CHARLES HUBBARD JUDDDIRECTOR OF THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATIONConvocation Orator, March 2I� 1911The University of ChicagoMagazineVOLUME III MARCH, I9I I NUMBER 4INDIVIDUALISM IN THE CHOICEOF STUDIESIBY CHARLES HUBBARD JUDD, PH.D., LL.D.Head of the Department of Education; Director of the School of EducationIN the early days of American colleges a boy could elect, with the adviceof his family, whether or not he would go to college, but after reach­ing the major decision he had no further options. It was not regarded asa hardship in those days that all students were treated alike, that everyone was required to pursue the same courses as his fellows: for there wasone, and only one, accepted definition of the term education.If the student of education wishes for some sharp contrasts with theseearly days, let him listen to the tales told by his colleagues of studentswho take courses because they convene on the second floor of Cobb Hall,rather than the more strenuous upper floors; or let him read the reportsof various associations of high-school teachers who, setting aside alltraditional definitions of education, are demanding explicitly and loudlythat any course completed in a four-year high school be accepted by anycollege toward the admission of any student. In such reforming associa­tions there is little patience for any limitations upon the term education,and for the modern student any restriction upon the right of free choiceof studies is irksome.Freedom in elections is not confined to the student body. One hearsthe older college professors, even those who have not yet come into theenjoyment of their pensions, telling of the early days when as tutorsthey were assigned after appointment to give instruction indifferently invarious of the Freshman courses; this year such a tutor gave instructionI Delivered on the occasion of the Seventy-eighth Convocation of the University,held in the Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, March 21, 19II. .169THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEin Greek, the next in geometry, and the third in logic or Latin. Whenwe comment on the insistence of students that they be allowed to omitcertain studies from their list of elections, we should not fail to note thatvery few faculty appointments are made today on the old assumption ofreadiness to instruct in all subjects.In short, students and faculty alike are in this day and generationextreme individualists in matters intellectual. What one man regards asthe highest type of intellectual achievement, another scorns as anti­quated or as untried and too experimental to be worthy of serious atten­tion. The subject the mastery of which gives one man his greatestpride and satisfaction is described by another as unfit to receive fullcredit toward a degree. Weare departmentalists on the faculty andwandering seekers after palatable truths among the student body. Thehistorian of education when he writes the records of our times will sayof us that each went his own way and each thought his own plan ofeducation superior.How all this came about is relatively easy to understand. Beforethe Civil War we were a simple people, living in small communitiesand following the productive occupations near the soil. A small frac­tion of the male population selected by birth and family tradition for theprofessions of theology, medicine, and law went away to college andcame back to live quiet and dignified lives among the people, but notof them. These men read certain learned books in unknown languages,and made quotations from time to time from the masters whom theyhad studied and whose works they were supposed to read. It waspossible for the community to support a few of these men; they main­tained the standard of social life. The contract was satisfactory, anddoubtless advantageous to both parties to the arrangement.The close of the Civil War brought a great change. Every occupa­tion became a profession and sought its intellectual justification. Everyboy demanded for himself membership in the highest intellectual guilds,and even the girls required at the hands of the community initiation intothe best that the books and teachers could afford. A general movementtoward the development of universal education in high schools began.As soon as it became common for all classes to go to high school andcollege, it followed inevitably that these schools had to expand-andexpand they did. It is very interesting to note in the alumni recordsof this period how business and engineering and journalism and othercallings begin rapidly to rank with the old professions. It is interestingto note how new chairs begin to appear in the faculty, and how some ofINDIVIDUALISM IN CHOICE OF STUDIES 171the older departments divide and subdivide until they become wholedivisions. Before the Civil War the entrance requirements of collegeswere universally a little English, elementary Latin, elementary Greek,and mathematics. The course in college consisted of more English,Latin, Greek, and mathematics, some history, some logic, naturalphilosophy, metaphysics, and political economy, and possibly a littleGerman or French. After the expansion set in, unheard of subjectsbegan to appear in the catalogue of schools: biology, sociology, geology,and applied mechanics. New institutions grew up to give their wholeattention to engineering and agriculture; there was great enthusiasmfor intellectual expansion. More subjects came into American institu­tions of learning in the two decades after '64 than had ever been dreamedof in all American institutions combined during the two centuries oftheir previous history.It would be difficult to decide whether the new subjects brought newtypes of students, or the new students demanded new courses. At allevents new students and new subjects came. The result is that we havea new standard in all matters. There come to our American collegestoday students who lay no claim to intellectual superiority above theaverage member of society. These students come from the lowestfifth of the high-school classes. They come from all kinds of homes.They are intending to enter the most divergent walks in life. Some ofthem do not know what they are going to do. They appear in collegeand claim the rights of citizens of a democracy to know what othersknow. They couple with this demand the superior attitude of theavowed individualist and lay claim to the free citizen's right to followthe road of free choice, to go as far as individual interests dictate, and toreceive a proper certificate of attainment at the end of the performance.The changes have come rapidly. Not all of us can be said to favorthese changes. Some there are who mourn the good old days. A fewof these mourners have brooded over the matter so long that they havepersuaded themselves that a reaction will come, that we shall go backto the old college. They forget what the world learned long ago whenthey believe that the wine of our new life can safely be poured into theworn leather which held the good wine of an earlier generation. Suchconfidence in the virtues of yesterday is to be respected and passed byin silence.Others there are among us who seem to enjoy the chaos. They con­fuse innovation with progress and hold that all that is new is good. Onefeels sympathy for this enjoyment of the new, but one can hardly sup-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEpress the wish that enthusiasm were more commonly tempered withconsideration of the principles under which our completed reorganiza­tion must perfect itself.It would be bold to prophesy what will come out of all of our experi­mentation, and I shall not attempt to predict in any definite terms.It seems clear, however, that the period of extreme individualism in thechoice of studies is drawing to a close. General principles of choiceare being discussed more than they were a few years ago. Group sys­tems of various types are being adopted by college faculties. In thehigh schools, numerous curricula are being organized, and are recom­mended to students as better solutions of their individual problems thanthey are likely to work out through random choice. In short, the educa­tional world is attempting a co-operative solution of its new course ofstudy.There are at least three general principles which have been proposedas guiding principles in the organization of curricula, and I shall ventureto tax your patience with a brief review of these principles and somecritical comments on them.Let us consider first the principle which asserts that certain funda­mental forms of knowledge, certain particular subjects, can be selectedas necessary in preparing for all of the higher walks of life. This principledirects us to put at the center of a student's course a core of essentialsubjects. His individual choices may then play around this centralgroup of studies. The course will be safe whatever the vagaries of indi­vidual election, for the central core is supposed to supply the essentials.Let us examine the practices of institutions and see whether there isin reality any agreement on a core. Traditionally, mathematics has.acentral place in education, and it is so distinct from all other subjectsthat it has a clear claim to separate consideration, for nothing else in thecourse can serve the same special purpose as mathematics. We find,however, that many high schools in our part of the world do not requiremathematics for graduation. Still more striking is the fact that certaincolleges which go so far as to require some mathematics for admissiondo not require the further study of the subject in college. If one is toadvocate mathematics as essential to education, he must begin a cam­paign to convert his colleagues. For the insistence upon this subjectis growing fainter and fainter. Students object to it, high schoolsevade it, and colleges have accepted substitutes. The fact is that whilewe all respect mathematics, there are many who regard it as remote fromlife, and too speculative and abstract to be included in the core ofessen tials.INDIVIDUALISM IN CHOICE OF STUDIES 173Take another subject. Foreign language has from the beginning beenan important part of the secondary and college course of study. Thereare many among us who have not the slightest doubt that an educationis incomplete without some foreign language. Even if we begin ourdiscussion by accepting the contentions of these extremists, we findthem vague in their answers to the question, How much? In this partof the United States our language advocates are not so certain as theyare in the older universities. There they insist on three foreign languagesfor admission to the most highly respected degree. The new degreesare granted to students who lack this traditional training. By a care­ful discrimination between degrees, therefore, the superior value oflinguistic study is continually kept before the world even while insti­tutions discuss the case. The high schools in that section of the countryare disposed to disagree with the colleges. The high schools are askingfor a reduction of the requirement to two foreign languages. Theywould ask for further reduction if they thought they could get a hearing,but the fixed traditions are regarded as too strong, so the high schoolsask at this time merely that the core be reduced. They leave thequestion of how far the reduction shall ultimately be carried open forfuture consideration. This dispute about three foreign languages soundsremote and theoretical to us. Here the contention that three languagesbe required for an education has long since been given up; the core withus is much smaller-indeed it is in danger of disappearing entirely, forwe are asked to explain why even one language should be required.In the high schools of this section, even in the colleges, this issueis a live one. One of the state superintendents very near us is making itone of the strongest issues of his administration that the colleges anduniversities should abandon this foreign language requirement. Onecannot brush aside this state superintendent with the remark that hedoes not know what is needed for the training of boys and girls. Hemay be wrong or he may be right. In any case, he is demonstrating thedjfficulty of maintaining a language core in our higher education.We need not go to the high schools and state departments of educa­tion, however, to learn that the language core is regarded with someskepticism. Students certainly hold our present language requirementsto be over-exacting. In order to become convinced of this, one needsonly to attend regularly the sessions of the Senior Board where he will indue time hear some belated member of the student body who has in vainattempted to justify his official attendance upon Convocation by con­sultation with the departments of Latin, Greek, German, and French,THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEproposing that he meet the language requirement by taking one quarterof Japanese. Not only are our students skeptical, but our college prac­tices are, to say the least, complex. We let anyone start new experi­ments in language-study at almost any time, for are not all languagesother than English equally good? If one tires of Teutonic studies, hemay move into the romance group. It is merely language that isrequired. Frankly, we are in doubt how much or which. And ourcolleagues at some other institutions, with what they doubtless regardas superior candor, have gone a step farther, for they have finally decidedthat the individual student probably knows better than the facultywhether in his case language-study is an essential to complete education.I ought perhaps to pause long enough to remark that I am merelyrecording practices, not attempting to justify them. It is our firstduty to understand how strong are the individualistic tendencies inour present educational practices.Mathematics and languages other than English have suffered somuch of late in their reputation as essentials that one turns with a feelingof relief to English itself. Here certainly there is agreement. Out ofthe chaos emerges this one unit of our course of study. All high schoolsrequire it, all colleges recognize it, all Freshmen take it, all graduateshave this common element in their records. One never thinks of ques­tioning the universality of practice and belief in this matter amongeducational institutions of all grades until he attends a conference ofEnglish teachers. He is then rudely awakened to a realization of thefact that the word English has a variety of meanings. It includes litera­ture and composition and these may be mixed in very different quantities.Literature in turn is made up of Ivanhoe and Comus and the names ofcertain poets and writers and the dates of their births and deaths.Composition is a subject which may best be defined by saying that it isnot taught correctly anywhere else. We have it on the authority of anelaborate report prepared in a neighboring state by the college teachersof English that the work in most high schools which masquerades underthe name composition is a shocking counterfeit. In reply, the subjectsof this criticism rise to say that they have examined the aforementionedcollege teachers on several occasions by practical tests, and there isno agreement among them as to what is wanted.One realizes why education is having a hard time these days when ittries to hold together this English core.If English does not solve the problem to the satisfaction of theEnglish teacher, there is little use of looking farther. One might askINDIVIDUALISM IN CHOICE OF STUDIES 175whether science is necessary to education. This would lead naturallyto the question, Which science? We should then go to the laboratoriesand consult our colleagues who specialize. The physicist would tell usthat his department prefers to have physics made an elective, left toindividual choice. He would probably add that this election better, onthe whole, be postponed to a later date in the student's course when thesubject can be properly taught. The biologist answers with the assur­ance that he is just on the point of arranging his material so that it willtrain observation, accuracy, expression, and reasoning, even in youngchildren. The antidote for the impression gained from this assertion ofthe biologist is attendance on a meeting of teachers of nature-study.One comes back after searching for essentials with a more vividrealization than ever that we live in an individualistic age. Each teacherdefines his own subject. Each school develops its own practices. Theday of cores is either passed or has not come. There must be someother principle of organization if we are to have common action amongour students.Some light is thrown upon our problem by the suggestion that wecannot combat individualism, we must guide it. The hope of educationis in the development of a plan which recognizes individual ends andaims and merely co-operates with the student in the better pursuit ofthese ends. Vaguely or clearly, every student sees before himself acareer. Why should not this fact be developed into a general principleof election?If one feels more comfortable when his position has the sanction ofestablished historical practices, he will note with interest that thecolleges of an earlier day were dominated by strictly vocational interests.No one went to these institutions unless he expected to use the knowledgehe acquired. College attendance was not a matter of social practicein those days-it was a matter of preparation for certain well-definedvocations. The course of study was limited in scope and directed tothe one explicit purpose in the mind of students and faculty. When thescope of the course was suddenly enlarged, this professional end was fora time lost from view. It has taken time to put the public mind in theproper frame for a restatement of the vocational end of college education.The first step in this direction consisted in defining the vocationsthemselves. For some years the various callings have been discussingtheir needs, and have been asserting their need of an intellectual back­ground by defining themselves as professions. Thus diplomacy has be­come a profession, and at the same time has become conscious of itsTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEneed of a higher education. Engineering is a profession of the highestintellectual standing. Now come business, the keeping of accounts, andthe preparation of advertisements. Teachers and librarians and publicofficials of all classes are studying profoundly in preparation for theirwork. The spirit of scientific investigation and control is common toall the activities of life in our day. The diversity of interest is so greatthat no one can hope to find in the college course any single subjectwhich is of central interest to all of these different types of students.No single language is needed, no branch of mathematics is necessary,even the ability to write good English is of doubtful necessity if one baseshis judgment in this matter on the reading of technical literature.There is, however, one common need in all these diversified professions.The men and women who are to be pre-eminent must approach theirtasks as trained alert thinkers. The librarian must know how books aremade, the manufacturer must know the country from which his rawmaterials come, the engineer nust know enough geology to make himexpert in understanding the foundations on which he works. Whilebooks and countries and geological structures do not belong in anysingle discipline that can be put at the center of the course of study,each stands in the particular profession with which it is connected as anintellectual background for the individual's effort. When one asks for arecognition of the principle of vocational training as a common principlein college curricula, he is not defining the content of the course of study,but he is defining a principle which is wider in its implications than anysingle content.If one grants for the moment that this principle is at least interesting,the next step in the discussion is to ask who shall select the content tofill out these vocational curricula? The practical answer to this ques­tion, as given by most institutions, is that the student must choose withany advice he can secure. The student seeks those courses which willbest serve his individual ends. To be sure, in premedical and pre­legal courses, the maturer judgment of instructors is exercised in plan­ning curricula for students, but the ordinary college student not goinginto medicine or law gets little help of this order. Why should we notgo about systematizing all of our curricula as we have the medical andlegal curricula with the largest and broadest wisdom that educationalinstitutions can command? Our students in American colleges arefloundering about unguided and often misled while we debate aboutEnglish and science and language. It has come to be the fashion forthe student to hold that he must postpone the selection of a definite endINDIVIDUALISM IN CHOICE OF STUDIES 177in life while he enters into these various subjects and forms a personalestimate of their value. We mark this procedure with the soundingname of culture. Let us frankly recognize the fact that the success ofthe colleges of the last generation was directly related to their voca­tional character and to the intense interest aroused by the practicalvalue of their courses. Let us once more take up the plan of organizingprofessional and vocational courses with the fullest co-operation we cancommand.The advantage of this vocational system of education is that itconcedes to the individual all that he can legitimately demand. Hispersonal interests and views are regarded as of first importance. Hischoice is not, however, left to work itself out in terms of the hours atwhich recitations are set on the daily program, or in terms of the easewith which the course may be absolved. Individualism there is in sucha plan, but it is organized about a definite end and with definite advice.The statement of a definite end makes it possible for others of maturerexperience to advise the individual. How to prepare for diplomaticservice is a problem that can be discussed by many for the benefit of theindividual. Instead of throwing the student on his own indefiniteresources, this plan opens for him all the resources of mature advice.I am well aware that some will object to the adoption of vocationalcurricula on the ground that many college students are not in a positionto decide which calling they will enter. Still less, it will be said, arehigh-school students prepared to choose their vocations for life. Per­sonally, I believe that this view is not well taken. I believe that theabsence of seriousness from the lives of boys of the ages of fourteento twenty is due in a very large measure to the aimlessness of theirthought and study. Let such boys have a profession in view, even ifthey change later.There is a third principle which may be laid down as a guidingprinciple for the election of courses. There is nothing in this principlewhich is dependent on either of the others discussed. If any member ofthis company has been unable to accept the conclusions offered in theearlier paragraphs of this paper, I shall be bold to ask for independentconsideration of this third principle. The principle in question is thatof the continuity of study. One of the chief difficulties in our presentcollege course is its fragmentary character. Many a student comesto college after four years of Latin, three of mathematics, and four ofEnglish. He drops his Latin and mathematics and takes only twobrief courses in English. Or he comes to college with credits in German,THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEand being afraid that the instructors in German will uncover his igno­rance, he elects elementary French. The college lets itself be misled bythe name modern language, and while the student really breaks into thecontinuity of his studies, the college consoles itself with the thought thatFrench will give him just as many .ideas as German. Why should werequire Latin or German or mathematics, if in our own administrationof the student's course we make no use of these preparatory courses?In this connection it is interesting to read the criticisms which ourEnglish friends, the Oxford tutors, have been making of the AmericanRhodes scholars. The opinions of these tutors are set forth in the lastreport of the president of the Carnegie Foundation.One tutor writes: "The Rhodes scholars who have come to thiscollege from the United States are in the point of natural ability fullythe equal of our ordinary open scholars; in point of energy, seriousness,and force of character, they are, in my judgment, decidedly their supe­riors. Their early training, on the other hand, has been less thorough,and of this they are themselves conscious."A second states: "The American scholars who have come to us areintelligent and interested in many subjects. But they seldom or neversettle down to do a long spell of thorough work. They have nearly allceased to develop by the time they graduate in the States, and do notreally feel inclined to go much farther."A third expresses himself as follows: "In any case, whether theseare the right impressions or not, our American scholars seem inclined todrift from one subject to another, taking a bird's-eye view of each, andresting content with that."Finally, a fourth testifies: "Taking a more general view, I wouldcompare the American scholars with our average good commoner forability and energy. They seem to me to lack accuracy and (as a rule)the power of hard grind; but they are intelligent, interested in theirwork, and quite as industrious as the average young Englishman."The discontinuity of our American courses of study appears notmerely in the elections and characteristics of individual students; it isan obvious defect in our institutional organization. The elementaryschool is different and often distinct in management from the secondaryschool; the secondary school is separate from the college. Each memberof the system looks with suspicion and envy on the others; each holds theother responsible for all the shortcomings of students. The plans thata high-school teacher may carefully layout with a student are ruthlesslyset aside by some executive officer in the college. One of the high-schoolINDIVIDUALISM IN CHOICE OF STUDIES 179principals in a neighboring town told the speaker not long ago of a studentwho failed in Freshman work in this institution because he attempted,on advice received here, to follow a course wholly at variance from thatfor which he was prepared in high school. I have no doubt that thereare many such cases of students who are sacrificed to our disjointedsystem. A report was rendered by a dean in an institution not remotefrom the place of our gathering to the effect that one-quarter of thestudents in a certain Freshman class were under probation for deficiencyin scholarship. Think of the significance of the fact that an institutionwhere intelligence is cultivated is so unacquainted with the training ofits entering students that 25 per cent of these students get in withoutthe qualifications necessary to go on successfully with college courses!Certainly if the weather bureau made a mistake every fourth time inits predictions, we should comment unfavorably; and if a supposedexpert purchaser made 25 per cent mistakes, he would be discontinued.It will be admitted on even a moment's consideration that we mustovercome this absurd discontinuity in our system. If some institutionhad the courage to stop talking in terms of subjects, and say to otherinstitutions, and to its own students, that continuity is what is wanted,and not particular subjects, then I believe our educational activitieswould take on a new and vital character. Continuity which forced thenow unwilling student of German to go on until he knows somethingworth while would be logical and educative for the student, and it wouldcompel his instructors to get together. It is absurd for the colleges tocriticize the high schools, and for the high schools to threaten war on thecolleges. These institutions are bound together by their students, andit is absurdly unintelligent to overlook the principle which grows directlyout of this relation. Furthermore, the rationality of this principle isattested by the fact that it applies equally well to college courses andcollege admission. Why should it not be recognized in college that eachstage of mental development has some necessary relation to what hasbeen acquired before? The study elected today will be pursued in thelight of what was learned yesterday and the week before. Why nottake advantage of this fact rather than attempt to neglect it. Thestudent who drops German because he has no power of concentrationwill not follow French very long. If we want successful students in newlines, we must see to it that they finish up some of their earlier subjects.May I venture to put this principle as a concrete proposition? Sup­pose that the University of Chicago should say to related high schools,We will accept your graduates with confidence in the preparation you have180 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEgiven them. We will stop discussing particular prerequisites. Butwe shall demand rigorously that all students continue at least half ofthe subjects with which they enter. Suppose we should admit as aninstitution what has often been confessed privately, namely, that wehave never been perfectly clear as to the reasons for some of our specificrequirements. We should then be ready to begin with the co-operationof the high schools a careful study of courses on the broad principle thatcontinuity in any subject is more important than mere content, howeverfully tradition has sanctioned that content. We could say to high schoolsthat we intend to see to it that what students bring to us is saved andutilized. We should, I am sure, secure enthusiastic help in workingout plans for continuous development of our common students. Weshould begin a new and more productive system of reports speakingintelligently to high schools of what we find to be strong in their products,and what we find to be weak.It is my belief that we should find ourselves instantly in the mostintimate relation with institutions which are now in doubt as to theirability to understand us. We should do away at a single stroke with allthe suspicion and discontinuity which keep high schools and colleges inthis territory apart and antagonistic.Or suppose that the University could carryon with one of its collegestudents some such parley as this: " You find the course which you haveelected difficult or in this elementary stage not so productive as you hadhoped. Do not drop it on that account. Master it and see the widerreaches of the subject by taking another, and, if need be, a third course inthe same subject. You will find that the ability to concentrate upon asubject, and to master it, is more of an education than many facts.You will :find that after you have worked out one line very fully, you canwork out others more easily. On the contrary, if you shirk continuouswork, if you take up with every new subject that offers, you will soonfind that concentration becomes increasingly difficult, and even the sub­jects which you have studied are slipping out of your disorganizedgrasp."For my own part, it seems so clear that the principle of continuityof courses is fundamental to all educational organization, that I shouldunhesitatingly place all other principles and considerations in the back­ground, and should urge this one principle as the central governing lawto be accepted in overcoming the difficulties in which we find ourselvesin American college education.Again, let me remark that the application of this principle is notINDIVIDUALISM IN CHOICE OF STUDIESintended to counteract individualism, or bring back the common courseof the early American college. If all students would follow consistentlyand in logical sequences those interests which give them the best oppor­tunity to develop their personalities, then the content of studies mightvary indefinitely and yet there would be universal adherence to a general�!!p.ciple and a common virtue in all our college curricula.Furthermore, the principle of continuity is one which gives studentsand instructors alike an opportunity to plan rationally for the individual'swork. One of the virtues of language courses is the sequence which, atleast in the early years, they enforce upon the student. Let us bringback some of the advantages of the sequence of the old Latin course,even if we discard the language. Let every department work with itsstudents on productive sequences. The history department, the depart­ment of physics, the department of mathematics, can all plan coherentgroups of courses, even extending in some cases into related fields. Ifeveryone would face this problem of organizing sequences, order would _)begin to rise out of present disorder. �Even the requirements for graduation could be stated in rationalterms. Not such and such subjects with as many substitutions as areluctant faculty will grant would then be the basis of a degree, but acertain number of well-defined sequences. These sequences would bethe core. Exploratory courses not in the sequences would group them­selves around the core.I do not know how far I have gained your assent to the propositionswhich I have laid down. I assure you I shall be satisfied even thoughyou disagreed with some of my conclusions if only I have persuadedyou that it is worth while to talk about general principles of election ofstudies. What I have tried to say is briefly this. We live in a period ofindividualism. Not only do we all have individual interests, but wepursue them, each in his own way. Our institutions of learning unloadon the individual the major responsibility for the choice of studies. Weare unorganized and undefined. The impulse toward extreme individual­ism was powerful, and it has carried us forward rapidly and to lengthswhich are literally astonishing. Now comes a period of pause. Indi­viduals are asking for help. Institutional life is difficult or even impos­sible without agreement on fundamentals. The time for organizationhas arrived. Organization must depend upon the discovery of leadingprinciples. I believe organization will follow the principles of continuityand vocational training, and will discard subject-matter.I promised not to be insistent on my prophecies, however, and so,THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEin concluding, I shall merely express the assurance that some principleof this general type is certainly due to bring us into the light.It is my humble lot to study the student. I would that I mightstimulate others to consider the problem which absorbs me and mykind. We look upon the students of Greek and Latin and English andscience and classify them all together as students. We are perhaps alittle freer than others to see the difficulty of defining education as Greekor Latin or English or science. We ask what the student of today isdoing, and what the student of tomorrow will do. We read old text­books to find out where present-day teachers got their methods, and Isay to you that my fellow-students of education look upon the presentage as a curious age. It is full of curious definitions of education, fullof curious and most irrational practices. But we think we see a changecoming. Like all specialists we believe this change will come throughrational principles which it is our departmental duty to collect and distrib­ute. We welcome the opportunity to distribute those principles whichwe now have on hand, and we also welcome new principles which others-even our critics-may add to our stock for purposes of future use.AMERICAN MEN OF SCIENCEIN the recently published revised edition of American Men of Science,a biographical directory edited by Professor J. McKeen Cattell ofColumbia University, are found interesting data showing the distributionof the first and second thousand leading men of science according totheir occupations, their geographical locations, and the institutionswith which they are connected.The method of selecting the first thousand men of science is thusbriefly described: The numbers were assigned to twelve different sciences,proportionally to the total list of investigators in those sciences, as fol­lows: chemistry, 175; physics, 150; zoology, ISO; botany.uoo; geology,IOO; mathematics. Bo; pathology. oo;; psychology, 50;physiology.iao; anatomy, 25; anthropology, 20. In each science twicethe allotted number of names were selected and submitted to the ten menwho had previously stood at the head of the list in that science, to bearranged in order of merit, primarily on the basis of research but alsowith reference to teaching, administration, authorship, and other factorswhich go to make men efficient in advancing science. These ten arrange­ments were then averaged for each science, and finally the combined listof the first thousand men was made up and subdivided into hundredsin order of merit. For purposes of comparison the men in the variousgroups of one hundred were assigned different units of weighting asfollows: a man in the lower four hundred counts I; in the first hundred,3 or 4; and in the other hundreds various gradations between theseextremes.The total scientific strength of the five leading universities rated inthis manner according to the members of their faculties belonging to thefirst thousand scientific men, together with their gain or loss during aperiod of four years, is as follows: Harvard, 146, with a gain of 16.3;Chicago, 94.6, with a gain of 18; Columbia, 79.3, with a loss of I3.3;Johns Hopkins, 63.9, with a gain of 4.2; Yale, 6I.7, with a gain of 12.2.During this time Chicago has increased her number of men in the firsthundred by two and in the second hundred by five.In considering the separate departments on the basis of the abovedata it is found that Harvard leads in physics, botany, zoology, physi­ology, and pathology; Chicago leads in mathematics and astronomy;Columbia in psychology; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology inchemistry; and Johns Hopkins in anatomy.183THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEIn respect to geographical distribution, the states containing fiftyor more of the first thousand leading men of science are : New York,183; Massachusetts, 165; Maryland (including the District of Columbia),148; Illinois, 77; Pennsylvania, 60; California, 50; Connecticut, 50.In these states there has been a gain of 21 in Massachusetts, 14 in Illinois,and 7 in Connecticut; and a loss of 9 in New York, 18 in Maryland andthe District of Columbia, 5 in Pennsylvania, and 3 in California. Ofthese leading men Boston has 126, New York 120, and Washington 110.The North Central states in general show decided gains due to improve­ment of men in relative positions in the first thousand.The universities containing thirty or more of the first thousand menare: Harvard, 79, with a gain of 13 and a ratio of I to 49 students;Chicago, 47, with a gain of 8 and a ratio of I to 144; Columbia, 48, with aloss of 12 and a ratio of I to 96 ; Yale, 38, with a gain of I I and a ratio ofI to 90; Cornell, 35, with a gain of 2 and a ratio of I to II3; Johns Hop­kins, 33, with a gain of 3 and a ratio of I to 21; Wisconsin, 30, with again of 12 and a ratio of I to 150. Of the first hundred leading men ofscience Harvard has 19, Chicago 9, Columbia 7; and of the secondhundred Chicago has 15, Harvard 10, Columbia 6, Johns Hopkins 3.Of the first thousand leading men of science, 738 are teaching, 106are in government positions, 59 are in applied sciences, 35 in researchinstitutions, 48 in museums, scientific academies, botanical gardens, etc.There are three physicians, one artist, one editor, and one missionary,but no lawyers and no business men in the list. There are 18 women, ofwhom two are in the second hundred, two in the third, and three in thefourth. Of these scientists 758 hold the Bachelor's degree and 549 thedoctorate of philosophy. Of those added to the first thousand in thisedition of the directory Harvard has gained three bachelors arid 23 doc­tors; Chicago, five bachelors and 27 doctors; Yale, 10 bachelors and IIdoctors. Aside from Harvard, Yale leads in the number of bachelorsadded to the list and Chicago in the number of doctors. The totalnumber of doctorates conferred in this country in the last thirteenyears is 3,833, of which 1,787 were in the sciences. Of this totalnumber Chicago has conferred 490, Columbia 480, Harvard 453, Yale421. Of the science degrees Chicago has conferred 243, Johns Hopkins220, Columbia 189, Yale 179, Harvard 178. It thus appears that whileColumbia and Yale have conferred in this time approximately the samenumber of doctorates in the natural and exact sciences as haveChicago, Johns Hopkins, and Harvard, each has furnished only abouthalf as many additions to the first thousand leading men of science.A RECENT VOLUME IN THE FIELDOF PSYCHOLOGYTHE Houghton Mifflin Company have recently issued a volume en­titled The Psychology of Religious Experience, the author beingAssistant Professor Edward S. Ames, of the Department of Philosophy.The book, of over 400 pages, contains twenty-one chapters and an indexof eight pages. In Part I, on The History and Method of the Psychologyof Religion, are considered the history of the science and the psycho­logical point of view. In Part II, on The Origin of Religion in the Race,there are discussed "The Determining Impulses in Primitive Religion,""Custom and Taboo," "Ceremonials and Magic," "Spirits," "Sacrifice,"" Prayer," " Mythology," and "Development of Religion." In Part III,on The Rise of Religion in the Individual, the chapter headings are asfollows: "Religion and Childhood," "Religion and Adolescence,""Normal Religious Development," and "Conversion." In the closingpart of the book, which considers the place of religion in the experienceof the individual and society, there are discussed "Religion as Involv­ing the Entire Psychical Life," "Ideas and Religious Experience,""Feeling and Religious Experience," "The Psychology of ReligiousGenius and Inspiration," "Nonreligious Persons," "The Psychologyof ReligIOUS Sects," and "The Religious Consciousness in Relation toDemocracy and Science."In the preface the author says:The work undertakes an investigation of the religious aspect of normal humanexperience ..... The method adopted involves the use of much material fromanthropology, the history of religion, and other social sciences, but an attempt has beenmade to organize this material and to interpret it from the psychological standpoint.The hypothesis that religion is the consciousness of the highest social values arose fromstudies in these fields, and this conception has been strengthened by further investiga­tion. These highest social values appear to embody more or less idealized expressionsof the most elemental and urgent life impulses .....In this conception of religion as the consciousness of the highest social valueslies a partial justification for the rather ambitious task of bringing together in a singlevolume an outline treatment of so many problems. . . . . Such a treatment, it ishoped, may contribute to a better sense of proportion and to a clearer understandingof the interrelation of the various aspects of the religious consciousness.The author acknowledges his great indebtedness to Professor JamesH. Tufts, Head of the Department of Philosophy, and Professor WilliamI. Thomas, of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology.I8STHE UNIVERSITY RECORDEXERCISES CONNECTED WITH THE SEVENTY-EIGHTH CONVOCATIONDirector Charles Hubbard Judd, Ph.D., LL.D., of the School ofEducation, was the Convocation orator on March 2I, I9II, his address,which was given in the Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, being entitled"Individualism in the Choice of Studies." The address appears else­where in full in this issue of the Magazine.The Convocation reception was held in Hutchinson Hall on theevening of March 20. In the receiving line were President and Mrs.Harry Pratt Judson;" the guests of honor, Mr. and Mrs. Frederick TaylorGates; the Dean of the Faculties, Professor George Edgar Vincent, andMrs. Vincent; the Dean of Women, Professor Marion Talbot; and theConvocation orator, Director Charles Hubbard Judd, of the Schoolof Education. There was a large attendance at the reception.DEGREES CONFERRED AT THE SEVENTY-EIGHTH CONVOCATIONAt the Seventy-eighth Convocation of the University, held in theLeon Mandel Assembly Hall on March 21, 19II, twenty-four studentswere elected to membership in Sigma Xi for evidence of ability inresearch work in science, and one student was elected to membershipin the Beta of Illinois Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa for especial distinctionin general scholarship in the University.Forty-four students received the title of Associate; three, the degreeof Bachelor of Philosophy in Education; two, the degree of Bachelorof Science in Education; two, the degree of Bachelor of Arts; six, thedegree of Bachelor of Philosophy; and twelve, the degree of Bachelorof Science.In the Divinity School one student received the degree of Bachelorof Divinity; two, that of Master of Arts; and one, that of Doctor ofPhilosophy.In the Law School one student received the degree of Bachelor ofLaws and five, that of Doctor of Law (J.D.).In the Graduate Schools of Arts, Literature, and Science four stu­dents were given the degree of Master of Arts; four, that of Master ofPhilosophy; two, that of Master of Science; and three, that of Doctorof Philosophy-making a total of forty-eight degrees (not including titlesof Associate) conferred by the University at the Spring Convocation.186FREDERICK TAYLOR GATESPRESIDENT OF THE GENERAL EDUCATION BOARDUpon whom the University conferred the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws March 21, 19IITHE UNIVERSITY RECORDAt this Convocation also there was conferred the honorary degreeof Doctor of Laws upon two candidates, George Edgar Vincent, Ph.D.,president-elect of the University of Minnesota, and Frederick TaylorGates, president of the General Education Board, the former beingpresented by the Dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Literature,and the latter by the Dean of the Ogden Graduate School of Science.In conferring the honorary degree on Mr. Vincent the President ofthe University said:"GEORGE EDGAR VINCENT, Professor of Sociology and Dean of theFaculties of Arts, Literature, and Science in the University of Chicago,president-elect of the University of Minnesota, scholar, orator, wisecounselor of students, true friend, able administrator: on nominationof the University Senate and by authority of the Board of Trustees,especially for your achievements in educational administration, I conferupon you the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws of this University,with all the privileges thereto appertaining; in token of which I giveyou this hood, which you will wear as a Doctor of the University, andthis diploma."In conferring the honorary degree on Mr. Gates the President said:"FREDERICK TAYLOR GATES, charter member of the Board ofTrustees of the University of Chicago and for many years continuouslya member of that body, president of the General Education Board andof the Board of Trustees of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research,to whose broad conceptions and untiring efforts the foundation of thisUniversity was largely due, by whose wise counsel the developmentof the University of Chicago was continued through two decades withincreasing power, educational statesman, whose profound knowledgeand clear foresight have made the General Education Hoard a benefi­cent agency throughout the land, not so much for its millions of endow­ment as for its wise policies, to whose deep interest and sagaciousadministration of the Rockefeller Institute quite as much as to thegenerosity of the founder and to the devotion and skill of the scientificstaff society owes the splendid discoveries which already have come fromthat great foundation and which we confidently expect in future days:on nomination of the University Senate and by authority of the Boardof Trustees I confer upon you the honorary degree of Doctor of Lawsof this University, with all the privileges thereto appertaining; in tokenof which I give you this hood, which you will wear as a Doctor of theUniversity, and this diploma."188 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEA FAREWELL DINNER IN HONOR OF GEORGE EDGAR VINCENTOn the evening of March I6, I9II, in Hutchinson Hall, was given afarewell dinner in honor of Dean George Edgar Vincent, president­elect of the University of Minnesota, nearly two hundred of his colleaguesand representatives of the University Board of Trustees and the alumniorganizations being present.The toastmaster was Professor Frank Bigelow Tarbell of the Depart­ment of the History of Art, who was a friend of Mr. Vincent in collegedays at Yale; and the speakers included Professor Albion W. Small,Head of the Department of Sociology, of which department Mr. Vincentis a member; Associate Professor Myra Reynolds, of the Department ofEnglish, who was a Fellow in English Literature in the University ofChicago at the time that Mr. Vincent was a Fellow in Sociology; Hon.Francis W. Parker, who spoke as the representative of the UniversityBoard of Trustees; Professor John M. Coulter, Head of the Depart­ment of Botany, who represented the scientific Faculties of the Uni­versity; Dean James Weber Linn, of the Junior Colleges, who was aformer student under Professor Vincent and in close relation with himas an administrator; President Harry Pratt Judson, who was for anumber of years connected with the University of Minnesota, and withwhom Mr. Vincent has been most closely associated as 'Dean of theFaculties; and finally Dean Vincent himself, who was especially happyin the humor of his replies and in his expression of gratitude to hiscolleagues and of loyalty both to the University of Chicago and tothe University of Minnesota.The whole occasion was a tribute remarkable for its representativecharacter and the genuineness of its feeling for a man who througheighteen years as graduate student, instructor, and administrator hasbecome so stimulating and influential a part of the institution he is nowleaving for the headship of another great institution in another greatstate. To few men does such a tribute come, and the new president­elect of the University of Minnesota must feel that back of him in Chicagois a group of men who believe in him and in his power to achieve greatthings in his new field of educational labor.THE NOMINATION OF CHARLES EDWARD MERRIAM FOR THEMAYORALTY OF CHICAGOAfter an especially active canvass of the city of Chicago by five candi­dates for the Republican nomination for mayor, Associate ProfessorCharles Edward Merriam, of the Department of Political Science, alder­man from the seventh ward of the city and former head of the MerriamGEORGE EDGAR VINCENTPRESIDENT�ELECT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTAUpon whom the University conferred the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws March 2I, 19IITHE UNIVERSITY RECORDCommission on Municipal Expenditures, was nominated by a pluralityof about 26,000 votes, receiving practically as many votes as all theother Republican candidates. Professor Merriam spoke in all sectionsof the city, some of his addresses being in German. The result of hisdirect, clean-cut, and fully informed campaign on the needs of the citywas a surprise to many old-time political organizations and has attractedthe attention of the whole country.At the present writing Professor Merriam has already initiated hisnew campaign for the election on April 4, when the chief opposing candi­date will be Mr. Carter H. Harrison, who was for four terms mayor ofChicago. The campaign organization promoting Mr. Merriam's can­didacy has been widely extended, and many independent voters havedeclared their intention of voting for Mr. Merriam on the basis of hispast public service and his unusual equipment for the office.Among the University of Chicago Faculties and students there is agenuine feeling of pride in the strength and fitness of the Universitycandidate, his virile and direct methods of campaigning, his freedom fromvague promises and verbiage, and his courage based on a wide knowledgeof facts. Although Mr. Merriam could not be present at the Universitymeeting to forward his election, there was great enthusiasm shown on thepart of the students and an evident determination to do all that waspossible through organization and personal effort to bring about hisvictory at the polls. The meeting had as its chief speaker ProfessorJames H. Tufts, Head of the Department of Philosophy, who wasformerly Dean of the Senior Colleges.Besides the production of books on American Political Theories,Municipal Revenues of Chicago, and Primary Elections, Mr. Merriamhas shown a remarkable activity and ability as member of the CharterConvention for Chicago and as secretary of the Harbor Commission forChicago, and he was appointed by Governor Deneen as a member of theIllinois Tax Commission. His practical, efficient work also as aldermanfrom one of the most important wards of the city and as directing headof a great commission has shown that the charge of his being a meretheorist is in fact without foundation. Whatever the result of the elec­tion Professor Merriam has proved his great value to the University andto the city of Chicago.MEETING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF THE ILLINOIS ACADEMY OF SCIENCEThe fourth annual meeting of the Illinois State Academy of Sciencewas held at the University of Chicago on February 17 and 18, I9II, thepresident of the academy being Professor John M. Coulter, Head of theI9° THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEDepartment of Botany. The address of welcome was given by Pro­fessor Rollin D. Salisbury, Head of the Department of Geography andDean of the Ogden Graduate School of Science.A memorial address on Professor Charles Reid Barnes was given byProfessor Coulter, who also gave the presidential address entitled "TheProblems of Plant Breeding." Professor Albert A. Michelson, Headof the Department of Physics, gave an illustrated address on "MetallicColors in Birds and Insects." On the last day of the meeting ProfessorThomas C. Chamberlin, Head of the Department of Geology, and Di­rector Edwin B. Frost, of the Yerkes Observatory, took part in a sympo­sium on "Radio-Activity," Professor Chamberlin's phase of the subjectbeing" Radio-Activity and Geological Phenomena" and Professor Frost'ssubject being "Radium in Relation to Celestial Bodies." AssistantProfessor Henry C. Cowles, of the Department of Botany, also gave anaddress, on the subject of "The Relation of the Soil to Plants." Amongother papers presented were those on "Evaporation and Plant Successionon the Sand Dunes of Lake Michigan" by Mr. George D. Fuller, on"Structure of Adult Cycad Stem" by Assistant Professor Charles J.Chamberlain, and on "An American Lepidostrobus" by Professor JohnM. Coulter and Dr. W. J. G. Land, of the Department of Botany. Thesepapers were all illustrated.There are in the Academy approximately 425 members, and of theseabout I75 were in attendance at this meeting, which was regarded, bothin the number and the character of the papers and in the general spiritof the sessions, as the best in the history of the society.THE LOSS BY DEATH OF TWO FORMER TRUSTEES OF THE UNIVERSITYMajor Henry A. Rust and Mr. Edward Goodman, former Trusteesof the University of Chicago, were both removed by death in the samemonth, Major Rust dying on February 5 and Mr. Goodman on FebruaryI4. Mr. Rust was a trustee of the Old University of Chicago and wasalso interested in the establishment of the present University of Chicago.He gave his help most generously toward securing the initial fund forfounding the University. and was a member of the first Board of Trustees.He was made Vice-President of the Board in I89I, and continued in thatoffice until I894, when he was made Comptroller and Business Manager.In the latter position he served the University with great fidelity fornine years. In I903 he resigned this office and was invited by the Boardto take the position of Superintendent of Construction, but declining thisappointment, he was in I905 again elected a trustee and in I906 once moreTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDserved for some months as vice-president. In I907 he resigned as trus­tee and finally severed his official connection with the University, theTrustees accepting his resignation with great reluctance.Major Rust had an honorable record in the Civil War, and was abusiness man in Chicago for nearly half a century. He was alwaysinterested in the cause of higher education, and was for many years atrustee of the old University of Chicago, the Hahnemann MedicalCollege, and the Frances Shimer Academy, as well as of the presentUniversity of Chicago. He was a man of positive character, earnestconvictions, and liberal spirit. At the funeral service the chief addresswas given by Professor Albion W. Small, Head of the Department ofSociology and Anthropology.Mr. Edward Goodman was connected as treasurer and trustee withthe Baptist Theological Union and the Theological Seminary, now theDivinity School of the University of Chicago, for nearly half a century.He was also a member of the first Board of Trustees of the University,and was present at the first meeting of the Board in I890, continuing inhis service as a trustee until I909, when the infirmities of age led him tosuggest that a younger man be elected in Ills place. Mr. Goodmanserved for many years as chairman of the standing committee on theUniversity Press. Even in failing health he continued with great faith­fulness his attendance at the meetings of the Board of Trustees.He was a man of large influence in the Baptist denomination, notonly in Chicago but throughout the country. His connection with thedenominational paper, the Chicago Standard, continuing through morethan fifty years, made his influence especially effective.Mr. Goodman was a man of devout spiritual character, and duringthe difficult years of the earlier development of the Divinity School gavehimself with great unselfishness, efficiency, and hopefulness to theinterests of that institution.THE FACULTIESPresident Harry Pratt Judson will give the commencement addressat the University of Michigan on June 29.M. Gustav Michaut, of the University of Paris, gave a universitypublic lecture in French on February I7, the subject being "L'Alcestede Moliere."Professor C. T. Hodge, of Clark University, gave a university publiclecture in Kent Theater on February 20, the subject being "A Plan forthe Extermination of the House Fly."THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAssistant Professor Henry C. Cowles, of the Department of Botany,gave an address before the Chicago South Side Club on March 14, hissubject being "Dunes and Their Vegetation.""Women and Wealth" was the subject of a contribution in the Feb­ruary issue of Scribner's Magazine, by Professor J. Laurence Laughlin,Head of the Department of Political Economy."Protective Legislation" was the subject of an address on FebruaryIS before the Chicago Woman's Club in the Fine Arts Building, by Pro­fessor Ernst Freund, of the faculty of the Law School."The Americanism of Robert Herrick" was the subject of a contri­bution in the March issue of the Review of Reviews by Edwin Bjorkman.The article is illustrated by a portrait of Mr. Herrick."Is There Any Truth in Spiritualism?" is the subject of a contri­bution by Associate Professor Gerald B. Smith, of the Department ofSystematic Theology, in the Standard of February 4, IgII.Professor Albert B. Hart, of Harvard University, gave on January30, in Kent Theater, a public departmental lecture entitled "Oughtthe Power of the Federal Government To Be Expanded?"Moliere's play A Physician in Spite of Himself was given ininterpretative recital by Mr. William Pierce Gorsuch, of the Departmentof Public Speaking, before the Oak Park Club on February IS.Associate Professor Charles E. Merriam, of the Department of Politi­cal Science, gave an address on "Economy in Public Administration"before the Chicago Woman's Club in the Fine Arts Building on March 8."Commercial Development of the Argentine Republic" was thesubject of a university public lecture in Cobb Lecture Hall on January18, by Mr. C. H. Sherrill, United States Minister to the ArgentineRepublic."The Demands of Industrial Education" was the subject of anaddress on March IS in Henry Holmes Belfield Hall by Mr. James P.Monroe, president of the National Society for the Promotion of IndustrialEducation.Professor Charles H. Judd, of the School of Education, was one ofthe speakers at a dinner given at the University Club at the conclusionof the third annual conference of the North Central Academic Associa­tion on February 4.Associate Professor Otis W. Caldwell, of the School of Education,gave an address on January 17 before the Chicago Woman's OutdoorTHE UNIVERSiTY R�CORD 193Art League at the Art Institute, on the subject of "School and HomeGardens Movement."In the new eleventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica thearticle on "Geology" is contributed by Professor Thomas C. Chamberlin,Head of the Department of Geology, and Professor Rollin D. Salisbury,of the same department."Ruined Cities of Asia Minor" was the subject of an illustratedpublic lecture given in Kent Theater on March 8, under the auspicesof the Chicago Archaeological Society, by Professor D. M. Robinson,of Johns Hopkins University.Professor Harry A. Bigelow, of the faculty of the Law School, con­tributed recently to the series on "American Law and Procedure" theseventh volume, entitled Insurance. The volume is published in Chicagoby the DeBower-Chapline Company.At the celebration on February II of the fifteenth anniversary of thefounding of the Englewood Woman's Club of Chicago Associate ProfessorS. H. Clark, of the Department of Public Speaking, gave an address onthe subject of "Woman and the Drama."At the luncheon given by the alumni of Johns Hopkins Universityon February 22, at the University Club, Evanston, Professor Albion W.Small spoke on "The University Man in Politics," and Associate Pro­fessor Albert H. Tolman on "American Folk-Songs.""Certain New Vocations and the Training They Require" was thesubject of an address before the Chicago Association of CollegiateAlumnae, in the Fine Arts Building on February 18, by Professor JamesH. Tufts, Head of the Department of Philosophy.Professor William A. Nitze, Head of the Department of RomanceLanguages and Literatures, gave during the week of February 20-26a course of lectures before the Modern Language departments of JohnsHopkins University on the "Romances of Chretien de Troyes."Professor James H. Tufts, Head of the Department of Philosophy,spoke on January 26 before the ways and means committee of theChicago Association of Commerce, at the La Salle Hotel, on the subjectof "The Evils of Congestion in the Tenement House Districts."Director Charles H. Judd, of the School of Education, gave an addressbefore the Chicago Library Club, at a meeting in the Chicago PublicLibrary, on the subject of "The Relation of the Library to the School."The president of the Library Club is Mr. W. N. C. Carlton, librarian ofthe Newberry Library.194 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"To the Fire-Bringer" was the subject of a memorial poem to WilliamVaughn Moody in the January issue of the Century Magazine, byPercy Mackaye. Mr. Moody was for seven years Assistant Professor ofEnglish Literature in the University of Chicago. He died in ColoradoSprings in October, 1910."Latin Texts of the Dance of Death" is the subject of a contributionin the January, 19II, issue of Modern Philology, by Eleanor P. Hammond,who received her Doctor's degree from the University of Chicago in1898. Miss Hammond is the corresponding secretary of the Associationof Doctors of Philosophy."The Concert of Europe and the Federation of the World" was thesubject of a university public lecture in Kent Theater on March 14, byProfessor W. Alison Phillips, of Oxford University. Professor Phillipsspoke the following day on the subject of "Diplomacy and the Develop­ment of the Diplomatic Service.""Conservation in Illinois" was the subject of an address at Prince­ton, Ill., on February 10, by Associate Professor Wallace W. Atwood,of the Department of Geology. Mr. Atwood also gave an address atLake Forest February 17, on the subject of "A Geographical Study ofthe Lake Forest District of Illinois."In the January-February number of the Journal of Geology is a con­tribution by Associate Professor William H. Emmons, of the Depart­ment of Geology, on the subject of "The Agency of Manganese in theSuperficial Alteration and Secondary Enrichment of Gold Deposits."The article is illustrated by three figures.Count Albert Apponyi, formerly Hungarian Minister of Education,gave a university public lecture in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall onFebruary 23, his subject being "The Political Development of Hungary."The address attracted a large audience. The President of the Univer­sity presided and introduced the speaker.Professor Paul Shorey, Head of the Department of Greek, gave aseries of six public lectures in Houston Hall of the University of Pennsyl­vania from March II to March 22, on the subject of "Greek andEnglish Poetry: A Comparative Study." The lectures were givenupon the George Lieb Harrison Foundation.Associate Professor Gordon J. Laing, of the Department of Latin,was made vice-president of the University of Toro;}to alumni associationof the Middle Western states, at a banquet given at the University Club,Chicago, on February 25. Professor Frank R. Lillie, of the Departmentof Zoology, was made secretary of the same association at the same time.THE UNIVERSITY RECORD I95Before the Geographic Society of Chicago Associate ProfessorWallace W. Atwood, of the Department of Geology, gave an illustratedlecture in Fullerton Hall of the Art Institute on March 10, the subjectbeing "Over the San Juan Mountains to the Mesa Verde of Colorado,and a Geographic Study of the Cliff Dwellers."In January, at Montreal, Associate Professor J. G. Carter Troop, ofthe University Extension Division, gave an address on "Dickens andHis Christmas Stories," the Bishop of Montreal being chairman of theevening. Mr. Troop also gave an address on the same subject at Ottawa,Canada, under the auspices of the Unity Club on January 4.At a recent meeting of the American Chemical Society in MinneapolisAlexander Smith, Professor of Chemistry and Director of General andPhysical Chemistry, was elected president of the society for the year19II. The American Chemical Society has a membership of over 5,000,being the largest society devoted to one science in the world.The portrait of Mr. Charles L. Hutchinson, donor of HutchinsonHall and Treasurer of the University Board of Trustees, was recentlycompleted by Mr. Louis Betts of Chicago. The portrait is life-size andfull-length, and represents Mr. Hutchinson in college gown. A repro­duction of the portrait will appear in the Magazine in an early issue."Einst und Jetzt" was the subject of an address on February I2at the celebration in Chicago of the fortieth anniversary of the foundingof the German Empire, by Professor Starr W. Cutting, Head of theDepartment of Germanic Languages and Literatures. The address waspublished in full in the Illinois Staats-Zeitung of February 13, 1911.A recent publication in the City of Mexico is a volume entitledHoward Taylor Ricketts and His Work in Combating Typhoid Fever.An appreciation of Professor Ricketts' scientific work appeared in arecent number of the University of Chicago Magazine, the author beingProfessor Ludvig Hektoen, Head of the Department of Pathology andBacteriology.At a meeting of the Modern Language Association of America heldin New York City in December, I9IO, Professor William A. Nitze,Head of the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures, wasmade a vice-president. Professor William Gardner Hale, Head of theDepartment of Latin, was made chairman of the Committee on theRevision of Grammatical Nomenclature.In the February number of the Botanical Gazette appears the onehundred and forty-second contribution from the Hull Botanical Labora­tory, "The Anatomy of the Sporeling of Marattia alata." The con-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtribution, with four plates and three figures, is by Grace M. Charles,who acknowledges her indebtedness to Professor John M. Coulter andDr. W. J. G. Land, of the Department of Botany.Professor James H. Breasted, of the Department of Semitics, gaveduring February lectures at State College, Pennsylvania; RochesterTheological Seminary; Wells College, New York; and at Cornell andSyracuse Universities, the general subject of the lectures being" Throughthe Cataracts of the Nile"-an account of the University of ChicagoExpedition in Ethiopia during the years 1905-7.Among the Illinois physicians appointed by President William H.Taft to serve as lieutenants in the Army Medical Reserve Corps are Dr.John M. Dodson, Dean of Medical Students, and Dr. Ludvig Hektoen,Head of the Department of Pathology and Bacteriology. They are toserve without pay except at such times as their services are needed bythe government. They are subject to call on emergencies the same asregular soldiers."Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt" is the subject of tenlectures to be delivered in New York City in March, 19I2, before UnionTheological Seminary-the Divinity School of Columbia University­by James Henry Breasted, Professor of Egyptology and Oriental Historyand Director of the Haskell Oriental Museum. This series is known asthe Morse Lectures, and will be published later by Charles Scribner'sSons.Professor George E. Vincent, president-elect of the University ofMinnesota, was the guest of honor at a dinner given by the Chicagoalumni association of the University of Minnesota at the Union LeagueClub on the evening of March 18, the other guests being President HarryPratt Judson of the University of Chicago, President Edmund J. Jamesof the University of Illinois, and President Abram W. Harris of North-western University._"The Rivalry of Social Groups" is the subject of a contribution inthe January, 19II, number of the American Journal of Sociology, byProfessor George E. Vincent, of the Department of Sociology; and inthe same number is a discussion of "Housing Conditions in Chicago,III: Back of the Yards," by Assistant Professor Sophonisba P. Breckin­ridge, of the Department of Household Administration, and EdithAbbott, who received her Doctor's degree from the University of Chicagoin 1905."The London of Byron and Lamb" was the subject of an illustratedcontribution to the March issue of the Chautauquan magazine, by Assist-THE UNIVERSITY RECORD 197ant Professor Percy H. Boynton, of the Department of English, thisbeing the eighth article in a series under the general heading of " A Read­ing Journey in London." "Johnson's London" was the subject of acontribution by Mr. Boynton in the January number of the same maga­zine, and in the February number appeared an article on "Dickens'sLondon."Professor George E. Vincent, of the Department of Sociology, andpresident-elect of the University of Minnesota, gave an address on theevening of March 1 before the Council on Medical Education of theAmerican Medical Association, at the Congress Hotel, Chicago, his sub­ject being" Distrust of the Medical Profession." Other speakers ofthe evening were President William L. Bryan, of Indiana University,and President George E. MacLean, of the State University of Iowa.At a dinner given by the Civic Federation of Chicago on February 4,for the purpose of considering the subjects of initiative and referendumas proposed for general legislative purposes in Illinois, Professor J.Laurence Laughlin, Head of the Department of Political Economy,presided and was one of the speakers, other speakers being Mr. CharlesG. Dawes, president of the Central Trust Company of Illinois, and Mr.John C. Richberg, president of the Illinois Commission on UniformState Laws.President Harry Pratt Judson acted as judge of election on Febru­ary 28 in the twenty-sixth precinct of the seventh 'Yard, Chicago, in theRepublican primary election at which a member of his own Departmentof Political Science-Associate Professor Charles Edward Merriam­was nominated for the mayoralty of Chicago. Mr. Merriam became aDocent in Political Science in 1900; was made an Associate in 1902, anInstructor in 1903, an Assistant Professor in 1905, and an AssociateProfessor in 1907."The Historicity of Jesus: An Estimate of the Negative Argument"is the subject of a discussion in the January, 19II, number of the Amer­ican Journal of Theology, by Assistant Professor Shirley J. Case, of theDepartment of New Testament Literature. Errett Gates, AssistantProfessor of Church History in the Disciples' Divinity House, has acontribution on "Pragmatic Elements in Modernism," and ProfessorShailer Mathews, Head of the Department of Systematic Theology, hasa contribution entitled "The Evolution of Religion."Professor Heinrich Van't Hoff, professor of physical chemistry in theUniversity of Berlin, who received the honorary degree of Doctor ofTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELaws from the University of Chicago in June, I90I, died in Berlin onMarch 2, I9I1. In I90I he received the Nobel prize for research inchemistry. Professor Van't Hoff was a special lecturer on physicalchemistry at the University of Chicago at the time of the decennialcelebration, and was the author of Physical Chemistry in the Serviceof the Sciences, published by the University of Chicago Press.Annual prizes for the best essays on political science have been offeredby President Norman W. Harris, of the Harris Trust and Savings Bankof Chicago, the prizes amounting to $500 a year. The competition isopen to undergraduates of all colleges and universities in Illinois, Indiana,Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Among the members ofthe committee on prize essays is Associate Professor Charles E. Merriam,of the Department of Political Science. The subject announced forI9II is "The Prevalence of Crime in the United States: Its ExtentCompared with that in Europe, Its Causes and Best Means of Remedy."In the December, I9IO, number of the Biblical World was a contri­bution by Associate Professor Gerald B. Smith, of the Department ofSystematic Theology, on the subject of "Biblical Criticism, and theChristmas Message." In the January number of the sa�e journalAssistant Professor Shirley J. Case, of the Department of N�w Testa­ment Literature, has a contribution on "Modern Belief abou\ Jesus,"and Associate Professor Gerald B. Smith, a contribution on "A �tinc­tion between Canonical and Non-Canonical Books." In the Februarynumber Professor Theodore G. Soares, Head of the Department ofPractical Theology, contributes a discussion of "Some PsychologicalAspects of Regeneration."The publication of The Frankfort Book Fair: The FrancofordienseEmporium has been announced by the committee on publication ofthe Caxton Club of Chicago. This volume by Henry Estienne, con­taining the Latin text, with English translation on the opposite page, isedited with notes and a historical introduction by James WestfallThompson, Associate Professor of European History. There are fourchapters in the introduction: "The Beginnings of the German BookTrade"; "The Origin and Character of the Frankfort Fair"; "FamousFrankfort Book Printers: The Origin of the Mess Katalog"; and "TheDecline of the Frankfort Book Fair and the Upgrowth of the LeipzigBook Trade." The volume is embellished with numerous contemporarypictures reproduced from old imprints and is of unique interest to book­lovers. The edition consists of three hundred copies.THE UNIVERSITY RECORD 199Professor George E. Vincent, who is a Yale graduate of the class ofr885 and has long been active in the affairs of the Yale alumni of Chicago,was honored at a banquet given at the Blackstone Hotel on February 2I,when two hundred Yale men were in attendance. Among the speakersat the banquet were George H. Nettleton, of Yale University, and Mr,Edward Hidden, of St. Louis, president of the Western Association ofYale Clubs. Mr. Vincent was also the guest of honor at a banquet heldon February 20 in the Auditorium Hotel, Chicago, under the auspices ofthe Social Unions of the Baptist, Congregational, Methodist, and Pres­byterian churches. Mr. Abram W. Harris, president of NorthwesternUniversity and president of the Methodist Social Union, presided. Aboutsix hundred guests were present. Other speakers besides Mr. Vincentwere Professor Albion W. Small, Head of the Department of Sociologyand Anthropology; President O. S. Davis, of the Chicago TheologicalSeminary, and Rev. Joseph H. Vance, of the Hyde Park Baptist Church.In the January issue of the School Review Principal Franklin W. John­son, of the University High School, discusses the subject of "A Study ofHigh-School Grades," the article being illustrated by fourteen figures.To the same number Associate Professor Frank M. Leavitt, of the De­partment of Education, contributes an editorial note on "The BostonConferences on Industrial Education and Vocational Guidance." Inthe February number of the same journal Professor Leavitt has a con­tribution on "The Relation of the Movement for Vocational and Indus­trial Training to Secondary Schools." "What the University Expectsof High-School Students in English" is the subject, in the same number,of a contribution by Assistant Professor James Weber Linn, of theDepartment of English. Assistant Professor Charles Goettsch, of theDepartment of German, contributes an account of "A Visit to theFrankfort Musterschule:" Other contributions in the same number are"The First-Year Science Course in High School," by Associate Pro­fessor Wallace W. Atwood, of the Department of Geology, and "Reportof the Joint Committee on the Relations between the University ofChicago and Co-operating Secondary Schools," by Professor NathanielButler, Examiner for Affiliations. The University representatives onthis committee were Director Charles Judd, of the School of Educa­tion, Associate Professor Charles R. Mann, of the Department ofPhysics, Professor Frank J. Miller, of the Department of Latin, Asso­ciate Professor Herbert E. Slaught, of the Department of Mathe­matics, and the chairman, Professor Butler, of the Department ofEducation.200 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEACCESSIONS TO THE LIBRARIESDURING THE AUTUMNQUARTER, 1910During the Autumn Quarter, I9IO,there was added to the libraries ofthe University a total number of 6,405volumes, from the following sources:BOOKS ADDED BY PURCHASEBooks added by purchase, 3,937 volumes,distributed as follows: Anatomy, 58; Anthro­pology, 35; Astronomy (Ryerson), 13;Astronomy (Yerkes), 44; Bacteriology, I;Biology, II; Botany, 169; Chemistry, 39;Church History, 52; Commerce and Admin­istration, 10; Comparative Religion, 47;Embryology, 2; English, 392; English,German, and Romance, 5; General Library,420; Geography, 54; Geology, 22; German,42; German and Romance, I; Greek, 218;Haskell Library, 19; History, 433; Historyof Art, 36; Household Administration, 4;Latin, 209; Latin and Greek, 51; Latin,Greek, and Sanskrit and Comparative Philol­ogy, I; Latin and History of Art, 3; Latin,New Testament and Church History, 2; LawSchool, 232; Mathematics, 35; New Testa­ment, 19; Pathology, 14; Philosophy, 36;Physical Culture, 5; Physics, 35; Physio­logical Chemistry, 5; Physiology, 35; PoliticalEconomy.j-a: Political Science, 45; PracticalTheology, 17; Psychology, 33; PublicSpeaking, 6; Romance Languages, 72;Sanskrit and Comparative Philology, 35;Scandinavian Seminary, I; School of Educa­tion, 569; Semitics, 128; Sociology, 60;Sociology (Divinity), 8; Systematic Theol­ogy, 24; Zoology, 58.BY GIFTBooks added by gift, 1,663 volumes,distributed as follows: Anatomy, 3; Anthro­pology, 5; Astronomy (Ryerson), I; Astron­omy (Yerkes), 10; Biology, 39; Botany, 8;Chemistry, 7; Church History, 70; Com­merce and Administration, I; ComparativeReligion, 3; Embryology, 10; English, 10;General Library, 948; Geography, 18; Geol­ogy, 4; German, 16; Greek, 3; HaskellLibrary, 45; History, 35; History of Art,15; Household Administration, 3; Latin,14; Law School, 108; Mathematics, 61;New Testament, 1; Pathology, 3; Philos­ophy, 4; Physics, 10; Physiological Chem­istry, 2; Physiology, I; Political Economy,48; Political Science, 7; Practical Theology,5; Psychology, 3; Romance Languages, 4; Sanskrit and Comparative Philology, 2 ;School of Education, 103; Semitics, II;Sociology, I I ; Sociology (Divinity), 4;Systematic Theology, 3; Zoology, 4.BY EXCHANGEBooks added by exchange for universitypublications, 805 volumes, distributed asfollows: Anatomy, 2; Anthropology, 4;Astronomy (Yerkes), 23; Biologyy a; Botany,6; Church History, 33; Comparative Reli­gion, 6; English, 108; English and German,2; English, German, and Romance, 4;General Library, 134; Geography, 5; Geol­ogy, 16; German, 8; Greek, I; HaskellLibrary, 5; History, I; History of Art, 3;Latinv j ; Latin and Greek, 10; Law School.I; Mathematics, 87; New Testament, 26;Philosophy, 16; Physics, 7; Political Econ­omy, 16; Practical Theology, 5; RomanceLanguages, 145; School of Education, 38;Semitics, 36; Sociology, 18; Sociology(Divinity), 4; Systematic Theology, 30.SPECIAL GIFTSWallace Buttrick, miscellaneous-e-rz S vol­umes.City reports-233 volumes and 638pamphlets.Earl of Crawford, Bibliotheca Lindesiana:Vols. I-IV, catalogue of the printed bookspreserved at Haigh Hall, Wigan; Vols. VandVI, catalogue of the Tudor and Stuartproclamations.Chauncey M. Depew, orations, addresses,and speeches-8 volumes.Deutscher Reichstag, VerhandlungenI909-IO-13 volumes.Charles R. Henderson, miscellaneous-vasvolumes and 261 pamphlets.Charles L. Hutchinson, publications of theCarnegie Institution of Washington+-r Ivolumes.Sidney Loewenstein, miscellaneous+-govolumes and 5 pamphlets.Martin A. Ryerson, publications of theCarnegie Institution of Washington+ a 2volumes and I4 pamphlets.Marshall H. Saville and G. G. Heye,contributions to South American archaeology.The George G. Heye expedition-Antiquitiesof Manabi, Ecuador, Vol. II.Marion Talbot, miscellaneous+-g.S volumesand 597 pamphlets.United States government, documentsand reports=-aao volumes and 409 pam­phlets.J. J. Wait, Histoire des peintres de toutesles ecoles-I2 volumes.THE ANNUAL DINNER OF THE EASTERN ALUMNI ASSOCL\TION AT THE HOTEL ST. DENIS,NEW YORK CITY, JANUARY 25, 19IITHE ANNUAL DINNER OF THE EAST­ERN ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONBY MILTON JUDSON DAVIES, A.B., '03Secretary of the Association in 1910WHAT proved to be the most interesting and successful annualdinner of the Eastern Alumni Association of the University ofChicago was held on January 25 at the Hotel St. Denis in New YorkCity, President Harry Pratt Judson, in whose honor the dinner wasgiven, was at his best, and it came easy for the speakers and guests topay tributes to our worthy President. The absence of Mrs. Judsonwas deeply regretted by all.Dr. Eben C. Sage, '82, president of the association and known inpublic life as Assistant Secretary of the General Education Board,presided as toastmaster in graceful fashion. President Judson spokeof the generosity of the Founder of the University, the use to whichthe gifts are put, and the plans and hopes of the friends of the Univer­sity for its future development. Addresses were also given by CharlesZueblin, formerly Professor of Sociology at the University; Miss AnnieMarion MacLean, Ph.D. '00, Head of the Department of Sociology atAdelphi College, Brooklyn, N.Y.; William Harvey Allen, '98, one ofthe Directors of the Bureau of Municipal Research of New York City;Edwin E. Slosson, Ph.D. '02, associate editor of The Independent; theRev. Leslie Willis Sprague, ex '99-00, associate pastor of the Churchof the Pilgrims, and Miss Vida Ravenscroft Sutton, '03, of the NewTheater company. Miss Marjorie Benton Cooke, '99, delivered ahumorous monologue.In the course of his address Presiden t Judson said:The most significant incident of the past year has been the completion of Mr.Rockefeller's gifts, by the addition of $IO,OOO,ooo to the University funds. Thismakes a total of $35,000,000 which he has given to the University, and makes it pos­sible to plan for the next ten years wise and sound development of the existing depart­ments. vVe hope to have within the next few years some half a dozen needed buildings,among these one for the Department of Geology, a gymnasium and clubhouse forwomen, a building for the classical departments, and a stadium for the athletic field.We hope and believe that these will be given by friends of the University, in orderthat Mr. Rockefeller's gifts may remain intact fOI endowment, so far as possible. Fromhis gift of $IO,OOO,ooo� however, the University is to expend not less than $1,5°0,000for a chapel. This will be, we hope, a satisfactory structure of Gothic, centrallylocated, artistically beautiful, and adequate for all the University's needs.201202 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe significant fact connected with this gift is not merely its great amount butthat Mr. Rockefeller thereby completes his work for the University, and finallywithdraws all connections with the institution. He does this in the belief that theUniversity hereafter will be independent in form as well as in fact, and that it willthereby definitely become the property of the peopJe of Chicago and the Northwest.Very few benefactors of educational institutions have shown themselves so far­sighted and so self-denying as Mr. Rockefeller in this action.The questions before the Board of Trustees for the future involve not merely theprovision of adequate buildings, but also a plan of retiring allowances for the faculty,adequate provision for the care of the new library, and largely increased funds forbooks and for scientific equipment. It is also a necessary part of the University planto have a medical school on a high standard. Provision for this and definite plansfor it will be made a subject of study in the near future.William Harvey Allen, '98, was introduced by President Sage as aman whose work is in striking contrast with that of the CarnegieInstitution, which is discovering new stars in the heavens. Mr. Allenbegan and closed by recalling that municipal research had succeededin finding stars on the earth among city employees and officials, evenamong Tammany Hall representatives, which would be worth moreto humanity than all the stars the Carnegie Foundation might findwith $10,000,000.Mr. Allen recalled that the Bureau of Municipal research had asits three directors three former students of the University of Chicago,namely Henry J. Bruere, '02, Dr. Frederick A. Cleveland, who hasrecently been appointed by President Taft to organize the Bureau ofEfficiency for national departments, and himself. Other Universityof Chicago people connected with municipal research work are Paul C.Wilson, '02, an investigator; Frank A. Vanderlip, ex, one of the trusteesof the New York Bureau; Jesse D. Burks, '93, director of the Bureauof Municipal Research at Philadelphia; and Mrs. Vanderlip, Mrs.Jane Munroe Bruere, '03, and Mrs. Frances Williston Burks, '96.II The number of University of Chicago alumni prominently engaged in municipalresearch, civic improvement, settlement, social center, and playground promotionwork is exceptionally large. Among them are Mayo Fesler, '97, secretary of theMunicipal Association of Cleveland, 0.; Allen T. Burns, '98, general secretary ofthe Pittsburgh Civic Commission; Douglas Sutherland, '02, secretary of the CivicFederation of Chicago; Herbert E. Fleming, '02, Ph.D. '05, secretary of the IllinoisCivil Service Reform Association; Frances A. Kellor, ex '03, sec.retary of the Bureauof Industries and Immigration of the Department of Labor of New York; SophonisbaP. Breckinridge, Ph.D. 'OI, and Edith Abbott, Ph.D. '05, both of the ChicagoSchool of Civics and Philanthropy; Eugene B. Patton, Ph.D. '09, of the New YorkState Department of Labor; Abraham Bowers, '06, immigration commissioner for theCentral Y.M.C.A. of Chicago; Nels M. Hokanson, 'IO, newly elected director ofGads Hill Encampment, TIL; Jacob Billikopf, '04, head of the United Jewish Chari­ties, Kansas City, Mo.; Joseph Pedott, '07, of Chicago; Anna L. Peterson, '99, secre­tary of the Omaha Social Settlement, and many others.EASTERN ALUMNI ASSOCIATION DINNER 203Mr. Rockefeller should be included because, together with Mr. R.Fulton Cutting and Andrew Carnegie, he gave the Bureau its firstfinancial backing. Mr. Allen said in part:The country's greatest need is not for an aroused public conscience, but for apublic eye open not for ideals of government, but for an understanding of the methodsby which efficient government is possible. More important than the School of Medi­cine which President Judson hopes will become the best in the country would be aschool in sanitary administration to prove in how far physicians are unnecessary, andto make available to public officials and citizens knowledge heretofore too largelymonopolized by medical men.The University of Chicago should capitalize its more or less accidental respon­sibility for the men in charge of the New York and Philadelphia Bureaus of MunicipalResearch; now that it has no longer reason for appealing to Mr. Rockefeller for itselfit can without bias suggest another great educational foundation worthy of Mr.Rockefeller's beneficence. This municipal research foundation for teaching mento study and administer public business would operate in all parts of the UnitedStates; its faculty would be hundreds of public. officials and editors, and its studentsthe whole nation as well as the few hundred men who seek its training.In Mr. Rockefeller's autobiography he made a statement which all Universityof Chicago men should persuade him to change. He said that there would never bemoney enough to do the world's uplift work. He meant merely that there never willbe money enough if we go about it in the wrong way. The faculty of social science atthe University should teach that thew is money and to spare for the world's upliftwork if we go about it the right way.When universities turn out men who judge government by results, rather thanby theories, and men able to lead communities to efficient government because theyknow the steps necessary to take in securing efficient government, uplift work will beinfinitely easier. Little permanent headway can be made so long as college men andwomen are satisfied with concentrating their interest upon the fractional problemsrepresented by private philanthropy. The only agency in any community that isresponsible for carrying one hundred per cent of any public load is the city government.That happens to be the agency for analyzing which college men and women heretoforehave had least preparation.Dr. Sage then introduced Edwin E. Slosson, Ph.D. '03, AssociateEditor of The Independent, whose recent articles on the universitieshave been attracting such widespread attention. Dr. Slosson said,among other good things:The more I see of other universities, the more I think of Chicago; the better Iappreciate what it is, and the better I appreciate what it is not. Other universitieshave imitated Chicago to a certain extent. It would have been better for them tohave imitated it more. For example, one of the remarkable educational discoveriesof the age was that the year consists of twelve months, and that three goes into twelvefour times and nothing over. Previous to this the university had supposed thatthere were eight or nine months in a year.We cannot boast of so many oldest living alumni as many other universities, but204 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEwe have some of the livest living alumni in America. The alumni of a universitydo not sever their connection with it when they are graduated. The two are boundtogether for better or worse so long as life shall last. They are mutually dependent.The value of the diploma we hold is not fixed. It rises and falls, like shares of stock,with the reputation of the university that granted it. On the other hand, the standingof the 'university in any community depends largely upon the character and conductof the graduates of the university living there. Whenever anyone of us gets in jailit gives another gray hair to our Alma Mater. We should bear in mind this senseof mutual responsibility, as a safeguard against temptation. How often have I beensaved by it! I keep my diploma always at hand, and whenever I am tempted tocommit a barbarism, a solecism, or an impropriety, I lay down my pen and takeit out from the drawer, untie the maroon ribbon, and spread it out on the desk. Igaze on the Latinized form of my own name in the center of the parchment; I wonderwhat the other words around it mean, and then I roll it up and put it away again.The moment of temptation is passed. I look up the word in the dictionary or useanother word that I can spell. That is what synonyms are for.And now President Judson has explained to us the new motto of the Universityof Chicago. This will be of great help to us. We have long realized how hard it isto live up to a motto that we have never heard, to conform our practice to a non­existent ideal. Now this teleological idealism has come to an end. We know ourduty. The President has given us our password for the future.Rev. Leslie Willis Sprague, who was a student in the English Theo­logical Seminary of the University in I899 and I900, now associatepastor of the Church of the Pilgrims, speaking on the topic "EasternStudents in Western Colleges," said in brief:President Harper used to advise the students of the University of Chicago notto take all of their academic work in anyone institution, even the university of hispride. Western students, appreciating the advantages of broader contact, attendeastern colleges in large numbers. It would seem, to one familiar with the East andthe West alike, that western colleges would offer the same advantages for easternstudents that eastern colleges offer to students from the West. In many instancesat least, it is a mistake for students who have graduated from eastern universitiesto complete their education in European institutions, since they return to Americawith perhaps little idea of the real genius and needs of our American life. In thesedays, one must go to the West to find the broader and more virile types. Westerncommunities are more democratic than are eastern communities and in the MiddleWest community life is more closely knit together. This is particularly true of Chicago.One of the great advantages which the University of Chicago offers to eastern studentsis that of an easy approach to the city's life. It is not difficult for a student at theUniversity of Chicago to feel the heart throb of the great city by which it is surrounded.In addition to the many advantages of a pureJy academic nature which are offeredby the University of Chicago, there is added for the eastern student the incomparableadvantage of a broader, richer, and more virile Americanism which is certain to berealized by one who, familiar with the East and loyal to its great metropolis, NewYork, is yet for a time permitted to enter into the thought and feeling of the greatWest, as it centers in the throbbing life of Chicago.EASTERN ALUMNI ASSOCIATION DINNER 205Dr. Annie Marion MacLean, Ph.D. '00, author of Wage EarningWomen and head of the Department of Sociology of Adelphi College,Brooklyn, had for her toast "The University of Chicago Women in theEast," and said:There are several hundred alumnae in the East. Some went from the East tothe West and returned, others came from the West. In both cases the University's in­fluence is strong. The liberality of the West acts as a leaven wherever her graduates arefound. The University women. are occupying positions of trust and living loyal tothe teachings of their Alma Mater and working for the extension of learning andinsisting upon the value of the higher things of life. They are found in the collegesas heads of departments, teaching, and engaged in research. They are found asinvestigators, in various fields of social service, and as teachers in the schools. Theyare on the stage and in the stalls. Some have joined the shrieking sisterhood, othersthe crooning motherhood, but whether married or single they are functioning nor­mally in their separate spheres and like their brother bachelors, masters, and doctors,they are doing what they can to justify their existence and striving to uphold theideals of their Alma Mater.Introductions and sociability were made easy by the receptioncommittee pinning on each guest a card containing the name of thebearer and also the University" C." A very successful feature was theprogressive seating arrangement, whereby the men changed seats fourtimes during the course of the dinner.The newly elected officers for the ensuing year are:President-Dr. Eben C. Sage, '82.Vice-President-Miss Anna Bodler, 'OI.Secretaries-Miss Maudie L. Stone, '97, and George A. Young, '02.Treasurer-Dr. Rudolph M. Binder, '97.Executive Committee -Henry R. Caraway, '95; Milton J. Davies,'03; Miss Roxanne E. Langellier, '02; Maximilian Morgenthau, Jr.,'99; Miss Vida Sutton, '03.DISCUSSION AND COMMENTTHE CHICAGO ALUMNAE LOAN LIBRARYIn more than one way can the alumni clubs be of service to theUniversity. The Chicago Alumnae Club has found a most satisfactoryoutlet for its activities in the Loan Library, which is now located in thecorridor on the second floor of the University of Chicago Press building.The Loan Library had its beginnings almost with the foundation of theAlumnae Club itself in 1898. The aim of the Library is to providebooks at 25 cents a quarter to students unable to buy them. Its capitalis made up of 350 textbooks of more or less recent dates, and the rentals,averaging fifty per quarter. The greatest number of books ever rented,-eighty-five-was for the Fall Quarter of 1910. There are fines forthe late return of books which, in the Spring of 1909, when the ten-cents­a-day fine was inaugurated, equalled the -amount received from rentals.This lucrative department was short-lived however, for at the end ofthe last quarter no fines were collected.The demand for books far exceeds the supply. Many of the booksin the Library are no longer in use. Others are old editions soon to bediscarded altogether. Of many other titles not enough copies are athand. Finally, no self-supporting library could possibly keep pacewith the frequent changes in textbooks at the University. The purchaseof an expensive Salisbury's Physiography-the :five copies in the libraryare not enough for one-third of the requests-or a Chamberlin's Ge­ology at two dollars and fifty cents, with perhaps a copy of Manly'sProse and Poetry, or one of the new history textbooks, which are changedfrequently, soon depletes a credit of twelve dollars and fifty cents forrentals.Self-supporting the Alumnae Library is and always purposes to be,but in order to increase the efficiency the Library Committee, which ismade up largely of members of the Chicago Alumnae Club who givetheir service quarterly at the Loan Library desk, has evolved a depart­ment which should triple the rentals of the Library provided the interestand support of charitably disposed University students can be gained.This new department borrows such books as James's Psychology, Smalland Vincent's Introduction to Society, Millikan's Physics, and Schevill'sPolitical History of Europe, from anyone who is willing to lend thesebooks, with the understanding that, when the books are again wanted206DISCUSSION AND COMMENT 207by the donors, the library will return them in good condition, or elsereplace them by new copies, An accurate account is kept of the namesand addresses of lenders, and in order to avoid confusion these loanedbooks are catalogued under a separate system of their own.This new department is surely one to which any student can giveaid without too great a personal sacrifice 0 It means merely the troubleof sending to the University of Chicago Alumnae Loan Library, care ofAlumni Council Secretary Hansen, a list of the books a student may careto loan, with the caution of writing name and address distinctly in eachbook. They will be called for, as wanted, by the Library Committee,To sum up the Loan Library problem: With the assistance of moregirls at the desk each quarter, by means of more extensive advertising,with the aid instructors can give by announcements in classes, withoccasional donations of new books that are being continually publishedby members of the faculty of the University for use in the classroom;in all these ways, but most effectively of all by the loan of discardedtextbooks by students and graduates, the Loan Library can soon faroutgrow its present quarters, could rent 200 instead of 50 books a quarter �and could aid many students who now go away disappointed, feeling thelibrary cannot help them.The Library especially needs the following books:Angell, Psychology (ath ed.).Chamberlin and Salisbury, CollegeGeology,Larive and Fleury, French Dictionary.Dewey and Tufts, Ethics.Ely, Outlines of Economics.Fraser and Squair, French Grammar.Granville, Plane and Spherical Trigo-nometry.Greene, Government of Illinois.Hart, A ctual Government.Hart, Formation of Union.James, Psychology.Manly, Prose and Poetry.Millikan, Molecular Physics.Cicero, De Senectute.Lodge, History of Modern, Europe. Wilson, State.Small and Vincent, Introduction to Society:Newcomer, Rhetoric.Phillips, Effective Speaking.Robinson, History of Western Europe.Robinson, Readings in European History,Salisbury, Physiography.Schevill, P olitical History of ModernEurope.Smith, Introduction to Inorganic Chem-istry.Terry, History of England.Tylor, Anthropology.Collar, First-Year German.Moulton, Astronomy.Fyffe, Modern Europe.Bogart, Economic History of u.s.AN ANNOUNCEMENTGENERAL ALUMNI ACTIVITIESPlans are now well under way for thegreatest alumni celebration in the historyof western universities, to be held at theUniversity June I5, I6, and I7. Throughthe Alumni Council and members of theChicago Alumni Club a general com­mittee has been named to work out thedetails of the celebration. L. BrentVaughan, '97, is chairman. The othermembers are William Scott Bond, '97,James W. Linn, '97, Donald R. Rich­berg, 'OI, Dr. � John E. Rhodes, '76,William J. McDowell, '02, and Harry D.Abells, '97.The alumni and former students willbe grouped in their respective classes anda committee from each class will beappointed to get in touch with theirclassmates. The celebration will beheld on the twentieth anniversary ofthe founding of the University and willbe the forerunner of many future cele­brations.The plans include the annual "C"dinner on Thursday, June I5, fraternityreunions Friday evening, June I6, to beclosed with a general sing on the campus,a big downtown luncheon Saturday noon,a baseball game between Waseda Uni­versity and the Chicago team on Satur­day afternoon, a big stag dinner at 60' clock, followed by a vaudeville inLeon Mandel Assembly Hall at 7:30o'clock, at which time "C" blanketswill be presented to a number of the oldVarsity stars. The celebration is toclose with a pageant in uniform at Mar­shall Field, which will be thrown open tothe University and the public at 8o'clock.Chicago alumni who will come tothe city for the reunion are asked send a card to the Committee at once,so that the size of the crowd may beestimated and properly prepared for.THE ALUMNI DAY COMMITTEETHE ALUMNI COUNCILAt its regular meeting in March theAlumni Council adopted a resolutionratifying the preliminary work of theAlumni Day Committee, given above,and naming June I7 as the date for thereunion. The dinner was notable forthe reason that it was the last regularmeeting which Dean George E. Vincentattended as the representative of theUniversity. As he has been the sponsorfor a great part of the homecoming planthe Council members were pleased to beable to hear the favorable report at thismeeting. Present were Harry D. Abells,'97, chairman of the Council, RudolphE. Schreiber, '06, treasurer, HarryHansen, '09, secretary, Dr. H. E. Slaught,'98, Dr. Roy Flickinger, '98, Dr. Judson B.Thomas, '80, William J. McDowell, '02,Henry P. Chandler, '06, Trevor Arnett,'g8, L. Brent Vaughan, '97, and DonaldR. Richberg, 'or.Secretary Hansen's report containedthe following items of general interest:The circulation of the Magazine from Octo­ber I, 1910, to March I, 1911, shows a gain of252 over the corresponding period of lastyear.The total number of copies of the AlumniDirectory distributed by the Council up toMarch I is 915. The amount to be paid tothe University for directories up to March Iis $457.50; for distribution expense, $120.82;a total of $578.32.Alumni meetings and activities pastand : future include the following:Toledo, O.-Preparations for organizationin the hands of Earle S. Smith, ex '08.Cincinnati, O.-Organization begun atmeeting on February 19; dinner for Presi­dent Judson in April.Indianapolis, Ind.-The dinner for Presi­dent Judson to be held the night after theCincinnati meeting.Muskogee, Okla.-Reunion to be held onFebruary 21 postponed until April.Mobile, Ala.-First annual reunion ofto Chicago men at meeting of the Department208GENERAL ALUMNI ACTIVITIESof Superintendence of the National Educa­tion Association in February. ProfessorCharles H. Judd reported the presence offorty-two, all of them, excepting two, eithermembers of the faculty, former members, orformer students of the University.Des Moines, la.-Dinner for Dean Vincentheld by the Des Moines Alumni Club onFebruary I7.St. Louis, Mo.-A reunion during the con­vention of the Classical Association of theMiddle West and South, beginning April 7,is being arranged by the St. Louis AlumniClub.ON THE SECRETARY'S TABLESpace does not permit the publicationof many interesting letters received by theAlumni Council Secretary each month.Perhaps some time later in the history ofthe Magazine, when alumni support shallhave made possible the addition of aboutone hundred pages to each number, adepartment may be devoted to corre­spondence. At present the Secretarycan indicate only in a small way thetrend of alumni opinion.An interesting letter has come fromDr. Samuel Barnes, '95, for a long timeat the head of the alumni movement inSeattle. He writes from Honolulu:I see that Mr. Rockefeller has made anothermunificent donation to the University, repre­senting $IO,OOO,ooo, and said to be his finaldonation. I wish to express to the Universitymy joy at hearing this splendid news, andthe congratulations of one humble and far­away child of Chicago. I commend also theexcellent judgment of the Founder in with­drawing his representatives from the Boardof Trustees. Their loss must be keenly feltby the Board and their action is certainly asacrifice to principle which from some stand­points might be considered unnecessary. Butthe public can rarely recognize real disinter­ested activity. Certainly our wishes for ahappy and prosperous year to the Universitywill now be realized. Aloha milKindly express to Steinbrecher and otherboys of the baseball team my regret at notbeing able to greet them on their return toSeattle from the Orient.Frank M. Orchard, 'IO now with theChicago office of the Scientific American,not only sympathizes with the alumniwork, but is ready to enlist in the cause,as his letter shows:One query: What is to come of the weeklyalumni luncheons? For a while we met atthe Hotel Brevoort, but yesterday I wentthere about I2 :45 and saw no one at the bigtable. It seems to me that there could besome arrangement whereby this affair might 209be made a real "go." I'll bring a man nowand then.Judge Lawrence DeGraff, '98, presidentof the Des Moines Alumni Club, writes:I shall visit the University at the nextmeeting of the Association in June. I havegenerally been tied up with business affairsthat made it impossible for me to go to theUniversity at that time. But this year Ishall throw aside my work to be present.Within the last few months the Secre­tary has received many enthusiastic, in­spiring letters from Fred W. Carr, ex '09,who is working for the success of thenew Southern Ohio Alumni Club ofCincinnati. Recently he wrote:I don't believe I have yet thanked you forsending out the letters. I do now with pleas­ure. They brought results.Our committee dinner had only sevenpresent. I would have been content withfive, but two more than that turned out.Starting out slowly the little party got wellwarmed up and when we ended everyone wasmighty glad to put in a lick for Chicago.When the President comes we'll have a goodcrowd. If we don't have a lot, we will atleast have a lot of those who live here. Andthat's all anyone can ask.My roster includes about 46 graduates andformer students now, and I don't doubt thatit will run over 50. When you rememberthat only fifteen graduates are listed, thatmeans a good increase.Ralph Benzies, 'IO, is at home in Cleveland,0., resting until his Blackfriar play (Captur­ing Calypso) is put on.RALPH H. HOBART, '95Ralph Hastings Hobart, '95, has beenmade general agent of the NorthwesternMutual Life Insurance Company, inChicago. His predecessor, Charles D.Norton, left the Northwestern to becomeassistant secretary of the treasury, andlater secretary to President Taft. Mr.Hobart's offices are in The Rookery.THEODORE HAMMOND, '85Theodore Hammond, '85, president ofthe Milwaukee Alumni Club, has beenappointed a member of the Board ofRegents of the University of Wisconsinto succeed F. C. Thwaites, by GovernorMcGovern of Wisconsin. The Milwau­kee Journal contained the followingsketch of Mr. Hammond's career:Theodore M. Hammond is a son of LewisM. Hammond, a pioneer Wisconsin legislator,now of Chicago. He is 46, a resident ofWauwatosa, graduate of the Old University210 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof Chicago, class of 1885; was business agentof the new University of Chicago from itsfoundation in 1892 to 1897; is president ofthe Hammond Publishing Co., Milwaukee,publishers of Sunday-school supplies; presi­dent of the Wauwatosa Civic Association,president of the Milwaukee Alumni Clubof the University of Chicago, and Wisconsinvice-president of the International Sunday­School Association. He has one son, a gradu­ate of the University of Wisconsin, who isa United States engineer in the StrawberryValley Reclamation project in Utah, a youngerson a student in the university, and a thirdson and a daughter at the home in Wauwatosa.EASTERN ALUMNI NOTESMiss Sophia Berger, '04, is secretary ofthe Young Women's Hebrew Associationof New York.Miss Ida M. Gardner, '98, is teachingin Providence, R.I.Miss Helen E. Hendricks, '07, andMiss Davie Hendricks, '08, are studyingat the National Training School of theYoung Women's Christian Association,3 Gramercy Park, New York City.Joseph E. Freeman, '98, has been ap­pointed secretary of the American SugarRefinery, New York City.Miss Helen E. Jacoby, '09, is studyingat Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N.Y.Miss Edith B. Terry, '07, is located atthe Union Settlement, New York City.EUGENE B. PATTON, '07After three years as instructor inpolitical economy at the University ofRochester, Eugene B. Patton hasaccepted a position as expert in the NewYork State Department of Labor atAlbany. Mr. Patton received his Bach­elor's degree from Washington Collegein 1904, the Master's degree from theUniversity of Chicago in 1907, and hisPh.D. in the Department of PoliticalEconomy in 1908. His excellent workat Rochester has attracted wide attention.THE ALUMNI CLUBSCINCINNATIThe organization of an Alumni Asso­ciation of Southern Ohio was put wellunder way at a dinner of Chicago menand women-to be accurate, of men andone woman-at the University Club inCincinnati on February 10. The perma­nent organization was left until the visitof President Judson to Cincinnati inApril. Although the Register shows onlyeighteen alumni in Cincinnati, letterssent out beforehand brought in nearlyfifty names of graduates and formerstudents. The territory of the SouthernOhio club will cover about one hundredformer students of the University.The Cincinnati graduates are largelyconnected with religious institutions, asthe banqueters found on looking over thelist and adding new names. The Dea­coness Training School has six formerstudents, and the Hebrew Union Collegeeight. Three or four ministers foundplaces on the roll. Five of the professorsat the University of Cincinnati camefrom the University of Chicago.So few of the University people at thebanquet had ever seen each other thatthe affair seemed formal until recollec­tions of the City Gray were exchanged.When the meeting adjourned until thebanquet for the President each had theold-time enthusiasm of a rooter justbefore a Michigan game.Jessie B. Strate, '09, a teacher in theWoodward High School, Rev. A. W.Fortune, '05, pastor of the Walnut HillsChristian Church, and Fred W. Carr,ex '09, reporter on the Enquirer, wereappointed to look after the first meetingof the newest alumni association.FRED W. CARRTemporary SecretaryFebruary 16, I9IIINDIANAPOLISPreparations are being made by theIndianapolis Alumni Club for a dinnerand reunion for President Harry PrattJudson. Emsley W. Johnson, '01, secre­tary of the Club, reported on February 25that thirty members had already beenenrolled and that between thirty andforty alumni are expected at the reunion.TOLEDOPlans for the organization of an alumniclub in Toledo, 0., are in the hands ofEarle S. Smith, ex '08, known to theUniversity public as the composer ofseveral Blackfriar plays. He believesthat it will not be difficult to organize theclub, as a large number of former studentsreside in Toledo, in addition to the gradu­ates. At a conference with the Secre­tary in Chicago on February 20 planswere outlined for an early reunion of allformer University students.GENERAL ALUMNI ACTIVITIESDENVERPresident Wardner Williams has issuedthe following report of the annual meet­ing of the Rocky Mountain Alumni Clubat Denver:To the Members of the Rocky MountainAlumniAssociation:At the annual meeting held on January 2,the following officers were elected for theyear I9Il:President-Wardner Williams, Ph.D.First Vice-President, Ella R. Metsker, A.B.Second Vice-President- Joseph ChalmersEwing, J.D.Third Vice-President=-Harry E. Purinton,B.D.Secretary-Treasurer-Hayward Dare War­ner, B.S.A resolution was passed thanking the out­going secretary-treasurer, Miss Ella R. Mets­ker, for the very efficient work she has donein connection - with the organization andmaintenance of the association during thethree years she has served.The treasurer reported a deficit on JanuaryI, I9II, of $32.77, which it will be necessaryto meet from dues and contributions receivedduring 1911. It was voted that beginningJanuary I, 19I1, the dues be $1.00 a year.The territory covered by the Rocky Moun­tain Alumni Association includes Colorado,Wyoming, Utah, and New Mexico. Anypersons who have attended either the old orthe new University of Chicago, residing withinsaid territory, are entitled to become mem­bers of this association by the payment ofthe annual dues of $1.00. Upon receipt ofthe annual dues for I9Il, the secretary willenrol the applicant as a member of the asso­ciation and send receipt for the dues. Thesecretary will forward to the members of theclub of 1911 notices of all important meetings,banquets, receptions, etc.We need your hearty support in makingthe Rocky Mountain Alumni Association ofthe University of Chicago the great power itshould be in this western country. Will younot kindly send your dues and correct addressas soon as possible to. the newly electedsecretary-treasurer, Mr. Hayward D. Warner,1347 Steele Street, Denver?The following night letter was sent toPresident Judson upon receipt of the news 2IIof the recent donation to the University ofChicago by Mr. John D. Rockefeller:"DENVER, COLO., Dec. 21, 1910"President Judson and Board of Trustees ofthe University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois:"The Rocky Mountain Alumni Associationof the University of Chicago, covering Wyo­ming, Utah, New Mexico, and Colorado, ex­tends congratulations upon the munificentgift just announced for the University. Longlive one of the greatest men of the century,the founder of the University. We devoutlyrejoice with you at this Christmas seasonin the prosperity and usefulness of the U ni­versity we all so greatly love."WARDNER \VILLIAMS, President."The following reply was received fromPresident Judson:"HYDE PARK, CHICACO, ILL.,Dec. 22, 1910" Wardner Williams, Denver, Colo.:"Thanks for telegram on behalf of AlumniAssociation; will forward to founder."HARRY PRATT JUDSON."To all members of the Rocky MountainClub we extend most cordial greetings andbest wishes for the coming year.WARDNER WILLIAMS,PresidentSPRINGFIELDThe Springfield Alumni Club metat Lincoln Inn on January 14 to hear anaddress by Dean George E. Vincent.Miss Edith Matheny, '05, introducedthe speaker, who told of the recentchanges to the campus, the workings ofthe honor-point system, and future plansfor the growth of the University. Thosepresent were: Mr. and Mrs. SidneySmith; Mr. and Mrs. Collins; Dr. andMrs. Hugh T. Morrison; Mrs. StanlyCastle; Lillian Foley; Mary C. Johnson;Ethel Luke; Edith Matheny; PaulineJohnson; Elizabeth Laidlaw; NellieMerriam; Myra Smith; Susan Wilcox;Lulubel Walker; D. Frank Fawcett;and William P. MacCracken.Notice of the death of Miss Merriamon February 18 is given under theCollege Alumni Association.THE ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OFPHILOSOPHYHERBERT E. SLAUGHT, PH.D., '98, SecretaryNEWS NOTESArthur Ranum, '06, has been promotedto an assistant professorship in mathe­matics at Cornell University. OtherChicago Doctors in the department ofmathematics at Cornell are John I.Hutchinson, '96, Frederick W. Owens,'07, and Egbert J. Miles, '10.Professor Roy C. Flickinger, '04, ofthe department of Greek in NorthwesternUniversity, has a critical and interpre­tative article on "Scaenica" in theTransactions of the American PhilologicalAssociation, Vol. XL (1910). Dr. Flick­inger is president of the Doctors' Associa­tion and one of its representatives on theAlumni Council.Frederick W. Sanders, Sociology '95,who was formerly principal of the highschool at Lincoln, Neb., resigned in1909 and removed to California, wherehe owns an orange grove at Riverside.He has not retired permanently fromeducational work but expects to returnto it soon.Miss L. Estelle Appleton, '09, ispursuing research work at ColumbiaUniversity. A monograph of hers en­titled Play Characteristics has attractedthe attention of the Solvay Institute ofSociology at Brussels, of which she hasbeen invited to become a member. Sheis now engaged in a study of "TheSomatic Characteristics of Adult Savagesand Civilized Children."Miss Sophonisba P. Breckinridge,Political Science, '01, and Miss EdithAbbott, Political Economy, 'oS, havebeen conducting, during the past twoyears, under the direction of the RussellSage Foundation, an investigation of thehousing conditions in certain parts ofChicago. The report has recently beenmade public and many serious conditionsare brought to light and stated in nouncertain words.William P. Manning, '04, is adjunctprofessor of history in the Universityof Texas. After taking his doctoratehe first became instructor in history atPurdue University and afterward atGeorge Washington University. The printed list of publications of theCarnegie Institution of Washingtonincludes the following by Doctors ofthe University of Chicago: Coloration inPolistes, by Wilhelmina E. Key, Zoology,'01; Stages in the Development of SiumCicutaeiolium, by George H. Shull, Bot­any, '04; The Variation and Correlationof the Taxinomic Characters of Gryllus, byFrank E. Lutz, Zoology, '07; FactorTable of the First Ten Millions, by DerrickN. Lehmer, Mathematics, '00; Contri­bution to Cosmogony, by Rollin T.Chamberlin, Geology, '07; The AtriumVestae, by Esther B. Van Deman, L�tin,'98. and Inventory of Un-published.M dterial for A merican Religious History,by William H. Allison, History, '03.Fred B. R. Hellems, Latin '98, is pro­fessor of Latin and dean of the College ofLiberal Arts at the University of Colo­rado. He was abroad last year on leaveof absence.Emil Goettsch, Anatomy, '06, isassistant resident surgeon at the JohnsHopkins Hospital. After leaving theDepartment of Anatomy at the Uni­versity of Chicago, Dr. Goettsch tookthe degree of M.D. at the Johns HopkinsMedical School and was at once appointedassistant in surgery in charge of theHunterian Laboratory. Dr. Goettschis one of three brothers who hold thedoctorate from Chicago. The other twoare Henry M. Goettsch, Chemistry, '06,who is assistant professor of technologicalchemistry at the University of Cincinnati,and Charles Goettsch, German, '06,who is assistant professor of German atthe University of Chicago.Caroline L. Ransom, History of Art,'oS, is assistant curator of Egyptianantiquities at the Metropolitan Museumof Art, New York City.Clinton R. Stauffer, Geology, '09,formerly of Western Reserve University,is now in the department of geology ofthe School of Mines, Queen's University,Kingston, Ontario.John R. MacArthur, English, 'oS, ishead of the department of English at theNew Mexico College of Agriculture andMechanic Arts.212NEWS FROMCLASSES THETH� COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION1867J. T. Sunderland is a clergyman,residing at 65 Oxford St., Hartford,Conn.1870 ,Carleton E. Taylor is a clergyman inRock Island, Ill.1892Dr. William A. Waldo is pastor of theWilson Avenue Church, Cleveland, Ohio.1893William Steen Gaud holds the posi­tion of headmaster at the CharlestonSchool, Charleston, S.C.Hermann von Holst is an architectwith offices in Steinway Hall.Elkanah Hulley is president of Broad­dus Institute, Philippi, W.Va.C. W. Brinstad is superintendent ofthe Northern California Baptist Con­vention with headquarters at IS Eucalyp­tus Road, Berkeley, Cal.1894Charles Sproull Thompson, com­mercial agent for the Illinois CentralRailroad, has offices in the MajesticBuilding.1895Henry Dickie is pastor of the FirstPresbyterian Church at Chatham, Ont.,Canada.Frank Morton Erickson, professorof Greek and dean at Ripon College,resides at 529 Woodside Ave., Ripon,Wis.Lillian V. Lambert is a professor ofEnglish in the Iowa State TeachersCollege, Cedar Falls, Ia.1896Anna James MacClintock is an in­structor of English at Ferry Hall, LakeForest, Ill.Edward Brind Escott, instructor inmathematics at the University of Michi­gan, lives at 1825 Hill St., Ann Arbor,Mich.Kenneth G. Smith has changed hisoffices from the Empire Building to theEngineering Building in Milwaukee, Wis. 1897Henry Harwood Hewitt resides at317 Downing St., Denver.Frank Puterbaugh Bachman holds aposition as assistant superintendent ofthe schools of Cleveland. -Merrill Griffith, in the American con­sular service, has been transferred fromTampico, Mexico, to Pernambuco, Brazil.Dr. Charles H. Murray practicesosteopathy at Elgin, Ill. He has writtenseveral books on this branch of medicine.Dr. Edgar J. Goodspeed left duringthe summer for an extended trip toforeign lands.Henry M. Adkinson is manager of theGold Pioneer Mining Co., of Telluride,Colo.William Scott Bond was recentlyelected treasurer of the University Club.Harry D. Abells, principal of MorganPark Academy, delivered a lecture on"The Boy Question" at the Hyde ParkY.M.C.A., on Sunday afternoon, Janu­ary 29.Mrs. Merle F. Eshbaugh has movedfrom 605 Ashland Boulevard to 125 IAshbury Ave., Evanston, Ill.William Scott Bond was one of theguests of the Chicago Alumni Club ofthe University of Minnesota at a recentmonthly meeting, speaking on theConference situation. Director A. A.Stagg was also present.1898Thomas Ovid Mabry, living at 514Park Ave., Rock Hill, S.C., is head ofthe department of natural sciences inWinthrop College.Edgar Ezekial DeCou teaches mathe­matics in the University of Oregon,Eugene, Ore.Paulina Moxely lives at 25 Via Grego­riana, Rome.Daniel M. Schoemaker is assistantprofessor of anatomy at St. Louis Uni­versity.C. K. Bliss teaches in the Queen AnneHigh School, Seattle, Wash.Mrs. John B. Tingle (Sarah Capps)resides at 485 Brunswick Ave., Toronto.Julius Henry Gauss, physician, hasmoved from 5I30 Evanston Ave. to5700 Winthrop Ave.2I3214 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWilliam Harvey Allen, secretary ofthe Bureau of Municipal Research of NewYork City, took post-graduate work atthe Universities of Leipzig and Berlin,receiving his doctor's degree at theUniversity of Pennsylvania. He is theauthor of Civics and Health, which hasbeen adopted by the Teachers' ReadingCircles of twenty-three states.Fred Merrifield, B.D., '01, will re-enterthe Divinity School as a member of thefaculty, having left just ten years agoto engage in religious work. For severalyears he has been director of the BaptistGuild Hall at Ann Arbor, Mich.1899Margaret Baker, head of the Englishdepartment, Evanston Classical School,lives at 2118 Orrington Ave., Evanston,Ill.Robert Lincoln Kelly is president ofEarlham College, Richmond, Ind.Ernest A. Scrogin now acts as legis­lative superintendent of the Anti-SaloonLeague of Illinois, with offices in theFranklin Building, Springfield.O. Hallingby resides at 1520 Heda St.,Calumet, Mich.Samuel Hope Thompson is presidentof the Northern Life Insurance Co.,at Rock Island, Ill.Edward Frantz now lives at 255 BayView, Long Beach, Cal.Laurence M. Jacobs is London repre­sentative of the National City Bank ofNew York, with headquarters in theBank Buildings, Princess St., London.I900Edwin D. Solenberger is general secre­tary of the Children's Aid Society ofPhiladelphia.Ellen Yale Stevens is principal of theBrooklyn Heights Seminary, Brooklyn.Mrs. Harvey Case (Grace Ellen Beers)now lives at Laton, Cal.Nellie R. O'Brien has moved fromSpragg to Duff, Neb.Coe Hayne resides at 625 River St.,Elgin, Ill.Louis A. Higley, Ph.D., '08, has beenappointed to the chair of chemistry inWestminster College, Fulton, Mo.roorArthur E. Bestor, Director of Chau­tauqua Institution, gave a lecture on"The Diplomacy of Civil War" onFebruary 16 in Library Hall, Maywood,Ill.Marjorie L. Fitch, who resides per- manently at 4341 N. 42d Ave., teachesGerman in the Sterling, Ill., TownshipHigh School.1902Austin Y. Hoy represents the SullivanMachinery Company in the Northwestwith headquarters at Spokane, Wash.I903Franklin P. Ramsay has an office at8 The Sterling, Omaha, Neb.Ralph Merriam has opened a new lawoffice at 723 The Temple, 184 LaSalle St.Peter C. de J ong is at Manito, MasonCo., Ill.1904Katharine Stilwell spoke to the mem­bers of the Mothers' Round Table ofWoodlawn at a meeting held on Febru­ary 15 in the Woodlawn PresbyterianChurch.James Wright Lawrie, Ph.D., '07,chief chemist for the InternationalHarvester Co., has moved from 451 W.7Ist St., to 10106 Prospect Ave.1905David R. Kennicott, estimator for theMcKeown Bros., general contractors,lives at 2642 West 36th St.Eugene Parsons was the author of anappreciation of the late William VaughnMoody, which appeared in The Standardfor December 24, 1910.1906Harry Baxter Benninghoff, A.M., '08,is professor of the philosophy of religionin Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.Vada Ma yall, a teacher in the highschool at Oklahoma City, Okla., livesat II 7 W. Ninth St. Her home addressis IOI2 W. Wood St., Decatur, Ill.ENGAGEMENTS'99. Ralph C. Hamill, son of Theoph­ilus Wythe Hamill, of the Virginia.Hotel, and Margaret Hunt, daughter ofJames A. Hunt of Winnetka. Dr.Hamill is a physician in the asylum atDunning.'08. Lauretta Octigan, ex, daughterof Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Clark Octigan,4538 Lake Ave., to Kenneth White,son of Dr. R. L. C. White of Nashville,Tenn. The marriage is to take place inJune. Mr. White is a graduate ofVanderbilt University.'09. Albert Herskowitz, ex, of Okla­homa City, Okla., and Olga F. Polachek,of Chicago.THE COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONMARRIAGES'98. Charles Lederer, member ofthe Chicago law firm of Adler & Lederer,and representative in the last GeneralAssembly, and Florence, daughter of Mr.and Mrs. Philip Freiler of 653 DouglasAve., Elgin, on January 13. Mr. Ledereris a son of Mr. and Mrs. S. Lederer,3146 Grand Boulevard. After gradu­ating from the University he took his lawwork at Northwestern, taking his degreein I90r. In 1904 he was admitted to theSupreme Court practice.'03. George L. Marsh, Ph.D., Asso­ciate Professor of English in the Univer­sity Extension Division, and Miss EthelMacEwen, ex, daughter of JamesMacEwen, cashier of the Citizens' StateBank of Postville, la., on March 21.Mr. and Mrs. Marsh sailed March 29 forthe Mediterranean. They will be athome at Chicago after October I.'0S. Schuyler Baldwin Terry, Ph.D.,'10, and Phebe Frances Bell, '08, daugh­ter of Mr. and Mrs. F. E. Bell of 1530East 66th St., on February 28. Theywill temporarily reside at 6042 InglesideAve. Mr. Terry is bond salesman forthe Harris Trust Company.'0 5. Flora Belle Hermann and DirkBruins during February in Milwaukee.Miss Hermann had formerly been a teach­er in that city. They reside at 2702Wells St.'06. Frederick Rogers Baird, J.D.,'08, and Ruth Estelle Miller, daughterof Mr. and Mrs. Frelon R. Miller, inOmaha on February II, Rev. Frank G.Smith officiating. The best man was 2I5Vail Eugene Purdy, '06, J.D., '08, withwhom the groom has been associated as alaw partner, the firm having offices at937 New York Life Building.'06. Dr. Frederick J. Lesemann, S.B.,and Bertie Marie Gerstkemper of Nash­ville, Ill., on March IS. They will liveat 7801 Union Ave., Chicago.'08. Reginald R. Gates, Ph.D., andDr. Marie Stopes of London on March 18in Montreal, Quebec. Dr. Gates isconnected with the Botanical Garden atSt. Louis, Mo.'II. Gerald A. Fitzgibbon, ex,and Harriet Briesen, daughter of Mr.and Mrs. R. F. Briesen, 6601 RhodesAve., on January 3I. The ceremony wasperformed at the Holy Cross RomanCatholic Church by Rev. D. D. Hishen.They live at the home of the bridegroom'smother, Mrs. John J. Fitzgibbon, 2954Michigan Ave.DEATHS'0S. Nellie Emily Merriam died ather home in Springfield, Ill., on February18, I9II, after a brief illness, of pneu­monia. She was a teacher in the Spring­field High School and actively identifiedwith alumni interests, having beensecretary of the Springfield Alumni Clubsince its organization. She was laidto rest in Atlanta, Ill.'08. Dr. Harrison A. Lyding died inChicago on March 20. He received hisS.B. from the University and began hiswork in medicine as interne in MichaelReese Hospital. He was 23 years old.Interment was made at Peoria, Ill.THE LAW SCHOOL ASSOCIATIONRUDOLPH E. SCHREIBER, '06, SecretaryWilliam R. Peacock, '09, is now inJarvis, Ontario, Canada.Horace G. Nebeker, '06, is a memberof the firm of Nebeker, Hart, Nebeker &Thatcher with offices in the CommercialBuilding, Logan, Utah.L. C. Lindeman is in Enderlin, N.D.Victor H. Kulp, '08, is located in Room1548, First National Bank Building.Elias C. Ashton, '07, is a member ofthe firm of Edwards & Ashton in SaltLake City, Utah, with offices in theNew house Building.William P. Bair is a member of the firm of Orwig & Bair, 608 CrockerBuilding, Des Moines, Ia.Allen W. Field, Jr., '09, is in Lincoln,Neb.Howard E. Flanagan, '10, may beaddressed at 302, 215 Dearborn St.Walter D. Freyburger, '10, is now inRoom II62, Schiller Building.Karl H. Dixon, '08, is in the StateCapitol, Boise, Idaho.Ezra L. Baker, '09, has his offices at 325Citizens Bank Building, Aberdeen, S.D.The address of Francis E. Hinckley is1440 First National Bank Building.UNDERGRADUATE LIFEBLACKFRIAR SONG COMPETITIONOne hundred dollars is to be given bythe Blackfriars for the best Chicagosong submitted in a competitionannounced on March 7. It is hoped thatthe offer will meet with a generousresponse from alumni, former students,and undergraduates. The followingnotice is being sent to all past andpresent students who are thought to beinterested.The Blackfriars announce the offer of aprize of $50 for the lyric and $50 for the musicof a dignified non-athletic Chicago songsuitable for perpetuation as an expression ofloyalty to the University.Lyrics will be judged separately on April 2,IOIl, and if a satisfactory lyric is found, thiswill be sent to all interested musicians. Musiccan be submitted with lyrics if desired.The contest is in the hands of David A.Robertson, Henry Sulcer, Gordon Erickson,DeWitt D. Lash, and Albert Butler, whoreserve the right to extend the date of closingthis contest until a satisfactory song is found.Please submit manuscripts anonymously,with name in sealed envelope.THE BLACKFRIARS,ALECK G. WHITFIELD, AbbotATHLETICSThe final standing in basket-ball for1910-II places Chicago third, with Pur­due and Minnesota tied for first place.The latter two will in all probabilitycontest for western honors, after whichthe winning team will meet Columbia,the eastern champions, to decide thenational championship. The team wascomposed of Sauer (captain), Goettler,Paine, Bell, Fulkerson, and Goldstein(substitute). The following games wereplayed:January 7-N orthwestern 16, Chicago 24·January I4-Chicago 23, Illinois 17·January 2o--Chicago 13, Purdue 23·January 2I-Chicago I4, Indiana 22.January 28-Chicago 22, Wisconsin 46.February 4-Indiana 17, Chicago 33·February ro-e-Purdue 20, Chicago 14.February I8-Minnesota 13, Chicago 22.February 24-Illinois 18, Chicago 19.March 4-Wisconsin 12, Chicago 24.March r r+-Chicago 16, Minnesota 23· The schedules for baseball this springand football next fall are as follows: �Baseball:April I5-Chicago at Northwestern.April ro +Chicago at Wisconsin.April zo-e-Iowa at Chicago.May 3-Chicago at Illinois.May I3-Illinois at Chicago.May ac-+Purdue at Chicago.May 23-Minnesota at Chicago.May 27-Wisconsin at Chicago.May 31-Illinois at Chicago.June 6-Chicago at Purdue.June 7-Chicago at Indiana.Football:October 7-Indiana at Chicago.October 14- Purdue at Chicago.October 2I-Illinois at Chicago.November 4-Chicago at Minnesota.November I r-e-Chicago at Northwestern.November I8-Cornell at Chicago.November 25-Wisconsin at Chicago.College players of golf have formed aWestern Collegiate Golf Association forthe purpose of contesting for nationaltitles. Paul Hunter, a Sophomore inthe University and one of the crackgolfers of the country, has been electedsecretary.DRAMATICSLeon Mandel Assembly Hall was filledfive nights of the Winter Quarter forentertainments by men and womenof the University. On February 18the Cosmopolitan Club held an Inter­national Night. On February 25 -theWomen's Athletic Association stagedits first large vaudeville and comicopera. The Glee Club and the TheodoreThomas Orchestra, with the assistanceof Mrs. Rose Lutiger-Gannon, soloist,gave its home concert on March 9. TheDramatic Club presented George BernardShaw's You Never Can Tell on March 18.Music for the Blackfriar play Cap­turing Calypso, by Hilmar Baukhage, 'II,and Ralph Benzies, '10, has been selectedby the judges. Richard Myers, RussellStapp, and Earl Bowlby are the success­ful contestants.Dancing classes continue weekly underthe direction of Miss Mary Wood Hin­man.216