�ov 1 1927YOLo xx KU�1BER 1A TRIP TO ANCIENT AMERICAHOW TO ELIMINATE CANCER J,//BOOKSThe Novel Today Death of a Young ManA "Hell-Bent" Professor Chicago's Old TestamentWalter Eckers311 Reviews Mr. Stagg's TouchdownTHE FOOTBALL SEASON TO DATEB Y THE A L'U M N leO U N c a a,.By ARTHUR w. RYDER.J (.. u': (L 0 0 I.,J 0 l,. U u· 10\ \.(..0 L (,J ..... � � � u �� �Su1:i'tli wit,' 8�p,\i�tgcat�d hJmerj' gaYou B�v�niuse� aseo� �u-"ntl 'to"�eth�rU �h 'tl1i'SU colo�f�l pf�se version °ot ;n 'ancient story-book. In modern, piquant phrases Mr.Ryder rescues from oblivion the exotic adventures ofRajavahana and his nine companionswho set out to conquer the world.Alive with action, kaleidoscopic ofscene and fortune, it is undiluted en­tertainment for the truly cultivatedreader. $2.00More Contempo­rary AmericansBy PERCY H. BOYNTONThe case for American culture, badlybattered by critics at home andabroad, well deserves restatement. anddefense. Reviewing the evidepce, Mr.Boynton is able to take an optimisticview of American life and letters.Melville, Bierce, Hearn, Hergesheim­er, Anderson, and Sinclair Lewis aregiven special attention. $2,J0The BySHIRLEY J. CASEUnhistorical and sentimental lives ofJesus have been the rule in the lastfew years. To coun teract them andtheir im plications Dr. Case has wri ttenthis book. In a way that carries abso­lute conviction he has caught up allthe many threads of evidence and hasreconstructed from them the real, hu­man Jesus of history. $3.00Nature of the Worldand of ManLast fall critics united in calling this one of the finestand most engrossing popularizations of current sciencein existence. In its handsome new edition it will con­tinue to be the answer of science to the persistentcuriosity ofthis genera­tion.$5.00Chinese PaintingBy JOHN C. FERGUSONThis beautiful book, with fifty-sevenplates in collotype, interprets an artthat is sometimes strange to westerneyes but always alluring. Clinging tothe Chinese poin t of view, Mr. F ergu­son explains the paintings of an an­cient oriental civilization to a modernoccidental world. Through long resi­dence and study in China he has at­tained a viewpoint as near to that ofthe native-born connoisseur as ispossible. Boxed, $I2,J0 Rooseveltand theCaribbeanBy H. C. HILL$2·50 �Ii�.The Old TestamentAn American TranslationBy J. M. r. SMITH, T. J. MEEK. A. R.GORDON. LEROY WATERMANVicissi tudes and unskilful handlinghave beset the Old Testament in its'centuries of existence. Its wholemeaning has become blurred. I t istime' to make a fresh start, to bringthe Old Testament from its originallanguage to our own modern Englishwithout the hindrance of interveningtranslations. In the best tradition ofmodern English wri ting this more ac­curate, more perfect translation in­terprets the impressive, eloquentHebrew of centuries ago.Cloth $7,J0; Leather $IOFall THE UNIYERSITY of CHICAGO PRESSTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEChicago vs. Michigan - Nov. 5Chicago vs. Wisconsin - Nov. 19Meet your Classmatesat Hotels WindermereIf you are coming to Chicago for one of the biggames, make plans to stay at Hotels Windermere.Here you will meet others from your class-be­cause Hotels Windermere are headquarters for uni­versity alumni.Here you will find a high standard of comfort andfood that is unusuaL Here, moreover, you will bewithin walking distance of Stagg Field-yet only tenminutes ride from the Chicago loop.The keen enjoyment of attending one of thesegreat contests will be all the keener if you chooseHotels Windermere as your stopping place.inder-mer-e"CHICAGO'S MOST HOMELIKE HOTELS"East 56th Street at Hyde Park Boulevard - Telephone: Fairfax 6000500 feet of Verandas and Terraces Fronting South on Jackson ParkOfficial Hotel Intercollegiate Alumni Extension ServiceTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAn organization of almostfifty people, with specialists in all branches of advertising'VANDERHOOF& COMPANY Qeneralc!ldverlisingVANDBRHOOf BUILDING • � � 167 B.ONTAlUO ST •. CHIC.AGO-HENRY D. SULCER, 05, President3000OUTSIDE ROOMS3000PRIVATE BATHSTO tell to the travelers of theW orld the romance of TheStevensis our privilege and pride.No need for imagination here.Rather the call is for a pen bril­liant enough to paint in wordsa tithe of its myriad wonders. _./If we fail to produce copy worthyof this monarch of caravansariesit is because The Stevens defiesdescription. But if we can in­fluence the traveling public tosee it once our task has beenwell discharged.Member: American Association of Advertising Agencies & National Outdoor Advertising BureauTHE STEVENS.Xichigan 'Boulevard,7th to 8th eJtreets CHICAGO ernest J. 0tevens,Vice President and urCanagerTHE STEVENS IS THE LARGEST HOTEL IN THE WORLDVOL. XX NO.1mbemnibersitp of ((bicagojlaga?ineNOVEMBER, 1927Walter SargentBy Lorado Taft '.. ', 7By Mrs. Esther Ruble Richardson, '23······································ 9An Expedition to Ancient AmericaBy Professor Edward Sapir 10More about the Alma Mater 12Cancer: a Plan for its EliminationBy Miss Maud Slye 13The Story' of the University of ChicagoFIll. The Unioer sity Begins to BuildBy Thomas Wakefield Goodspeed 18Greetings from the President. 24Books .The Assault on the English NooelBy Fred B. Millett 25Recent Experiences with the Reading PublicBy Professor Shirley Jackson Case 29Re'ViewsThe Chicago Translation of the Old TestamentReviewed by Professor Theodore Gerald Soares 3 IJesus: A New Biography, by Shirley Jackson CaseReviewed by Selby Vernon McCasland 37The Natural History of Revolution, by Lyford Edwards, '05Reviewed by Professor Louis Wirth 39Ernest DeWitt Burton, by Thomas Wakefield GoodspeedReviewed by Harold R. Willoughby , .40Touchdown, by Amos Alonzo Stagg and Wesley Winans StoutReviewed by Walter H. Eckersall 42Death of a Young Man, by W. 1. River, '25 · 43Events and CommentA Maker of Books, 45Alumni Affairs " .. , 48University Notes 46News of the Quadrangles '" 49The Football Season : 50Officers of Clubs and Classes 53News of Classes and Associations �' 55Births, Engagements, Marriages, Deaths .. 1•••••••••••••••••••••••••• ; ••••••••••• 60THE Magazine is published at 1009 Sloan St.,Crawfordsville, Ind., monthly from Novemberto July, inclusive, for The Alumni Council ofthe University of Chicago, 58th St. and Ellis Ave.,Chicago, Ill. The subscription price is $2.00 peryear; the price of single copies is 20 cents.Postage is prepaid by the publishers on all ordersfrom the United States, Mexico, Cuba, Porto Rico,Panama Canal Zone, Republic of Panama, HawaiianIslands, Philippine Islands, Guam, Samoan Islands.Postage is charged extra as follows: For Canada.18 cents on annual subscriptions (total $2.18), onsingle copies, 2 cents (total 22 cents); for all othercountries in the Postal Union, 27 cents on annualsubscriptions (total $2.27), on single copies, 3 cents(total 23 cents).Remittances should be made payable to the Alumni Council and should be in the Chicago or New Yorkexchange, postal or express money order. If localcheck is used, 10 cents must be added for collection.Claims for missing numbers should be made withinthe month following the regular month of publication.The publishers expect to supply missing numbers freeonly when they have been lost in transit.Communications pertaining to advertising may besent to the Publication Office, 1009 Sloan St., Craw­fordsville, Ind., or to the Editorial Office, Box 9,Faculty Exchange, The University of Chicago.Communications for publication should be sent tothe Chicago Office.Entered as second class matter December 10, 1924.at the Post Office at Crawfordsville, Indiana, underthe Act of March 3, r87Q.Member of Alumni Magazines Associated.THETHEALUMNI COUNCIL OFUNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO(lhairman, HERBERT P. ZIMMERMANN, '01Acting Secretary, ALLEN HEALD, '26 -The Council for 1927-28 is composed of the following Delegates:FROM THE COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONS, Term expires 1927: Frank McNair, '03;Leo F. Wormser, '04; Earl D. Hostetter, '07; Arthur A. Goes, '08; Harry R.Swanson, '17; Lillian Richards, '19 Term expires 1928; John P. Mentzer, '98;Clarence W. Sills, ex-'05; Hugo M. Friend, '06, J. D. '08; Harold H. Swift, '07Mrs. Phyllis Fay Horton, '15; Mrs. Barbara Miller Simpson, .'18 Term expires1929: Elizabeth Faulkner, '85; Harry N. Gottlieb, '00; Herbert P. Zimmermann,'01; Paul- H. Davis, 'II; William H. Kuh, 'II; Mrs. Marguerite H. MacDaniel,'17; Term expires 1930: Grace A. Coulter, '99; Frank McNair, '03; Earl D.Hostetter, '07; J. D. '09; Mrs. Margaret Haas Richards, 'II; William H. Lyman,'14, Arthur Cody, '24.FROM THE ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OF PHILOSOPHY, Henry G. Gale, '96, Ph.D. '99; B.L. Ullman, '13, Ph.D. '08; Herbert E. Slaught, Ph.D. '98; John F. Norton, Ph.D.'II; D. J. Fisher, Ph.D. '22.FROM THE DIVINITY ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, Charles T. Holman, D. B. '16; Orvis F.Jordan, D. B. '13; Edgar J. Goodspeed, D. B. '97, Ph.D. '98.FROM THE LAW SCHOOL ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, John W. Chapman, '15, J. D. '17;William J. Matthews, J. D. '08; Charles F. McElroy, A. M. '06, J. D. '15.FROM THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, R. L. Lyman, Ph.D. '17; W.C. Reavis, A. M. 'II, Ph.D. '25; Logan M. Anderson, A. M. '23.FROM THE COMMERCE AND ADMINISTRATION ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, Frank H. Anderson,'22; Donald P. Bean, '17; John A. Logan, '21.FROM THE RUSH MEDICAL COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, Frederick B. Moorehead,M. D. '06; George H. Coleman, 'II, M. D. '13; Ralph C. Brown, '01, M. D. '03.FROM THE CHICAGO ALUMNI CLUB, Roderick MacPherson, ex-'16; Harry R. Swanson,'17; Sam A. Rothermel, '17.FROM THE CHICAGO ALUMNAE CLUB, Mrs. Nena Wilson Badenoch, '12; Suzanne Fisher,'14; Helen Canfield Wells, '24.FROM THE UNIVERSITY, David H. Stevens, Ph. D. '14.Alumni Associations Represented in the Alumni CouncilTHE COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONS: Pres­ident, Herbert P. Zimmermann, '01, 73 IPlymouth Ct., Chicago; Secretary, AllenHeald, '26, University of Chicago.ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OF PHILOSOPHY:President, Henry Gale, '96. Ph.D. '99,University of Chicago; Secretary, Her­bert E. Slaught, Ph.D. '98, Universityof Chicago.DIVINITY ALUMNI ASSOCIATION: President,J. W. Hoag, D. B., '04, 24 Winder,Detroit, Mich; Secretary, R. B. David­son, D. B. '97, 508 Kellogg Ave., Ames,Iowa.LAW SCHOOL ASSOCIATION: President, Wil­liam J. Matthews, J. D., '08, 29 So.LaSalle St., Chicago; Secretary, Char­les F. McElroy, A. M., '06, J. D., '15,1609 Westminster Bldg., Chicago. SCHOOL OF EDUCATION ALUMNI ASSOCIA­TION: President, R. L. Lyman, Ph.D.,'17, University of Chicago; Secretary,Mrs. R. W. Bixler, A. M. '25, Uni­versity of Chicago.COMMERCE AND ADMINISTRATION ALUMNIASSOCIATION: President, Frank H.Anderson, '22, Hamilton Bond & Mtge.Co., 7 So. Dearborn St., Chicago;Secretary, Hortense Friedman, '22, 230So. Clark St., Chicago.RUSH MEDICAL COLLEGE ALUMNI Asso­CIATION: President, Dallas B. Phemister,'17 M. D., '04, 950 E. 59th St. Chicago;Secretary, Charles A. Parker, M. D.,'91, 7 W. Madison St., Chicago.All communications should be sent to the Secretary of the proper Association or to the AlumniCouncil, Faculty Exchange, University of Chicago. The dues for membership in anyone of theAssociations named above, including subscription to The University of Chicago Magazine, are $2.00per year. A holder of two or more degrees from the University of Chicago may be a memberof more than one Association; in such instances the dues are divided and shared equally by the As­sociations involved.4THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 5By-products of your telephonePublic Address SystemVitaphone THE microphone, familiar tothe radio world, has beencalled "younger brother of thetelephone.' ,It is but one of a family ofproducts which owe their exis­tence to the communication sys­tem engineers and to the menwho made your telephone atWestern Electric.Forty-five years' experience asmanufacturers for the Bell Systemhas brought not only a telephonethat is the world's standard, butalso a Vitaphone to give a voiceto the motion picture screen; anAudiometer to test the hearingwith accuracy never before possi­ble; an Audiphone which givesnew aid to the hard of hearing;an Electrical Stethoscope to am­plify the faintest heart sounds; aPublic Address System to carry aspeaker's voice to crowds of thou­sands and tens of thousands.Audiphone"PJllI'IY'I/,I"�r�rll £ltCftlCSINCE 1882 MANUFACTURERS FOR THE BELL SYSTEMWINTER11 painting that shows Walter Sargent at «the great task of making things come true."VOL. XX No.1tn:beiElnibersitp of <tCbicago1flaga?ineNOVEMBER, 1927Walter SargentBy LORADO TAFTTHOSE of us who have known Pro­fessor Sargent during these late fruit­ful years of his life are able to realize ina measure what a loss his untimely deathmeans to the University of Chicago and tothis western country which he had so loy­ally adopted as his own. We have beengranted some glimpses of his vision andof the great things in store for his depart­ment. Noone of us who knew ProfessorSargent doubted their fulfillment. He hadcarefully considered his problems; he knewprecisely what he wanted, and then withearnestness and persistence, indeed with apower unexpected from that frail figure, heturned to the great task of making thingscome true. Professor Sargent was boundto succeed because of his perfect fitnessfor his task and because of the strong friend­ships which he had made.There was something almost romantic inhis development at the University of Chi­cago. For fifteen years he had taughtquietly over there in the School of Edu­cation. He did his work well-he hadthe respect and gratitude of every studentwho came in contact with him-but he waspractically unknown beyond the collegewalls. He worked hard for nine months a year, and summers he painted admirablelandscapes, serene and joyous. He wasthinking his own thoughts, biding his timeuntil the great opportunity came. Just asPresident Burton revealed unsuspected tal­ents for administration and guidance ofa great institution, so did Walter Sargent,Dr. Burton's discovery, exhibit from thefounding of the new Department of theFine Arts a breadth of knowledge and aprofundity of judgment which surprisedmany. He took hold of his task with amaster hand. People began to rememberthat this quiet, smiling teacher had oncebeen State Supervisor of Drawing ofMassachusetts for three years and Directorof Drawing and Manual Training in Bos­ton for another three years; that he hadwritten books-readable books-on "HowChildren Learn to Draw"; "Art Educationin the United States" and on "The En­joyment and Use of Color."As his students gathered around him inclass-room and in the friendly office ofhis department, he made choice of sympa­thetic assistants who were to carryon thework which he was so grandly planning.There was good fellowship there, an espritde corps which promised much and was in78 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEitself a fulfillment. To these young peoplehe was a dear and wise companion on theirjoyous quest. Art was the Great Adven­ture.Do you remember Mr. Sargent's state­ment of the purposes of his department?He wrote, a$ he spoke, quietly but withan earnestness that carried conviction."The new department has four principalobjects," he said; "first, cultural," to makethe students familiar with the masterpiecesof art in their glorious sequence, to teachthe young people to appreciate them "notonly as historical documents, but also asembodiments of aesthetic experiences andideals." Mr. Sargent reveals his ownlofty communion with the masters where hespeaks of the intelligent appreciation of artas being "a resource of increasing enjoy­ment throughout life and a constantly avail­able source of spiritual renewal." Thesecond purpose, he tells us, is "to reach acommunity wider than that of the U ni­versity itself, by training those who will beteaching in high schools and colleges." Thethird, "To offer some practical experiencewith the materials of art;" and the fourth,"To forward appreciation of industrialart,"-to put beauty into our everyday life.Think what it means to have such a pro­gram added to the work of a great college!If everyone of our western institutionsof learning could see their way to do like­wise, what a change we should soon havein our form of civilization! What a newsignificance would be put into the dailylives of thousands!But it requires a peculiar talent to makesuch things happen in Hlinois. Our soilmay be the richest in the world but it hasshown itself sufficiently arid thus far inthe flowering and fruitage of art. Herewas a cultivator who seemed destined toperform that miracle. Many and variedwere the gifts of this fortunate son of NewEngland. Essentially the scholar and con­spicuously retiring, if the paradox may bepermitted, Mr. Sargent seemed at hisbest in social contacts. In this respect heand his eminent brother-in-law, HenryTurner Bailey, had much in common. He would illuminate the most serious discussionwith flashes of wit and apt quotations whichwere not only keenly illustrative but indel­ible in their effect. In the gatherings ofthe students' "Arts Club" he was particu­larly happy and his brief talks to theseyounger comrades were gems of friendlywisdom. There seemed to be a great desirewithin him to share the treasures of his owninner life. I recall the earnestness withwhich he once quoted the words of Thoreau,warning against "improved means towardunimproved ends."At meetings of the South Side Art As­sociation he always spoke and always hadsomething to say-something vital andquickening. His address on "Color inArchitecture," given last spring at a dinnerof the Association of Arts and Industries,was one of the most significant that we haveheard in many months, presenting clearlyand persuasively the results of numerousnovel experiments in color combinations.His auditors were convinced that we wereat the threshold of a new era in the use ofcolor; that the age of drab buildings inChicago was doomed.Undoubtedly Mr. Sargent's greatest pub­lic effort was the remarkable address whichhe made last spring to the "Presidents'Club," when several hundred of Chicago'sleading women gathered at the Universityof Chicago to hear the ambitious plans ofthe Department of Fine Arts. MandelHall was crowded. As Professor Sargentunfolded his splendid project his auditorsfelt in it the flowering of a life-time. Theyleft the assembly with a complete assurancethat the dream must come true. Its veryaudacity made it possible-e-in Chicago!"Make no little plans," wrote Burnham,the great builder, "they have no magic tostir men's blood; and probably themselveswill not be realized. Make big plans, aimhigh in hope and work, remembering that anoble, logical diagram once recorded willnever die, but long after we are gone will bea living thing, asserting itself with evergrowing insistency." Mr. Sargent madepublic that day his "noble, logical diagram."I t was in May of this year that I hadWALTER SARGENTmy last talk with Mr. Sargent. Amid t�epleasant bustle of his office, he sat at hISdesk, tired but smiling, engaged at the end­less task of arranging slides for lectures.We chatted for perhaps ten minutes; dur­ing the time he answered four or five callsat the telephone and responded to a halfdozen inquiries from assistants and stu­dents. My purpose was to outline to himmy conception of an ideal museum of archi­tecture and sculpture which might be de­veloped under the protection of the U ni­versity. He listened with brighteningeyes. With joy shall I always rememberhis prompt and enthusiastic response: "Getyour models and drawings done and let mehave photographs of them at once; I shallmake slides to use whenever I talk on thenew department."The sympathetic heart is at rest. Theeloquent voice will be heard no more, butthe work must go on.In Appreciation ofMr. SargentBy ESTHER RUBLE RICHARDSON, '23AT this season, when the world puts onits richest garment of color, when thesunlight dreams across yellowing fields, orrain lets down its crystal veil over purpleand orange of wooded hillsides, the sweet­ness and glamour of the changing days arethreaded with a dark pattern of sorrow formany of us who for years have seen no raremood of beauty in nature without a thoughtof one who taught us to see hidden things.The color of a fallen leaf, what hue isthat? What hue the silvered driftwood onthe lakeshore, what hue the very sand itself,soaked with iridescent water in the twi­light? Beetles with their strange shiningbacks, butterflies and moths whose dustywings bear delicate traceries of almost in­visible markings of exquisite color, a stalkof larkspur, mysteriously blue, an oddbloom of zinnia, such things have becometo us, who knew and loved Walter Sargent,the real essence of adventure. 9WALTER SARGENT) 1868-1927The heartbreaking beauty of sunlightfalling through leaves, the upsweep ofclouds over a hilltop in the early morning,the silences of deep woodlands in the after­noon, these things he knew and felt andcaused to flow from his consciousness toours through the brilliant and touchingpower of his brush. Through his paintings,things we have never known become morereal to us than our own experience.To be a great painter, and the writer ofgreat books, insures a man's immortalityso long as these things remain in existenceto influence mankind in his stead. But tobe a great teacher is to make oneself im­mortal in living minds. Many of those whocame under the influence of Walter Sar­gent are now following in his footsteps,teaching the things he so vividly taught,striving to be to their students what he wasto them, more than merely teacher, a wisecounselor and friend, generous in sympathyand encouragement; to live as he lived,kindly and humanly, meeting difficult sit­uations with gentle courtesy and whimsicalhumor, unfailingly interested in those he(Continued on Page 60)An Expedition to Ancient America.A Professor and a Chinese Student Rescue the Vanishing Language andCulture of the Hupas in Northern CaliforniaBy PROFESSOR EDWARD SAPIRTHE anthropologists of the U niver­sity of Chicago are like all other an­thropologists known in consideringtheir academic work but half, and that thesmaller half, of their work. Field workamong primitive peoples is the very life oftheir discipline. In accordance with thistradition, Professor Cole and I have beendevoting a great deal of attention duringthe last two years to formulating plans foran anthropological field program.One of the items in this plan which hasespecially interested me is the intensivelinguistic study of a certain group of Amer­ican Indian tribes known as "Athabaskan"or "Dene." These tribes have a very in­teresting and' irregular distribution. Themain portion of them is settled in thenorthwestern part of the American con­tinent, ranging all the way from HudsonBay to near the mouth of the Yukon Riverin Alaska. The southern division of, thesepeoples embraces the Navajo and Apachetribes of New Mexico and Arizona. Asidefrom a few isolated Athabaskan tribes, theremainder of the group is situated in twogeographically sundered areas in south­western Oregon and northwestern 0:1.1-ifornia. It is the southern of these twoPacific groups of Athabaskan tribes whichespecially engaged the attention of theUniversity of Chicago during the summerof 1927. Wedged in among a large numberof linguistically alien tribes, these Cal­ifornian Athabaskans, who have been thor­oughly assimilated in their mode of lifeto the customs of their neighbors, presenta somewhat puzzling problem. Importantlinguistic and ethnological materials oncertain of these tribes, particularly the H u­pa of the Trinity River Valley and theKato, had been published by Dr. P. E. God­dard, of the American Museum of NaturalHistory, N ew York, but my comparative interest in the Athabaskan group as awhole and in its relation to certain otherlanguages demanded a much more refinedand accurate study than had yet been made.Attention was particularly concentratedon the Hupa Indians, chiefly because theirlanguage seems to present especially. archaicfeatures. They are also the most interest­ing of the Californian Athabaskans incultural respects, for they share in the verypeculiar Northwest Californian culturewhich is so characteristic of the lowercourse of the Klamath River and of thePacific coast at its mouth. I took alongwith me Mr. F. K. Li, an able Chinese'student who is specializing at the univer­sity in general linguistics and who was eagerto develop a first-hand acquaintance withfield methods in the study of aboriginallanguages. This is probably the first timein the history of linguistic science that aproperly trained Chinese student has stud­ied an American Indian language in thefield.A Dying CultureWe arrived in Hoopa, the site of a smallIndian reservation, in the latter part ofJune, and found ourselves in a delightfulvalley tucked away in the Coast Rangemountains, far away from the tourist ofthe highway but, sad to relate, within ear­shot of the ubiquitous Ford, which seemsto be owned by every Hupa Indian whocan afford the initial outlay. In spite ofthis, however, we soon discovered thatfirst class informants were by no meansdifficult to secure. The old Indian culturehas largely disappeared, it is true, and whatremains of it cannot resist the inroads ofmodern civilization much longer, but thereare many men and women who still re­member the old life and the language is stillspoken in its purity by many even of theyounger people. Mr. Li stayed with me10AN EXPEDITION TO ANCIENT AMERICAlong enough to acquaint himself thoroughlywi th field methods and then left to followup a few clues that we had obtained thatmight lead to the discovery of the Mat­tole language, an Athabaskan dialect thatwas supposed to be extinct. Very fortu­nately Mr. Li succeeded in finding an In-,dian at the mouth of the Mattole River, inthe southern part of Humboldt County,. who remembered a great deal of this dis­tinctive Athabaskan dialect, though he hadnot spoken it for over thirty years. Thismeans that Mr. Li was able to rescue forscience a language that will probably proveto be of very considerable importance inreconstructing the original features of thewhole Athabaskan group-no mean featfor a first field trip. In the latter part ofthe summer Mr. Li proceded to RoundValley reservation, where he made a recordof the Wailaki language, another Atha­baskan dialect. The combined party, there­fore, succeeded in making a rather completeand adequate record of no less than threeAthabaskan languages in the course of thesummer's work.,,/ Aside from some incidental work on non­Athabaskan languages, which took up onlya small share of my attention, I devoted alittle more than two months of continuousresearch to the study of the language andculture of the Hupa Indians. I was veryfortunate in securing the services of anIndian named Sam Brown as my chief in­terpreter and one of my best informants.Sam Brown is a curious combination of theconservative Indian and the up-to-date In­dian who has become too sophisticated to ac­cept the teachings of his forefathers with­out criticism. It almost seemed at times asthough he were divided into two personal­ities. One half of him was lost in the dimpast of conceptions that are almost unin­telligible to the white man. The other halfof him seemed utterly at home in the mod­ern world of scientific application and re­ligious scepticism. At one moment Samwould speak of some mysterious rock,which one is forebidden to touch, with ob­vious faith and awe. At another he would IIthe old beliefs were "all imagination."This dualism of Sam's was extremelyfortunate for me, for it meant that he wasthe ideal interpreter of the old life and theold conceptions to the inquiring white man.There were other interesting Hupa in­formants who rendered important assist­ance, but Sam Brown was easily the mostvaluable of them all.MR. LIA' Chinese student who discovered, on his firstfield trip, an important Indian language thatwas believed to be extinct.The Hupa field trip was eminently suc­cessful. Many intricate points of H upaphonetics and grammar which had re­mained obscure were cleared up, so that itwill now be possible to use the H upa evi­dence, along with that previously obtainedfrom such other languages as Sarcee andNavajo, in the difficult task of workingback to earlier Athabaskan conditions.More than seventy-five Hupa texts dictatedby Sam Brown and other Indians made avaluable record for the ethnological studyof the Hupa, while a good deal of supple­mentary material on the customs of theIndians was obtained by direct questioning.The titles of some of these texts will givean idea of the nature of the materialturn around with a smile and declare that secured: "How Acorns are Treated,"12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"The Jumping Dance," "Rules of DailyLife: Insults," "Tall-Boy's Wife Scoldsthe Young People," "Power over theGrizzly Bear," "A Woman's Love Med­icine for getting a Man," "Prayer inGoing over the Trails in the Mountains,""Medicine Formula Pronounced over aChild to make him Wealthy and Brave,""Good Looking Men and Women," "TheAfter-World," "The Feast of the FirstSalmon," "Medicine Formula to Purifyone who has Handled a Corpse," "Tat­tooing," "Two Young Men Do BlackMagic," "A Blaspheming Village," "AMedicine Formula for War."Poetry in Hupa LifeThe life that is revealed by such textsas these and by the information obtained. in answer to direct inquiry is a strange andin many ways a beautiful one. NorthwestCalifornian culture had been described interms that led one to think of these Indiansas interested in little else than the pursuit of individual wealth. This impressic 1,while not wholly unfounded, seems to meto .be unsound. There was in the old cul­ture an unsuspected depth of feeling forthings sacred and beautiful. In everythingthat he did the Indian of the old time felthimself in touch with supernatural powers.Everything that he did that was contraryto the proper way of life 'helped to "spoilthe world," to unsettle that very center of,the world which is known today as theHoopa Valley. The Indians were by nomeans insensible of the beauty of theircountry. In one of the medicine formulaeit is related how one of the beings of thepre-human epoch went about in search ofadventure. He came to a high point fromwhich he looked down upon the Trinitywinding in and out among the river flatswhich were later to become the sites of theHupa villages. Overcome by the beauty of.what he saw, he cried out, "Why should Ibe going about looking for other landswhen I come from the most beautiful placein the world?"More About The Alma Mater(We asked Justice Lawrence DeGraff)of the Supreme Court of Iowa) to add suchfacts as he might remember to the accountof the origin of the A lma Mater appearingin the July issue. His answer follows.)I DO not know that I can add anythingof a historical nature respecting theorigin of the Alma Mater of the U niver­sity of Chicago. I was personally acquaintedwith the author of the song, and, asa member of the University Glee Club,rehearsed it the first time it was sung.I left the University at the end of thefirst year for financial reasons as I was onmy own resources. I returned later and atthat time the stanza beginning "The Citygrey has fled the earth" was written and,if I remember rightly, Professor Lewishanded to the glee club at rehearsal, the added stanza which many years later Ifound in an old trunk at myoId home.This stanza, in the handwriting of theauthor, was framed by me and sent to theChapter House of the Sigma Chi Frater­nity of which I was a member and later aGrand Consul. I presume this item ofbibliography is still hanging on the wallsof the old Chapter House. Of course Ithink our Alma Mater is the best that wasever written for any college or university,and the thrill of today is more intense thanwhen I was asked to sing it to determinemy eligibility for membership of the U n­iversity Glee Club.I regret that I am not in a position togive you more data.Your very truly,LAWRENCE DEGRAFF, '98CancerSome Observations Concerning Its Nature and InheritabilityBy MAUD SLYEASSOCIATE PROFESSOR PATHOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOFELLOW O. S. A. SPRAGUE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL RESEARCHMISS SLYEWho suggests, on the basis of an enormousmass of experimentaL evidence, a plan forthe elimination of cancer from the humanrace.No DISEASE has been the subject ofmore study than has cancer. Yeteven today only a few facts are positivelyknown concerning it. Moreover, it is adisease which occurs at the prime of theproductive life of man, and it is apparentlytoday causing the death of one out of everysix persons between the ages of thirty-fiveand sixty-five. Hundreds of investigatorsare at work in laboratories all over theworld in t'he effort to discover those factswhich will give hope of controlling cancer.The studies in this cancer laboratory, atthe University of Chicago, have been carriedon for the past eighteen years. They havefrom the beginning concerned themselveswith the more fundamental problems of can­cer such as the nature of cancer, its relationto other life conditions, how it is trans­mitted so that generation after generationit remains the same scourge, and the prob­lem of the complete elimination of this dis­ease from the human race.These studies have been carried on witha stock of pedigreed mice bred in this labora­tory, to which no additions from the outside have been made for over sixteen years. Bybiologic analysis, that is by profound andlong continued heredity studies, each ani­mal used has been analyzed as to his cancerpotentiality.Thus analyzed, these animals fall intothree general types: (I) those that arewholly exempt from cancer. (2) thosethat will never have the disease themselvesbut can transmit it to some of their poster­ity, and (3) those that are themselves sus­ceptible to the disease. The cancers understudy in this laboratory are spontaneous can­cers arising in the natural life of the animalsexactly as man's spontaneous cancers arise.They are not caused by any experimentalprocedure as arc the tar cancers, the graftedcancers, and other experimentally producedcancers under study in most other cancerlaboratories.These spontaneous mouse cancers arise,in the same organs and in the same tissuesas do the cancers of man. They follow thesame clinical course from the time of theirorigin to the time of death. They causedeath in the same ways; under the micro­scope they present the same appearance assimilar tumors in similar organs in man.As indicated by extensive studies, appar­ently they arise from the same causes, andare the same biologic entity as similar tu­mors in man.Thus when we have learned to controland to eliminate mouse cancer, we shall,in all probability, have the method of con­trolling and of eliminating human cancer.Let us examine class by class the threegeneral types of animals derived by analyticstudy.r st class. ANIMALS WHOLLYFREE FROM CANCER. By the rightselective breeding of animals whose cancerpotentiality is known, it is possible to de­rive families wholly exempt from cancereven where one parent has cancer. Dur-14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEing the eighteen years of this work hundredsof families, comprising thousands' of in­dividuals, have been thus bred, where notone case of cancer has ever arisen. Thegeneral principle is as follows: If an in­dividual with cancer is mated with one whois wholly resistant to cancer, all of thechildren will be exempt. But since oneparent had cancer, these children who arethemselves exempt, are able to transmit itto some of their offspring if they mate witha cancerous . individ ual. I f however theymate with a cancer-resistant individual,their children in turn will also be exempt.It is by thus consistently mating cancer­resistant animals with every animal thatmight possibly transmit cancer, that manythousands of mice and hundreds of fami­lies have been derived, all completely freefrom cancer, even where one of the origi­nal parents had cancer. It would thus bepossible in two generations completely toeliminate cancer from this laboratory, asI have completely eliminated it from hun­dreds of families.The cancer-resistant mice are truly ex­empt. Mated together they produce fami­lies wholly free from cancer. The typesof hyperstimulation, irritation and injuryfitted' uniformly to occasion cancer in sus­ceptible individuals, has never in a singlecase produced a cancer of any sort or ofany organ in anyone of these thousands ofcancer-resistant animals. They are trulyexempt, since the very stock of which theyare made is resistant to cancer; and thereis no fear that they will develop the disease.Resistance to .cancer then is dominantover susceptibility to cancer, since: -all thechildren are exempt even where one parenthas cancer. Cancer is therefore a diseasewhich can be eliminated by the right selec­tive mating.znd class. ANIMALS THE M-SELVES EXEMPT, but which can trans­mit cancer to some of their offspring.These are the so-called hybrid carriers ofthe cancer tendency. Since one of theirparents was cancer free and since resistanceto cancer is dominant, they themselves arewholly exempt from cancer. But since theother parent was cancerous, they carry also the cancer potentiality, and if mated withcancerous individuals they can transmit itto some of their immediate posterity. Bymating with cancer-resistant individualsthey produce offspring wholly free from thedisease. These hybrid carriers also arethemselves truly exempt. The types ofchronic irritation, stimulation or injuryfitted to produce cancer in cancer-suscep­tible animals, have never in a single caseproduced it in one of these hybrid carriers.Thus by selecting cancer-resistant mates the2nd class (of hybrid carriers) also canwholly eliminate cancer from their families.From these hybrid carriers of the cancertendency, I have produced hundreds offamilies comprising thousands of individ­uals wholly free from cancer.3rd class. ANIMALS SUSCEPTIBLETO CANCER. From any mating of twohybrid carriers of the cancer tendency, twothirds of the children will be cancer free,·one third will be cancer-susceptible. If allof these cancer-susceptible individuals selectonly cancer free mates there should neverbe another case of cancer in the family.These cancer susceptible individuals arethe ones in whom cancer arises from thehyper-stimulations, chronic irritations andinjuries to which life subjects them.There are apparently two factors neces­sary to produce cancer. If either one ofthem can be wholly avoided, it sho�ld bepossible to prevent cancer. These two fac­tors are (I) an inherited local susceptibil­ity to the disease and (2) irritation of theright kind and in the right degree appliedto the cancer susceptible tissues. Experi­ments eliminating one or the other of thesetwo factors, in order to see whether cancercan be avoided in this way, are being carriedon in this laboratory.For example; the same type of irrita­tion when applied to various strains of mice,so analyzed out as to carry susceptibility toonly one type of tumor, produced entirelydifferent results. One type of irritationstudied was a wound on the face, leg, orbreast, caused by a blow from a cage door,just such a blow as frequently happens tothe breast tissues of women.A. If the mouse was a member of acancer-exempt strain, such a wound pro­duced only scar tissue which eventually waspartly or wholly absorbed, leaving no badresults. It has never in any instance pro­duced a cancer in mice of resistant strains.The elimination then of the factor of cancersusceptibility, in these cases prevented can­cer, even where the irritation factor waspresent.B. If the mouse was a susceptible mem­ber of a family susceptible to breast cancer,no tumor has arisen if the breast tissueswere not injured. Normal healing tookplace. The elimination here of the irrita­tion factor from the cancer-susceptible tis­sues, that is the breast, prevented cancer,although the cancer-susceptible factor waspresent.C. I f the mouse was a susceptible mem­ber of a strain carrying any type of internaltumors, but no others, such a blow producedno cancer unless it injured the susceptibleinternal organ. Here again the eliminationCANCER 15of the irritation factor from the susceptibletissues, prevented cancer.D. If the mouse was a susceptible mem­ber of a sarcoma strain with subcutaneoustumors, such a blow frequently was fol­lowed by a rapidly growing sarcoma at thesite of the wound. Here, where both thesusceptible factor and the irritation factor. were pr-esent, cancer occurred.E. If the mouse was a member of afamily susceptible to skin cancer, such ablow frequently occasioned skin cancer inthe injured region. Here again where bothfactors were present, cancer arose.F. The experience of this laboratory hasseemed to indicate that even susceptibilityto skin cancer is localized. This meansthat if a mouse susceptible only to skin can­cer of the face was struck anywhere excepton the face, normal healing took place.In these experiments, by avoiding eitherthe cancer-susceptible factor, or the irrita­tion factor, cancer was avoided. The ex-A CITY OF MICESome of the hundreds of cages which house the mice of the laboratory. The mice arechanged once a week to cages which have been sterilized. The cages are isolated fromone another by the heavy manila paper in which they are wrapped. This prevents infectionspassing from one cage to another. Light and air enter the cages freely through the un-wrapped front and back, and in lesser degree through the paper on the sides.16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEperiments thus show that both inherited sus­ceptibility and irritation are necessary forthe production of cancer. They show thatcancer susceptibility is local and not system­ic, and that only injuries to cancer-suscep­tible tissues are likely to induce cancer.Every individual should know his hered­ity. In case he is one of the susceptiblemembers of his family he should know towhat type and location of cancer he is sus­ceptible. He should then, as far as possible,avoid all forms of hyperstimulation, chronicirritation or injury to the cancer-susceptibletissues. By complete avoidance of the ir­ritation factor he should be able to avoidcancer for himself, and by selection of acancer resistant mate, he should be able toprevent the further occurrence of cancer inhis family.HUMAN HEREDITY: Man hasto date been almost wholly indifferent toheredity as a factor in the development ofthe human race. Like every fact of whichwe are ignorant, the facts of heredity haveseemed impossible of human application forthe value of the race. Before the first air­ship the principles of flying seemed impos­sible to human application. In just this waythe principles of heredity seem to many tobe impossible for human application. Let mesuggest the hopeful element for such anapplication.. If we study mammals lower in the scalethan man, we find that there is in operationwhat I shall call a genetic sense. For ex­ample the following experiment has beencarried out repeatedly in this laboratory.I f we place in the same cage three albinomales, . three albino females and one greyfemale, the grey female will not be selectedas a mate by any of the albino males. Itis possible thus to keep a grey female in acage of albinos without contaminating thestrain, if there are albino females present.This is an illustration of the genetic senseoperating to keep strains and species pure.A robin or a bluebird of today is practicallyidentical in plumage, in size, in song, withhis ancestral birds. This also is an illustra­tion of a genetic sense, generally selectingfor breeding those that run true to typeand thus keeping strains and species pure. The genetic sense has its beginning also inthe human race operating to keep typesrelatively pure. Since it has its beginning,it is possible to develop this genetic sense,and it would seem that the method of de­veloping it would be a widespread knowl­edge of the fundamental operative facts ofheredity, in order that there might arisea widespread special interest in the futureof human types.Resume: In my laboratory at the U ni­versity of Chicago, studies have been carriedon for the past eighteen years, in the natureand behavior of cancer. All studies havebeen carried on with spontaneous cancersarising in the natural life of the animalsexactly as man's spontaneous cancers arise.The autopsies performed have numberedover 64,000 including between 5,000 and6,000 primary spontaneous cancers. Thetumors have now included practically everytype and location of neoplasm known inhuman pathology.These studies have yielded several factsof immediate and profound importance:( I) In every respect the behavior of cancerin this laboratory, observed daily for eight­een years, is inconsistent with the germ .theory of cancer.(2) In every respect the behavior ofcancer in this laboratory is inconsistent withthe diet deficiency theory of cancer .(3) Cancer is not contagious. In themost painstaking and long continued ex­periments it has never been possible totransmit cancer by contact.(4) The tendency to exemption fromcancer is unquestionably inheritable. Dur­ing the past eighteen years, many hundredsof strains and branch strains have beencarried in this laboratory, which havenever yielded a tumor growth of any kindeither malignant : or benign. This meansthat in many families carried for fifty ormore generations, and comprising thousandsof members, there has been complete free­dom from cancer. These cancer resistantmice, when bred into other families, carrywith them exemption from cancer as a dom­inant character, that is their children are allexempt. Compare this with the record ofman who pays no attention to heredity inhis matings, and where I in 6 over a certainage, is dying with cancer; and note howtremendously hopeful is this fact of the in­heritability of freedom from cancer.( 5 ) The tendency to be susceptible tocancer is also inheritable, but it is in­heritable as a recessive character. Thismeans that even though there is a great dealof cancer in one side of the family, even100%, if there is no cancer in the otherside of the family, all of the children willbe cancer free. If they in their turn matewith cancer resistant individuals, cancerwill be eliminated from their immediatefamilies also.( 6) Susceptibility to cancer has proved tobe local and not systemic. This meansthat if a person susceptible to cancer willprotect himself against irritation of locallysusceptible tissues, he may avoid cancereven though he is susceptible. How muchbetter it would be if every individual knewhis heredity, and even knew to what typesand locations of tumor he was susceptible.He might then avoid the type of irritationfitted to induce the disease, and thus avoidit, even though he were a member of a100% cancer family.( 7) There are apparently two factorsnecessary for the production of cancer:first, the inherited susceptibility (that is,susceptible soil) and second, irritation orchronic stimulation of the type fitted to in­duce it. In mice susceptible by heredity toonly one location of cancer, no amount ofirritation or stimulation applied to otherparts of the body has ever to date producedCANCER 17a neoplasm. Avoidance of irritation to thelocally susceptible tissues has prevented cari­cer even in susceptible individuals.The fact of the inheritability of resistanceto cancer is one of the few hopeful observa­tions ever made concerning this disease, be­cause it means that instead of everyonebeing susceptible, large numbers are whollyexempt. This is certainly a most encour­aging fact, and it should be allowed to liftthe fear of possible cancer from those whoare by heredity exempt from it. It alsomeans that it is possible wholly to eliminatecancer from any species by the appropriategenetic procedure.Moreover, since there is in man the be­ginning of a genetic sense, it should be pos­sible to educate this genetic sense. This isthe great hope for future humanity. Theway to educate it is to make generallyknown the facts and operation of heredityso that man may not be blind as to whatcharacteristics he is transmitting to hischildren. Thus it would become possiblewholly to eliminate such diseases as cancer.,If, therefore, we would uniformly permitexamination after death, as is the invariablerule in this laboratory, the exact facts con­cering disease in man could be obtained. Ifthese facts were then kept in permanent rec­ord, as every fact is kept in permanentrecord in the laboratory, in two generationsby the right matings, just as I have elimi­nated the disease from hundreds of familiesin the laboratory, so should it be possibleto eliminate cancer from the human species.WHERE THE PLAN WORKEDSome of the perfectly healthy mice, of which Miss Slye'sTaboratory contains many thousands.This entire family and hundreds of others in the laboratory are wholly cancer free.The Story of The University of ChicagoBy THOMAS WAKEFIELD GOODSPEEDReprinted through courtesyVIII.THE UNIVERSITY BEGINS To BUILDONE OF the very first necessitiesthat confronted the new U ni­versity was the provision ofbuildings in which to conduct its work. Atthe first meeting of the board of trustees,therefore, a committee on buildings andgrounds was appointed, with Martin A.Ryerson as chairman. Before it could domuch, however, its activities were for atime brought to a standstill by the questionof enlarging the site from three blocks tofour. This matter having been finally de­cided and the site enlarged by the purchaseof an additional block of ground andchanged in shape into a compact square,two blocks wide and two long, with thestreets and al1eys vacated, the committee,in the spring of 189 I, was able to go for­ward. Many important and perplexingquestions, however, at once arose. Shouldthe structures be small and cheap, or shouldthey be large, dignified, and worthy? Whatmaterial should be used in their construc­tion? Should it be stone or brick? If stone,should granite be chosen, or could some­thing as attractive, and, while durable, notso expensive, be found? What should bethe arrangement of the buildings on the site,and where should the first buildings belocated? And above all, what style ofarchitecture should be adopted?Fortunately for the young University,it had among its trustees the very best menin Chicago to consider and determine theseimportant questions. Henry I ves Cobb waschosen as architect and began to work onthe problems of the style of architecture tobe adopted, and the general arrangement of, the buildings on the twenty-four acres ofthe site. On June .25 he submitted to thecommittee an elaborate sketch embodyinghis plan for the disposition of the buildingson the entire site. It was, in reality, a pic­ture, giving a bird's-eye view of the Uni-of the University of Chicago Pressversity as it would appear with all thebuildings completed. It made a most im­posing and attractive picture. It was notintended to represent the buildings as eachwould appear in solid brick or stone, somuch as to indicate the general arrangementand distribution of the various structures.It divided the site into six quadrangles,each surrounded with buildings, leaving inthe center a seventh, the main quadrangle,giving unity to the whole design. While thisgeneral plan for the grouping of the build­ings was not formally adopted, the con­struction of the buildings was begun andcontinued, so far as the original site of fourblocks was concerned, in accordance withit. The style of architecture finally adoptedwas English Gothic, and Gothic,with modi­fications of that style, continued to deter­mine the construction of all the educationalbuildings. Plans and specifications for alecture hall and dormitory were preparedby the architect and on November 16, 1891,Mr. Ryerson submitted for the committeeon buildings the following recommenda­tions:that blue Bedford stone beadopted as the material for the erection ofthe buildings, the bids showing that thedifference in cost between this material andpressed brick with stone trimmings is butfive or six thousand dollars for each build­ing; also that the committee be authorizedto let, and the proper officers be authorizedto sign, the contracts for the erection of alecture hall and one dormitory, at a cost,for the two buildings not to exceed $325,-000.The report was adopted, and at the samemeeting two additional important stepswere taken. It was voted that the commit­tee be authorized to prepare plans for alibrary building, a museum, a gymnasium,and, a dormitory for women. The otherimportant action was the adoption of the18THE STORY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOrecommendation of the Finance Committeethat an immediate effort be made to raiseone million dollars to be expended on thegrounds, buildings, and general equipmentof the University. The story of this milliondollars has been told in a preceding chapter.On November 23 the contracts for thetwo buildings authorized were let, andground was broken for them three dayslater, November 26, 1891. There were nopublic exercises. The workmen gathered,the word was given, and the work began.The plow entered the ground near the cor­ner of Ellis Avenue and the MidwayPlaisance, where the first dormitories wereto stand. Within three weeks more than ahundred men were at work on the founda­tions, and before January I, 1892, thesewere completed. As has been said thesefirst buildings were a lecture hall anddormitory. The dormitory was that onecontemplated in the $100,000 contributedby Mr. Rockefeller for the Divinity School.I t was in reality three buildings. The cen­tral one was five stories in height withrooms for ninety-two students. North andsouth of this, separated from it by fir� walls,were buildings of four stories, each withaccommodations for forty-six students. Thelength of the three structures was 270 feet.The northern section was assigned to stu­dents in the Graduate Schools. It was call­ed at first Graduate, later North Hall,and the central and southern sections wereknown as Middle and South Divinity Halls.Later Graduate was named Blake Hall,Middle Divinity, Gates Hall, and SouthDivinity, Goodspeed Hall. Although ithad been hoped that these dormitories couldbe built for $150,000, their cost proved tobe $172,806. The lecture hall, begun atthe same time with the dormitories, waslocated on Ellis Avenue south of Fifty­eighth Street, a�d was 16o feet long, theunited buildings thus forming an unbrokenfront of 434 feet. The width of the lec­ture hall was 80 feet. It contained oversixty rooms, divided into eleven depart­mental suites of from three to six roqmseach, the central room of each suite being 19intended for the departmental library. Theplans also provided for a chapel or as­sembly room for temporary use, taking forthe purpose the north third of the first floor,also a general lecture-room that would ac­commodate about two hundred, and officesfor the president, deans, and other officials.These buildings were to be ready for oc­cupancy by September I, 1892, but it wassome weeks later before the last of theworkmen left them.Even on October I, Opening Day, therewas still much to be done.Before the completion of the lecture hall,Silas B. Cobb; one of the early settlers ofChicago, made a contribution of $150,000,which later was appropriated for this build­ing. I well remember the time and thecircumstances of the promise of this greatsum. The last day of the second month ofthe three Mr. Field had given us for raising$1,000,000 had come and we seemed to beat the end of our resources. The family ofMr. Cobb had been encouraging him tohelp us, but they now told us they fearedthe decision must go over to the autumn.I then told President Harper we must takethe matter. into our own hands and go andsee Mr. Cobb. He said, "Mr. Walkerwarned me against it, but we will go ifyou will take the responsibility." We went,our appeal was received cordially, and fourdays later his subscription in writing wasreceived for $150,000. Later he gave $15,-000 more and this first lecture hall receivedhis name. It cost $221,956. For more thantwenty years Cobb Lecture Hall was thecenter of University life. .Every effort' had been made during themillion-dollars-in-ninety-days campaign tosecure funds for a gymnasium, a librarybuilding, and a building for the UniversityPress, but without success. As it was im­perative that provision be made at once forthese needs, it was decided to erect a tem­porary building in the center of the north­east quadrangle, the site of what later be­came Hutchinson Court. It was built ascheaply as possible, without permanentfoundations, of common brick, one story in20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEheight and with a flat roof. The roof wassupported by trusses standing above it,framed of large timbers, appearing like mon­strous sawhorses holding it down. Thebuilding was begun in September and finish­ed in December, 1892. It was large, being100 feet wide and 250 feet long. The northend was fitted up for the physical culturework of women. In a portion of the eastfront was the printing-office of the U niver­sity Press. South of this was a large roomwhere the General Library was placed.The western section, south of the women'sgymnasium, formed the men's gymnasium.This was divided into a locker-room andthe gymnasium proper. Around the wallsof the latter, a dozen feet above the floorwas a running-track, at that time "the bestindoor running track in the West, twelvelaps to the mile." On this track many greatcontests took place before excited throngsof students and other enthusiasts crowdingthe floor below. This temporary structurecost $25,208, and was a good investment.Although constructed very cheaply, and,contrasted with the other buildings, a bloton the landscape, it served its generationof students most usefully. When the �oble tower group of buildings and the splendidBartlett Gymnasium were planned its daywas over. In the spring of 1 oor the north­ern part of the buildings, the women's gym­nasium, was torn down to make room forthe foundations of Hutchinson Hall andthe Mitchell Tower, and the summer of1903 saw the rest of it demolished and re­moved to give an unobstructed approach tothe Reynolds Club House and MandelAssembly Hall, which were then approach­ing completion.In connection with the raising of the mil­lion-dollar building fund, four women con­tributed $50,000 each for dormitories. Thecontribution of Mrs. Henrietta Snell wasdesignated by her for a dormitory for men.She wished it to be a memorial of her hus­band, Amos J. Snell. Contracts for theerection of Snell Hall were made in Aug­ust, 1892, and the hall was occupied bystudents in April, 1893. Though built formen, it was assigned for the Spring Quarterof that year to the women, whose halls werenot ready. There was no Summer. Quarterin 1893, and on the opening of the AutumnQuarter the men came into their own. SriellHall was located on Ellis Avenue south ofCOBB: CHICAGO'S FIRST LECTURE HALLIt was not completed when the University'S first classes were held in it.THE STORY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOFifty-seventh Street. It housed sixty stu­dents and cost $53,586. During the firstten years it was the only dormitory assignedto undergraduate men.In May, 1892, Mrs. Elizabeth G. Kellyintimated a wish to give $50,000 for adormitory for women, if she could receive5 per cent per annum on that amount dur­ing her life, and an agreement to this effectwas made. Kelly Hall was completed in thesummer of 1893 and occupied by studentsOctober I of that year. I ts cost was $62,-149. It had rooms for forty-two studentsand included a parlor and dining-room.Soon after the contribution of Mrs.Kelly, Mrs: Mary Heecher gave $50,000for a dormitory for women on a similaragreement, viz., that she received 5 percent per annum on that sum during theremainder of her life. The construction ofBeecher Hall went on in conjunction withthat of Kelly, and it also was finished in thesummer of 1893 and opened to studentsOctober 1 of that year. The two halls wereof the same size, accommodated the samenumber of students, and their cost wassubstantially the same.It was in June, 1892, that a subscriptionof $50,000 was received from Mrs. NancyS. Foster for a third dormitory for wom­en. It was decided to locate the hall onthe northwest corner of U niversi ty Avenueand Fifty-ninth Street, and to make it fiveinstead of four stories high, as Beecher andKelly were. It being found that it couldnot be built for the sum subscribed, Mrs.George E. Adams, Mrs. Foster's daughter,announced to the board that if the U ni­versity would go forward and erect FosterHall her mother would pay the cost of itserection. On this encouragement the con­tracts were let and the beautiful buildingwas constructed. I t was finished in Octo­ber, 1893. When in 1900 it became de­sirable to enlarge the hall Mrs. Foster mostgenerously authorized the trustees to dothis and send the bill to her. Her giftsamounted, in the end, to $83,433, the fullcost of the building. The hall provided ahome for sixty-eight women students. 21Noone was more stirred by the campaignto raise a million dollars in ninety days thanGeorge C. Walker. Being a trustee, heknew all the necessities of the situation andgave the funds for building a museum. Hewas moved to provide a museum because ofhis lifelong interest in natural history andbecause the great World's Fair was aboutto be held in Chicago and a large amountof scientific material would be available ifa fireproof home was provided for it. TheWalker Museum was dedicated in con­nection with the Fourth Convocation,October 2, 1893, one year after the openingof the University. It was used not only asa museum, but for twenty-two years as alecture hall for Geology, Geography, An­thropology, and Paleontology. It was onlythen that the building of Rosenwald, aa lecture hall in immediate connection withit, permitted the museum to be wholly de­voted to the purposes for which it had beenconstructed.The first large response to the appeal fora fund of $1,000,000 for buildings in thespring of 1892 was made by Sidney A.Kent, who proposed on March 17 to builda chemical laboratory. Although he fixedthe limit of $150,000 as the cost of thebuilding, he did not adhere to this limit.All the details connected with the work ofconstruction were submitted to him andreceived his approval. He paid the bills. asthey came in, and the laboratory cost himin the end $202,270. He also generouslyfurnished the equipment at a cost of $33,-000. That the building might be made ascomplete and perfect as possible, under themost competent expert advice, Professor IraRemsen was asked and generously consentedto come from Baltimore and assist the ar­chitect in working out the general plan anddetails of the laboratory. The building wasformally dedicated and turned over to theUniversity at the Fifth Convocation, J an­uary I, 1894. A conference of professors ofchemistry from other universities and col­leges was held. The dedicatory exercisestook place in the evening. As the proces­sion entered the main hall of the building22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEit passed a bronze tablet on the wall, thework of Lorado Taft, in the center ofwhich was a bust of Mr. Kent, the donorof the building, in bas-relief, with this in­scription below:THIS BUILDING IS DEDICATED TO AFUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE, IN THE HOPETHAT IT WILL BE A FOUNDATIONSTONE LAID BROAD AND DEEP FORTHE TEMPLE OF KNOWLEDGE INWHICH AS WE LIVE WE HAVE LIFE.SIDNEY A. KENTMr. Kent crowned his beneficence byproviding in his will a fund of $50,000 forthe care of the laboratory. The buildingwas named Kent Chemical Laboratory.When the raising of the million dollarsin ninety days was begun, Martin A. Ry­erson was abroad. He was, however, keptinformed of the progress of the under­taking. He was very deeply interested in.its success and on June 13 sent a cablegramfrom Paris, saying, ·"If the million is raised,I will contribute $150,000 for purpose Iwill designate." On November 7, 1892, hewrote to the trustees, "I now express to you my desire that my subscription be ap­plied to the erection of a building to beused as a physical laboratory, and to beknown as the Ryerson Physical Laboratory,in memory of my father, the late MartinRyerson, said building to be situated on thenorth side of, and facing south on the cen­tral quadrangle, east of Kent ChemicalHall."Martin Ryerson, the father of the donor,had been a leading business man of Chicagoengaged in the manufacture and sale of. lumber. He died in 1887, only three yearsprior to the founding of the University.When the laboratory was erected Mr. Ry­erson placed in the main hall of the firstfloor a bronze tablet bearing this inscrip­tion:PHYSICALLABORATORYOFTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOERECTED IN MEMORY OFMARTIN RYERSONBY HIS SONA. D. 1893THE WOMEN'S BUILDINGSBuilt at the end of the first year of the University's existence.THE STORY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO• The cost of the laboratory was $200,371.To this contribution Mr. Ryerson added theequipment and furniture of the building.For many years he continued to give agreat many thousands of dollars for ad­ditional equipment, apparatus, and supplies.Finished and occupied at the beginning of1894, the building was dedicated July 2;1894. The formal presentation and openingof the new laboratory was the crowningevent of the Convocation week. Eminentphysicists from other universities were pres­ent. The exercises of dedication were held inthe evening. The entire building was opento the large number of friends who werepresent.One more building belongs to this earlierperiod. For a number of years the presidentlived in a rented house on Blackstone (thenWashington) Avenue. It was three-quar­ters of a mile from the University, andthe trustees felt that the president shouldhave a permanent home on the grounds 23of the University. They therefore pur­chased lots on the northeast corner of U ni­versity Avenue and Fifty-ninth Street, andin 1895 built the president's house at a costof $40,000.At the time of its completion, less thanfour years had passed since the turning ofthe first furrow for the foundations of thefirst buildings. It may amuse the reader torecall that in asking Mr. Field for the siteI had written him a letter with the ap­proval of my co-laborer, Dr. Gates, as­suring him that we would agree to expendat least $200,000 in buildings and im­provements within five years. Three yearsand a halfhad now passed since the makingof that rash promise. By the generosityof Mr. Rockefeller and the people of Chi­cago contributions had been made whichhad enabled the University to erect thir­teen buildings which with their equipmentand furniture had cost about $1,450,000.The Medical School GrowsANNOUNCEMENT of two gifts to-1\.. taIling $555,000 for the use of thenew Medical School was made in Septem­ber.Three hundred thousand dollars wasgiven the University by Mrs. GertrudeDunn Hicks for the erection and equipmentof a building to be known as the GertrudeDunn Hicks Memorial which shall be oper­ated as an orthopedic hospital. The termsof the gift provide that in the admissionof patients preference shall be given so faras practicable to poor children unable topay for the treatment received. Mrs. Hicksis a cousin of Mrs. Harry Pratt Judson.Mr. Louis B. Kuppenheimer made thesecond gift, of $250,000, to establish anendowment fund to be known as the LouisB. and Emma M. Kuppenheimer Founda­tion. The income is to be used for a studyof the structure, functions, and diseases ofthe eye, and for the support of teaching and research in the department of ophthalmol­ogy. This department has already beenorganized under the leadership of Dr. E. V.L. Brown, noted ophthalmologist of Chi­cago.With the orthopedic hospital provided bythe gift of Mrs. Hicks, the University's fa­cilities for the treatment of children areunexcelled in the country. Affiliation ofthe Chicago Lying-In Hospital which willbring that famous institution to the Mid­way; the gift of the Bobs Roberts MemorialHospital for Children, and the transfer tothe University of the Country Home forConvalescent Children were announcedearlier in the year.Mr. Kuppenheimer's gift endows thefirst of the special fields of surgery in thenew Medical School as distinct from theDepartment of General Surgery, of whichDr. D. B. Phemister is Chairman.24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGreetings. from the PresidentTo the Alumni of the University of Chicago:At the end of two years of association with the Universityof Chicago family I am more than ever convinced of the in­spiring future which is before the U niversity-a future in whichintensified activity in all the great lines of our endeavor willbe the keynote, and in which the University will, we hope,never depart from the tradition of outstanding performancewhich it has always held.I t is the hope of all departments of the University that eachyear may see an increasingly close relationship between alumniand the active institution .. Alumni, trustees and faculty are alleager to assist in bringing this about, and are constantly workingto the end that in this respect, as in so many others, the U niver­sity of Chicago may adopt a course fundamentally right which isbased on the realities of the situation.We hope, therefore, each year to make the alumni relation­ship to the University one which is more full of meaning.Cordially yours,BOOI(�The University is a great maker of books, and a great critic of books. Its scholarswrite books to announce their discoveries to the world,' many of its alumni have setforth their observations and ideas of life in novels. Both its scholars and its alumni,if they would live and work most effectively} must know and criticize some of thebooks that other creative workers are producing.The University's books and the University}s ideas about books in general, therefore)are proper subjects for this Magazine. A new section has been provided for them.The Assault on the English NovelBy FRED B. MILLETTAssistant Professor of EnglishONE'S customary uncertainty as towhat constitutes an English novelhas deepened to perplexity in re­cent years in the face of conduct that mightwell be considered unbecoming. The newnovel, like the burning pinwheel, flies off inevery direction. It refuses to confine itselfto one massive volume; it discards plot;it makes the sentence walk the plank; itviolates all recognized systems of punctua­tion. It horrifies the conventional and theprudish by the exhibition of essentiallyprivate matters. In short, it dispenses withall that was wont to make it a respectablenarcotic for idle readers. So bewilderingdid the behavior of the novel become that­some critics were tempted to think that itsuncontrolled gestures were those of a figurein articulo mortis) and Mr. MiddletonMurry announced in June, I923, the de­cline and by implication the fall of thegrand old novel.I t is of some interest to inquire thecauses behind the behavior just indicated.It would be banal to invoke the War. Itwill be more profitable to recall the unrestmanifested in our time by other forms thanthe novel. Dramatists weary of pureromanticism and impure naturalism strivetor a combination of the modes which shallexpress with fewer qualifications the con- tradictory spirit of the age. Expressionismhas bestirred itself and spread like the in­fluenza from Germany even unto the endsof America. Even earlier in America, andindeed along with the European War, camethe less bloody but equally bitter affray overthe freedom or the enslavement of poetry.I t is a question whether the freedom of thesea or the poet was the more vital issue.Meanwhile the plastic arts have been in­dulging in vagaries, not to say absurdities,which demand a violent re-writing of Mr.Babbitt's New Laocoon. Is it any wonderthat the novel was tempted to rid itself ofthe decorous and the ponderous, the pointedand the relevant, and trip it wilfully withher sister arts?More specifically, two influences seem torequire invocation here, Russian fiction andpsychoanalysis. Along with the resuscita­tion of the dance by the Russian Ballet, andthe revelation of the possibilities of natural­istic acting by the Moscow Art Theatre,went a mounting enthusiasm for the moreRussia'n of the Slavonic novelists, Tolstoiand Dostoievski. In the former, the mod­ern novelist found a marvelous fecundity ofcharacterization along with a noticeableneglect of order and symmetry, and in theinspired epileptic, he discovered an evenlooser form and abnormal psychology2526 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEenough for a hundred budding fictions. Butafter all the genius of these writers provedinimitable; it was far simpler to exploitthe insidious theories of the Vienneseanalysts.If anyone influence may be blamed forthe misconduct of the current novel, it isthe beguiling "science" of psychoanalysis,which has wrought fundamentally upon thematter and the manner of experimental fic­tion. Since the interest of this "science" isin the development of personality, thewriters under its influence, in particular,Miss May Sinclair and Mr. D. H.Lawrence, have tended to study and ana­lyze character to the neglect of plot. Sincethe "new psychology" has very definitetheories as to the formation of personality,it is not surprising that the "new" novelsshould appear to some eyes to be patholog­ical case-histories, deformed characters,thinly disguised as fiction. But the influ­ence of psychoanalysis is particularly mani­fested in the adoption by novelists of themethod of free association, the rendering ofthe incoherent, inconsequential, turbulent,and apparently inexhaustible stream ofthe subject's consciousness. The carryingover of this method to the novel accountsfor some of the most striking effects andfeatures of current experimental fiction. Itaccounts for the increasing subjectivity ofthe novel, the giving of the story not fromthe consciously controlled mind of a cen­tral or even incidental figure, but the mak­ing the stream of consciousness sum andsubstance of the novel. The lengths towhich this method may be carried are evi­dent in the extraordinary effect of chaoticreality of Mr. F. M. Ford's war trilogy,in Miss Dorothy Richardson's interminableand ultimately fatiguing rendition ofMiriam Henderson's mental experience inher Pilgrimage series, and in the notoriousconclusion of Mr. Joyce's Ulysses. Thisattempt to record the uncontrolled contentof consciousness is responsible for theviolences done to sentence, and punctua­tion, and diction, and the difficulty thatthereby arises in distinguishing betweenouter and inner reality suggests the need of some. such mechanical device as differenttypes or inks to mark off what happensoutside from what happens within the mindthat is being represented.In the use of new material or new meth­od in the novel, Miss May Sinclair andMr. D. H. Lawrence are perhaps themost determined and possibly the most sig­nificant experimenters. Miss Sinclair hasever been alert to, and responsive to, newinfluences, and though she has perhapsnever equalled the solidity (in the best senseof the word) of her early novel, TheDivine Fire) she has moved restlessly awayfrom the conventional substance and formof that novel. It may indeed be arguedthat the art of Miss Sinclair has sufferedseriously from her preoccupation with psy­choanalysis. In point of fact, it has ledto some of her weakest work. T he Ro­mantic is case-history of a peculiarly patho­logical sort, and its weakness as fiction maybe gathered from the intrusion, at the endof the tale, of a physician with a set lec­ture interpreting the case. Ann Severnand the Fieldinas, though a better piece ofwork, is all compact with neurotics whoillustrate various unsound adjustments tothe demands of life. Ann alone is sane andsound, and she moves like. the Spirit ofSanitation through a rather unconvincingmodern Morality. In The Life and Deathof Harriet Frean) Miss Sinclair has ex­perimented with .both substance and form.I ts slightness is a triumph of a kind, but. since the principle of Harriet Frean's lifewas negation, the material lent itself tothe process of elimination. With one ortwo exceptions Miss Sinclair's successeswith her new material are in lighter vein.A Cure of Souls and Mr. Waddington ofW yck are delicious feminine exposures ofmale egoists, and their gayety suggests thatperhaps the gloomy and, to some, nauseat­ing "science" may have its values for com­edy as well as tragedy. It is probably inMary. Olivier that Miss Sinclair has at­tained her greatest success of a serious kind.Here she has deliberately taken' over thestream-of-consciousness technic which shehad observed and' admired in the work ofMiss Dorothy Richardson, and adapted itto the exposition of a life-history. Her useof the method is brilliant, and her charac­ters seen always from Mary's point ofview take on a reality which she has notalways encompassed.A more daring and problematical ex­perimenter is Mr. D. H. Lawrence. Evenhis enemies recognize his poetic powers ofobservation and penetration and his intenseand darkly luminous style. With somejustice they reprehend his preoccupationwith the psychology of sex, his contempla­tion of, and wonderment at, the dark,forces, the deep roots of energy in animalsand man, and his increasing devotion to therevival of mystical-sensual sex-worship.Yet though his own neuroses may ultimate­ly overwhelm him, one cannot but feel thatsome of his work is of permanent interestand beauty, and that all of it is significantof the trends of the fiction of the future.To an understanding of his more difficultwork, the best approach is an inquiry intohis evident purpose. He sets out to renderthe relationships of his characters in notonly their conscious but their unconsciousaspects. He strives to use not only thefloating material of the uncontrolled con­sciousness, but the unconscious urges andattitudes. If we are willing to subscribe tohis psychological assumptions, we may seethe tremendous problem he faces in ex­pressing unconscious material in' wordswhich have always been the more or lessperfect expression of conscious thought andfeeling. To this process may be ascribedhis bewildering "stretching" of the recog­nized vocabulary to bear unwonted andunconscious meanings. Mr. Lawrence'snovels cry out for a glossary of symbolsand semantic distortions.His solidest achievement is the auto­biographical novel, Sons and Lovers, avivid and illuminating study of family re­lationships and a hero with a mother-fixa- .tion. But The Rainbow and Women inLove (each of which has achieved the honorof suppression in one or another country)constitute the most brilliant exhibition ofhis powers as stylist and psychologist. These. BOOKS 27FRED B. MILLETTGraduate of Amherst and former Professor ofEnglish at the University of Pittsburgh, latelyappointed to the University's Department of, English.novels concern the psychological permuta­tions and combinations of a group of char­acters who on first acquaintance seembound for the madhouse, but who areactually no more neurotic and over­wrought than most of one's contemporaries.Their initial strangeness, not to say incom­prehensibility, arises from their rendition,not by a conventional novelist, but by anadept in sensory and emotional descriptionand analysis. The later work of Lawrence,however, in such novels as St. lVlawr andThe Plumed Serpent, lacks the widermeaning and significance of his earlier nov­els, and are evidences of a nature danger­ously preoccupied with the revival of primi­tive vitality in the guise of religon. .The revolt against the conventionalnovel is everywhere apparent in one of themost remarkable books in the entire his­tory of English fiction, Mr. James J oyce'sUlysses. Its astounding coarseness has at­tracted most readers' attention away fromits more noteworthy features. It is ofcourse impossible to judge this monster offiction by any familiar standard. One mustTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINErevert for a parallel to such "sports" asTristram Shandy, Rabelais, or Petroni us,works which are famous for their eccen­tricities, not in spite of them. The extra­ordinary matter and manner of Ulysses sostunned some critics that they insistedseriously that the novel would never be thesame again. But fortunately or unfortu­nately most of our novelists are too busywith their press-clippings to read this diffi­cult and at times wilfully unintelligiblebook. In it Mr. Joyce has set down a day inthe lives of certain Dubliners with almostinexhaustible objective and subjective detail.He has also written into it (again likePetronius) as amusing a series of stylisticparodies as' we shall find anywhere save inMr. Beerbohm's Christ�zas Garland. Thereading of Ulysses by any serious literarycraftsmen must deepen their sense of therichness of the material at their disposal,and of possibilities in form and style un­dreamt of before Joyce.In the recent work of Mrs. VirginiaWoolf, the general reader will perhaps dis-<,cover the most attractive examples of thelatest styles in fiction. To the making ofbooks Mrs. Woolf brings a nature eagerfor novelty, a rare �sthetic sensibility, asteady feeling for the charm of life, andthe freshest and loveliest style among thenew writers. From comparatively con­ventional beginnings she turned to the bold­est of her experiments in Jacob's Room.This bewildering fiction seems to aim todepict a character by an entirely impres­sionistic method. Jacob and his career aregiven, if they are given at all, not throughconnected or even intermittent narrative,but through flashes of thought or percep­tion on his or another's part, in fragmentsof description of himself, his friends, andhis possessions. To the reader is left thenot inconsiderable task of making a manof these disjecta membra. In Mrs. Dallo-.wa1, . however, her style and method aremore assured and more successful. Theform, in so far as one exists, is built up ofblocks of the conscious experience of Mrs.Dalloway and various people who come inclose or slight contact with her in a single day. The book is a maze of which Mrs.Dalloway is the charmed center. But toother characters no less than her heroine,Mrs. Woolf gives her devoted attention,and some of the finest passages in the novel,for instance the breakdown and suicide ofthe shell-shocked veteran, though not suffi­ciently organic parts of the whole, arehighly admirable in themselves. The book,moreover, is shot through with a sense ofthe delightfulness of living, conveyed in anabsolutely fresh but not eccentric style. Inthe direction of experiment, Mrs. Woolf'slatest novel, To the Lighthouse, is, to date,her finest achievement. Again, she dis­penses with the interest of plot, and yetcreates a strong emotional effect, a sense ofsaturation in a transparent and colorfulstream of life. Again, a middle-agedwoman is the center of her pattern, and thetheme of the novel is to be found in theinfluence in life and death of this charm­ing yet human figure, upon her family andfriends. A dozen characters besides Mrs.Ramsay come integrally for our contem­plation; times plays with them, and agesthem but not beyond recognition. The lifethey live is neither sordid nor ugly; yet itleaves a bitter-sweet taste of frustrationquite in the contemporary mode. Amongthe new novelists, Mrs. Woolf, if not cer­tainly the finest, has the most exquisite styleand the most dependable taste.This vanguard of fiction, as this briefsurvey may have shown, has made somefundamental modifications in the techniqueof the novel. What would seem to be theoldest and the stablest element in fiction,the plot, has suffered most. The new nov­elists regard plot as a bit common, a con­cession which they are unwilling to make tothe desire of the simple and vulgar for astory; they are willing to leave plot to Mr.Sabatini. Furthermore, the background ofthe action, the setting on which the older. novelists (from Scott to Mr. Arnold Ben­nett) lavished infinite and to the moderntaste excessive pains appears now, not inobjective independence, but merely inci­dental to the psychic experience of thecharacters. Mrs. Woolf, indeed, has con-tended that only those details of environ­ment are admissible which impinge uponthe consciousness of the characters at sig­nificant moments. Finally character in thenew novel suffers a marked change fromthe conception of it held by the Victorians.The experimental novelist no longer ana­lyzes, explains, and comments in the man­ner of George Eliot. If we are to arriveat a unified notion of the characters intowhose minds we are invited to look, we .must travel at our own risk, and once atBOOKS 29our destination, we may be amazed at thedisorder that confronts us.The old novel is not dead. Hundredsof novels of the old-fashioned sort clutterup the bookstores. But if one enjoys won­dering what form the Protean may nextassume, he must consider the character ofthe experimental novel of today. The nov­el of tomorrow may assume still more out­rageous forms and manners, or, after thisperiod of loose-living, it may take on a newand welcome restraint.Recent Experiences with the ReadingPublicThe Strange Fate of a "Hell-Bent" ProfessorBy SHIRLEY JACKSON CASEAUTHOR OF "JESUS: A NEW BIOGRAPHY"*: ABOUT four years ago one of mywell-meaning friends suggested thatI write a new life of Jesus. Bothhe and I were distressed by the novelistictreatments of this theme that have been sofrequent in recent times, and we were op­timistic enough to believe that a book aim­ing at more sober historical expositionwould be welcomed by the public. I waswell aware that a new biography of Jesuswould not be an easy book to write. Also.I knew that it would be entirely out of thequestion to produce a volume that wouldbe universally acceptable. Therefore Imade it my single aim to portray as clearlyas possible the figure of Jesus in his ownhistorical setting as disclosed by the criticalmethods 'of present-day research.A life of Jesus is difficult to write evenwith the r.esources of a modern universitylibrary at one's disposal. The divergentopinions expressed in the current literatureon this subject are more perplexing thanenlightening for one who is in quest ofconsistent information about the real Jesuswho lived in Palestine nineteen hundredyears ago. He must have been a dozen ormore different persons in one, if all that issaid in the various books about Him is*Professor Case's much-assailed book IS re­viewed in the Book Section of this issue. to be accepted as Simon-pure history. Butlong ago I had arrived at the conviction thatto secure a true picture of the earthly Jesusone must go behind all the modern "Lives"and seek a better orientation in the ancientworld where Jesus himself and his earlydisciples spent their days and carried ontheir activities. In historical imaginationI lived among the people by whom Jesuswas surrounded, striving to share their feel­ings and think their thoughts, as I por­trayed him and them in vital relation tothat environment.After some three years of strenuous laborI rather timidly presented the results ofmy toil to my prospective publishers. Thiswas an anxious moment both for me andfor them. Certain questions were inev­itable. Would the book please the public?Would anybody read it? Would it sell?Printing, binding and marketing books isan expensive undertaking in these days ofthe high cost of everything. In my aca­demic seclusion while writing I had paidlittle or no attention to these practical ques­tions. I had merely told as clearly as I couldthe results of research in all the availablesources of information regarding Jesus.Whether the versatile public would like ordislike m� findings had, perhaps, been toofar from. my thoughts. And whether myTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"HELLBENT AND FOR THE HOTTEST CORNER"Professor Case was so characterized by anindignant reader of his new life of Jesus.publishers were kind to me in consentingto expose my work to the withering blastsof public opinion I leave the reader tojudge.No sooner had an announcement of thebook appeared in the daily press, with a fewexcerpts gleaned here and there fromwidely separated pages, than letters beganto pour in upon me. Some writers wereappreciative, others were inquisitive, butat the outset most of them were vocifer­ously condemnatory. Few if any of mycritics at this stage waited to read thebook. Apparently most of them wouldhave refused to read it even had it beenavailable. They knew offhand that it wasbad. Convinced that it was thoroughlyiniquitous both in design and execution,they undertook the altruistic task of per­suading me to renounce my conclusions andwithdraw the volume from circulation.Some of these irate citizens were less hope­ful that any remedial measures could beeffected at so advanced a stage of degenera­tion. They seemed to think that my condi­,tion was hopeless, and they informed mevery explicitly of my certain doom. Courtesy was thrown to the winds.Probably it was felt that the occasion wasso momentous as to permit no civility inthought or expression. An anonymous LosAngeles correspondent made haste to adviseme to take full advantage of the presentopportunity to get my "fool thoughts" be­fore the public, in view of the fact, as hesaid, "that you'll find no newspapers inHell." A New York lady the same daywrote: "Prepare to meet thy God." Alsoa Chicago gentleman who informed methat he belonged to the legal fraternity de­livered sentence in this wise: "'When theLord Jesus shall be revealed from heavenwith his mighty angels, in flaming fire, tak­ing vengeance on them that know notGod' . . . you will certainly be amongthose 'who shall be punished with ever­lasting destruction from the presence ofthe Lord' . . . unless you humbly repentof your sins and have' a complete changeof heart and mind." Another gentlemanexpressed himself more tersely : "You are/ hellbent and for the hottest corner."Other correspondents wrote in a morefriendly strain. One said, "Dear Prof.you do not know what you are doing byknocking Divinity of our Lord JesusChrist. You may think you are right butI assure you your higher mind is not yetopened, you are merely a natural man.. . . It is my duty as a Christian to adviseyou before you harm yourself." A NewYork lady was so much concerned for mywelfare that she urged me to pay her apersonal visit at as early a date as possiblein order that she might enlighten my dark­ness, since she was, according to her state­ment, "the humble servant whom Godchose to teach you facts, that isn't found inany book.", In similar temper an anon­ymous note from Nebraska read : "You hadbetter let the holley bible alone; you knowwhat the bible says will happen to onewho tries to change the word of God."These are sample quotations from a file ofcherished documents to which I turn forrefreshment whenever the ordinary routineof life grows too monotonous.If the newspapers are to be implicitlytrusted-but personally I find it very diffi­cult to believe in the infallibility of anydocuments, either ancient or modern-theinquisitive reporter was able to inducesome of the clergy to pronounce severejudgments upon my efforts. As quoted,they declared me to be "crazy" and mybook "silly" and an example of "damnableheresy." But I fain would think that suchremarks may originally have borne a hypo­thetical character not indicated in print. Itis sufficiently humiliating to have anon­ymous or inconspicuous individuals call onebad names. One hesitates to believe thatpriests and deans and bishops are willingto deliver their anathemas so cheaply.Yet I am not completely downcast. Itis true that one denominational editor towhose paper I annually subscribe has pro­nounced my work "a waste of scholarlyeffort, false in method and damaging ineffect, and with a change of the moonlikely to be forgotten." But, on the otherhand, my publishers tell me that before themoon had run through the changes of asingle month the first printing of my bookhad been exhausted and that the call for asecond printing was urgent. This situa­tion assures me that the public has decidedBOOKS 31to judge for itself on the basis of immedi­ate acquaintance with the volume.I t would give a false impression were Ito close this record of recent experienceswithout mentioning the many commenda­tory communications that I have receivedfrom both friends and strangers. May Ibe permitted a single quotation? I couldcite others more laudatory, but this one ex­presses exactly the aim of my book and isthe real basis upon which I hope it mayultimately be appraised. Professor Scottof Union Theological Seminary, writing ina recent number of The Christian Century,says: "Dr. Case is justified in entitling hisbook 'a new biography' inasmuch as he ap­proaches the subject simply as a historian.He recognizes the greatness of Jesus justas truly as many of the writers who havebeen most exuberant in vague eulogy, buthis primary object is to determine thefacts. .. . There is no lack of lives ofJesus which are written in the interest ofsome dogma or social propaganda, and�hich aim at the strengthening or weak­ening of Christian belief. It is refreshingto turn to at least one life which is con­ceived in a purely historical temper."The Chicago Translation of theOld TestamentThe Old Testament; An American Translation, by Professors J. M. PowisSmith, Theophile J. Meek, Alex R. Gordon, and Leroy Waterman, Unt'ver-st'ty of Chicago Press. 1728 pages. Cloth, $7.50; leather, $10.00WHEN Dr. Edgar J. Goodspeed's tine. The New Testament was written intranslations of the New Testament the colloquial Greek which was in use overappeared there was widespread misunder- the whole Mediterranean world after thestanding, many supposing that almost a days of Alexander. 'sacrilege had been committed. Familiarity Early translations of the whole Biblewith the so-called authorized version had were made into Latin. The Romanled them to ascribe a peculiar sanctity to Church adopted a particular Latin versionit. As a matter of fact there have been which came to be known as the Vulgate,scores of translations of the Bible and there and made it standard. This was the Biblewill be many more. known to the Middle Ages. The Renais-The Old Testament, with the exception sa nee brought back a knowledge of Greekof a few sections, was written in Hebrew, and Hebrew. It was discovered that thethe language spoken by the people of Pales- Vulgate was not completely s,atisfactory,32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETestament and the Smith translation of theOld Testament.As noted above, the New Testament waswritten in colloquial Greek, about equiva­lent to what we should call ordinary Eng­lish. It has its finer .passages but for themost part it is simple and straightforward.The mellifluous and sonorous Elizabethanliterary English gives an impression of lofti­ness which does not belong to the Greek.Dr. Goodspeed has therefore given us acharmingly simple and direct translation,widely divergent from the King James' ver­sion and its revisions, English and Ameri-can.But the Old Testament was written inclassic Hebrew. Indeed it is the whole bodyof classic Hebrew literature. It was thenoblest writing ever. produced by thatgifted people. Nothing could be a moreappropriate vehicle of translation than theglorious English of the Elizabethan period.With the change of a few expressions thathave become anachronisms the version sofar as literary quality is concerned mightand, with the interest, controversial as well / stand. Dr. Smith and his co-translatorsas devotional, which the Reformation pro- have realized this and have not essentiallyduced, there was demand for a translation changed the flavor of the 16 II version.of the Bible into the common tongue. � � �Tyndale made the first English transla- But there were some weighty reasonstion of the New Testament from the Greek, for a new translation of the Old Testa­and of part of the Old Testament from the ment. The scientific study of Hebrew wasHebrew. During the latter part of the in its infancy in the sixteenth century.sixteenth century several complete transla- While Arabic and Syriac were known, thetions appeared. That there might be uni- great cognate languages of Babylonia andformity of use a learned committee was ap- Assyria were locked up in the cuneiformpointed by King James I to review the tablets which were still buried in the an­current translations and produce the best cient ruins. The knowledge of Hebrew ispossible Bible in English. This was com- immeasurably superior today. This in­pleted in 1611 and hence bears the name volves the meanings of words, and gram-of this very insignificant king. matical and syntactical construction.The 1611 version was the outcome of More important still is the improvedthe greatest period of English literature. knowledge of what the writers actuallyHence the beauty and nobility of style of wrote-the text, as the scholars call it.this classic. The translators, while of Ancient Hebrew was written only with con­course concerned to reproduce the original sonants and a few indications of vowels.sense, were under a kind of necessity to The complete vowel system was not de­present this in the finest English style. veloped until nine hundred years after theThis was more appropriate for the Old last part of the Old Testament was written.Testament than for the New. And here is Suppose Caesar had written Latin withoutthe explanation of the difference between vowels, his Omnia Gallia est divisa ap­the Goodspeed translation of the New pearing as OMNI GLLI ST DVS: andTRANSLATOR-IN-CHIEFProfessor J. M. Powis Smith of the DivinitySchool has edited the Chicago Translation ofthe Old Testament.suppose this had been copied by a scribeand that copy after forty years had beencopied again, and so on until a score ofcopies intervened between the last and thefirst. Then suppose that the correct read­ing of the vowels had come down by oraltradition, until a scribe in the time of Wil­liam the Conqueror invented vowel signsto put between the consonants. Then letthe copying process with the vowels go onfor the centuries from William till today.Then suppose all previous copies to be lostand only those made in this century tobe preserved. Is it not evident that wecould not be perfectly sure what Caesaractually wrote? No less a time and con­dition than that separates the oldest Hebrewmanuscript of the Old Testament from theearliest prophetic writings.A new science has developed for the.treatment of' this problem, known as text­ual criticism. The most painstaking careand the highest technical skill are requiredto determine the most probably correct text.The Chicago translators have been cau­tious in the matter of changing the standardHebrew text, but they have made use ofthe best emendations wherever that textwas manifestly wrong.There is still another modern aspect ofOld Testament knowledge which has madea new translation desirable. It has becomeevident that a much larger body of the ma­terial is poetry than was formerly supposed.The strophic structure was frequently usedby the prophets. Manifestly poetry cannotbe translated as if it were prose with eitheraccuracy or feeling. Moreover it mustbe printed in the forms appropriate to po­etry if the English reader is to understandit.Whle part of this knowledge was avail­able to the English translators who com­pleted their revision in 1885 and a greaterpart to the' American translators who com­pleted their revision 1901, very notable ad­vance has been made in this last quarterof a century.Moreover it must be remembered thatthese were revisors, appointed to make nec­essary changes in a standard version, suchchanges only to be made by a preponderat-BOOKS 33ing vote of the large committee. Such acondition makes for caution and generalagreement, but a genuine translation de­mands more freedom. The great versionof 1611 rests on the individual work ofTyndale, Coverdale and others.Therefore it was time to make a newtranslation with the best resources of schol­arship and with the best individual ability.The editor of this greatwork is ProfessorJ. M. Powis Smith. He was a disciple ofthat great Hebraist, President W. R. Har­per, with whom he worked for years in thepreparation of the noted commentaries onAmos and Hosea. Since that time Dr.Smith has prepared the critical commenta­ries on several others of the minor Prophets.He is editor of the American Journal ofSemitic Languages. No more competentHebrew scholar could have been chosen .Not less important he has a fine commandof English style, so he was admirably equip­ped for his task. In addition to editingthe whole work, he translated the Psalms,Ecclesiastes, and the minor Prophets. Heassociated with himself Professor Alex R.Gordon of Montreal, who translated Prov­erbs and the major Prophets; ProfessorTheophile J. Meek of the University ofToronto, who translated the Pentateuch,J oshua, Judges, Ruth, Song of Songs, andLamentations; and Professor Leroy Water­man of the University of Michigan, whotranslated the remainder of the historicalbooks.As an indication of the clarity of thenew translation we may make a few com-parisons. .Take the picture of old age likened to adweller in a house in Eccles. 12.3,4. The161 I version printed in prose form reads:In the day when the keepers of the houseshall tremble, and the strong men shallbow themselves, and the grinders cease be­cause they are few, and those that look outof the windows be darkened.And when the doors shall be shut in thestreets, when the sound of the grinding islow, and he shall rise up at the voiceof the bird, and all the daughters of musicshall be brought low.34 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe Chicago version is printed in poeticform and is also more intelligible:In the day when the guardians of the housetremble,And the strong men are bent,And the grinding maids cease because theyare few,And the ladies peering through the windowsbe darkened,And the doors into the street are closed;When the sound of the mill is low,And one rises at the sound of the bird,And all songs sound low even when in hightones.The last line is awkward and heavy but itis the best rendition the translator couldmake of the Hebrew. To write Englishpoetry equivalent to Hebrew poetry is noteasy. At all events we get the picture ofthe deaf old man who can scarcely heareven high singing. The authorized versionsounds very pretty but it means nothing.There are many improvements in thetranslation of the Proverbs. The 161 1versions reads Provo 25:11-13 as follows:A word fitly spoken is like apples ofgold in pictures of silver. As an earring of gold and an ornamentof fine gold, so is a wise reprover upon anobedient ear.As the cold of snow in the time of har­vest, so is a faithful messenger to them thatsend him; for he refresheth the soul of hismaster.Chicago VersionLike apples of gold in a setting of carvedsilverIs a word that is aptly spoken ..Like an earring of gold, or a necklace offine gold,Is a wise man's reproof on a listening ear.Like a, draught of snow-cooled water inthe time of harvestIs a faithful messenger to those who sendhim:He refreshes the spirit of his master.Note how perfectly clear is the senseof .the Chicago version, whereas the 161 Itranslation causes one to stop and considerwhat may be the meaning. Note also howprinting the lines in our poetic fashion givesI the feeling of poetic quality. On the otherhand it is evident that the 1611 versionOrder Your Copy ofStagg'sTOUCHDOWN$ 2.60 Postpaid from theu. of C. Bookstore5802 Ellis Ave.BOOKS 35TOUCHDOWNlThe completestory of the threeheroic attempts toscale the world'shighest mountain."Why not put Sir FrancisYounghusband's thrillingbook on the list of non-fic­tion best sellers? Few booksso well deserve it," says THENEW YORK HERALD­TRIBUNE. 320 pages. Withillustrations. $3.As Told byCoach Amos Alonzo Staggto Wesley Winans StoutFrom "Pigskin" to "Galloping Ghosts" -From Chap­ter One to Chapter Fourteen-TOUCHDOWN is anintensely interesting and thoroughly human narrative.I t is the story of the birth and development of thegreat American game of football ... told, as thoughyou were in his presence, by a man who knows thehistory of every famous playas well as the "why"of every rule of the game.Whether you know much or little about football you willenjoy TOUCHDOWN, and you will enjoy any future gamesmuch more than you have those you have seen in the past.End on the first All-American football team ever picked-one of the earliest football coaches in America-devel­oper of famous heroes of the game-Coach Stagg of theUniversity of Chicago knows football. Read his com­plete story in TOUCHDOWN which is illustratedwith an abundance of pictures of famous playersand historic games.You are missing much if you see,or read about, another foot­ball game before ,),ou readTOUCHDOWN THEEPICOF MT.EVERESTBy SIR FRANcrsYOUNGHUSIlAND.The price of TOUCHDOWN is $2.50'If your bookseller is temporarily out ofstock, ask him to order your copy; orsend your order direct to us. (Carriage10 cents extra.) . THE BROTHERHOODOF THE SEA 'By E. KEBLE CHATTERTTrue stories of daring sea rescues, fromsailing days to the gallant exploit of theS. S. "Roosevelt" in 1926. 240 pages.With illustrations. $3.50.Inquire First of Your BooksellerONGMANS, GREEN AND CO.Publishers Since 1724 (At the Sign of the Ship)55 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK, N. Y.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEis greatly superior in rhythmical quality.This is undoubtedly a loss, perhaps necessi­tated by fidelity to the original. There issomething to be said however for translat­ing rhythm by rhythm. The sensitive­ness of the Elizabethans to the musicalquality of language is what has given ourEnglish Bible its beauty.This is very clear in the most familiarof the Psalms. The Chicago version givesfar more clearly the pictures of the shep­herd life in Palestine. But it has no rhythmat all, except where the old version isretained. Undoubtedly the King Jamesrevisers very often sacrificed sense forsound.One wonders if both could have been re­tained.The Lord is my shepherd: I shall notwant;In green meadows he makes me lie down;To refreshing waters he leads me.He gives me new life.He guides me in safe paths, for his fame'ssake.Even though I walk in the darkest valley,I fear no harm; for thou art with me.Thy rod and thy staff-they comfort me'.Thou layest a table before me in the pres-ence of my enemies.Thou anointest my head with oil; my cupoverflows.Only goodness and grace shall follow me allthe days of my life;And I shall dwell in the home of the Lorddown to old age.The narrative portion of the Old Testa­ment are often greatly illuminated by abetter translation of a phrase, the emenda­tion of an obscure passage, the vivid rendi­tion into a more modern English style.Conversation printed as such, proper para­graphing, and modern punctuation add verymuch to the ease of reading and to theunderstanding of these matchless stories.Space does not allow extended quotationfrom the prose narrations.To illustrate the important aspect of thetranslation involved in emendation of thetext we may take the dirge-like songof Hosea. The prophet is pronouncingthe irreparable ruin of Israel (Ephraim). In the 16 II version Hosea 9: I 3 reads:Ephraim, as I saw Tyrus, is planted ina pleasant place; but Ephraim shall bringforth his children to the murderer.Professor Smith redistributes the conso­nants, which he considers have become mis­placed and translates:"As I foresaw, Ephraim's sons must becomea prey,Ephraim must bring out his sons to theslaugh ter."This is good sense, the former meansnothing.Another example is Deborah's song.This splendid battle ode, one of the mostancient fragment of Hebrew poetry hasgreatly suffered in the transmission of thetext. Judges 5:2 I states the destructionof the enemy by the sudden rise of the river.The I 6 I I version reads:The river of Kishon swept them away,that ancient river, the river Kishon.o my soul, thou hast trodden downstrength.The last sentence is unmeaning, for theHebrews had so far done nothing in theTouchdown!Touchdown!We want a Touchdown!For it's a $2.50 seat on thefifty yard line to see the gameof football thru forty yearsas the Grand Old Man alonecan tell it in his Touchdown.Today-We gladlysing the praise!It's New!The University of ChicagoSong Book - - Your Chicagosongs - - Big Ten songs, Black­friar hits, The Alma Mater --$2.00 worth of Musical JoyWOODWORTH'SYour University Book Store1311 E. 57th St. Open Nightsbattle. With a slight change of the textDr. Meek reads:The river Kishon swept them away;A river barring the way was the riverKishon..Bless thou, my soul, the might of the Lord.The University Press has done a superbpiece of work in the making of the book.The page looks like literature. One readseasily and with satisfaction. The headingsand various indications of the divisions ofthe material which have been made by the'BOOKS 37translators are clearly indicated in thetype.This is a notable achievement, highlycreditable to the scholarship of the trans­lators and to the enterprise of the Press.I t will greatly aid in the understanding ofthe Old Testament. Even where for litur­gical or devotional purposes one may preferto use the more familiar version, a compari­son with the Chicago translation will throwa flood of light upon the meaning.THEODORE GERALD SOARESA Modern Historian's.Idea of JesusJesus: A New B£ography, by Professor Shirley Jackson Case. Universityof Chicago Press. 453 pages. $3.00THIS volume by Professor Case, themost recent in his notable series ofresearches in the problems connected withthe rise of early Christianity, represents notonly all that historical scholarship has pro­duced in this field up to the present timebut also the author's own work at its best.By his brilliant use of all the resources thathave been made available by the social andreligious sciences in recent years ProfessorCase has shed new light on the old problemsat every step of the way and pushed outthe horizons of the field of research inChristian origins so far in advance of cur­rent New Testament scholarship that hiswork is really unique.Of lives of Jesus there are legion. It isneither in ignorance of them nor with in­difference to them that the present volumehas been written, but in recognition of theshortcomings. An analysis of the past at­tempts is made in this book. There were,first of all, the ancient lives of Jesus, knownto us as the four gospels, which have beenincorporated in the sacred canon of thechurch; but, strange to say, they offer verylittle information about his life. They areoccupied almost entirely with speculationabout the person and significance of Jesusthat grew up in the church after his death. Each of these gospels, moreover, reflectsthe particular religious interests of thatphase of church life which produced it.The dominating influence in the productionof the gospels, in each case, was not theeffort to write a scientifically reliable his­torical account of .Jesus, but to produce adocument that would serve the religiousneeds of the church of the time. Thewriters were familiar with the needs of thereligious life but knew little about scien­tific historical research. The present biog­rapher of Jesus must distinguish the factsabout Jesus, imbedded there from the ad­ditions of later devotional speculation.This is not the first attempt to get backto the historical Jesus. A century and ahalf of brilliant research has prepared theway for the present book; but these efforts,valuable as they have been, have been im­paired either by various dogmatic presup­positions or by lack of the modern social 'and religious sciences Noone has everattempted to write a life of Jesus with sucha wealth of resources at his command aswere available for Professor Case at thistime. Working with the deliberate ob­jectivity of an experienced historian, Pro­fessor Case has reconstructed the life ofPalestine of that day and restored to itthe man Jesus as he lived with his con­temporaries. Those facts contained in theTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINErecords which :fit into the environment inwhich Jesus lived are accepted as authentic,those which do not are rejected. Thisenvironmental test of material is the dis­tinctive feature of Professor Case's method.Jesus lived in the little village of N az­areth as the child of Joseph, who, in addi­tion to the usual religious instruction, taughthim the carpenter's trade. The practice ofhis trade and the ordinary duties of lifeprobably brought Jesus into contact withthe important commercial city of Sepphorisnear his home, with its large element offoreign population, and with the nearbycity of J apha, In this way he received abroadening influence which characterizedhis later teaching.About the time of his maturity Jesus wasattracted by the :fiery preaching of Johnand became one of his disciples. At hisbaptism he became conscious of his propheticmISSIon. He began at once to preach thatGod was about to set up his apocalypticalKingdom and that men must repent and getready for it. The way Jesus ignored theirmethods and denounced their calloussuperficiality caused him to incur theviolent hatred of the religious leaders ofhis day; and at their instigation he wascrucified by the Romans on the' charge ofbeing an insurrectionist.But the charge was false. Jesus didnot advocate revolution against the Romanoppressors of his country. He resentedtheir presence and longed to see his countryfree again '; but he knew the futility of re­volt. The experience of the city of Sep­phoris near his home, which was crushedmercilessly when it revolted, had taught himthe wisdom of a non-military attitude. Hebelieved, rather, that God himself wasgoing to intervene for his people and drivethe oppressors away. God would revealthe Messiah from heaven, with a marvelousmanifestation of divine power and glory,who would drive out the Romans and setup the Kingdom of God in Palestine. Jesuspreached that the time was at hand. Godwas ready to manifest his power. He wouldbring about all this transformation alone, through the agency of the Messiah sentfrom heaven. There would be no militaryoperations on the part of the Jews. Theirsole duty was to repent of their sins. Whenthey had transformed their lives by repent­ance the Kingdom would come.Jesus preached that God's agent in thetransformation would be his Messiah onthe clouds of heaven; but he did not identi­fy himself with this heavenly figure. Hedid not consider himself the Messiah in anysense. He considered himself a prophet,in the same sense as the Jewish prophets ofold had ever thought of themselves. Therole had by no means disappeared in Jesus'day. Jesus enjoyed an unusual conscious­ness of the presence of God and felt anintense obligation to his fellowmen. Thiswas his personal religion. This constitutedthe religion also which he taught his dis­ciples. He did not teach that he was ,theMessiah in any sense, that he was theson of God in a unique way, or that hisdisciples should worship him. The super­human and messianic features of the heaven­ly Christ of that church, exalted to theright hand of God, where he had for­merly resided as that pre-existent Logos, arethe creation of the devotional speculationabout Jesus after his death. The variousstages. in the elaborate christology arose'out of the needs of the beginning churchin competition with Judaism, which haddisowned the movement, and in its questfor new converts in a Gentile world.The great service of Professor Case isthat he- has liberated us from the specula­tions about Jesus, that have made it im­possible for the world to see him as hereally lived. He has shown us Jesus againas a religious person. We see Jesus hereas he had to grapple with the problems ofhis day and struggle for his own faith justas all other human beings have ever done.This book is thorough but not pedanticor tedious. Its dearness and vigor of stylemake it readable from beginning to end.And the excellence of the research has beenemphasized by the quality of workmanshipwhich the Press has attained in printing it.SELBY VERNON MCCASLANDRevolutionsTIle Natural History of Revolution, by Lyford Edsoards, '05, A. M. '17,Ph. D. '19. University of Chicago Press. 229 pages. $3.00the microscope. This study shows vivid­ly that historical facts, when treated in thisfashion, become sociological. When his­torical facts are treated in this fashion wecease to appreciate them and begin to un­derstand them. Men feared the eruptionof volcanoes long before they began totake the pains to study the causes and proc­esses underlying these spectacular naturalphenomena. There have, of course, beennumerous theories advanced to account forrevolutions, but there has never appeared-at least as far as this reviewer knows­an adequate, objective study of revolutionas a natural event. .Professor Edwards finds it not only pos­sible to study the French, the American, theIrish and the Russian revolutions compara­tively, but he proves that such a comparativestudy makes each of these events more intel-THERE are two groups of scientistswho will undoubtedly be shocked bythe title, if not the contents, of this littlebook. The physical and biological scientistswill probably ask in astonishment, "Sincewhen have the sociologists taken up thewriting of natural histories?" The histori­cally minded students of culture on the oth­er hand will in all probability exclaim, "Anatural history of revolution-there isn'tany such animal!"What Professor Edwards has done inthis study is the beginning of a new kindof treatment of historical materials. Hetakes the unique, colorful, individual factsof history out of their setting in timeand space in about the same fashion thatthe botanist collects specimens of plantsfrom the countryside and carries them tohis laboratory, where he puts them. underThe NewU of C. Songbook1927 EditionNow ReadyAll the Good Chicago Songs, Popular BlackfriarsSongs, Alma Maters of the Big 10, MarchingSongs of the Big 10Unusually Beautiful Edition with gold backand jacketOnly $2.10 PostpaidPublished and For Sale byThe U. of C. Bookstore5802 Ellis Ave.40 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEligible than if they were studied as separateand unrelated accidents of history. Butin order to get an adequate understandingof revolutions the author has found it nec­essary to search deeper than is customaryamong journalists or even serious-mindedhistorians. What the layman recognizes asa revolution seems to be merely the lastspectacular stage of the aftermath of arevolution which has taken place a genera­tion or two previous.This book shows that there are revolu­tions in the past and now in progress thatare just as fundamental and as thoroughlyrevolutionary in their effects as the mostviolent political upheavals of history. Tomost of these no one ever objects becauseof most of these no one is ever consciousat the time. .One problem with which this book dealsin an illuminating way is the problem ofdiagnosing a revolutionary situation. Whatare the symptoms of a revolutionary so­ciety? What is the role of the conservative,of the radical? What is the "reign of ter­ror ?" When does it arise and what func­tion does it serve? Why do our Central American neighbors suffer from chronicrevolutionitis? Can a revolution be a­verted? These and many other vital ques­tions are raised-if not answered in thisbook. And Professor Edwards has a wordto say to the descendants of the revolutionof 1776, some of whom seem to be con­vinced that the revolution in which theirprogenitors fought was the only violentpolitical upheaval that was ever justifiedand must therefore be the 1ast revolution.Whether Professor Edwards has made asound diagnosis of the revolutionary symp­toms in American society is a question thatthe history of the future will finally answer.At any rate he has indicated what otherprocesses of social change are available andpossible.As Professor Park expresses it in hisintroduction to the volume, this study willthrow light not merely on revolutions, buton fashions, revivals, panics and related phe­nomena, and is likely, therefore, to pointout new approaches to the scientific under­standing of collective behavior.LOUIS WIRTHThe Biographer of President Burtonand His BiographyErnest De Witt Burton, by Thomas Wakefield Goodspeed. U nz'versity ofChz'cago Press. 93 pages. $3.00THE official biography of PresidentBurton has an altogether unique in­terest because it is the work of Dr. T. W.Goodspeed, historian of the University ofChicago. More than any other man nowliving, Dr. Goodspeed is an embodiment ofthat history; for from the very beginningmagna pars fuit. He was a student inthe Old University of Chicago and thefinancial secretary of the Theological Sem­inary which became the Divinity School ofthe University. He was the first to call Mr.Rockefeller's attention to the need for agreat educational institution in Chicago,and the first, also, to urge William RaineyHarper to become President of the newUniversity. When the institution became a reality Dr. Goodspeed served as Secretaryof the Board of Trustees for nearly twen­ty-three years, until his voluntary retire­ment from active service at the age ofseventy.Almost immediately, however, Dr. Good­speed discovered that he had retired onlyto be free for a very different kind ofwork. President Judson requested him towrite the history of the University that hehad helped to create, and in 1916 this vol­ume, a great royal octavo of five hundredpages, was published as a [estschrijt in hon­or of the quarter centennial of the U ni­versity. Thus in his seventy-fourth year,after a normal lifetime full of unusual ac­tivity, Dr. T. W. Goodspeed broke intoliterature. In 1925, when the Burton ad­ministration was at full tide, Dr. Goodspeedbrought the history of the University up todate in his familiar and informal Storyof the University of Chicago.During the interim he had published,from time to time, biographical sketches ofmany generous friends of the University,including such well-known Chicagoans asMarshall Field, Gustavus F. Swift, LaVerne Noyes, John Crerar, Charles L.Hutchinson, Adolphus Clay Bartlett, andmany others. His original plan had beento prepare brief formal statements con­cerning each one that could be ·filed in theUniversity archives for future reference.But he found his task so congenial, hismaterials so abundant and full of interestthat in the end he produced a series of veryextended accounts of these friends of theUniversity. Thus the historian became thebiographer and two large volumes of hisSketches have appeared, again in royal oc­tavo size. To this notable series is nowadded the Biographical Sketch of ErnestDe Witt Burton, separately published, asit deserves to be, for it is eminently thebest of the series.To write the biography of such a manas President Burton is itself a task de­manding genius. His character was soabove reproach, his abilities were altogetherso unusual, his interests were so varied andwide-ranging, and his actual accomplish­ments so utterly amazing, that it is diffi­cult to render them due and proportionateappreciation. With great skill Dr. Good­speed simplified his very complex problemby organizing his materials in two almostequal chapters; one dealing with "The FirstFifty Years" -for all its length a period ofpreparation throughout-and the other de­voted to "His Larger Life," the nineteenyears of achievement with their astoundingfinale.The story of Dr. Burton's educationalcareer is a continuous one extending overmore than sixty years and covering his lifeas pupil and teacher. It begins in a littleschool in Akron, Ohio, where his father wasBOOKS 41Save Your Eyes�ro�. E. L. Eaton, University of Wis., says:It. is a JOY t.o read a book oj any size resting easi­ly en a rocking chan. Thousands will now havea new joy reading while resting."InsuresCorrectPostureTheEyesoftheWorldNeedItAtlasta Lonsr Felt Human Want is Filled by the Invention of thisGreat Necessity-Dr. Farrington's PortableReading Table for the LapConserves and Prolongs theLIFE OF YOUR EYESHere is the helper you have always needed. It savesyour eyes ·-conserves your energy - permits concert-�::�?�gV;�� ::;;���t;b���� �1�g��1���:er��di�o:t;!a�:ter ,typewriter, writing materials,etc. ,a tjus t the �i ghtangle to insure correct vision,regardlessofposition.SIT RIGHT - READ RIGHT-FEEL RIGHTThink what this means! Comfort,cn iovmenti.jrrea ter menbal and ouv­sical energies. Greater facilitv [)1'mechanics of reading or wri irtg ,Genuine relaxation. 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D. if desiredYou couldn't buy Amore practicalgift than the Farrlngton.lt'slight{less than 44 ozs.) handy, durable.portable, collausibte and instant­ly adjustable to any position. Size12x18 i nchee, folds to one incb.Should last a uteume,21 W. ElmDept. UC-lChicago,Illinois42 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEpastor, and ends in the Presidency of theUniversity. In reading that story it isfascinating to note the way in which in­fluences and tendencies that were operativein his youth carne to full fruition in hismatured manhood. His early facility' incomprehending Greek idioms made him aNew Testament lexicographer and inter­preter par excellence. His interest as astudent in library work and library build­ings made him in the end the Director ofthe University Libraries and the creator ofbuilding and development plans for theUniversity. His acute disappointment atbeing unable to become a missionary latersent him twice to the Far East as chair­man of important educational commissions.His championship of the principle of elec­tive studies and his work on curriculum atNewton fitted him to become the trustedadvisor of President Harper and later ofPresident Judson in the determination oftheir educational policies. In this way hewas equipped to become their inevitable suc­cessor as President of the University. The most vivid paragraphs in the Burtonbiography are those dealing with the "glori­ous two years" of his presidency. Here theauthor enables his readers to see the Presi­dent's complete absorption in his great taskand to feel the "thrill of new life" thatwent through every department of the in­stitution in response to that stimulus. Ofcourse the story ends in tragedy; collapse,agony, death. But the President's bearingthrough it all was so magnificent as tomake the story an inspiring one to the veryend.The reader who gives himself to thisvolume will be glad to know that at thepresent time the author is preparing a bi­ography of Dr. Burton's predecessor andfriend, William Rainey Harper. In thePreface to the last volume of his Biographi­cal Sketches Dr. Goodspeed wrote: "Thisis only one volume of a continuing series.If the author lives to be a hundred yearsold it is not impossible that he may him­self write Volume IlL" May that idealbe realized! HAROLD R. WILLOUGHBY.Mr. Sta'gg's MemoriesTouchdown, as told by Amos Alonzo Stagg to Wesley Winans Stout.New York: Longmans GreenS? Company. 352 pages. $2.50.EVERYone who has ever played foot­ball will enjoy "Touchdown," as thecompilation of the magazine articles ofProfessor A. A. Stagg is entitled Everyone who has felt and lived football willfind the old emotions stirring in him againas he peruses his pages. To him the bookwill have a meaning and a significance thatthose who had only watched from the side­lines probably will not understand.It seems a pity that with his immensestock of personal experience to draw uponProfessor Stagg has been content to quoteso much from other authorities. Whilemany of the anecdotes and the conclusionswhich he credits to others are interesting,the pages which deal with the doings of thegreat coach and his pupils are far more so.To an old time Chicago player they revive memories which both thrill and amuse. Thepages which are devoted to the developmentof the game from the original English Rug­by appear dull in comparison to those whichdeal with the doings of men who are stillup and doing, and one regrets that Pro­fessor Stagg did not give us more of rem­iniscence and less of encyclopedic treatise.To those who do not know Stagg inti­mately the book: which he has issued willbe something of a revelation. To my mindone of the high spots is his description of thesuffering which he underwent when hefound two of the men he had trusted wereshirkers on the football field in a gamewhich meant everything to the collegewhich they should have loved. The inci­dent he relates occured in the Michigan­Chicago game of 1903, in which I playedfor the first time against the Ann Arborteam. The players on the team saw thesame things that Stagg saw and were movedby them much as he was, but it was not un­til the publication of his story that we wereaware he had suffered because of them.Professor Stagg expounds in a masterfulway what football means to theman whoplays the game for its own sake. The factthat he has done so cannot help but improvethe game and the men who play it. ItBOOKS 43is the best answer to the critics of the sportthat has yet been made.Every man who has ever handled the pig­skin will find much of interest in Stagg'sbook. Those who played the game at Chi­cago cannot afford to miss reading it. Itwill be their hope that it will have a sequel. which will be even more intimate thanthe chapters devoted to football at the Mid­way.WALTER H. ECKERSALLExperiment with a Young ManDeath of a Young Man, by W. L. River, '25. New York: Simon&9 Schuster. 206 pages. $2.00YOUR doctor has told you that youhave only a year to live. What areyour reactions? How do you choose tospend your time, now that it is so scarce anarticle? How does the world look to you?How does it feel to be doomed?David Bloch, a student at the University,found himself in this predicament, andasked himself these questions. To answerthem, he kept a journal-and behold, LeslieRiver's first novel.To answer these questions was David'smain concern, when the doctor pronouncedhis doom. The news did not grieve him;it only made him curious. He experi­mented with the new situation. He treatedit somewhat as a play staged for his en­joyment. He took M., a girl, he knew,for a walk through Jackson Park and bythe Lake, intending to break the news there;then he decided that the picture would befiner if he told her on a sunny day.An older friend told him, "Things willburn for you with a terrible brilliance,David, for a year; like all the fires of lifecaught in a single crystal. Lips will bemore eager, wine will be sweeter than everbefore, David. Drink a deep draught anddie." David drank, but not bottoms-up. Itwas not that he didn't love life. The duneson a bright day, the smell of a summergarden, or the wind gently blowing a girl'shair over her face, meant as much to Davidas to the rest' of us. He liked even theLincoln Gardens at Thirty-first Street,where drunken black couples swayed underdim red lights to the chords of King Oliver'sband. Once he wanted to live in what heconsidered an eventful place, that part oftown where squalid I talian families dozedand scolded and ate ravioli. But Davidwanted more than anything else to studyhimself. And in studying himself, he dis­covered that all these other desires led tounnecessary bother. He found a short-cut.He pictured to himself, for instance, "asummer garden laughing with music abovethe grape blue banks above the Rhine,"and was as pleased as if he had been there.Why take the trouble to go, then? Whynot stay at home, and devote the time to-studying himself?Presently he found other strange factsabout himself. He found that he wantedto destroy. He was not malicious, or cruel.He was only eager sometimes for the sensa­tion that certain destructive acts would give44 THE UNIV�RSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEADVENTURERW. L. River, '25, tries a new kind of novel.The University is its background.him, or the picture they would make forhim. It seemed to him that he had alreadycommitted such an act, and that the policewere after him.He found, at last, that he wanted todo another thing, more than all the rest.He feared it, but he could not escapeit. He might have gratified every other de­sire; but he made himself forget them all,and thought only of this. His doctor hadbeen right. Bloch was doomed to die­but not of any bodily disease.A novel that forecasts its end at its be­ginning is an experiment worth making.I t is free from certain inconveniences thathandicap novels. Neither author, norreader, nor any of the characters need worryabout the outcome of the story. Suspenseseldom enters to cloud the issue. Bloch,who. tells the story, writes chiefly abouthimself. The other characters are vague(though some of them bear the names ofthe author's classmates); we learn littlemore than Bloch's impressions of them. Hisconversations with them are punctuatedsimply with dashes; quotation marks are re- served for the report of Bloch's privatethoughts-his real conversations. The set­ting comes to our attention only as it helpsBloch to express himself. "The green hol­lows of the. Midway," where children playin the spring; the Lake "where the wavesfar off flicked white on the horizon;" theUniversity's "great Gothic stones thattumble silently into the sky;" the smell ofleaves burning in the fall, are but the lan­guage with which Bloch tells us what iswithin his mind. The prettiest scenes inthe book are those that he imagines outright.The most vivid scene-the pier in JacksonPark-is a symbol of the force inside Blochthat finally conquers him. The externalincidents are mere shadows-except Bloch'spredicted death, which turns out to be noexternal incident at all.A new kind of character, unbothered bythe practical concerns of life or by any forceoutside himself, can grow up in such abook. The author, freed from the prob­lems of plot, can give all his care to theportrayal of this character. We, with noextraneous matter to block our gaze, cansee the character clearly.A price must be paid, of course, forthese advantages. The record of a man'sfeelings and thoughts alone has its weak­nesses as a revelation of the man. To un­derstand a human being, we must knowmany things about him. His thoughtsthrow a, great deal of light on him; butthey do not tell the whole story. Otherdata are necessary: his actions in the face ofvarious problems, his choice of two alterna­tives, his ways of accomplishing variousends, near and remote. Give a man a yearto live and a diary to write, and you haveruled out an important body of data.River's experiment has succeeded. It hasshown us, like every great experiment,wherein its plan must fail. It has shownus (and on this point many experimentsare silent) wherein the plan will work.A. H. X.�"������������������"�"""""""��� m:bc mtnibcrsitp of C!Cbicago ;i$laga?inc �� Editor and Business Manaaer, ALLEN HEALD, '26 �� Advertising Manaaer, CHARLES E. HAYES, '27 )-� EDITORIAL BOARD: Commerce and Administration Association-DoNALD P. BEAN '"If> '17; Divinity Association-C. T. HOLMAN, D. B., '16; Doctors' Association-D. i c'J� FISHER, '17, Ph.D., 'zz; Law Association-CHARLES F. McELROY, A.M., '06, ]. D., '15; )( School of Education Association-LILLIAN STEVENSON, 'ZI; Rush Medical Association- �,� MORRIS FISHBEIN, 'II, M.D., 'IZ. J����������������������UU�UU����ef7e:A(_TS E? COMMeJ\([SIX books-all products of the Univer­sity-are reviewed in this issue. Threeembody the results of scholarship: a care­ful weighing of all the evi­dence, old and new, bearingup 0 n various subjects-t h etranslation of the Old Testa-A MakerofBooksment, the life of Jesus, thecharacteristics of revolutions. Anotherbook is the life of a man who made historyfor the University. Another records therecollections of a man who has made his­tory for the world of sport. Another isa novel, by an alumnus, about things thathappen, and things that might happen, atthe University.These books contain news. They reportnewly-found facts, and new interpretationsof facts, that concern the world. Thenewspapers have accorded headlines andfront-page stories to at least two books onthe list.The world is wondering about many ofthe problems on which the University isat work. The University announces itsresults to the world by means of books.President Harper, in setting forth the aimsof the new University, said, "An essentialelement is the opportunity of pub­lishing results obtained in investigation."Books are the goal of the University's re­search. The University must produce them,if it is to carryon its program of service tothe community. Books will do strange things in the nextdecade or so, from all appearances. Pro­fessor Millet's article in this issue discussesthe startling behavior of modern fiction. Hesays that novelists seem to need ink of dif­ferent colors, to distinguish conscious fromsubconscious. The future is likely to seesuch innovations in the form and in the. content of the novel. It is likely to seechanges just as startling in the form andcontent of scholarly books.The University, always a leader in themaking of books, will be among the clever­est and the bravest experimenters. TheUniversity Press has already produced newforms of beauty in typography and binding.The scholars of the University have al­ready treated their subjects in unheard-ofways. Professor Case has applied historicalcriticism to the life of Jesus-to the alarmof some of the more orthodox. Anotherinvestigator has collected case-histories onthe great human revolutions, and inquiresinto these data for knowledge of theircauses and their nature. A novelist-classof '2s-has written in an unusual form,upon a wholly new theme, and has producedsomething beautiful.The alumnus, of course, is eager to be in­formed on University affairs. He desiresthe latest reports on the University's con­tributions to the world's news. He wantsto be a step ahead of the newspapers.We refer him to the University's books.4SINDUSTRIAL LEADERS CONFER WITHEDUCATORS ON 1928 OUTLOOKMEN prominent in the industrial worldwill be the speakers at the fourthannual conference on education and in­dustry which will be held on Wednesday,October 26, at the University. The sub­ject will be "The Outlook for 1928." Atlast year's conference speakers includedVice-president Charles G. Dawes; DwightW. Morrow, of J. P. Morgan & Co.; W.S. Farish, president of the American Petro­leum Institute; Edward S. Jordan, pres­ident of the Jordan Motor Car Company,and Ernest R. Graham, of Graham, An­derson, Probst and White, architects.PROFESSOR WRIGHT REPORTS ON PACIFICRELATIONS CONFERENCETHE present Philippine government,with its locally elected legislature andpresidentially appointed governor resemblesthe government of the thirteen. Americancolonies before 1776 and is manifesting thesame source of friction.This was the consensus of opinion at theInstitute of Pacific Relations held at Hono­lulu, July 15 to 29. Professor QuincyWright, political scientist at the U niver­sity and member of the Research Com­mittee in the American Group of the In­stitute, who returned lately from the Con­ference, reports that both Philippine andAmerican members of the Institute agreedthat the President of the United Statesshould appoint a commission composed ofFilipinos and Americans to reorganize thegovernment of the islands and to come tosome conclusion about the problem ofPhilippine independence."The great majority of Filipinos are.anxious for independence," said ProfessorWright, "but Americans and Filipinos at . the Institute believed that granting thePhilippines independence now would be aneconomic disaster for the archipelago. TheAmericans further believed that such amove would precipitate international com­plications of a very serious nature. TheFilipinos believed that this situation couldbe obviated by art agreement among thepowers to respect Philippine independence."The United States government hasmore or less formally pledged .itself to grantthe Philippines independence ultimately.The present confusion about the attitudeof the administration has prevented Amer­ican capital from flowing into the Philip­pines and has kept the islands from pro­gressing. The local government has notproved well fitted for regulating the islandto the satisfaction of the natives. And inAmerican Samoa, according to opinion,the naval dictatorship which has functionedthere since its annexation in 1889 has beenarbitrary, unsympathetic to native wants,and undiscerning of native needs."SOCIOLOGIST ATTACKS CHICAGO'S BAILSYSTEM"Administration of the bail system InChicago has completely broken down atmany critical points," a study made byProfessor Arthur L. Beeley and just issuedby the University Press declares. Thestudy was made and the results publishedwith the cooperation of the Chicago Com­munity Trust, as part of the Cook CountyJail Survey by Prof. Beeley, who at thetime was Professor of Social Economy atthe University."As criminal justice is at present admin­istered in Chicago, large numbers of ac­cused, but obviously dependable persons,are needlessly committed to jail; whilemany others, just as obviously undepend­able, are granted a conditional release andUNIVERSITY NOTESnever return for trial," Prof. Beeley's re­port says.Study of 170 cases of unsentenced jailprisoners indicated that 65 were needlesslyimprisoned while awaiting a verdict, whenmodified bail requirements would have in- 'sured their presence at trial. Of this group,55.4 % were ultimately acquitted; 26.2%were fined or put on probation; 9.2 % weresentenced to jail, and 9.2 % were sentencedto the reformatory or penitentiary.The study showed that the unsentencedjail population is made up largely of nativeborn, white, unmarried young men. Abouttwo thirds are under thirty-one years oldand from one-third to one-half are undertwenty-one. Contrary to expectations,they are not transients; over 90% of thosestudied had lived in Chicago more than ayear, 70% had families in Chicago, and60% were either living at home with theirfamilies or else with relatives. The as­sumption that the unsentenced prisonersare habitual offenders was also shown tobe a fallacy. Although 60% had localrecords of previous arraignments, only halfhad local records of previous convictions,and only 25 % had been sentenced to im­prisonment.Breakdown of the Chicago bail systemis due, Professor Beeley thinks, primarilyto the failure of the courts to exercise dis­cretion in regard to bail, 'and in the secondplace, to the general maladministration ofcriminal justice in the community. InChicago the amount of bail is fixed by rulefor all of the more frequent offenses solelyupon the basis of the statutory definition ofthe crime.SPECIAL TRAIN TO ILLINOIS GAMEA SPECIAL train to the Illinois-Chi­cago football game at Champaign,November 12, will be run by the HotelsWindermere, and reservations are being re­ceived by Dorothea E. Pyott, '26. Thespecial train will consist of the best Pull­man equipment.The train will leave Chicago shortlyafter 8 A.M. and will return immediately 47after the game. The exact time of leavingwill be announced when the tickets aremailed.Ticket including railroad fare, Pullman,lurich, dinner, tip for porter and ticket forgame is $12.50. Without ticket to game,the charge is $9.50. Parties of four to sixmay secure compartments or drawingrooms without extra charge.Box lunch and dinner of Windermerestandard will be served on the train.PARADISE: A LETTER FROM A RETIREDPROFESSORBlue Jacket Lodge,. Merriam, Kansas.WHEN I retired in September, 1925,I looked around to get a suitableplace in which to live. There were manyplaces from which to choose; but I supposethe fact that our son and several of mybrothers, as well as a number of U. of C.friends live in this neighborhood, was whatreally turned the balance. After months ofsearching in and around Greater KansasCity, we finally bought this souvenir of theold Indian Chief, "Charley Blue Jacket,'whose camp was at a spring a few rods outfrom our front gate. The property liesabout 10 miles west by south of KansasCity, Mo., on a good, hard road. It con­sists of 414 acres of land, three-fourths ofit blue grass with forest trees (about 70),the balance in fruit trees and vegetables,with a good 6-room house. The place hasa substantial stone wall all along the streetfront (about 600 feet), back of whichshrubs, flowers and trees are nicely banked.We think it makes a fine place in which tolive. I was too late to get my name andaddress in the last telephone directory, butit will be in the next one out. My numberis "Merriam 1365," found in the SuburbanSection of the Kansas City, Mo., Tele­phone Directory.We certainly desire to see our old U ni­versity of Chicago friends who may bepassing through, going East or West.Cordially yours,THEO L. NEFF, PH.D. '96ALUMNIOFFICERS OF THE MILWAUKEE CLUBTHE Officers of the Milwaukee Uni­versity of Chicago Alumni Clubare:Dr. Ernest W. Miller, PresidentMrs. Oscar Granger, Vice-PresidentMiss Leonie Krocer, TreasurerMiss Priscilla Taylor, Secretary, 4810Wisconsin Ave.NEW YORKERS ELECT OFFICERSTHE following have been electedOfficers of the University of ChicagoAlumni Club of New York City for the1927-28 period: .President, James M. Nicely, National·Bank of Commerce of N. Y., 31 NassauSt., New York City.Vice-President, LeRoy Campbell, 32Franklin St., New York City.Secretary-Treasurer, George S. Leisure,50 Broadway, N ew York City.CHAS. M. STEELE,Chairman of Election CommitteeVICTIM OF CHINESE WAR RECOVERS;PERSISTSNo DOUBT most of Anna E. Mof­fet's friends read of her being shotduring the Nanking looting on Marchtwenty-fourth, but I wonder whether de­tails of her experience and news of herrecovery ever reached them.She was breakfasting with two com­panions, Raymond Kepler and MiriamNull, both teachers in the Mission schools,when a Canton soldier entered and de- AFFAIRSmanded money. Angered by Anna's havingno money or jewelry on her person and per­haps knowing that she was the station treas­urer he commenced firing with his rifle,shooting her first through the leg and thenthrough the abdomen, the bullet passingout through the hip bone. As Mr. Keplerdrew her into the next room she directedhim to get out something over a thousanddollars. the mission funds which she had onhand, and with that the looter left. Mr.Kepler and Miss Null went for help butwere prevented from returning so that itwas some time before Anna was found bya Chinese friend and hidden under a stackof straw until ten-thirty that evening.Then Chinese students escorted by Cantonofficials took her to Nanking Universitywhere all foreigners were being collected.Mission doctors there dressed her woundsand gave her a sedative to insure sleep and"to stop her cheerful tongue from wag­ging." The next day she was put aboarda warship and taken to Shanghai. An op­eration was necessary to clean out herwounds, but after that her convalescencewas rapid.Today she is playing golf and climbingmountains in U nzen, Japan-still studyingChinese however, for she intends to returnto Shanghai, and later on to start all overagain in Nanking, if conditions there per­mit. If she hasn't worn them out mountain­climbing, she may take back with her apair of tan oxfords which constituted heronly possession when she left Nanking;everything she owned was stolen by thelooters and the clothing she was wearingduring that day under the straw was onlyfit to be cut off and destroyed when herwounds were finally dressed.Sincerely, Anna Moffet's sister,HELEN MOFFET HULING EX '20NE\vS OF THEQUADRANGLESBy ANDREW JOHNSON, '28"How are you? Cha have a good sum-mer?""Yep, how about you?""Great. So long.""So long."The few weeks past, noon time hasfound the front of Cobb a seething whirl­pool in which club girls, the bargain hunt­ing spirit floating high, churned about look­ing for this girl or that, that they mightfirst take her to lunch and then, her brainfogged with food, impress upon her thevalue of this or that club in preference tothe others. So much energy is expendedin the process that a vital difference wouldseem to exist. A campus sage, a year or soback, after having speculated upon thisannual market scene for four years, defineda girl's club as an organization in whichthose who own cars take the rest to lunch.The sage has passed quietly on his way, butthere still remains the problem of findingsome justification for the struggle.Similarly, over in the fraternity rows,forty strong-armed men gather about onelittle freshman, who is wishing for nothingbut a good night's sleep, and whisper intohis ear the vicious practices of the boys inthe house next door. Then he hears longlists of the great men that have arisen inthis hallowed organization-irrefutableevidence that it is but necessary for him toaccept the button to achieve fame. Thisyear one house points with pride to itsslaughter of twenty-two ex-high schoolfootball captains while another raises itsnose and remarks that it got the only goodfreshmen (six in number) entering school.But in all the houses the boys, their eyesdully hanging in black pockets after manynights' entertaining, crawl wearily into bedand sigh with relief that it is all over. If anyone, however, is skeptical of the valueof the feverish fight over freshmen, he care­fully conceals his doubts. To be at oddswith the popular mind would be to be anoutcast.Though school is but one week old, itappears as though we already have a bigman on campus. As he dashes haggardlyacross campus the freshmen look admiringlyafter him. He may be only on his way totalk an instructor into raising a D to a C,but as he swings along with a condescend­ing "Howdy" for the lowliest freshman,there can be no question of his importance.And once again one may ask why all thisostentation, when everything is so trivialconsidered at large.One doesn't have to look so very far intohuman nature to find an answer: we alllike to play a part. And nowhere else isthere such a splendid opportunity to playas in college. Even over in Ellis Hall wherethe boys in a perpetually sour state of mindgrind out the Maroon and the Phoenix,they are playing a part though they wouldbe the last to admit it. Working into theearly morning over a typewriter with acigarette hanging on the lip, writing a storyon the freshman girl's 'get-together-that'sbeing a real newspaper man.College would be as weary as sellingbonds if one were not able to transcend soeasily the bitter part. That a lot of en­ergy is wasted in this sort of delusion maywell be true. But consider the man offorty that goes out and spends a miserableafternoon chasing a, ball around eighteenholes. He returns to the clubhouse in anugly sweat and disgusted. But the rest ofthe day is spent in natty knickers, with hairsmoothly combed, smoking on the clubhouseporch while he moves easily from friendto friend and talks of cabbages and kings.Is it really golf that he enjoys?49By VICTOR ROTERUS, '29WITH two victories against confer­ence opponents and one defeat froma non-conference team, the 1927 Maroonfootball team, as A. A. Stagg's thirty-sixthcrew of hopefuls, has entered upon oneof the toughest, if not the toughest, as­signments' ever to face a Maroon team,that of erasing the bad showing made thetwo preceding seasons, at the expense ofthe opposition furnished by eight strictlyfirst-rate teams.. So far the Maroons have done admirably.Losing the opener to Oklahoma University13-7 as a result of some wild Oklahomapasses which went true in the last quarter,the Staggmen beat Indiana 13-0, and Pur­due 7-6. They have yet to play Pennsyl­vania, Ohio State at Columbus Oct.' 29,Michigan Nov. 5, Illinois at ChampaignNov. 12, and Wisconsin Nov. 19.Stagg called his squad together twoweeks before the opener with Oklahoma on Oct. 1. Ten lettermen, including Capt.Ken Rouse, were in the squad that for thefirst couple of weeks drilled both morningand afternoon. The vets to return wereLaurie Apitz, Bob Spence, ends; PaulLewis, Saul Wei slow, tackles; Ben Greene­baum, Bob Wolff, Dwight Cochran,guards; McDonough, quarterback; KyleAnderson, halfback; and Rudy Leyers,fullback. Some of the more promising inthe remainder of the squad were HughMendenhall, Terre Haute flash, who wasan outstanding back on the freshman elevenlast fall, Buck Weaver, 237 pound guardand also a sophomore, Malcolm Proudfoot,sub tackle, Krogh, sub end, Libby, Raysson,Bluhm, Burgess, Pratt and Klein, thelast-named being backfield candidates.Thus it was that the Maroons lined upagainst a veteran team from Oklahomawith a. forward wall of experienced playersbut with a comparatively untried backfield ..Photo b; Chicago Evening AmericanKyle Anderson, Maroon halfback, navigating the Oklahoma end with a squadron of backsfor interference. Anderson is fast and steady, with a good right arm and an educated boot.c;oATHLETICSAnd the game resulted as it would underthese circumstances. Though the lineshowed strength, especially on the defensive,the backs lacked the necessary drive andwhen Oklahoma unleashed a last-minuteoverhead attack they were too inexperiencedto cope with it. The Maroons scored firstin the second quarter. Coach Stagg sent inten new players, leaving Capt Rouse theonly one of the starting lineup to remainin the game. On the first play Mendenhallpassed to Libby for 30 yards and a gain,that put the ball on Oklahoma's 30 yardline. Then Mendenhall passed again, thistime to Priess who fell down on the 5 yardline. Klein and Mendenhall pushed itover, and Mendenhall followed with asuccessful goal kick.It looked like Chicago's game, for al­though the Maroons did not threaten againthe line was successfully repelling thethrusts of the visitors. But after the firstfive minutes of the last quarter, Oklahomawas placed in a scoring position whenMendenhall punted poorly and the ballwent outside on the Maroons' own 36 yardline. Three passes and two short off-tacklegains gave the visitors a touchdown. Theyfailed to kick goal, and with the little timeremaining it seemed as if the Maroonswould squeeze through with a 7-6 victory.But five minutes later a 25 yard pass fol­lowed by a long dash scored for Oklahomaagain, and Chicago was compelled to sub­mit to its seventh consecutive defeat.The next Saturday, Oct. 8, Pat Page, 51who himself helped defeat Indiana 21-0 in1909, brought his Hoosier eleven from thebanks of the Wabash to Stagg field. Al­though in the past Indiana has managed toattain but one victory in sixteen tries, theHoosiers were given the edge over Stagg'steam. And their play during the first halfjustified the critics who had picked Indianato win, for they made five first downs toChicago's one.But neither team managed to score untilthe third quarter when the Maroons workedthe ball into Indiana territory :through acouple of completed passes. Then Libbyand Weaver were sent in. With Libbycarrying the ball and Weaver, strainingevery pound of that 237, making the holes,the Maroons smashed across a score. Apoor punt by Indiana gave the Maroonsanother opportunity to count in the lastperiod, and they did, Leyers plunging overthe goal-line.During the last half the Maroons lookedlike an altogether new team from that whichhad been on the field during the first twoquarters and which had swallowed a de­feat from Oklahoma. There was a certainviciousness in their play that might verywell have been a reaction to one of the OldMan's between-halves chats.On the same day that the Maroons werebusy defeating Indiana, Coach James Phel­an of Purdue sent his team into the Har­vard stadium where the Boilermaker'sshowed the East, in general, and Harvard,in particular, that engineers can play aPhoto by Chicago Evening AmericanHugh Mendenhall, sophomore halfback, pivoting through the Indiana defense in one of themelees which have marked Chicago games from way back. Mendenhall is in the center,with the gentlemen from Indiana leaning toward him.52 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPhoto by Wide World PhotosMendenhall making a gain of five yards in the third quarter of the Purdue game.pretty good brand of football. So it was thatflushed with a one-sided victory over thethe Crimson, and confident in the prowessof their new star, "Pest" Welch, 190 poundsix-footer from Texas, Purdue invadedStagg field before the eyes of some 54,000persons, the increased capacity of Staggfield. But it was Welch, the new starwho just the week before had captured theheadlines in the Sunday sporting pages,who paved the way for the Maroon victory.A few minutes after the game had begunthis young man fumbled on his own eightyard line where Chicago recovered. Bur­gess, who replaced the inj ured Leyers atfullback, and Anderson dove through thePurd ue line for a score. McDonoughkicked successfully for the extra point whichlater proved to be the deciding factor inthe win.Harmeson of Purdue late in the secondquarter grabbed one of Anderson's punts near the outside line, cut diagonally acrossthe field to run 60 yards for a touchdown.The kick for the extra point failed andwith it faded Purdue's chances for a tie.From then on the Maroons held their own,but in the last two minutes a frenzied airattack by the Boilermakers threatened todeprive the Maroons of a well-deservedvictory just as in the Oklahoma game. Thethreat was, however, successfully squelched,and Purdue, the proud conquerors of Har­vard, walked off the field knowing thatChicago is not just another Harvard.The following Monday and for the re­mainder of the week Coach Stagg dealtout work liberally to his squad, in orderto have them in the best form possible forthe Penn game. In six games with PennChicago has been unable to yank out avictory, and the Old Man, it seems doesnot choose to put up with it any longer.OCTOBER 20, 1927Photo by Chicago Evening AmericanEb Caraway, Purdue half back, brought dgwn after a nine yard whirl through the Maroonline. Purdue's failure to keep Caraway's pace was due to the tenacity of the Maroon frontline in the pinches.OFFICERS OF THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO ALUMNI CLUBSAMES, lAo Sec., Marion E. Daniells, IowaState College, Ames, la.ATLANTA and DECATUR, GA. (GeorgiaClub). Robert P. McLarty, Healy Build­ing.AUSTIN, TEXAS. Pres., J. M. Kuehne, Uni­versity of Texas.BALTIMORE, MD. Sec., Helen L. Lewis,4014 Penhurst Ave.BOISE VALLEY, IDAHO. Sec., Mrs. J. P.Pope, 1102 N. 9th St., Boise.BOSTON (Massachusetts Club). Sec., MissPearl McCoy, 70 Chase St. NewtonCenter, Mass.BOWLING GREEN, Ky. Charlotte Day,West. Ky. State Normal School.CEDAR FALLS and WATERLOO (Iowa). Sec.,E. Grace Rait, Iowa State TeachersCollege, Cedar Falls, la.CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA. Sec., L. R. Abbott,374 S. z r st St.CHARLESTON, ILL. Sec., Miss BlancheThomas, Eastern Illinois State TeachersCollege.CHICAGO Alurnnre Club. Sec., Ellen Le­Count, 5757 Kenwood Ave.. CHICAGO ALUMNI CLUB. Sec., ArthurCody, 105 S. LaSalle St.CLEVELAND, O. Sec., Mrs. F. C. Loweth,1885 E. 75th St.COLUMBUS, O. Sec., Robert E. Mathews,Ohio State University.DALLAS, TEX. Sec., Rachel Foote, 725 Ex­position Ave.DAYTON, OHIO. Sec., Ada Rosenthal, 1034Grand Ave.DENVER (Colorado Club). Sec., BeatriceGilbert, 825 Washington St.DES MOINES, IA. Sec., Ida T. Jacobs,West High School.DETROIT, MICH. Sec., Clara L. Small, 1404Taylor Ave.EMPORIA, KAN. L. A. Lowther, 617 Ex­change St.GRAND FORKS, N. D. Pres., Dr. John M.Gillette, University of North Dakota.GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. Sec., Mrs. FloydMcNaughton, 130 Mayfield Ave., N. E.HUNTINGTON, W. VA. Sec., Charles E.Hedrick, Marshall College.HONOLULU, T. H. H. R. Jordan, FirstJudicial Circuit.INDIANAPOLIS, IND. Sec., Sue HamiltonYeaton, 3340 N. Meridian St.IOWA CITY, IA. Sec., E. W. HiIIs, StateUniversity of Iowa. KALAMAZOO, MICH. Sec., James B. Fleu­gel, Peck Building.KANSAS CITY, Mo. Sec., Mary S. Wheeler,3331 Olive Street.KNOXVILLE, TENN. Sec., Arthur E. Mitch-ell, 415 Castle St.LANSING, MICH. (Central Michigan Club).Sec., Lucy Dell Henry, Mich. State De­partment of Health.LAWRENCE, KAN. Sec., Earl U. Manches­ter, University of Kansas.LEXINGTON, Ky. Sec., Mrs. Chas. A. Nor­ton, Transylvania College.LONG BEACH, CAL. Pres., Herbert F. Ahls­wede, 2606 E. Second St.Los ANGELES, CAL. (So. Cal. Club). Sec.,Harold P. Huls, 1001 Block bldg.Los ANGELES, CAL. (Rush Club) Sec., Dr.W. H. Olds, Cor. 6th and HiII Sts.LoUISVILLE, Ky. G. T. Ragsdale, 2000 S.3rd St.MANHATTAN, KAN. Sec., Mrs. Daniel E.Lynch, 1528 Prairie St.MEMPHIS, TENN. Sec., Miss ElizabethWilliford, 1917 Central Ave.MILWAUKEE, WIS. Sec., Miss PriscillaTaylor, 4810 Wisconsin Ave.MINNEAPOLIS-ST. PAUL, MINN. (T winCities Club). Sec., Mrs. Dorothy AugurSiverling, 2910 James Ave. So., Minne­apolis.MONTANA. Sec., Dr. L. G. Dunlap, Ana­conda.MOUNT PLEASANT, MICH. Sec., Miss Ger­trude Gill, Central Michigan NormalSchool.MUSKEGON, MICH. Sec., Mrs. MargaretPort Wollaston, 1299 Jefferson St.NEW ORLEANS, LA. Sec., Mrs. Erna Schnei­der, 4312 South Tonti St.NEW YORK, N. Y. (Alumni Club). Sec.,George S. Leisure, 50 Broadway, NewYork' City.NEW YORK Alumna Club. Sec., RuthReticker, 126 Claremont Ave., NewYork City.OMAHA (Nebraska Club). Sec., JulietteGriffin, Central High School.PEORIA, ILL. Sec., Anna J. LeFevre, Brad­ley Polytechnic Institute.PHILADELPHIA, PA. Isabelle Bronk,Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pa.PITTSBURG, KANSAS. Sec., Dr. F. HaroldRush, 818 S. Broadway.Officers of The University of Chicago Alumni Clubs-ContinuedCLASS SECRETARIESPITTSBURGH, PA. Sec., Reinhardt Thies­sen, U. S. Bureau of Mines.PORTLAND, ORE., Sec., Mrs John H. Wake­field, 1419-31st Ave., S.E.RAPID CITY, S.D. Sec., Della M. Haft,928 Kansas City St.ST. LOUIS, Mo. Sec., L. R. Felker, 5793Westminster Place.SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH. Sec., Hugo B.Anderson, 1021 Kearn Bldg.SAN ANTONIO, TEX. Sec., Dr. EldridgeAdams, Moore Building.SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. (Northern CaliforniaClub). Sec., Dr. Fred B. Firestone, 1325Octavia St.SEATTLE, WASH. Pres., Robert F. Sandall,612 Alaska Bldg.SIOUX CITY, IA. Sec., C. M. Corbett, 509Second Bank Bldg.SOUTH DAKOTA. Sec., Ionia Rehm, 318S. Spring Ave., Sioux Falls.SPRINGFIELD, ILL. Sec., Miss Lucy C. Wil­liams, 714 First N at'l Bank Bldg.TERRE HAUTE, IND. Sec., Prof. Edwin M.Bruce, Indiana State Normal School.TOLEDO, OHIO. Sec., Miss Myra H. Han­son, Belvidere Apts,'93. Herman von Holst, 72 W. Adams St.'94. Horace G. Lozier, 175 W. JacksonBlvd.'95. Charlotte Foye, 5602 Kenwood Ave.'9,6. Harry W. Stone, IO S. La Salle St.'97. Donald Trumbull, 231 S. La Salle St.'98. John F. Hagey, First National Bank.'99. Josephine T. Allin, 4805 DorchesterAve.'00. Mrs. Davida Harper Eaton, 5744Kirnbark Ave.'01. Marian Fairman,4744 Kenwood Ave.'02. Mrs. Ethel Remick McDowell, 1440E. 66th PI.'03. Agness J. Kaufman, Lewis Institute.'04. Mrs. Ida C. Merriam, II64 E. 54thPI.'05. Clara H. Taylor, 5925 Indiana Ave.'06. Herbert 1. Markham, N. Y. Life Bldg.'07. Helen Norris, 72 W. Adams St.'08. Wellington D. Jones, University ofChicago,'09. Mary E. Courtenay, 1538 E. Mar­quette Rd.'10. Bradford Gill, 208 S .. LaSalle St.'II. William H. Kuh, 2001 Elston Ave. TOPEKA, KAN. Sec., Anna M. Hulse, To­peka High School.TRI CITIES (Davenport, Ia., Rock Islandand Moline, I11.). Sec., Bernice LeClaire, c/o Lend-A-Hand Club, Daven­port.TUCSON, ARIZONA. Pres., J. W. Clarson,Jr., University of Arizona.URBANA, ILL. Sec., Gail F. Moulton, StateGeological Survey.VERMONT. Pres., E. G. Ham, Springfield,Vt.WASHINGTON, D. C. Sec., Mrs. Jessie Nel­son Barber, 3000 Connecticut Ave.WEST SUBURBAN ALUMNAE (Branch ofChicago Alumnae Club). Clarissa Schuy­ler, Oak Park High School. .WICHITA, KAN. Pres., A. F. Styles, Kan­sas State Bank.MANILA, P. 1. Augustin S. Alonzo, Univ.of the P. 1.SOUTH INDIA. A. J. Saunders, AmericanCoIlege, Madura, S. 1.SHANGHAI, CHINA. Sec., Daniel Chih Fu,20 Museum Rd., Shanghai, China.TOKYO, JAPAN. E. W. Clement, FirstHigher School.'12 Elizabeth A. Keenan, 739 W. 54thPlace.'13. James A. Donovan.uoo N. MichiganAvenue.'14. John B. Perlee, 232 S. Clark St.'!I5. Mrs. Phyllis Fay Horton, 1229 E.56th St.'16. Mrs. Dorothy D. Cummings, 7214Yates Ave.'17. Lyndon H. Lesch, 189 W. Madison'18. Mrs. Barbara Miller Simpson, 5842Stony Island Ave.'19. Mrs. Carroll Mason Russell, 1039E. 49th St.'20. Roland Holloway, University of Chi-cago.'21. Enid Townley, 5546 Blackstone Ave.'22. Mina Morrison, 5600 Dorchester Ave.'23. Egil Krogh (Treas.), I116 E. 54thPlace.'24. Arthur Cody (Pres.), II49 E. 56thSt.'25. Mrs. Ruth Stagg Lauren, 8159Cornell Ave.'26 Jeannette M. Hayward, 201 S. StoneAve., LaGrange, Ill.54NEWS OF THE CLASSE SAND ASSOCIATIONSCollege'o5-Enoch C. Lavers is Principal ofPublic Schools in Round Lake, N ew York.'o6-Ellen M. Clark is Dean of Womenand Instructor in history at the State N or­mal School, Superior, Wisconsin.'07-Clark C. Steinbeck who has beenin Peking, China, for six years as businesssecretary of the Presbyterian mission, isreturning by way of India, Palestine andEurope. He expects to reach Chicago inDecember.'og-Harriet F. Baker is AssistantManager in the Bureau of Education ofthe New York Edison Company, IrvingPlace and East r yth St., New York City.'og-Mattie L. Hatcher, A. M. '21,lately connected with the State TeachersCollege at Bowling Green, Kentucky, hasaccepted a position in elementary educationat Patterson, New Jersey.'II-Roy Baldridge is contemplating atrip around Africa with his wife prepar­atory to writing a new book.'13- John C. Werner, A. M., is Di­rector of Training at the State NormalSchool at Albion, Idaho.'I3-Kenneth T. Wenger is AssistantManager of the Standard Oil Company ofIndiana at South Bend, Indiana.'I4-Ella Jeffries, Head of the Geog­raphy Department of the West KentuckyState Teachers College at Bowling Green,has given courses in the University ofNorth Carolina at Chapel Hill, NorthCarolina this summer.'I4-Jay T. Border, J. D. '16, is nowliving at 706 N. Ashland Avenue, and hasan office for the practice of law in the Il­linois Life Insurance Company.EX-'IS-Paul McNamara is now Vice­President of the North American Life In­surance Company. 'I6-E. H. Zaugg, North Japan Col­lege, Sendai, Japan, has accepted a positionas Professor of Religious Education atHeidelberg College, Tiffin, Ohio.'I 7-N ellie J aroleman is teaching sci­ence in the Lowell Junior High School ofOakland, California.'I7-Margaret K. O'Brien has a newaddress, Four O'Clock Garden Nursery,Wilson Road, Worthington, Ohio.'I7-Lulu Wright, who has been inNew Tri�r Township High School for anumber of years, is to be teaching this yearin the Putney High School, London, Eng­land, on an exchange basis. This is prob­ably the first exchange of. its kind that hasever been made.LawCHICAGO LAW MEN AT THE A. B. A.UNIVERSITY 0 F CHICAGOLaw men attending the meetingof the American Bar Associationheld a luncheon on September I, 1927, atthe Statler Hotel, Buffalo, N ew York. Thefollowing .men attended:Walter A. Lybrand, J.D. Ig06, Snyder,Owen & Lybrand, Oklahoma City,Okla.H. Glenn Kinsley, J.D. Ig12, Sheridan,Wyo.H. W. Humble, J.D. 1915, Professor ofLaw, Brooklyn Law School, 1430 W.4th Street, Brooklyn, N. Y.Charles F. McElroy, J.D. 1915, I IOSouth Dearborn St., McElroy & Pear­son, Chicago.Paul O'Donnell, J.D. rooo, 112 WestAdams Street, Chicago.George M. Morris, J.D. 1915; KixMiller & Baar, Washington, D. C.Bernard C. Gavit, J.D, 1902, Ibach,Gavit, Stinson & Gavit, Hammond,Ind.55THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGlenn D. Peters, ex 1909, Bomberger,Peters & Marthland, Hammond, Ind.Urban A. Lavery, J.D. 1910, 33 So.Clark St., Chicago.John· L. Hopkins, J.D. 1907, Hopkins,Starr & Hopkins, 110 So. Dearborn,Chicago.George R. Murray, LL.B. 1914, Legler& Murray, Dayton, O.Deloss C. Shull, Trustee of the U niver­sity of Chicago; Shull, Stilwell, Shull& Wadden, Sioux City, Iowa.George T. McDermctt, J.D. 1910,Stone, McDermott, Webb & Johnson,Topeka, Kansas.William Kixmiller, J. D. 1910, Kix­miller & Baar, 231 So. LaSalle St.,Chicago.An interesting exchange of personal ex­periences was followed by a discussion ofthe problems of the Law School, includingattendance, and endowment. While notall favored increasing the attendance, alldid join in urging a large endowment.The following other Chicago men wereat the convention, but did not attend theluncheon:William P. MacCracken, Jr., J.D. 1910,Secretary American Bar Association,and Assistant Secretary of Commercein charge of Aviation.Robert McNair Davis, J.D. 1907, Deanof the Law School at the Universityof Idaho, Moscow, Idaho.Prof. George G. Bogert of the LawSchool faculty, Chicago.Clyde C. Colwell, LL.B. 1906, 105West Monroe Street, Chicago.Albert L. Hopkins, 1905, J.D. '07, Hop­kins, Starr & Hopkins, 110 SouthDearborn Street, Chicago.The chief figure among our graduateswas, of course, Bill MacCracken, who wascontinually before the convention in per­forming his duties as Secretary of the As­sociation, always making an excellent im­pression. His announcements were conciseand clear. He always had everyone's at­tention. When a proposal was made tolimit the Secretary's tenure of office to threeyears it was voted down, and the general comment was that the vote was a personaltribute to MacCracken.George M. Morris, in the absence of theChairman, made the report for the Com­mittee on Federal Taxation, includingseveral recommendations. Sharp opposi­tion developed from the floor of the con­vention, and a motion was made to modifythe recommendations. Morris defendedthe report with such vigor that the motionto modify was voted down and the originalrecommendations were adopted 0 v e r­whelmingly.Prof. George G. Bogert attended thesessions of the Section on Legal Educationand Admissions to the Bar.* * *Prof. Chester G. Vernier, 04, J.D. '07,of the faculty of the Law School at LelandStanford University, with his family spentthe summer with relations in Indiana.Mrs. Vernier was Miss Hazel Anderson,S.M. 1908 (Mathematics).CHARLES A. McELROYDoctors of PhilosophyORIENTAL LANGUAGES1894- Theodore Gerald Soares, Profes­sor of Religious Education and Head ofthe Department of Practical Theology inthe Divinity School of the University ofChicago, during the past winter visitedCalifornia, where he gave the Earle Lec­tures at the Pacific School of Religion,Berkeley, and also carried out speaking en­gagements at various points. He was guestof honor at the Annual Banquet of theReligious Education Club on April 6th,where he received renewed expressions ofthe regards of Faculty and students alike.1895-George Ricker Berry is at Col­gate University as Professor of Old Tes­tament Interpretation and Semitic Lan­guages. His most recent publication, apartfrom miscellaneous articles, is The OldTestament among the Semitic Religions.1896- Herbert Lockwood Willett isProfessor of Old Testament Language andLiterature in the Divinity School of theUniversity of Chicago. He was strickenNEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONSwith pneumonia in November last, and wascompelled to travel to Colorado and Cal­ifornia; but is now fortunately returned togood health, and is able to continue hiswork in the department, as well as hispreaching engagements and editorial dutieswith the Christian Century.I 899- John Merlin Powis Smith is alsoon the Faculty of the University of ChicagoDivinity School, as Professor of Old Tes­tament Language and Literature, and alsois Vice-Chairman of the Department. Hisparticular interest at the present time,apart from academic duties, is the forth­coming publication of The a ld Testament:.d n .d merican Translation.roor-e-Clifton Daggett Gray is Presi­dent of Bates College, Lewiston, Me.190r-Frederick Thomas Kelly is As­sistant Professor of Semitic Languages andHellenistic Greek at the University ofWisconsin, Madison, Wis.1905- John Rothwell Slater is Profes­sor of English Literature and head of theTEACHER PLACEMENTSERVICEFISK TEACHERS' AGENCY28 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago.For many years a leader among teachers'agencies. Our service is nation wide.AMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU77 W. Washir, gron se., Chicago.A professional teacher placement bureau;limiting its field to colleges and univer­sities.EDUCATION SERVICE811-823 Steger Bldg., Chicago.A bureau chiefly concerned with theplacement of administrative officials,such as financial secretaries, businessmanagers, treasurers, registrars, directorsof Red Cross work, etc.The above organizations are under the man­agement of C. E. Goodell, for nine yearspresident of Franklin College, Ind., andMrs. Bertha Smith Goodell, for thirteen yearssupervisor and teacher of English in the HighSchool of Oak Park, Ill. 57Department, at the University of Roch­ester. His recent publications includeLiving for the Future and Printing andthe Renaissance.I907-Charles Ellisworth Horne isDean of the College of Agriculture andMechanic Arts in the University of PortoRico.I907-Robert James George McKnightis Professor of Biblical Literature in theReformed Presbyterian Seminary. He hasalso spent much time in special lecturing,particularly at Chautauqua during the sum­mer seasons .1912-Isaac George Matthews is nowProfessor of Old Testament language andliterature at Crozer Theological Seminary.He also serves as Professor of the Historyof the Christian Church at the BaptistInstitute, Philadelphia, Pa. His most re­cent publication has been Old TestamentLife and Literature.I912-Leroy Waterman is at the Uni­versity- of Michigan as Professor of Semi­tics. He is under appointment as AnnualProfessor at the American Schools of Re­search at Baghdad, for the year 1927-28,and in this capacity will conduct specialresearch work in Mesopotamia.1913-Harold Hayden Nelson is FieldDirector of the University of Chicago Ex­pedition at Luxor, Egypt. This expeditionis under the general direction of Dr. Breast­ed, and is engaged in the tremendous taskof saving from utter destruction the an­cient Egyptian records. Due to the gen­erosity of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., JuliusRosenwald, and others, a very completeset of buildings and miscellaneous equip­ment has been provided at Luxor, so thatthis highly delicate task may be carried outwith complete scientific exactness.19Is-Thomas George Allen's interestin recent months has been a Grammar ofthe Egyptian Language, which will beready for publication shortly. This workhas taken him to the great museums and'libraries of the eastern states.58 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1915-Theophile James Meek, Pro­fessor of Semi tics at the University ofToronto, is associated with Professor]. M.P. Smith in the translation of the OldTestament. His most recent work apartfrom this has been The Song of Songs) em­bodying a new interpretation of this OldTestament book in terms of the TammuzCult.1915-Martin Sprengling, AssociateProfessor of Semitic Languages and Litera­tures in the University of Chicago, spentseveral months last winter, travellingthrough .Europc, and to Palestine andEgypt, procuring a great number of photo­static reproductions of the Arabic talescalled Kalilah wa-Dimnah, which are theOriental originals of the stories familiarto most Americans as the U nele Remustales. In addition some rare and valuableoriginal books and manuscripts were se­cured.1916-John Albert Maynard has re­cently produced A Survey of Hebrew: Edu­cation and The Living Religions of theWorld. He has edited the publications ofthe American Society of Oriental Research.1919-Harry Sebee Linfield is Directorof the Department of Information andStatistics, Bureau of Jewish Social Re­search, �ew l{ork.1922-Ludlow Seguine Bull is Assist­ant Curator in the Department of Egyp­tian Art, Metropolitan Museum, NewYork.1923-Asad Jibrail Rustum is AssistantProfessor of History in the American U ni­versity, Beirut, Syria.1925-Fred W. Geers, is teaching inthe Department of Assyriology at the U ni­versity of Chicago, and is in charge of theAssyrian Dictionary records.1926-Marion Hiller Dunsmore is oc­cupying the Jessie Brown Pounds Memo­rial Chair of Religious Education andLiterature at Hiram College, Hiram, Ohio. HowlsYourCREDIT?YESTERDAY­life insurance agentswere considered a bore, atime consuming. nuisance.That prejudice has disap­peared now.Today, if you ask abanker about your credit,he asks you about yourlife insurance.But, though you mayha ve enough insuranceto satisfy your banker,you may not have exactlythe right arrangement ofpolicies to secure you andyour dependents the max­imum of future security.A John Hancock agentis a specialist in securityfor the future, thefounda­tion of mental serenity.Ask him to come in,0' B,OSTON, MASSACHUSETTSA STRONG COMPANY, Over Sixty Yearsin Business. Liberal as to Contract,Safe and Secure in Every Way.NEWS OF THE CLASSES AND ASSOCIATIONSDEPARTMENT OF NEW TESTAMENT'96-Clyde Weber Votaw has resumedhis work as Professor of New TestamentLiterature at the University of. Chicagoafter a vacation at Hot Springs, Ark.'98-E. J. Goodspeed, Chairman of theDepartment of New Testament and EarlyChristian Literature, has returned withMrs. Goodspeed from a visit to Europeduring the summer. He has recently pub­lished "The Formation of the New Testa­ment," and has a volume of essays now inpress.'oo-Henry Martin Herrick is AssociateProfessor of Modern Languages in Rock­ford College, Rockford, Ill.'or-e-Allan Hoben, President of Kalama­zoo College, has recently returned from atour of Europe.'03-A. A. Hobson is pastor of the UpperAlton, Ill., Baptist Church, a pastoratewhich offers him valuable student contacts.'03-Irving Francis Wood, Professor ofBiblical Literature and Comparative Re­ligion in Smith College, was elected Presi­dent of the Society of Biblical Literatureat its recent session in New York.'04- John W. Bailey is Professor andHead of the Department of New Testa­ment Literature in the Berkeley BaptistDivinity School, Berkeley, California.'04-Benjamin Willard Robinson con­tinues his effective work as Professor ofNew Testament Literature and Interpreta­tion in the Chicago Theological Seminary.'o5-H. F. Allen is Professor and Headof the. Department of Romance Languagesin the University of New Hampshire.'o6-Effie Freeman Thompson is Pro­fessor of Bible and Philosophy, Kingston,.New York.'07-Frank Grant Lewis is Librarianof the Crozer Theological Seminary and ofthe American Baptist Historical Society,Chester, Pa.'07-H. B. Robison is Professor of NewTestament, Culver-Stockton College, Can­ton, Mo.'08-Charles Bray Williams is Presidentof Furman University, Greenville, S. C.'09- J. C. Granberry is Professor of 59Sociology, Texas Technical College, Lub­bock, Tex.'Io-Harris Lachlan MacNeill is Pro­fessor of New Testament Greek, Dean ofthe College of Arts, and Acting Presidentof Brandon College, Brandon, Manitoba.'I I-Alonzo Rosecrans Stark is Pastorof the First Baptist Church, Cambridge,Ohio.'r z-s-Ernest W. Parsons is Professor ofNew Testament Literature in RochesterTheological Seminary, Rochester, NewYork.'Iz-Dean Rockwell Wickes is Professorin the American Board Mission, Tunghsien,China.'I3-Henry Beach Carre is Professor ofOld Testament Language and Literaturein Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn.'I4-C. C. McCown, Professor of New.Testament, Pacific School of Religion, hasrecently lectured at Yale University, NewHaven, Conn., and spent the summer teach­ing in his field for the Chicago TheologicalSeminary.'I5-W. H. Robinson, Jr., is Professorof Public Speaking and of Religious Educa-:tion in Hamlinc College, St. Paul, Minn.'I6-A. W. Slaten is having wide in­fl uence as a Unitarian pastor in N ew YorkCity.'I6-E. H. Zaugg is Professor in NorthJapan College, Send ai, Japan.'17- Thomas Wearing is Professor ?fNew Testament Literature and Dean IIIColgate Theological Seminary, Hamilton,N. Y.'I8-Alfred Morris Perry is AssistantProfessor of New Testament Languageand Literature in Bangor Theological Sem­inary, Bangor, Me. His book, The So�r.cesof Luke's Passion Narrative is receivmgimportant notice.'I8-Charles J. Ritchey is Assistant Pro­fessor of History in Macalester College,St. Paul, Minn., I 9- Jan H. J. Greyvenstein is a mis­sionary of the Dutch Reformed Church,located at Tulbagh, Cape Province, SouthAfrica.'2o-Elbert Russell is Director of theWoolman School, Swarthmore, Pa.60 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEEverythinginLeather GoodsGifts of Luggage or Leatherare always appreciated for inmost cases they last a life time.�HEW YORK EST 185li1 CH1CA!30"I have had notice of my appoint­ment at ------- University and haveaccepted. You may rest assured Ishall endeavor to merit all you havesaid in my favor. If! needgoodserv­ice again, I know where to get it."The man who wrote the above re­ceived his Ph. D. in 1926. Throughother means he accepted a minorposition. It remained for The Al­bert Teachers' Agency to secure forhim his real job in 1927.Hundreds of University of Chi­cago graduates and graduate stu­dents have been equally fortunate.They are in Colleges, NormalSchools ,City and Suburban Schools ,Private Schools +everywhere. Weinvite correspondence or a call.Forty Third Year.The Albert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago535 Fifth Avenue, New York City IN ApPRECIATION OF MR. SARGENT(Continued from page 9)taught, unsparing of himself to the point ofexhaustion that they might have all hecould give of himself.It is for us who teach, perhaps, to buildfor him the most lasting memorial in thelong years ahead. From our classes willgo out many young men and women to be­come teachers in their turn. As he waspioneer in the field of Art Education, sowe must turn from the beaten paths tomake American schools as superior in theteaching of Art as in the other vocations.Through us there may go on this ideal ofbeauty, this great passion for purity anddepth of color, for strength of line, forpower and tenderness III interpreting theheart of nature.(Mrs. Richardson stuiied under Mr.Sar aent , assisted him in the teaching of acourse, and worked in his department forseveral years as teacher of the industrialarts in the University Elementary School.She is now Head of the Department ofArt in the Joliet High School and JuniorCollege.}MARRIAGESENGAGEMENTSBIRTHSDEATHSMARRIAGESEmery W. Balduf, A. M. '13, Ph. D.'26, to Drucilla C. Schroeder, '25, Sep­tember 3, 1927. At home, 7211 Bennett•Avenue, Chicago.Sayrs A. Garlick, '13, to Evelyn Green,August 19, 1927. At home, 2309 S. Ridge­way Avenue, Chicago.Anna 1. McGuire, ' I 6, to Ralph A. .Walter, '20, June 25, 1927. At home,5522 Maryland Avenue, Chicago.David E. Sonquist, A. M. '17, to Dor­othy Brokaw, August 6, 1927. At home,Hillsdale, Michigan.MARRIAGES, ENGAGEMENTS, BIRTHS, DEATHSEva Adams, '18, to Willis C. Suther­land, March 20, 1927. At home, 6245Kimbark Avenue, Chicago.Frederic M. Thrasher, A. M. '19, Ph.D. '26, to Helene Hughes, August 27,1927. At home, Greenwich Village, NewYork City.Alfred H. MacGregor, '20, to HelenSanders, June 8, 1927. At home, Chicago.James M. Nicely, '20, to Katharine H.Terry, September 17, 1927. At home, 55East 72d Street, N ew York City.Judith Strohm, '23, to Donald F. Bond, ASINGLEinvestmenthousemaybethein-'22, A. M. '24, September I, 1927. Atvestment banker for scores of borrowershome, 6635 Washington Avenue, St. Louis,Mo.Ethel Doolan, '22, to Harold E. Berger,ex '25, August 20, 1927. At home, 5419Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago.Grace W. Feely, '23, to Herbert P. investor in each case.Valker, June 22, 1927. At home, 7701Cornell Avenue, Chicago.Harold E. Christiansen, '23, to NyriaGile, July 16, 1927. At home, Cleveland,Ohio.Alver E. Holmes, '23, to Helen Hon­holz, March 5, 1927. At home, 215 N.Central Avenue, Chicago.M. Letitia Reeves, '23, to Henry EarleMarkham, ex '24, September 4, 1927. Athome, 6158 Ellis Avenue, Chicago.Nina L. Roessler, '23, to Dr. Robert W.Edwards, June 3, 1927. At home, 61Edgewood Avenue, LaGrange, Illinois.Edgar Bibas, '24, to Helen R. Ullman,'25, June 17, 1927. At home, 4830 Green­wood Avenue, Chicago.M. Esther Caseley, '24, to Herbert R.M undhenke, July 26, 1927. At home,Lewistown, Montana.Helen V. Callahan, '25 to James Ken-neth Kneussl, '25, J. D. '27, August 29, PHILADELPHIA III South 15th St. DETROIT 601 Griswold St.1927· At home, 5728 Blackstone Avenue, CLEVELAND 925 Euclid A'Ve. ST. LOUIS 319 North 4th St.Chicago.Eleanor Hughes, '26, to Arthur C.Rehm, August 19, 1927. At home, 423 E.Tenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.ENGAGEMENTSAmelia D. Cowen, '25, to J. WallaceShaw, M. D. '26. 61One 'BusinessThat ServesAll Othersin the municipal, public utility, industrial andreal estate fields. It must know how to judgesecurities, and, moreover, how to sell them sothat the investment will be serviceable to theA dependable organization, comprisingdiversified talent, is essential to maintainingan investment banking service that will servecompletely both borrowers and investors.There is always opportunity in the invest­ment banking field for well trained minds.Knowledge, personality, energy and initiativeare necessary to substantial progress. No othersingle business perhaps gives wider contactwith the whole field of business.Halsey, Stuart & Co. is always interestedin men who can fit into the needs of its growingorganization. If you are interested, write forour pamphlet, "The Bond Business As AnOccupation for College Men."ufsk for pamphlet A V-X7CHICAGO 201 S. La Salle St. NEW YORK 14 Wall St.BOSTON 85 Devonshire St. MILWAUKEE 425 East Water St.MINNEAPOLIS 608 Second A'Ve., S.HALSEY, STUART&, CO.INCORPORATED62 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETHE YATES-FISHERTEACHERS' AGENCYEstablished 1906PAUL YATES, Manager616-620 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVENUECHICAGOOther Office; 9II-12 Broadway BuildingPortland, OregonMOSERSHORTHAND COLLEGEA business school of distinctionSpecial Three Months' IntensiveCourse for university graduatesor undergraduates givenquarterlyBulletin on RequestPAUL MOSER,]. D., Ph. B.116 S. Michigan Ave. ChicagoPaul H. Davis, 'II Herbert I. Markham, Ex. '06Ralph W. Davis, '16 Walter M. Giblin, '23Paul lf.Davts & eO.MEMBERSNEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGECHICAGO STOCK EXCHANGE37 South LaSalle StreetTelephone Rand. 6280CHICAGOUN IV E R SIT YCOLLEGEThe downtown department of THE UNIVER­SITY OF CHICAGO, II6 S. Michigan Avenuewishes the Alumni of th e University andtheir friends to know that it offersEvening, Late Afternoon and Saturday ClassesTwo-Hour Sessions Once or Twice a WeekCourses Credited Toward University DegreesCourses also offered in the evening on theUniversity Quadrangles.Winter Quarter begins January 2Spring Quarter begins April 2For Circular of Information AddressThe Dean, University Co liege,University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. Louella Arnold, '27, to Dr. V. R.Kaufman.BIRTHSTo Robert O. Brown, 'II, M. D. '14,and Mrs. Brown, a daughter, EloisaBergere, April 4, 1927, at Santa Fe, NewMexico.To Edward K. MacDonald, ex '14, andMrs. MacDonald, a son, Edward King,Jr., July 30, 1927, at Chicago.To Mr. and Mrs. Michael G. Callahan(Margaret Hess, '16), a son, WilliamBryce, December 2, 1926, at Parlin, NewJersey.To Clifford Manshardt, '18, A. M. '21,Ph. D. '24, and Mrs. Manshardt, a son,Thomas Brewster, March 23, 1927, at. Wai, India.To J. Milton Coulter, '19, and Mrs.Coulter (Dorothy Brigham, ex ' 19), a son,Joseph Smith, September 14, 1927, atEvanston, Illinois.To Mr. and Mrs. Martin C. Haedtler(Marion E. Baum, ex '21), a daughter,Joan Barbara, February 28, 1927, at Chi­ago.To Mr. and Mrs. Norman James(Lucille Smith, '21), a son, June 30,1927,at Chicago.To Eugene F. Rouse, '21, and Mrs.Rouse (Arline Falkenau, '19), a daughter,Janet Farrington, May 4, 1927, at Chi­cago.To Benjamin Jaffe, J. D. '22, and Mrs.Sylvia Jaffe, ex '26, a sou, Miles, June 17,1927.To Mr. and Mrs. Frank M. Avery(Helen Govier, ex '23), a daughter, MaryVirginia, February 8, 1927, at Evanston"Illinois.To John S. Masek, '23, and Mrs.Masek, a daughter, Ann Elizabeth, August25, 1927, at Orlando, Florida.To Nelson W. Barker, M. D. '24, andMrs. Barker a daughter, Sylvia, June 21,1927, at Rochester, Minnesota.To Willis L. Zorn, '24, and Mrs. Zorn,a son, Willis Lawrence, j r., December 16,1926, at Toledo, Ohio.To Charles Elwyn Hayes, '27, and Mrs.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEJIje NATION'S BUILDn�G STONEWomen's Dormuor», Indiana UniveTSitjl, Bloomington, IndianaGranger, Lowe & Bollenbacher, Architects Built of lwdiasu: Limestone Random AshlarBuildings to be Proud ofINDIANA LIMESTONE, the finenatural stone of which the country'sleading public buildings, memorials,churches and commercial structures ofstone are built, is the almost universalchoice for collegiate architecture also.Scarcely an institution of note but hasat least one structure of this beautifulbuild ing stone. The much-admiredbuildings of the University of Chicagoare all of Indiana Limestone, many ofthem interior as well as exterior:So extensive and so centrally locatedare the quarries of the Indiana Lime'stone Company that Indiana Limestone may be delivered anywhere at pricescomparing favorably with those oflocal stone or even with those of sub,stitutes.Write for a brochure showing ex'amples of fine collegiate buildings ofIndiana Limestone. This booklet willshow you how other institutions arebuilding for permanent beauty by usingIndiana Limestone. We'll gladly sendyou a copy of this booklet free.For convenience, fill in your nameand address below" tear out and mailto Box 819, Service Bureau, IndianaLimestone Company, Bedford, Indiana.N arne Address _._ . __ .. _ .. _ .. •THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESince grandmothershoppedSINCE grandmother shopped ahalf a century ago, how manychanges have taken place!Then it was butter in tubs, lardin barrels, great round loaves ofcheese, eggs in baskets.Today it is- Brookfield Butter,"�ilverleaf" Brand Pure Lard,Brookfield Cheese and PremiumSliced Bacon in sanitary attrac­tive and convenient packages.And equally striking is the con­trast between the old and newways of bringing these productsto you.Out of the crude distributivesystem of fifty years ago hasdeveloped one of the most eco­nomical and efficient methods ofmarketing ever devised ..Retail dealers now receive per­ishable products and fresh meatsdirect from Swift branch houses,of which there are 400 distributedthroughout the country.Waste of time and motion hasbeen eliminated, and expenseshave been cut to the minimum.Quality is maintained by constantSwift supervision.So effective is this system ofdirect branch house distributionthat the National DistributionConference in 1925 found its costof operation to be the lowest of17 trades studied.While most wholesale tradeshave operating costs ranging from10% to 20% of sales, it costs lessthan 5 % of sales to operate Swiftbranch houses.Swift & CompanyOwned by more than 47,000 shareholders Hayes, ex '29, a daughter, Barbara Lou,. October 12, 1927, at Chicago.DEATHSAddison W. Rickey, M. D. '74, at Oak­land, California, April 13, 1927·Frank J. Pope, M. D. '75, at Racine,Wisconsin, January 2, 1927·Frank E. Coulter, M. D. '82, fortwenty-seven years a member of the facultyof the Medical School of Creighton Uni­versity Omaha, Nebraska, July 18, 1927,at Sarita Ana, California.Bird M. Linnell, M. D. '93, August 18,1927, at Chicago. Dr. Linnell was As­sociate Clinical Professor at Rush MedicalCollege of the University, at the time of hisdeath.Ida M. MacLean, A. B. '97 July 10J1927, at Chicago. Miss MacLean was ·ateacher and dean of girls at Waller HighSchool, Chicago.Fred C. Kovats, M. D. '00, February17, 1927, at Milwaukee, Wisconsin.Louise Roth, '00, a teacher at JohnMarshall High School, Chicago, July 14,1927, at Chicago.Anstruther A. Lawson, Ph. D. '01,April 19, 1927, at Sydney Australia, wherehe was Professor of Botany in the U niver­sity of Sydney.Helen Walker, '02, A. M. '13, July 8,1927, at Detroit, Michigan.Milton Davies, A. B. '03, July 27, I927,at Dayton Point, Babylon, L. I., NewYork. Mr. Davies directed the work of theInstitute of Arts and Sciences of ColumbiaUniversity, New York City, during itsentire existence of fourteen years.Keith Preston, '05, Ph. D. '14, July 7,1927, at Chicago. Mr. Preston, a literarycritic, author and humorist, was literaryeditor of the Chicago Daily News and con-:ducted the "Hit or Miss" column in thatnewspaper.Bertha Henderson, Cert. '06, S. B. 'ro,at Fairbury, Nebraska, June 27, 1927.Constancio Pacifico Rustia y Sison, '22,Ph. D. '24, in March 1927 at Manila, P.1., where he was Assistant Professor ofZoology in the University of the Philip­pines.NEW INTEREST IN BATHROOMSIn the days of Victorian reticence,there was little talk about bathrooms.Probably because there was so littlebathing. Today, the world is moreoutspoken-and healthier. The im­proved mechanism for living is franklydiscussed, and ways to add beautyare sought.So the bathroom severely unadornedis giving way to the bathroom ofsunny aspect, decorated in warm andcheerful color. The fixtures them­selves exhibit that beauty which al- ways results from admirable designand a high order of workmanship.Against their tinted background, theygleam like great china dishes.Two recent Crane books, New Ideasfor Bathrooms and Homes of Com­fort, give an excellent survey of thenewer compact fixtures and the latestmode of decoration. You may haveboth books for the asking .... Anyresponsible plumbing contractor willassure you that a complete installa­tion with Crane fixtures costs no more.CRANEAddress all inquiries to Crane Co., ChicagoGENERAL OFFICES: CRANE BUILDING, 836 S. MICHIGAN AVENUE, CHICAGOBranches and Sales Offices in One Hundred and Sixty-two CitiesNational Exhibit Rooms: Chicago, NewYod,Atlantic City, San Francisco, and MontrealWorks: Chicago, Bridgeport, Birmingham, Chattanooga, Trenton;Montreal, and St. Johns, Q.:!ebec; Ipswich, EnglandCRANE EXPORT CORPORATION: NEW YORK, SAN FRANCISCO, MEXICO CITY, HAVANACRANE LIMITED: CRANE BUILDING, 1170 BEAVER HALL SQUARE, MONTREALCRANE-BENNETT, LTD., LONDONCll! CRANE: PARIS, BRUSSELSLuca Della Robbia (1400.1482), the first of the famousFlorentine family, developedto a point of artistic perfectionthe intricate technique ofenameling clay.)B3orrowiu8 ritt from)O)�lbJIio1&l&bM ASTERS of Art they were.Masters of enameling on clay.Their gems of modeling covered withbrilliant colors are unequaled today.And the gifted craftsmen of Veniceand Limoges have left us superb proofof their ability to apply enamel tometal.Step by step the art has become ascience. Better metal, better glazes,better methods, and better heat­electric heat.The glowing units of the electricfurnace give a heat that is perfectlyGENERAL uniform and constant, and in the elec­tric furnace there is no smoke to marthe glistening surface.Such stories are legion. With elec­tric heat as an ally, manufacturersoffer us today hundreds of well-fin­ished products. Even an army of menusing Della Robbia's methods couldnot .do this work at any cost.• General Electric engineers haveapplied electric hea ting to processesfor bathtubs and jewelry, for cast ironand bread, for tool steel and glue pots.The G-E booklet "Electric Heat inIndustry" describes the applicationand possible value of electric heat toany manufacturing business.LECTRIC570-22E