MIDWINTER VIEW OF THE FRANK DICKINSON BARTLETT GYMNASIUM.AND THE MITCHELL TOWERUniversity of ChicagoMagazineVolume IV FEBRUARY, igi2 Number 3EVENTS AND DISCUSSIONThe meeting of the Conference representatives on January 26 and27 resulted in compromise. The principle that only amateurs shouldengage in college athletics, and the definition of an amateur as one who is not paid for playing, were upheld; butCompromise the rules were changed to allow college athletes in goodstanding to compete on the same teams with professionals. If this world were run by logic, this outcome would be amusingenough. The great argument in favor of "summer baseball" hasbeen that the old rules drove men to perjury. The new rules invitethem to it. The old rules made taking pay for playing dangerous;the new rules make it almost fashionable. What the new rulesmay be expected to lead to can be seen by examining the situationof the eastern colleges; see two very interesting but apparently forgotten articles by Henry Beach Needham in McClure^s Magazine forJuly and August, 1905.But the world is run, not by logic, but by feeling. The Conferencerepresentatives felt that public opinion would uphold a student wholied under the old rules, but that it will not uphold oneth o t ? w^° ^es under t^e new. If "public opinion" is to begauged by the statements of the sporting writers of thedaily papers, who on Monday urge prize-fighting as a substitutefor football and on Tuesday mournfully plead the melancholycase of the poor but skilful young collegians who are forced bytheir love of sport to lie themselves black in the face — if "Eckand Hek" for instance, are public opinion, then public opinionneither supported the old rules nor will support the new. One is inclined to wonder, too, whether undergraduate public opinion will not91THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEaccept the new attitude of the Conference as evidence that the oldattitude was wrong, and that men were justified in perjury. If,however, the authorities of every member of the Conference acceptthe new rules honestly and faithfully; if all of us hew to the line henceforward, and encourage our undergraduates to believe that in theserules at all events we believe, and any violation of them we shall visitwith the same speedy punishment that the man gets who cheats inclasses; then the compromise may justify itself, and our new-bought"harmony" prove a satisfactory bargain. Meanwhile, let us be thankful that the White resolution, requiring six votes out of eight to pass ameasure through the Conference, has been annulled. It was undemocratic and ineffective. Men nor colleges can be "reformed" by jamming ideas down their throats. If the annulment of the resolution hadmeant summer baseball, it should nevertheless have been annulled.One wonders at times whether the current of athletic competitionis not running stronger all the time. It is said in the daily papers,without contradiction, that the Board of Regents at„ . . , Michigan have imposed a fee of five dollars upon everystudent for the support of athletics and the upkeep ofthe athletic fields. Why not another fee for the support of the gleeand dramatic clubs, the University of Michigan Daily, and otherworthy undergraduate expressions of the joy of life ? If the universities believe that competitive athletics are a part of a propereducation, by all means let credit toward a degree be given for indulgence in them, and a fee be charged for the training the participantreceives. If on the other hand athletics are merely the opportunitysome men have of taking delight in the power of their young bodies,why confiscate the property of others to assist the process ? Doubtless Mr. Comiskey would approve a similar tax laid on the citizens ofChicago — and with practically equal justice.An article in Science for January 12 gives the percentage of womenteachers in all state colleges and universities as g-f-; in all east of theMississippi 6+, in all west, 13 + . These figures do not include womenbelow the rank of instructor. The largest number ofomen aswomen instructors in any institution is <i, at the Uni-College . . T11. . . . . .Teachers versity ol Illinois; the highest percentage is 41, at theOhio University (not Ohio State University). Thenumber of women instructors at the various state universities ofthis section is as follows: Illinois 53, Indiana 10, Iowa 14, Michigan 4,AND DISCUSSION 93Minnesota 14, Missouri 12, Wisconsin t,8. The groups for which womenqualify are, in order of frequency: English, music, modern languages,domestic science, and home economics. In natural science and mathematics they do not often rise above the rank of instructor.Comparative figures from the University of Chicago may be interesting. They are: women ranking as instructors and above, 29; fullprofessors, 2 ; associate professors, 3 (all in the College of Education) ;assistant professors, 5; instructors, 19 (of whom 15 are in the Collegeof Education). The departments in which women of instructorial rankappear include (besides the College of Education), Household Administration, English, Romance, Latin, Chemistry, Anatomy, and PhysicalCulture.A clause of Chicago's new system of admission requires all studentseither to take up the study of French or German at once, for at leastfour quarters, or else to demonstrate upon examination,• t- ?W eS S in either the first or second quarter of residence, a "read-in Modern ,, ,Language mS knowledge of one 01 these two languages. Thefirst of these examinations was held on November 25(written) and on December 2 (oral). All those with credit for at leasttwo years of preparatory-school work in one language were eligible. Sixteen took the examination in French, of whom five passed; twenty-seventook the examination in German, of whom eight passed. For the benefitof alumni who may wish to test their own powers, as well as to illustratethe stage of advancement of the average high-school student after twoyears of language study, a third of each examination is here given.I. Am 21 Januar um 5 Uhr erwachte der Konig, liesz sich ruhig ankleiden unddriickte seine Freude aus, dasz der Schlaf ihm seine Krafte wiedergegeben habe.Dann (1) beichtete er, horte die Messe und empfing das heilige Abendmahl; darauferteilte er Clery seine letzten Auftrage an seine Familie, die er nicht wiedersehenmochte, um sich und ihr den Schmerz des letzten Abschieds zu ersparen. Die Ge-meindebeamten erschienen und er erbat sich eine Schere, um sicht selbst die Haareabzuschneiden, damit es nicht durch die Henker geschehe; aus Misztrauen schlugman ihm dieselbe ab. Drauszen wirbelten die Trommeln; die Nationalgarde stelltesich auf, der Stadtrat, die Minister, die Jakobiner waren versammelt; in vielen Wohn-ungen hatte man die Fenster mit Laden verschlossen; ein Aufstand und ein Versuchden Konig zu befreien, wurden fur etwas Warscheinliches gehalten. Um 8 Uhrerschien eine Deputation im Tempel, um den Konig abzuholen.(1) beichten, to confess (sins).Madame de Thauzette: Vous savez que Denise va quitter aussi le chateau,apres le depart de Marthe.Andre: Elle aura raison.Madame de Thauzette: Vous l'approuvez?THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAndre: Elle fait ce qu'clle doit.Madame de Thauzette: Scs parents Andre: La suivent; c'est tout naturel.Madame de Thauzette : Et vous ?Andre: Moi, je resterai seul.Madame de Thauzette: Et ces gens-la, que devicndront-ils quand ils no serontplus chez vous ?Andre: J'assurcrai leur sort.Madame de Thauzette: Ils refuseront.Andre: On refuse le don d'un vivant, on acceptc le legs d'un mort.Madame de Thauzette: Vous voulez mourir ?Andre: Est-ce que je sais ce que je veux, ce que je dois faire ? Cc qui est certainc'est que je n'ai pas vecu comme j'aurais du vivre. Je fais du mal a tous ceux quej'aime et ils me le rendent, les uns sans le vouloir, les autres volontairement. Jen'ai plus mon pere ni ma mere qui m'adoraicnt. Depuis dix ans, ils sont la, immobileset glaces sous la terre. Je suis si malheureux ou ils ne sont plus que je me demandepar moments si je ne serais pas plus heureux ou ils sont.It may be noted that fully half of the students translated Andre'sremark " on accepte le legs d'un mort," " one accepts the legs of the dead."The article of Professor Nitze which follows should be of wide interest. So far as we know, it is the first official statement, in the Magazineor elsewhere, of the creed of the twentieth-century teacher of modernlanguages.FRENCH REQUIREMENT FORENTRANCE TO THE UNIVERSITY1Is it honest in word and deed? Is it a real thing ? — Shakespeare, As You Like It.According to the new curriculum of the University of Chicago everystudent is required to complete before he enters upon his junior year ofcollege the equivalent of four majors of [one] modern language otherthan English. The Course Book states:The aim of [this] requirement is to secure for the student a reading knowledge ofat least one modern language other than English. If two units of a language areoffered as satisfying the requirements of this group, the student must prove his abilityto read it with ease and intelligence by passing a test examination during his first twoquarters of residence, or must pass an additional major of the same language in collegewith a grade not lower than C. If the student passes the first three majors of a language in college with an average grade of B or better, he may be excused from thefourth major. The modern-language requirement may be absolved at any time duringthe first two years by the passing of the test examination. No credit in majorsis given in any case for the passing of this examination; it merely relieves the studentof the obligation to take further work in modern language.In other words, the requirement holds for all regular undergraduatestudents irrespective of "college" credits; it is virtually an entrancerequirement which may be deferred until the end of the second collegeyear, but not longer; and it can be absolved in one of two ways: (i) bypassing an examination before the end of the second quarter of residence;or (2) by taking the first three majors of the foreign language in collegewith an average grade of at least B, or an additional, fourth major thegrade of which must not fall below C. The last resort is open also tostudents having high-school credit for 4 majors but who are unable orunwilling to pass the test examination mentioned above.Now, the question arises: What is meant by four majors of elementary modern language other than English? Or to be precise andnot implicate the teachers of German (et at.) in a matter which they ofcourse prefer to settle for themselves: What are four majors of elementary French ? Somehow the question has the naive ring of Audrey'sfamous remark to Touchstone, quoted above, about the reality of poetry,and the reader instinctively asks himself: Is it possible at this late datethat the essentials of so well known a subject as French are still undetermined? And can student and teacher be in doubt as to what twoyears' work of elementary French is? But to anyone who stops to1 By the Head of the Department of. Romance Languages.95THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEconsider the changes that the last decade has produced in our educationaltheories, and the serious confusion in instruction these changes havecaused, it will be clear that such is really the case, and that neitherteacher nor student is quite sure of his ground.Without wishing to add a brief to those already existing, on theproper place of French in the school and college curriculum, I may atleast point out the following well-recognized facts :First, a foreign language cannot have the same practical value to usas to the average European. Our relative geographical isolation permits us to depend on our mother-tongue to a greater extent than aEuropean could depend on his native French or German. We do notuse French in the ordinary business of life to the degree that a German,an Italian, or even an Englishman uses it. American hotel- and shopkeepers are not competing with one another for foreign trade, no considerable part of our youth is compelled to seek employment in foreignparts, and however advantageous and becoming it would be for ourconsuls and diplomatists to speak the language of the country to whichthey are accredited, the inability to do so has not measurably interfered with their being appointed. Thus, although conditions are changing, and in the last respect it is desirable that they should change, itcannot be maintained that American boys and girls should be taughtFrench because they will need to speak it in later life. Indeed, if thecase of the modern languages rested on their commercial value, we shouldhave to devote our attention to Spanish and Portuguese rather than toGerman and French. There is now a considerable class of Americanswhose livelihood in part depends on their ability to speak Spanish, andthis class is growing; so that, commercially considered, Spanish is (soto speak) the American foreign language.Secondly, if the importance of French does not lie in its practical orrather commercial value, in what does its importance consist ? Purelyand simply, I believe, in the discipline the study of French affords themind, and in the rich and varied culture of which French is the medium.Directly or indirectly, we all know that language-study trains themind. It does this in various ways: by developing the memory, exercising the reason, stimulating the imagination, educating the taste.What Ave can learn specifically from French is accuracy, clarity, grace,and elegance of expression; in other words, "expressiveness" (netteted' 'expression), as Pater remarked. Furthermore, French is the vehicleof ideas rather than of facts. This is as true of French language as ofliterature: says an eminent authority, "The man of English speechREQUIREMENT FOR ENTRANCE TO UNIVERSITY 97thinks in images and concrete expressions, the Frenchman in abstractand universal terms." Je rentre, je sors, je traverse, j'avance are notliterally rendered by "I am going home," "I am going out," "I amcrossing the street," "I am going forward," and even so, the Englishexpressions fail to give the deftness, the concision, the validity of theFrench. So that, regarded as a discipline, the study of French may bea corrective to the rough-and-tumble of American speech, our neglectof clear vocalization, our tendency to overstate and exaggerate, and theAnglo-Saxon aversion to viewing ideas objectively, as such.As for the cultural aspect, every educated person sooner or latercomes into contact with some phase of French science or art. He willtherefore need the means of grasping his subject directly in the writtenor spoken language. If the modern world is inclined to turn its backon Greek and Latin, it can hardly afford to neglect the modern European nation whose civilization is to so large an extent an embodiment ofclassical ideas. Intellectual stability, national unity, traditions ofculture can never be won unless as a nation we resolutely strike rootsinto the past. And next to England, to whom we owe our own languageand most of our institutions, our closest political and intellectual allyis France.It is obvious then that the American youth should be taught at leastto read French. If in learning to read he can also be taught to speak,all the better. It is impossible to attain too much. But let us not sacrifice "reading" to "speaking," especially when the latter consists ofmore or less innocuous phrases repeated in parrot fashion. French istoo fine a subject to be made the pap of empty minds. It must be takenseriously or not at all. What the educated American is after is a knowledge of literature, be it scientific, political, or artistic. One way ofgetting this knowledge is by translating from French into English. Butit is by no means the only or even the best way.In the first place, a translation is never the equivalent of the original.Rarely does a translation reproduce the unity, the color, the shading ofthe original work. Traduttore, traditore says an admirable Italian proverb.Don Quixote in foreign dress continues to fascinate us but is at best aghostlike semblance of the real Knight of the Rueful Countenance; andhow rhetorical, nay vapid, are the words: Eire ou ne pas etre, voila laquestion by the side of " to be or not to be, that is the question."Again, to translate well is a difficult task. In the case of French itrequires a mental alertness and a sense of discrimination that the average college student does not at first possess. For this reason translationTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEis especially valuable as an exercise, as a discipline — and it is, of course,an excellent means of testing one's knowledge. But translation mustnot be made the aim, the mainstay as it were, of an elementary course.For one thing, the process of translating is too involved, and requirestoo much conscious effort — and also too much time. In translating, thestudent first seeks the English equivalents of the French words, then hedetermines their corresponding inflections (number, case, tense, mood,etc.), and finally he must know whether or not the result is idiomaticEnglish, and if not, substitute the current idiom for it. Take the simplephrase: V Americaine a V air fibre; word for word it is "the Americanhas the appearance proud"; solved as to its inflections it becomes "theAmerican woman has the appearance [which indicates that she is]proud"; translated it is "the American woman looks proud." Orimagine the steps whereby Pour quoi faire? Ce n'etait pas la peine, lesdiners allaient finir is rendered: "For what purpose? it was not worthtrying, people would soon stop giving dinners (i.e., the social season wasabout over)."But the main argument against the excessive use of translation isthat French is a living form of speech and not a so-called dead language.It is absurd to teach a person French and not make him realize thatFrench is an actual medium of expression, different from, but contemporary with, his own language. Here lies the crux of the entire modern-language question. By reading French is meant the ability to readFrench aloud: in other words, to pronounce it. And, I may add, topronounce it correctly. What intrinsic value can a French play orpoem have to a person who is deaf to the sparkle of the dialogue or tothe melody of the verse ? And consider how ineffective an argumentbecomes which has to be painfully translated before its meaning is felt.So that even in scientific work a knowledge of the pronunciation seemsnecessary, if the full meaning is to be grasped. On the other hand, theability to pronounce a foreign language (even with moderate success)and understand it when others speak it, is a tremendous asset in itself."The ear," said Gouin, "is the prime minister of the intellect"; andto articulate sound according to scientific principles is an exercise, atonce practical and theoretical, of the highest importance. Solid training in pronunciation by phonetic methods not only will prepare theway for the spoken use of the language in the more advanced courses,but will develop the student's capacity for articulation in general, hisauditory perception, his observation and judgment, in ways whichwill help him along lines of intellectual endeavor other than French.Pronunciation, as it is now taught, is not merely a science but an art,REQUIREMENT FOR ENTRANCE TO UNIVERSITY 99and it rests mainly with the teacher of the modern languages to maintainit in that capacity.Hence it is that the University plans to test the student's ability toread French — in two ways: (1) By an oral examination of his facilityin pronouncing French of moderate difficulty. The method is verysimple: the candidate is assigned a passage in a French book whichhe has presumably not seen before, and after looking it over, he is askedto read it aloud just as he might be asked to read English. (2) By awritten examination consisting mainly or wholly of translation fromFrench into English. At an examination held a few weeks ago thepassages to be translated were taken respectively from a well-knownnovel, a well-known play, and a typical piece of scientific criticism.Allowance was made for certain lapses in vocabulary, but inasmuch asthe object of the examination was to "test" the student's accuracy (andthis, as I pointed out, is the value of translation), he was expected toreveal an adequate knowledge of the French word- and sentence-structure.The first four (or possibly three) majors offered at the University arearranged to meet these requirements. That is, they will enable thestudent to comprehend with ease French of average difficulty as hehimself reads it aloud from the printed page. The method by which weattain this result varies with the group of students in question, andcannot be determined by vote. But so much is certain, that it involvespractice in pronunciation, exercises in dictation, some translating, somegrammatical analysis, and some composition, oral as well as written.The essential factor in the situation is that modern-language study is asynthesis, a combination of facts which the analysis by the teacher hasestablished. The student is in the class in order to learn French, andnot primarily conversation, translation, grammar, or composition.Given the advanced age at which most of our pupils are permitted tobegin language study, and the purposes for which that study is undertaken,the first and essential step is that they should be able to read — andtherefore the emphasis is placed on reading. If this step is successfullytaken, the student will be in a position to go on in his modernlanguage work. But if for some reason he must drop his French temporarily, he ought at least to feel that he has permanently profited bywhat French he has had; in short, he is a better, because a more intelligent, citizen of the Republic. It has been said that "Education is theprocess of making a better society out of the material at hand by enhancing the economic value of each unit." The teaching of French mustcontribute its share toward bringing this to pass.William A. NitzeCAP AND GOWN1THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO ANNUALTHE following statement about the Cap and Gown is a slight recasting of two reports made to the Dean of the Colleges at differenttimes within the last two years.In the years 1895 and 1896 the Cap and Gown was published by theundergraduates of the University, the interested people forming themselves into a special organization for such purpose. As this organizationwas not solid enough the result was that in 1897 no edition was put out.In 1898, the already existent Junior society, the Iron Mask, in lookingfor some legitimate raison d'etre, offered to undertake the publication ofthe annual, and as the task was going begging at the time, their offerwas promptly accepted, with the result that they issued it in the yearsfrom 1898 to 1905 inclusive. In 1905 an agitation was started on thegrounds that this method of putting out the book was undemocratic,since the Iron Mask was a closed organization which perpetuated itself.The consequence of the successful agitation was that in 1906 the bookwas issued jointly by the Junior Class and the Iron Mask, and in 1907the two bodies put up rival tickets, that of the Junior Class winning inthe elections. Since then the election of the board has resided in thehands of the Junior Class.During the two years of undergraduate management and during thenine years in which the Iron Mask stood behind it the publication seems,in a modest way, to have been a financial success. In the period ofthese eleven issues there was a definitely organized body which electeda business manager with the understanding that any profits whichaccrued could go to him as the legitimate reward of his labors, but thatany loss should fall upon the group as a whole. It is fairly clear that iflosses existed they were very slight in nature. In this connection, theUniversity Auditor reports that the annual payment of the Universityto the Cap and Gown between 1902 and 1908 was one hundred dollars($100) and that one hundred and fifty dollars ($150) was paid in 1909.The inference from this is obvious.Since 1906, however, the situation has been different. The first yearin which the Junior Class undertook sole charge was an unfortunate one,1 By the chairman of the Committee on Publications of the Board of StudentOrganizations.100CAP AND GOWN ioias the business depression resulted in the securing of a very small amountof advertising. This caused a heavy loss to some of the management,although all debts were paid. In 1908 losses were very heavy but allwere met. In 1909 the final result was extremely discreditable to themanagement, and thus indirectly to the University.In the meanwhile the book had consistently increased in bulk andpretentiousness. With the exception of 1902 the figures of the numberof pages of literature and number of pages of paid advertising follow from1895 to 1908:1895 340 and 34 1902 no copy1896 300 " 34 1903 350 and 251897 no issue 1904 1898 218 and 27 1905 1899 300 " 28 1906 1900 300 " 29 1907 1901 300 " 15 1908 375 ' 4i360 ' 3i428 ' 36480 ' 17488 ' 26It is interesting to note with what rapidity the book grew as soon asthe definite backing and joint responsibility ceased.The history for this inflation is typical of the day. Each issue had tobe as big as that from any other college, and bigger than that of anyother preceding Chicago issue, and the thoughtless assumption wasmade that bulk in itself was synonymous with excellence. It is significant that the scale had increased and the price of the book had beenadvanced from $1 . 50 to $2 in spite of the fact that the number of copiesprinted was no greater than at the outset. In general throughout thisperiod, it may be said that the book was eminently representative ofthe University, and, in the main, a very creditable sort of publication.The concluding chapter of the history of the annual is fortunatelythe brightest. After a complicated series of experiences in 1910, theCap and Gown in 191 1 passed into the hands of two managers who hadenjoyed some initial experience as candidates for election in competitivework on the publication of the preceding year. It happened, as itseldom had before, that both men elected to membership stayed incollege, kept themselves eligible for work on the book, and activelyshared both the duties and responsibilities of getting it out. Theyreduced the expenses of the preceding year, adopted a budget to whichthey adhered with reasonable fidelity, worked the advertising fieldthoroughly, advertised their own publication, determined the outputby the number of advance subscriptions, and delivered the goods. Theirreport is strikingly different from that of any recent pair of predecessors,THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEand showed gains which, even when divided, went far toward fairlycompensating the two hard-working men for their efforts.In the course of the last three years the question has been underconsideration by the University as to how far it should limit the managersand editors of the Cap and Gown, and as to whether it would be justifiedin assuming any responsibility. No definite step was taken before theelection of the present managers for 191 2, and as they are working uponthe same system adopted last year and in daily consultation with thesuccessful managers of 191 1, the work is going on nominally as heretofore. At the same time a committee appointed by the President hasmade a partial report of the situation as it now stands, has been continued in service, and is expected to make definite recommendations inthe early spring, relative to the future of this publication.P. H. BoyntonUNIVERSITY RECORDAMERICAN INFLUENCES IN THE FAR EAST'By Inazo Nitobe, LL.D.Professor in the Imperial University, Tokyo, JapanPrior to the advent of Cushing toChina (1884) and of Perry to Japan(1852), while the British in the Far Eastwere engrossed with their policy offorcing the opium trade on the CelestialKingdom, an American merchant ofMacao, Mr. C. W. King, was engaged onhis own private initiative and responsibility in an attempt to unlock the doublybarred portals of the Japanese empirefor foreign commerce. This he was bentupon accomplishing by peaceful means,indeed by the most humane of means — bytaking with him in his own ship, the"Morrison," seven shipwrecked Japanesesubjects who had been thrown ashore on thePacific coast of the American continent.Like a few previous attempts of hiscountrymen, Mr. King's mission endedin failure — a failure which was, as it were,but the repulse of a lesser wave in theever-swelling tide of the ocean of history.On his return he appealed to "thechampions of his country's benevolence"not to despair of opening up intercoursewith Japan, adding in the most earnesttone that Great Britain and the UnitedStates divide the maritime influence ofthe world and that "America is the hopeof Asia beyond the Malay Peninsula,that her noblest effort will find a becoming theater there." In his mind's eyehe could already discern, rising at thegateways of the sun, a grand scene ofhuman probation, the vast colosseum ofthe moral world, as he called it. Hepredicted the time when Japan wouldmore readily yield to and repay the effortsof America than China and that the lattercould best be reached through the channels of the former.Such was the first audible — albeit notso clearly recognized as it deserved —utterance of an American citizen, and foraught I know it voiced the sentiment ofhis people.A whole generation, as measured by theroyal psalmist, has since passed away, andin these three score years and ten thesun has witnessed marvelous changes, such as it never before witnessed in itscareer around this planet — changes thathave transformed the face and the spiritof the Far East. True to the traditionsof their fathers and pressed by the necessity of self-preservation, both China andJapan have in- that interval revertedmore than once to the tactics of exclusiv-ism and resorted to Weapons of violencein order to close their doors.No cannon balls did more effectivework in the history of civilization thanthose fired by the combined fleet ofGreat Britain, Holland, France, and theUnited States upon the forts and batteries of Shimonoseki in the autumn daysof 1863. That they did not fail to strikethe defenses of this harbor is a matter ofsmall concern. The balls pierced fartherthan the bulwarks of stone. They penetrated the very walls of exclusivism.Henceforth there were apertures throughwhich western influence could findentrance. Civilization is like a fluid thatfollows the law of osmosis. Cultures ofdifferent densities, when separated by aporous partition, flow each into the otherfor final equable diffusion. Inequalitiesin culture are not tolerated in moderncivilization. "America is not civil," saysEmerson, "while Africa is barbarous."Through the apertures made by theShimonoseki bombardment there flowedinto Japan the ideas and ideals of theOccident. In China, owing to the magnitude of her territory and population, theprocess was not so simple. The morestalwart Chinese walls of exclusion had tosuffer repeated assaults, starting with theOpium War, through the vicissitudes ofthe Taiping Rebellion and the war withJapan and ending with the Boxer movement, before perforations were madelarge enough for osmosis freely to begin.Indeed, in the case of our great neighbor,instead of the steady influx of a regenerating stream effecting her deliverance, we seethat her moss-grown ramparts are crumbling before the sudden and devastatingtorrent of a republican deluge.1 Delivered on the occasion of the Eighty-first Convocation of the University, held in theLeon Mandel Assembly Hall, December 19, ign.103THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEINAZO NITOBEProfessor in the Imperial University, Tokyo, JapanConvocation Orator, December 19, 19 nUNIVERSITY RECORD 105The soul of Japan, quickly respondingto the impulse from the West and risingto the consciousness of her destiny, adjusted her institutions, social and political, to the demands of the age and setforth on a new career of what sociologistslike to call the telic progress. China isnow fast following in the same paththough with more painful steps, payinghigher toll for her long delay. She hasbut newly learned what Japan learnedfifty years ago, that contact and communion with the West under externalpressure, bring no guaranty of safetyor growth.What part in this great interchangebetween the East and the West, betweenthe Pacific and the Atlantic — the molding influence of knowledge, ideas, andinstitutions — does the United Statesplay? Are the conditions in the FarEast so radically changed that the wordsof Mr. King voice no longer the attitudeof the American people? Has thephenomenal growth of its Pacific Coastso estranged the higher interests ofChina and Japan from the heart of thisnation that it now throws stones insteadof offering bread? Has the acquisitionof the Sandwich Islands so turned thethoughts of America that she now looksupon us as possible intruders andenemies? Has the entree of this country into the sphere of Asiatic politicsbrought a deviation in public opinionfrom a King to a Hobson? Is thePanama Canal, to the opening of whichthe Japanese and the Chinese are lookingforward with great anticipation of trade —I ask, is the Panama Canal intended fora warpath or a trade route ?There are voices heard on this side ofthe Pacific, shrill and alarming, that aconflict, and that an armed one, is inevitable between the East and the West. Acartoon by Kaiser Wilhelm, which hedrew to divert the attention of Europeand America from his own fatherland,on which their eyes had been too closelyfastened, has had the effect he desired,and the world allowed itself to be swayedby the horrors of impending Mongolian invasion. The " Yellow Peril " scare startedbetween the Kaiser and the Czar,leaped over the British Islands, crossedthe Atlantic, and found some adherentshere. Managed by a paid propaganda,it has been preached and proclaimed by ahost of minor prophets.What a far cry from the time when King made his appeal to "the championsof his country's benevolence"; from thelater time when Dr. Samuel WellsWilliams concluded his account of thePerry expedition in these words:In the higher benefits likely to flow to theJapanese by their introduction into the familyof civilized nations, I see a hundred-foldreturn for all the expenses of this expeditionto the American government;and from the still later day when Town-send Harris, Minister Bingham, SecretarySeward, Minister Burlinghame, and General Grant enunciated in no uncertainsounds the ethical principles which shouldguide their country in its dealings withthe Far East. No, I cannot believe thatthis nation, still in the prime of manhood,could so easily forget the pledges andideals of youth. Its assurances of friendship and of good-will were not utteredas idle words of diplomacy.At the time that Perry's expedition wasstill under contemplation, the Englishhistorian Creasy (185 1) declared thatAmerican diplomacy in the East wouldbe "bold, intrusive, and unscrupulousand that America would scarcely imitatethe forbearance shown by England at theend of her war with the Celestial Empire."A so-called American prophet, Zadkiel,in his queer and quaint Almanac, notedfor the year 1852: "A total eclipse of theSun, visible chiefly in the eastern andnorthern parts of Asia. The greatesteclipse at 3 h. 24 m. a.m., December nth,Greenwich time It will producegreat mortality among camels and horsesin the East, also much fighting and warlike doings, and I judge that it will carrywar into the peaceful vales of Japan, forthere, too, do the men of the West followthe track of gain, ' seeking the bubblereputation even in the cannon's mouth.' "But the foreboding of historian andprophet alike proved false. That itsearly spirit of justice and equity stillguides the oriental policy of this nationis evidenced in the words of so recent andauthoritative a writer as Captain Mahan.Speaking particularly of China, he says:Our influence, we believe — and have aright to believe — is for good; it is the influence of a nation which respects the rightof peoples to shape their own destinies, pushing even to exaggeration its belief in theirability to do so.American influence in Asia cannot beotherwise than wholesome as long as itis exercised in infusing the vast mass ofTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEhumanity there with the consciousnessof their own dignity and mission — a taskwhich Europe not only neglected, butpositively refused to do on every occasion.Great and real progress must work fromwithin, though its first impulse may comefrom without. Unless it can intensifythe inner impulse, external pressure onlyends in making for a while a shallowdent on the surface.A culture that is forced upon an unwilling nation belongs to things of time"that have voices, speak and vanish."China knows this only too well. Spiritualpower comes only through our own choosing. We are free to prefer a stone tobread or a serpent to a fish. Men andnations are judged by the choice theymake. The real difference between theculture-grades of individuals as of humangroups is the one difference between theirvoluntary and involuntary activities —between compulsory adoption and reflective choice, between mechanical imitation and judicious selection, betweenbondage and freedom. It has been saidthat "Die Weltgeschichte ist das Welt-gericht"; equally truly may we not saythat a nation's history is a nation'sjudgment ?Any outside influence to be permanentmust strike at the root of inner consciousness — the very bottom, of sentient existence; at the core of personality whereman divests himself of every race distinction and stands on the ground common to the white and the yellow, theblack and the brown, and where there is"no border, breed nor birth, thoughthey come from the ends of the earth."It is by awakening in Far Easternindividuals and nations the sense ofresponsibility, personal and national, bysuggesting to them that power which soeminently characterizes the Americanpeople and which Professor Miinsterbergcalls "the spirit of self-direction" thatAmerica has imparted energy to theirinertia. It was this spirit of self-relianceand self-development which early passedthrough cannon holes into oriental communities and there, leavening the leadersand the masses, emancipated Japan fromthe iron shackles of convention and conformity and promises to put an end tothe sleeping cycle of Cathay and leadthat nation to a new heaven and a newearth.In so doing America has only acted ina manner true to her love of fair play, which among .Americans is, as one oftheir exponents very happily puts it. "akind of religion." It is a spirit of tolerance, of recognition of others' rightswhich imposes the duty of regardingour fellow-men with impartiality and oftaking the view that "any human systemor order which interferes with thisimpartiality is contrary to the will ofthe Supreme Wisdom and Love" (VanDyke).Diplomacy conducted consonant tothese high principles shed influences atonce far-reaching and benignant. Thisgreat feat America has achieved andcan achieve. Her noblest labor in theFar East lay in the new evaluation of theindividual, arousing self-respect andteaching personal as well as politicalliberty, with the result of the growth ofnational consciousness.It is a well-known story that the Declaration of Independence of the UnitedStates was like a divine revelation to themakers of New Japan. The idea of thepresent Chinese revolution is a republicafter the pattern of this country.In the light of the preceding statement it is not difficult to perceive whyEurope has found so little response amongEastern peoples. No wonder Mr. Meredith Townscnd despairs of any lastingfoothold of the West in the East. Howmany Christians would turn their leftcheek when their right is struck! Whatpeople would willingly kiss the feet thattread upon them, be they never so beautifully shod!The Roman god Terminus, in hispalmiest days, drew a sacred circle roundthe Mediterranean and its northernperiphery touched the Black Forest; butin the course of a few centuries its charmwas broken, and the august rule of theCaesars left behind traces which arenow of interest chiefly for the archaeologists. When we compare the ruins of theRoman dominion, imposing as they are.with the immortal influence of Athens,which is inscribed on the fleshy tabletof the heart and is still exhibited in itsnoblest form, to borrow from the well-known eulogy of Macaulay, "whereverliterature consoles sorrow and assuagespain, wherever it brings gladness toeyes which fail with wakefulness andtears, and ache for the dark house and thelong sleep," we see that the influencewon and exercised by the sword isdestined to fade away as "the captainsUNIVERSITY RECORD 107and the kings depart." Territorialdomination kept up by military powerpromises no long lease of life.The best credential of Americandiplomacy in its early days in the FarEast was the clean record of the UnitedStates in respect to territorial designs.In his day Townsend Harris assured ourgovernment as follows:The policy of the United States is differentfrom that of other countries. She has noterritory in the East, neither does she desireto acquire any there. Her government forbids obtaining possession in other parts of theworld, and we have refused all the requestsof distant countries to join our union.Though these words seem strange whenone considers the insular possessions ofthe United States, nevertheless they werehonest words then, and true. China,Japan, and Siam felt perfectly safe intheir dealings with this country. Whilethey had ample reason to suspect all theapproaches of European powers only asa step to encroachment, a nation possessed of no greed for an inch of land, withno thought for intervention in the internalorder of a native community, was a pleasing discovery in oriental eyes. Here laythe secret of the marvelous success ofAmerican diplomacy, and an orientalLothario could on his part exclaim:"Here or nowhere is America."The disinterested position which theUnited States holds or has held in foreignpolitics, her freedom from Europeanentanglements and complications, hasplaced her in an attitude of supremeindependence in diplomacy. She caninitiate a policy and act with little reference to European balance of power.The very possibility of the free exerciseof will, sanctioned by a history showingthat she has never abused it, gives to hera preponderating moral advantage. Having deservedly gained the reputation forfair play, her judgment is summonedon occasions involving great issues. Bythe magic of her name she can rallybehind her a large following of Europeannations. We may recall in this connection names such as Seward, Grant, Hay,Foster, and Roosevelt. Mankind isalways willing to follow a man or anation in whose eyes is no mud. Americawill continue to exercise this power aslong as her eyes and hands are clean; butthe instant she stoops for a clod of earthvirtue will go out of her.Has then her prestige waned with her debut into the eastern hemisphere ? Hasshe sold her birthright of world modera-torship and of Asiatic guardianship for apottage of tropical islands ? God forbidthat a taste of new territory should infecther with the lust of megalomania. Mr.Roosevelt set an example of a new American principle of colonial policy in SanDomingo, and the Filipinos, now passingthrough the American school for self-government, may in the fulness of timerejoice in the completion of their tutelageand celebrate the day of their graduationby a grand convocation.The presence of the United States nearthe Asiatic coast, if it has belied the wordsof Townsend Harris as well as of others,has not, luckily, deprived her entirely ofher former reputation. We shall welcome her as she emerges from behind therising sun and marches to her new seatunder the midday sky. As far as Chinaand Japan are concerned, they wouldrather see the Stars and Stripes floatover those fronded islands she now rulesthan any other flag. European nationsare still trying to discover and devisesuitable methods of administering theirAsiatic possessions, and while none ofthem are satisfied with their own schemesand plans it will be a valuable contribution to the science of politics and theart of government if the United Statesshould succeed with her "holy experiment" in the Philippines.The United States may by her merepresence wield a salutary influence onthe Far Eastern situation. Her position as an Asiatic power entitles her morestrongly than ever to a voice in the parliament of Asia; her interests in China lyingin the same direction with those of GreatBritain and Japan, these three nationswill prove the upholders and preserversof the integrity of China and of the peaceof the Far East. She may do nothing;but her mere presence will have a catalytic action, provided she does not swervefrom the path laid down for her by herfathers. It has latterly been broachedin irresponsible quarters that Japan lookswith jealousy upon the naval growth ofthe United States. Why should we —as long as you have no designs upon us —and why should you have any? It hasbeen suggested that Japan fears to losecontrol of the Chinese market and of thePacific Ocean. Why should we bejealous of American trade in the Far Eastwhen it forms but a bagatelle of theTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEwhole amount of nearly two billiondollars, of which Great Britain's shareis no less than a fourth ? If our ambitionis to monopolize the Celestial or any othereastern market, as we are suspected ofwishing to do, we will contest with moreimportant rivals than the Americans.Is not the vindication by Secretary Knoxof what he calls "dollar diplomacy" anavowal of the weakness of this country'sforeign trade ?Control of the Pacific! What doesthis high-sounding phrase mean anyhow? May we not say with ProfessorCoolidge that the grandiloquent expressions "dominion of the seas," "masteryof the Pacific," and the like, are mereclaptrap ? Can ever a single nation, withlimited resources in men and treasures,dare to control alone a body of waterlarger than all the continents put together? Our school children are asfamiliar as yours with the story of KingCanute commanding the waves to retire.Let the United States increase her navyto a size commensurate with her greatness; it will accentuate her presence inAsia. Let her steamships plow theocean lengthwise and crosswise; it willrebound to swifter and larger exchangeof mind and trade between the East andthe West. Let the Stars and Stripesdot the Ocean of Peace as constellationsstrew the firmament above — and Iassure you that they harmonize wellwith the sun-flags of Japan. The sunand stars never fight in their courses.And the banner of China ? The dragondivides its abode between the sky andthe deep, and it is in its element upon thewaters among the sun and stars.The six hundred million souls, comprising one-third of the human race, livingon the borders of this great ocean willhail the ensign of the Union, as long asit is unfurled in the cause of humanfreedom and universal justice and individual development — in one word, of themoral and spiritual ascendency ofAmerica; for, I believe that, paradoxicalas it may seem at first sight, it is throughthe materialistic civilization of thiscountry that the East will receive thestrongest moral impetus.At present one perceives in the Orienttwo currents of thought flowing from theOccident, molding the rising generation.One is derived from the continent ofEurope, especially from Slavic andRomance literature and art, working for skepticism and decadence, often pessimistic, negative, and destructive; theother derived from the indefatigablespirit of the Anglo-Saxon race, constructive, robust, forever ready to be up anddoing with a "heart within and Godo'erhead."Nor are the introduction and spreadof the moral sentiments of the Anglo-Saxon race in the Far East like "thegrafting of a bamboo shoot upon thestock of a pine," as we term incongruities. Psychology shows and experience demonstrates that the theory of raceantipodalism is untenable. There is atie of brotherhood between an Englishgentleman and a Japanese Samurai. Bythe introduction or adoption of an occidental standard of ethics is not meanta blind acceptance of alien culture. Itspurport is to express in the more modernterms of the West the thoughts andfeelings that have been the heritage of theOrient for centuries past.A man of high reputation for scholarship and character, in summing up impressions of his recent travels in the P^ast,stated his belief that neither China norJapan will be westernized. ProfessorHart, when he so expressed himself, hadchiefly in mind outward manners andcustoms and social institutions, and Iconcur largely in his judgment. But itis none the less true that even in theseexterior manifestations of culture theEast can no longer defy the influenceof the West, notably of America. Howcan it be otherwise ? The perforationsmade in the walls of Asiatic exclusivismhave since been carefully enlarged fromwithin. The very men who reared theramparts have razed them with theirown hands for the more rapid andvoluminous inflow of the elements ofWestern culture. Osmosis on a giganticscale has set in, and even, as ProfessorHart says, though the East and the Westmay never realize uniformity of socialcustoms and institutions, they can and willattain to unity of purpose and unanimityof thought.If seventy-five years ago Mr. King'smission of trade and mercy was repulsedlike a wavelet that dashes in vain againsta rock, the great tide of western civilization has since then, "without rest, without haste," been rolling on, leaving theshores of Asia, surging over her rocks,filling her rivers and creeks with theeternal freshness and irresistible forceUNIVERSITY RECORD 109of the swelling sea. As in a few yearsthe waters of the Atlantic will minglewith the waters of the Pacific, the civilization born on the shores of the Mediterranean and brought to maturity by thedenizens of the Atlantic coasts will soonenrich the venerable civilization of theOrient.The Pacific awaits with open arms thecoming of the Atlantic. We shall greether with the words of Byron:The Eighty-first Convocation. — Professor Inazo Nitobe, LL.D., of theImperial University, Tokyo, Japan, wasthe Convocation orator on December19, 1911, his address, which was givenin the Leon Mandel Assembly Hall,being entitled "American Influences inthe Far East. The address as givenabove is one of the most striking ofrecent convocations.The Convocation reception was heldon the evening of December 18 in Hutchinson Hall. In the receiving line werePresident Harry Pratt Judson andMrs. Judson; the Convocation orator,Professor Nitobe; the president ofthe Board of Trustees, Mr. Martin A.Ryerson, and Mrs. Ryerson; and theDean of Women, Professor MarionTalbot. At the Convocation, held in theLeon Mandel Assembly Hall on December 19, 1911, twelve students wereelected to membership in Sigma Xi andtwo students were elected to membership in the Beta of Illinois chapter ofPhi Beta Kappa. Sixty students received the title of Associate; four, thetwo-years certificate of the College ofEducation; four, the degree of Bachelorof Philosophy of Education; one, thedegree of Bachelor of Arts; twenty-six,the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy;and eight, the degree of Bachelor ofScience. In the Divinity School threestudents received the degree of Masterof Arts, and one the degree of Bachelorof Divinity. In the Law School onestudent received the degree of Doctorof Law (J.D.). In the GraduateSchools of Arts, Literature, and Sciencethree students received the degree ofMaster of Arts; two, that of Master ofScience; and three, that of Doctor ofPhilosophy— making a total of fifty-twodegrees (not including titles and certificates) conferred by the University atthe Winter Convocation. Thou glorious mirror, where the Almighty'sformGlasses itself in tempests; in all time,Calm or convulsed — in breeze, or gale, orstorm,Icing the pole, or in the torrid climeDark-heaving; boundless, endless, and sublime,The image of Eternity — the throneOf the Invisible!Meeting at the University of the ModemLanguage Association of America. — Thesecond session of the twenty-ninth annualmeeting of the Modern Language Association of America was held in the LeonMandel Assembly Hall on December 28,191 1, the first session having been heldat Northwestern University. ProfessorWilliam Gardner Hale, Head of theDepartment of Latin, made a report aschairman of the Committee of Fifteen,and Assistant Professor Adolf C. von Noe,of the Department of German, presenteda paper on "The New Classification ofLanguages and Literatures by the Library of Congress." Among the paperspresented to be read by title only wasone by Assistant Professor Henri C. E.David, of the Department of Romance,on the subject of "Money in the Comedies of Dancourt," and another, byProfessor T. Atkinson Jenkins, of thesame department, on "Doublets of theType fres-freis in Old French." Amongthe members of the local Chicago committee on arrangements were AssociateProfessor Philip S. Allen, of the Department of German, who was one of thechairmen; Professor John M. Manlyand Associate Professor James W. Linn,of the Department of English; ProfessorWilliam A. Nitze and Assistant ProfessorHenri C. E. David, of the Departmentof French; and Assistant ProfessorsChester N. Gould and Charles Goettsch,of the Department of German.The Washington Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Science. —Among the representatives of the University at the meeting of the AmericanAssociation for the Advancement ofScience, held in Washington, D.C., fromDecember 27 to 30, 1911, were DirectorEdwin B. Frost, of the Yerkes Observatory, who was one of the vice-presidentsof the meeting, and Professor Robert A.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMillikan, of the Department of Physics,who was also a vice-president. Associate Professor Henry C. Cowles wassecretary of the section of Botany andAssociate Professor C. Riborg Mann, ofthe Department of Physics, was secretary of the section of Education.The first general session was held inthe New National Museum, where themeeting of the Association was called toorder by the retiring president, ProfessorA. A. Michelson, Head of the Department of Physics, who introduced the newpresident, Dr. Charles E. Bessey. .At the joint session of the section onMathematics and Astronomy and theAstronomical and Astrophysical Societyof America Professor Eliakim H. Moore,Head of the Department of Mathematics,gave the vice-presidential address, "Onthe Foundations of the Theory of LinearIntegral Equations." Mr. John A.Parkhurst, Professor Edwin B. Frost,and Assistant Professor Frederick Slocum, ••of the Yerkes Observatory, contributedpapers to the program of the Astronomical and Astrophysical Society of America.In the section of Physics, papers werepresented by Professor Robert A. Millikan and Associate Professor Henry G.Gale, and Professor A. A. Michelson ledin a symposium on "The Ether."In the Biological Chemistry section,Dr. Oscar Riddle and Associate ProfessorWaldemar Koch were represented on theprogram, and in the division of OrganicChemistry Professor John U. Nef, Headof the Department of Chemistry, presented a paper.At the meeting of the Association ofAmerican Geographers a paper was readby Associate Professor Henry C. Cowles,of the Department of Botany, andProfessor Samuel W. Williston took partin a symposium on ten years' progressin Vertebrate Paleontology. ProfessorJohn M. Coulter, Head of the Department of Botany, contributed to a symposium on "Modern Aspects of Paleobotany" at the session of the BotanicalSociety of America.At the meeting of the AmericanPsychological Association Professor C.Judson Herrick, of the Department ofAnatomy, and Director Charles H. Judd,of the School of Education, participatedin a symposium on "Instinct and Intelligence."At the meeting of the American HomeEconomics Association the report of the committee on entrance requirements wasmade by the chairman, Miss Jenny Snow,of the School of Education, and MissGertrude Van Hoesen, of the same school,took part in a discussion of the questionof "Domestic Art Instruction for College Students."In the section of Education, AssociateProfessor Charles R. Mann, of the Department of Physics, contributed to thediscussion of "The Teaching of GeneralCourses in Science." Mr. Mann wasalso chairman of the executive committeeof the American Federation of Teachersof the Mathematical and the NaturalSciences; and Associate Professor Herbert E. Slaught presented a report aschairman of the committee on "ASyllabus in Geometry." At the closingmeeting of the American Federation ofTeachers, Professor James R. Angell,Dean of the Faculties, discussed from thepoint of view of Chicago the "NewSystems of Admission to College."At the second day's sessions of theAmerican Historical Association and ofthe American Political Science Association, held in Buffalo at the end of December, Professor Ernst Freund, of the LawSchool, and Professor James H. Breasted,of the Department of Semitics, presentedpapers.President Judson 's Visit to Panama.- —President Harry Pratt Judson, in company with Colonel Frank (). Lowden,formerly trustee of the University andcongressman from Illinois, sailed fromNew York on January 3 for Jamaica.They traveled across the island of Jamaica by automobile, embarking atKingston for Colon, whence they crossedthe Isthmus in their inspection of theprogress of the work on the PanamaCanal. President Judson, as Professorof International Law and Diplomacyand Head of the Department of PoliticalScience, has an especial interest in variousphases of the future administration ofthe canal and its effect on other countries.The return voyage was from Colon toNew York, where the President addressedthe annual banquet of the Eastern Alumni Club of the University on January 27.Airs. Judson was also present at thebanquet. On January 26 President Judsonattended the meeting of the General Education Board in New York City."Religion and Thought in AncientEgypt," is the subject of the MorseUNIVERSITY RECORD inLectures to be delivered at UnionTheological Seminary from March 15to April 1, by James Henry Breasted,Professor of Egyptology and OrientalHistory and Director of Haskell OrientalMuseum. The ten lectures are to bepublished immediately after deliveryby Charles- Scribner 's Sons, of New York.Mr. Breasted has also been chosen toopen the new lectureship on the historyof art, founded at Brown University byGeneral Rush C. Hawkins, of New York.The date of the lecture is March 9.Professor George H. Mead, of theDepartment of Philosophy, was one ofthe speakers at the woman's suffragemeeting held at the residence of Mrs. H.C. Chatfield-Taylor in Chicago onJanuary 8. Miss Jane Addams, headof Hull House, presided at the meeting,which was attended by many of themost prominent women of Chicago."Victor Hugo" was the subject of anaddress before the art and literaturedepartment of the Chicago South SideClub on January 2, by Assistant Professor Henri C. E. David, of the Department of Romance."Good and Bad Trusts" was the subject of a contribution in the January issueof the World To-Day, by ProfessorJ. Laurence Laughlin, Head of theDepartment of Political Economy.At the special exercises connected withthe dedication of the new. City Club ofChicago, Associate Professor J. PaulGoode, of the Department of Geography,was one of the speakers January 9, whenthe governors of Wisconsin and Illinoiswere among the official guests of theevening."The Remaking of Public Opinion"was the subject of an address before theWoman's Club of Wilmette on January24 by Professor Shailer Mathews, Deanof the Divinity School.Associate Professor S. H. Clark, of theDepartment of Public Speaking, willgive on April 3 a lecture before theWoman's Club of Wilmette on thesubject of Rostand's Chanlecler.The new Three Arts Club of Chicago,which proposes a permanent clubhousefor students of music, painting, and thedrama, in the city, has on its executivecommittee Mr. Martin A. Ryerson,president of the University Board ofTrustees, and on its advisory committeePresident Harry Pratt Judson and Mr.Charles L. Hutchinson, who is treasurerof the University and president of the Art Institute. Among the members ofthe board of managers are Miss JaneAddams, Mrs. Charles L. Hutchinson,Mrs. Harold F. McCormick, and Mrs.Martin A. Ryerson."The Background and Environmentof English Literature" is the subject ofa course to be given to a class conductedin England and Scotland during theSummer Quarter of 191 2 by ProfessorWilliam D. MacClintock, of the Department of English. The number in theclass will be limited to thirty. A preparatory study of the topography andliterary history of England will be madeduring the winter and spring, and thegroup of students will sail from Bostonlate in June.A University public lecture on "TheModern Orchestra and Its Instruments"was given on January 8 in the LeonMandel Assembly Hall by Mr. RossetterG. Cole.The first open lecture on the curriculumof the Divinity School was given inHaskell Assembly Room on January 8by Professor Shailer Mathews, Dean ofthe Divinity School, his subject being"The Vocational Curriculum in General."The second lecture of the series was byProfessor Charles R. Henderson, on thesubject of "Ecclesiastical Sociology." *Before the graduate women of theUniversity an address was given onJanuary n by Mrs. Raymond Robins,on the subject of "Work of Wage-earning Women in Chicago.""The Rise of Amsterdam: A Chapterof Economic History" was the subjectof a University public lecture in CobbHall on January 16, by Dr. Tiemen deVries.Professor J. R. Angell, Head of theDepartment of Psychology, has beenmade chairman of the InternationalCongress of Psychology to be held in theUnited States in 1913.The Convocation address at the eighty-second (March) Convocation will begiven by President George E. Vincent ofthe University of Minnesota.Associate Professor Frederick Starr, ofthe Department of Sociology and Anthropology, arrived in Chicago on January 1after four months of research in Korea.He brought with him a large collection ofphotographic negatives and moving picture films. Professor Starr has recentlybeen promoted to the rank of Commanderof the Order of Leopold Second of Belgium.AFFAIRSTHE COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONSouthern Ohio Alumni Club. — An informal dinner for Professor RichardMoulton, of the University of Chicago,was given by the Southern Ohio AlumniClub on December 1 1 in the Hotel Alms,at Cincinnati. Rev. Alonzo W. Fortune,'05, pastor of the Walnut Hills ChristianChurch and president of the club, wastoastmaster. Professor Moulton spokeon "The Larger Ideals of a University."Short talks were made by alumni. Atthe business meeting il was decided tohave the second annual meeting of theclub in March. Rev. Claire L. Waite'02, of Milwaukee, Wis., was a guest.Chicago Alumnae Club. — Mrs. HarryPratt Judson gave her annual midwinterreception to the members of the ChicagoAlumnae Club on January 6. In addition to the club members some of therecent graduates who live in Chicago hadbeen invited and the attendance waslarge. Mrs. Judson was assisted inreceiving by the officers and membersof the executive committee of the cluband by some of the University womenwho have shown their interest in theclub 's welfare at different times. Amongthese were Miss Gertrude Dudley,Mrs. Paul Shorey, Airs. Shailer Alathews'Mrs. Schuyler Terry, Airs. Mallory, andAliss Peabody. The members of theclub are grateful to Airs. Judson forextending her hospitality on this occasion and for her determination to makethis an annual event.Aliss Alary McDowell, head residentof the University of Chicago Settlement,entertained the members of the Settlement Committee of the Chicago AlumnaeClub at tea on December 16 in thesettlement house. Aliss Louise Afont-gomery spoke of her work as vocationalcounselor for the girls in that neighborhood. She is meeting girls who leave thepublic schools at the age of 14 in order toearn a living and is advising them whatemployment to take up. The AlumnaeClub is especially interested in AlissAlontgomery because it raised $500 toward her salary during the currentyear. A luncheon at which Aliss Alontgomery will tell at length of her work isto be held in the near future.The chairmen of the standing committees for the year 191 2 are as follows:Settlement— Elizabeth Faulkner, '85.Alembership— Medora Googins, '07.Library—- Alary Pitkin, '08.Gymnasium— Edith Osgood, '09.Airs. Irvin McDowell, '02, is therepresentative of the club on the CollegeWomen's Industrial Committee.The Alumni Council. — A severe snowstorm on January 12 prevented a quorum,so that no business was transacted. Thesecretary reported to the chairman.Charles S. Winston, '96, that a circularletter was ready to be issued to subscribers of the Magazine who had notrenewed their subscription, advisingthem of the plans for developing thealumni section in this journal. Thisletter was issued January 1 7 and resultedm additions to the subscription list. OnJanuary 22 the secretary turned over$54- 4o to the treasurer, this money having been received for subscriptions.The secretary has advised the membersof the Council that he will ask that hisresignation, which was filed in November,be accepted at the next regular meetingof the Council in February, owing to thefact that the demands on "his time by hisnewspaper work are so great that hecannot do justice to the work of thealumni office.News from the Classes —1896John Frederick Voigt has recently beenappointed assistant United Statesattorney in Chicago, offices in the FederalBldg.1897Wm. Scott Bond's business addresshas been changed to 30 North DearbornSt. lie has been made special loan agentfor the Northwestern Life InsuranceCompany.112AFFAIRS "3Donald S. Trumbull, lawyer, occupiesan office suite at 134 South La Salle St.Stacy C. Mosser is secretary of thebond firm of Bolger, Mosser & Willaman,19 South La Salle St., formerly theThomas I. Bolger Co.1898Harry Atwood, assistant United Statesattorney, has moved in from MorganPark to 308 West 73d St.Marcus Frutchey manages the Inger-soll Rand Co., a machinery manufacturing concern. He resides at 5321 Woodlawn Ave.Jack Hagey is assistant cashier in theFirst National Bank.1899Laurence M. Jacobs represents theNational City Bank of New York inLondon; address 3 Lombard St., E.G.1900Earl C. Hales, LL.B. from Harvard,occupies law offices in the AssociationBldg., 19 South La Salle St.1902Mrs. Ewing, nee Lillian Hazel Buck,lives at 1522 East Olive St., Bloomington,111.Herbert E. Fleming, Ph.D. '05, issecretary of the Civil Service ReformAssociation of Chicago.Robert L. ("Pat") Henry, J.D. '08,is professor of law in the University ofIllinois.Kate B. Miller, instructor in LewisInstitute, resides at 3336 WashingtonBlvd.Jerome P. Magee, who practices lawin Omaha, severely injured his knee inDecember, reviving an old strain frompole-vaulting.1Q03A dispatch from Cleveland on January9, under the heading "Chicago Girl aSuccess," reads: "Miss Mildred Chad-sey, University of Chicago graduate, whocame to Cleveland last April to regulatetenement housing conditions, has madegood to such degree that the Board ofHealth will give her absolute supervision,not only of housing conditions, but alsosanitary work. The housing and sanitary departments will be merged withMiss Chadsey in charge with the title ofchief sanitary inspector. All sanitarypolice will be under her orders." 1504Wm. Shelton Bixler, Ph.M., homeaddress at Owensville, Ind., is registrarin the Kansas State Normal, Emporia.Jane B. Walker lives at 549 RiversideDrive, New York.Chester G. Vernier, J.D. '07, 1002West Nevada St., Urbana, 111., is professorof law in the University of Illinois.Lawson D. Yenerich has moved fromOttawa to Yorkville, 111.C. H. Shattuck, head of the forestrydepartment in the University of Idaho,Moscow, announces a donation fromIdaho timber holders of $58,000 to hisdepartment to be used in the constructionof a building, one of the finest forestrylaboratories in the United States. Thefollowing item was clipped from theIdaho Post: "Professor Shattuck cameto the university a couple of years agoand in the short time that he has beenhere has made his department one ofthe most popular in the university. Thefact that Idaho is one of the greatesttimber states will make it possible forhim to develop, a wonderfully strongbranch of the institution. The work ofthis department will eventually lead tothe utilization of the wood by-productsthat are now wasted, by their manufacture into matches, paper, and othercommercial articles."igo6Helmut Berens lives at 125 NorthPrairie Ave., Austin, Chicago.Eleanora A. Binns, teacher in theLinne' School, lives at 2434 North KedzieBlvd.1907At a competitive examination held inPhiladelphia, December n, GertrudeBoard secured the position of firstassistant in the William Penn HighSchool of Philadelphia.1908Ruth Alexander resides at 6047 Kim-bark Ave.Under the caption of "A Girl Orator,"the Waukesha, Wis., Freeman of January n contains the following: "MissHarriet Grim, who took part in the equalsuffrage meeting in this city last week,made such a favorable impression thatshe was invited to speak at chapelexercises at Carroll College the nextmorning and at the ladies' night banquetof the Public Interest club in the even-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEing. In both places her talk pleased andinterested her audience in an unusualdegree. Aliss Grim, a graduate of theUniversity of Chicago, has been insuffrage work most of the time since,having inherited a taste in that line fromher mother. A pretty and unassumingyoung girl, she has gifts as a platformspeaker which a veteran might envy."1909Howard P. Blackford is now in Parison business for a Vancouver, B.C.,lumber firm.Edith R. Hull lives at 3742 JacksonBlvd.John Schommer has charge of theathletic department of the AlarquetteCouncil, Knights of Columbus, 11 26Dearborn Ave.Herbert A. Kellar was the successfulplaywright in the junior play contest atthe University of Wisconsin, his play,Cousins, winning over twenty otherentries. Promenade week will witnessits production. Kellar was a Blackfriar,and has written several comic operas:The Lord of Makoiv, produced in Peoria,111., in 1909, The Bottle Imps and TheMan Who Came Back, staged in PaloAlto, Cal. At present he is a Fellowin the University of Wisconsin.1910Aaron P. Drucker, writer and lecturer,resides at 6108 Ellis Ave.Winston P. Henry, manager of theHenry Gas Co., of Nowata, Okla., hastaken over the editorship of the NowataDaily and Weekly Star. Air. Henryvisited his parents in Chicago during theholidays.Alary Hull may be addressed 1138East 64th St.Harry S. Richards, social worker, isnow in Philadelphia, Pa., at 1572 Mt.Vernon St.George N. Simpson lives at 5616Kimbark Ave.Elizabeth Willson resides at 1229Chestnut St., Muskogee, Okla.1911Charles Grey is in the real estatebusiness in Chicago.Edna Allen lives at 11 17 WashingtonSt., Cedar Falls, la.Donald Grey is pursuing work in theDivinity School.Edwin Earle was a contributor to theDecember Journal of Political Economy. L. G. Donnelly may be reached incare of General Delivery, Vandalia, 111.Roberta Jones lives at 3107 E. 27 St.,Kansas City, Mo.Dana W. Atchley, home address Butte,Mont., is attending Johns HopkinsUniversity. He lives at 261 WestHoffman St., Baltimore.Edith Love is teaching in the highschool at Biggesville, III.Elizabeth Harris is teaching in Chicago.William Crawley and R. BoyntonRogers have returned from their tripabroad.Bernice LeClaire lives at KemperHall, Davenport, la.Elizabeth Farwcll has the position^ ofsecretary to Aliss Alorgan in the FineArts Bldg.John Mason Houghland is engaged inthe grain business in his home town.Rockport, Ind.George Braunlich is studying medicineat Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore,Aid.Hazel Stillman is attending the ChicagoNormal School this year.Nathaniel Pfcffer is exchange editor onthe Chicago Evening Post.1012Donald Admiral lives at 6151 Greenwood Ave.Benjamin F. Bills will take up lawand real estate work.Thomas J. Fennessy, architect, residesat 2998 Archer Ave.Alice Wise Kantrowitz lives at 5234East End Ave.John G. Lucas will occupy himself injournalistic fields. His home is 600Crawford St., Toronto, Can.Lewis Alway Smith resides at 1007East 60th St.Jane Graff lives at 6331 GreenwoodAve.Floyd Price Willett is preparing forthe ministry in the University.Jackson B. Worthing continues hisstudies in the Law School.Engagements. — ■'97- Gilbert Ames Bliss, S.AI. '98,PhD. '00, and Helen Elizabeth Hurd, '09.Miss Hurd is the daughter of Air. andAirs. Stephen N. Hurd, of 11 20 East 49tnSt. Air. Bliss is Associate Professor ofMathematics in the University. Heaccompanied the baseball squad on theirAFFAIRS 115Japan journey in 1910 as the facultyrepresentative.'n. Edith Young, ex, daughter ofMrs. John M. Young, of 440 NorthNormal Parkway, and Ralph EatonLidster, ex-'n, son of Mr. and Mrs. R. E.Lidster, of 217 West 61st St.Marriages. —'06. Newton A. Fuessle and HelenHessong, at Rochester, N.Y., January 3.Mr. and Mrs. Fuessle will reside inCleveland, Ohio.'10. Helen Dewhurst, daughter of Mrs.F. S. Dewhurst, 5746 Madison Ave., andEdward Rieman Lewis, on Monday evening, January 1, in the University Congregational Church, Rev. William Lord, ofAndover, Mass., officiating. The bride'ssister, Mrs. Franklyn Bliss Snyder, '07,wife of Professor Snyder, of NorthwesternUniversity, acted as matron of honor,and Miss Grace Norton, '08, was one ofthe bridesmaids. Mr. and Mrs. Lewiswill reside in Indianapolis, Ind., wherethe groom practices law.Oscar Riddle, '07, is the author of anarticle printed in Science for December,191 1, on "The Permeability of theOvarian Egg-membranes of the Fowl."Dr. Riddle is at present connected withthe Laboratory of Experimental Therapeutics in the University of Chicago. Hehas just returned from a year of study andtravel in Europe. He spent the past sixmonths at the Zoological Station atNaples, whence he now returns to Chicago to take charge of the preparationfor publication of the manuscripts leftby the late Professor C. O. Whitman.He will also continue certain features ofProfessor Whitman's investigations.Elwood S. Moore, '09, was elected toFellowship in the Geological Society ofAmerica at the recent (December, 191 1)meeting in Washington.Clinton R. Stauffer, '09, was electeda Fellow of the Geological Society ofAmerica at the Washington meeting.Dr. Stauffer also read a paper on "TheOriskany Sandstone of Ontario" beforethe Paleontological Society, which metin affiliation with the Geological Society."Populous and Beautiful Szechuan"is the title of an article in the Decemberissue of the National Geographic Maga- '11. Walter Crosby Eells and NatalieEsther Soules, daughter of Mrs. MatyEsther Soules, on Monday, January 1,at 2529 West College Ave., Spokane,Wash. Mr. Eells holds a professorshipin mathematics at Whitworth College,Tacoma, Wash.Deaths. —C. L. Cross, prominent Chicagolumberman and member of the oldUniversity of Chicago, died on Sunday,January 7, at his residence in Riverside,and was buried in Forest Home Cemetery.Mr. Cross was born in Binghamton,N.Y., in 1854, and came to Chicago withhis parents in 1857. In 1896 he becamehead of the firm of Cross-Badger & Co.,and since has operated extensively as awholesaler of northern lumber. He wasformerly president and trustee of thevillage of Riverside, member of theChicago Association of Commerce, director of the Lumbermen's Association ofChicago, and a member of the UnionLeague Club.zine by Rollin T. Chamberlin, '07. Thearticle describes a visit to the restlessprovince of China in which the presentrevolution began and is profusely andbeautifully illustrated by cuts madefrom photographs taken by Dr. Chamberlin. The visit was made at the time whenthe commission from the University ofChicago was studying educational conditions in China. The interpreter forDr. Chamberlin's party was Mr. Wang,formerly a student at the University.Herbert E. Fleming, '05, is now secretary and general manager of the CivilService Reform Association of Chicago.Dr. Anna Pell, '10, is instructor inmathematics at Mt. Holyoke College.She is a graduate of the University ofSouth Dakota and received her Master'sdegree at Radcliff and as holder of theAlice Freeman Palmer fellowship pursued her studies at Gottingen, Germany,afterward returning to Chicago for thelast year of work on her doctorate.G. A. Peckham, '10, is professor ofOld Testament Languages and Literature at Hiram College, Hiram, Ohio.At the meeting of the Classical Association of the Pacific Northwest, held inSeattle, December 29-30, Thomas K.THE ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OF PHILOSOPHYTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESidey, 'oo, read a paper on "Tennyson'sLatinisms"; and at a joint session of thisassociation and the Washington StatePhilological Society Evan T. Sage, '09,read a paper on "The Relation ofPetronius to Lucan." Dr. Sage, who isassistant professor at the University ofWashington, was elected secretary-treasurer of the Classical Association ofthe Pacific Northwest, and David Thomson, who was Fellow and assistant inLatin at the University 1899-1902 wasmade vice-president of the same association. There are in all about twentyChicago men on the faculty at the University of Washington.During the winter of 1910-11, VictorE. Shelford, '07, conducted researchwork in the Southwest and at the Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association in San Diego, Cal. He has beenelected to membership in the Associationof American Geographers.Mrs. Paul G. Woolley (Helen BradfordThompson, '00), who is instructor inphilosophy at the University of Cincinnati has been conducting experimentalinvestigation with respect to child labor.Mintin A. Chrysler, '04, is now fullprofessor of botany at the University ofAlaine. He was married last summer toAliss Clara Belle Van Duzen, of Brant-ford, Ontario.Clarence S. Yoakum, '08, is professorof philosophy in the University of Texas.Emory S. Bogardus, '11, has recentlybeen appointed associate-professor oisociology and economics in the Universityof Southern California. He took hisBachelor's degree at Northwestern in1909 and was recently married to MissEdith Pritcher of Geneseo, Illinois.Miss Mary B. Harris, '00, is teachingat the Bryn Mawr School, Baltimore,Aid. Her present address is 827 Hamilton Ave., Baltimore.Ernest L. Talbert, '09, has made astudy for three years of conditions in thestockyards district with reference to education and industry, the report of whichhas recently been published. Amongthe conclusions reached by Dr. Talbertare: (1) The average boy feels that thereis a lack of interest, activity, and appealChanges in addresses should be madeknown to the Secretary-Treasurer, 1012Fort Dearborn Bldg., Chicago. He to his constructive powers in the presentcourse of study as he contrasts this institution with the wider world of amusement, freedom, and contact with thepeople outside the schools; and (2) hecannot see the connection between whathe is studying and his job.H. B. Sharman, '06, and Mrs. Abbie L.Sharman, '06, are residing in Winnepeg,Canada.H. H. Newman, '05, is now associateprofessor of zoology and embryologyat the University of Chicago. Aftertaking his doctorate he was for three yearsinstructor of zoology at the Universityof Michigan, and then professor and headof the department of zoology and embryology at the University of Texas until hewas called to the University in 191 1.Professor Walter R. Myers, '09, ofMiami University, Oxford, Ohio, writes:"I read every issue of the Magazine withkeen interest. There is much information and discussion in its columns whichis heartily welcomed by us who get'home' only occasionally."E. B. Patton, '08, formerly professor ofeconomics at Rochester University, hasbeen appointed to do statistical work forthe state of New York and is now locatedat Albany.Dr. Laetitia M. Snow, '09, is nowassociate professor of botany at WellesleyCollege.Professor A. W. Smith, '04, of thedepartment of mathematics, ColgateUniversity, Hamilton, N.Y., is on leaveof absence for the present year and isspending the time visiting the work inhis department in several of the largeuniversities of the country. He is justnow at Chicago, having come from CornellUniversity.Daniel A. Tear, '07, was recentlyelected president of the Northern IllinoisSuperintendents and Principals Association.R. P. Baker, '10, is assistant professorof mathematics at the University ofIowa. His address is 929 KirkwoodAve., Iowa City, Iowa.Herbert E. Slaught, '98desires to learn the addresses of the following: Paul Amos White, Albert BlaineEnoch, Paul Delafield Crocker, CecilTHE LAW SCHOOL ASSOCIATIONAFFAIRS 117LaVerne Brewer, and George RemingtonBeach.Mr. Earl D. Hostetter has become amember of the firm of Brundage, Wilker-son and Cassels, with offices at 1145The Rookery, Chicago.The residence address of Carl L. V.Exselsen is 3309 North Clark St.,Chicago; telephone Wellington 9492.Evans Paul Barnes, '09, is now inBoise, Idaho.James Hanson Christensen, '09, isnow located in Room 800, The Temple,Chicago._ Walter Edward Collins has changedhis residence address to 916 West CopperSt., Butte, Mont.Address Clyde Coniah Colwell at 610Portland Block, Chicago. His telephone number is Central 1274.Charles V. Clark is associated withJeffery Ott & Campbell, 38 South Dearborn St., Chicago.John C. DeWolfe has an office inRoom 1607, Ashland Block, Chicago;telephone Central 542.C. M. Gallup, '00, has closed his workat New Bedford, Mass., and has becomepastor of the Central Baptist Church ofProvidence, R.I.G. F. Vichert has assumed charge ofthe First Baptist Church of Providence,R.I., after an extended ministry at FortWayne, Ind.E. A. .Palmquist, '05, has moved fromConnellsville, Pa., to the North AvenueBaptist Church of Cambridge, Mass.W. P. Behan, B.D. '97, began his workas minister of the Morgan Park BaptistChurch on December 17, 1911. Duringthe past five years he has had charge ofthe Department of Biblical and SocialSciences in the Secretarial Institute andTraining School of Chicago.G. T. Proctor, '97, is president of theShanghai Baptist College. Mr. Proctor 1 George R. Faust lives at No. 2039Humboldt Blvd., Chicago.1 B. B. Ferenbaugh is in Buckeye City,- Ohio.; The address of Elias Hansen is 328 S.Eighth St. West, Salt Lake City, Utah.Victor H. Kulp is teaching law at the, University of Oklahoma.Vail Eugene Purdy has an office in1 the Omaha National Bank Bldg., Omaha,Neb. .; Ernest Arthur Linderholm may be, addressed at 1034 First National BankBldg., Chicago.I Herman Gerlach James is in Berlin,Germany, making a study of Germanadministration.> Ingraham Dickson Hook is in KansasCity, Mo. His office address is 121 1Commerce Bldg.i The address of Victor E. Keyes is 212Opera House Block, Greeley, Colo.John I. Liver is nowin Room 725, FirstNational Bank Bldg., Chicago; telephonel Randolph 4941.Rudolph E. Schreiber, '06.is spending some months of his , furloughat the University.A. J. Stark has been assisting at specialmeetings at Cincinnati, Ohio.C. K. Stout, pastor of Goshen, Ind.,has in his Sunday school, under the leadership of a prominent lawyer of that city,a flourishing Men's Class with a membership of some two hundred men.J. O. Gotoof, '01, and Airs. Gotoof,Ph.D. '07, left last June for missionarywork in the Congo State, Africa.C. F. Yoder, '03, is now engaged inChristian work at Buenos Ayres.E. J. Parsons, '02, is carrying on avigorous work with the men of hischurch. The Evangelistic Band of theDivinity School spent January 12-14helping in this movement.Fred Merrifield, '00THE DIVINITY ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONAFFAIRSATHLETICSBasket-ball. — The record of the teamup to the end of January was as follows:PRACTICE GAMESDec. ij. Chicago, 26, Evanston Academy,11.Dec. 18. Chicago, 34, Lane Technical School,21.Dec. 22. Chicago, 32, Winona AgriculturalCol., 10 (at Winona Lake, Ind.).Dec. 27. Chicago, 40, University HighSchool, o.Dec. 29. Chicago, 32, Overlands (at Toledo,Ohio), 18.Dec. 30. Chicago, 24, Detroit Y.M.C.A., 32(at Detroit, Mich.).Jan. 3. Chicago, 43, Lewis Institute, 8.Jan. 9. Chicago, 35, Epiphany A. C, 21.intercollegiate gamesJan. 13. Chicago, 38, Northwestern, 13.Jan. 20. Chicago, 22, Illinois, 21 (at Urbana).Jan. 27. Chicago, 15, Wisconsin, 18.The following men are on the 'Varsitysquad: H. E. Goettler, N. H. Norgren,AI. Goldstein, forwards; N. C. Paine,center; C. S. Bell, C. O. Alolander,guards. Substitutes: S. Sellers, guard;AI. A. Poliak, center; C. P. Freeman,forward.The team has been weakened by the absence of Sauer, who will possibly be keptout for the whole season by a weak heart.Captain Boyle's duties in connectionwith the baseball team have kept himalso from the squad. The five is, however, a strong one; with Norgren in theline-up, perhaps as strong as any in theConference. The Northwestern gamewas featured by Norgren's eight goalsfrom field. At Illinois, in a very hard,close contest, Molander made four goalsfrom field, and eight out of fifteen basketsfrom the foul line. In the Illinois gameNorgren's knee was hurt, and he wasunable to play against Wisconsin, whichwon after a splendid contest. Thescore was 7-6 in favor of Wisconsin atthe end of the first half. In the secondhalf Alolander, out of seven tries fromthe foul line, got seven baskets, but theremainder of the team shot poorly.Wisconsin's dribbling was beautiful towatch, and her guarding excellent.The Freshman team, under Captain Des Jardien, has done all that wasexpected of it, holding the 'Varsity evenin most of the scrimmages, and winningseven straight games, including Northwestern Freshmen 45-12, and IllinoisFreshmen 27-15. The Illinois Freshman team included Pope and Hoffman,Chicago, ex-' 14. The members of theChicago Freshman team are Des Jardien(captain), Stevenson, Vurwink, Bennett,Baumgartner, Gorgas.Baseball and Track. — About twentymen are out so far for the baseballteam. The promising candidates fromlast year include Captain Boyle, thirdbase; Steinbrecher, catcher; G. Roberts,and Hruda, pitchers; Sauer, first base;O. Roberts, second base; Baird, short;and Teichgraeber and Catron, outfielders.The Freshman team last year was weak,but will supply at least three players. Itis still too early to speak of prospects.The track men have had only one try-out,in the games at the First RegimentArmory January, 23. None of thedistance men were allowed to compete,on account of the dangerous nature ofthe track. Coyle won the pole vaultfrom scratch, with 11-6, E. Thomasplacing second, also 11-6 with an 8 in.handicap. Alenaul took third in the shotfrom scratch, 43 ft. 9 in. Scruby wasgiven only a 6 in. handicap and did notcompete. Cox took third in the jumpwith a handicap of 4 in. and an actualjump of 5 ft. 5 in. R. D. Matthews, witha 2 ft. handicap, reached the semifinals in the 40-yard dash.Swimming. — This is a poor year forducks. Chicago was defeated by Northwestern, January 13, score 41-17 inraces, polo game by default; and byWisconsin, January 26, races 37-21,polo game two goals to none. Thereare no good swimmers among the upperclassmen, and the interest in polo is keptup more by football men who can paddleabout than by strong swimmers. Amongthe Freshmen, Alallcn, a first-class man,is ineligible. White and Gorgas showsome promise.118TE A FFAIRS 1 1 9J^W, J?QJBJZr&G2T . Z..JV. cTZZHESVT / ^&MUT*7'a77M£<?.n. fo&tj5&^ ^4. /?. Jtfiyzzzz?*?/ jzDM&zD jzzzmzzYgsTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGENERALDebating. — For the first time in fiveyears Chicago lost both the affirmativeand the negative of the intercollegiatedebates with Michigan and Northwestern. The question was : "Resolved,that the recall should be adopted for allelective state and municipal officers,except judges." The affirmative team,which lost to Michigan in Mandel Hall,was composed of George N. Foster,Edward Jennings, and Arthur E. Mullins.The Michigan representatives had abetter case and spoke better; theirrebuttal was particularly strong, thoughmechanical. At Evanston the Chicagoteam, Frank Jones, J. W. Robinson,and L. W. Simes, upheld the negative.Northwestern's case was hardly as soundas Chicago's, but in delivery her speakerswere superior. Dramatics. — The Dramatic Club willstage this year Arnold Bennett's TheHoneymoon. Two performances will begiven, on March i and 2, under the management of Donald Breed. Six newmembers were elected on January 15,including J. A. Allais, W. O. Colemanand Misses Winifred Cutting, CorneliaBeall, Mona Quayle, and Frances Ross.Other trials were held on January 25and 26.The Blackfriar's play, The Pursuit ofPortia, will be put on May 3 and 4.The management is endeavoring tosecure permission to give three eveningperformances this year. Last year thematinee on Saturday was poorly attendedand the evening shows were crowded.The Friars plan to give the play at Illinoisand Purdue universities also.