"71University of ChicagoMagazineVolume IV MAY, IQI2 Number 6EVENTS AND DISCUSSIONAlumni Day this year falls on June n. The exercises are in chargeof the class of 1907. The chairman of the committee is Earl D. Hos-Alum " D tetter. The plans for the day fit in with those for thededication of the Harper Memorial Library. Alumniare urged to come to the reception on the evening of June 10. Twohundred guides, chosen from students, faculty, and younger alumni,will be on hand to conduct visitors about the grounds and buildings, allof which are to be illuminated and accessible. Music will be furnishedat different points, by bands, orchestral instruments, and a picked choir.Refreshments will also be served in different buildings, and, if the nightis fine, on the lawn between Law and Haskell. For the dedicatoryexercises, on the morning of the eleventh, the program of speakers hasnot been completed, but will be worthy of the occasion. In all probability two separate alumni dinners will be held in the evening, one formen and one for women, and a vaudeville entertainment and dance willfollow. A renewal of the fraternity "sing" which was so pleasant lastJune is planned for the late afternoon, to follow Convocation.Gradually these alumni reunions are assuming the importance theyshould have. The absence of firm class organizations has always beena handicap, and the fact that so many, comparatively speaking, of thegraduates of Chicago come here for only one year or perhaps two, andleave without that sense of identification with the college life whichcomes to be so dear a possession later. But affection is not only a fouryears' growth; between the University and those who come late is oftenlove at first sight. And the classes now leaving Chicago are more andmore solidly perfecting their organizations, and will be able thereforeto make their reunions more and more successful.195THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEFollowing the changes made last year in Freshman entrance requirements came an increase of fifty in the entering class. Signs point to asimilar increase this fall. The University can accommo-A Proposed date so many in its classes only by increasing the numberNew Entrance 0f instructors in elementary college courses, or by depart-Requirement jng from ]^s p0liCy 0f small classes and expert teachingfor every student. Neither action seems desirable. Thesecond would destroy the University's reason for existence. The firstwould mean a withdrawal of funds now splendidly employed in higherinstruction, which would also imply a failure on our part to recognizeour real place in the educational world. The state institutions all aroundus are doing a great work. It is for us not to duplicate that work, butto supplement it. Is not the inference inevitable that a rapid increaseof our undergraduate body would be undesirable ?After somewhat elaborate statistical investigation, a plan has beenformulated and put before the principals of our chief contributory schools,which would tend (a) to prevent such an increase in numbers, (b) tosecure students of a high type. Briefly, this plan is to request preparatory school principals to certificate to us only students of better than merelypassing grades. Details are not yet worked out. Possibly, only students in the upper two-thirds of the high-school ranking would bereceived; more probably, only students whose average was (say) tenpoints in a hundred above passing grade. That is, if a school's passinggrade were 70, we should accept from it only students who had averaged80 or better.At present above 80 per cent of our Freshman students come fromschools in or near Chicago. From some we get the best, from somealmost the worst ; from Hyde Park, for instance, the bestIts Probable and the worst, with very few from the middle group. WeEffects dismiss, in round numbers, seventy-five each year fromthe Freshman class, or approximately 18 per cent. If wecould eliminate that 18 per cent, we should have no trouble in givingbetter instruction to the better sort. Examination for entrance wallnot accomplish this elimination, as experience has shown beyond muchdoubt. Why should not the plan suggested accomplish it ?Would such a plan increase the percentage of women ? If so, manywould oppose it. The statistics lead its advocates to believe thatprobably no such increase would follow. If it did follow, an absolutelimitation on the number of women to be accepted could be made — asAND DISCUSSION 197it is made, for example, at Stanford. Would it have any effect on oursuccess in athletics ? Again statistics indicate that it would not. Ourathletes have not often been drawn from the scholastic sediment of theschool — at least those have not who survived the straining process ofour Freshman year. Our success in athletics, moreover, must dependin the future, as it has depended in the past, on the superior instructionour men receive. In numbers we have always been outclassed. Butwe have tied for a football championship with seventeen men on thesquad, and won one with nineteen. Spirit and Stagg have constitutedour resources, and must continue to constitute them.Since 1892 rumors have flown always that the University was meantas a school for graduates only, or for graduates and upper classmen only.Time has shown the absurdity of such rumors. For many reasonsChicago must develop a powerful undergraduate body. But this planis an aid in such development. We have reached our limit, or near it,m the number we can care for in elementary courses. We have nowherenearly reached out limit in quality. Shall we maintain our standard,or lower it ? If we maintain it, shall we as at present hospitably inviteeveryone in, and kick an endless procession of our guests out of the backdoor ? Such a policy is absurd. If not the proposed plan, what planshall be substitute ? And if we lower our standard, we face that highlypertinent question, What are we here for ?Besides altering the requirements for admission, the University lastyear, it will be remembered, changed very considerably the requirementsThe Plan of ^or ^e degree. Hereafter every student must take, inSequences addition to certain specified single courses, two specifiedsequences of courses. One sequence must consist of ninecourses, the other of six, and the two must be in widely different departmental groups. The idea is of course to force upon the student concentration and continuity of work, and yet prevent him from a too earlyand too narrow specialization. Acceptable sequences were to be prepared by the different departments; and to form both the long and theshort sequences, logical combinations of courses in allied departmentswere permitted. For example, a student may offer with five or morecourses in English any combination of four or fewer Senior Collegecourses in any other modern language; or with six courses in physicshe may offer three in Senior College mathematics; or with six in political economy he may offer three in history, or three in sociology; inall these cases satisfying the requirement of the long sequence.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe present Freshman class will be the first to enter upon the necessity of these sequences. Apparently unavoidable delay in publishing thesequences has made consultation with the Freshmen on this matterimpossible so far. The sequences are now in proof, however, and shouldbe printed and circulated by the time this issue of the Magazine is out.An example or two will make their nature clear.History — Long Sequencei. European History — Early Mediaeval Period2. Later Mediaeval Period and Early Modern3. Later Modern Period4. At least three majors each from any two of the following groups :a) Ancient Historyb) Europe in the Middle Agesc) Europe in the Modern Periodd) History of Englande) History of the United StatesHistory — Short Sequence(Intended for students expecting to study law)1. History of England (three majors)2. History of the United States (three majors)(Intended for students expecting to enter upon journalism)1. Modern History (three majors)2. American History (three majors)Mathematics — Long Sequence1. Plane Trigonometry2. College Algebra3. Analytical Geometry4. Calculus I5. Calculus II6. Applications of Calculus7. Solid Analytics8. Theory of Equations9. Determinants and InvariantsFor the last four courses may be substituted Advanced Calculus, DifferentialEquations, Elliptic Integrals, Definite Integrals, or the following: Graphic Methods,Teaching of Secondary Mathematics, Synoptic Course in Mathematics, and Historyof Mathematics.Liberal provision is made for combinations of six- and nine-major sequences involving courses in Astronomy and Physics. Typical six-major sequences are as follows:A. Mathematics — Astronomy1 . Plane Trigonometry2. College Algebra3. Analytical Geometry4. Introductory Calculus5. Descriptive Astronomy6. Spherical and Practical AstronomyAND DISCUSSION 199B. Mathematics — Physics1. Plane Trigonometry2. College Algebra3. Analytical Geometry4. Introductory Calculus5. Mechanics, Molecular Physics, and Heat6. Electricity, Sound, and LightThe ninth annual Blackfriar's Show was given in Mandel Hall onMay 2, 3, and 4. This year's performance was The Pursuit of Portia,by W. F. Merrill, ex '12, and H. L. Kennicott, '13. TheThe Pursuit scene throughout is laid in California. Portia Wicks,0 ortia daughter of Daniel Wicks, the "sugar king," is sought inmarriage by Frederick Case, who is eligible, and by Billand Phil Jones, twin brothers, who are not. Daniel Wicks, who favorsCase, declares, however, that nobody who has not circumnavigated theglobe is cultivated enough to deserve his daughter. All three youngmen fulfil the condition. Meanwhile, however, Case has entangledhimself with Portia's chaperone, Mrs. Wilson, and one of the twins hasfallen in love with Josephine Bunker, daughter of that old sea-dog andchum of Daniel Wicks, Captain Bunker of the Nancy Lee. Eventuallythe Jones boys win the hands of the maidens of their choice, and democracy triumphs. Portia was played by Frank Parker, '12; Mrs. Wilsonby Frank O'Hara, '15; Josephine by J. Elmer Thomas, '13; Wicks byHirsch Soble, '13; Bunker by Horace Fitzpatrick, '13; Case by ChesterBell, '13; Bill Jones by Milton Morse, '13; and Phil Jones by BruceMacDuff, '14. The songs were by H. R. Stapp, '12, and the dances byMiss Mary Hinman. The coaches were as last year Mr. Herbert Stothartand Mr. Gordon Erickson. Merrill came on for the final week ofrehearsal.Of the authors, W. F. Merrill is now at Harvard, where he won theMacDowell Fellowship for the study of dramatic literature. His play,Miss Blair's Renaissance, was given by the Idler Club of RadcliffeCollege on Friday evening, March 29, and Saturday afternoon and evening, March 30, as their annual open performance, and had a most flattering reception. Another play, Myrtle Gets Wise, will be given later inthe year at the Bijou Theater in Boston. Merrill is undecided whetherto return for his degree to Chicago or to finish at Harvard. Kennicottis news editor of the Maroon. Of the players, Parker has created oldwomen's parts in three previous operas; Portia was a new type of rolefor him, but he handled it successfully. Frank O'Hara, a Freshman,was admirable as Parker's successor in the part of the confidant toTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEleading lady. Milton Morse was the best comedian, in a quiet way,the Blackfriars have produced. The performance as a whole was quiteup to the standard, and was greeted by packed houses. In the "Danceof the Senses," Parker and Curtis Rogers, '12, equaled their success oflast year in the Bacchanale.During the coming summer the Department of Geology will offerfour regular courses of fieldwork. The opening course will be basedupon the study of the Chicago region and may be under-„. , , _ taken by students registered for work at the University.Field Courses.in Geology A more advanced course will be based upon the studyof a region in south-central Wisconsin. This class,under the leadership of. Mr. Donnelley, will go into camp on the shoresof Devil's Lake for one month during the first term of the SummerQuarter. Another party, under the leadership of Dr. Trowbridge,recently of the University of Chicago but now connected with the University of Iowa, will spend the month of August studying the regioncentering about Devil's Lake, Wis. During the month of Septemberan advanced class of fieldworkers will go into camp near the north baseof the San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado and, under theleadership of Dr. Wallace W. Atwood, will spend a month in conductinga geological survey of a region which has not yet been examined. Inconnection with this work the students will receive training suchas professional work on the United States Geological Survey wouldgive, and will have the advantage of carrying on research work ingeology.By long odds the best story of college life ever written by an Americanis the first 250 pages of Owen Johnson's Stover at Yale, which ran as aserial in McClure's and has now been published by F. A."Stover at . .„ Stokes & Co. Hammersmith: His Harvard Days, whichwe read twenty-five years ago and have never been ableto trace since [can anybody give us information about it?], is the onlything to be compared with it. Flandrau's Harvard Episodes are brilliant, his Diary of a Freshman is silly; but both are thin. This mostrecent story may almost be called significant. Fortunately it is alsohighly entertaining. Comment (except from Yale men) has centeredon Brockhurst's attack on the culture of college men. Brockhurst isan impractical idealist, as Paul Leicester Ford would have remarked,but he says some interesting things along the same line that RobertAND DISCUSSION 201Grant followed in the quotation made from him by President Vincentin last month's Magazine. It is true, the undergraduate lacks culture.Here is a phonetically verbatim conversation heard under Cobb Hallclock a little while since :" Say, where juh get the kicks ? ""Mar'ns.""H'much?""Seb'n beans.""Stung!"Translations may be sent to the editor; the drift is that he who hadpurchased his new shoes at Martin's for seven dollars had overpaid.Brockhurst would have been made ill — justifiably. Some Yale menobject to Stover on the ground that it misrepresents the democracy ofthe institution. But many say the work is as accurate as it is amusing.The Conference representatives met on Saturday, April 6, andrecommended that hereafter "the faculty representative of each Uni-~ , versity in the Conference must be a person who receivesConference J. *7Actions no Pay f°r any services connected with athletics." Inother words, Mr. Stagg, and Mr. Ehler of Wisconsin,were politely requested to withdraw. Another resolution, however,suggested that "each member of the Conference designate a man toserve on a technical committee on football rules" to make report to theConference; thus making a place for Mr. Stagg, Mr. Ehler, and others.Wisconsin has already declined to ratify the Conference action, so faras Ehler is concerned. The Conference needs Mr. Stagg's good sensemuch more than Mr. Stagg needs any recommendation from the Conference. Furthermore, the University is not so poor in men of judgmentthat even were Mr. Stagg to yield his place as representative she couldnot find a worthy representative. But it is doubtful whether Chicagowill acquiesce in the Conference action nevertheless. No principle isinvolved, except that of loyalty to one who has had ideals and stuck tothem. As for the second recommendation, that the Conference makeits own football rules if necessary, that is not a bad idea. No changeswould be made in the United States Committee rules unless such changeswere obviously and radically necessary; but if they were, why not havepower to make them? Sport is sport; to make a fetish of consistencyis absurd. Finally, it may be noticed that Freshman teams have beenforbidden intercollegiate competition, and that Ohio State has beenadmitted to the Conference.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe letter which follows, a letter sent to all the members of theConference, will make clear the present status of the members of thebaseball squad. It is here printed that the alumni mayf B h 11 understand clearly the position of the University inSquad regard to the eligibility of the various men. Sauer, whosename is not mentioned, has withdrawn from college forthe Spring Quarter. He was charged by Illinois with having playedprofessional ball last summer. The facts seem to be that he securedpermission to play on a team, which subsequently disbanded, and thathe then played on it, without permission, after it reorganized. He isthus ineligible. It is fair to Sauer to say, however, that his case hasnever been brought before the Board of Physical Culture and Athletics.The committee on eligibility spent two months and applied for information to dozens of sources before reaching the conclusions which the lettershows.April 16, 1012Gentlemen:The following is a list of the men at present on the baseball squad of the Universityof Chicago. So far as we know they are all eligible to play. We shall welcome anyinformation bearing on the members of the team, provided we are in error about theirsupposed eligibility.R. W. Baird F. A. Catron E. Libonati O. B. RobertsC. S. Bell A. H. Hruda A. D. Mann T. E. SchofieldR. Bohnen R. N. Harger N. H. Norgren R. F. TeichgraebcrJ. B. Boyle P. Kearney E. R. Reichman K. ChandlerH. M. Carpenter W. B. Leonard G. A. Roberts G. E. KuhSpecific charges have been filed against Boyle, whose name appears on the list,and against Freeman and Steinbrecher, whose names are withheld.Boyle is charged with having played with the Joliet Standards, with a team atMorris, 111., his home town (a team on which several of his brothers have played), andwith a team in Gary, Ind. So far as we can discover, Boyle never played with theJoliet Standards, although before going to college he did play once with a team belonging to the Steel Company at Joliet in whose plant he was employed. He also playedon a Steel Company team at Gary, where he was also emplo)^ed. In the latter casehe was given a permit to play by Mr. Stagg and the Secretary of the IntercollegiateConference was duly notified.We have been unable to substantiate charges made against Freeman. Heplayed on a high-school team at Sheldon, Ind., which is his home, and he later playedone season on an unpaid town team at the same place. He was also charged withhaving played with the Woodlawns. He was given a permit to play with this latterteam by Mr. Stagg and notification was given to the Secretary of the Conference.We are withholding him from participating in baseball until we are further convincedabout the Sheldon case.Steinbrecher is alleged to have played at Fort Wayne and at Valparaiso. Wecannot find that he ever was in Fort Wayne. We do find that he played at ValparaisoAND DISCUSSION 203several years ago, at De Kalb, and at some other places with teams which, so far aswe can discover, were "pick-up" teams, constituted in considerable part of membersof the Central Trust Company team from Chicago, a member of the Bankers' BaseballAssociation, a non-professional organization with which Steinbrecher was connectedwhen employed by the Cental Trust Company. Although we cannot find that in anyof these cases he was paid, we regard the circumstances as sufficiently suspicious tojustify our preventing him from participating in our games until we have more satisfactory information. None of the persons to whom we have been referred for substantiation of the charges will admit any knowledge of his having been on teams anyof whose members were paid. James R. Angell, DeanOn March 1, 191 2, the members of the alumni associations entitledto receive the Magazine were about five hundred in number. Of theser . f five hundred memberships, one hundred expired in March,leaving a total of only about four hundred names. Aspecial campaign has been inaugurated for increasing the membershiplists, and we are now able to report a total of seven hundred paid-upmembers. The list is increasing at the rate of about twenty a day,and it can be said with confidence that only a few weeks are needed tobring the figures to a point never reached before in the history of theMagazine.PERMANENT BUILDING FOR THEWOMEN OF THE UNIVERSITYID WAY between Fifty-eighth and Fifty-ninth Streets on LexingtonAvenue stand two low red brick buildings, Lexington Hall andLexington Gymnasium. Not long ago, one of the traveling secretariesof the Y.W.C.L. was standing at one of the south windows of LexingtonHall. Looking across at the opposite building, she remarked, "Andthat, I suppose, is the University laundry." The buildings in questionare the temporary quarters of the women of the University of Chicago.Please notice the use of the word "temporary." It is applied so oftenin connection with us and our possessions that one has to conclude thatthe women are but temporary too. With what fear and trembling, ifwe are still on this earth, we shall view anything for us marked"permanent"!Is the University ashamed of its women ? Doesn't it want us here ?Coeducational this institution is supposed to be, presupposing equalrights and equal advantages for both sexes. Do not the women pay thesame tuition as the men, the same class dues, the same laboratory fees,and suffer the same penalties for the breaking of rules ? Are they poorscholars? From statistics covering four recent quarters, 114 studentswere dismissed from the University during that time for poor scholarship.Of these 92 were men and 22 women. During the same number ofquarters 72 were elected to $BK. Of these, 33 were men and 39women.The women are not lacking in ability. The Athletic Associationproduction at Leon Mandel Assembly Hall last winter, planned andstaged entirely by the women without the aid of any professional, waspronounced second to no Blackfriar production. When any project ison foot calling for support and enthusiasm are the women ever lackingin loyalty or numbers ? Are not the football mass meetings, footballgames, concerts, lectures, and public exhibitions of any kind as wellpatronized by women as men ? In only one way do women do less forthe institution than its men, and that is in athletics. But we do keepour athletics free from the problems which are at present perplexing theConference, and we require no advertising to bring the women. Theycome in greater numbers than they can be accommodated and in greaternumbers than in any women's college in the country.204MBUILDING FOR WOMEN OF UNIVERSITY 205And what has this great University done for its women ? We shallnot take time to tell about the corner of the old Library which was usedfor a gymnasium for the women in the beginning; nor of the Sunday-school room in the Baptist church to which we repaired for daily exerciseafter the Library had been torn down ; nor of the tiny room in Ellis Hall ;nor of the time when we rushed from the fourth floor of Cobb to theSchool of Education gymnasium, breathless and tired — that is ancienthistory. Surely we have been a nomadic tribe without even a glimpseof the promised land. But at present, with 1,075 women at the University, aside from the dormitories the two buildings mentioned in thebeginning are the only buildings- reserved for their use. Lexington Hallcontains eleven rooms of average size. Five of these are classrooms.The others are supposed to be devoted to the Y.W.C.L., the neighborhood clubs, Spelman House assembly room, and restaurant; but ofnecessity they are used by all clubs, organizations, and classes; for teas,concerts, rehearsals, parties, committee meetings, and affairs of anykind, social, religious, or educational.About 800 women live off the Campus, most coming from Chicagohomes at a distance from the Campus. Schedules are often arranged sothat students are on the Campus from 8:30 until 5:00. Yet for these800 women only one small rest room is provided, containing two couches,a table, and two chairs. Any factory run by humane owners providesbetter accommodations than that for its employees. If a girl is ill, shemust go home unless she happens to have a friend in one of thedormitories.The restaurant is ugly and bare, with bare tables and bare, dingywalls. The only ventilation is by three roof windows, and as a result theroom is either cold and draughty or full of steam. It is a place to whichone goes only of necessity, certainly not a place to which one would inviteguests or friends for a social hour. Lunch is served from 11:00 until1 :3o; after that there is not a place on the Campus where one may buyeven a sandwich. Space is so limited that last spring the Alumnae couldnot find quarters anywhere on the Campus for their annual luncheon.There is no room or hall where University women can give social affairs,where they may meet on a common footing, where the social instinctmay be developed and fostered. These may seem like trivialities, butit is these very incidents of everyday living which bind human beingstogether, and students especially, and make for love and loyalty.As for the Gymnasium: There is a floor space 70X71 feet. Duringthe Fall Quarter 632 women were enrolled in classes. When it rains,THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEor there comes a thaw — and there have been several the past winter —part of this floor space is under water. The floor is in constant use everyday during the school year from 8:30 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., and two or threenights a week. This lack of floor space results in several evils:I. ^Overcrowded classes; a class at a popular hour containing from75 to no students.II. (a) Placing of beginning students in advanced classes, resultingsometimes in overwork, often in discouragement, (b) Placing ofadvanced students in elementary classes, requiring them to do work inwhich they have no interest.III. Elimination of much of the desired elective work.IV. Refusing to graduate students the opportunity for physicalexercise, and especially elective work, for which the demand is greatereach year.V. The elimination practically of all effective, corrective work.This is one of the most important phases of physical education. About70 per cent of every Freshman class requires it, yet it must be denied orgiven superficial attention. There are no corrective rooms and littleor no corrective apparatus. Some remedial work is done both in theoffice and in the corners of the Gymnasium while the rest of the floor isin use. But what is the result of work done in an office which is so smallthat one good muscular extension is impossible, or in a corner of theGymnasium where both student and instructor must be constantly onthe alert to dodge flying baseballs or basket-balls; or of a slow rythmicmovement while the piano is playing a lively march for some classexercise ?For 632 women there are about 150 dressing-rooms and 400 lockers,the latter unventilated, except by an opening at top and bottom throughwhich sifts the dirt and dust. For the same number of women there areseven showers, out of condition most of the time, showers which furnishnothing but cold water on a cold day, hot water on a hot day, and steamat other times.The department supports a director, three instructors, and a secretary. For these are provided two offices, no showers or dressing-rooms.The Director's office measures 12X15 feet, while the other office, 15X20feet, is used by the three instructors and the secretary. All physicalexaminations are taken in these offices, some corrective work done, andall routine business handled.Yet in the face of all this discouragement and lack of equipment,work is going on and real things are being accomplished. Girls are beingBUILDING FOR WOMEN OF UNIVERSITY 207made better and stronger, they are learning how to live more correctlyand wisely. We have an Athletic Association of which we are proud,no initiation fee, no dues of any kind, and yet $1,000 in trust for prizesand medals, and a sum of $500 for running expenses, raised by means ofentertainments. How is that for loyalty and college spirit !Oh, Chicago ! It is time to wake up, time to take advantage of allthis love and loyalty while it is yours. Give us a women's buildingworthy of this great institution, worthy of the women who crowd yourhalls, a place where every girl may have a fair chance. It is humanbodies and human souls you are dealing with. Yours is a great opportunity, a great responsibility — what are you going to do with it ? Willyou make these women stronger and better, better able to meet thedemands of life, better able to face its problems, whether as teachers,mothers, business women, or leaders of society? Will you send themout into the world stronger mentally, morally, and physically, moreproficient, and more efficient ?Have we not in all our numbers some loyal alumnus who will stepforward with the necessary thousands ? Or isn't there among us somelarge-hearted, public-spirited Chicago man or woman, who, recognizingour needs, will feel honored to see his or her name carved above theentrance to a women's building ? Our need is great, the demand urgent— we beg of you.(Signed) The Gymnasium Committeeor the Alumnae ClubNOTE ON PROFESSOR WHITMAN'SUNPUBLISHED WORK1The dominant feature of Professor Whitman's long and still unpublished work on inheritance and evolution lies in its intensive and extensiveattack upon the nature of a specific character.In the nineties he wrote: "It is to a comparative and experimentalanalysis of specific characters that we must look for a knowledge of thephenomena of heredity and variation." And again in 1903 in summarizing the results of many years of study of one such character hewrote as follows:In tracing the origin and genesis of a single character, we meet the leading questions in the evolution of species. First and foremost the question as to the nature ofthe initial stages. Did the character arise as a variation de novo, or as a progressivemodification of a pre-existing character ? If de novo, did it spring suddenly forth, withsome decisive advantage in. the struggle for existence ? or did it appear as one of manyminute changes, and by some happy chance get a start that gave it the lead in futuredevelopment ? In other words, did it begin as a discontinuous variation, sport, ormutation ? or did it arise cumulatively, as a continuous development ? If it originatedby modification of an earlier character, was it at first a sudden, sport-like departure ?or was it a slow and continuous transformation, of a progressive or retrogressivenature ?Then we come inevitably to the deeper question, which natural selection onlypartially penetrates — the question how variation, multifarious and undirected,without the aid of design or a designer, can advance to such definite and wonderfulachievements as specific characters.It can be said that Professor Whitman's devotion to the task oflearning a specific character knew no bounds: it heeded neither time,personal sacrifice, nor the knotty and thorny interpolations which theensemble of life-processes is continually throwing upon the path of thebiologist when he would isolate and examine a particular vital process.And with these latter difficulties are especially beset the steps of himwho thoughtfully studies the incomparably hesitant and all-entangledprocess of the origin and establishment of new forms of organisms. ButWhitman was ever ready and eager to attend to each and every pertur-1 Prepared at the request of Professor T. H. Morgan, of the editorial committee ofthe Whitman Memorial volume, November 20, ion; and supplied (somewhatabridged) by him as part of the material for a supplement (issued February, 19 12) tothe Whitman Memorial volume.20SWHITMAN'S UNPUBLISHED WORK 209bation of any part of the system, from whatever foreign or extrinsicsource, if its analysis and meaning might lead directly or indirectly to abetter, surer, or closer measure of realities in his own main sphere ofstudy. It thus happens that along the pathway which he has blazedinto the central problems of evolution are to be found also other landmarks of discovery— some sign-posts, and some wide and well-donesurveys of regions which lead well into the new territory of such other anddiverse subjects as instinct, animal behavior, fertility, correlativevariation, the nature of sex, etc.Having selected color-pattern in pigeons as supplying a satisfactorilysmall group of specific characters easily accessible to study, he first setabout determining which patterns are the more primitive and which thehigher and more recent ones, the facts being determined through a mostpainstaking search for the convergent testimony of the most variouskinds of evidence. Here his uncompromising ideal of an intensive andextensive study of a character, his own exceptional mastery of the broadfield of zoology, and the very wise choice of his material— as time hasproved— united to make it certain that contributions of the highestorder would result from the eighteen years of unbroken and devotedstudy which he was destined to give to these subjects.A general survey was made of the color-patterns of most of thenearly 600 wild species, and of the nearly 200 domestic races of pigeons.Large numbers of genera and species from all parts of the world werebrought to the breeding-pens of his yard. There with much patiencethe patterns were studied from the living birds; there male and femalewere carefully compared; there the sequence of pattern in the plumagesfrom young to old was accurately observed; there thoughtful experimentswere devised to bridge the gap between the molts, and thus displaceapparent discontinuities with visually realized continuities; there theprimitive pattern of many diverse orders of birds was ascertained, andthere the general primitive basis of color-marking in all birds— the"fundamental bars"— were discovered.The direction of the evolution as it was indicated by all these studieswas, moreover, again and again retested by evidence of an entirelydifferent sort. Such characters as voice, behavior, and fertility wereseparately subjected to similar appropriate rigorous comparative andbreeding tests to learn whether the resulting data would parallel eachother, and whether all would parallel that furnished by the extensivestudy of the color-pattern. Only when by all these means, and others,he had accumulated a vast amount of reliable, consistent, and convergentTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAG^INEtestimony as to where the various genera and species stand in thephylogenetic series, did Professor Whitman permit himself to feel thathe was reading aright the history of the specific characters of the pattern.And a very real monument it is to his scientific greatness, that not untilhe knew all this of the character with which he was working, and muchbesides, would he write so much as one line concerning it.In his yards were hybridized nearly forty wild species of pigeons,most of these crosses being made here for the first time. The results ofcontinued breeding of the simple and complex hybrids from these fortypure wild species, and of several domestic races, furnish a mass of mostremarkable data, the conclusions from these data being at the same timechecked and supported by the results of other lines of most penetratingstudy on the same material.In consequence Professor Whitman's work presents a great body ofsearchingly self -critical and reliable conclusions; and these conclusionsunquestionably lead far into constructive evolutionary theory. For hismaterial he believed he had demonstrated beyond doubt the reality andregnancy of definitely directed variation, i.e., of orthogenesis, as themethod of evolution. He had accumulated and presented the mostweighty evidences for continuity as against discontinuity in the phenomena of variation, inheritance, and evolution. He has unmistakablythrown new and extraordinary light on the nature and meaning of"mutants"; such "mutants" at any rate as occur among pigeons. Heaccomplished in 1903, and continuously since then, the remarkable resultwhich in Mendelian terms may be spoken of as the control or determination of the dominance of sex and color.Besides these far-reaching contributions to the theory of evolution,even the shortest statement concerning his work must note that by itthe boundaries of science are also further enlarged by the brilliant andcomprehensive analysis of the phylogeny of pigeons; by more and newlight on the problems of instinct and animal behavior ; by a most unusualcomparative and analytical study on the voice of a group of animals ; byvery extensive and important data on fertility as a character and as afunction; and by some significant findings on the nature of sex.The work is largely and beautifully illustrated, to its illustrationhaving been given many years of the undivided attention of excellentartists. How unreckoning the misfortune that removed the hand andgenius of the master from such a work at a time when but few of itssubjects had been finally summarized and put into publishable form!Even in the unfinished parts, however, the outlines of the work are boldWHITMAN'S UNPUBLISHED WORK 211enough, and its details of data were made bright enough by the polishingprocesses to which he who was the very spirit of clarity and accuracysubjected them, to enable others with time and care to arrange most ofthe results in a form that will still carry conviction to the reader. Andthe wealth and beauty of the illustrations, the range of method, theunremitting attack upon a clearly seen central point, the firm, constantreserve in reaching and publishing conclusions, will, we believe, set afuture standard for biological work.Oscar Riddle, Ph.D., '07UNIVERSITY RECORDFellowships for 1912-13. — More thanone hundred appointments to fellowships,ranging in value from $120 to $520 ayear, have recently been made by theUniversity for the year 191 2-13. Fifty-nine institutions are represented in thelist. Seventeen of the new appointeesare women. The list of those who tookall or a part of their undergraduate workat the University of Chicago follows :Kenneth Noel Atkins, Bacteriology.Frederick Mund Atwater, Greek.Edward D. Baker, Political Economy.Lucia von Lueck Becker, History.Alice Frieda Braunlich, Latin.Margaret Louise Campbell, Geology.Clarence Herbert Hamilton, Philosophy.Cleo Hearon, History.Chauncey Edward Hope, Political Economy.Libbie Henrietta Hyman, Zoology.Yoshio Ishida, Astronomy.George Lester Kite, Pathology.Maurice Goldsmith Mehl, Paleontology.Leon Metzinger, German.Roberts Bishop Owen, Philosophy.Clarence Edward Parmenter, Romance.Bernard Henry Schockel, Geology.Gertrude Ruth Schottenfels, English.John George Sinclair, Zoology.Charles Francis Watson, Geography.Wayland Delano Wilcox, Church History.Western Philosophical and PsychologicalAssociations. — The Western PhilosophicalAssociation held its annual meeting atthe University of Chicago April 5 and 6.At the opening session Professor JamesH. Tufts presented a paper on the subject of "The New Individualism."The President's address was given byProfessor Addison W. Moore, his subject being "Bergson and Pragmatism."At the joint session with the WesternPsychological Association the subject of"The Mechanism of Social Consciousness" was presented in a paper by Professor George H. Mead.At the sessions of the Western Branchof the American Psychological Association and the Association of Teachers ofPsychology in Normal Schools and Colleges, April 5 and 6, Dr. Joseph W. Hayes, of the Department of Psychology, discussed "Brightness and the Horizontal-Vertical Illusion," and Mr. W. S. Hunter,"Delayed Reactions in Animals," thelatter subject being introduced by Professor James R. Angell. Mr. Angell alsointroduced the subject of "Psychologyin the Juvenile Court," the paper beingpresented by Mr. W. Healy, of theChicago Juvenile Psychopathic Institute;and Dr. Frank N. Freeman, of the Department of Education, discussed "Tests ofHandwriting."The meeting of the American Mathematical Society. — The Chicago section of thissociety held its thirtieth regular meetingat the University of Chicago on April 5and 6. At its first session, in the Ryerson Physical Laboratory, Associate Professor Laves presented a paper on "ThePresent State of the Theory of Jupiter'sFive Minor Satellites." At the secondsession Associate Professor Wilczynskipresented a paper on "A ForgottenTheorem of Newton's on PlanetaryMotion and an Instrumental Solution ofKepler's Equation"; and at the closingsession Professor Moore discussed thesubject of "Multiplicative Interrelationsof Certain Classes of Positive Terms."Northern Indiana Teachers' Association. — The thirtieth annual meeting ofthis association took place at the University on April 5 and 6, a large numberof teachers being in attendance. At theopening session in Orchestra Hall on theevening of April 4 President Judson,Superintendent Ella Flagg Young, andMayor Carter H. Harrison gave addressesof welcome. At the first session in theLeon Mandel Assembly Hall ProfessorHenderson gave an address on "Education as a Preventive of Crime. " Paperswere presented in various sections byPrincipal Franklin W. Johnson, of theUniversity High School, Assistant Professor Blanchard, Harry 0. Gillet, of theUniversity Elementary School, Frank N.Freeman, of the Department of Education, Miss Elsie Wygant, Mrs. Mary R.Kern, Mrs. Gudrun Thorne-Thomsen ,212UNIVERSITY RECORD 213Miss Katherine Martin, Miss Stella R.Root, and Associate Professor Leavitt.Secondary - school conference . — Thetwenty-fourth annual Educational Conference of the Academies and HighSchools in relation with the Universityof Chicago occurred on April 19 and 20,19 1 2. Early in the year preceding thisconference, invitations were issued toprincipals of co-operating secondaryschools, inviting their instructors tovisit the classrooms of the variousdepartments of the University in whichsubjects are taught common to thesecondary schools. In consequence ofthis invitation a good many visits havebeen paid to the classrooms of the University, and the Conference thi3 yearwas based upon the reports rendered bythe high-school instructors who hadmade these visits. In order to carry outthis plan, the Conference was organizedin a somewhat different way from thatof former years. Friday afternoon,instead of being devoted as heretofore toa general executive session of deans andprincipals, was this year given up to departmental conferences in Botany andZoology, English, French, German, Geology, History and Civics, Home Economics,Latin, Manual Training, Mathematics,Physics, and Chemistry. The attendanceat these conferences was very gratifyingto those who had planned them, as manyas sixty or seventy being present at someof the meetings. At the general sessionon Saturday morning in the Leon MandelAssembly Hall reports were read by thesecretaries of the respective conferences.The substance of these reports, withthat of the discussions which followedfrom the floor, will be printed in an earlyissue of the School Review.Other features of this annual meetingwere those usually included in formeryears, namely: the President's receptionand luncheon in Hutchinson Hall onFriday noon, given to principals, teachers,and student competitors in the prizecontests; the entertainment at supperof the visiting high-school boys inHutchinson Commons, and the high-school girls in Lexington Hall; and asupper given to visiting high-schoolofficers in the School of Education.On Friday evening in the Leon MandelAssembly Hall was held the fourteenthannual contest in declamation amongrepresentatives of schools in relation with the University of Chicago. Professor Frank J. Miller, of the Departmentof Latin, presided. For this contestthe usual preliminary trial was held inKent Theater, five boys and five girlsbeing selected as a result of the contestfor the Friday evening program. Thesuccessful contestants in the latter wereMiss Miriam Spitz, of the Appleton (Wis.)High School, and Mr. Oscar Wagenknight,of the Lyons Township High School.The Director of Co-operation withSecondary Schools, Professor NathanielButler, of the Department of Education,had general charge of the arrangementsfor the Conference."Chapters from Modern Psychology." —Under this title there recently appearedfrom the press of Longmans, Green &Co. a volume of 300 pages by ProfessorJames R. Angell, Head of the Department of Psychology and Director of thePsychological Laboratory. The bookcontains the first series of lecturesdelivered upon the Ichabod SpencerFoundation at Union College during theearly part of the year 191 1. In thepreface the author says that it seemedappropriate to have the opening coursedeal in an introductory manner with themain characteristics of the contemporarysituation in psychology. He also saysthat the material, being arranged for ageneral college audience, has been freedfrom the technicalities of scientificterminology, and the more abstruseaspects of the subject have been avoided.In the eight chapters are presentedthe subjects of "General Psychology,"' ' Physiological Psychology," ' ' Experimental Psychology," "Social and RacialPsychology," "Animal Psychology,"and "General Genetic Psychology."In the opening chapter the author, inspeaking of the great modern demandmade on psychology, says: "Today theshrill cry for the practically useful haspenetrated to every corner of the intellectual universe, and psychology incommon with all the other sciences hasbeen laid under contribution. Thesalesman and the merchant demand aknowledge of the principles whereby themind of the possible purchaser may bebrought into a mood responsive to thelure of their wares. The lawyer and thejudge have asked for methods withwhich more efficiently to estimate theveracity of testimony. The physicianTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEand the priest look to psychologicmethods for the cure of sick souls andailing minds. The philosopher, in hissearch for light upon the meaning andworth of human conduct, turns topsychology for an account of the will,while the schoolmaster, striving to'teach the young idea how to shoot,'levies constant tribute upon the psychologist, not only for facts concerningmental growth, but also for methodswherewith to ascertain and evaluatethe results of his own pedagogical procedure." The volume concludes witha retrospect, and a list of references forreaders who may care to pursue fartherthe subjects discussed in the lectures.A series of "Handbooks of Ethics andReligion," edited by Professor ShailerMathews, is being published by theUniversity of Chicago Press. The seriesconsists of moderate-sized volumes dealing with fundamental questions of conduct and belief, and the books will setforth the results of the best modernscholarship in their respective fields.Among the contributors to the seriesare Professor Theodore G. Soares andAssociate Professor Gerald B. Smith.Introduction to Religious Education andChristian Ethics will be the titles of theirrespective contributions.Professor James R. Angell was one ofthe speakers at the annual banquet ofthe University of Michigan alumni heldat the University Club, Chicago, on theevening of April 20. Three hundredmen were present. The president ofthe University of Michigan was also aspeaker.During April a series of lectureswas given at the University of Illinoisby Associate Professor James WestfallThompson, of the Department of History,the general subject of the series being"Historical Method and Bibliography."As a benefit for the University ofChicago Settlement a recital was givenin the Leon Mandel Assembly Hall onthe afternoon of April 4, the programbeing presented by Mr. George Hamlin,tenor, and Mr. Cornelius Van Vliet,cellist. Air. Hamlin is a member of theChicago Grand Opera Company andMr. Van Vliet a member of the ViennaImperial Opera and Philharmonic Orchestra. The former gave three groupsof songs, and the latter presented fournumbers, both artists being received with great favor. A good audience wasin attendance and the proceeds for theSettlement were about three hundreddollars."Functions of Better Government"was the subject of an address before theUniversity Equal Suffrage League in theLeon Mandel Assembly Hall on April 10,by Miss Jane Addams, head of HuhHouse, Chicago. There was a largeaudience present. The speaker expressedno discouragement over the result of therecent primaries in Illinois when thequestion of woman suffrage was defeatedby a large vote.During the Winter Quarter of 191 2,ending March 19, 7,748 volumes wereadded to the Libraries of the University,4,238 being by purchase, 1,856 by gift,and 1,609 by exchange.Heredity and Eugenics is the title of avolume, issued in May by the Universityof Chicago Press, which contains a seriesof lectures summarizing recent advancesin knowledge in variation, heredity, andevolution and its relation to plant,animal, and human improvement andwelfare. The lectures were given underthe auspices of the biological departmentsof the University of Chicago, and amongthe contributors to the volume are Professor John M. Coulter, who furnishes achapter on "The Physical Basis ofHeredity and Evolution from the Cy-tological Standpoint," and /AssociateProfessor William L. Tower, of theDepartment of Zoology, whose contribution is entitled "Recent Advancesand the Present State of Knowledgeconcerning the Modification of theGerminal Constitution of Organisms byExperimental Processes."The late Waldemar Koch, who wasAssociate Professor of Pharmacology inthe University of Chicago, bequeathedhis brain to Wistar Institute of Philadelphia for the purpose of scientificinvestigation by authorities on thechemistry of the brain, which was thespecial field of Professor Koch himself.His sister, Miss Mathilde Koch, Research Assistant in Pharmacology at theUniversity, is continuing the researchwork outlined by her brother and theresults of the analyses will later bepublished."Admiralty Law" was the subject ofa series of six open lectures given in theLaw Building by Mr. Charles E. Kremer,beginning April 11. Mr. Kremer is aUNIVERSITY RECORD 215member of the Chicago bar and a SpecialLecturer in the Law School.The recent series of six public lecturesgiven at Harvard University on theGardiner M. Lane foundation by Professor Paul Shorey had for its generalsubject "Life and Letters at Athensfrom Pericles to Alexander," the subjectsof the separate lectures being as follows:"The Age of Pericles," "Aristophanes,""The Case of Euripides," "The Schoolof Athens — Plato and Isocrates," "Demosthenes and the Lost Cause," "FromAristophanes to Menander — Life andLetters in the Little Athens of theFourth Century."At the celebration of Shakspere'sbirthday in Lincoln Park, Chicago, onthe afternoon of April 23, AssociateProfessor S. H. Clark, of the Departmentof Public Speaking, acted as "orator,"receiving and reading messages fromvarious groups of characters representingnine of the plays. Eighteen hundredchildren of the Chicago public schoolswere in the procession and pageantthat passed the Shakspere statue. Inthe morning at the luncheon given in theAuditorium by four hundred women ofthe Chicago Woman's Club AssociateProfessor Albert H. Tolman, of theDepartment of English, spoke on the question, "Is Shakspere Anti-democratic?"Recent contributions by members ofthe faculties to the journals published bythe University of Chicago Press include:Blackburn, Associate Professor FrancisA.: "Note on Beowulf 1591-1617,"Modern Philology, April.Burton, Professor Ernest D.: "ThePlace of the New Testament in aTheological Curriculum," AmericanJournal of Theology, April.Caldwell, Associate Professor Otis W.:"Heat as a Topic for the Experimental Science Work of the Eighth Grade"(illustrated), Elementary School Teacher,April.Gates, Dr. Errett: "The New PrussianHeresy Law and Its Workings,"American Journal of Theology, April.Henderson, Professor Charles R.: "Infant Welfare: III. Methods of Organization and Administration," AmericanJournal of Sociology, March.Hoben, Associate Professor Allan: "TheMinister and the Boy: VI. TheBoy's Choice of a Vocation," BiblicalWorld, April.Mathews, Professor Shailer: "Vocational Efficiency and the TheologicalCurriculum," American Journal ofTheology, April; "The EfficientChurch" (a professional readingcourse), Biblical World, April.Parkhurst, Mr. John A.: "Spectra andColors of Red Stars" (illustrated byfive figures and one plate), Astro-physical Journal, March.Robbins, Dr. Frank E.: "The Influenceof Greek Philosophy on the EarlyCommentaries of Genesis," AmericanJournal of Theology, April.Slocum, Assistant Professor Frederick:"The Parallax of Nova Lacertae1910," Astrophysical Journal, March.Recent lectures by members of theFaculties include:Blanchard, Assistant Professor FredricM.: An interpretative reading ofAs You Like It, Chicago CollegeClub, Fine Arts Building, April 18.Caldwell, Associate Professor Otis W.:"The Right to Make Things Grow,"City Welfare Exhibit, Agassiz School,Chicago, Arbor Day, April 19.Clark, Associate Professor S. H. : Address before the Drama League ofAmerica, Auditorium Hotel, Chicago,April 24.AFFAIRSChicago Alumnae Club. — The annualbusiness meeting of the Chicago AlumnaeClub was held in Field's tearoom at noonon April 6. Afterward the officers andchairmen of standing committees presented their reports, thus giving a verycomplete summary of the year's work invarious lines.Aliss Edith Osgood, chairman of theGymnasium Committee, told of discussing with her committee various plans forkeeping up the agitation for a women'sgymnasium. The most acceptable andpracticable plan seemed to make anappeal through the pages of the alumniMagazine. On another page will befound a full statement of the case.Miss Mary Pitkin, chairman of theLibrary Committee, reported that 165books were rented at twenty-five centsapiece during the Winter and Springquarters, making a net gain to the Alumnae Club of $53.15. This sum will beturned over either to the SettlementCommittee or to the Employment Bureau .The Library Committee is not, however,a mere money-making scheme. We doa real service to the undergraduatesin placing the textbooks which we nolonger need at their disposal for a smallfee.Miss Medora Googins, chairman of theMembership Committee, asked everyoneto consider herself on the MembershipCommittee and to interest her own personal friends. There are 175 alumnaein our club now, but with the new interests we have undertaken we hope foreven a larger number.The report for the Settlement Committee was made by the secretary in theabsence of Miss Faulkner. The specifictask which this committee has undertaken and which the Club has voted tocontinue for another year is a subscription of $500 toward the salary of avocational counselor at the UniversitySettlement. Miss Louise Montgomeryhas done and will continue this work forus. At a luncheon given by the SettlementCommittee in March she gave a mostinteresting and convincing account of her work. She consults with all the girlsleaving the four public schools in herneighborhood with regard to their futureplans. At the age of fourteen years fewhave any bent they wish to follow, buteach knows simply that she wants a job.Miss Montgomery has helped crystallizetheir vague ideas and has started manygirls on the road to learn skilled trades.She has seen to it also that the girls sheadvises are placed in satisfactory workingconditions.The money is to be raised as last yearlargely by subscription, and it is hopedthat the interest will be as great and theresponse as ready. There is also a planon foot to start the fund by two or threelectures in different parts of the city.Mrs. Irwin J. McDowell represented theClub on the "College Women's Industrial Committee." This body has beenan active agent in fighting for the 10-hour law for women and has kept at workthrough the time of its amendment lastJune and now that the amendment is injeopardy waiting for the verdict of theSupreme Court.Miss Alice Greenacre is the delegateof the Club to the "Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations." This is a movement which, though new, seems one wewish to identify ourselves with. Theplan is to establish an office with the aimof placing trained women in positionsother than teaching. Such a bureau hasbeen in successful operation in New Yorkand will eventually be self-supporting.For the first two or three years, however,some financial responsibility will haveto be assumed, though just how much,and how it will be met, has not beendetermined.Other matters of business were considered, among them plans for AlumniDay. It was voted that the women havea dinner instead of their usual breaskfast,and that the suggestion of the men'sorganization that we co-operate withthem in some joint entertainment in theevening be followed.Officers were then elected for 19 12-13,and the meeting adjourned.216AFFAIRS 217President— -Marie Ortmayer, '06Vice-President — Josephine Allin, '99Secretary — Thyrza Barton, '07Treasurer — Hazel Kelly, '08Directors— Alice, Lee, 'n, Mary Pitkin.8.Thyrza Barton, SecretaryNews from the Classes.—1870Rev. D. Dewolf resides at 66 IngrahamPlace, Newark, N.J.'1876Lily Gray is connected with theSpokesman-Review of Spokane, Wash.1895Dr. S. D. Barnes is practicing medicinein Honolulu, Hawaii.1896Dr. Mary Brooks Baird lives at theAvenue House, Evanston, 111.John Hulsart, who enlivened Snell inthe days when Stagg was head, lives atManasquan, N.J.Mary Doan Spalding is teaching in theSoldan High School, St. Louis, Mo. Heraddress is 3739 Windsor Place.1897C. R. Barrett, who is connected withthe American School of Correspondence,lives at 6203 Madison Ave.Percy B. Davis may be addressed at766 Prospect Ave., Winnetka, 111.Marilla Waite Freeman is librarian ofthe Goodwyn Institute, Memphis, Tenn.Clara Hitchcock occupies the professorship of philosophy in Lake Erie College,Painesville, Ohio.1898Adelaide Steele Baylor has been appointed assistant state superintendent ofpublic instruction of Indiana. Heraddress is Room 27, State House, Indianapolis.George S. Pomeroy, ex, resides at 5800Kenmore Ave.1899G. E. Congdon is principal of HiawathaAcademy, Hiawatha, Kan.Thomas M. Netherton recently becameprincipal of the Colorado School of Agriculture, located near Fort Collins, Colo.Dr. C. F. Weinberger lives at 4132Wentworth Ave. 1900Charles W. Chase is in the law partnership of Wood & Chase, CommercialNational Bank Building.Albert L. Ward has moved from Lawrence, Kan., to Livingston, Ind., at whichlatter place he is pastor of the Christianchurch.1 901Director Arthur E. Bestor of theChautauqua, Chautauqua, N.Y., and Mrs.Bestor sailed on April 13 on the "Minne-waska" for Europe to remain until thelatter part of June or just before theopening of the summer season. Whilepartly a vacation, the trip will primarilybe to study at first hand various documents and foreign conditions in thepreparation of an article on "EuropeanRulers: Their Modern Significance."The itinerary includes London, Paris,Brussels, The Hague, Berlin, Copenhagen, Christiania, Stockholm, St. Petersburg, Vienna, Berne, and Madrid.Marjorie Lucile Fitch, Ph.M., teachesGerman in the high school at Sterling, 111.During the summer she will be at homeat 4341 N. 42d Ave., Chicago.1902C. A. Huston, J.D., '08, is associateprofessor of law in Leland Stanford Jr.University. Mr. and Mrs. Huston (Margaret Davidson, '03) live at 1048 RamonaSt., Palo Alto, Cal.Sylvanus G. Levy, living at 3238Vernon Ave., is in law partnership underthe name Lipson & Levy, 1607 FortDearborn Building.Mrs. W. A. Logan (Edith Jenkins)now lives at 5139 Washington Ave.Dora Katherine Longenecker residesat 826 N. Church St., Decatur, 111.1903Mrs. Alfred E. Chadwick (MaryChamberlain) has moved to 2136 S.Clifton Park Ave., Hawthorne Station.Milton J. Davies is connected with theCentral Branch of the Y.M.C.A., ofBrooklyn, N.Y. His residence is 227Willoughby Ave.Frank W. DeWolf is on the StateGeological Survey, headquarters at Urbana, 111.W. A. Goodman, with his brother, engages in the insurance business, principally fire, Room 1965-175 W. JacksonBlvd.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBruce McLeish has moved from Evanston to Glencoe, 111.Oscar E. Norman resides at 5607Washington Ave.1904Jacob Billikopf, 1000 Admiral Blvd.,Kansas City, Mo., is associated with theJewish Educational Institute of thatcity.Charles R. Howe, who pitched in hisday, is in the banking and real estatebusiness. He has been for two yearsat Hinsdale, 111.Dr. Harry E. Mack occupies medicaloffices at 1605 Van Buren St.Emma M. McFarland is a missionaryamong the Keowa Apaches near Apache,Okla.190sInga M. K. Allison is professor ofhome economics in the Colorado StateAgricultural College, Fort Collins.Lorley Ada Asheman, A.M., '08, isdirector of French in the Detroit CentralHigh School. Her address is 89 HancockWest.W. F. Burns lives at 1270 Dolman St.,St. Louis, Mo.Schuyler B. Terry, Ph.D., '10, andMrs. Terry (Phebe Bell, '08) live at 1464Hyde Park Blvd. Mr. Terry is in thebond business with Lee Higginson & Co.1906Helmut Berens teaches German inLewis Institute. He and Mrs. Berens(Alice Seton Thompson, '05) reside inElmhurst, 111.Grace Beed, 3402 Harrison St., KansasCity, Mo., has undertaken the organization of the collegiate alumnae of thatcity.Lucy E. Browning's permanent addressis Elgin, 111.J. Brad Craig is principal of the schoolsat Beaver, Pa.Paul Hunter Dodge, formerly a lawyerin Colorado Springs, Colo., later in NewYork, has recently returned from Oxford,where as a student he pursued the anthropological course. Temporarily he is residing at 5532 Ellis Ave., while completinghis abridged version of Shakespeare, butmay be addressed at his home town,Goshen, Ind.Ida A. Felt, lives at 611 High St.,Billingham, Wash.Hugo Friend, J.D., '08, has moved to5236 Prairie Ave. Burton P. Gale is connected with Swift& Co., Union Stock Yards.Elizabeth Adams Young teachesscience and history in the Winona Collegefor Young Women, Winona Lake, Ind.1907Faith Hunter Dodge teaches Frenchand Spanish in Millikin University,Decatur, 111.Luise Haessler is on the German facultyof Normal College, Park Ave. and 68thSt., New York, N.Y.Joseph W. King is head of the Englishdepartment of Ball High School, Galveston, Tex. His address is 801 2 2dSt., though his home town is Cuseta, Ga.Paul M. O'Donnell may be found at61 1 7 Monroe Ave.Dade B. Shearer is instructor of Latinand English in De Pauw University. Hisaddress is 307 E. Seminary St., Green-castle, Ind.1908Benjamin C. Allin, ex, has been on thelecture program recently of the seriesgiven by the Chicago Daily News. Histopic is "Native Life in China," personalimpressions and an abundance of pictorialmaterial for which he gathered uponthe occasion of an extended journey tothe Orient. He is a brother of JosephineAllin, '99.Elizabeth Barnhart resides at 319 MainSt., Greensburg, Pa.W. W. Gorsline, teacher of mathematics in the Manual Training HighSchool at Peoria, 111., lives at 425 BarkerAve., that city.George W. Graves is living in Pullman,Wash.Nellie B. Green resides at 413 N. MainSt., Fairfield, la.1909R. D. Elliott, formerly of New Philadelphia, O., is now located at 1875 E.24th St., Cleveland, Ohio. For the pastyear Mr. Elliott has been engaged inchemical research for the National Electric Lamp Company.Helen Cramp, 3509 N. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa., is engaged in journalisticwork in the educational department of theJohn C. Winston Publishing Company.Edith R. Hull is located permanentlyat 3739 Windsor Place, St. Louis, Mo.I. Leo Wolkow may be found at 128W. Market St., Louisville, Ky. Withhis father he is in the manufacture ofhuman hair goods.AFFAIRS 219Marie Avery teaches English in theAspen, Colo., high school.Nova J. Beal is an instructor in theWashington Union High School, OleanderCal.Margaret Helen Byrne resides at 432W. 63d St.M. Ralph Cleary is assistant managerof the Chicago branch, 505 S. ClintonSt., of Delany & Co., of Philadelphia,manufacturers of glue and curled hair.His home address is 216 S. Scoville Ave.,Oak Park.Emma Felsenthal lives at 616 W.Church St., Champaign, 111.Martha Grant is now at 118 N. CenterSt., Plymouth, Ind.Horace B. Horton is with the ChicagoBridge and Iron Works, 105th andThroop Sts. He lives at 5431 MichiganAve.Helen Sard Hughes is connected withthe Western College for Women at Oxford, Ohio.R. T. Proctor may be addressed atArkadelphia, Ark.1911Under the supervision of William Kuhand Hargrave Long an elaborate directory of graduates of this class has justbeen published by the Press, and is beingrapidly distributed among the members.Plans are also being promoted to securean unusual turnout at the Alumni Dayduring Convocation week.Florence M. Ames, whose home is inRiverside, 111., has been living for sometime at 519 Main St., Platteville, Wis.Norman Baldwin has just returnedfrom his European trip, where he actedas delegate to the International PeaceCongress which was scheduled for Rome,but which was annulled owing to therecent war. Baldwin is living at home,341 Pleasant St., Oak Park, 111.Elmer W. Beatty is with the HickorySteel Grip and Glove Company of BlueIsland. His home address is 901 MargateTerrace, Edgewater Station.William H. Bresnahan, ex, has beenengaged to coach the track team of IowaCity High School.Bert E. Gordon, teacher in the La Grange, 111., high school, may be foundat 317 N. Waiola.H. R. Baukhage writes as follows:"Studying in Germany; spent the WinterQuarter in Bonn, where I also enjoyed anoperation for appendicitis. Address Bis-marckstr. 22, Bonn am Rhein. When aman gets over here away from everythingAmerican, especially away from the American point of view, and tries to explain to aGerman student why eleven men shouldreceive all the training and a couple ofhundred never get a chance to work up asweat one begins to think there is something wrong with the whole theory of ourathletics and that this question is only aphase. If we stick by our ideal and playthe other colleges isn't there some chanceof at least swinging the uncertain ourway ?"Clarence A. Wood, D.B., '12, is practicing law and also acting in the capacityof private secretary to Judge Irving G.Vaun of the New York Court of Appeals.His address is Court House, Syracuse,N.Y.'11. Mary Marjorie Ogden, daughterof Mr. and Mrs. Howard Newton Ogden,for years residents of Woodlawn, andOscar Lee Stanard of Charleston, W.Va.Mr. Ogden is president of the IllinoisCollege of Law, but recently moved toFairmont, W.Va. The wedding willtake place the latter part of June.'n. Charles Lee Sullivan,- ex, and FayHopkins, a sister of Herbert G. Hopkins,'11. Miss Hopkins is a graduate of Radcliff e College. During his college careerMr. Sullivan participated in numerousstudent activities, and held in his Senioryear the business managership of theDaily Maroon; was president of the Reynolds Club, and a college marshal. Heis a member of Phi Gamma Delta fraternity. Both of the young people residein Dayton, Ohio, where Mr. Sullivan isemployed by the Thresher Varnish Co.The wedding is to take place in the fall.Deaths: —'n. Lowry D. Bender died at Mobile,Ala., on November 20, 191 1, of cerebralhemorrhage.THE ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OF PHILOSOPHYThe President of the University hasauthorized the annual invitation to theDoctors to attend a complimentary luncheon at twelve o'clock on Monday,June 10, 191 2. The annual businessmeeting will be held at that time. ATHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEcommunication from the president of theAssociation will be mailed to all memberswithin a short time, proposing a questionof interest to all for discussion. A specialinducement to all Doctors to be presenton this occasion will be the dedicationof the Harper Memorial Library whichwill take place on the following day.Several members of the Association fromoutside of Chicago attended the meetingsof the Chicago Section of the AmericanMathematical Society held at the University on April 5 and 6, 191 2. Amongthem were Arnold Dresden, '09, T. H.Hildebrandt, '07, W. H. Bussey, '04,A. L. Underbill, '06, R. P. Baker, '10,and R. L. Borger, '07."The Reduction of a System of LinearDifferential Form of Any Order" is thetitle of a paper in the Annals of Mathematics for March, 191 2, by ArnoldDresden, '09, instructor in mathematicsat the University of Wisconsin.At the recent organization of theTennessee Academy of Science, Dr. C.H. Gordon, '95, was chosen first president. Dr. Gordon is professor of geologyat the University of Tennessee andassistant state geologist. Dr. Gordonwill conduct a party abroad this Summer,visiting Italy, Switzerland, Germany,Holland, Belgium, France, and England.The itinerary is called the Dixie Tour,sailing from Boston by the White StarLine steamer "Canopic," June 8. Dr.Gordon will be accompanied by Mrs.Gordon and their two daughters, Isabeland Helen.Miss Eleanor Hammond, '98, sailedfor England on April 18 to pursue workin libraries there for a time, after whichshe will travel on the Continent, laterreturning again to England. She willbe away from Chicago till late autumn.Linear Polors of the K-IIedron in M-Space is the title of the dissertation ofDr. H. F. MacNeish, '09, which hasrecently been published by the University Press. Dr. MacNeish is instructorin mathematics at Yale University.Dr. F. G. Henke, '10, is professor ofphilosophy and psychology in the University of Nanking, China. He has beena regular subscriber to the Magazine andexpresses great interest in the reorganization of its editorial board.Dr. Wilhelmina E. Key, '01, professorof biology at Lombard College, Gales-burg, 111., writes: "I am glad tosupport the new departure in regard to the Magazine by renewing my subscription for the current year." Airs. Keyhas always been a loyal supporter ofalumni interests.Professor Irving Miller, '04, of thedepartment of psychology at the StateNormal School, Greely, Colo., is thedirector of religious education in theSunday school of the First BaptistChurch of that place. This Sundayschool is organized on scientific andpedagogic principles.The January issue of the Transactionsof the American Mathematical Societycontains articles by three members ofour association, namely: E. J. Miles,'10, "The Absolute Minimum of a Definite Integral in a Special Field"; L. E.Dickson, '90, "Linear Algebras"; F. R.Aloulton, '07, "A Class of Periodic Orbitsof Superior Planets."Dr. Murray S. Wildman, A.B. (Earl-ham, '93), Ph.D. (Chicago, '04), now professor of economics and commerce inNorthwestern University, has been appointed professor of economics in theLeland Stanford Jr. University, to fillthe vacancy caused by the resignationof Professor Alvin S. Johnson, who goesto Cornell University at the close of thepresent academic year.Dr. E. P. Schoch, '02, has been promoted to a full professorship in chemistryat the University of Texas.Miss Dagny G. Sunne, '09, has beenappointed to the department of educationat Wellesley College.At Lawrence College, Appleton, Wis.,Dr. C. J. Bushnell, '01, is professor ofpolitics, Dr. M. L. Spencer, '10, is professor of English, and Dr. D. R. Moore,'10, is professor of history. There aresix other members of the faculty whohave done graduate work at the University of Chicago.The following papers were publishedby Dr. R. R. Gates, '08, during the year191 1 : "The Alode of Ghromosome Reduction," Botanical Gazette, May, 191 1;"Studies on the Variability and Iierita-bility of Pigmentation in Oenothera"(1 colored plate), Zeitschrift fur Abstam-mungs- und V ererbungslehre, April, 191 1;"Early Historico-botanical Records ofthe Oenotheras," Proceedings Iowa Acad.Sci. (6 plates), 191 1; "Mutation inOenothera," American Naturalist, October, 191 1 ; "Pollen Formation in Oenothera Gigas," Annals of Botany (4 plates),October, 191 1. Dr. Gates is now at theAFFAIRS 221Botanical Gardens of the Royal Collegeof Sciences, London.Miss Katharine Dopp, '02, gave anaddress before the Southern IllinoisTeachers' Association, April 6, on "ThePlace of Practical Activities in Educa-Loren T. Bush, '71, president of theAssociation, has left the work at theSecond Baptist Church, Chicago, andmay be addressed temporarily at LosAngeles, Cal., general delivery.Dr. Fred P. Haggard, '89, althoughoffered the editorship of the projectedinterdenominational missionary magazine, has decided to remain as homesecretary of the American BaptistForeign Mission Society.Dr. W. P. Behan, '97, pastor of theMorgan Park Baptist Church, wasrecently elected to the secretaryshipof the Baptist Executive Council ofChicago. tion," and also an address before theelementary section of the same association on "The Meaning and Purpose ofthe Study of Primitive Life in Its Relation to Modern Educational Methods."Herbert E. Slaught, SecretaryWilliam Henry Garfield, '04, locatedat the First Baptist Church, Ottawa,111., is reported to be having excellentsuccess in his work.George E. Burlingame, '99, one of theleading ministers of San Francisco, willspend several months abroad during thespring and summer. Mr. Burlingamehas been most tireless and efficient inthe work of reconstruction made necessary by the great fire.Clifton D. Gray, '00, has been electedpresident of Shurtleff College, UpperAlton, 111.Fred Merrifield, '01, SecretaryTHE DIVINITY ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONTHE LETTER-BOXTo the Editor:It seemed to mc while I was in college,and has been impressed upon my mindsince, that at the University courses ondifferent phases of business life would beof great advantage to students, not onlyin giving information but in wideningthe student's outlook on life and increating new interests. May I be boldenough to suggest a course of studies forone quarter? As in the "Introductionto Sociology," one problem could betaken up every week. The course couldbe made very interesting by addingweekly trips to manufacturing plants,like the trips in the course on "AmericanCities." The problems suggested are asfollows :Week i — Development of Modern Manufacturing (Commonwealth Edison,2 2d Street Plant)(a) Steam(b) ElectricityWeek 2 — Mining and Smelting (Illinois SteelCompany, South Chicago)(a) MetalsWeek 3 — Foundry, Forging, and Rolling(Union Drop Forge, Kensington)Week 4 — Machine Shop (Allis-Chalmers orExcelsior Motor Company)(a) Types of Machines(b) Typical OperationsWeek 5 — Chemical Industries (AmericanHide & Leather Co.)(a) Refining(b) TanningWeek 6 — Weaving, Shoemaking, TailoringWeek 7 — Slaughtering and Food Products(a) Union StockyardsWeek 8 — Printing(a) Presses )(6) Paper [ (R. R. Donnelly)(c) Binding )(d) Newspapers (The Tribune)(e) Engraving Week q — Building(a) Brick(b) Stone(c) Structural Iron(d) ErectingWeek io — Shipping, Accounting, CreditsLike many other alumni, I should beglad to assist in any way; particularly,as far as I am personally concerned, infurnishing references on the first fourweeks' work, or on the eighth and tenthweeks' work, as these have been mattersof interest to me for the last two years.I might perhaps outline another courseto accompany the first. I have notthis so definitely in mind as the other,but I will give you the data I have athand.Weeks i and 2 — Banks and Credits(a) Bills, Notes, ExchangeWeek 3 — Accounting and Costs(a) Expense(b) Labor(c) MaterialWeek 4 — AdvertisingWeek 5 — Selling Organization(a) Mail Order(b) Jobbing(c) Retail MarketWeek 6 — Real EstateWeek 7 — InsuranceWeek 8 — Brokerage and UnderwritingWeek 9 — Contracting, etc.I believe it is quite possible to get aman from almost any one of the businesses named in both of these courses todeliver a short talk to the class. This isparticularly true in the manufacturingbusiness, where experts would lecture onwhat the class would see the followingday in their factory. I know thatsomething similar is now being clone atNorthwestern University.Yours very truly,Aleck G. Whitfield, 'iiAFFAIRSATHLETICSBaseball. — The following games wereplayed up to May i. Conference gamesare in heavy type.April 6, Joliet Standards . . . . o Chicago 2" 9, First Nat. Bank ... . 2" 10, Gunthers 7 "'4" 13, Northwestern 1 " 3" 15, Wausau-Lacrosse . . . 2" 17, Wisconsin 14(at Madison)" 20, Iowa 0 " 10" 24, Hawaii College 3 " 6Honolulu" 27, Arkansas 3May 1, Illinois 5(at Champaign)The remainder of the schedule is asfollows :May 3, Iowa, at Iowa City" 4, Ames, at Chicago" 8, Illinois" 11, Wisconsin" 14, Northwestern, at Evanston" 17, Illinois, at Champaign" 18, Indiana" 21, Minnesota" 25, Purdue" 31, Purdue at LafayetteJune 5, IlliniosA complete list of the players on thesquad will be found under "Events andDiscussion." Up to May 1 the regularline-up of the team was: Mann, catcher;G. Roberts, Carpenter, and Hruda,pitchers; Norgren, first base; O.Roberts,second base; Boyle, (capt.), third base;Baird, shortstop; Teichgraeber, rightfield; Catron, center field; Libonati andKulvinsky, left field. Mann has filledin excellently as catcher. He is steady,and throws well, though not brilliantly.He is weak on foul flies, and his hittingis only mediocre. G. Roberts pulleda tendon in his arm in the game with theJoliet Standards, and was out for nearlya month in consequence. Hruda pitcheda decent game against Northwestern,but was not sharply attacked. AgainstWisconsin he was ineffective. Carpenterhas been a pleasant surprise. Againstthe Gunthers, Wausau-Lacrosse, andIowa he pitched with great steadinessand effect. In the two former games he was taken out to give Reichmann achance; in both instances Reichmannwas severely battered. Against Iowa,Carpenter pitched the full nine innings,giving four hits and three bases on balls,and hitting two men. He cannot bat,and has a poor throw to bases. Norgrenat first does fairly, handling thrown ballsbeautifully; but he is weak on the ground,and cannot hit. O. Roberts, Baird, andBoyle make up the best infield, exceptfor first base, in the Conference. Goodmen, who have played together for threeyears, they are a treat to watch. As theystand, they are superior to most of theinfields in Class A leagues. In the outfield, Teichgraeber is slow but steady;he is hitting far better than last year.Catron is going far to fill the place ofCollings. Catron is small, fast, a cleverbatter, and a splendid thrower. He hasa tendency to lose his head. Left fieldis weak. There seems nobody to putthere who can hit the ball, though PaulHunter is a possibility. The games sofar show better than a fair team, buthardly a really good one. Steinbrecher' sreturn would greatly strengthen it. Thegames with Northwestern and Iowa wereeasy; the Wisconsin game was a farce;six innings in a blizzard which shut thebatter off from the sight of the outfielders.Track. — The schedule of track meetsis as follows:April 20, Drake Relay Races at Des Moines" 27, Penn Relay Races at PhiladelphiaMay n, Northwestern 'Varsity, Freshmen" 17, Illinois 'Varsity, Freshmen(at Champaign)May 25, WisconsinJune 1, Conference Meet at Lafayette" 7, Inter-Class Meet" 8, Interscholastic MeetThe one-mile University relay at DesMoines was won by Chicago, in 3:255.Baird ran the first relay, finishing secondby six yards in 53 seconds. Mathews,on the next relay, won by eight yards in53 seconds. Menaul, running in 51^,led by twenty-five yards, and Davenportfinished in 49! about sixty yards in223THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEfront. The Pennsylvania relay was wonby Syracuse. For Chicago, the runnerswere Matthews who finished in 54;Baird, in 53; Menaul, in 52; andDavenport, in 49-2. In the pole vault,Coyle took fifth 11 feet 9 inches.Chicago has a smaller squad thisspring than for a long time. Davenport,in the middle distances; Matthews andDuncan in the sprints; Menaul in theshot and high jump; Coyle in the vault;Cox in the high jump; Canning in thehammer; Kuh in the hurdles; Donovanin the mile; Bishop in the miie and two-mile; and Chandler in the half are aboutall we have to depend on. Prospectsare in consequence very dubious.General. — The football schedule fornext fall has been announced as follows:October 5, Indiana19, Iowa26, PurdueDramatic. — The one-act play competition instituted by the Dramatic Clubin the Winter Quarter was won by MissElizabeth Alexander, of Athens, Georgia,with The Thimble. Six other plays weresubmitted, but the decision of the judgeswas unanimous. The Club had plannedto give the winning play at its annualalumni reunion on April 30, but difficulties arose which made this impossible.At the reunion, therefore, three other playswere substituted, as follows:The StepmotherBy Arnold BennettCora Prout Mona QuayleChristine Emma ClarkAdrian W. S. HefferanDr. Gardner Byron W. HartleyFritzchenBy Herman SudermannThe Mayor B. K. GoodmanFritzchen D. L. BreedLieut, von Hallerpfat J- R. AllaisWilhelm B. H. ClarkFrau von Drosse Winifred CuttingAgnes Effie M. HewittGiving "Joy"By Various CollaboratorsThis was a farce satirizing variousregulations of the University in regardto eligibility, the use of Mandel Hall, November 2, Wisconsin at Madison9, Northwestern16, Illinois at Champaign23, MinnesotaIt will be seen that every game is witha Conference team, and that every teamin the Conference is represented. Prospects for a good eleven are bright, thoughWhiting, captain-elect, and Scruby haveleft college, and so has Springer, in whommuch hope was placed. Halstead M.Carpenter, '12, tackle, has been electedcaptain in place of Whiting.At the gymnastic meet, held at Champaign, April 13, Illinois won with 1074!points. Stiles of Illinois also won theindividual championship. Wisconsinwas second with 95 7 \ points, Minnesotathird with 8i6|, and Chicago last with782I,etc. The plays, which were given in theReynolds Club, were preceded by a dinner to the alumni members of the Club.Much Ado about Something, a farce byRuth Reticker, '12, was given under theauspices of the Young Women's ChristianLeague, in Lexington Hall on Monday,April 22.The Case of Sophronia, by MarjorieB. Cooke, '99, is in rehearsal by TheMasquers, a dramatic organization ofFreshmen, and will be given some timein May.General. — The following elections tofill vacancies have been announced:Senior College Council, Miss Clara Allenand Paul MacClintock in place of MissAdelaide Roe and William Warriner;Senior Class Presidency, Ira N. Davenport in place of Clark Sauer; SophomoreClass Presidency, W'illard Dickerson inplace of Horace F. Scruby. Miss Roeand Warriner have graduated; Sauerand Scruby have left college.The Cosmopolitan Club held exercisesin Mandel on International Night, April13. Representatives from twelve nationstook part in the program.At a meeting on April 15, 415 womenpledged themselves to continue the HonorSentiment Campaign undertaken in theWinter Quarter. Other pledges are tobe secured as rapidly as possible.GENERAL