THOMAS WAKEFIELD GOODSPEEDThe University of ChicagoMagazineVOLUME V JANUARY 1913 NUMBER 3EVENTS AND DISCUSSIONA circular letter sent out to the alumni on December 4 by the secre­tary of the Association, and perhaps in part also the comment in theAl · N December Magazine, has brought the editor more news ofumm ews .'the alumni than many previous months have produced.Letters, announcements, even anonymous postcards have come withinformation. The most interesting compendium is The Eleven, thesemiannual publication of the class of I9II, a copy of which was sentthe Magazine by Leroy Baldridge, editor-in-chief. It shows the class insound financial condition, harmonious, enthusiastic, and progressive.The" idiotorials" are pungent, and the news of the class, much of whichis translated into English elsewhere in this issue of the Magazine, isvery good reading in the original. The best of it is, the members ofthe class all understand the language in which Editor Baldridge writes.One prophesies that 'Eleven will go on and increase in valor, wisdom,and delight.On January 18, probably before this issue of the Magazine appears,will be held the annual dinner of the Minnesota Alumni Club, at the. Leamington Hotel, in Minneapolis. President VincentMinnesota · ·11 b kAl · A · of Mmnesota WI e toastmaster, and among the spea ersumm SSOC1-• •. • •ation Dinner WIll be President Judson and President-Emeritus ofMinnesota, Cyrus Northrup. Others who will go fromChicago are Mrs. Judson, James Weber Linn, '97, and David AllanRobertson, 'or. The arrangements, which are elaborate, have been incharge of Harvey B. Fuller, '08, and Ernest W. Kohlsaat, '02.6768 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEExchangeProfessorswith FranceThe President's quarterly statement calls attention to the fact thatan arrangement has been made between the University and the Depart­ment of Education and Fine Arts in Paris for an exchangeof professors in alternate years, beginning with the autumnof this year (1913). The first appointee will be a professordesignated from one of the French universities by theDepartment of Education. The system of exchange professorshipsis no longer an experiment. Harvard and Columbia employ it morelargely than any other universities; but Chicago has already tried itoften, usually with much success. The extension of it here foreshadowedis a matter for congratulation.The President's statement also points out a gain of 43 on the quad­rangles and 86 in University College, for the Autumn Quarter comparedwith the Autumn Quarter of 1912. The new entrancerequirements, which insist upon much higher standingfor admission than is demanded for graduation from preparatory schools,were expected to diminish the attendance for a time. Inasmuch as theywere not enforced last fall with absolute rigidity, various applicantsbeing admitted on probation, it is hard to say just what effect they willhave. Two years ago entrance was made much easier, by the readjust­ment of subjects required for admission; no very large increase in theFreshman class was noted. Last year entrance was made harder again,by the just-mentioned demand for higher grades in preparatory schools;and no special change in the number entering was observable. If any­body cares to take the gun of prophecy, he is welcome; the editor ofthe Magazine declines to shoot.AttendanceIn a carefully detailed report for 19II-I2, recently issued, the Bureauof Student Employment gives some interesting figures: 816 men and82 women, 896 in all, were given 1,085 positions, in whichThe Bureau ofStudent they earned $137,137.40, or an average of $152.71 perEmployment student; 970 were part-time positions, yielding an averageof $1°5.20 per student; 52 were permanent positions(averaging ten months' duration) and yielding an average of $86 permonth; 63 were vacation positions, averaging in duration 14! weeks,and in pay $11.44 per week. By far the largest amount earned was bywaiters, $16,325.40. The next largest was by salesmen in stores,$8,831.50, and the third by houseworkers and cooks, $7,953.85.Then follow in order stenographers and typewriters, $7,383. 10; tutorsEVENTS AND DISCUSSIONand governesses, $6,816; and janitors, $4,414. There are.37 classi­fications in all, including chauffeurs, conductors of services in a syna­gogue, stereopticon operators, show-card writers, actors and supers,patrolmen and detectives, and politicaf" canvassers. The actorsaveraged $1.19 an hour; the patrolmen and detectives only 40 cents.The highest average pay per hour was $1. 56, gained by the refereesof basket-ball games and the conductors of gymnasium classes; thelowest, 25 cents, which rewarded the waiters for board and room, and(oddly enough) the cashiers. Almost a third of 'all the students in resi­dence, except in the Summer Quarter, and more than a third of all themen, were helped by the Bureau, which placed an average of well overthree students every day of the year. The Bureau is in general chargeof Alfred C. Kelly, Jr. Its headquarters have been removed from Cobbto the Press Building.Announcement was recently made of the selection as Cecil Rhodesscholar from Illinois of Robert Valentine Merrill, a student in the SeniorColleges of the University. Mr. Merrill has attended theThe New U· .it f Ith d h distinction JRh d S h 1 nrversi y or ree years an as won istinction IIIo es c 0 ar. ..from Chicago academic work as well as III vanous forms of athletics.He has specialized in the classics and philosophy, andis captain of the University fencing team and a member of the swimmingteam. He is the son of Professor Elmer T. Merrill, of the Departmentof Latin. His work as a Rhodes scholar will begin at Oxford in theautumn of 1913, where he will remain for four years. Among the com­mittee on selection of the Rhodes scholar for Illinois were PresidentEdmund J. James, of the University of Illinois, and President HarryPratt Judson.The Daily Maroon recently printed the list of the thirteen editorswho had managed its fortunes in the ten years of its existence. Herbert. E. Fleming, the first managing editor, 1902-3, is nowManaging f h C···I S · R form Associ .E·· dit f th secretary 0 t e IVI ervice e orm ssociation, 140 S.1 ors 0 e."Maroon" Dearborn St., Chicago; Robert L. Henry, the firstRhodes scholar from Illinois, managing editor in thesummer of 1903, is now dean of the Law School of the University ofNorth Dakota, Grand Forks, N.D.; Oliver B. Wyman, managing editorfrom 1903-4, is in the law offices of Harlan and McCandless, MarquetteBuilding, Chicago; Harry W. Ford, 1904-5, is assistant general managerof the Chalmers Motor company; Walter L. Gregory, 1905-6, is withTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe American Tin Can and Plate Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. WilliamM. McDermid, October, 1906 to December, 1906, is advertising managerof the Recorder Service Co., Cleveland, Ohio; R. Eddy Mathews,January, 1907 to June, 1907, is political editor of the Chicago DailyPress; Luther D. Fernald, 1907-8, is in the advertising department ofCollier's Weekly and is located in Chicago; Preston F. Gass, 1998-9, isthe "star" reporter of the Chicago Evening Post, and a correspondentfor the New York Sun; A. Leo Fridstein, 1909-10, is with- the Water­proof Engineering Co., First National Bank Building, Chicago; Nathan­iel Pfeffer, 1910-II is with the Associated Press in Chicago; Walter J.Foute, 19II-12, was graduated in December; and Hiram Kennicott,'13, is at present in charge.The first of January marks the retirement from active service of oneof the oldest and most valued members of the administrative forceof the University-Dr. Thomas Wakefield Goodspeed,Dr. Goodspeed ·R t· Registrar and Secretary of the Board of Trustees. In ae rres 'score of ways Dr. Goodspeed has impressed himself uponthe life of the University, and he dwells in the memory of thousands ofher graduates. His services are spoken of at greater length in the articleprinted elsewhere in the Magazine. Perhaps the most striking was hissuccessful effort to raise the fund for the Harper Memorial Library.But it is rather as a figure in the daily life of the institution that mostwill recollect him; they will recall the eager enthusiasm that animatedhim, the spirit of loyalty and comradeship that the snows of seventywinters, though they might whiten his hair, could never chill. Afterall, he is still to be with us; possibly he may work a little less arduously,but he will continue to work for Chicago; for to him life without loyalservice would be almost as empty as life without the religion of whichhe has been to so many the exemplar.After three months' time, the omission of the old" ten-thirty half­hour" has been found unsatisfactory to the student body; and followingthe receipt of a petition signed by a large percentage ofThe Morning d dthe un ergra uates a free period has been reincorporatedRecess -Restored in the morning program. The hours are now as follows:8:15-9:15;9:15-10:15; 10:15-IO:45; IO:45-II:45; 11:45-12:45; in the afternoon, 1:30-2:30; 2:30�3:30; 3:30-4:30. This gives,as last quarter, seven recitation periods a day. It shortens the luncheonperiod by 15 minutes; but as chapel and other college assemblies haveEVENTS AND DISCUSSIONagain been put in the free morning period, this shortening involves nohardship. So loud were the complaints last quarter that it is hardlylikely the experiment of omitting the morning recess will again be at­tempted.Last fall the men of the Senior class decided upon a series of weeklymeetings, with no object other than the cultivation of acquaintance andgood fellowship. The first question was, where should theyWhere Shall meet? They could not use the Commons after half-pastseven, nor unless they ordered dinner; and to the generalsurprise of the University, they found that they couldnot use the Reynolds Club, unless they excluded non-members of thatorganization; even in such a case, they could not eat and drink there.Nor was there any reputable place in Hyde Park, outside of the Uni­versity, where they might assemble. The back room of a saloon­restaurant on Lake Avenue offered the only haven of refuge. Notunnaturally they considered meeting there. When the disadvantagesconnected with such a meeting-place were, however, put forcibly byvarious members of the class, that idea was discarded; and no otherspot being discovered, the plan was abandoned. Rather a pity, it seems.Even the dean of the faculties has been heard to ask since, what is theReynolds Club for, if not in part for such desirable assemblies as thoseof the Senior class?the SeniorsMeet?Mr. Bell's letter in the November Magazine, concerning the relation­ship of students to faculty, has stirred comment. Elsewhere is printeda letter in answer. One even more striking answer, perhaps,Students andFaculty was the dinner of students and faculty, held in HutchinsonCommons on the evening of Tuesday, January 7. It wasorganized by the Undergraduate Council, and was attended by fiftyof the members of the faculty and by nearly five hundred under­graduates. Norman Paine, 'I3, president of the Council, presided;and the speakers were Chester Bell, 'I3, for the students, Donald Rich­berg, 'OI for the alumni, and Dean Angell, Professor F. W. Shepardson,and President Judson. It was the most successful dinner held in theCommons for a long time. The note struck and held was that offriendliness and mutual respect between instructors and instructed. Inthis is nothing strange; but in the enthusiastic manifestations of thedinner there was the best of evidence that the feeling was shared byeverybody present.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe i-Club, as usual, attracted a good deal of unfavorable attentionin the Autumn Quarter. In the past this attention has centered chieflyThe 3/4-C1ub upon the frequent silliness of the performances requiredof the candidates for membership, and upon the distractionfrom their studies which the dub involved. But last quarter a new pointcame up for criticism. Some of the neophytes were beaten with suchextreme cruelty as to raise protest, even among the members of theclub. One athletic Sophomore boasted that in his hands no barrel-stavelasted for more than three blows. Nobody was actually maimed, buta number came near real injury. The almost universal testimony ofthe Freshmen seems to be that the club as at present conducted is hotworth their while. "Fraternity loyalty," eagerly invoked, carries themthrough the month of initiation, and the next year the desire is to"get even." That the club might be made worth while, nobody denies;that it has been so this year, nobody believes. There was even anincipient scandal concerning the conduct of its finances.The daily newspapers have given wide publicity to the fact thatfor the second successive ye�r, Coach Stagg has been forced t� leave theUniversity for the Winter Quarter, in search of health.Some years ago, one unusually rainy autumn, Mr. Staggdeveloped sciatica, and spent some time at a sanitarium inrecuperation. The trouble last year, and now, however, is not sciaticbut nervous. The strain of making bricks without straw every fall,combined with the responsibility of the general management of athleticsthroughout the rest of the year, is wearing upon him. To put it bluntly,after the football season is over he cannot sleep. if a problem is pre­sented to him, he cannot stop thinking about it. So for two years hehas gone South to live an outdoor life and regain his strength. Lastyear he spent most of his vacation at Pinehurst. This year he wentfirst to Jacksonville, Florida, whence he will slowly work north, probablyagain to Pinehurst. Mr. Stagg is now fifty years old. He has giventwenty of the best years of his life to the incessant service of the Uni­versity. His accomplishments in athletics speak for themselves. Forall the slenderness of our material and the strictness of our scholasticrequirements, Chicago is usually the team which must be beaten if thechampionship is to be won. The West is pretty unanimous in the opinionthat as a football coach Mr. Stagg is the best ever known. But hisvalue to Chicago is not measurable in terms of athletics. As a moralforce he is extraordinary. The moral evils of athletic competition, ofMr. Stagg'sHealthEVENTS AND DISCUSSION 73which we hear so much from Dean Briggs and others, simply do notexist under his supervision. Rough play, rough speech, a lack ofsportsmanship, he will not tolerate; and they are eliminated, not byhis exhortation, but because they die in the shadow of his personality.Isn't it about time that he formally relieved himself, or was relieved, ofall duties except football coaching and the general supervision of otherbranches of athletics? Mr. Dinsmore has taken over almost all thecare of advertising, ticket selling, and mechanical supervision. Basket­ball and swimming Mr. Stagg leaves to others. Are there not youngermen to whom the active coaching of the track and baseball squads cansafely be intrusted; so that when the football season is over, instead offeeling that his work is just begun, Mr. Stagg may lay aside the responsi­bility, the sense of which has for two years embittered and to some extentenforced his vacation?At last accounts all records had been broken by the probation listin the Junior Colleges for the Winter Quarter, and the Senior Collegeswere not without representation thereupon. The littlecloud, no larger than a man's hand, of the four-weeknotice, spread in almost literally hundreds of cases to cover the horizonat the end of the quarter. Only nine students actually dismissed, butthink of nine whose records averaged below D! Amid the storm, how­ever, the crop of athletes maintained itself fairly well. The track teamloses Bishop, Breathed, and Chandler, all middle and long-distance men.The basket-ball squad remains so far intact. The baseball team isthe hardest hit. Block, the Sophomore pitcher; Mann, the catcher;Libonati, outfielder; and Captain Freeman are all hors de combat.Fortunately a quarter intervenes between them and actual play, and theymay regain their standing. To mention the names of Freshman athleteswho were unsuccessful in their class work would be hardly fair. Butsuch there are.Ineligible!Is there anything good to be said of the "snap" course-the coursewhich is sought by the lazy, or by the man who is greatly occupied in"s "C student affairs, athletic, social, or political? There arenap ourses such courses in all universities, the mere mention ofwhich arouses derisive laughter, or at best a defensive deprecatory grin.No effort of thought is required in them, no accumulation of fact, scarcelyeven any regularity of attendance. The student wishing to register forone such lays down his card defiantly or apologetically, as the case may74 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEbe; he is either at bay, or hidden in a cloud of explanation and excuse.He is expecting to go abroad, and a knowledge of the institutions of theLow Countries will be most valuable to him. He is particularly andabove all things a humanist; he thinks nothing human alien to him;therefore, surely a knowledge of the bases of society is desirable. Heis in helpless earnest to know the best which has been thought and saidin other tongues than English, but alas, his eyes are too weak to permitof the study of foreign languages, and he must secure his knowledgetherefore through the medium of translations. Or else he declares,boldly and baldly, "Dean, I need the grade points; mayn't I registerfor so-and-so, or such and such?" For the student of the latter sortlet it not be said that "at least he is honest." Oftener he is merelyexercising his blunt undergraduate diplomacy. But for him and hisless direct fellows, for the snap course itself, is there nothing to be said?Shall the undergraduate never loaf and invite his soul? Is he not tobe permitted to relax? Driven upon a strenuous way by the coach orthe stage manager or the dire necessities of political maneuvering, mayhe never find relief in the shelter of a kindly professorial personality?Exhausted by "rushing" and dances, may he not recreate himself inthe loud somnolence of the classroom? Disturbed and made fretfulby the insistence of clamorous disciplinarians who believe in study forits own sake, may he not wisely retreat to the haven prepared for himby the friendly soul who" stimulates" but never asks for written work?"Surely," said R.L.S., "we should be a good deal idle in youth." Andwhere can idleness be pursued more profitably than in the snap course?About what do the recollections of your own college days cling mostfondly-the chemistry laboratory, or the room in which you laughedand dreamed the hours away, while the instructor amused you with hisever fresh eccentricities, and from which you emerged with the sincereencomium upon your lips, "By George, he's better than vaudeville I"But one wonders, too, whether in the silent watches of the night the"stimulating" instructor never reflects a little sadly upon the preciseshading of his popularity.The Seminar.I II II., I. II II ! JI I J I..� I II0: �'" I'3i Il-:;.2� IConnectionwilhtheDepartmentof Soc-iology. IntroductoryAccount1!!&- EconomicOrganization.LaborConditionsandProblems. IntroductoryCourse InStat�stics. EconomicHistory of theUnited States. Taxationand Publicfinance.Money andBanking.The elementary course an the Principles of Economics. This is taken In the Sophomore year. 'It may be taken contemporaneouslywith some of thle courses in the group below.The Social Science Survey, covering pa�,of the Freshman and Sophomore years. This work will include: (1) Ancient, Mediaeval, and Modem Historyof college grade; (2) Political Science and Commercial Geogtaphy of college grade; (3) Psychology; (4) Ethics or Introduction toPhilosophy; (5) Elementary Sociology or Social Origins. Part of this work may be .taken in the group below,Foundation, covering the work of the high school, the Freshman year, and part of the Sophomore year in college. This work includesa certain minimum in: (I) English Composition and Literature; (2) Mathematics; (3) the Physical· or Biological Sciences;I(4) the Social Sciences (mainly History andCivics); (5) Modem Language {ability to use at least one as a tool}.1.. Law of Business and Social Relations a prerequisite. l. Appropriate courses in Mathematics a prerequisite. 3. Economic History of the United States a prerequisite. 4. Appropriate courses in Mathematics a prerequisite.S. Taxation and Public Finance a prerequisite. 6. Appropriate courses in Political Science a prerequisite.THE COLLEGE OF COMMERCE ANDADMINISTRATIONSince the beginning of the University of Chicago the need has beenrecognized of a school, or college, or separate group of courses, whichshould train students for a business life. Professor J. Laurence Laughlinpresented to the senate a careful plan for a "school of commerce andindustry" on February 3, 1894. His scheme called for an annualexpenditure of $38,500. Two years later, March 14, 1896, it was votedthat $5,800 was the minimum necessary to start the work. Observethe difference; but there is no record that even the $5,800 was ever voted.Certain existing courses in the University were grouped, and in theRegister for 1898-99 the "College of Commerce and Politics" was setforth parallel with the Colleges of Art, Literature, and Science, but nodean or special faculty was given. March 15, 1902, the Senate adopteda report providing for a separate technical school, the College of Com­merce' and Administration, with its own faculty and administrativeofficers. This faculty met from April 26, 1902, until May 22, 1905.Thereafter the college led a casual and inadvertent life. In 1910-II ithad 261 registrations, but it exercised no discoverable function or control.The history is so far a sad one, to which the__ proverb seems applicable:great cry and little wool. The lack, however, was not of interest, butof money.In 1910, Mr. Rockefeller made his final gift of ten million dollars.Some time afterward, Dean L. C. Marshall was sent to study Americanschools of commerce and of civics, bureaus of municipal research, andsimilar agencies. Upon his return a plan was drawn up which met theapproval of the administration, and which has been since put into action.The general plan of the reorganization of the work in the College ofCommerce and Administration may be seen by the diagram facing thispage.Following the preliminary work of the high schooland of the JuniorColleges comes the division of the students into three groups: the businessgroup; the civic group, and the charitable and philanthropic group.After this, and usually in the Senior year, come the specialized coursesfor a particular occupation, whether it be railroading, or a privatesecretaryship, or statistical investigation, or the bond business. These75THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEcourses may very well be carried on into the graduate schools; "as goodfood is prepared the students will remain longer at the feast"; but it isexpected that for several years to come the great majority of the studentswill discontinue at the end of the four-year course.The thirty-six majors of that four-year course, however, will beabsolutely at the disposal of the Dean. The student must expect to seethem all employed to a definite end. Those who enter college badlyprepared-who bring for example no modern language-and those whoenter with advanced standing from some other institution, or transferlate in their course from some other division of the University, must oftenexpect to take more than 36 majors for graduation. The course of thestudent in Commerce and Administration, in other words, is in no senseelective. Registering in that College, he declares his confidence in theDean's judgment, and his own fixity of purpose. His attitude (thoughnot his course) is from the beginning as professional as that of thestudent in law or medicine. The prescription of courses is to a highdegree individual, but it is none the less rigid. He (or she) is notadmitted except after long personal consultation with_ the Dean, andwith a full understanding of the conditions. He may not remain in theCollege unless he maintains both his general standing and his willingnessto co-operate. It may be noted in passing that of the 140 who soughtto register in Commerce and Administration at the beginning, 67 wereeither refused permission to do so, or voluntarily sought another havenafter they had discovered the strength of the wind.Specifically, (a) wwat courses will a student take who is planning, forinstance, to become a bond salesman; and (b) what does he gain inreturn for the surrender of his power of election?(a) He will, of course, take English; and he will take two years'work in one modern language, unless when he comes to the University hehas the power to read it easily and intelligently. , He will take a year ofhistory. He will .take political science, sociology, psychology, ethics andas a matter of course introductory economics. These he will follow withintermediate courses in the economic history of the United States, ineconomic organization, and in money and banking; and these again withadvanced work in banking practice, in crises, in corporation finance, inindustrial and commercial organizations, and so on. These courses willbe conducted, as the courses in the Law School are, as problem courses;and they win be supplemented by at least one quarter of "field-work" inactual practice, and by a minimum of actual research into some economicquestion. What other courses he takes will depend upon the judgmentTHE COLLEGE OF COMMERCE AND ADMINISTRATION 77of the Dean. A man ignorant of physical science would be introducedto chemistry and geology. One case may be cited in which a student in­tending to be a newspaper woman was urged to continue with her Greek.And this last case may lead us to (b), what does the student get inreturn for the surrender of his power of election?In the first place of course, the statement put in this form becomesa bit of caricature; one imagines a ferocious, possibly bewhiskeredgentleman thundering his commands to a timid and reluctant young manor woman deprived alike of the power of answer and the power of choice.Nothing very like this occurs. The student retains his individuality;indeed the possession and development of an individuality is intended tobe a sine qua pone He (or she) and the Dean consult, discuss; but thefinal decision lies with the Dean. Ap.d precisely for this reason, thestudent gains whatever advantage may lie in a careful, friendly study bya trained official of the student's powers and limitations. For the valueof this new (or newly reorganized) college must lie wholly in the valueof its graduates; if their quality is in the long run p.o better than that ofthe average, less closely supervised student, the plan will have failed tojustify itself. Since this is so, the individual suggestions must be basedby the Dean on fairly complete information and reasonably clear under­standing. The information must come in part from the student himself;it will be supplemented by careful further inquiry. The following cardis sent out each quarter to each instructor in any of whose classes a studentin the College of Commerce and Administration is registered:To the Instructor: Please state yourestimate of the qualities of this stu­dent and return the card to the Deanof the College of Commerce and Ad­ministration. The information willbe regarded as confidential. For con­venience, let A=Excellent; B=Good;C=Fair; D=Poor; E=Very Poor. Name of student .No. Dept. TitleCourse" " .Taken Quarter, 191 ..•Ability to grasp general principles Thorough-ness Alertness, Keenness Ability tomaster details Open-mindedness Order-liness, System Ability to express thoughts Reliability Balance andJudgment Independence, Self-reliance, Initiative Industry Square-ness and Honesty Ability to deal with people Promptness Poise andManner General Comment:I -nstructor .If this plan to secure information works, and if the advice which theDean gives is sound, the student in Commerce and Administration oughtto get not only definite training but wise training. At all events he entersupon his course with his eyes open; he knows what is being asked ofhim, as too often the average undergraduate does not.The purpose of the College of Commerce and Administration isTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEfundamentally to train men and women not only to make money but topromote the welfare of society.Our medical schools are demanded not primarily that physicians may commandgood fees but that society may be served. Our law schools may aid in making lawyerswho will be wealthy, but the mere fact that we impose a bar examination shows thatthe interest of society, not that of individual, is dominant. So our schools of com­merce, of civics, of philanthropy will miss their purpose if, either by intention orthrough neglect, the individual, money-making side is permitted to have the rulinghand.The danger of the development of an anti-social, or at best a non-social attitudeis particularly great in a college of commerce. Its professional attitude is constantlyin the way of temptation of becoming merely a money-makingattitude, The "meregrind of the machinery" will tend to bring about such a result. This tendency canbe offset in part by eternal vigilance upon the part of the administration, but it shouldaid greatly to have the work in commerce closely bound up, in at least its earlierstages, with work in preparation for social and political service. The" grind of themachinery" in these latter fields will be distinctly pro-social.But the interest of the College in research is equally clear.It conceives that very considerable stores of scientific information exist in thefields of philosophy, psychology, sociology, political science, and economics whichshould be made more accessible for the furthering of the progress of the community.The college will assume some responsibility for this task, and, through painstakingresearch and investigation, it will seek to open up and make accessible new stores ofscientific data. In rendering this service the college has a duty to more than onesection of the community. It hopes to serve by aiding commercial and industrialdevelopment; it hopes equally to serve by assisting in the solution of our pressingpolitical and social problems. It believes that there is sufficient unity and coherencein the social sciences to justify an attempt to advance all along the line and it hasaccordingly placed under one organization the functions which in some institutions areperformed by schools or colleges of commerce, the functions which in other institutionsare performed by schools of social workers, and the functions which, in still otherinstitutions, are given over to bureaus of municipal research. Research activities ofthe students will have some importance. Far more important will be the investigationsby the instructors in the specialized or professional courses. In this formative periodof such education, it is clear that the college must expect to carry, as one of its mostimportant functions, its research division.Such briefly is the history, organization, and purpose of the Collegeof Commerce and Organization. There are at present no instructorswho teach exclusively in the College; even the Dean is dean also of theSenior Colleges. On the other hand, Freshmen and Sophomores who areregistered in Commerce and Administration are no longer in the chargeof the deans of the Junior Colleges. At present free transference ispermitted; that is to say, a Junior College student may decide toregister in Commerce and Administration, and at a later time may returnto the Junior College administration. Whether this will be long allowedis doubtful; it has its obvious disadvantages. The new college isavowedly an experiment; it appears likely to succeed.NOTE.-For the substance of this article and the quotations, the Magazine isindebted to a paper read by Dean Marshall before the deans of the University, whichis to appear in the February number of the Journal of Political Economy.THOMAS W. GOODSPEEDThomas Wakefield Goodspeed was born at Glenns Falls, N.Y.,September 4, 1842• He studied at Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois,and was present when Lincoln and Douglas met in debate on the KnoxCollege campus, on October 7, 1858. In 1859 he became a memberof the first Freshman class in the old University of Chicago, where hecontinued his studies until 1862. Here he participated actively in thecollege sports, being most proficient in baseball and wrestling. Asorderly of the Student Military Company he led that body when in Juneof 1861 it acted as guard of honor at the burial of Senator Douglas, thefounder of the institution. In 1862 he entered the University of Rochesteras a Senior and was graduated with the degree of A.B. in 1863. AtRochester he became a member of the Alpha Delta Phi fraternity. Beingresolved to enter the ministry, Mr. Goodspeed took up theological workat once in the Rochester Theological Seminary, under President E. G.Robinson, Dr. George W. Northrup, and Dr. A. C. Kendrick. Hewas ordained to the Baptist ministry in 1865, and was graduated fromRochester Seminary in 1866. On September 4 of that year he marriedMiss Mary Ellen Ten Broeke, daughter of Rev. James Ten Broeke, ofPanton, Vt. The same autumn, Mr. Goodspeed became pastor of theVermont Street Baptist Church of Quincy, Illinois. In 1872 he becamethe associate of his brother, Rev. Edgar J. Goodspeed, in the pastorateof the Second Baptist Church, Chicago. In 1876, Mr. Goodspeedresigned to undertake the financial secretaryship of the Baptist UnionTheological Seminary, then in great financial straits, and removing fromChicago to Morgan Park. It was not his intention to leave the ministryfor educational work, but the task of putting the seminary upon a soundfinancial basis proved a much larger one than had been supposed, andoccupied the energies of Mr. Goodspeed and President Northrup for adozen years. In this work they had occasion to approach Mr. Rocke­feller, who came to take a large interest in -the Seminary. In 1879 Dr.Harper, a young man of twenty-two, came to Morgan Park as instructorin Hebrew and Old Testament, and in 1881 Dr. Hulbert came as professorof church history, and lifelong friendships were formed. In 18n Mr.Goodspeed helped in organizing the Morgan Park Baptist Church andalong with his other work he served as its pastor until 1880.After the collapse of the Old University in 1886, Dr. Goodspeedshared somewhat actively in the counsels looking to a new and broader7980 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZI"VEDR. GOODSPEED IN r889 WHEN HE BEG.\N HISWORK FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF CHIC.\GOTHOMAS W. GOODSPEED 81educational foundation in Chicago. Upon Mr. Rockefeller's offer on May15, 1889, of $600,000 conditioned upon the securing of $400,000 morewithin a year, Dr. Goodspeed proposed the organization of the CollegeCommittee of Thirty-six to undertake the raising of the fund. Of thiscommittee he became the Secretary, and with Frederick T. Gates of theAmerican Baptist Education Society, undertook the campaign. Theunfortunate business record of the Old University made this doublydifficult, but it was proved more than successful, for in addition to theproposed sum the nucleus of the present site was secured, and friendswere made for the new enterprise who have since become its leading sup­porters. On June 18, 1890, Dr. Goodspeed with Mr. Rockefeller, Mr.Field, Mr. F. E. Hinckley, Mr. E. Nelson Blake, and Mr. Gates signedthe certificate of incorporation of the University, naming the first boardof trustees, and at the first meeting of the Board on July 9, 1890, he wasappointed financial secretary. At a later meeting he was made record­ing secretary of the Board.In 1897 he undertook in addition the duties of- University Registrar.After twenty-two year� in the active service of the University, he retiredfrom these positions January I, 19I3, with the title of correspondingsecretary. It is thirty-six years since he left the ministry, temporarily,as he thought, to help the Seminary over a crisis, and all of this time hasbeen spent in the service of the Divinity School or the University.Dr. Goodspeed has on several occasions served as trustee of theUniversity, and of the Divinity School. Since I898 he has been secre­tary of the Board of Trustees of Rush Medical College. For twentyyears he has been very active in the work of the Hyde Park BaptistChurch, of which he is a member.In the autumn of 1890, while on a visit to New Haven, Dr. Goodspeedwas with some difficulty persuaded to attend a football game betweenYale and Pennsylvania. As it progressed his disfavor changed to interestand finally to enthusiasm. When in 1893 his office was transferredfrom downtown to Cobb Hall, and he was brought into somewhatclose relations with the student body, they found him to be in whole­hearted sympathy with student athletics and student life. Dr. Good­speed's annual vacation month he has spent for the past thirty yearsamong the woods and lakes of northern Wisconsin. In 1894 he foundhis way to the shores of Plum Lake, and there in the following summerin company with his nephew, began with his own hands -to build a loghouse upon a wooded island. To this island Dr. Goodspeed has eversince gone for his vacation, and on it and on the lakes and trails of thatregion he has spent some of his happiest hours.LEARNING TO LIVE1BY EDWIN ERLE SPARKS; PH.D., L�.D.President of Pennsylvania State CollegeOn an occasion like the present, inwhich I am honored, my former chief,some time colleagues, graduates, andfriends, by an invitation to speak beforeyou, a topic lying along educational linesmay seem in accord with the spirit ofthe hour although the topic lies outsidethe lines of instruction in this university.Expansion of the field of work andenlargement of the curriculum are naturalresults of growth and _ development.The average course of study in the aver­age college of today forms a strangecontrast with that of even fifty yearsago. The significant difference lies inthe increase of the practical and thedecrease of the purely cultural and orna­mental. Preparation for the vocationalin general has become preparation forthe vocational specifically.The response of education to populardemand was illustrated nearly fifty yearsago when, at the dawn of the industrialperiod, the federal and state govern­ments established and have since main­tained in the several states the so-calledstate colleges and universities, whichnow number 67 and have a total enrol­ment of nearly 100,000 students. Theseinstitutions were intended, accordingto the act of Congress to educate "theindustrial classes in the several pursuitsand professions of life," especially inthe two great branches of agriculture andthe mechanic arts (engineering). Inthe astonishing development of manu­facturing, mining, and transportationwhich followed and which still claimsour national activity, these collegeswere called upon to produce engineers,chemists, architects, draughtsmen, con­sulting specialists, and ,leaders in everyphase of nature-conquest and fortune­building. Right worthily did they res­pond.The demand for men trained in thesemechanic arts attracted students, provided• Ix Delivered on the occasion of the Eighty­fifth Convocation of the University, held inthe Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, December17, 1912. instructors, and constructed classrooms,shops, and laboratories. Agriculture, thetwin-sister, was relegated to the role ofCinderella. In 1900, nearly forty yearsafter the enabling act was passed, therewere only 6,250 students enrolled inagriculture in the various institutions asagainst 8,341 in engineering courses.Within the past ten years, however,the tide has turned and is now settingin toward the agricultural courses withever-increasing strength and velocity.Last year the number of students pur­suing courses along agricultural linesincreased nearly 40 per cent, while thenumber in mechanic arts decreased nearly10 per cent. This right-about-face bringsme to the topic I wish to present foryour consideration-the present interestin agrarian life and pursuits."Take no thought for your life," saysthe Holy Scripture,.... what yeshall eat, or what ye shall drink."Contrary to this injunction, our principalconcern at the present time seems to bewith those grosser or material things oflife. We need only a reincarnate Dr.Malthus to bring a panic andto picturefuture generations fighting like ship­wrecked passengers for a share of theinadequate food supply of the world.Long we have followed the motto,"Live and learn"; now we are expendingvast sums and untold energy in learningto live.I shall not exhaust your patience andconsume your time by attempting tofind the causes of this revival of theprimitive art of tilling the soil. In brief,I attribute it to the fact that the vastheritage of public lands lying always tothe west of the advancing population isnow well-nigh brought under cultivationand no longer supplies a refuge for rest­less spirits. The "Go west youngman," of the sage of Chappaqua hasnow become "Go down into the soilyoung scientist." Intensive rather thanextensive cultivation is necessary. Asecond cause may be found in a reactionfrom the movement toward the cities,LEARNING TO LIVEEDWIN ERLE SPARKSPRESIDENT OF PENNSYLVANIA STATE COLLEGEConvocation Orator, December 17, 1912THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEwhich movement prevailed for a century,and which raised the proportion of urbandwellers from 3 per cent to 35 per cent ofthe total population. This reaction hasalready provided the trolley and motorcar to transport us to and from business;has resurrected the country tavern tofeed us; has restored the country gentle­man's estate for those of us who canafford it and has furnished golf links forour recreation. 'Still another reason for the return toagriculture is seen in the prevalent alarmat the abuse and possible exhaustionof our national resources. Railwaycompanies have been sufficiently far­sighted to discern that lumbering iswell-nigh exhausted except in remoteregions; that mineral resources must intime diminish and that only one depend­able source of producing freight fortransportation remains, viz., the pro­ducts of the soil. In consequence, thetransportation companies are expendinglarge sums in educating the farmer toraise larger crops and to produce a sur­plus for transportation. Educationaltrains are run, lectures given, seed dis­tributed, prizes offered, breeding animalsimported, and trained experts placedat the dispoasl of farmers residing alongthe railway lines.The examination into the increased costof living during which the ultimate con­sumer has placed the blame upon everypossible cause except his own extrava­gance, is no doubt another reason for therenaissance of agriculture. When a home­made egg costs more than an importedorange, the plain hen assumes a new im­portance as a source of possible wealth,especially with her climatic adaptability.When the despised potato retails for adollar a bushel, Mr. Common Peoplemust have a little garden to circumventthe rapacious middle-man produce dealer.Under this pressure of terminal finance-­that is, making both ends meet-Adamhas returned to his delving and Eve mayyet go back to her spinning-if Mrs.Horatius will consent to hold the bridgein her stead.May I add still another less evidentand more problematical cause of thisreversal of public interest. Is it notpossible that the manufacturing erawhich has absorbed our activity, utilizedour capital and made our fortunes duringthe past forty years is losing its hold,has, perhaps, satisfied a demand, an d that national energy, in seeking new linesof development, has returned to its oldoccupation. Perhaps we are enteringupon an agricultural era which maysupplement or even supplant the ageof manufacture. May it not also betrue that some of this "back-to-the­farm" movement is a direct result ofthe manufacturing period which builtfortunes in cities and supplied meansto go back to the farm by proxy if not inreality.Contemplating these would-be farmers,it may be said that agriculture is themost popular diversion in the minds ofthe American public today. The million­aire freely spends his surplus on his farm,importing fancy breeding animals atfabulous prices, employing college-trainedscientists at compensations which playhavoc with college salary scales, anddemanding no accounting of profit andloss from superintendents providingthe deficit on the farm does not reachfive figures. These fancy agriculturistsin some cases buy up large tracts of landand turn them into non-productive parksfor boastful purposes, bidding fair tomake us rival Ireland in a system ofabsent landlordism. They point withpride to their exemplification of DeanSwift's aphorism of making two bladesof grass grow where one grew before­and they are able to do it because theyhave means to procure fertilizers of theright quality and quantity.A more numerous and more-to-be­pitied class is found in persons of variousprofessions and occupations who aspireto become farmers. Story papers. printfascinating articles about the down-and­out man, who having failed in his pro­fession in the city, sets forth with a bravewife by his side and finds a desertedcottage on an abandoned farm whichis bought for a song. There under God'sclear sky, surrounded by heavenly ozone,cultivating a sun-kissed hillside slope,the couple plant a new Eden and livehappily forevermore. It is an alluringbit of fiction-but it is fiction and thefacts. are found to be far otherwise bymost of those who try the change.Few of these adventurers into theprimitive art of husbandry really do seta hen upon an eggplant in order to securean eventual broiler; few purchase a cocoa­nut in order to supply material for mak­ing a cup of cocoa; fewer still purchasea book on pharmacy as a guide to sue ..LEARNING TO LIVE 85cessful farming-these be stories emanat­ing from the seat of the scornful. Butmany unsuccessful ventures, loss ofcapital, and blasted hopes must follow inthe wake of this movement to rehabilitatethe farm.Land companies put forth attractiveadvertisements as sails in the favoringbreeze. One is now appearing whichportrays a heart-sick and despondentworkman gazing from the reeking airof a tenement window, with an arm sup­porting a sick wife and child and lettinghis tired eyes rest upon a mirage in thedistance. In this mirage arises the idealcountry cottage, with brilliant rosesclambering over the walls, and well­kept flower-beds dotting the closelyshorn lawn, while at the door standsAnnie in a simple Marshall Field creationwith little Lord Fauntleroy at her sideto welcome her hero returning in hisSunday clothes from his daily task in thefields. Below is the mischief-makinglegend, "Why die in -the city when youcan live in the country?"If farming is so easy, how mistakenmust those be who would apply science tothe art. Maynot our colonist fathers havebeen within the bounds of truth when indescribing the fertility of the soil, theyaverred that it was only necessary totickle the ground to have it laugh the cropsup into your face.The restless toiler and the discontentedurban dweller are met on all sides byopportunity to become scientific farmers.Correspondence schools if sufficientlyurged will supply the means, Oneadvertisement displayed in prominenttype this line: "Learn to raise ducks bycorrespondence! " However, it is pro b­able that those who enroll and pay theprescribed fee will find the duck not soclosely related to the art espitolary asthis juxtaposition would indicate.A more serious aspect of this presentfancy is seen in the public interest in rurallife. Commissions for studying countryconditions are formed both by nationaland state governments. Various de­nominations are making rural surveysespecially of their churches and congre­gations. Rural conditions in Europeancountries 'are studied and accommoda­tions have already been secured on asteamship line for a vast commissionconsisting of five members to beappointed from each state in the Unionunder legislative appropriations to study rural banking and co-operative farmingin various European countries. Thishas been undertaken in all seriousness andthe time of sailing set for the last of May.Our well-intentioned effort of makingthe many as happy as the few has longbeen directed toward the city slums.Under the present reaction, we areturning our investigations toward ruralcommunities and declaring that in somerespects they are worse than the cities.One community, thoroughly aroused bya rural conference held in its midst setabout to ameliorate the conditions of itspoor but unfortunately could find onlyone family falling within that class.Eleemosynary attention being thus con­centrated on this one family, its memberswere soon elevated to a pitiable con­dition of dyspepsia through a surfeit ofunaccustomed food.But I fear I have fallen below thelimit of dignity prescribed for a Convoca­tion address, and I return to my thesisthat education has readily accommodateditself to the new order of things. Men­tion has already been made of the sur­prising reversal of college enrolment asbetween the engineering and the agri­cultural courses. The latter after nearlyfifty years of comparative inactivityseem to be attaining the prominence andserving the purpose the founders hopedfor them. Formerly there was but onecourse offered, known as plain "agri­culture," and it was presumably therecourse of those who were unable scholas­tically to complete the engineering or thegeneral courses. Indeed, due allowancewas made in the entrance examinationfor the poorly qualified agriculturalstudents.Conditions are now changed. En­trance to the agricultural courses is assevere as to the other courses of the col­lege and the curriculum is as stiff. Nolonger is the "Short Ag," or the "LongAg," for that matter, made the butt ofridicule. " Clodhopper" has disappearedfrom the college vocabulary. It issufficient to note that of the two hundredboys from the city of Philadelphia) nowattending the State College of Pennsyl­vania, nine-tenths are enrolled in theSchool of Agriculture. Perhaps on theprincipal of exchanging known for un­known hardships, the farmer's son desiresto become an engineer or a chemist, whilethe banker's lad and the merchant's boywish to be farmers.�86 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAgricultural courses have multipliedin the resulting differentiation. A stu­dent no .longer pursues a plain agri­cultural course but may specialize inforestry, agronomy, animal husbandry,dairy husbandry, poultry, commercialgardening, fruit growing, landscape gar­dening, or farm management. The .oldprofessorships of ancient languages,English,' mathematics, and the like are.replaced by chairs of pomology, den-,dro]ogy, rural sociology, clericulture,thremmatology, ecology and zootechnics.While salaries attached to the old styleprofessorships remain generally sta­tionary, compensation for these agri­cultural specialists has advanced' inaccord with the large demand and thelimited supply. In the scale of salaries,the one begins where the other leavesoff; that is, the highest professorshipin (he liberal arts carries a salary aboutequal to the lowest professorship inagriculture. Divergence between thesesalaries is further increased by the factthat instructors in the practical linesare in constant demand by commercialfirms and by the federal and stategovernments. Perhaps the governmenthas been employing a large number ofspecialists in Greek, history, or mathe­matics; but if so, the fact has escapedmy attention. On the other hand,entire graduating' classes in agronomy,forestry, and the like are admitted tolarge stipends through the wide-opendoor of a civil service examination­wide open in the sense of a large demandand a limited supply.Eventually this condition of affairsmust change, for the supply will meet thedemand through the large number ofagricultural students enrolled and to begraduated. The output at present isnearly IO,OOO annually arid steadilyincreasing. It is to be noted that these67 state colleges have property valuedat one hundred twenty five million dollars;that they have 7,342 teachers and enrol92,000 students. To them the federalgovernment gives outright twenty milliondollars annually in addition to the originalland grant of eighteen million dollars.Their growth in appropriation, numbersand influence, will be the marked featurewhen the educational history of the pres­ent era is written.But not alone in intra-mural instruc­tion is education meeting the demandfor improved rural conditions. . On a similar foundation of state and nationalsupport, 50 agricultural experimentstations are maintained at an annual costof three and one-half million dollars,having I,600 employees, and sendingout 500 separate reports to over a millionaddresses. The scientific projects under­taken in these stations cover the entirefield of husbandry and household' econ­omy. Some require years of patientinvestigation to bring dependable results.Plots of land have, in some stations,been under fixed experiments for thirtyyears. Some old and supposedly well­established principles of economics, thediminishing return of the soil, forexample, have been refuted by resultsobtained in these stations. An thisexpenditure of time, money, and energyhas for its sole purpose the securing ofimproved methods and better resultsfor the farmer.The difficult task has been to conveythis information to the farmer, to winhis confidence and to persuade him tochange his inherited conservative ways of,doing things for new and more scientificmethods. The pamphlet or bulletin hasbeen the chief means of conveying thisinformation to the people; but only toofrequently it was looked upon asfurnishing a supply of shaving paperand candle lighters rather than a sourceof available information. Next came theFarmers' Institute which by lectures andoccasional demonstrations supplied sci­entific knowledge, but it was given' ata time of year when it co:uld be leastutilized and never exemplified. Theagricultural railway train fitted out withlecture-rooms and exhibits, stopping ateach station on scheduled time, was foundto' be a successful variation of the insti­tute. This so-called "extension work"of the agricultural colleges, which en­deavors to convey to the people theresults of the experiments made at thestations, last year cost more than amillion dollars, and reached an estimatednumber of I,800,000 persons.The latest plan is that of a residentexpert in every county of every statein the Union, whose services shall be atthe disposal of the farmers for advice onany phase of crop or animal cultivation.The expense will be shared by the federalgovernment, the state colleges and thefarmers to be benefited. When one con­siders the number of counties in theUnited States, one is impressed by theLEARNING TO LIVEmagnitude of the enterprise and its cost,as well as by the benefits to follow.To finance this and similar projectsof agricultural and household extensionwork, a bill was passed the House ofRepresentatives and is now pending inthe Senate, which gives outright toevery state $10,000 the first year andan annual increase according to the per­centage of rural population until in 1923,the total will not be far short of eightymillion dollars annually. Another billproposes to introduce a new principleof federal activity, viz., national appro­priations to state public schools and toprovide an agricultural high school andexperiment station in every congressionaldistrict in the United States. Strangeto say, these propositions peacefully toinvade the several sovereign states findno serious opposition, perhaps becausethe purse is mightier than the sword.Having the powerful support of manyrailways and various leagues of bankersand others, there is likelihood that one orboth bills may be enacted into laws andadd another to the many national bene­factions.Manufacturers and dealers whosewares are associated with the farm havebeen quick to seize the present opportun­ity. A Chicago mail-order house is saidto have placed a million dollars at thedisposal of the United States Depart­ment of Agriculture for securing betterfarm supervision. A combination offertilizer manufacturers announces thatits force of chemists will analyze withoutcharge any specimens of soil sent to themand will describe the proper kind offertilizer to be employed for that par­ticular ground. The harvester manu­facturers have set aside a million dollarsfor a service bureau to benefit the farmerand have placed at its head a famouscorn expert from Iowa. The IllinoisState Bankers' Association maintains aspecial department for co-operation andaid to the farmers of the state. Busi­ness manifestly recognizes its ultimatedependence upon the soil and sees thenecessity for an increased production.Economists freely predict that unlessconditions can be changed, the UnitedStates will be transformed within tenyears from a food-exporting to a food­importing nation.Many in the audience who are residentsof the city of Chicago are annual bene­ficiaries of the paternalistic hand of the federal government in fostering the artof agriculture. I retain a most livelyrecollection of the receipt annually of apackage bearing upon the outside thewarning statement, "Fifty dollars penaltyfor private use," but accompanied withthe reassuring words, " United StatesDepartment of Agriculture, Washing­ton, D.C." and the frank of thecongressmen. With lively anticipationsof a Santa Claus out of season, thepackage is opened and found to containpumpkin seeds-of a variety presumablyadapted to the needs of a husbandmanresiding in the third story of a fiatbuilding. Upon the principle of thesurvival of the fittest and of the adapta­bility to environment, the pumpkinsshould be of the climbing variety ifintrusted to mother earth below or of ahardy nature for high altitudes if placedin a window box on the family level.But the benevolent government doesnot confine its activities to the annualdistribution of 600 tons of seeds. Lastyear the Department of Agricultureexpended no less than $23,000,000,for the public good, in addition to thesums expended by similar departmentsin the several states. Among the budgeti terns were the suppression of the cattletick, eradication of the cotton boll wevil,suppression of forest fires, experimentsin converting the cactus into stock food,discovery and introduction of new formsof food-producing plants and animals,soil surveys, prevention of food adultera­tion, war against epidemics, care of thepublic health, and fighting fruit andvegetable pests. Among the items inthe budget of the average state depart­ment of agriculture will be found abureau of vital statistics, inspection ofsoils, analysis of fertilizers. feed stuffs,Paris green, and linseed-oil, inspectionof orchards, fighting San Jose scale,payment for condemned animals, a statefair, and encouragement of horticulture,live stock, beekeeping, and dairying.The government must protect the farmerby law against the adulteration of thefood purchased by him for himself,his family, his stock, and his soil. Itmust also defend his crops against themany blights, rust, insects, and germsto which they are subject, an estimate ofwhose ravages occasionally appear in thepublic press. No statistician could addthese estimated losses and place themagainst the total crop values without88 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEbeing convinced that Uncle Sam faces ahopless annual deficit and that muchmore is destroyed than could possibly beraised on all the available soil in theUnited States.To describe the extent and variety ofthe assistance rendered and the bene­fits resulting from this activity wouldprolong this paper beyond your limitof patience. Soil survey maps have beenmade of many of the states, showing at aglance the kind of soil predominating inany place, and, by a little reading, thecrops for which it is adapted and thekind of treatment it needs. Specialistsin crops, pests, soils, farm machinery,cattle or poultry diseases, and the likeare at the service of any locality makinga proper request, Since the naturalchannel of request is the congressman ofthe district, one may immediately seewhy it is said in Washington that theagricultural interests are able to getwhatever they wish. It must also beobserved that no interests of the UnitedStates are better organized and preparedto contest their rights than are theagrarian interests, unless it be possiblythe labor interests.In dwelling upon the magnitude of thesums expended upon agriculture, bothin the classroom and in the field, I amendeavoring not to criticize the action butto emphasize the importance of food pro­duction and to show the trend of thepresent movement. While it is unlikelythat any material reduction in the costof living will follow so long as the style ofliving remains unchanged, nor are weassured that the establishment of ruralcredit banks will prove a panacea for thefinancial burdens of the husbandman;nevertheless there are several resultswhich may be expected to follow this re­vived interest in the art of agriculture:The unintentional butchery of the soil,which has characterized much of ourso-called farming, will be greatly reducedif not eliminated by the introduction ofbetter methods. Unclaimed, unused andabandoned land will be brought undercultivation and will add to the sourcesof food. The New York State Bankers'Associa tion claims that ten million acresof land in that state alone could be addedto the tillable tracts by redeeming high­lands and swamps.Increased attention to agriculture willbring to bear the inventive genius ofman upon the problems of production and will result in additional labor-savingmachinery and devices.As manufacturing plants are removedto the country and as population follows,the congested, food-consuming centerswill diminish and the danger of foodpanics through war or pestilence willbe reduced.The conservation of our national re­sources, and of life, both animal andhuman, will be served by an awakenedconscience, less wasteful methods, anenvironment more favorable to healthand by protection against unscrupulousand dishonest manufacturers of food.A rural environment will also conduceto a larger degree of public happiness,an enlarged appetence for the beautifuland a more joyful outlook upon life.The new education particularly belongsto democracy. The demand for agricul­tural . instruction came from the peopleand not from any favored class. Itseeks to serve the people and it will beemployed by the people.The governmental aid has enlarged thepowers and scope of government; hasfinally established the principle of federalaid to higher education; and has renewedthe allegiance of the people to their gov­ernment through benefits conferred. Theappropriations made by the states havelikewise established the principle of stateaid to higher education and research.Thousands of young men, whetherin the service of the nation, the state, orthe county, have received a new visionof public service ; have enlarged theircapacity for serving their fellow-menalong practical lines; and, by becominga part of the governmental power, willhelp to breed a class of devoted and con­scientious public servants such as Eng­land has long enjoyed.The introduction of these scientificstudies has liberalized the college curricu­lum and has opened new outlets for indi­vidual aptitude.Above all, this renaissance of the artof agriculture has stimulated researchand investigation. It has called to itsaid the discovered truths of chemistry,physics, entomology, and the like. Ithas vastly enriched and enlarged thecapacity for human knowledge. And ithas raised and will raise man nearer tothe ultimate goal where the finiteapproximates the infinite through thegreat laws of human understanding.For "the truth shall make you free."THE UNIVERSITY RECORDThe President's Convocation State­menU-Under the operation of the Uni­versity system providing for retiringallowances Dr. Thomas W. Goodspeed,secretary of the Board of Trustees andUniversity Registrar, retires January I,IgI3, having been an officer of the Uni­versity since I889. The Board ofTrustees has appointed Dr. Goodspeedto the position of Corresponding Secre­tary, the duties of which position it isbelieved will be of great value to theUniversity and such as he is especiallyqualified to fill, while at the same timenot involving the detail of the positionwhich he has so long honorably filled,and from which he retires. The good­will of every member of the Universityaccompanies Dr. Goodspeed under hisnew relations.During the current quarter an arrange­ment has been made between the Uni­versity of Chicago and the Departmentof Education and the Fine Arts in Pariswhereby beginning with the year IgI3-I4an exchange of professors is provided.The exchange will take place in alternateyears, and the first appointee will be aFrench professor designated from one ofthe universities of France by the Depart­ment of Education, who will probablybe in Chicago in the autumn next year.It is believed that this arrangement willbe a very convenient one, and willfacilitate that closer acquaintance withthe institutions and especially with theeducational life of the two countrieswhich is so necessary to a sound nationalunderstanding.The attendance for the AutumnQuarter shows a total of 2,650 in thequadrangles, as against 2,607 a yearago, and 756 in University College, asagainst 670 in IgII. It should be notedthat the discontinuance of the SwedishDivinity School results in a diminutionof 35 in attendance. In the Colleges itwas expected on accoun t of the newrequirements for admission that thereI Presented on the occasion of the Eighty­fifth Convocation of the University, held inthe Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, December17, 1912• would be no gain, and quite possibly aslight falling off as compared with lastyear. It will be remembered thatstudents are not admitted who in theirhigh -school course show a record so lowas to warrant the probability of theirbeing dismissed -during the first year.There is in fact a gain of 50 in the SeniorColleges, and of 13 in the Junior Colleges.The list of unclassified students has beensteadily shrinking for years past, andduring the current quarter was only 84,as against 15 I last year. This is notregarded as unwholesome.The Autumn Quarter of Ig12 takesus back in thought twenty years ago tothe first quarter of the University work.The first Convocation of the Universitywas held in the evening of January 7,in Central Music Hall, and was largelyattended by faculty, students, trustees,and friends of the University. The Con­vocation address was given by ProfessorHermann Eduard von Holst, who spokeon the "Need of Universities in theUnited States." The final paragraphsof President Harper's statement on thecondition of the University are herewithquoted:"A year ago the foundations of thefirst buildings had just been placed.Only two buildings had at that timebeen provided for-a dormitory and alecture hall."A year ago the funds included thefirst great gift of Mr. Rockefeller, $600,-000, the $400,000 of general subscription,the gift of land by Mr. Field, Mr. Rocke­feller's second gift of $1,000,000, theproperty and endowment coming to theUniversity in its union with the Theo­logical Seminary; in all abou t $3,000,000." A year ago only two men had receivedappointments in the faculty, and in allnot ten men had indicated their consentto serve the University as instructors.As we look upon the situation we seethat a beginning had been made, butonly a beginning. What is tonight thecondition of the University?"The dormitory for men has beencompleted and every room in it occupied.The lecture hall is finished and crowded8g90 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEto overflowing with instructors andstudents. Temporary buildings havebeen erected for the library and for thework of physical culture. A chemicallaboratory is almost ready for theroof. A museum is under way. Dor­mitory buildings for women are rapidlyapproaching completion. A new dormi­tory for men is under roof. Within afew months buildings to cost at least amillion and a half will be completed."Wi thin the year gifts have beenmade exceeding $4,000,900. The finan­cial progress has been great, but inother respects the advance has beenstill greater. Instead of the two menof a year ago there are today at work120. The total enrolment of studentshas been 594; of these 166 are pursuingstudies for the advanced degrees in theGraduate School, 182 are in the DivinitySchool, and 276 are doing undergraduatework. These have come to us fromninety institutions. Thirty-three statesand thirteen foreign countries arerepresented. Five per cent come fromforeign countries. Of the total enrol­ment 23! per cent are women."The Eighty-fifth Convocation.-At theeighty-fifth Convocation of the Univer­sity, held in the Leon Mandel AssemblyHall on December 17, the Convocationorator, President Edwin Erle Sparks,Ph.D., LL.D., of Pennsylvania StateCollege, spoke on the subject of "Learn­ing to Live." Professor Sparks was fortwelve years a member of the Depart­ment of History at the University ofChicago and a widely known lecturer inthe Extension Division of the University.He received the degree of Doctor ofPhilosophy from the University in 1900.His Con vocation address appears else­where in this number.One hundred and eighteen degreesand titles were conferred at the Convo­cation, sixty-four candidates receivingthe title of associate, five the degree ofBachelor of Philosophy in Education,and thirty-nine the degree of Bachelorof Arts, in Philosophy or Science. Therewas one Master of Arts in the DivinitySchool and one in the Graduate Schools.Seven candidates received the degree ofDoctor of Philosophy, among these beinga Japanese student who had also takenhis Bachelor's degree at the University.On the evening of December 10 at theConvocation reception held in Hutchin- son Hall, President Harry Pratt Judsonand Mrs. Judson had as special guests ofhonor President and Mrs. Sparks,Mr. and Mrs. Julius Rosenwald, Mr. andMrs. Charles R. Holden, and Mr. andMrs. Robert L. Scott. Messrs. Rosen­wald, Holden, and Scott are the recentlyappointed trustees of the university.The Convocation orator for June.-TheConvocation orator for next June willbe His Excellency Doctor J onkeer JohnLoudon, Minister Plenipotentiary andEnvoy Extraordinary of the Netherlandsto the United States. Doctor Loudon,after securing his education at the Uni­versity of Leyden, entered in I891 thediplomatic service of the Netherlands.In I905 he was Envoy Extraordinaryand Minister Plenipotentiary to Japan,and since 1908 he has served in thesame capacity to the United States andto the Republic of Mexico.A new honor for Dean Mathews.-Pro­fessor Shailer Mathews, Dean of theDivinity School and Head of the Depart­ment of Systematic Theology, waselected president of the Federal Councilof the Churches of Christ in America atits session in Chicago on December 5.The Council embraces in its member­ship about thirty denominations andr 7,000,000 church communicants. DeanMathews succeeds in the presidencyBishop E. R. Hendrix, of the MethodistEpiscopal Church South, his term ofoffice being four years. ProfessorMathews is an associate editor of TheDictionary of the Bible and the AmericanJournal of Theology, and assumes withthe January number the editorship ofthe Biblical World. For eight yearsMr. Mathews was editor-in-chief of theWorld To-Day. He is widely knownas the author of a number of books,chief among which are The Church andthe Changing Order and The Gospel andthe Modern Man. Professor Mathews isalso president of the Western EconomicSociety, the fourth conference of whichhas just been held in Chicago.The American Psychological Associa­tion.- There was a large representationof members of the University, doctors ofphilosophy, or candidates for the doc--torate, at the twenty-first annual meetingof the American Psychological Associa­tion held at Western Reserve University,THE UNIVERSITY RECORDCleveland, Ohio, from December 30,I9I2, to January I, I9I3. ProfessorJames R. Angell, head of the Depart­ment of Psychology and former presi­dent of the Association, presented apaper and also introduced another byStella B. Vincent, a graduate studentin psychology. Professor George H.Mead, of the Department of Philosophy,Dr. Frank N. Freeman, of the School ofEducation, and ten doctors of the Uni­versity were also on the program. OnDecember 30 about twenty doctors ofphilosophy of the University of Chicagomet at dinner with Professor Angell,under whom they had done graduatework in psychology. They includedHenry F. Adams of the University ofMichigan, Walter S. Hunter of theUniversity of Texas, Joseph Peterson ofthe University of Utah, and Walter V.Bingham of Dartmouth College, who issecretary of the Association.The Western Economic Society.-TheUniversity was largely represented atthe fourth conference of the WesternEconomic Society, held in the HotelSherman, Chicago, December 6 and 7,the general subject of discussion being" Commercial and Industrial Educa­tion." Professor J. Laurence Laughlin,Head of the Department of PoliticalEconomy, presided at the first sessionof the conference, when the work of theeastern colleges of commerce was con­sidered. At the second session ProfessorLeon C. Marshall, Dean of the Collegeof Commerce and Administration, pre­sented an account of the work of thiscollege, and Professor Shailer Mathews,of the Divinity School, presided overthe section devoted to commercial andindustrial education. Professor Mathewsalso presided at the conference dinnerat which President Harry Pratt Judso�spoke on the subject of "Collegiate Com­mercial Education" and Director CharlesH. Judd, of the School of Education,discussed the question of "The GeneralReorganization of the Elementary Schoolto Meet Vocational Demands." At thesession devoted to the teaching of eco­nomics Professor Marshall discussed thesubject of "Sequence in EconomicCourses at the University of Chicago."The next conference, which will be heldin February, I9I3, will consider thesubject of "Scientific Management."The president of the society is Professor Shailer Mathews and the secretary isProfessor Leon C. Marshall.The American Historical Association--«A number of representatives of theUniversity faculty attended the annualmeeting of the American HistoricalAssociation held in Boston and Cam­bridge from December 27 to 3 I. JamesHenry Breasted, Professor of Egyptologyand Oriental History, led in the discus­sion of the subject of "Greco-RomanHistory as a Field of Investigation";James Westfall Thompson, AssociateProfessor of European History, presenteda paper on "Profitable Fields of Investi­gation in Mediaeval History" ; andWilliam E. Dodd, Professor of AmericanHistory, considered "Profitable Subjectsfor Investigation in American History,I8I5-I860." Professor Albion W. Small,head of the Department of Sociology andAnthropology, gave on December 27 hispresidential address as head of theAmerican Sociological Society, which metin conjunction with the HistoricalAssociation. Professor Andrew C. Me­Laughlin, head of the Department ofHistory, is one of the vice-presidents ofthe association.V ocationalEducation.- President HarryPratt Judson, Professor George H. Mead,of the Department of Philosophy, andDirector Charles H. Judd and AssociateProfessor Frank M. Leavitt, of theSchool of Education, have recently madecontributions to the series of articlesappearing in the Chicago Tribune onthe question of "Vocational Education"and the various bills on the subject tobe proposed to the Illinois legislature.Professor Leavitt is chairman of thecommittee of the Illinois State TeachersAssociation co-operating with the IllinoisBankers Association in the preparationof a bill, and is also a member of a specialcommittee of the National Society forthe Promotion of Education to formulatea statement with reference to state-aidedvocational education.Associate Professor Frederick Starr,of the Department of Sociology andAnthropology, returned at the end ofNovember from a six months' expedi­tion to Liberia, the purpose of which wasto investigate the social and economicconditions of that region. He wasaccompanied by Mr. Campbell Marvin,a graduate student of the University.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEProfessor Starr made a walking tripof I50 miles into the interior after visit­ing the Liberian city of Monrovia.Mr. Starr was able to make many inter­esting observations on native life andto bring back numerous collections ofphotographs and objects of anthro­pological interest.James Hayden Tufts, head of theDepartment of Philosophy, gave onDecember IO the tenth lecture in theseries on "Problems of the ModernCity" given in Fullerton Hall of theArt Institute, Chicago. His subject was"The City and Human Values." Amongthe preceding speakers from the Uni­versity were Professors Edwin O. Jordan,George H. Mead, Andrew C. McLaughlin,Charles E. Merriam, and Sophonisba P.Breckinridge. - The course, which wasfor the benefit of the University ofChicago Settlement, was closed on De­cember 17 by President George E.Vincent, of the University of Minnesota"with an address on "Group Rivalry inCity Life."Professor Andrew C. McLaughlin,head of the Department of History, hasbeen granted leave of absence by theUniversity trustees until the opening ofthe Autumn Quarter in I9I3. He willspend much of the time in Germany.Professor McLaughlin's latest book, TheCourts, the Constitution, and Parties, wasrecently published by The University ofChicago Press.Professor William Gardner Hale, headof the Department of Latin, is a memberof the advisory board, having a generalsupervision of the Loeb Classical Librarynow being issued by the MacmillanCompany. The series will compriseabout 200 volumes, covering the periodfrom Homer to the fall of Constantinople.Thirty volumes ha ve already appeared.A bill providing for a federal immigrantstation in Chicago was recently drawnby Professor Ernst Freund, of the LawSchool, and has been introduced in theHouse of Representatives at Washington.The provisions of the bill were recentlydiscussed at the Union League Club,Chicago, by representatives of the Com­mercial Club, the Immigrants' ProtectiveLeague, and Illinois Congressmen.Professor Paul Shorey, head of theDepartment of Greek, recently gave anaddress before the St. Louis Society ofthe Archaeological Institute of America,the subject of the address being "The Pace that Killed Athens." He also gaveseveral lectures on classical subjectsbefore the Washington University Asso­ciation in St. Louis, and on December 19addressed the Contemporary Club ofthat city on "Some Modernisms of theAncients."The University of Chicago wasrepresented at the Woman's VocationalConference, held at the University ofWisconsin, January I 5-17, by ElizabethE. Langley, Instructor in Manual Train­ing in the School of Education. MissLangley discussed the subject of "In­terior Decoration as a Profession."The purpose of the conference was toshow women students the many possi­bili ties of work open to them. Otherspeakers were Miss Edna Ferber andMiss Frances Cumming of the vocationalbureau of New York.Professor John M. Coulter, head ofthe Department of Botany, was one ofthe speakers before the alumni of WabashCollege at the Hamilton Club, Chicago,on December 8, when Vice-PresidentElect Thomas R. Marshall was theguest of honor. Professor Coulter wasformerly connected with Wabash Collegeas professor of biology.At the conclusion of a recent seriesof dramatic recitals in Elgin, Ill., byAssociate Professor S. H. Clark, of theDepartment of Public Speaking, therewas formed a new club for literary andartistic study. Mr. Clark's recitals inElgin have been supported by the mem­bers of nine local organizations. Hehas also recently finished a senes ofdramatic interpretations at Racine, Wis."Education in the Time of Shakspere"was the subject of an address at theUniversity on November 23 by Mr.George Arthur Plimpton, of New York.The interest of the lecture was greatlyincreased by an exhibit of school bookswhich were in use in Shakspere's timeand some of which Shakspere himselfprobably studied. Mr. Plimpton's Col­lection of school books is said to be thefinest in the United States and thelargest in the wor1d. Mr. Plimpton isa member -of the publishing firm ofGinn & Company and a trustee of Am­herst and Barnard colleges.Professor Robert A. Millikan, of theDepartment of Physics, gave an addressas the retiring vice-president of thesection of physics at the sixty-fourthmeeting of the American Associa tionTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDfor the Advancement of Science held inCleveland, Ohio, from December 30,19I2, to January 4, 1913. The addresswas on the subject of "Unitary Theoriesin Physics."Samuel Wendell Williston, Professorof Paleontology, recently spoke beforethe Sigma Xi Society of WashingtonUniversity on the subject of "TheEvolution and Distribution of EarlyLand Animals in America." He lateraddressed the same society at the U ni­versity of Kansas on the" Early Animalsof North America," and gave a secondaddress on "Some Laws of Evolution ofthe Vertebrates." Professor Williston wasformerly connected with the University ofKansas as professor of the history of geol­ogy and dean of the medical school.J ames Henry Breasted, Professor ofEgyptology and Oriental History, is togive a series of special lectures in theArt Institute of Chicago on the recentacquisitions to the Egyptian collectionsof that institution. Professor Breastedgave on December 28 in Boston anaddress before the American HistoricalAssociation.Recent contributions by the membersof the Faculties to the journals publishedby the U niversi ty of Chicago Press:Burton, Professor Ernest D.: " SomeImplications of Paulinism," BiblicalVVorld, December.Chamberlin, Dr. Rollin T.: "ThePhysical Setting of the Chilean BorateDeposits" (with two figures), Journalof Geology, November-December.Smith, Associate Professor Gerald B.:"Christianity and Critical Theology,"Biblical World, December.Yamanouchi, Dr. Shigeo: "The LifeHistory of Cutleria" (contributionsfrom the Hull Botanical Laboratory r63),with fifteen figures and nine plates,Botanical Gazette, December.Recent addresses by members of theFaculties include:Butler, Professor Nathaniel: "TheNeed of Vocational Schools in Illinois,"Hamilton Club, Chicago, December 3.Clark, Associate Professor S. H.:Interpretation of Galsworthy's "SilverBox," Bradley Polytechnic Institute,Peoria, Ill., December 13.Foster, Professor George B.: "TheReligion of Zola," Society of Ethics,Milwaukee, Wis., December IS. 93Goode, Associate Professor J. Paul:"Hawaii: A Geographical Interpreta­tion" (illustrated), Chicago chapter,American Institute of Banking, North­western University Building, DecemberIO; cc America in the Philippines,"Berwyn, Ill., December 17.Hoben, Associate Professor Allan:"The Psychology of the Horne," Fifthannual dinner of the Chicago Associationof Commerce to sons of members, HotelLaSalle, December 26.Judd, Professor Charles H.: Addressbefore the Indiana State TeachersAssociation, Indianapolis, December 27 QLeavitt, Associate Professor Frank M. �'" Vocational Schools," Chicago School­masters' Club and the High SchoolTeachers' Club, December 1:3; "cPro_posed Bills for Industrial Education,"Chicago Association of Collegiate Alum­nae, Fine Arts Building, December 2I.Linn, Associate Professor James W.:C�What Shall the Children Read?HLibrary Hall, Maywood, Ill., December17·Mathews, Professor Shailer: "Workof the Federated Churches," ChicagoCulture Club, Hotel LaSalle, December 9.Mead, Professor George H.: "Voca­tional Training," Committee of ChicagoChamber of Commerce, December 6;"Proposed Legislation on VocationalEducation," Ella Flagg Young Club,Hotel LaSalle, December 14.Merriam, Professor Charles E.: Ad­dress before the American PoliticalScience Association, Boston, Decem­ber 28.Moulton, Professor Forest R.: "TheSun and the Cornets," High SchoolTeachers, Evansville, Ind., December 6.Small, Professor Albion W.: Presi­dential address as head of the AmericanSociological Society, Boston, December27; University Preacher, Harvard Uni­versity, December 29.Tower, Assistant Professor Walter S.:"A Journey through Argentina" (illus­trated), Geographical Society of Chicago,Art Institute, December 13.Woodhead, Dr. Howard: "HousingReform," City Club, Chicago, December14·The Board of TrZlstees.-October meet­ing: The following appointments weremade: Julius Stieglitz, Director of theUniversity Laboratories; Norman J.Ware, Head of South Divinity House;94 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHerbert Kimmel, Instructor in Mathe­matics, High School; H. N. Sollenbergerand Ruth D. Jeffrey, Instructors inPhysical Education, School of Education.President Judson reported a gift of 268lantern slides, showing views of Japan,China, and the Far East, from Dr. T.Iyenaga.November meeting: The publicationof the triennial Alumni Directory in 1913was authorized.Dr. T. W. Goodspeed, Secretary of theBoard of Trustees and Registrar of theUniversity, having passed his seventiethyear, was retired from and after JanuaryI, 1913. The office of CorrespondingSecretary was established, the incumbentto perform such duties, consistent withthe title, as the Board may determine,and Dr. Goodspeed was appointed to theoffice from January I, 1913.O. W. Caldwell, Associate Professorof Botany in the School of Education,was appointed Associate Professor alsoin the department of botany in theUniversity.E. R. Downing, Assistant Professorof Natural Science in the College ofEducation, was appointed also to anassistant professorship in the departmentof zoology. , The Board approved uniting withNorthwestern University in cooperationwith the Alliance Francaise for lecturework in Chicago.Approval was voted of the plan for anexchange of professors between theUniversity of Chicago and Frenchuniversities. The basis of the exchangeas approved by the French Ministry ofPublic Instruction and the Fine Artsis as follows:I. That the professor suggested by theauthorities in France should be approvedby the University of Chicago, and, inlike manner, that the professor suggestedby the University of Chicago be approvedby the French educational authorities.2. That the exchange should takeplace every second year.3. That three or four months should becovered by the period of the lectureship.4. That the incumbent be paid bythe University to which he belongs.At a special meeting held in December,it having been announced that CharlesM. Sharpe, Dean of the Columbia BibleCollege, Columbia, Mo., had beenappointed by the Disciples' DivinityHouse assistant professor of theologyin the House, the appointment wasapproved.lfllnrrutiur {ltaruiualFor the benefit of the University of Chicago SettlementFRANK DICKINSON BARTLETT GYMNASIUMTUESDAY, FEBRUARY 11AT HALF-PAST EIGHTThe most elaborate spectacleever given at the UniversityTHE ALUMNI ARE PARTICULARLY INVITEDFROM THE LETTER-BOXTo the Editor: Many students, again, do not" warmIn his letter, published in the Novem- up" to their instructors because they areber number of the Magazine, Mr. Bell conscious of doing poorer work in theirrefers to the" revolt among the alumni- studies than they should and could do;a passive revolt, a revolt of indifference"; they are backward about meeting" faceone that finds expression in their lack of to face" those to whom they are respon-interest in what is going on at the Uni- sible. The accusing finger within makesversity and in their lack of affection and them uncomfortable. "Thus conscienceloyalty for it. He substantiates his doth make cowards of us all." Goodposition in a general way by citing the scholarship is a foot-path to mutualresponses to inquiries he casually put regard between instructor and student!to a number of alumni, but gives his With a certain proportion of under-letter more interest by illustrating his graduates, genuine diffidence and timiditypoints with allusions to his own personal undoubtedly serves as an obstacle toexperience while in college. meeting instructors on easy ground.The root of the trouble, which in later But on the other hand a considerablealumni days develops into this apathetic number have not the difficulty of shynessattitude toward our Alma Mater, is, to overcome; those who participate withas Mr. Bell sees it, that" while they were much zeal in athletics, campus politics,in college no one cared much about theatrical productions, social diversions.them"-referring to the attitude of the Mr. Bell intimates that these individuals,faculty toward undergraduates. On the at a loss to gain bosom comrades amongquestion how serious or how negligible the faculty, seek realities and hope tomay be the" revolt" among the alumni I find media for self-expression in studentshall not dwell; but I should like to offer goings-on. 'Tis a pretty thought! Buta suggestion on the relation between I warrant that nine out of every ten ofstudents and their instructors. It strikes these" lime-light lurers" are wrappedme that the aloofness between under- up in student activities simply for thegraduates and faculty is not to be solely love of them. I feel pretty sure that theyascribed to the impersonal, institutional, would not trade the recognition, adula­disinterested attitude on the part of the tion, and laurels accorded by campuslatter. What about the students them- admirers for a dozen intimate friendshipsselves? What part of the desired with instructors. The high road to fameentente cordiale should they provide? has preference over the less thrillingAre they not, after all, partly responsible adventures in the simple green meadowsfor the condition which Mr. Bell deplores of friendship. Believe me, it is not myand for which he so unconditionally idea to deprecate red-blooded participa-blames the faculty? tion in student affairs of the campus;Now I feel sure that a surprisingly I know well enough how much it supple-large percentage of the student body ments the value of classroom studies;proceeds on an a-priori conclusion that but I do think the instances are tooinstructors as a species are devoid of frequent where students enter into thesehuman kindness and sympathy. As acti vities so disproportionately as toFreshmen they enter college with this sacrifice not only good scholarship butnotion, which is perhaps in part a hang- other things of real worth.over from high-school days. The know- One's general ideas on a subject of thisledge on the part of the instructors that kind I suppose are inevitably prejudicedthis spirit is entertained naturally reacts by his personal experience; and it ison their feeling toward those in their well that both Mr. Bell's letter and mineclasses. Coral-like, this spirit has built should palpably disclose that fact. Forup a reef of tradition and prejudice which my part, my contact with the facultyforms a barrier to any free flow of the when an undergraduate leads me to awaters of friendship. The student senti- conclusion that does not coincide withment in the matter is bandied about the Mr. Bell's. I entered the Universitycampus in a rather flippant, insincere man- with no friends on the faculty; yetner which only aggravates the condition. before the end of my Freshman year I95THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmade the fairly close acquaintance ofseveral. I did not find them unapproach­able and inclined to stand me off. Iremember well the delightful visits inthe room of my French instructor inHitchcock Hall; and I have a pleasantmemory of a Saturday afternoon bicycleexcursion to South Chicago, with adean and his wife, and of dinner at theirhome afterward. As time went onsuch friendships and associations in­creased and served in their informal wayto enhance immeasurably my college life.I know from conversations I have hadwith faculty members that they like toform student associations and regretthat the opportunities are not greater.Nor need friendships between facultyand students be a matter of under­graduate days only. A few weeks agoI made a business trip to Chicago whichkept me there three weeks. I had notbeen in the city for a year arid a half.Proceeding on the relations I had borneas a student toward a number of facultypeople I made a point of seeing them.Their cordiality was conclusive testimonyof the permanence of the friendships I hadformed in college days. Among the pres­ent student body my acquaintance is prac­tically nil, and had it not been for my visitsamong the less transient faculty I shouldhave had a dull time; as it was, my visitwas a tonic experience, full of immediacyas well as of reminiscence.The thought of my dispensing sageadvice to the rising generation may pro­voke a smile; even so, were my counselsolicited, I should rise to the occasionand say something like this to my youngfriend about to enter the University:"Do not abide by preconceived ideas asto the frigidity and aloofness of instruc­tors; if there is any gap between youand' the faculty, remember that mostbridges are built from either side of aravine and that their two incompleteparts come together half way from theopposite crests. Do not be too ready toaccept Tom, Dick, or Harry'S estimateof Professor So-and-So; rely on yourown direct impressions and reactions.Do not go about in a critical spirit, onthe lookout for offending incidents; beartoward your instructor an open handand heart. Regard him as one whosefeelings and impulses are strictly humanlike your own, and whose idea of theundergraduate is not necessarily thathe is an inconsequential nonentity.Remember that his being wants and must have friendships, and that perhapsyou are the very one to help sati sfy thatdemand. Supplement that attitudetoward your instructor by doing thebest work of which you are capable inhis classes. Follow any natural responsesand desires that lead you in the directionof making overtures of friendship. Yourdisappointments in this course willbe small in proportion to your pleasuresand enduring satisfactions."HARVEY B. FULLER, JR., '08ST. PAUL, MINN.January 2, I9I3To the Editor:We are gratified to learn from the De­cember issue of the University of ChicagoMagazine that arrangements have beenmade with the Chicago Opera Companywhereby the students and members ofthe faculty of the University of Chicagoreceive reduced rates to the opera.The German and French students-theonly two countries with whose student lifethe writer is personally acquainted-havebeen enjoying such privileges for many,many years. The students receive re­duced rates in all places of amusement,whether it be the opera, theater, varietyshow, dance hall, etc. Yes, even more.Many of the business establishments, suchas department stores, tailor shops, etc.,allow the students a considerable discount.This is especially true of Germany.Considering the fact that a much largernumber of students in American uni­versities are self-supporting than in thecountries mentioned, it is even moredesirable that similar facilities be securedfor our students.No one will deny the fact that the stageis a great cultural and educational factor,and it should therefore be made acces­sible, especially to our college youth. Letus hope, therefore, that the committeewho has the matter referred to in chargewill succeed in securing further reductionsfor the men and women of the Universityof Chicago.We wish to add that the alumni wouldno doubt greatly appreciate it if theycould be included in this arrangement.Indirectly it would also help to bring thealumni a little closer together and in moreclose contact with their Alma Mater.Very truly yours,J. PEDOTT[One wishes fervently that the Alumnimight be included, but the Opera Com­pany could not be persuaded.-EDITOR]