JAMES HAYDEN TUFTSHEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHYConvocation Orator, March 18, 19I3The University of ChicagoMagazineVOLUME V APRIL 1913 NUMBER 6EVENTS AND DISCUSSIONIn December, 19II, when the present board took charge of thealumni Magazine, the first editorial comment expressed the feeling ofmany alumni that we should have representation on theThe Alumni and . . .th U· it Board of Trustees. That feeling grows stronger ande mversi Y stronger, and arguments against it more and more rapidlylose their force. Such representation is not needed by the alumni: it isneeded by the University. No one doubts that the present Board of.Trustees is conducting the affairs of the University, commonly speaking,exactly as they should be conducted. The members of the Board everyone are men of judgment and devotion, who undertake the task laid uponthem in a spirit of loyalty to the highest ideals. Whether any alumnuscould as an individual add strength to the Board is not the question.Whether even his knowledge of conditions, gained through four years ofexperience, could serve the Board, is not the question. The question is:Can the University afford not to recognize formally and make use of thedevotion and judgment, whatever they may be, of its alumni? The theoryof a democracy is that responsibility develops power. The Universityhas never thrown any responsibility upon its alumni. It gives, gives; itnever has asked, except for money: even that it has looked for only toindividuals. One solitary alumnus, save those on the faculty and in theoffices, is serving the University in any advisory capacity. One: counthim: one. What, for instance, do our young doctors know about the situ­ation here in medicine? when have they been called in to consult uponit? Behind the letters printed in the Magazine recently, on the lack ofcordial fellowship between students and instructors here, is really anotherfeeling-that of a lack of fellowship between the University as a wholeand its alumni. The individual hand-clasp is warm, but, so the alumni179180 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEfeel, the corporate eye is cold and averted. Of the subscribers to theMagazine a considerably larger number proportionately are Doctors ofPhilosophy than Bachelors. What does that mean-that the Doctorsof Philosophy take a heartier interest in the University than the under­graduates do? Or that the Bachelors feel somehow, instinctively, that agreater interest is felt by the University as a corporate body in theDoctors of Philosophy than in them? Anyone who feels this is wrong;we here in the quadrangles know he is wrong; but how is he to knowhe is wrong? Why should he accept our statements? What he sees isthis: a university completing twenty-one years of active life, and in anadvisory capacity employing one of its graduates. Count him: one.The Spring Convocation has become the family convocation-theoccasion upon which one of our own faculty speaks to us. This year thespeaker was Professor James Hayden Tufts, of whom theThe Orator 4at the Annual Register says:Spring A.B. Amherst, r884; D.B. Yale, r889; Instructor in mathe-Convocation matics, Amherst, r885-7; A.M. Amherst, 1890; Instructor in philos-ophy, University of Michigan, r889-9r; - Ph.D. Freiburg, r892;Assistant professor of philosophy, Chicago, 1892-94; Associate professor, r894-r900;LL.D. Amherst, 1904; Dean of the Senior Colleges, Chicago, 1899-1904, 1907-8;Professor of philosophy, 1900-; Head of the Department of Philosophy, 1905-;President Western Philosophical Association, 1906.So much for the cold type, but who that has, as the phrase goes, "satunder" Professor Tufts at any time in his twenty years of service herecan think it does him justice? It leaves out his smile, like Browning'ssun over the headland, with its need of a world of men; it leaves out hisrumbling, apologetic laugh; it only hints at the fineness of his mind, notlike a razor sharp for division but like a field wonderful for growth; itdoes not even hint at the quality of his friendliness to all the good in man­kind. That his address, elsewhere published in this issue, should be onthe advance of justice, is not strange. Dewey and Tufts' Ethics was thefirst textbook in the subject to discuss with any fulness social ethics, asa part of individual ethics. But personally we have always associatedProfessor Tufts less with justice, perhaps, than with mercy. There is asentence by Mr. Howells in A Boy's Town, which Brand Whitlock hasrecently quoted in the American Magazine, but which we long ago read,and thought of Mr. Tufts' course in ethics while we read it:In fact, it seems best to be very careful how we try to do justice in this world, andmostly to leave retribution to God, who really knows about things; and contentourselves as much as possible with mercy, whose mistakes are not so irreparable.EVENTS AND DISCUSSION 181The news has been widely spread by the daily papers that Michiganhas applied for membership once more in the Conference. This ishardly accurate. It is true that at a meeting on March 22Michigan and .. .th C f . of the Board III Control of Athletics, that board by a votee on erence. of 6 to 5 recommended action by the Board of Regentswhich would result in greater faculty control of athletics, and that,following such action, application for membership in the Conference wasrecommended, provided the boycott rule be repealed. As yet the Board of .Regents has not acted. If it sustains the vote of the Board in Control,Michigan's application will come before the Conference at its Junemeeting. If it does so come, what will happen?What is this "boycott rule" which must first be rescinded by theConference before Michigan will apply for membership?No member of the Conference shall maintain athletic relations with an institutionwhich has been a member of the Conference and has withdrawn therefrom, or beingnow or hereafter a member shall withdraw therefrom, until such institution hasbeen reinstated.In other words, no member of the Conference shall maintain athleticrelationship with an institution which for reasons which may seem goodto it shall refuse to abide by rules which it has once accepted, or whichthe body which it has chosen to belong to shall adopt. Rescind thisrule, and if Chicago decides to make laws of her own which conflict withConference regulations, she can do so without penalty; so can Purdue;so can Michigan. But why was the Conference formed? To keepwestern athletics in a healthy condition. It adopts no regulations saveto that end. And if its regulations may be defied by influential insti­tutions without penalty, where is its influence? This is as plain as-itwas to whomever proposed that particular rider to the resolution adoptedby Michigan's Board. There can be little doubt that the resolution ofMarch 22 was never really meant for final action. It is hardly even afeeler. It is for alumni consumption; it is only a political concession.The pressure which has been put upon the Board in Control by alumni,even by students, to rejoin the Conference, has been great. Read theirletters and speeches in the Michigan Alumnus! But there is a certainstrong group among the alumni which objects to Conference regulations.It is this group which approaches the Conference with the recent singularresolution. One wonders what the regents, faculty, alumni of Michiganthink of the extraordinary role which that university has now beensuddenly asked to play-the Tony Lumpkin of an athletic farce!THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMeanwhile, what of athletics at Chicago? The most importantmatter in this connection is Mr. Stagg's decision not to return for theSpring Quarter. After three months in the South heRMr. s�agAg tocame back to Chicago late in March, brown and appar-emaln way .ently vigorous, but not yet free from the nervous diffi-culties that had driven him away. Consultation with physiciansdetermined him to give up three months more to outdoor life; by thattime he expects to be entirely recovered. He has gone to Colorado,where he willride horseback and climb mountains. The scornful news­paper correspondents who in February informed this Magazine of itsprofound ignorance concerning the state of Mr. Stagg's health areinvited to take notice of this turn of affairs. Meanwhile the baseball andtrack teams will be in charge of Mr. Page, assisted by Mr. Comstock; toboth of whom the alumni extend their heartiest good wishes.Among those from other institutions who will offer courses thissummer at Chicago are the following: Oskar Bolza, professor of mathe­matics at Chicago from 1892 to 1901, since then honoraryFor the Sum-mer Quarter professor of mathematics at Freiburg, Germany; J. F.Royster, Ph.D. '07, now professor of English in theUniversity of North Carolina; John Broadus Watson, Ph.D. '03, nowprofessor of psychology in Johns Hopkins University; Milton A.Buchanan, Ph.D. '06, now associate professor of Spanish and Italian inthe University of Toronto; Roy C. Flickinger, Ph.D. '04, now associateprofessor of Greek in Northwestern University; and Harry Alvin Millis,Ph.D. '99, now associate professor of economics in Leland StanfordJunior University. Others are Professor Sill of Cornell, Professor CarlBecker of Kansas, and Professor Labane of Washington and Lee(history); Professor Bergerhoff of Western Reserve (French), ProfessorFletcher of Brigham Young University and Professor Newland F.Smith of Central University of Kentucky (physics); Professor McCurdyof Toronto (oriental literature) ; Professor Trever of Lawrence (Greek);Associate Professor Carl Young of Wisconsin (English), and AssociateProfessor Zorn of Amherst and Assistant Professor Burkhead of Min­nesota (German).Attractive courses among the hundreds announced are too numerouseven for mention. In Philosophy, Professor Moore on "PhilosophicalAspects of Evolution" and Professor Tufts on the" Evolution of Justice"(a phase of which is discussed in his Convocation address in this issue);in Psychology, Professor Angell on "The Psychology of Volition"; inEVENTS AND DISCUSSIONPolitical Economy, Mr. Field on "Population, The Standard of Living,and Eugenics"; in History, Professor Labane on "The Growth of theUnited States as a World Power"; in Household Administration, MissBreckinridge on "The Child and the State"; in Italian, Associate Pro­fessor Wilkins on "Dante's Inferno"; in German, Professor Zorn on"The History of the German Drama in the Nineteenth Century"; inEnglish, Professor Lovett on "Milton"; and in Physical Culture, Mr.Page on "Baseball; Methods of Coaching Illustrated by Practice andMatch Games"-these, outside of the technical courses in the sciences,catch the eye of the editor as he runs over the long program. But whyattempt to specify? The quarter opens on June 17; the first term endsJuly 23, and the quarter, August 29.The University Opera Association was formed in December, 1912, inorder to take advantage of special rates which were offered by theChicago Grand Opera Company. These rates repre­sented a reduction in price of $3.00 to $2.00, $2. 50 to$1.50, and $1.50 to $0.75. That the generosity of theChicago Grand Opera Company was appreciated is shownby the fact that at theclose of the season the Association had 532 mem­bers. The total number of coupons issued were as follows: 908 at75 cents, 230 at $1.5°, and 194 at $2.00, a total of 1,332. Of these,181 were redeemed by the Association. The most popular opera withthe University public was Lucia, for which rr6 tickets were sold for oneperformance. The next in popularity was Tristan and Isolde, with 105tickets for one performance; third, La Traviata with 82 for one per­formance; fourth, Die Walkure with 132 for three performances; fifth,Rigoletto with 82 for two performances.The plan of issuing tickets presented by the Chicago Grand OperaCompany involved considerable inconvenience to the University public,inasmuch as holders of coupons, giving the right to reduced rates, wereobliged to make a special trip to the city to turn such coupons in at the boxoffice. In many cases it appeared that the block of seats to which thereduction applied had been sold out. Moreover, the management ofthe box office at the Auditorium Theater was apparently not in completesympathy with the attitude of the Chicago Grand Opera Companytoward the University public, and for performances for which the housewould naturally be sold out, holders were sometimes refused tickets.The plan for next year includes the issuing of season tickets to membersof the Association, and also contemplates the placing of limited blocksUniversityOperaAssociationTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MA,GAZINEof seats for each performance in the hands of the Association. Thisplan will make it possible for members to obtain tickets without thejourney to the city. On the other hand, it is obvious that the Associationwill not be able to provide the full number of seats desired for the mostpopular performances.During the year the Association collected from the sale of couponsand membership fees the sum of $1,501.75. After the payment of allexpenses, a balance of $174.71 remains in the treasury .. When the present writer, nineteen years ago this week, asked theconductor of the Fifty-fifth Street cable-cat, as it swung round fromCottage Grove Avenue, where the University of Chicagowas, the official replied that he had never heard of it ; buta kindly passenger said, as we approached Ellis Avenue,"There it is," and pointed out the Home for Incurables.That veteran jest has seen much service since; but even thestreet-car conductors know where the University is now. "Looking overthe latest list of committees of the City Club, one is' both surprised andpleased to see how this University, with its comparatively brief list ofalumni, is finding expression of its social ideals through the interest ofits graduates.UniversityMen withMunicipalInterestsOn the 15th of March appeared the first number of the ChicagoLiterary Monthly. The salutatory editorial declares, in part:The material which [the Literary Monthly] will print will beAn Undergrad- entirely by Chicago students. It will deal, in many cases, withuate Literary Chicago scenes and Chicago life. It had long been felt that a certainMagazine type of writing is being done by the Chicago undergraduates, whichshould be sharply differentiated from the creative work done at theAmerican colleges. There is less of the "flowers, the birds, and the running brooks."There is more of the "stern realities of life," and particularly of cosmopolitan city life.And as an example of this characteristic work is given "A Study inGray," by Samuel Kaplan, '14-a bit from the daily routine of Mrs.Lefkowitz, overworked Jewish wife and mother. Myra Reynolds, '13,niece of Professor Myra Reynolds, has a story entitled "Unto the Thirdand Fourth Generation"-a study of grim lives that end in madness.Donald Breed, '13, the editor-in-chief, contributes "The Stranger"-afantasy containing both realism and mysticism, a type of which Mr.Breed is very fond, and which is otherwise illustrated by his" Pageant ofProgress," printed in the June issue of the alumni Magazine last year.EVENTS AND DISCUSSIONOther articles are critical: "The Plays of the Season," by Barrett Clark,'I2, and "The Extremists in Modern Art," by Sanford Griffith, '14-both excellent.Not since the' merger of the University of Chicago Weekly with theDaily Maroon, eight years ago, has there been any publication at theUniversity which gave opportunity to undergraduates who wished toexpress themselves in pure literature. The present magazine is unpre­tentious, but earnest. May it succeed r The subscription price is onedollar a year. Subscriptions should be sent to William Hefferan,Faculty Exchange, University of Chicago.The arrangements for Alumni Day this year are in the hands of theCollege Alumni Association, and the responsibility for the preparationshas been divided among various individual members asfollows: Ralph C Hamill, Chairman; John F. Moulds,Arrangements; Hugo M. Friend, Finance; John F.Dille, Publicity; Charles W. Paltzer, Vaudeville; and William P.MacCracken, Jr., Sing.A circular communication will be sent out shortly to alumni and anaccount of the plans for the day will be printed in the next number ofthe Magazine. All alumni are earnestly urged to give their support inthis matter. There is no more important element in the building upof a strong alumni sentiment than this annual gathering of formerstudents at the close of the academic year.AlumniDayTHE UNIVERSITY AND THEADVANCE OF JUSTICEIBY JAMES HAYDEN TUFTSProfessor and Head of the Department of PhilosophyFive thousand years ago, we are informed by our colleague who islearned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, the word for truth, right,justice emerged. It was the earliest abstract term discernible in theancient world. Its earlier occurrenct? is largely in claims for merit beforethe gods. But a thousand years later, the same shift _in emphasis hadtaken place which marks our century as compared with the Middle Ages.The demand was then to reform conditions rather than to justify the soul,The appeal of the wronged peasant comes down to us as the first of manyrising through the ages, invoking a higher power when in the cor­rupted currents of this world offense's gilded hand has shoved byjustice. "Do justice," cries the wronged peasant, "for the sake ofthe lord of justice. For justice is for eternity."It may be doubted whether any of the words since framed to expresshuman values takes so strong a hold as "justice." It embodies the claimof personality, of the aspirations and expanding life of the human spirit.In disclosing the rights of each as the concern of all it bears constanttestimony to the essentially social nature of man's higher development.Denial of justice stings because it is virtually a denial of humanity. Hewho has no rights is not a person but a thing. The history of justice isthen the history of the emerging one by one of higher and more socialpowers-life, property, liberty of thought and speech, education-and ofthe recognition and protection of these by society. It is the history ofvarious standards or balances for measuring these claims-custom, thedecrees of rulers and assemblies, the will of God, the rule of reason. Itis the history of various agencies for holding the balances-religion,philosophy, government, and, I venture to add, the university.Did time permit, it would be instructive to trace in outline thesuccessive types which have stood out in the more direct lines of our ownspiritual ancestry. We should see the justice of the kinship groupinsuring every member his share of food, allotting him his wife and hisI Delivered on the occasion of the Eighty-sixth Convocation of the University,held in the Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, March 18, 1913.186THE UNIVERSITY AND THE ADVANCE OF JUSTICE 187place by the hearth, protecting him against violence by its law of blood­revenge, measuring its dooms by ancient custoin, enforcing its mostsacred interests by taboos. In transfigured form this tribal justice pleadsthe cause of the poor through Israel's prophets; through the symbol ofthe next-of-kin or Redeemer it appears in the divine judge who is alsothe protector, and thus passes over into the conceptions of Christendom.We should see again the justice of the city, based not on unity of kinbut on the class groups of citizens, traders or artisans, and slaves.Justice will first of all mean giving each class its place. Industry andcommerce have made possible greater wealth; private property gainslarger recognition and protection. Household and family are morefirmly organized; they likewise gain new powers and obligations. Themeasure of justice changes from custom and taboo to the will of the ruleror the decision of the assembly, and although this latter may condemn a,Socrates it means, on the whole, discussion and advance. When indeedthe clash of private interests and the tyranny of the one or the few or themany become too great for easy endurance, the search for a deeper basisleads to two conceptions which have proved a possession forever of ourcivilization. On the one hand rises Plato's vision of a city where classesshall at least be based on merit, where intelligence shall rule, and thelarger public good dominate all private interests in a harmonious order.On the other rises the conception of claims so deeply rooted in humannature, yes even in the order of the universe itself, as to deserve the claimof laws of nature. These are found not in the urge of passion or desire,nor set in blind habit or tradition, but rather in the reflective search ofreason for principles of order and right living, for what is equitable andgood. If the vision of Plato has taken its place with that of the prophetsof Israel as the inspiration of those who have repeatedly challenged theexisting order, the standard of Aristotle and the Stoics has proved itsmastery in successive legal systems, from that of Rome to that of theUnited States. Especiallywhen the city-state of Rome expanded to anempire did this conception of a law of nature evince its fitness to widenthe law of a city, to the law of a world. The idea of a justice universalin its principles and its sway came to clearer consciousness. If slaverywas justified by the law of reason, it was none the less true that the samelaw would one day be invoked to resist the monarch and defend theliberties of the subject. 'Our first glimpses of justice in the land where our institutions werebuilt are once more of a world of customs and blood-revenge. The swordof justice is raised above its scales. Our forefathers, British, English, or188 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINENorse, had their virtues, but a modern observer of one of their courts,says the learned historian of English law, might" think that for a longtime before and some time after the Norman conquest our ancestorsoccupied such leisure as they had in cattle-stealing by night and man­slaughter and perjury by day." Piracy, tempered by the slave trade,was a common pursuit In heaven, likewise, the divine sovereign satto rule a world of largely hostile subjects, and conducted a vast assizein which the great mass were to be found guilty and condemned. Thefirst business of justice was then to put down violence and maintain order.But when order had been established and the modern world graduallyfound itself, it saw a new unfolding of individual powers and a higherworth given to individual claims than the ancient world allowed. Com­merce, invention, and discovery gave new opportunity. Art and lettersreflected the new spirit and in turn gave it imagery and power. A moreinward and personal religion demanded liberty in what had of old beenfixed by birth or state. The subject who had been given protection forlife and property against all but the government gradually won theguaranties of civil liberty. The common law established by a Henryproved a defense against a Stuart. As a witty historian has recentlysaid, its valiant champion, Sir Edward Coke, even invented MagnaCarta in this cause. And finally the right of men, not merely to pro­tection against the government, but themselves to choose and deposetheir rulers and even to make their laws, was achieved.It was not strange that, as the result of these centuries of develop­ment and struggle, liberty and equality were the notes that soundeddeepest in the chord of justice. To these, men were ready to pledge theirlives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor. These rights they believedto be "natural" and God-given, based deeper and sanctioned by higherauthority than any human powers or statutes. Due process of law wasthe agency for their defense.Even so hasty a glance has at least shown that justice takes manyforms, ranging from the emphasis upon social classes to the insistenceupon equality, from the conception of a harmonious city life as para­mount, to the doctrine that governments exist to protect private libertyand private property. It has shown custom give place to decrees ofrulers and these to acts of popular assemblies as standards. Even therule of reason, which, to philosophers at least, has often seemed changelessand eternal, we should find, could we examine it in detail, varying withthe habits of thought, the philosophies, and the prejudices of the times,­and beset by the idols of the tribe, the den, the market, and the theater.THE UNIVERSITY AND THE ADVANCE OF JUSTICE 189We are prepared, then, to find the conditions of the present disclosingto us new human values and calling for new agencies to aid in theirmeasuring and protection. The external conditions are familiar-themachine in industry, the collective and impersonal organization ofcapital and labor, the change to city life. Under all these, only halfrealized as yet, is the closer interweaving of all our interests, the deepen­ing interdependence of all our lives.As we become more and more aware of this, as our means for com­munication increase, as public opinion and public sentiment becomegreater powers, we are forming a social consciousness. We are seeking,even if somewhat blindly and uncertainly, a "social" justice. No onecan pretend to state as yet just what the standards and demands of thisnew justice are. One characteristic is that it is open, experimental.Like the old justice, it must protect all members of society-even theleast-from violence and fraud, but it seeks to distribute more fairly theburdens and gains; it would keep open the way of opportunity. Butabove all perhaps is its conviction that society by taking thought canmove on to a new level; that no longer living from hand to mouth, nolonger groping, or blundering by trial and error, men may through thenew science and the new spirit achieve what has been impractical before.All these demands of the time indicate, I believe, the need of the univer­sity as an agency of justice-a need to which it is already beginning innumerous ways to respond.Let us begin with our attitude toward the old dangers which threatenthe old familiar values-that is, the crimes against person and property.I do not intend to repeat indictments against the criminal procedure ofthe courts, or against our penal institutions. These criticisms usuallyassume the necessity and adequacy of these institutions if efficientlycarried on. A more fundamental question is persistently forcing itselfupon us: Is our whole machinery of criminal justice anything more thana superficial effort to deal with certain symptoms? Even if it does not-as some believe-make more criminals than it reforms, so much at leastis evident: it does not stop the supply; crime continues with little if anydecrease. This certainly compels the query whether something moreadequate cannot be provided. Our ideas and agencies of criminalprocedure derive mainly from the primitive days. Reliance was longalmost wholly upon terror. More than two hundred varieties of crime,we are told, came to bear the death penalty. So helpless was the pro­fessional mind of a century ago to conceive any better form of security,that when it was proposed to abolish the death penalty for thefts of19° THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEarticles exceeding in value forty shillings, Chief Justice Ellenboroughdeclared: "The learned judges are unanimous in their 'opinion thatjustice and the public safety require that the death penalty should notbe remitted. . . . . If we suffer this bill to pass we shall not know wherewe are, and whether we are standing on our heads or our heels." Norhas the humaner treatment which the last century demanded gone farbeneath the surface. The present demand is that we find out causes.Of course older thought had its theory of causes. On the one hand,general depravity made us all evil-disposed; on the other, free will madeus all responsible. These theories fitted excellently into a scheme ofdivine justice which consistently condemned all alike. But humanjustice never has meted out such equal sentence. It has dealt withspecific offenses, and now we seek to know likewise specific causes. Werecognize that freedom is a matter of degrees, not of yes or no. Andeven if w� are all sinners we don't all take the same forms for our offend­ing. We want to know specifically Just why this boy steals and that girlgoes wrong. If it is heredity, we want to know it; if it is home condi­tions, if it is city life, if it is our method of dealing with first offenders,we want to know it. The old justice began too late when it waited untilthe evil had been done. It must be supplemented by a new justicewhich begins earlier.This is a task which calls for all the agencies and methods of theuniversity. It means study of heredity and growth. It calls for newdevelopments of physiology and psychology. It means knowledge ofeconomic and social conditions. It means justice as much more adequatethan that of the present as oUTS is above that of the savage in the kinshipgroup.But in our day the great dangers, even to person and property, arenot from criminals or from foreign invader. The great dangers to lifeare from the machine. The dangers to security of goods are from theindustrial or commercial process. Murders occupy large space in thepress but they are trivial as sources of sorrow and misery compared withthe fatalities from mine, and mill, and railroad; thirty-five thousandkilled and half a million injured annually is a record which it is difficultfor an academic audience to appreciate. If we add the occupationaldiseases, the lead poisoning, the tuberculosis in dust-producing industries,and the numerous by-products of our factory system, we have perilswhich as yet are not accurately known, but which dwarf into insignifi­cance the dangers from violence. Here, then, is a new demand uponthe justice of the state. It must in some manner protect its members,or confess impotence and injustice.THE UNIVERSITY AND THE ADVANCE OF JUSTICE 191Closely connected with the problem of protecting life is that ofcarrying the heavy burden of economic loss which follows industrialaccidents. This was at first piled almost entirely upon those least ableto bear it, the wives and children of men earning small wages. Thecourts sought a partial remedy by developing the doctrine of individualresponsibility. The employer was held liable for death or injury if hewas unquestionably and solely to blame. The attempt was doubtlesswell intentioned but it has proved so futile either to protect life or todistribute the burden, and in general so much more like a lottery than ajust process, that at last we are giving up' in such cases the method oflitigation. We are seeing the folly of trying. to deal with a machine asthough it were a person. It is better to control it than to sue it at law.Hence on the one hand the public requires safeguards for the machines,and on the other hand the public requires compensation for the families,ceasing in some degree to visit the misfortunes of the fathers uponthe children.This specific case is but one illustration of a general tendency to meetour new and complex life by public instead of private law. We mighttake similar illustrations from commercial life. In dealing with railroads,or other public service corporations, individual effort to prevent unfairrates or secure redress has proved futile. As against the twentieth­century devices for disguising nature's defects the individual food-buyeris helpless. In the commercial world the individual is as helpless toavert the loss of all his goods in the event of a panic. Society steps inand substitutes its own action to protect life and health, to make fairrates and fair burdens. Administrative law gains over litigation.Expert commissions are employed. And as this method must notmerely decide particular cases but rather formulate standards for state­and nation-wide application, the necessity for scientific procedure isincreasingly felt. The important commissions have made large use ofuniversity men, and their methods are essentially university methods.We might indeed almost say that while the courts represent the deductiveaspect of logic, and legislatures find their task in framing major premises,often on very hasty induction, the commission at its best represents thescientific union of the two in the working hypothesis. Commissionsmake a large use of the familiar standard of "reason." Rates must bereasonable. Machinery must be made reasonably safe. But instead ofthe judgment of the common man on the one hand, or the" artificialreason" of the law on the other, a scientific conception based On thoroughand expert investigation is gradually being worked out.But the service of the university to the older agencies of justice is noTHE 7JNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEless important. Those of us whose memory teaches back a quarter of acentury may recall that the public mind was then deeply stirred upon aquestion of justice. An important religious body was nearly torn apartupon the question of divine justice to the heathen, but decisions of stateand federal courts attracted little attention. When this universityopened, he would have been a bold man who said that these decisionswould ever rouse so earnest a controversy as the higher criticism of theScriptures. Today, however, no aspect of justice stirs feelings sostrongly as the instances of opposition between the law as interpreted bythe courts and the law as made by the people in legislatures. Besidesthe strain between a written constitution and the voice of a majority, isthe deeper issue which our former colleague, Professor Pound, pointedout in an address in this place-the unsettled question as to which is thesupreme authority, on the one hand reason as interpreted by the courts,on the other the will of the people. It is easy to say that reason ought tomean, not merely consistency, but a consideration of all relevant facts,and a scientific method of dealing with them; that it should mean, notmerely the principles recognized in the seventeenth and eighteenthcenturies, but the emerging principles of the twentieth. The question ishow it shall come to mean these new things. It is easy to say, on theother hand, that the will of the people ought to be reasonable and itslegislation intelligent and deliberate. The question is how it canbecome so. In solving each of these problems the university is ableto render aid.The shortcomings of the courts have been set forth so diligently oflate that it may be well to notice, first, some of the defects of legislativemethods, even when no special interest has secured public favor forprivate ends. These methods, Professor Freund has pointed out, I "areperhaps the natural result of leaving the entire work of legislation toa large body constituted primarily for purposes of policy and not ofjustice." They show such inherited faults as: "no definite responsibilityfor the introduction of bills; no thorough preliminary investigation ofthe conditions to be remedied; no adequate public discussion of 'theterms of a proposed measure, and involved if not faulty phraseology ofstatutes," often, no previous hearing of interests affected. In order toget action, public interest must be aroused, but this necessity often worksagainst due consideration of means and measures. We lack statisticsin many fields. We need a history of legislation and a history of theI "Jurisprudence and Legislation," Congress of Arts and Science, St. Louis, 1904,VII, 628ff.THE UNIVERSITY AND THE ADVANCE OF JUSTICE 193operation of statutes. Our legislation as compared with the commonlaw is comparable to experiments in justice. But experiments withoutrecords and without comparison are not calculated to make sure progress.They resemble more the trial-and-error method of the squirrel in thepsychologist's maze. They explain in part the indifferent if not hostileattitude of the courts, noticed by legal writers.These defects are evidently of just the sort which the university mightbe expected to remedy, and the legislative reference bureau, foundedunder university influence in Wisconsin, is the pioneer in what promisessoon to be a general movement. It places information and expert aid atthe service of the lawmaker. Its fitness is so evident that we wonderwhy it has not come before. It brings into the service of the publicresources which in the past have too often been available for specialinterests only. And it is distinctly a university contribution to theadvance of justice.If we turn now to the difficulties of the common law and the courts,we are told that the first of them is that we no longer have a common law.Instead, we have fifty more or less divergent systems, and this is notmerely an inconvenience for the lawyer but a serious burden upon theprocess of justice. Under present conditions of short tenure and crowdeddockets, judges, we are told, are no longer able to do the work of organiz­ing the law. The task is passing to the law teacher and the law writer'-that is, is becoming essentially a university duty.The task of bringing the new economic and social science into legaldoctrines is quite as evidently laid in large measure upon the university,which will thus follow in the line of the church, the customs of merchants,and the legislation of the last century as liberalizing agencies for thecommon law. And another influence may be expected to flow fromuniversity contacts. One source of strain in the accommodation of lawto present needs, we are told, is that lawyers on the whole still appearto hold, consciously or subconsciously, that" the principles of law areabsolute, eternal, and of universal validity." Philosophers have fre­quently held the same thing about morals. But the spirit of a modernuniversity, quick with.inquiry, seeking the origins of suns and atoms andorganic life, of language, customs, govemment, morals, and religions+­this spirit must prepare the future lawyer and jurist to say with Kohler:"There is no eternal law. Law must adapt itself to constantly advancingcivilization. This civilization it must aid, not hinder or repress.:?I Roscoe Pound, "Taught Law," an address before the Association of AmericanLaw Schools, I9I2.2 Rechisphilosophie, p. 6.I94 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEIn venturing to bring before you these features of the university'sservice to justice I have transgressed, I fear, the first principle of univer­sity life. For I speak with only the layman's claim of an interest in thesubject. But there is one aspect of justice which we cannot, if we would,leave entirely to courts and legislatures. Great as are other agencies ofjustice, public sentiment is ultimately the most powerful. From itsprings legislation. By it judicial opinion is insensibly but inevitablyaffected. Many questions do not require coercion by law if publicsentiment is clear and positive. Now, however, more than ever before,public sentiment is confronted with tasks for which it needs expertguidance if it is to meet its responsibilities and do justice. Among thenumerous problems of this sort I select one.In our present process wealth is produced by the most intricate sub­division and co-operation. What share ought each coatributor to have?Put in this general form the question is doubtless futile and negligible.But in one of its aspects it is more and more taking a specific form.What is a fair wage? Under older conditions this was largely anindividual matter. At present, wages are settled for largegroups andthe public is tacitly if not openly appealed to for its opinion as to what isjust. Two recent cases bring out alike the public interest and themagnitude of the problem. A year ago two strikes were threatened, onein the anthracite coal mines, the other by the locomotive engineers. Inthe one case, an increase of four millions of wages was granted, in theother, thirty thousand men asked for an increase of seven millions ofdollars, which in the judgment of the railroad officials would suggestproportionate increases among other employees, amounting to sixtymillions more. The interest of the public in the first case is indicatedby the recent government report that to pay the four millions increase inwages the public contributed thirteen millions through the higher pricesof coal. The interest of the public in preventing a strike in the latter caseis forcibly presented by the commission constituted to arbitrate theissues. A strike by the locomotive engineers of all the eastern roads, thecommission declares, would largely shut off food supplies from the greatcities of the East and practically paralyze industry in that region. "Ifa strike . . . . lasted only a single week the suffering would have beenbeyond our power of description, and if it had continued a month theloss not only in property but in life would have been enormous." For thepublic simply to form a ring and let the parties fight it out is obviouslyto abandon justice and revert to barbarism. Both sides wish to con­ciliate public opinion. The arbiters, of whom the president of theTHE UNIVERSITY AND THE ADVANCE OF JUSTICE 195University of Wisconsin was chairman, seek to discover" the basis of afair wage." The eminent commission finds this task highly difficult withthe inadequate data available. How impossible for the general public toframe a just opinion! It is only by continuous investigations and expertjudgment that a more adequate basis can be laid. It is only by univer­sity methods that public opinion can find guidance.It may appear to some that it is exaggeration to treat this just­settled controversy of the engineers, or the pending controversy of thefiremen, as typical. Unskilled labor is the larger factor and this isunorganized. Society, it may be said, need fear no concerted strikesfrom this labor, and hence is not compelled to form judgments, orintervene. But society is not so interpreting its duty. Quite apartfrom such possibilities of sudden fusion as the Lawrence strike revealedis the feeling that the ignorant and less successful who fill the ranks ofthe unskilled need the protection and aid of society if they cannot actcollectively. A minimum-wage law for women, enacted in one state andproposed in others, whether economically sound or not, is evidence ofthe conviction that the wage of women is as vitally "affected with apublic interest" as the charges of warehouses or the fares on railways.There is no question but that society will take a position on the questionof fair wage for men likewise, though it may not attempt to put this intolaw. The only question is: How can this position be made as intelligentas possible?In seeking some principle on which to form a judgment it is note­worthy that the tendency is to abandon the older tests of merit, "Howmuch does the man earn?" or of market price, "How much does unskilledlabor command ?" The first test is too difficult for public opinion unlessone can use the market price as a measure, and in proportion as weapproach monopoly conditions the market price seems to be more thandubious as a moral standard. Instead, the conception of a "livingwage," "a standard of living," is advanced as the test. At some futuretime this may be so defined as to take its place, along with property, asa value which law will protect. It stands for many of the same endswhich property has served-food, shelter, security, permanence, decency,education of children, and some degree of comfort. But it seems tosuggest also a share in the ideals of the time, as well as in its materialresour�es. Its claim doubtless rests upon the belief that if one of themembers of society sinks or degenerates, all are sooner or later bound tosuffer with it. But just because it is really far more complex than older"natural rights" it needs and is beginning to receive increasingly thet96 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmost careful scientific study. Surveys and investigations-one of themost thorough made by out own University Settlement-are preparingthe way for translating the figure of wages into terms of actual.livingand making possible a use of the scales of justice.In recounting the service of the university to this task of forming anintelligent public sentiment it would be impossible to leave out the workof the social settlements. Founded and largely developed under univer­sity influence and by university men and women, they have been seekingunderlying social causes, as well as the more external facts which can beenumerated for the census. But they have contributed especially to thecommon understanding which is the first requisite for justice. If I amto be fair to the other man I must first of all be able to see things fromhis point of view, even if it is not my point of view. For the justice oftoday, which must reside so largely in public sentiment, common under­standing is as essential as was for earlier justice the common law.But I should be willing to waive all that has .gone before if I mightyet justly claim for the university a share in this which follows. To onewho compares the attitude of society today toward the problems ofjustice with that of even a quarter-century ago, one general characterstands out which is more significant than any detail. This may becalled the creative and constructive attitude. The American has neverlacked courage and constructiveness in business enterprise. The spiritof the founders and of the frontier was creative along the lines of politicaland educational institutions. But a quarter of a century ago we werenot creative in problems of political and social life. We accepted many'evils as inevitable. To say that a proposed measure involved somechange in human nature was to condemn its Economic laws appearedto many to be sentences of fate, rather than instrumentalities by whichman could intelligently master conditions. Poverty, crime, vice,disease, ignorance, were facts to be accepted. Religion, philanthropy,law, sought to save individual souls or to remedy individual ills or wrongs.But there was no large constructive policy. The day of conservation, ofcity planning, of municipal efficiency, of such sanitation as that onPanama, of expert aid to agriculture, had not dawned. Now we arefacing world-old evils as well as new dangers, with a new spirit. We aretaking a larger view. No longer frightened by the plea, "Such is humannature," we are beginning to realize that human nature itself, as we kownit, is mainly an artificial product. We are looking farther back, andtaking courage as we see how much has been done. We are beginning toconceive faintly how much may be done in the future if we plan largelyfor our cities, our resources, our citizens, instead of dealing one at a timeTHE UNIVERSITY AND THE ADVANCE OF JUSTICE I97with results of failure to plan. Is not this creative, confident spirit duein large measure to the work of the university? For by its discoveriesand its organization of methods there has come for the first time a con­fidence based on knowledge as well as on faith.Visions of a Juster order have come to seers and philosophers manytimes since the Egyptian of four thousand years ago described his idealkingdom. Oftenest perhaps religion has embodied this ideal in its future.But with all its power to lift the imagination and stir the longing for areign of right, religion has lacked ability to organize our present society.Philosophers since Plato's paradox have more than once been kings, andyet have failed to give his royal city to the light of day. The universityspirit of today is not visionary, but it has a right to believe that manythings impossible for prophet or individual philosopher are possible bythe patient and courageous work of the great force of university menworking with scientific methods.If the university is to do the work which society is asking from it,and is certain to ask increasingly as need increases and scientific methodsdevelop, it is evident that large additions will be necessary to its resourcesin certain lines. The natural sciences developed earlier, and properlyreceived at first the larger equipment. The task of the social sciencesneeds, and we may believe will find, larger equipment than heretofore,not in laboratories-these are in the cities and the shops, the legislatures,courts, and schools-but in the men to observe, to interpret, and to planconstructively in the cause of justice.It may have occurred to someone to ask: "Why do you speak of theuniversity and the advance of justice?" Is it not rather the scientificspirit and method which have been shown to be our need and hope? Inpart these are the same. Investigation is mainly carried on in univer­sities. And on the other hand, nothing is so characteristic of the modernuniversity as the zeal for original inquiry. But great as is the scientificspirit, for purposes of justice the university is more than science. Itstask is not only to professionalize a part of society but to socialize theprofessions. It stands for the spirit to use science for human advance­ment, rather than for private ends. It stands for the enrichment andsocializing of human life by interpretation and appreciation of art andletters as well as of institutions, religion, and philosophy. It stands forthe kindling of generous impulses, for the enthusiasms and challengeof youth not yet so accustomed to unjust usages as to accept them, orso cautious as to be overtimid. It stands not only for the forces ofideas but also for the interaction of men in democratic association.In the thought of the ancient Egyptian, Truth and Justice were notTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEdistinguished. As civilization advanced society found for them differentwords and intrusted these two great values to different institutions.Universities have been founded to seek for truth; governments and courtsto do justice. But with all the gain of specialization, has there not alsobeen somewhat of loss? Some truth pursued by universities has beenso abstract as to lose even the value of being true. Some justice exercisedby rulers and courts has failed to be just. Society today is finding thatjustice needs truth for its method and that truth needs justice to make itvital. The universities are increasingly conceiving the business whichis in hand not as "an opinion to be held, but as a work to be done"; andan increasing share of this work not only lays" the foundation of humanutility and power" but contributes to the deeper, finer values whichemerge as utility is justly measured, and power is justly used. Thosewho are today passing here from the smaller division of our univer­sity to the larger, and are to be enrolled among the alumni, are to bewelcomed to fuller co-operation in this task.You may find many ways of making your contribution. So young auniversity as ours cherishes examples which range from the devotion ofa Ricketts to the sympathy of a Gloucester Moors; it includes among itsliving members in Chicago and wherever its alumni are found those whoare serving human weal in ways more numerous than I could recount.To have some part however small in the advancement of justice is theprivilege of all members of the modern university-of this university.SORTING COLLEGE FRESHMENIThe question of establishing a fair measure of the entering collegestudent's ability to write English has been perhaps greater than thedifficulty of rating him in any other so-called entrance subject, and theimportance of arriving at some fair test and of bringing deficient studentsup to the minimum requirement is, of course, emphasized by the necessityof his representing his knowledge of subjects in all departments throughwritten .. minations and reports. Realizing the peculiarity of theEnglish situation, the faculty of the University of Chicago have formany years dealt with this as a separate problem.'The basic assumption h�s been made that the proof of a student'sability to write rested on the average of his written work at any giventime and not on entrance credentials or college credits. At the requestof the English department, members of all other departments in the Uni­versity are urged to report students whose work in English is markedlydefective. If the case is flagrant enough, a student's credit for a coursein English may be withdrawn, and he may be compelled to pass it againbefore his diploma is granted, Matters of internal administration in acollege are, however, relatively uninteresting to the school man. Butthe application of this same assumption to the entering student is moreinteresting, as it bears directly on his status and involves a regularprocedure which demands extra instruction and an enlarged faculty.This is the procedure which has given to this article the title, '' SortingCollege Freshmen."English I is required of every Freshman student entering the Uni­versity as one of the three courses in his first twelve weeks or quarter.In the autumn when the largest number enter, new students are con­vened on their first day, and among other important announcements,information is given to them that all must register in English I, but forthe first week merely on probation. During this trial period an amountof writing is exacted from the Freshman which would be unreasonablewere he required to do as much in each week of the course. EachI Reprinted from the English Journal, February, 1913.2 This is, of course, not a unique arrangement at Chicago. Similar systems areIn operation at Madison, Ann Arbor, and elsewhere. A comparative study of allthese would be interesting and profitable, particularly with reference to what consti­tutes eligibility to the required Freshman English course.199200 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEstudent prepares outside of class two themes which, in the averagecase, aggregate 1,000 to 1,500 words, and, in addition, writes one exercisein class and takes a written examination. The subjects for assignedpapers are naturally simple and concrete, but so varied from year toyear that they cannot be anticipated and prepared for.' At the endof the trial period, those students whose work has shown either a notableinability to think, to construct, or to write simple sentences withouterror are rejected from English I and passed back into English o.A word is in place as to the method of determining a student'sfitness or unfitness to carry the regular work. A copy of the EnglishJournal for the spring contained a letter from a teacher who was franklyindignant at the methods employed and evidently certain that the basisof rejection of students was arbitrary and unjustifiable. From. theaddress given at the head of the letter, it was possible to run down thecase of the students concerned, and see what sort of English they hadpresented in their test papers. It was no worse than the following.It is impossible to give copious illustrations, but here are sentencesfrom students diverted from English I to English ° in October, 1912:" Altho I am at present independent of my upkeep I realized that at an institu­tion where so many positions were open to those who needed them, an air of businesswould be entertained that might not be found in other places.""Also in social life in a town such as Lincoln the lines are more dosey drown thatis one must either take an active part or be to quite an extent an outcast, where hereone can live as they please or as conditions allow them.""When asked why he is at any college or university, frequently one's mind is aperfect blank. But. however, after considerable thought on that subject one is quiteconvinced why he is there.""In Chicago besides the different people are fine parks, museums and othereducating things which everyone should have a good idea of before entering liveswork.""The University of Chicago, an institution of learning located in the city ofChicago offers many more opportunities than does many other schools and collegesof the same purpose.""The number of instructors employed in the school I do not know but if I maysay what I have herd graduates of the University of Chicago say and also graduatesof other large institution say that the teachers here where the best money could hire."The course known as English 0, designed for the edification ofstudents who write like this, is conducted under the roof of the Uni­versity High School by two of the ablest Senior instructors in the EnglishI The exercise in class for the present year was in the nature of a report on exposi­tory prose read aloud by the instructor, and the examination involved the definitionof one or two rhetorical terms, the planning of a hypothetical theme, the correctingof a few defective sentences, and the writing of a paragra ph of exposition.SORTING COLLEGE FRESHMEN 201department there. It is given at the two hours coinciding with thehours in which the fourteen present divisions of English I are conducted,and it involves no extra payment of student fees. There is no necessaryignominy in being enrolled in English 0, nor is there necessarily a per­manent penalty for being placed in this division.The possibilities for the student sent to English 0 are four:a) If he is so hopelessly deficient that the instructor in English 0sees no chance of preparing him for English I during the course ofthe next six months, he is given a failure and the burden of prepara­tion in English for college work is laid upon his individual shoulders.b) If he does fairly well so that it would be safe to admit him toEnglish I at the beginning of the ensuing quarter, he is passed intoit, and then if he passes English I, he has at the end of his first six monthssecured credit for five courses instead of the six secured by the normalstudent.c) If he shows distinct progress in the elementary matters of pro­nunciation, grammar, and syntax, to which the English I instructorcannot give the chief emphasis, he may be passed out of English 0 toEnglish 2. This is an extra course without fee, supplementary toEnglish I, running during the Winter and Spring quarters, into whichdelinquents in English I, as well as advanced students in English 0,are passed. They are held here under an indeterminate sentence, andif the results justify it, are sooner or later given credit for English 1.1d) In exceptional cases, the student rejected from English I andput in English ° may even, on recommendation of the instructor inEnglish 0, be given credit for English I during his first quarter's residence.It will thus be seen that the whole system is as far as possible so arrangedas to take account of the individual equipment and ability of the student,and so as to avoid at any place catching him in the cog-wheels of themachinery with the result that the possibly mistaken judgment of asingle instructor will permanently embarrass him.With these statements as a background, some figures relative tothe developments during the last seven years in which this system hasbeen in operation may be pertinent and intelligible. Table I showsthe number of students who in the last seven years have been rejectedfrom English I and put into English 0, and the subsequent fates ofI Thus, the student dropped from English I into English 0, and passed from ° to2 and then out of 2, secures his major's credit as quickly as students who have beenheld in I and detained in 2 for extra practice; and English 2, since it is an added lateafternoon course, does not prevent a student from registering in three regular courses,and so from securing credit for six majors during the first two quarters.202 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthese students-those who failed in English 0, those who dropped thecourse, those who were passed directly into English 2, from which itwas possible for them to get credit for English I before the end of theWinter Quarter, and the small minority who received credit for English Iat the same time with the students who had not been rejected. Exami­nation of the table shows that during the first three years there wererather wide fluctuations, due probably to the experimental nature ofthe course in these years, but that in the last four completed autumnsEnglish ° has definitely settled down and shown definite tendencies.TABLE ITHE COURSE IN ENGLISH 0Quarter No. Failed Dropped To To Credit forin Class English 2 English I English IAutumn, 1905 ...... 89 8* I 24 54 2Autumn, 1906 ..... 30 IS 0 3 12 0Autumn, 1907 ...... 57 16 2 II 27 IAutumn, I90S ..... 7S 32 4 21 24 7Autumn, 1909 ..... 69 24 2 IS 23 2Autumn, 1910 ... .. 53 13 0 IS 14 8Autumn, 191,1. ..... 46 10 0 20 IS I* One suspended.a) The number of students sent into this class, the number whohave failed in it, and the number. who have been advanced from itinto English I, have all decreased in like proportion.b) The number passed into English 2 has remained about constant,a fact which means that the proportion has somewhat increased.c) The very small number who have received direct credit forEnglish I is too low to justify any deductions.A second table is also interesting with reference not merely to thematter of English 0, but to the entire method of "sorti�g Freshmen"in connection with which English 0 is the most striking feature. Thisshows that in general the number of registrations in English I hasremained within reaching distance of 400 in the last seven years, theaverage being 382, but that the number of sections in English I hassteadily increased, with the result that the average number of studentsin a section, which in 1965 was a shade over 50, had fallen in 19II toabout 27.I This increase in the number of sections and instructorsI In order to determine the average number of students per section the numbersent to English 0 must be subtracted from the total before dividing by the number ofsections.SORTING COLLEGE FRESHMEN 203has, of course, made possible a more effective treatment of the indi­vidual student. With this slight fluctuation in the number of registra­tions, it is apparent also that the number sent to English 0 has beenslowly decreasing, as has already been stated, but that the number sentto English 2 has remained relatively constant; furthermore, that thenumber of failures in English I has been decreasing, particularly inthe last three years, when the smaller sections have prevailed.TABLE IITHE COURSE IN ENGLISH INumber of 'No. of Reg- No Sent to No. Sent to Number I Number ofSections istrations English 0 English 2 Dropped FailuresAutumn, 1905 ... · . 6 392 89 61 10 18Autumn, 1906 ... 6 341 30 58 II 16Autumn, 1907. · . 8 389 57 60 7 17Autumn, 1908. ... 10 356 78 52 5 26Autumn, 1909 ... · . 12 377 69 55 6 4Autumn, 1910 .... 12 392 53 50 II 2Autumn, I9II .. 14 430 46 51 5 4Average ....... 9t 382� 60� 55t 7� I I2�-Enough has been said about English 2 to make some further descrip­tion of this course, the final stage of the procedure, necessary. Itwould be obviously absurd in a course in English composition basedupon theme-writing to enable a student to make up his deficiencythrough the passing of a single examination. English 2, known to thestudents as the" trailer," has, therefore, existed for many years, andhas been conducted during the Winter and Spring quarters for thepurpose of giving additional practice in writing to students who do notdeserve credit for, English I, but who should be conditioned in the course.The course in the Winter Quarter, when it always is largest, furnishesthe most convenient object for study. It is recruited roughly fromthree sources: first, the overwhelming majority sent from English I,a rather constant number fluctuating in seven years only between 50and 64; second, the number sent up from English 0, usually in theneighborhood of 20 per year; and third, a few pickups from previousquarters who through illness or absence have not yet completed theEnglish ordeal.The fates of these students are very different. Most of them passwithin two months, after the writing of six to eight themes. A fewstill fail to satisfy University standards at the end of the three months'period and are held in for another period of drill. These are only a204 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEhandful, but they should be noted in any study of the efficiency orthoroughness of the method. Finally, in checking up totals, a smallnumber, only once more than 10 in the last six years, are either droppedfrom the course or more frequently do not report.TABLE IIIREPORT OF ENGLISH 2Number Number Reported Passed in Failed in DroppedSent from Sent from from Previ- Three or Three or or Did NotEnglish I English 0 ous Quarters Six Months Six Months ReportWinter, 1906 ....... 64 24 I 55 17 13Winter, 1907 ....... 58 3 4 57 I 7Winter, 1908 ....... 60 II 0 56 0 15Winter, 1909 ....... 52 21 0 63 5 5Winter, 1910 ....... 55 18 5 64 8 6Winter, 1911. ...... 50 18 0 51 7 10'Winter, 1912 ....... 51 20 0 63 4 4In general, if we consider that the judgment of the Universityinstructors has been in any degree sound and in any degree constant,certain deductions seem reasonable. The first is that, in spite of thebest efforts of preparatory-school instructors, certain students are ableto slip through who really have no place in college divisions of English,whatever their other entrance qualifications may be. Further, fromthe decreasing number of students set back from English I, it seems thatthe average of English efficiency at college entrance is steadily increasing.Finally, as an examination of Table IV, the general summary, willshow, the course as now conducted with all its complexities has muchto be said in its defense.TABLE IVGENERAL SUMMARYNo. Passed No Passed No. Passed TotalTotal No. via via via 0 and I Total Failed orStudents English I o and 2 (estimated) Passed Droppedor I and 2Autumn, 1905 ...... 392 214 55 56 325 67Autumn, 1906 ...... 341 226 57 8 291 50Autumn, 1907 ..... 389 248 56 28 332 57Autumn, 1908 ...... 356 195 63 21 279 77Autumn, 1909 ...... 377 243 64 20 327 50Autumn, 1910 ...... 392 276 51 22 349 ,43Autumn, 19t1 ..... ; 430 324 63 16 403 27I understand all too well that no report covering the cases of almost2,700 students and no set of tabulations can possibly give more thanSORTING COLLEGE FRESHMEN 205an approximation of what is being accomplished. I might divide andsubdivide and still discover in the final analysis that I had failed tomake allowance for the case of the woman student whose credit in English2 was to be withheld until she had brought in a certificate of vaccination.In the main, however, the concluding table shows what, to theUniversity instructors, cannot be anything but gratifying data. Thistable, which, with the exception of one column, is a mere restatementof data already provided, shows the total number of students registeredin English and the numbers who have received credit for English Ieither by directly taking this course or by taking English 0 plus English2 or by taking English 0 plus English I. It has shown, as the othertables have, that since this system has been in effect there were twoor three years of comparative fluctuation, but in the last four years offull operation the total number of registrations has increased, the totalpassing the regular course has increased, the total number saved bymeans of the special methods herein described has slightly decreased(owing to the decreased burdens laid on these courses), and that thetotal number of students lost through failure to pass English I in itsvarious forms, or through dropping out of college has steadily beenreduced. Although the entrance efficiency of the student is doubtlesssomewhat higher than it has been in the past, it is no less clear that theteaching efficiency in the handling of this course has risen greatly sincethe adoption of the present system.PERCY H. BOYNTONTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDThe Eighty-sixth Convocation.-At theEighty-sixth Convocation of the Univer­sity, which was held on March 18 in theLeon Mandel Assembly Hall, there wereone hundred and twenty-one candidatesfor titles and degrees. Of these, fifty­four were candidates for the title ofAssociate. Thirty-six Bachelors of Arts,Philosophy, or Science, including threeBachelors in Education, were graduated;two Bachelors of Divinity; one Bachelorof Laws; sixteen Masters of Arts orScience; seven Doctors of Law (J.D.);and five Doctors of Philosophy. Ofthose taking higher degrees, ten tooktheir Bachelor's degree at the Universityof Chicago. One of the Associates wasa Japanese, and one of those receivingthe degree of Doctor of Law (J.D.) wasMr. Paul Vincent Harper, a son of thelate President William Rainey Harper.The Convocation orator was ProfessorJames Hayden Tufts, Ph.D., LL.D1,head of the Department of Philosophy,his subject being "The University andthe Advance of Justice." The address,which met with many expressions ofpraise, appears elsewhere in this numberof the Magazine.Professor Tufts and Mrs. Tufts werethe guests of honor at the Convocationreception in Hutchinson Hall on theevening of March 17, when they receivedwith President Harry Pratt Judson andMrs. Judson, and Mr. Lorado Taft,Professorial Lecturer on the History ofArt, and Mrs. Taft. the life of the University during its firstten years. Mr. Hermann von Holst,son of Professor von Holst, who is him­self a graduate of the University and awell-known architect of Chicago, unveiledthe portrait of his father. The painting,which is the work of John C. Johansen,a New York artist, has been hung at theeast end of Hutchinson Hall, taking theplace of the older portrait, which has beenplaced in the historical seminar room ofthe Harper Memorial Library.A new member of the Law SchoolFaculty.-Edward Wilcox Hinton, Deanof the University of Missouri Law School,has been appointed Professor of Law inthe University of Chicago Law School,his appointment to begin with theAutumn Quarter. Mr. Hinton is agraduate of the University of Missouriand of the Columbia Law School. Afteran' experience of twelve years in thegeneral practice of law he became Pro­fessor of Pleading and Practice in theUniversity of Missouri Law School in1903, at the same time continuing hispractice. He has been markedly success­ful in developing instruction in Practice,a branch of law-school work that untilrecently has been either neglected ordealt with very indifferently by the lead­ing law schools of the country. In :i:906Mr. Hinton published his Cases on CodePleading, and in 1912 he became Dean ofthe Missouri Law School. At Chicagohe will have entire charge of the workin Practice and Evidence, and willreorganize and make more efficient thePractice courses offered in the School.Presentation of the portrait of Professorvon H olst.-At the presentation to theUniversity, on the occasion of the Con- State conference of the Americanvocation reception, March 17, of the Chemical Society.-Two hundred dele­portrait of Hermann Eduard von Holst, gates from all parts of the state attendedthe distinguished scholar and first head the annual conference of the Illinoisof the Department of History, Professor section of the American Chemical SocietyJ. Laurence Laughlin, head of the Depart- which met at the University the middlement of Political Economy, made a brief of March. Among the speakers wasaddress as the representative of Professor Dr. Rollin T. Chamberlin, of the Depart­von Holst's former colleagues, and Presi- ment of Geology, who gave an illustrateddent Harry Pratt Judson accepted the lecture on the subject of "Some Ore andportrait on behalf of the University. Mineral Deposits in South America."Both speakers expressed admiration and Dr. Chamberlin recently returned froma sincere feeling of regard for the famous a year of special investigations in Southscholar who made so striking a figure in America. Professor William A. Noyes,206THE UNIVERSITY RECORDof the University of Illinois, widelyknown for his research work in chemistry,gave a significant address on "TheElectron Theory." Professor JuliusStieglitz, Director of Analytical Chemis­try, was in charge of the arrangementsfor the conference.Chicago meeting of the AmericanMathematical Society.-The Chicago sec­tion of the American MathematicalSociety held its semi -annual meetingat the University of Chicago on March 21and 22. The University was largelyrepresented on the program, among thepapers presented being those by Pro­fessor Eliakim H. Moore, Head of theDepartment of Mathematics; ProfessorLeonard E. Dickson and Assistant­Professor Arthur C. Lunn, of the samedepartment; Professor Forest R. Moul­ton and Associate Professor Kurt Laves,of the Department of Astronomy a�dAstrophysics; and two Fellows IIImathematics. A dinner for the memberswas given at the Quadrangle Club. onthe evening of March 21. AssociateProfessor Herbert E. Slaught, secretaryof the Chicago section of the society,had general charge of the arrangementsfor the meeting, which had an attendanceof over fifty members and thirty visitors.Religious Education Association.- TheUniversity of Chicago was representedat the tenth annual convention of theReligious Education Association, heldin Cleveland from March 10 to 14, byPresident Harry Pratt Judson, whopresided over the convention and gavethe president's annual a?�r�ss; DeanShailer Mathews, of the DIVInIty School;Professor John M. Coulter, of the Depart­ment of Botany; Professor Theodore G.Soares Head of the Department ofPracti�al Theology, and Associate Pro­fessor Allan Hoben, of the same depart­ment· Professor Nathaniel Butler, ofthe Department of Education; AssociateProfessor Clyde W. Votaw, of the Depart­ment of Biblical and Patristic Greek;Professor Ira M. Price, of the Depart­ment of Semitics; Principal Franklin W.Johnson, of the University High School;and Director Charles H. Judd, of theSchool of Education. The general sub­ject for discussion was" Religious Educa­tion and Civic Progress."The University Orchestral Association.­In the series of concerts provided by theUniversity Orchestral Association the 207eighth was given on March II, the sol.oistbeing Alice Nielsen, of the Metropolitanand Boston Opera companies. Shesang two groups of songs in English, onegroup in Italian, one in German, andone in French, and also at the close ofthe concert a number from MadameButterfly. The audience, wh�ch ?ccupiedeven the stage, was enthusiastic, espe­cially over the English songs, and de­manded many encores during the pro­gram. The other soloists in the serieshave been Rudolph Ganz, the Swisspianist, and Eugene Y saye, t?e Belgianviolinist. The ninth and closmg concertwas given on April 8 by the ChicagoSymphony Orchestra under the directionof Frederick Stock. During the seasonthe Orchestra has presented among othercompositions, symphonies by Beethoven,Mozart, Raff, and Brahm�.As in the two precedmg years, theseason ticket sale practically exhaustedthe seating capacity of the Leon MandelAssembly Hall, there being but thirtytickets available for single admissionsale. In response to the demand forsingle admissions to the special artistrecitals a large number of seats wereplaced on the stage and sold to studentsat reduced rates. Nearly three hundredstudents in the University took advantageof the low rate offered to them for thepurchase of tickets for the season.The annual meeting of the members ofthe University Orchestral Associationwas held on April 14, at which timeofficers for the next year were elected.These officers will decide upon theprograms to be given in 1913-14.University Preachers for the S p_ringQuarter.-President Albert Parker FItch,of Andover Theological Seminary, wasthe University Preacher on April 6and 13. On April 20 and 27 Dr. Cor­nelius Wolfkin of the Fifth AvenueBaptist Church, New ·York City, willbe the preacher and on May 4 ProfessorHugh Black,' of Uni�n TheologicalSeminary. Dr. A. White Vernon, ofthe Harvard Church, Brookline, Mass.,and Dean Lewis B. Fisher, of the Ryder(Universalist) Divinity House of theUniversity of Chicago, will also preachin May; and Professor Charles R.Henderson, head of the Department ofPractical Sociology, who recently re­turned from giving the Barrows lectu.resin the Orient, is to be the Convocationpreacher on June 8.208 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe Twenty-fifth Educational Conferenceat the University.- The twenty-fifth Edu­cational Conference of the academies andhigh schools in relations with the Uni­versity of Chicago will be held at theUniversity on April 18 and 19. Thedepartmental conferences have for theirgeneral topic "Economy in Education."The chairmen of the various conferencesinclude Associate Professor Otis W.Caldwell, in biology; Professor Rollin D.Salisbury, in earth science; ProfessorWilliam A. Nitze, in French; AssociateProfessor Robert J. Bonner, in Greekand Latin; Assistant Professor MarcusW. Jernegan, in history; ProfessorMarion Talbot, in home economics;Associate Professor Frank M. Leavitt, inmanual arts; Associate Professor HerbertE. Slaught, in mathematics; and Asso­ciate Professor Charles R. Mann, inphysics and chemistry. Among thepapers to be presented are those byAssociate Professors Wallace W. Atwoodand Harlan H. Barrows, AssistantProfessors Earle B. Babcock, CharlesGoettsch, and Hermann 1. Schlesinger,and various members of the School ofEducation. Ai· the general session inLeon Mandel Assembly Hall on the even­ing of April 18 President Harry PrattJudson will give an address on the sub­iect of "Economy in Education" andDean James R. Angell will speak of"The Details Bearing on the Duplica­tion of School and College Work." Thefifteenth annual contest in declamationbetween representatives of the schoolsin relations with the University will beheld in Kent Theater on the evening ofApril 18, and there will be the usualwritten examination of contestants forthe prizes in English, German, mathe­matics, arid physics! President Judsonwill preside at the luncheon for adminis­trative officers, which precedes a generaldiscussion of the" Administrative Phasesof the Problem of Economy in Educa­tion," in which Director Charles H. Judd,of the School of Education, will be oneof the speakers.Professor Thomas C. Chamberlin,head of the Department of Geology, andProfessor Forest R. Moulton, of theDepartment of Astronomy and Astro­physics, are members of a special com­mittee of the Illinois Academy of Scienceappointed to recommend a revision ofthe pres en t Julian calendar.J ames Westfall Thompson, Associate Professor of European History, has beengranted leave of absence by the Uni­versity Board of Trustees for the Springand Summer Quarters. He will spendthe time in study in Germany. Pro­fessor Thompson was appointed by thePresident and Senate of the Universityas a delegate to attend the meeting inLondon on April 4-9 of the InternationalHistorical Congress.Dean Shailer Mathews, of the DivinitySchool, has been made a member of theeditorial board of the new ConstructiveQuarterly, the first issue of which appearedin March. The quarterly, which is de­voted to the work and thought ofChristendom, is published in NewYork City, and among its other editorsare Professor Henry van Dyke, of Prince­ton, and President Robert A. Falconer, ofthe University of Toronto.On account of the continued illness ofProfessor Clarke B. Whittier, of theLaw School faculty, Professor WilliamU. Moore, of the University of WisconsinLaw School, is giving the course onSuretyship during the Spring Quarter.Professor Moore lectures in Chicagotwo days a week.Ferdinand Schevill, Professor ofModern History, has been made oneof the board of editors of the new dra­matic publication, The Play-Book, ofwhich the editor is Professor Thomas H.Dickinson, of the University of Wiscon­sin. Professor Robert M. Lovett, ofthe Department of English, and Asso­ciate Professor Martin Schutze, of theDepartment of German, are on the staffof regular contributors to the new period­ical. Mr. Lovett has recently editedthe play of Julius Caesar, a volume in"The Tudor Shakespeare" publishedby the Macmillan Co. There are tobe forty volumes in the series.A. C. McClurg & Co. announce thepublication of M ark Twain and theHappy Island, a new book by AssistantProfessor Elizabeth Wallace, of theDepartment of Romance Languagesand Literatures. The volume givesan intimate account of Mr. Clemens'life in Bermuda. Miss Wallace's lastbook, A Garden of Paris, which has goneto a second edition, was also published byMcClurg.At the Eighty-sixth Convocation ofthe University on March 18 announce­ment was made of the election of thirty­five students as members of Sigma Xifor evidence of ability in researchjworkTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDin science. Six of these were women.Two students also were elected to theBeta of Illinois chapter of Phi BetaKappa for especial distinction in generalscholarship in the University. Bothof these were women.Professor Walter Sargent, of theSchool of Education, is the author of anew volume published by Ginn & Co.under the title of Fine and Indus­trial Arts in Elementary Schools. Thefirst chapter discusses the educationaland practical values of the fine arts andindustrial arts, and the following chaptersexplain the work sui table for each grade.The book is illustrated by examples ofwork already done in this field of educa-tion. 'A new organization to be known as thePolitical Science Club has been formedat the University, with a membershiplimited to students in the Senior Collegesand Graduate Schools. The club meetsmonthly and its first debate was held onApril 2, when the subject was the ques­tion of the Panama Canal tolls. Theclub already has a membership of forty.Thirty-six members of the UniversityGlee Club left the middle of March fora concert trip through the western states,the itinerary including cities in Kansas,Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona,and California. The tour was underthe auspices of the Atchison, Topeka& Santa Fe Railroad, and the club gaveconcerts before a number of the organiza­tions of the railway's employees. Onaccount of leaving before the regularquarterly examinations of the Uni­versity the members of the Glee Clubtook their examinations en route, underthe supervision of Mr. Harold G. Moulton,of the Department of Political Economy.Mr. Robert W. Stevens, the musicaldirector, also accompanied the club."Nietzsche's Ethical, Social, and Reli­gious Views," is the general subject of aseries of U ni versity public lectureswhich are being given in the HarperMemorial Library, by Mr. William M.Salter. The lecturer traces Nietzsche'scriticism of morality, of current socialand political conceptions and institutions,and of religion, particularly Christianity.At the last meeting of the AmericanAssociation -for the Advancement ofScience Professor Forest R. Moulton,of the Department of Astronomy andAstrophysics, was elected secretary ofSection A (mathematics and astronomy),to succeed Professor George A. Miller, 209of the University of Illinois, who hadheld the position for five years.Recent contributions by the membersof the Faculties to the journals publishedby the University of Chicago Press:Cooper, William S. : "The ClimaxForest of Isle Royale, Lake Superior,and Its Development," III (Contribu­tions from the Hull Botanical Laboratory165), with twenty-five figures, BotanicalGazette, March.Mehl, Maurice G.: " Angistorhinus,A New Genus of Phytosauria from theTrias of Wyoming," Journal of Geology,February-March.Merriam, Professor Charles E.: "Out­look for Social Politics in the UnitedStates," American Journal of Sociology,March.Recent addresses by members of theFaculties include:Breckinridge, Assistant ProfessorSophonisba P.: "Tn Darker Chicago,"Housing Exhibition, City Club ofChicago, March]: 7 ..Butler, Professor Nathaniel: "Voca­tional Education," Normal University,Bloomington, Ill., March 5.Caldwell, Associate Professor Otis W.:"Home Gardening" (illustrated),Housing Exhibition, City Club ofChicago, March 26.Clark, Associate Professor S. H.: Dra­matic interpretation, Galsworthy's ThePigeon, Salt Lake City, Utah, Feb­ruary 26; Zangwill's The Melting Pot,ibid., February 28.Coulter, Professor John M.: "Eugenicsand Heredity," Child Welfare studyclass of Woman's City Club, Chicago,Kenwood Institute, March 17. ...Foster, Professor George B.: "EmileZola's Religion," Chicago HebrewInstitute, March 26.Goode, Associate Professor J. Paul: "OurNational Resources: Their EconomicSignificance," three illustrated lectures,Goodwyn Institute, Memphis, Tenn.,March 5, 6, 7; "The Philippines:The Land and the People," GrandRapids, Mich., March 18.Gorsuch, William P.: "Moliere and HisComedies," Chicago Dramatic Society,March 14.Hoben, Associate Professor Allan:"Work among the Children," NorthShore Juvenile Protective Association,Highland Park, Ill., March 16.Jordan, Professor Edwin 0.: "Vanishing210 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEDiseases," University Club, Chicago,March 22.Judd, Professor Charles H. : "TheRelation of the High School to theElementary School and to College,"High School, Evanston, Ill., March 6;Address, Northwestern Iowa Teachers'Association, Fort Dodge, Iowa, March14· 'Judson, President Harry Pratt: Addressat fifty-fifth anniversary dinner, YoungMen's Christian Association of Chi­cago, Auditorium Hotel, April I.Laughlin, Professor J. Laurence: "TheMonopoly of Labor," Citizens' In­dustrial Association, St. Louis, March25; "Democracy and Business," CityClub, St. Louis, March 25.Leavitt, Associate Professor Frank M.:"Vocational Training," Parents andTeachers' Association, Haven School,Evanston, Ill., March II; "EarlySelection of a Vocation," eighteenthannual meeting of the North CentralAssocia tion of Colleges and Second­ary Schools, Hotel La Salle, Chicago,March 22.Moulton, Professor Forest R.: "TheWonderful Heavens" (illustrated), Hawkeye Fellowship Club, AuditoriumHotel, Chicago, March 25.Newman, Associate Professor Horatio H.:"Heredity and Environment in Eu­genics," Child Welfare study class,Woman's City Club, Chicago, Ken­wood Institute, March 31.Salisbury, Professor Rollin D.: "Travelsand Recent Experiences in Argentine,"University of Wisconsin Club, Chicago,March 28.Slaught, Associate Professor Herbert E.:"The Final Report of the NationalCommittee of Fifteen on a GeometrySyllabus," Association of Ohio Teach­ers of Mathematics and Science,Ohio State University, Columbus,Ohio, March 29.Smith, Associate Professor Gerald B.:"The Moral Challenge of the ModernWorld," Ninth Annual Institute ofReligious Education, Lawrence, Kan.,March 19; "Answer of Christianityto the Modern Challenge," ibid.,March 20.Starr, Professor Frederick: "Liberia theHope of the Dark: Continent," Abra­ham Lincoln Center, Chicago, March 9.FROM THE LETTER-BOXTo the Editor:Bureaucracy gone mad! On Sundaythe Harper Memorial Library has aKeeper-of-the-Door. No one is admittedsave bearers of Special Permits. Pro­fessors having offices in the building arenot admitted-as individuals-only asbearers of Letters of Marque from theSecond Deputy Satrap to the Keeper­of-the-Door commanding him to admit­not a mere Professor-but the Bearerof Documents of State.Heads of Departments, well-knownto all on the campus, may not enter onmere reputation. For want of theDocument of State they shall be turnedfrom the door. Such is the la w; andthe law is enforced!No favored Licensee can bring withhim a mere student or other guest'.Only his Card is admitted. The Carddoes not guarantee the bearer's character.Such is the law.Recently a mere Professor who broughtin a student was severely reprimandedand the Keeper-of-the- Door threatenedwi th discharge. . Recently the undersigned (admittedlya person of no official standing on thecampus save as a alumnus and a memberof an administrative board) applied tothe Keeper-of-the-Door for the privilegeof accompanying not simply a Professorbut a genuine Licensee to his office inthe Library. The Keeper was courteousbut the great Edict of the Second DeputySatrap is graven on tablets of Brass.No admission!What is the Library for? Did friendsof the University and alumni contributeto its erection as a Mosque for theFavored of Earth or as a House of TheWord to be open to all? What are theoffices of the faculty for? If the build­ing must be closed to the public onSunday (for which economy seems theonly justification), are not at leastmembers of the faculty and those forwhom they vouch entitled to entrance?Children "play house" in a cornerof the room and bar out their elders withamusing little regulations. The Uni­versity really should not "play house"with the Harper Library, but speedilyFROM THE LETTER-BOXand apologetically should " have donewith childish ways."NINETEEN-ONE[N OTE.-As a result of the incidentherein mentioned, instructors are nowpermitted to take friends into the libraryon Sunday.-ED.]To the Editor:I read with very great interest, in theUniversity of Chicago Magazine the studyof scholarship standing among the severalfraternities at the University. Of courseI was particularly gratified with theshowing made by Beta Theta Pi and withyour comment thereon. The raising ofrank. from a relatively low position tothe first place was not a matter of chancebut was the result of earnest and delib�erate effort on the part of the membersof the chapter, encouraged by theiral umni and faculty counselor and thegeneral officers of the fraternity.Beta Theta Pi has been trying forseveral years, by continued stimulus toarouse its individual members to the n'eedof improving scholarship rank. TheChicago chapter has done what manyothers have, been doing. Whenever thefacult_Y advis�r has made a report ofstandmg the list has been read in chaptermeetings. Each member, therefore hasknown exactly how every other me::nberwas standing in his classroom work.Each one knew whether he was helpingor hindering the plan for improvement.The effect of this publicity was good, asthe results show, each of those withgood marks being encouraged to continuehar.d work. and those with the poorerratmgs bemg stimulated to increasedendeavor lest they be responsible for thefailure of the chapter to attain itsdesired general average.You may be interested to know alsothat the same plan for stimulatingscholarship is being favored by theInter-Fraternity Conference, which is�a.de up of some twenty-eight frater­mtIes.. It goes without saying thatthere IS not a group of men in the Uni­versity. who may not accomplish whatthe Chicago chapter of Beta Theta Pihas done if it will make this as much amatter of united effort as has been donein the case calling forth your favorableeditorial comment.Yours very truly,FRANCIS W. SHEPARDSONGeneral Secretary of Beta Theta Pi 211To the Editor:Is it true that on the occasion of alumnibanquets the men and women dine inseparate places? I feel quite sure thatmany women alumnae like myself, whobelonged to the early days of the Uni�versity and who would not have attendedany institution where there was segrega­tion, would not have any desire to attenda banquet if such is the case.Some of us are in the habit of attendingwith our husbands alumni affairs of thecolleges to which our husbands belong,and we should enjoy having them joinus in our college celebrations.' Mr �RummIer, for instance, is an Ann Arbor.man, and we enjoy together their annualouting for men and women.This letter may give a hint, if there islack of interest in alumni affairs.Yours very truly,SUSAN HARDING RUMMLER, '98OCCIDENTAL COLLEGE,Los ANGELES, CAL.March 23, 1913To the Editor:I am pleased to state that a LosAngeles chapter of the alumni of theUniversity of Chicago is being organized.The movement was started last night ata banquet given by half a hundred of usin honor of Dr. Shailer Mathews, whois now on the coast for the purpose ofdelivering a series of lectures at theUniversity of California, and who hasbeen favoring the colleges of SouthernCalifornia with a touch of the spirit ofour Alma Mater.Our students have tended to go toeither Berkeley or Stanford or havejumped from the Pacific to the Atlanticand overlooked the university on theshores of Lake Michigan. This, however,will not always be, for the increasingnumber of teachers in the high schoolsand colleges hailing from Chicago willsome time divert the stream that way.By such an offering of students wellequipped for the serious work of theUniversity we yet hope to pay our owndebt. For this purpose the local chapterhas been organized and to this end wewill work under the spell of the Chicagospirit.Yours truly,E. E. CHANDLERSecretary of ChapterALUMNI AFFAIRSChicago Alumnae Club.-On Saturday,April 12, the dub gave a dramaticand musical program called " SpringRevels" at the Whitney Opera House."L'Allegro," the dance which was thechief feature of the Florentine Carnivalon February II, was reproduced. Therewere various other musical and dramaticnumbers, including Shaw's How SheLied to Her Husband; J. V. Hickey,Alice Lee Herrick, Frank Parker, andothers took part. The performancewas for the benefit jointly of the Uni­versity Settlement and the ChicagoCollegiate Bureau of Occupations, con­cerning which a statement was publishedin the December Magazine. The Settle­ment will help maintain the work ofMiss Louise Montgomery in givingvocational guidance to the children ofthe stockyards neighborhood and infinding suitable work for those who mustlea ve school. The Revels were incharge of Alice Greenacre, general chair­man, and Marie Ortmayer, presidentof the Alumnae Club.Minnesota Alumni Club.-The com­mittee appointed by President George E.Vincent at the Chicago dinner in Minne­apolis, January 18, met at Mr. Vincent'shome on March fourteenth. In accord­ance with the authority with which itwas vested, this committee adopted aconstitution and elected officers for apermanent organization to be known asthe Minnesota Alumni Club of the Uni­versity of Chicago. All alumni, formerstudents, postgraduate students, andone-time instructors residing in Minne­sota are eligible to membership.The following officers were elected:President., Anthony Lispenard Underhill,Ph.D. '06; Vice-President, Roy W.Merrifield, '03; Secretary, Harvey B.Fuller, Jr., '08; Treasurer, Renslow P.Sherer, '09. These officers together withthe following members comprise theExecutive Committee: J. Anna Norris,ex-ioo ; Agnes Doherty, ex-'07; ChauncyJ. V. Pettibone, '07·The action taken in adopting a con­stitution and electing officers is subjectto ratification at the next general meeting, which will be held in May. Tentativeplans were proposed to have this meetingin the nature of an outing excursion.HARVEY B. FULLER, JR., SecretaryNews from the Classes.-1878James J. Burtch is agent for the AetnaInsurance Company.1884By a typographical error in the MarchMagazine, in the account of the reunionof alumni of the old Chicago Universitythe name of Miss Lydia A. Dexter wasmade to read Dexter- Doud.1893Hermann von Holst has just published,through the American School of Corre­spondence, Modern Homes, a practicalbook on architecture.1894Miss Mary L. Marot will in Octoberof this year open as joint principal aboarding-school for girls, in Thompsori,Conn., the institution to be calledMiss Howe and Miss Marot's School.Miss Marot has been a teacher at MissPorter's School at Farmington, Conn.,and at Elmira College.1895Bell Eugene Looney is superintendentof the Polytechnic High School at FortWorth, Tex. He was a guard on the1894 eleven..Cornelius J. Hoebeke is now withAtkinson, Mentzer & Co., publishers,in Chicago. .1896Cyrus F. Tolman is territorial geologistof Arizona, and associate professor ofeconomic geology in Leland StanfordJunior University.J ames Primrose White is manager forSwift & Co., at Wilmington, N.C.1897 .Scott Brown is now general counseland secretary of the Studebaker Corpora­tion at South Bend, Ind.212ALUMNI AFFAIRS1898Former students of the University whoare now li ving in Sou them Californiagave an informal dinner on March 22 atthe Federation Club in Los Angeleswith Professor Shailer Mathews as guestof honor. Arrangements were in chargeof F. G. Cressey, B.D. '98, Ph.D. '04,who is principal of "the Los AngelesAcademy.Angeline Loesch (Mrs. R. E. Graves)is associate editor of The Public. Herhome address is 4249 Hazel Ave.,Chicago.George S. White is superintendent ofthe American Baptist Publishing Societyin Portland, Ore., with offices in theY.M.C.A. building.1899W. P. Lovett, once editor of the Uni­versity of Chicago Weekly, is now incharge of the religious and philanthropicnews and editorial departments of theGrand Rapids (Mich.) Press.M. B. Wells is vice-president andcashier of the Home Savings Bank,Milwaukee, Wis.Josephine T. Allin has been madedean of girls in Englewood High School.The position has just been created bySuperintendent Young. As implied,Miss Allin will have general charge ofthe welfare of the girls in the high school.1900Albert A. Russell is vice-president andgeneral manager of the Alabama CentralRailroad, with headquarters at Jasper,Ala.Howard Woodhead, of the Universityof Chicago, has become director of thedepartment of municipal administrationin the Chicago School of Ci vies andPhilanthropy.Miss Annie Marion MacLean has beenill at the Presbyterian Hospital, but isnow recovering.I901Amelia E. Lacey is an assistant in thedepartment of English in the High Schoolof Oklahoma City, Okla.Virgil M. Gantz is a sales-agent forGinn & Co.Clara Walker is teaching in the ChicagoNormal College.Perry J. Payne is practicing medicinein Portland, Ore., his address being 1629Sandy Boulevard.Paul MacQuiston has left New Orleans 213and is in Dallas, Tex., where he is depart­ment manager for Sears, Roebuck & Co.1902Alexander P. Thoms is general foremanof the cable division of the Common-wealth Edison Co. in Chicago. .Ernest E. (" Whoa-back") Perkins isvice-principal of the Tacoma High School,Tacoma, Wash.Zellmer R. Pettet is fruit-farmingnear Albany, Ga.Jesse Harper has recently been mademanaging director and coach of athleticsat Notre Dame. He had phenomenalsuccess as coach a t Wabash College forsome years, Wabash in football, 'baseball,and basket-ball always being in the run­ning for the state championship. AtNotre Dame, Harper will have solecharge, even to making out the schedules,etc.Miss Mattie Duncan is dean of theNegro department of the AmericanTechnical College, of Nashville, Tenn. •1903Thomas J. Hair is assistant treasurerof the Acme Steel Goods Co. of Chicago.H. C. Cobb (ex) is salesman for theMeilicke Calculator Co., with offices inthe People's Gas Building. He is marriedand has two sons.1904Ovid R. Sellers is studying theologyin McCormick Seminary in Chicago.Charles M. Barber is now districtmanager for the Marion Motor Car Co.of Indianapolis. His home address is4II Michigan Ave. West, Lansing, Mich.1905George Schobinger is living in Yuma,Ariz., where he is assistant engineer inthe U.S. Reclamation Service.James S.· Riley is secretary andtreasurer of Perrin, Drake & Riley, Inc.,dealers in investment securities, theiroffice being at 210 W. 7th St., LosAngeles, Cal.William A. McKeever, author of bookson various aspects of pedagogy, has justpublished through the Macmillan Co.Training the Boy. Dr. McKeever is pro­fessor of philosophy in Kansas StateAgricultural College.1906Sherman N. Kilgore is farming nearSpringwater, Ore., on the Hood ViewRanch.2I4 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEO. O. White is principal of schools inAurora, Ill.Herman A. Spoehr is working atTucson, Ariz., in the Desert Laboratoryof the Carnegie Institute.Arnold Dresden is assistant professorof mathematics in the University ofWisconsin.Albert W. Sherer is with the advertisingdepartment of the Associated SundayMagazines, 309 Record-Herald Building,Chicago.1908William E. Wrather is a mining geolo­gist with the Gulf Pipe Line Co. ofBeaumont, Tex.T. S. Miller has formed a companyfor the purpose of doing business infarm mortgages, under the name ofT. S. Miller & Co., at 750 First NationalBank Building, Chicago.Clarence G. Pool is practicing medicine,and is athletic director of the high schoolat Natchitoches, La.Arthur Church (ex), formerly ofDenver, is now treasurer of the OnionSalt Company, with offices in the Otisbuilding, Chicago.Arthur G. Bovee has resigned hisinstructorship in the University to takethe position of head of the Departmentof French in the University High School.He will spend the next six months inParis, and take up his work at the HighSchool in October.1909Irene Kawin is a probation officer onthe staff of the Juvenile Court in Chicago,and Ethel Kawin C19II) is with theChicago School of Civics and Philan­thropy.Dean M. Kennedy is in Los Angeles,where he is connected with the trafficdepartment of the Pacific Telephoneand Telegraph Co.1910Cole Y. Rowe is secretary of the CloverLeaf Casualty Co., 407 Otis Building,Chicago.Harry O. Latham is manager of theNew York branch of the Latham Ma­chinery Co., with offices at I24 WhiteSt. He writes: "It is surprising thenumber of university people one findsin and around New York. Joe Sunder­land, who has been for a year with theAcme Steel Goods ·Co., is now travelingout of their N ew York office. BarrettAndrews, ex-'o6, and Arthur Johnson, ex-'o6, have been living for some yearsin Bronxville, where Lee Maxwell hasjust moved. Andrews is advertisingmanager of Vogue, and he and Mrs.Andrews are going abroad this summer tostudy the fashions. Sunday, March 16,Edith Wiles, '04 (Mrs. Bird), WaylandMagee, '05, Mr. and Mrs. Andrews,and I all foregathered at Johnson's-aregular reunion, not on such a small scaleeither. Winston Henry, '10, of Tulsa,Okla., has been here for a week, and itwas a pleasure to show him to the greatcity. H. H. Chandler, Jr., '08, is withthe Munsey publications."Helen Sard Hughes, who is teachingEnglish in Wellesley College, has anarticle in the April North AmericanReview on "The Privilege of ;Realists."19IIL. G. Schussmann since last fall hasbeen principal of the Outagamie County(Wis.) Training School for Teachers,with headquarters at South Kaukauna,Wis.Laura Hatch is a Fellow in geology,at Bryn Mawr . Next year she expectsto return to the U ni versi ty of Chicagofor further graduate study.Myra K. Perry is head of the depart­ment of English of the Columbia (S.C.)College for Women.Marie G. Rogers, now teaching in theAcademy of Our Lady of Lourdes,Rochester, Minn., expects to study voiceculture next year in Europe.1912Late in March was published the firstedition of the Midnight Special, of theclass of 1912 (Midnight-twelve-catchit ?), with R. J. Daly, Isabel Jarvis, RuthReticker, Alice Lee Herrick, MargaretSullivan, Hazel Hoff, and WilliamThomas in general charge. It is a pub­lication of eight long if narrow columns,in fine type, which gives the campusnews, and recent information of all butthirty-three men and four women whoare members of the class. The informa­tion is written up in a vivid and friendlyfashion, and (incidentally) the proof­reading is extraordinarily good. I t ishard to imagine a member or ex-memberof the class reading the special withoutdelight; nothing has done the editorof the Magazine so much good since heperused The Eleven last fall. If thissort of news collection and distributioncontinues, as there is every reason to)ALUMNI AFFAIRSsuppose it will, the "solidarity of theclasses" concerning which the Magazinehas wasted so much ink will accomplishitself automatically. The items thatfollow concern members of the class notmentioned in the Midnight Special.Rebekah Lesem is teaching Englishin the Milwaukee State Normal School.Her address is 900 Downer Ave., Mil­waukee, Wis.Clifton M. Keeler has taken theexamination for assistant geologist withthe U.S. Geological Survey, and expectsto go to work in Washington shortly.His present address is P.O. Box 546,San Antoni 0, Texas.Henry Burke Robins, Ph.D. '12, whohas been professor in the Pacific CoastBaptist Theological Seminary, at Berke­ley, Cal., has accepted a similar positionin the Rochester Theological Seminary,Rochester, N.Y. Mr. Robins will takeup the active studies of his new positionSeptember next.I9I3H. Glenn Kinsley is practicing law inSheridan, Wyo.Engagements.-I898Mary Reddy to Paul Doty, generalmanager of the Gas Light Co., of St.Paul, Minn. The marriage is set for thismonth.I908Agnes Janet Kendrick to William R.Brough. The marriage will take placeon June 1:4.Marriages.-(The announcements of marriages anddeaths in this issue include many whichtook place some time since, but of whichnews has only of late been furnished theSecretary. )I895Anna Sophia Packer, '95, to Albert E.Fish. Address: Wakeman, Ohio.I899Fanny Crawford Burling to StephenDavies. Address: I35 North 3d Ave.,Omaha, Neb.I900 (John Walter Beardslee, Jr., to FrancesEunice Davis, '09. Mr. Beardslee isProfessor of Latin at Hope College,Holland, Mich. 215Mabel Avery Kells to Horace FranklinAlden. Address: Cottage Grove, Ore.I90IHenrietta Helen Chase to Edgar NeelsCarter. Address: B ullochville, Ga.I902Helen Augusta Dow to W.K. Whitaker.Address: Tracyton, Wash.Eva Twombly to Clyde. W . Jeffries.Address: 2635 zd Ave., S., Minneapolis,Minn. ..I904Clara Ann Leslie to Kilner FoxThomas. Address: ,555 Barry Ave.,Chicago.Mary Evelyn Thompson to MatsonBradley Hill. Address: 4923 SheridanRoad, Chicago. .I905Harriet Louise Hughes to CharlesDonald Dallas. Address: 5126 Lexing­ton Ave., Chicago.Theodora Leigh Richards, '05, toDr. Clyde Leroy Ellsworth. Mr. andMrs. Ellsworth's address is I492 LocustSt., Dubuque, Ia.Cora Leadbetter, '05, to Alfred HoweDavis. They are living at Tere Chaborn,Bakersfield, Cal.Mary Ellen Wilcoxson to Frank S.Baker. Address: 6049 Ellis Ave.,Chicago.I906J ames Madison Hill to Margret PersisBrown, '07. Mr. Hill is with the UnitedStates Geological Survey and theiraddress is 25I8 I7th St., N.W., Washing-- ton. D.C.Grace Anna Radzinski to Isadore M.Portis. Address: 62II Drexel Ave.,Chicago.Ruth Marie Reddy, to WilliamJennings O'Neill. Address: 39I3 GrandBlvd., Chicago.James H. Gagnier, '08, to CleoraEmery Davis, '06. Mr. and Mrs. Davis'address is 20I N. Division St., BeaverDam, Wis.Mary Elizabeth Bradley, '06, toCharles R. Keyes. Mr. and Mrs.Keyes are living at Wagon Mound,N.M.Ruth Wheaton, '07, to Bernard LymanJohnson, '06. Address: 5422 Ridge­wood Court, Chicago.Zella Isabel Perkins to Anfin Egdahl.Address: Menominee, Wis.216 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEDeaths.-1907Jessie Brown Hayne, '07, to Dr. R. B.Howard. Their address is Box 67,Three Oaks, Mich. �Edna C. Yondorf, '08, to SimonLazarus. Their address is 49 N. Cham­pion Ave., Columbus, Ohio.Mildred Hatton to Earle Corliss Bryan.Address: 185 Mt. Vernon St., Oshkosh,Wis. Mr. Bryan is special agent of theNorthwestern Mutual Life Insurance Co.Arlisle Esther Mather to Bruce Brown.Address: 910 Laurel Ave., Austin,Chicago.Ig08Eleanor Chapman Day to John DavidJones, Jr. Address: Racine, Wis.Elizabeth Rey Durley to Walter A.Boyle. Address: McNabb, ILLWellington Downing Jones to HarrietAgnes Harding, 'oo, on March 8, Ig13,in Chicago. 'Mabel Emma Lee to Oliver L. Messer.Address: 1130 Ringwood Place, Clinton,Iowa.IgogEthel May Girdwood to Frank B.Bachelor. Address: 321 E. Ann St.,Ann Arbor, Mich.Margarete Lonie Stein to A. Went­worth Conway. Address: Salem, Vir-ginia.1910Clara Louise Pinske to Charles B.John. Address: 1627 State St., Mil­waukee, Wis.Grace Elvina Hadley to Thomas HenryBillings. Address: Wesley College, Win­nipeg, Manitoba.Margaret Alice King to P. Roy Lam­mert, ex-. Address: 123 rst St., NewBrighton, L.I., New York. 1878John Barr, A.B. '76, D.B. '78, retiredBaptist minister, died at his home 160gJosephine St., Berkeley, Cal., on Feb­ruary 10, 1913.George Pierce Garrison, Ph.D. '96,­professor of history, University of Texas,died in Austin, Tex., July 3, Ig10.Ig00Alice Duval Robertson, Ph.B. '00(Mrs. Frank W. Griffith), died April 6,Ig12, at Fort Dodge, Iowa.H. M. Burchard, Ph.D., '00, died inAugust, IgII. He had been for twelveyears at Syracuse University, N.Y.1902Edith Huguenin, Ph.B. 1902, diedApril 30, Ig12.1903Joseph Edward Hora, S.B. '04. Mr.Hora was instructor in chemistry atLewis Institute, Chicago.Ig04Caroline E. Blanchard, '04 (Mrs.Lewis Fuldner).Ig05Wade Hampton Powell, S.B. 'oS, atCuero, Texas.1907Warren John Smith, A.B. 'oS, D.B. '07.Mr. Smith was pastor at large of Baptistsin Iowa.1908Eloise Lockhart, S.B. '08, died January19, 1912. Miss Lockhart was a teacherof physics and mathematics in the Ken­wood High School, Chicago.THE DIVINITY ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONW. J. Watson, D.B. '82, died at VilliscaIowa, December 10, 1912, at the age ofsixty-eight. He attended the MorganPark Theological Seminary from 1879to 1882, and later held pastorates atKenosha, Wis., Monmouth, Ill., andMalvern and Villisca, Iowa.E. L. Killam, ex-'08, of Grand Rapids,Mich., is considering a call from a churchin California. His work among boyshas been of a very high order.J. T. Proctor, D.B. '97, of Shanghai,China, is heading an interdenominationalmovement to effect a union of the Chris­tian schools in East China and to create, ultimately, a strong union Christianuniversity.Franklin D. Elme, '98, is in charge ofthe First Baptist Church of Pough­keepsie, N.Y.A. E. Patch, D.B., '03, has left Port­land, Ore., for his new pastorate atSalinas, Cal.P. C. Wright, '02, after eleven years'service at Norwich, Conn., is moving to anew field at Philadelphia.Charles W. Fletcher, '13, is pastor ofthe First Baptist Church of Watertown,N.Y.FRED MERRIFIELD, 'OJ, SecretaryUNDERGRADUATE AFFAIRSBasket-ball.-The I9I3 season endedwith Wisconsin champion for the thirdtime; but Chicago's showing was atleast not unsuccessful. Two games werelost to Ohio State, one to Purdue, andone to Wisconsin; Purdue, Wisconsin,Northwestern, Iowa, Minnesota (twice),and Illinois (twice) were defeated.Technically, Northwestern takes secondplace, on percentages; but as Chicagobeat Northwestern in the only game thetwo played, it is fair to question whetherNorthwestern was the better team. Asis so often the case, Chicago finished verystrong. Why our teams should beginso slowly is hard to say. In football,both in I9II and in I912, the reason forthis slow development and triumphantconclusion was plain-a lack of materialwhich made slow development inevitable.But why should the basket-ball five takemonths to find its capabilities? Thecoach had the fire, but there was no realunion in the team until late in February.John Vruwink, '14, has been electedcaptain for next year. He prepared atHope College, Holland, Mich., and is apre-medical student. He was end onthe football team last fall, and forwardon the basket-ball team. There is somedoubt of his eligibility for another yearof competition-not because of hisparticipation in athletics at HopeCollege, but because he will have byJanuary, 1914, majors enough to graduatehim from the University.Baseball.-The baseball team hasplayed one or two of its early games, andsome judgment of its capabilities maybe formed.Mann, who caught most of the gameslast year, will again be the only catcherof class. Mann is steady, and a fairhitter, but not brilliant. The pitcherswill be Carpenter and Baumgardner,and whomever else Page can find foroccasional use-probably Des J ardiens.Carpenter is strong, but very slow for abaseball man. He pitched much betterlast year than ever before, and is likelyto do well again. Baumgardner is aATHLETICSSophomore, and on his ability to fulfilhis promise much of the success of theseason may depend. In form, Baum­gardner is, in the writer's opinion, thebest pitcher in the Conference. He isbig and powerful, has splendid speed,and according to Archer, the Cub catcherwho worked out with the men in lateMarch, could find a place today in thebig leagues. Block, the other Sophomorepitcher of whom much was expected,has left college. Baumgardner is for­tunately a high-stand student, so thatno worry will be necessary over hiseligibility.At first-base are Norgren, CaptainFreeman, and Des J ardiens. No oneneed be surprised if Des J ardiens isgiven the position, and Norgren, whoplayed it last year, is used in the out­field. Des J ardiens is the better fielder,and with his tremendous reach shouldbe particularly valuable at first. Free­man is too slow for the place. Second­base lies between Volini, a Sophomore,and Kearney, a Junior, with Volinihaving the call. He is a first-rate fielderand a fair hitter, but slow on the bases.Shortstop will probably fall to eitherScofield, who substituted last year, orLeonard, a Junior. Scofield is occasionallybrilliant and is very fast, but is erraticand does not hit. Leonard is almostuntried; he was out last year, but hadno chance. Third-base will be takencare of by either Cummins, a Sophomore,or Harger, a Junior. Harger promisedwell as a Freshman, but showed littlelast season. Cummins is light for collegebaseball, but hit well as a Freshman.Neither is better than a fair fielder.For the outfield are Catron, Norgren,Captain Freeman, Libonati, and Kul­vinsky. Catron is good, in fact he wouldbe quite first rate 'if he could overcomea tendency to lose his head in a crisis,but he shows no signs of improvement inthat respect, and is moreover a bitcareless in training. Freeman is a heavyhitter of the "fence-busting" variety;as was said of him last year, he swingsand runs like 'a drawbridge. Norgren2I7218 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEis good anywhere. Libonati is eager,but light and unsteady. Kulvinsky as aball-player is second rate. On the whole,the best plan for the outfield seems to be,when Carpenter is pitching, to putBaumgardner - in right field. The teamis not, man by man, a good one; comparethe infield with that seasoned group oflast year, and the drop is visible enough.But the battery looks better than fair,and if Coach Page will hire good pitchersand let the men practice day after dayagainst all varieties of delivery, the ninemay have a successful season.Track.- The Confer�nce indoor trackchampionships, held at Northwestern onMarch 29, 'showed just about whatChicago may expect in the way of trackand field accomplishment this year.Wisconsin won with 331 points (herthird championship this season); Illinoiswas second with 33, Chicago third withI8!, Northwestern fourth with I6!,Iowa fifth with 6, and Purdue last withI 1. Minnesota, Indiana, and OhioState failed to send representatives.Five Conference indoor records werebroken, the hurdles, half-mile, polevault, high jump, and relay. ForChicago, Knight was third in the dash,Ward and Kuh second and third in thehurdles, Stains fourth in the quarter,Campbell second, in the half, Thomasthird in the vault, Norgren third in theshot, Gorgas in a quadruple tie for thirdin the high-jump. Chicago also took second in the relay, Parker, Breathed,Kuh, and Matthews running. Matthewsand Parker, Chicago, also showed in thepreliminaries. In the mile and two mileChicago was not visible to the nakedeye. On the whole, Chicago's showingwas distinctly better than had beenexpected. Outdoors Captain Kuh andWard will do about 16 seconds apiecein the high hurdles, and Ward 25 secondsin the low. Stains, Matthews, and Paine(who will try for the relay team) will runthe quarter in from 51 to 53 seconds;Ward could do as well if he wished tospoil himself for the hurdles. Campbellcan run the half in two minutes or themile in 4: 30, whichever he is used for.Norgren can put the shot forty to forty­one feet. Thomas can vault I I feetsix inches, Canning will throw thehammer 130 feet, and one of our varioushigh jumpers will usually clear 5 feet9 inches. In the broad jump Wardagain may do 22 feet, possibly more.It is a better team than anyone expected,and does credit both to the men, who haveworked so hard and intelligently, and tothe coaches.At this writing the various scheduleshave not yet been approved by the Boardof Physical Culture and Athletics. Thefootball schedule, with a slight changeof dates, is exactly the same as last year.The baseball schedule and track schedulesinvolve no novelties, but are slightlyheavier than last year.·UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, BASKET-BALL SQU.\D, I9I3Reading from left to right, top row: Johnson (trainer), Page (coach). Second row: Kulvinsky (sub.), Kennedy, Des Iardiens, Norgren, Vruwink, Gorgas (sub.).Third row: Stevenson, Molander, Paine (capt.), Bell, Baumgardner. c::::;;:��CJ��bc:::::..."-Jt>l:::..��:::..'-<�GotvH'DADDRESSES WANTEDInformation should be sent to Frank W. Dignan, SecretaryALUMNI ALUMNAE1895Esther D. Hunt19°7Guy Roger ClementsIvan DoseffAugustus William GidartPaul Rowley GrayRobert Houston HamiltonJohnson Francis HammondMichael A. LaneWilliam Vernon LovittHenry MendelsohnRichard Clyde McCloskeyVincent Collins PoorWilliam James PufferEdmund Daugherty WatkinsThurston William WeumErvin Paul Zeisler Kate Waters1899Helen Whitney BackusLola Marie HarmonBertha Vernon StilesHelen Grant 19°019011908Charles Laurence BakerAlbert Francis BassfordJudson Gerald BennettFloyd Erwin BernardAugust BogardIrwin Wright CottonCharles Elijah DeckerFrederick Howard FallsHomer L. ClecklerBruno Abraham GoldbergerHenry Rowland HalseyHarry Richard HoffmanJacob Martin JohlinMichael Israel MeyerWalter Thomas McAvoyElton James MoultonElmore Waite PhelpsEarl Chester SteffaJohn Elbert StoutWilliam Riggs TrowbridgeDavis Duke ToddFrancis Enos TinkerEugene Van CleefCharles Frances WatsonWalter Leonard WentzelJames Walter WheelerPaul Spencer WoodCarter Godwin Woodson Sarah J. HarperEmily MiladofskyMarietta Norton.Althea SomervilleRuth Vail19°2Mrs. Antonie Krejsa KendrickLouise Lydia ScrimgerNellie Lillis SmithAna Louise ThomasRuth Terry (Mrs. Virgil Oldberg)Deo Elisabeth Whittlesey1903Mary Meroe ConlanMargaret Cameron DavisJulia Coburn HobbsLilian Anna Maria Elizabeth SteichenEdna T. CookElizabeth Walker BranberryEva Rebecca PriceKatherine Julia Elizabeth Vaughan19°5Lottie Agnes GraberLoretta Toner (Mrs. Bradshawe Hutchin­son)Helen May WeldonI909John Vincent BarrowLa wrence Palmer Briggs I906Blanche Rose Cox HoganEdith Charlotte LawtonLucille Rochlitz220ADDRESSES WANTEDALUMNI-ContinuedFestus Newell CofiellHerman Max CohenCharles Clarence DanforthJohn Dayhuff EllisAllen Wescott Field, Jr.Harry Burton FullerSamuel M. HartzmanMartin Emil HenriksenPhilip HofmannRaymond Francis HoldenWarren IngoldJoseph Oliver JohnsonDon Clyde KiteDelbert Harrison LairdHerbert Otto LusskyPhilip LewinskyFountain Pierce LeighMurrey Kerr MartinCurtis Eugene MasonIra Benton MeyerSamuel Mordecai MorwitzBeveridge Harshaw MooreArchibald Dean PolleyRoswell Talmadge PettitFleming Allen Clay PerrinFrederick Emmanuel RobergWalter Frederick SandersRandolph Eugene ScottFred SmithJohn Joseph SprafkaEverett Beech SprakerGeorge Frederick TannerWilliam Claude VogtFrank Slusser WetzelPaul WilliamsI9IOHenry Foster AdamsJohn Solon BridgesMat BloomfieldWalter Clemens CampbellPekao Tientou Cheng (Tow Ching)John Samuel CollierThomas Henry CornishCharles William FinleyMortimer Stanfield GardnerFloyd Smith HaydenNils Hansen HeibergJames Arthur MillerEdison Ellsworth OberholtzerOtto Edward PetersonJames Thomas RooksCharles Albert RouseJ ames Blaine ShouseChester Ray Swackhamer�,eland Rutherford ThompsonKarl William WahlbergYiuchang Tsenshan Wang 221ALUMNAE-ContinuedBeatrice Chandler Patton (Mrs. ArnoldL. Gesell)Susan Ella SmithLouise StanleyI907Frances Chandler (Mrs. Louis WinRapeer)Evalyn Sarah Cornelius (Mrs. Ozro C.Gould)Mae Ethel Ingalls (Mrs. - - Gray)Marietta Wright NeffMaude SparkmanEleanor Elizabeth WhippleI908Mildred Adelaide CoffmanAnna Evelyn CulverLouise Henrietta EismannFlorence Cornelia FoxAlta Kathryn GreenGudrun Cornelia GundersenUsta Caroline A. HagenEsther HamptonNellie lone IsbellFlorence May ParkerJ uani ta Carol HowardAdelaide Sypes KibbeyLida Meredith LaytonJosephine LesemJune McCarthyFlorence Howland MillsEdith MooreBessie Anthony O'ConnellAgnes Jane O'GradyMary Frances O'MalleyViola Isabel ParadiseMabel RaichlenGeorgia May RoseTheodore Jeannette ScherzEmma SchraderMany Zachary ShapiroLoretta SmithJulia Kate SommerNellie G. Spence (Mrs. Robert Hughes)Inca Lucile StebbinsAnnie Katherine StockGeneva Swinford (Mrs. W. L. English)Grace TrovingerEdith Luella WalworthI909Sarah Angela SmythBlanche Morton ButlerJean Compton (Mrs. J as. Chaffee)Minnie Anna Darst (Mrs. E. W. Darst)Helen Judson DyeHarriet FerrillEdna Helen GouldALUMNI +ContinuedTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE22219IILeonard Ward CoulsonThomas Byard CollinsPaul Carl HaeselerRichard Fleetwood HerndonHerbert Groff Hopkins .Isadore IsaacsonIra Elden JohnstonWilliam Heinen KrauserWilliam George KiersteadWilliam Miller RuffcornMerrill Isaac SchneblyNicholas Alexander SankowskyYorke Breckenridge Sutch1912Glenn Vernon BurroughsLudwig Augustus EmgeFred Leib GlascockRobert Raymond GlynnSolomon Alonzo HayworthThure Johannes HedmanHarry Kruskal HerintzDavid LevinsonWallace Carl MurphyWalter Marion SmithJacob Frederick Zimmerman1869Frank J. Kline1872John Milton Daniel1881William Arthur Gardner1882John Milne Russell1895William Fletcher Harding1896William Clark Logan1897Maurice J. Rugh1898Swen Benjamin AndersonFrederick Wilson Eastman1899Jerome Benjamin HarringtonJohannes Benoni Eduard JonasHenry Francis PerryJoseph Cecil Stone1900Frank Alexander La MotteRobert Morris RabbWalter Joseph Schmahl ALUMNAE-ContinuedEdna Clare IrvinHallie Nathan KinneyAnna Pearl KohlerMary Anna NicholasIrene Frances C. O'BrienMary Degnan RogersViola Alice SteeleMary Ella ToddCallie Amelia Weinberg1910Helen Lorene BarkerElizabeth ConnorStella Gardner Dodge (Mrs. - -Dodge)_ Flavia May DotyMabel Eliz. DryerJeanette Eliz. GrahamLillian May HawkinsLaura Fowler HayesMinnie Pearl HigleyNellie Eliza MillsMary Lemmon PhilipsEmily Amanda SchmidtMrs. Lena Beerman ShepherdEmma Harriet SidenbergElsie Frances WeilIna Belle Wolcott.19IIBessie Leola AshtonMargaret Louise CampbellMargaret Jane FoglesongEliz. HalseyGrace Ellerton HannanMartha Frances HargisElsie Irene HenzelErma Marguerite KelloggMartha Fanny LaiblinEthel May MaclearHazel Louise Martin1912Mina Vera De VriesElla Irene LightfootChristena MacfntyreMary MartinCaroline Irene TownsendJimmie Belle Vance1901J esse Franklin BrumbaughElbridge Lyonal HeathWillis Henry LinsleyJohn Cadd PaltridgeArthur Gaylord Slocum, Jr.George SennHenry Ernest SmithWarren Brownell SmithCharles Allan Wright1903Walter England CalleyLuther Lycurgus KirtleyJohn Allen MoorePercy Scott RawlsJohn J. HowardAlfred Roberts1871Washington ChesterHenry Bethel Davis1872Norman Fox HoytAndrew Lafayette Jordan1874Edward Armstrong Ince1875Malcom Wood1876Charles Harding DeWolfBenjamin Robert WomackJ877Charles Henry Day FisherFrancis M. Williams1879George Berkeley Davis -Jacob SchultzJohn Kitteridge Wheeler1880William Griffith EvansJoseph Alfred FisherRinaldo Lawson OldsWilliam Leonard Wolfe1881Gulian Lansing Morrill ADDRESSES WANTEDALUMNI-ContinuedJohn Joseph V ollertsenHarry Jacob Wertman1904Frank G. BurrowsElbert Admirel CummingsFrancis Squire ParksJohn Griffin ThompsonPaul Leroy VogtThomas Matheson Wilson1905Alfred Jackson BuntsGuy Edward KillieJulius Wm. A. Kuhne1906James Reid RobertsonHerbert Edward WheelerALUMNI OF DIVINITY SCHOOL1882Harvey Bartlett FoskettOliver Brown Kinney1883Edward Hammond BrooksRichard Lenox Halsey1884Hugh David MorwoodAaron W. SniderAlfred Mundy Wilson1885Luther L. CloydThomas Stephenson18B6Carey Joseph Pope1887Charles Nelson Brodholm1888Eli PackerThor Olsen Wold1889Horatio Seymour CooperSimon Sylvester HagemanTheodore HyattWilliam Arbuckle NelsonRodie M. RoderickJohn Stafford1890Wilhelm August PetersonJohn George Schliemann 223224 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEALUMNI OF DIVINITY SCHOOL-Continued1891John Conrad HughesStanislas John ShoomkoffLee Rue Thomas1900 1902Irwin Hoch DeLongAustin HunterJohn August KjellinFrank Leonard Jewett .Everett Joseph Parsons1903Andrew Freeman AndersonWalter Scott Hayden, Jr.Thomas Harvey KuhnJohn Peter MyersHerbert Finley RuddRichard Edward Sayles1904Julian Foster BlodgettEugene F orester JudsonWilliam Theodore Paullin, Jr.J ames Allan PriceAmos Henry SchattuckJulius Christian Zeller1905John Edward AysheHarry Foster BurnsEdwin William Gray1906James Pleasant McCabe, Jr.William Henry BeynonJoseph franklin Findlay1907Arthur Henry HirschWalter Ler0Y RunyanWilliam Edmund Ward Seller1908George Washington Cheesman1909Edwin Herbert Lyle19101892Alfred Ernest ChandlerElmer Kendall ReynoldsSanford Romanzo Walker1893William Lewis BlanchardJames Wallace CabeenJ ames Washington FallsJoseph Hadden GirdwoodJohn Freeman Mills1894J ames William Ashly1895Henry Alfred FiskJohn Elijah Ford1896Walter Gustavus CarlsonEdmund GodwinAlfred Ebenezer GoodmanRalph Waller Hobbs1898Frederick William Bateson1899William Wallace ReedHenry Messick ShouseJohn ChandlerFriend Taylor DyeClarence Mason GallupTheron Winifred Mortimer Eli Jacob ArnotClarence Elmer CampbellNorman Joseph Ware19II1901Frank Leonard AndersonJacob Nelson AndersonMarcus DodsHoward Brown Woolston John CliffordErnest Neville Armstrong