Y ST E MAll records show that the cost of Columbus' firstexpedition to America amounted, in modern exchange,to only $7200. To finance Columbus, Isabella, Queenof Spain, offered to pawn her jewels.America Discovered for $7200The General ElectricCompany took the lead­ing part in this difficultand successful electri­fication. The world over,you will find the G-Emonogram on apparatusthat is giving outstand­ing service. To-day, reports state that American electric equip.ment, during the first year of its use by the SpanishNorthern Railway, cut expenses practically in halfas compared with the cost of operating the formersteam locomotives-a saving sufficient to ransommany royal jewels.In every part of the world, electricity has replacedless efficient methods and is effecting great savings.You will find electric power an important advantagein your work and in your home.350.3Zl��GENERAL ELECTRICGENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY. SCHENECTADY. NEW YO Rt-