JOH� DAVISON ROCKEFELLERA· BUST BY WILLIAM COUPERPresented to the University of Chicago hy Friends in ChicagoThe University of ChicagoMagazineVOLUME III JANUARY, 191 I NUMBER 3GIFTS AT THE SEVENTY�SEVENTHCONVOCATIONITHE PRESIDENT'S QUARTERLY STATEMENT ON THE CON­DITION OF THE UNIVERSITYTHE University has been favored recently by a very interesting giftfrom Mrs. Erskine M. Phelps. Dr. Frank W. Gunsaulus, actingfor Mrs. Phelps, presents to the University a collection of books andpictures of historical and artistic interest, pertaining to the personalityand character of Napoleon Bonaparte. This collection was formedthrough many years of study on the part of the late Erskine M. Phelps.It is desired by Mrs. Phelps that the collection shall be made foreverthe property of the University of Chicago and be known as the "ErskineM. Phelps Collection of Napoleona." This will form a valuable additionto our Historical Museum.The Historical Museum is further enriched by a gift of a very valu­able collection of engravings and autographs pertaining to America andAmerican history in the time of Washington and of Abraham Lincoln.This is a joint gift from Edward B. Butler and Frank W. Gunsaulus.I quote from the joint letter of these gentlemen:We feel, as Thomas Jefferson says concerning his collection of books which wasconveyed to Congress by one of the letters in this collection herewith tendered to theUniversity of Chicago, that "it ought not to continue private property," and thatthere is a particular fitness in this disposition of these letters because those of Wash­il1gton, Jefferson, Dearborn, and Lincoln have to do either with the fortunes of theNorthwest Territory or with events of inspiring significance in this region. The letterof General Thomas Gage, mentioning the Illinois country in 1766, and that of StephenI The Seventy-seventh Convocation of the University was held in the LeonMandel Assembly Hall on December 20, 1910.121122 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEA. Douglas, the founder of the first University of Chicago, addressed to the BaltimoreConvention at a critical hour in our nation's history, are examples of autographic lorewhich we trust will in time be given by many hands and most appropriately to theUniversity of Chicago.These two gifts to the Historical Museum will add greatly to thevalue of the work done in the Department of History, by way of makinghistorical events and persons real to the students in future days. Thegenerous interest which Mrs. Phelps, Mr. Butler, and Dr. Gunsaulustake in this vital branch of University work is highly appreciated by themembers of the department and by the University at large.A member of the faculty, whose name is at present withheld, givesto the University interest-bearing securities of the par value of $5,000.The income is to be at the disposal of the donor through life, and after­ward to be devoted to certain specific University purposes.LETTER FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEESAn important gift has come to the University for improving theresources of the Department of Physics. I quote from a letter from Mr.Martin A. Ryerson:To the Board of Trustees of The University of Chicago:GENTLEMEN: On account of the progress of the science of physics some changesin the plan and equipment of the Ryerson Physical Laboratory have become verydesirable. Furthermore, it is evident that the demands upon the Laboratory spacewill soon exceed its capacity. Therefore I propose to make certain improvementsin the present building and its equipment, and to add to the capacity of the Laboratoryby erecting and equipping an annex, all at my own expense and in accordance withplans which have been prepared by Messrs. Shepley, Rutan, and Coolidge.Awaiting your action on this proposal, I remainVery sincerely yours,(Signed) MARTIN A. RYERSONMr. Ryerson, with characteristic modesty, declines to permit me tostate the cost of this very important addition to the Ryerson PhysicalLaboratory. It is unnecessary to say that the gift has been receivedby the Board and by the Department with cordial expressions of appre­ciation.There is another letter to be presented, which I wish to be read bythe President of the Board of Trustees. I have the honor to introduceMr. Martin A. Ryerson.GIFTS AT SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONVOCATION 123LETTER FROM THE FOUNDER OF THE UNIVERSITYTo the President and Trustees of The University of Chicago:DEAR SIRS: I have this day caused to be set aside for the University of Chicago,from the funds of the General Education Board which are subject to my disposition,income-bearing securities of the present market value of approximately ten milliondollars ($10,000,000), the same to be delivered to the University in ten equal annualinstalments beginning January I, 19II, each instalment to bear income to the Uni­versity from the date of such delivery only. A list of these securities is appendedherewith. In a separate letter of even date my wishes regarding the investment anduses of the fund are more specifically expressed.It is far better that the University be supported and enlarged by the gifts of manythan by those of a single donor. This I have recognized from the beginning, and,accordingly, have sought to assist you in enlisting the interest and securing the con­tributions of many others, at times by making my own gifts- conditional on the giftsof others, and at times by aiding you by means of unconditional gifts to make theUniversity as widely useful, worthy, and attractive as possible. Most heartily do Irecognize and rejoice in the generous response of the citizens of Chicago and the West.Their contributions to the resources of the University have been, I believe, more thanseven million dollars. It might perhaps be difficult to find a parallel to generosityso large and so widely distributed as this, exercised in behalf of an institution so recentlyfounded. I desire to express my appreciation also of the extraordinary wisdom andfidelity which you, as President and Trustees, have shown in conducting the affairsof the University. In the multitude of students so quickly gathered, in the highcharacter of the instruction, in the variety and extent of original research, in thevaluable contributions to human knowledge, in the uplifting influence of the Univer­sity as a whole upon education throughout the West, my highest hopes have beenfar exceeded. It is these considerations, with others, that move me to sum up in asingle and final gift, distributing its payment over a period of many years to come,such further contributions as I have purposed to make to the University. The sumI now give is intended to make provision, with such gifts as may reasonably be expectedfrom others, for such added buildings, equipment, and endowment as the departmentsthus far established will need. This gift completes the task which I have set beforemyself. The founding and support of new departments or the development of the variedand alluring fields of applied science, including medicine, I leave to the wisdom of theTrustees as funds may be furnished for these purposes by other friends of the University.In making an end to my gifts to the University, as I now do, and in withdrawingfrom the Board of Trustees my personal representatives, whose resignations I inclose,I am acting on an early and permanent conviction that this great institution, being theproperty of the people, should be controlled, conducted, and supported by the people,in whose generous efforts for its upbuilding I have been permitted simply to co-operate;and I could wish to consecrate anew to the great cause of education the funds whichI have given, if that were possible; to present the institution a second time, in so faras I have aided in founding it, to the people of Chicago and the West; and to expressmy hope that under their management and with their generous support the Universitymay be an increasing blessing to them, to their children, and to future generations.Very truly yours,(Signed) JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER26 BROADWAY, NEW YORKDecember 13, 1910124 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESTATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE BOARDOF TRUSTEESIt would be difficult to describe adequately the emotions arousedin the minds of the members of the Board of Trustees by the communi­cation I have just read.There is first of all a feeling of the deepest gratitude for this wonder­ful gift. It assures to the University for many years to come a con­tinuous development which cannot fail to inspire confidence and receivefurther impetus through the aid of other benefactors.In withdrawing from an active interest in the affairs of the Uni­versity the Founder has left no cause for disappointment on the materialside, but there are sentimental considerations which cannot be over­looked, and in measuring the benefits which the University has derivedfrom his interest in its welfare, there must be taken into account notonly the great sum of his benefactions and the wisdom with which theywere bestowed but also the constant encouragement derived from hispersonal interest and sympathy.Mingled, however, with the regret that Mr. Rockefeller should deemit wise to sever the ties which have united the Founder to the University,there is recognition of the force of the reasons given for this action, andthere is the conviction that in thus anticipating all that he had in mindto do for the University and in withdrawing his representatives fromthe Board of Trustees, Mr. Rockefeller is moved solely by a desireto promote the welfare of the institution he founded.The Board of Trustees, in adopting a resolution expressing its grate­ful appreciation of Mr. Rockefeller's generosity, ordered spread upon therecords the following minute, a copy of which will be engrossed and con­veyed to Mr. Rockefeller by a special committee of the Board:MINUTE ADOPTED BY THE BOARD OF TRUSTEESThe Board of Trustees of the University of Chicago accepts the gift made by Mr.Rockefeller in his letter of December I3, I9IO, and pledges itself to carry out in thespirit as well as in the letter the conditions accompanying it.It is now twenty-one years since in May, I889, Mr. Rockefeller made his first giftto the University of Chicago. The present gift marks, therefore, the completion ofa significant period in the history of the University throughout which he has co­operated with other friends of the institution to place it on a permanent foundation.This final gift will make the total amount which the University will have received fromits Founder approximately thirty-five million dollars ($35,000,000).We know of no parallel in the history of educational benefaction to gifts somunificent bestowed upon a single institution of learning. But unique as they are inamount, they are still more remarkable for the spirit in which they have been bestowed.GIFTS AT SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONVOCATION 125Mr. Rockefeller has never permitted the University to bear his name, and consentedto be called its founder only at the urgent request of the Board of Trustees. He hasnever suggested the appointment or the removal of any professor. Whatever viewsmay have been expressed by members of the faculty, he has never indicated eitherassent or dissent. He has never interfered directly or indirectly with that freedom ofopinion and expression which is the vital breath of a university; but has adhered with­out deviation to the principle that while it is important that university professors intheir conclusions be correct, it is more important that in their teaching they be free.More significant still: this principle has been maintained even in his attitudetoward the teaching of a subject so intimate as religion, wherein the mind is keenlysensitive to differences of opinion. Although at times doctrines have been voicedin the University which traverse those the Founder is known to hold, he has nevershown a desire to restrain that freedom which is quite as precious in theology as inother fields of thought.Such a relationship between a great benefactor and the institution which he hasfounded affords a model for educational benefaction through all time to come.In contemplating the severance of this long-continued relationship, so graciouson his part and rendered delightful by so many acts of personal courtesy, the Trusteesare unable to express their appreciation of munificence so vast exercised in a spiritso fine. It is the conjunction of the act and the spirit of the act which has made itpossible to create and maintain the University, and the Trustees hope that throughthe ages to come the University of Chicago, by training youth in character and inexact learning and by extending the field of human knowledge, may justify all thathas been done by its Founder.SECOND LETTER FROM THE FOUNDER26 BROADWAY, NEW YORKDecember 13, 1910To the President and Trustees of The U ni'lJersity of Chicago:DEAR SIRS: Referring to my letter of gift of even date, I set down here morespecifically my wishes regarding the fund therein contributed.Pending the delivery of the securities, the General Education Board is to havethe right from time to time to change the investments, using the same care and havingthe same discretion as in the case of its own securities. As nearly as is practicable,the deliveries each year are to be made from the various cfasses of securities in theratio which the securities of each class bear to the total.It is my desire that at least the sum of one million, five hundred thousand dollars($1,500,000) be used for the erection and furnishing of a University chapel. As thespirit of religion should penetrate and control the University, so that building whichrepresents religion ought to be the central and dominant feature of the Universitygroup. The chapel may appropriately embody those architectural ideals from whichthe other buildings, now so beautifully harmonious, have taken their spirit, so thatall the other buildings on the campus will seem to have caught their inspiration fromthe chapel and in turn will seem to be contributing of their worthiest to the chapel.In this way the group of University buildings, with the chapel centrally located anddominant in its architecture, may proclaim that the University in its ideal is domi-126 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEnated by the spirit of religion, all its departments are inspired by the religious feeling,and all its work is directed to the highest ends.Whether the chapel can be so planned as to admit of housing the Young Men'sChristian Association and all the distinctively religious functions of the University,or whether this will require a separate building, is a matter which can best be decidedin connection with the plans of the architects. I will ask you kindly to submit theplans before their final adoption to my son, who will be fully informed regarding mywishes.Apart from what may be required for the chapel, the remainder of the fund maybe used, in the discretion of the Trustees, for land, buildings, or endowment, but nopart of the principal sum shall be used for current expenses. No doubt other donorswill offer the University many if not all of its needed buildings. Legacies now writtenin wills, or to be written, will become available from time to time for these and otherpurposes. I hope therefore that this final gift from me may be used for endowmentas far as practicable.Any changes which the future may make advisable in the disposition of these,funds may be made by mutual consent. For such purpose I now appoint my son asmy representative, and in case of my own death and of his death, he is to be succeededby my executors.Very truly yours,(Signed) JOHN D. ROCKEFELLERALBERT ROSS HILLPRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURIConvocation Orator December 20, r o r oSOME SUCCESSES AND FAILURES OFTHE AMERICAN COLLEGEIBY ALBERT ROSS HILL, PH.D., LL.D.President of the University of MissouriSUCH occasions as this furnish naturai opportunities for takingstock of our educational efforts, and besides, my excuse for speak­ing on this theme is that others are doing so and I feel the impulse toexpress my views. Furthermore, I have expressed them informally tosmaller groups and now take advantage of this opportunity to presentthem to a larger audience. No educational institution in Americatoday is receiving so much attention as the college. Against none areso many attacks made by critics; at the same time none is apparentlyso popular with the general public, and the college was never so wellpatronized by the youth of the country. The high-school teacherswant their schools affiliated with the college, and the fellow who is notconcerned in the affiliation charges the college with domination of thehigh schools. The student for whose education the college is supposedprimarily to exist seems reasonably well satisfied with the institution.Indeed he shows his loyalty to it on occasion in forms of expression thatindicate great enthusiam. Yet some observers and some collegeteachers and administrative officers find in this very enthusiasm evidenceof false ideals and the failure of the college to render the sort of servicedemanded by its purposes.Perhaps it will be well as a basis for the views I am about to expressto state how I conceive the functions of the college and the purposes itmight be expected to serve. Preliminary to that, however, I wish to statethat we in the Middle West are not likely to consider the college as con­fined in its work to instruction in literature, history, and the fundamentalsciences, to academic subjects as we sometimes call them; for we havecolleges of agriculture, of commerce, of education, etc., offering the samegrade of instruction that is offered in the college of letters and science, aswell as special groups of courses or subjects organized within the latter.By the college I mean an educational institution of a certain gradeintended for the instruction of students in the later years of youth, con-I Delivered on the occasion of the Seventy-seventh Convocation of the University,held in the Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, December 20, I91O.I27I28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtrasting thus with the high schools that serve the interests of youth inthe early teens on the one hand, and the graduate and strictly profes­sional or technical schools on the other, which are intended for maturestudents.What then are the functions of such an institution? It would seemthat the college ought to bring youth to an appreciation of the greatvalues of life-to give a basis for sound criticism of life-in short, todevelop sobriety of judgment as contrasted with the inebriety of judg­ment which seems characteristic of the average man. Furthermore,I take it that the college ought to stimulate the social imagination ofyouth and to train him to social responsiveness. The college graduateshould be able to perceive and discriminate between the modern formsof sin and of righteousness; to condemn some things that might not havebeen condemned under different conditions of society, and to see thepaths of duty that lie aside from the beaten track. The college mayalso be expected to discover to the youth himself and to his advisers hisfundamental and permanent interests, if, as in many instances, that hasnot been already done, and to do something toward establishing thoseintellectual interests and habits of thinking that mark the truly educatedman. And it does not seem unreasonable to expect also of a collegethat it shall give some training that will fit its graduates for their futureoccupations, or at least prepare them for ready adaptation to the callingsselected. Aside from its influence upon the students in attendance,the college may be expected to contribute to the welfare of people whofor any reason cannot enter its gates, to interact on society by bringingitself into vital connection with the life of the people, through its con­tributions to letters and science and the solution of political and socialproblems, through its extension lectures, and its bulletins of informationon various subjects. 'Now the college attempts to accomplish these results in the first placeby providing instruction in a variety of subject-matter fitted to intro­duce students to typical forms of human experience and endeavor.Whether every student gets instruction in a variety of subjects or not,their very presence in the college is broadening and stimulating to allwho live within its walls and share in its intellectual life. This varietyof subject-matter not only provides the opportunity for each student tosecure orientation in the chief fields of human experience and thought,and enables him to choose after experience his special lines of study forthe satisfaction of his tastes or preparation for his future calling; but italso recognizes the individuality in capacity and interest of a greatSUCCESSES AND FAILURES OF AMERICAN COLLEGE I29number of students, and associates young men for a number of yearswith others whose interests are in some respects common with and yetin others different from their own. So far as its program of studies isconcerned, the American college, at least in our section of the country,has shown marked adaptability to the changing conditions of society andto the development of human activity and thought. If it still lacksadjustment to the conditions of our present civilization, that cannot becharged to any unwillingness to incorporate the results of the latestdiscoveries in science or to introduce courses that seem likely to giveinsight into any form of social activity. The traditional one-curriculumcollege has gone, and the transformation that has taken place is one ofthe great and significant educational achievements since the Civil War.The American college has everywhere increased its resources and hasundertaken to serve a far wider range of social activities and to ministerto a greater variety of capacity than educators of a generation ago everconceived possible. This democratization of the college must so farforth be regarded as one of its successes.The college aims more or less consciously to accomplish some of itsbest results by providing an atmosphere supposed to favor the promotionof intellectual interests and worthy ideals of life through the quality ofits teachers and students and their relations with one another. It givesopportunity for intimate association with a relatively select lot of per­sons, selected not on the narrow basis of wealth, family history, etc.,but on account of their character, ambitions, intellectual interests, andstandard of scholarship already attained. In the scholarship of itsstudents the standards of admission have gradually been advanceduntil they are approaching respectability, and college faculties are on theaverage possessed of much more accurate scholarship and greater erudi­tion in their special fields than those of a generation ago. There is also,I believe, a greater enthusiasm for scholarship among college teacherstoday than formerly, and many a youth has caught that enthusiasmfrom lecture hall or laboratory and has come to realize that learning"is not harsh and crabbed, as dull fools suppose, but musical as is Apollo'slute." Whether this atmosphere sufficiently dominates the life of thecollege today or whether in its entirety the college life is improving in thisrespect, I wish to consider later on.The college has achieved a pretty rich social life. This movementseems to be largely indigenous to the students and the natural outcomeof the grouping of large numbers of youth in the later years of adolescence.On account of the numbers and variety of interests represented, stu-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEdent life has become quite complex and varied, and student activitiesaccordingly so. In spite of excesses in certain directions, of which morewill be said later, it is nevertheless true that for the average Americanyouth the college provides a splendid social environment, better thanhe can get elsewhere, in which flourish many of the social qualities thatmake for social efficiency as well as enjoyment later on. No adequateanalysis of the social side of education has been made, and no properestimate of its value arrived at; but it is safe to say that the Americancollege, largely through the efforts of the students themselves, has pro­duced a rich, varied, and valuable social life whose abuses, which cannotbe ignored, are probably not inherent, but consequent upon the lack ofintelligent regulation by the faculty and administrative officers. Oursocial and honor fraternities, debating clubs and musical organizations,our athletic contests and student" stunts," etc., all tend to enrich thesocial life of students and afford opportunities for the development ofsocial insight, the display of leadership, and the growth of social respon­sibility and public spirit.Furthermore, the college has in recent years done something in theway of conscious preparation of its students for citizenship through itsclassroom instruction. The splendid opportunities offered in thesetimes for the study of history, economics, sociology, and politicalinstitutions stand out in marked contrast with the program of studiesoffered by the college previous to the Revolution and even previousto the Civil War. The improvement of the program in these respects,together with the opportunities offered of a quasi-collegiate characterin the direction of training for social duties, present a marked im­provement in the preparation for citizenship that our colleges arenow making.In spite of numerous insinuations to the contrary, the college, in theMiddle West at least, has shown great adaptability in co-ordinatingits work with the high schools and with the professional schools as well ..It has given to the high schools increasing freedom in instruction as ithas become more democratic in its own program of studies and moreappreciative of the fact that the secondary schools have their own func­tions to perform, and that it is the business of the college to educateyouth Of a certain age irrespective of their special capacities and futurecallings, and irrespective of the special subject-matter by means ofwhich the student has been prepared for admission. Similarly it hasceased to be a preparatory institution merely for a few learned pro­fessions, but furnishes opportunity for large numbers to secure the sortSUCCESSES AND FAILURES OF AMERICAN COLLEGE 131of fundamental training that will be needed as a background for specialand professional studies.Nor has the college, in the Middle West at least, failed entirely torecognize its responsibilities to the life of the people away from its campus.It has tried not only to guard but to make available the social inheritance.Much is being done by its faculty and officers to enrich the life of thepeople, by aiding certain callings to utilize the results of scientific investi­gations, by making the college the scientific arm of the government,and by inspiring large bodies of people to greater intellectual interest andto more hygienic and rational modes of living. The American collegeis today showing a strong tendency to feel itself responsible to the entirepeople of its section. Thus far this function has been much more clearlyrealized by our colleges of a semi-professional character than by ourcolleges of letters and science, but the latter also are now entering on adynamic period and are endeavoring to make their subjects studies thatwill function more effectively in the lives of students and of the com­munities which they represent.If we turn now to some of its failures, we should bear in mind at theoutset that the age is one of transition and that there is always someinertia about the machinery of any institution, which is liable in such anage to produce certain maladjustments. But we should not be toolenient in our judgment of our own shortcomings. It seems to me thatone defect, common to both the lower schools and the colleges, is a lackof motivation in the work that students are pretending to do. Thisapplies chiefly to the work in letters and pure science. The collegefails largely in its teaching to make use of and to keep alive and developthe native curiosity or spontaneous intellectual interest of youth. TheFreshman too often displays more curiostiy, is less blase, and readierto work with the motive of pure interest in the subject as such than theSenior. This is probably the greatest weakness in the work of our col­leges today. Of course part of it is due to the greater popularity of thecolleges, and the fact that large numbers now go to college with lessdefiniteness of purpose than formerly. But with our more varied programof studies, with greater recognition of individuality of taste and capacity,it seems strange that there should, apparently at least, be less genuineintellectual interest on the part of the 'average student than in the olderAmerican college. There seems, furthermore, to be less tendency toread, discuss, ask questions, and reflect, aside from the requirements ofthe classroom work, than in the days when the program of studies madeprovision for instruction in only Latin, Greek, and mathematics. If the132 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEproblems of philosophy and ethics really touch students and inspire them,their meditations and discussions will concern the world riddles-thenature of reality, the measure of truth, the purposes of life, the bases ofobligation, the meaning of duty. If science means much to them itsproblems of theory, of detail, and of practical application will be thestaple of the talk at their clubs. If they are getting anything worthwhile out of their ecomonics and their sociology, the proof of this willbe seen in their absorption in the topics of political theory and economicpractice, in social phenomena and sociological theory. And if litera­ture and the other arts are to be sources of inspiration and solace for theirleisure hours during the years of a busy life after graduation, one wouldexpect to find students ready to take advantage of exhibitions of theproducts of these arts and occasionally engaged in the discussion of themerits of certain products or of the technique and criteria of all artisticexpression. Now we must frankly admit that too much of the conversa­tion of students today is on the barber-shop level, concerning itself withball games, and dances, and" stunts"; that there is a general aversionto "talking shop" and a general addiction to small talk and college gossip.And when they leave aside their respective specialities, even the facultymembers are not above permitting much of their conversation to turnon matters of like trivial importance.This defect of college work and life must, partly at least, be laid atthe door of our teaching. Some think it due to the increasing importanceattached to research among college faculties, but the spirit of discoveryis the very thing whose lack I am lamenting among college students;and if it were true that our faculties were imbued fully with the researchspirit, that would hardly be possible. The fact seems to be that manycollege teachers are inclined to a sort of pedantry in their investigationsand publications, and that those who pretend to much interest in researchare really not possessed of a genuine interest in discovery of vital truthbut rather in the amassing of data from a more or less mechanical stand­point, and with the publication of articles that in form chiefly give evi­dence of original investigation. The more fully we can establish theresearch spirit among college instructors, the more vital should theirteaching become, and the greater success we ought to have in keepingalive and developing that native curiosity of youth which would showitself in the interests and habits whose lack we have been calling attentionto, and among the elect would blossom into independent investigationand the consequent enrichment of human life. More vital teaching,directed to the development of the youth rather than to the coveringSUCCESSES AND FAILURES OF AMERICAN COLLEGE 133of ground in the subject-matter, and to the creating of interest in thethings that are really worth while, will help us to overcome one of themost serious defects in our colleges.This weakness of our colleges seems to arise partly also from the verycomplexity of their present tasks. In a time when all students who wentto college were looking forward to two or three professions, and when theessential preparation for all those professions was the study of Latin,it was easy to determine the motives for study and appeal to them.The earlier college was semiprofessional; but in the college of today,when the program of studies has been changed to make provision forpractically all classes, the teacher cannot as easily adapt his instructionto, and therefore utilize the vocational interests of all the students. Thisis a problem which the present-day college of liberal arts has yet to solve.Now I know that some will object to the appeal to vocational interestsand insist that college students should work from the pure love of study.Yet this is to expect of them something very unusual among mankindgenerally. Man is not primarily a thinking animal; for the most parthe is active, or, as the late Professor James put it in extreme form per­haps, "his thinking is first, and last, and all the time for the sake of hisaction." And it is putting study and life on too high a plane for theordinary mortals who go to college, to expect them all to show sustainedinterest in their classroom work or to lose themselves in subject-matter,so that intellectual interests will dominate their leisure hours, from purelove of the game of thinking for its own sake. The presence of the voca­tional aim in study does not vitiate the other values to be secured. What­ever tends to bring about greater insight will enhance the essentialvalues of a study. The young ladies in the colleges of the Middle Westwho are studying languages and history with a view to teaching thesesubjects are deriving as great benefits in the way of culture and insightinto human life as they could get if they were studying without any voca­tional motive. Insight into human experience and responsiveness tosocial demands upon an individual, that constitute essential elementsin culture, can probably come quite as well through the pursuit of asubject with a vocational aim as by the pursuit of it from interest in theproblems involved for their own sake, and much better than from anapproach based on fashion or tradition. The success already achievedin securing greater efficiency in study and better mental discipline on thepart of those colleges that serve some special group of students, such ascolleges of commerce, education, etc., is pertinent as bearing upon thispoint. And our colleges of arts and science will probably have to effect134 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEsome organization of courses for, special groups of their students, oraccomplish the same result by a system of student advisers.Lack of motivation in the work of our college students, whether of astrictly intellectual or vocational sort, is the prime cause of so muchloafing among the students of today. This is more common amongstudents in eastern colleges than in the Middle West, probably chieflybecause of the presence there of more men who have gone primarilyfor the social values of the place without strong intellectual interestsand without reference to preparation for any particular calling. Thewealthier students of our section of the country still tend to go East.On the whole, however, I do not attribute the loafing in college to thewealth of the individuals concerned. Many of the wealthier studentsare from environments where there are keener and more varied intellec­tual interests than in those from which we draw our more serious studentsin the state colleges. And the students who have the means to go tocolleges where they wish have the intellectual interest if only they wereproperly managed and taught. Now I am not one of those who believewith reference to college that" it is better to have come and loafed, thannever to have come at all," for I believe that the college is intended as aplace for study and that if we permit students to make student activitiesand other avocations the main purpose of their presence in college, weencourage superficiality and triviality in thinking, intellectual dishonesty,and lack of moral responsibility. We must consider that the studentcomes to college to study and the permanency of loafing is largely in thehands of our faculties, and it is not a shortcoming of the college that is byany means incurable. It can be cured by more vital teaching and bythe elimination of the unfit, of those who Will not use the opportunitiesof college life to their intellectual advantage.I consider the possession of scholarly interests of some sort as aprerequisite to sound relationship or association in college. One who hasnot this equipment and cannot or will not be led to its acquisition canneither be a valuable part of a college community nor profit sufficientlyby any association within it. Herein lies the fallacy of all talk aboutthe value of mere college life and associations. Values of this sort theremay be and ought to be, but only upon the condition that the settingand the background of that life is one of scholarly interests and whole­some ideals of service. And the student who cannot stand the testfor membership in such a community on reasonable terms is an injuryto his fellows and therefore unfit, and should be eliminated in the interestof others as well as of himself; in the interest of others, because the faculty,SUCCESSES AND FAILURES OF AMERICAN COLLEGE 135after eliminating the unfit, can give more stimulus and guidance to thosefit to profit by their efforts, and because a person of the class that wouldnaturally be eliminated, tends always to demoralize the environmentwhich influences all; and in the interest of himself, because he had betterbe learning something worth while elsewhere, learning to do somethingwith a will instead of discovering how to dodge responsibility, to bluff,and to graft.In this connection it is sometimes said that the college is today per­mitting students to give too much attention to such student activitiesas intercollegiate athletics at the expense of the more serious businessof college life, and that the students are making heroes of the footballmen rather than of the scholars. Now, there is no doubt an undueemphasis given to such student activities in these days, and it is difficult tosecure rational consideration of the dangers by which we are threatened.We are providing an artificial stimulus in the form of intercollegiate com­petition for one of the side-shows of college life, while we are not takingpains to recognize sufficiently the scholarly attainments of our students.It would doubtless be extremely difficult to bring the public to such aninterest in intellectual honors as they readily show in our intercollegiateathletic victories, but we could at least do something in the form ofawarding honors to students of high attainments in scholarship thatwould aid much to offset the warped sense of values that is likely to resultfrom the present craze over intercollegiate competition in athletics.But the danger with which we are threatened and the failure of thecollege in this respect need not be unduly magnified in order to be con­sidered. And, frankly, I do not think that the situation is so serious asit appears to some members of our faculties. When I recall the excite­ment of my undergraduate days over football contests and the popularityof the great players, I find that their glory was not half so permanent asthat of the honors "men in classics, mathematics, etc. But this is prob­ably due to the fact that in the college I speak of, scholarship honorswere awarded, magnified, and placed on permanent record. The honorssystem which prevails in the English and Canadian colleges I believeto be an excellent antidote to the great interest naturally taken amongstudents in their student activities. Student activities and otheravocations are essential to the development of the social instincts, ofsocial insight and responsibility, but unfortunately there are some activi­ties of certain college students that are not really student activitiesat all, but are just social and commercial enterprises which, in aprofessedly scholarly community, tend to usurp the place of study,THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEexperiment, reading, and reflection. These should be eliminated asfar as possible, but before suppressing student organizations or activitiesof a legitimate sort or intercollegiate competition in connection withthem, the faculties would do well first to take positive steps to attachgreater honor to scholarly attainments on the part of students, andexercise greater zeal in the elimination of all individuals who provethemselves unworthy of the time and energy now bestowed upon them.After that, any influence in college life which tends to vitiate the moral,aesthetic, or intellectual standards of students, and seems clearly to havesuch inherent drawbacks, whether by diverting their interests and ambi­tions from proper ideals or by distributing rewards and recognition ofability on lines other than those appropriate to a college community,should be eliminated and relegated to the limbo of outgrown collegetraditions.While speaking of the importance of scholarship honors and ofan honors system, I am reminded of the present policy of the Universityof Missouri to encourage students to do good work by crediting themtoward a degree for the quality of their work as well as for the number ofhours of classwork which they attend. The student who does superiorwork is given a fraction more credit toward graduation than the averagestudent and the inferior student is given less. In brief, the points for adegree are "weighted as well as counted," and the able or diligent stu­dent is thus able to make more rapid progress. It recognizes the factthat some students can do in three years what it takes others four yearsto accomplish, and also the fact that a given student can do work of thesame amount and quality in a year, whether he is registered for fifteenor eighteen class exercises per week. The customary method of permit­ting the strongest students to register for more hours, thus placing them­selves under more guidance by the faculty when they need less than theaverage, is wrong in principle, and the method above mentioned obviatesthis difficulty by permitting the student who does more and better workto make more rapid progress toward his degree without forcing him tospend more of his time in the classroom. The plan is working well andhas broken up a growing, and in my judgment unfortunate, tendencyamong students to shorten the period of their college education by pur­suing an undue number of courses at the same time, often at a sacrificeof the quality of their work.We are informed in certain quarters that there is nowadays a greatlack of individual training in our colleges. Now the classes we teachersattended as college students were about as large as the sections of classesSUCCESSES AND FAILURES OF AMERICAN COLLEGE 137which we have in our larger institutions of today. So, if true, thischarge cannot be laid to the fact that the instructor of these days is sooverburdened with numbers that it is not possible for him to becomeacquainted with the individual students under his charge. If there isanything in this criticism, it must be due to a lack somehow of thatethical attitude of the instructor toward his students which was socharacteristic of the college teacher of an earlier time. I fear that fromthis standpoint the charge is in some instances well founded, and hereagain it is not so much due to an interest in research as to the pedantryof our modern knowledge and instruction. Probably this is one reason,too, why so few of our college graduates in arts voluntarily take up theprofession of teaching. The process of teaching as they have observedit has not appealed to them as significant and worth while. But on thispoint the appropriate reaction has already set in.I have not attempted in this address to set forth all the excellencesor defects of the American college of today, but it is clear that the moststriking faults are capable of correction if not already in a fair way tobe soon corrected; that the more common faults are less strikinglymanifested in the institutions of the West than in those of the East; andthat with the criticisms of the public and the searchings of heart amongcollege teachers and administrators that mark the present epoch, weare likely to evolve, in the near future, colleges that will serve the interestsof their students and of society at large more effectively and more com­pletely than have similar institutions of other days.FROM DIPLOMACY TO WARIBY HARRY PRATT JUDSONPRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOPr�fessor of International Law and Diplomacy, and Head of the Department of Political ScienceIN the conduct of international relations it is obvious that differenceswill arise naturally and frequently, as occurs with personal relationswithin a state. These differences of course have a very wide range.They relate often to the interests of individual citizens or subjects of therespective countries. They relate frequently to international bounda­ries. They may involve the interpretation of international agree­ments, whether treaties or conventions. Inasmuch as there is nocommon sovereign over the nations of the world such differences mustbe settled directly by the nations concerned, and the first methodobviously is the ordinary process of diplomacy. The foreign officesof the powers find their raison d' etre in the fact of their constant employ­ment in arranging such matters. Of course many of these are compara­tively simple, and involve therefore no great difficulty in their settlement.Others are more complicated, and require at times long and painstakingnegotiation. The diplomatic correspondence of any of the foreign officesand the constant mass added to the corpus of treaties throughout theworld bear witness to the great number of results reached by this process.At times, of course, when relations between nations are strained andwhen it becomes extremely difficult to reach an agreement, commonfriends interpose their mediation in a friendly way, which sometimes maybe effective in bringing discordant powers together and reaching resultswhich could not be reached by direct methods. This, however, afterall involves in the end the same process of diplomatic interchange.If this were. all-in other words, if the differences between nationalstates could all be settled by diplomatic means-there would be here nomore to be said. Unfortunately, however, there occur circumstancesof such gravity that diplomatic interchange becomes futile. If thesedifferences are of sufficient magnitude, or at all events, if their relations tothe existing circumstances of national conduct are sufficiently provoca­tive, the result is a settlement by physical force. This has been com­monly called the last resort of nations. It should be that. Whether itJ: An address delivered in Washington, D.C., December 17, I9IO, at the Inter­national Conference of the American Society for the Judicial Settlement of Inter­national Disputes.HARRY PRATT JUDSONPRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOProfessor of International Law and Diplomacy and Head of the Department of Political ScienceFROM DIPLOMACY TO WAR 139IS III fact depends on a great variety of circumstances. We know,unfortunately, that many wars have occurred which patience, calmness,and far-sighted wisdom might have averted.However that may be, war stands at the other end of. the scale inwhich diplomacy is the beginning. What cannot be settled by diplomacymay in the long run be settled by war, with all its attendant calamities.It is wholly unnecessary in this gathering to dwell on the evilswhich war brings. Its long train of disaster, involving the destructionof life and of health, the destruction of property, and the numerousaccumulations of indebtedness, draining the very life blood from nations,are entirely familiar to all. Among the heaviest burdens of taxationresting on the world today is the twofold result of war: in the firstplace war debts; in the second place war armaments, which of coursehave their only justification as being in the nature of war insurance.Paying therefore the cost of wars in the past and paying for forefendingwars in the future involves an output which some of us think mightmore wisely be diverted toward the uses of peace, whether in the shapeof direct national expenditure or in the perhaps quite as useful shapeof relaxation of the burden of taxation on the individual.At the same time, while force as a means of settling internationaldifferences seems archaic, it should be remembered that within statesforce is still the ultimate means of preserving public order. There arestill tendencies toward disregard for law extending even to anarchywhich can be repressed only by the firm hand of the police power, whetherexercised through ordinary peace officers or through military organi­zation. If this is true within states, still more will it continue for along time to be true among states. It can hardly be expected, therefore,that the good order of the world can be maintained permanently withoutmilitary and naval armament of some sort.Notwithstanding the probable relative permanence of arms as themeans of enforcing the international police power, there is still a widefield for those who are seeking at least to reduce international collisionswithin the narrowest possible limits. It is to this end that arbitrationhas been sought and so largely extended. There can be no doubt thatthe tendency to settle national dissensions through arbitral courtsand the adoption of more definite machinery to that end have been oneof the most important advances of civilization within recent generations.Situations frequently arise in which nations that differ desire to reach asettlement. This desire is stronger than the willingness to engage in war.At the same time a national sense of honor, rightly or wrongly, willTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEoften make it impossible for diplomacy to reach an agreement. Underthese circumstances nations would rather have the matter settled inany orderly way than resort to arms. It is as an outlet for such situationsthat arbitration finds its most important justification. Of course,also, there are innumerable other matters not so serious which can veryreadily be settled by reference to such courts.There are, however, three difficulties with courts of arbitration whichare quite obvious. One is what is at least commonly believed to be thetendency of arbitral courts to effect a compromise. Compromises are attimes a wise means of reaching a settlement. Diplomacy often leads tothat result, as, for instance, in the boundary treaty between the UnitedStates and Great Britain in 1842, and again in 1846. It may be that acourt or arbitrator can wisely point out the desirability of compromise asa reasonable mode of settlement. This indeed was the attitude takenby the king of the Netherlands as between the United States and GreatBritain in I830. Still, if a question is referred to an arbitral court it isfar more satisfactory for such court to settle the question on its merits,both as to law and facts. It may be that as time goes on and arbitralcourts come more frequently to be employed the compromising tendencywhich has at times been seen will disappear. That, however, is at leastopen to question.In the second place, an arbitral court from the nature of its composi­tion refers every really difficult case to a single person as an umpire.The very composition of the court contemplates the possibility of thecourt's being divided equally, aside from the umpire, by predeterminedopinions. This throws the entire burden in such cases on one person,and makes it extremely difficult to secure an umpire whose decision canmeet undoubted respect. The arbitration between the United Statesand Great Britain over the matter of compensation relating to theNortheastern fisheries is a single illustration of this inherent difficulty inarbitral courts.In the third place, there are certain matters which under the presentconditions of international policy no nation will refer voluntarily to acourt of arbitration. These are especially matters which involve, orare believed to involve, the national honor, the integrity of the nationalterritory, and perhaps great questions of national ambition. It is thesematters about which nations are still willing to go to war if their endscannot be attained by peaceful means. There remains, therefore, alarge field within which the system of arbitration is not at presentpracticable.FROM DIPLOMACY TO WAR 141Of course the ideal settlement of differences between nations wouldbe by a court so constituted as to insure adjudication in accordance withlaw and equity, and whose decision should be absolutely binding onboth parties. This court, if it could be constituted, would not be opento the objection of settling delicate questions by a single umpire. Itwould not involve the necessity of a specific treaty for the reference ofdisputes, but its jurisdiction and, its procedure would be matters ofcourse. It should not be open to the objection of attempting to placateboth parties by needless compromises. It should have, and if properlyconstituted and duly established would have, an eye single to thesimple principles of law and justice on which all courts shouldultimately rest.It must, of course, be admitted that nations will hesitate to establishcourts of this character and to refer to them matters of dispute involvingwide range. At the same time, is it not likely that if judicial procedureshould be definitely established even within a narrow range and if thejurisdiction of these courts should be defined even within narrow limits,they would fully justify themselves in practice within their limits, so asto prove exceedingly useful? Again, as time passes and nations becomeaccustomed to the action of such tribunals of justice, and as experiencedemonstrates the fundamental equity involved in their transactions, theconvenience which would result might equally lead to a process ofbroadening jurisdictions, until the field might gradually become veryextensive. It is a matter of common experience that nations of latehave been content with the adjudication of arbitral tribunals on matterswhich a century ago could hardly have been settled at all unless by war.In like manner it seems to me clear that in the progress of civilizationthese judicial tribunals, once established, will certainly find their justi­fication in the clear conviction among nations of the world that theinterests of all are safe in the hands of the judicatory. After all, thefoundation of all respect for law or government lies in confidence thatsuch law and such government are just and open in their processes.So far as protecting the integrity of national territory is concerned, itcan hardly be expected that nations will be willing for many years tocome to refer disputes of a grave character to any court, but it seems tome far from impossible that courts may win so much of the confidence ofnations that in time even such questions may be submitted to theirjurisdiction.All this will necessarily involve a slow process. It cannot be consti­tuted in a moment; it must be begun, perhaps, in a small way, and must142 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEdevelop through the natural evolution of time. Time and patiencework wonders.There remain questions involving the independence and ambitionsof nations themselves. Independence, which is the very existence of anation, could hardly be settled by an international tribunal, unless itshould be a question of the exercise of the international police power.If, for instance, a given nation should in fact prove to be so unruly,so unsocial, so injurious to international order that its existence oughtno longer to be tolerated, the powers, acting together on the man­date of an international judicial tribunal rather than on the mandateof the foreign offices, might decree the extinction of the nationallife of the state in question, just as the criminal court within a statemay decree the extinction of the life of the malefactor. It may easilybe that such a case would never happen. At the same time it is conceiv­able, and should it occur, would it not rest on a far sounder basis thantransactions which have occurred in the past, and which, whatever theirjustification in point of equity, after all have had the appearance ofsimple international spoliation?So far as international ambitions are concerned, these of course arematters which would not be likely to come under the cognizance of acourt of international judicature. But if all other matters are graduallyeliminated, and placed under judicial procedure, would it not be plainthat the international processes which now often have the cloak ofmagnanimity and of the enforcement of justice, but which, in fact, havelurking under them simply ambition for increase in territory or in wealthby physical force, would be so obvious that they could not be defendedat the bar of public opinion? If international spoliation is obviousto all, would not nations hesitate to use extreme processes for theirgratification?Too much must not be expected from any international processeswithin a limited period. At the same time it seems to me that the nextstep should be, following on the successful establishment of ordinarymeans of arbitration, the successful establishment of a definite inter­national judicature; that the jurisdiction of this tribunal should be madeas extensive as the nations may at the outset consent; and that to thesound methods of such court and to its ascertained probity and wisdommay safely be entrusted its development along the lines of winninggradually the confidence of the world, and therefore a wider; and widerjurisdiction. If this supposition is correct it would seem plain thatanother step and a long one may be taken in the direction of eliminatingphysical force as a means of the adjudication of international disputes.CHARLES OTIS WHITMANHEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGYDied December 6, [910CHARLES OTIS WHITMANBY FRANK RATTRAY LILLIEProfessor of Embryology; Director of the Marine Biological LaboratoryPROFESSOR CHARLES OTIS WHITMAN, Head of the Depart­ment of Zoology of the University of Chicago, died of pneumonia,after a brief illness, on December 6, 1910. He was born in Woodstock,Maine, December 14, 1842. He received the degree of A.B. from BowdoinCollege in 1868, and of A.M. in I87!. From 1869 to 1872 he was prin­cipal of Westford Academy and in 1872 vyas teacher in the English HighSchool of Boston. A few years later he was studying zoology withLeuckart in the University of Leipzig and received the degree of Doctorof Philosophy from this university in 1878. From 1880 to 1881 he wasprofessor of zoology in the University of Tokyo, and in 1882 we find himstudying at the Zoological Station of Naples. From 1883 to 1885 hewas assistant in the Zoological Laboratory of Harvard University andwas then appointed director of the Allis Lake Laboratory at Milwaukee(1886-89). He was then called to the charge of the department ofzoology in the newly founded Clark University, and in 1892 he moved toChicago to become head of the Department of Zoology in another newlyfounded university, the University of Chicago, which position he helduntil his death, being thus associated with the whole of the formativeperiod of this institution. He was the first director of the Marine Bio­logical Laboratory, from 1888 to 1908, and established the policy of theinstitution. He was founder and also editor of the Journal of Morphology,the Biological Bulletin, and the Wood's Hole series of Biological Lectures.He was the chief organizer of the American Society of Zoology (origi­nally the American Morphological Society) and was its president forthe first four years. He was also a devoted teacher of advanced students,many of whom now occupy important academic positions in this country.He was member of many scientific academies and societies, and receivedthe honorary degrees of Doctor of Laws from Nebraska in I894 andDoctor of Biology from Clark University in I909. Among the subjectsthat occupied him during a life of intense activity in biological researchwere: the embryology, morphology, and natural history of leeches, themorphology of the Dicyemidae, the embryology of the bony fishes;evolution of color characters in pigeons; natural history of pigeons;hybridization and heredity in pigeons; and studies in animal behavior e-My acquaintance with Professor Whitman dates from the year 1891,when I was appointed to a fellowship in Clark University. At his invi-143144 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtation I spent the summer of this year at the Marine Biological Labora­tory in order to collect the material for my first research problem, whichI was to undertake under his guidance. The impressions which I receivedas a stranger to the Wood's Hole group were probably sufficiently typicalto indicate some of the sources of Professor Whitman's influence. Onarrival at Wood's Hole I went at once to see Professor Whitman andreceived my first impression, which was never effaced, of the rare dis­tinction and dignity of person that characterized him. He discussedwith me the nature of my maiden problem in research and listenedwith patience and respect to my crude opinions; and when the con­ference was over he introducedme to a group of his students who wereto be my associates during the two or three years following, and com­mended me to their care.My acquaintance with other members of the Laboratory soon spread,for all members, both teachers and students, took their meals togetherand enjoyed their pleasures in common in a spirit of complete democraticequality. The air was filled with biological discussion at all free times;and hard, unremitting investigation and study were the regular order,day and night, week days and Sundays. The Laboratory was neverclosed. In one corner of the library was posted a motto from LouisAgassiz' earlier Marine Laboratory at Penikese, that read, "StudyNature, not Books"; in another corner was another motto from thesame laboratory, and in Agassiz' own words: "The Laboratory is to mea sanctuary; let nothing be done in it unworthy of its great author."Once or twice a week in the evening there was a meeting at which somemember of the Laboratory, or a visiting investigator, presented thesubject of his investigation in its general bearings, and the address wasalways followed by free discussion. I think all of us must have enjoyedProfessor Whitman's hospitality in those earlier years, though sub­sequently the numbers became too large for all to be included in thesmall informal dinners that he gave.My own introduction to the Wood's Hole group was typical of many:Whether they came as students, or as fellow-investigators, they alwaysmet with a sincere welcome from Professor Whitman, ready recognitionfor work accomplished, and admission to the democratic circle. Sub­sequently, when my thesis for the doctor's degree had been publishedin the Journal of Morphology, I remember asking Professor Whitman,who was the founder and editor of the journal, why I had not receivedany bill for the reprints, which candidates for the doctor's degree wererequired to furnish to the University. He feigned surprise, but saidCHARLES OTIS WHITMAN 145not to worry if I failed to receive any. Many another student hasreceived his aid in this or another way.In many respects the Marine Biological Laboratory constitutes thechief monument of Professor Whitman's genius. Here his ideas hadtheir fullest scope. His fundamental idea in the conduct of the Labora­tory was co-operation; and he succeeded in establishing what has wellbeen called a Marine University, in which the ownership and controlas well as the conduct of affairs is vested in the body of active scientificinvestigators. The entire body of past and present investigators, withfew exceptions, constituting the corporation, is the court of last appeal;it elects the board of trustees mainly from its own membership, and theimmediate control of laboratory affairs is carried out by the board throughtheir appointive agents, the directors and members of the staff. Theresult has been the realization in our own time and country of the ancientideal of the university, a republic of scholars.Such an organization is exposed to dangers internal and external,and, though both kinds appeared at various times, Professor Whitmanalways refused to compromise any fragment of his fundamental idea.He was therefore often called an impractical idealist by men both withinand without the organization. Idealist he was, whether impractical ornot was none of his concern. He often seemed to be most resolutewhen he stood almost alone, as when a safe harbor of refuge for theLaboratory appeared within the protecting breakwaters of an establishedand endowed institution, and nearly all were ready to put into port.Yet he preferred liberty and the storm, and all finally stood by him.Professor Whitman instantly recognized creative ability in an investi­gator, and his appreciation was invariably hearty and his support everready to the fullest extent. It is no accident that many of the importantdiscoveries in biology in America during the last twenty years were madeat Wood's Hole. Professor Whitman had early recognized the abilityof the workers in question, and had invited them to work at Wood'sHole and secured their allegiance to the Laboratory, and to himself;for his was a most magnetic personality. Thus he gradually attachedto the interests of the Laboratory an increasingly strong body of scientificinvestigators.Probably few of Professor Whitman's colleagues of this Universityrealize his interest in the teaching side of his profession. It is, however,fully demonstrated by his organization of teaching as a departmentco-ordinate with research in the Marine Biological Laboratory. Hesteadfastly resisted the influence of some of the investigators in favor ofTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEdoing away with instruction at the Laboratory. He held that teachingexerted an important reflex influence on the body of investigators. Ibelieve that he enjoyed and valued the presence of the student element,for whom he had constant sympathy and towards whom he showed theutmost friendliness. It has resulted at Wood's Hole that the institution,which was made by investigators, has aided in the making of manyinvestigators. Surely no environment more favorable for awakeningand stimulating scholarly ambition could be found.People have sometimes asked how it happened that one who, after all,published so few papers, nevertheless occupied so commanding a positionin science. Some of the reasons have already been indicated. His"eye was single and his whole body was therefore full of light"; hisdevotion to scholarship was never open to the slightest shadow of sus­picion. He was continuously engaged in his personal research, whichdealt with the most fundamental problems of biology, and he had accu­mulated vast stores of data, which we hoped he would live to publish him­self. But apparently he could never satisfy himself with reference tothe fundamental problems on which his mind was fixed; the grandconsummation of his work had not come, and he could not reconcilehimself to the publication of more or less fragmentary pieces of work.His published papers, mostly short, are models of condensed thought,written in a fine, polished, characteristic style. No less care was devotedto the form than to the substance, and some of his papers certainly willendure as classics of the biology of his time. Then too his activities inconnection with the Journal of Morphology and the Marine BiologicalLaboratory brought him into close personal relations with the leadingbiologists of his time, most of whom learned to value his somewhatrarely and deliberately uttered expressions of opinion on scientificproblems, and to measure them as of great weight.It was, therefore, not only his publications but also his work with hisjournal, his laboratory, and his students, his constant helpful associa­tion with other workers, and the example of his austere and studious lifethat brought him recognition. He never permitted himself to be dis­tracted by the confusion of modern life, social or academic, nor divertedfrom his steadfast purpose by clamor for quick results.It is impossible for us yet to measure justly the value of such a lifeto our community; it conveys a much-needed lesson of consecration tothe ideals of scholarship, and I believe that our appreciation of it willsurely increase in proportion as time eliminates all the petty details thatconfuse the picture of a great man's life, and permits its essential nobilityto shine forth undimmed.REPRESENTATIVES OF THE UNIVER­SITY AT THE MEETING OF THEASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCE­MENT OF SCIENCEAt the sixty-second meeting of the American Association for theAdvancement of Science, held in Minneapolis from December 27 toDecember 31, 1910, there were many representatives of the Universityof Chicago, the president of the association for the year 19II being Pro­fessor Albert A. Michelson, Head of the Department of Physics. Amongthe vice-presidents was Professor Eliakim H. Moore, Head of the Depart­ment of Mathematics, and among the secretaries of sections were Assist­ant Professor Henry C. Cowles, of the Department of Botany, andAssociate Professor Charles R. Mann, of the Department of Physics.The retiring president of the association, President David StarrJordan, of Leland Stanford Junior University, introduced the presidentof the meeting, Professor A. A. Michelson, who replied to an address ofwelcome by President Cyrus Northrup, of the University of Minnesota.President Jordan's address was entitled "The Making of a Darwin."In the section of Mathematics and Astronomy Associate ProfessorForest R. Moulton, of the Department of Astronomy, presented a paperon "The Debt of Mathematics to Astronomy"; Director Edwin B.Frost, of the Yerkes Observatory, presented a paper on "Some PossibleBases for the Spectral Classification of Stars"; and Professor EdwardE. Barnard, also of the Yerkes Observatory, presented two papers, oneentitled" Apparent Photographic Star-Streams and Their Relations toSome of the Vacant Regions of the Sky," and the other "PhotographicObservations of the Surface of the Planet Mars." Dr. William D.MacMillan, of the Department of Astronomy, contributed a paper on"An Integrable Case in the Problem of Three Bodies"; Dr. FrederickSlocum, of the Observatory, gave a preliminary report on the" Evi­dences of Circulation in the Atmosphere of the Sun, Derived from theStudy of Solar Prominences"; and Mr. John A. Parkhurst, of theObservatory, discussed "The Choice of Standard Stars in PhotographicStellar Photometry."At the meetings of the American Mathematical Society papers werepresented by Professor Leonard E. Dickson, of the Department ofI47THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMathematics, on "Congruential Theory of Functions of Several Vari­ables " and" Generalizations on Theorems of Linear Algebras" � Associ­ate Professor Ernest J. Wilczynski, of the same department, contributeda paper on "One-Parameter Families and Nets of Plane Curves"; andDr. William D. MacMillan, of the Department of Astronomy, discussed"A Reduction of Two-Power Series in Many Variables to Two Equiva­lent Polynomials." "The Curves of Equal Action for Elliptical Co­ordinates" was the subject of a paper by Associate Professor KurtLaves, of the same department.At the session of the American Physical Society Professor RobertA. Millikan, of the Department of Physics, presented a report on "TheIsolation of Ions."At the general meeting of the American Chemical Society AssociateProfessor Herbert N. McCoy, of the Department of Chemistry, discussedthe subject of "Synthetic Metals from Non-Metallic Elements."In the biological section of Pharmaceutical Chemistry AssociateProfessor Waldemar Koch, of the Department of Physiology, contributedwith Mr. C. C. Todd, "Studies on Lipoid Potassium Compounds of theTissues." In the division of Physical and Inorganic Chemistry twopapers were presented by Associate Professor McCoy, one on "Equi­librium in Carbonate Solutions," and the other on "Radioactivity ofThorium Products." Professor Alexander Smith and Dr. A. W. C.Menzies, of the Department of Chemistry, collaborated in a paper on"The Vapor Pressure of Dried Calomel." Dr. Menzies also made twoother contributions to the meeting, one on "The Vapor Pressure ofSulphur" and one on "A Lower Limit for the Critical Temperature ofMercury."In the section devoted to Geology and Geography Associate Pro­fessor William H. Emmons, of the Department of Geology, gave a paperon the subject of "The Weathering and Enrichment of Pyritic GoldOres.""The Olfactory Organs and the Sense of Smell in Birds" was thesubject of a contribution by Dr. Reuben M. Strong, of the Departmentof Zoology, before the American Society of Zoologists. Dr. Strong alsodiscussed "Results of Breeding Experiments With Ring Bones." Dr.Oscar Riddle, of the same department, gave a paper entitled "Experi­ments on Melanin Color Formation: Against the Current MendelianHypothesis of Color Development." He also discussed in another paper"The Oxydizing and Reducing Powers of Somatic and Germinal Tissuesof Hydromedusae."UNIVERSITY REPRESENTED AT SCIENCE ASSOCIATION 149Associate Professor Otis W. Caldwell, of the School of Education,presided at the sessions of the American Nature-Study Society, anddiscussed in a paper "The Organization of the Course in ElementaryScience for the Grades."In the Botanical section an illustrated paper on "EvaporationStudies in Sand-Dune Associations and in the Beech Forest" was givenby Mr. George D. Fuller, of the Department of Botany.At a joint session of the American Psychological Association withthe section of Education, Dr. Frank N. Freeman, Instructor in Educa­tional Psychology, presented a paper entitled "Experiments on the Per­ception of Number." Professor James R. Angell, Head of the Depart­ment of Psychology, led in the discussion of the topic, "Philosophicaland Psychological Usages of the Terms Consciousness, Mind, and Soul."In Philosophy a paper on the subject of "The Genesis of theGroup Spirit," was presented by Assistant Professor Edward S. Ames,of the Department of Philosophy, the paper being introduced by Pro­fessor James H. Tufts, Head of the Department of Philosophy. Beforethe Western Philosophical Association Mr. Ames also presented a paperon "The Social Standpoint in the Study of Religion."In the section of Physiology and Experimental Medicine, as a con­tribution to a symposium on "Diseases Due to Filterable Organisms,"Professor Ludwig Hektoen, Head of the- Department of Pathology andBacteriology, presented a general introductory paper and resume,concluding with a special account of Professor Ricketts' work on RockyMountain spotted fever.In the section of Education, Director Charles H. Judd, of the Schoolof Education, discussed "The Relations Between the High Schools andthe Colleges"; Associate Professor Walter F. Dearborn, of the Depart­ment of Education, discussed the question of "Transference of Practice";and Professors Judd and Angell presented some experiments in transferof discipline.The chairman of the executive committee of the American Federa­tion of Teachers of the Mathematical and Natural Sciences was Associ­ate Professor Charles R. Mann, of the Department of Physics. Thechairman of the Committee on a Syllabus in Geometry was AssociateProfessor Herbert E. Slaught, of the Department of Mathematics.Associate Professor Otis W. Caldwell, of the Department of Botany,presented on the last day of the session a paper entitled" An Experi­ment in Testing the Results of Science Teaching."THE UNIVERSITY RECORDEXERCISES CONNECTED WITH THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONVOCATIONPresident Albert Ross Hill, Ph.D., LL.D., of the University ofMissouri, was the Convocation orator on December 20, 1910, his address,which was given in the Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, being entitled"Some Successes and Failures of the American College." The addressappears elsewhere in full in this issue of the Magazine.At this Convocation, also, announcement was made by the Presi­dent of the University of gifts from Mrs. Erskine W. Phelps of theErskine W. Phelps collection of books, paintings, bronzes, medals,engravings, and other objects of interest connected with the career ofNapoleon Bonaparte, this accession to go to the Historical Museum;and from Mr. Edward W. Butler and President Frank W. Gunsaulus,of the Armour Institute of Technology, of a collection of engravingsand autographs relating to American history in the times of GeorgeWashington and Abraham Lincoln. This gift was made in memory ofthe friendship of the donors and the late President William R. Harper.A gift of five thousand dollars from a member of the Faculty was alsoannounced. A letter from Mr. Martin A. Ryerson, expressing hisintention of building and equipping a new addition to the Ryerson Physi­cal Laboratory, was read by President Judson; and he then introducedMr. Ryerson, who, as President of the Board of Trustees, read a letterfrom the Founder of the University in which Mr. Rockefeller announcedthat he had caused securities of the value of ten millions of dollars tobe set aside for the University of Chicago from the funds of the GeneralEducation Board, the sum to be delivered to the University in ten equalannual instalments beginning January I, 19II. Mr. Ryerson also madea statement as to the feelings of the University Board of Trustees overthe reception of so remarkable a gift, and read a minute of the Boardaccepting the gift and pledging itself to carry out in the spirit as well as inthe letter the conditions accompanying it. The minute also recalled theunparalleled generosity of the Founder toward the University, Mr.Rockefeller's refusal in any way to interfere with the intellectual freedomof the institution, and the gracious and long-continued relationship asbenefactor which he now deems it for the best interest of the Universityto sever. The letter, statement, and minute, and also a second letter asto the Founder's wishes with regard to a special use of part of the gift,are published in full in this issue of the Magazine.ISOTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDThe Convocation reception was held in Hutchinson Hall on the even­mg of December 19. In the receiving line were President and Mrs.Harry Pratt Judson, and the President of the University Board of Trus­tees, Mr. Martin A. Ryerson, and Mrs. Ryerson. The Convocationorator, President Albert Ross Hill, was unable to be present at thereception on account of unexpected official duties at the Universityof Missouri.DEGREES CONFERRED AT THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONVOCATIONAt the Seventy-seventh Convocation of the University, held in theLeon Mandel Assembly Hall on December 20, 1910, one student waselected to membership in the Beta of Illinois chapter of Phi Beta Kappafor especial distinction in general scholarship in the University.Seventy-two students received the title of Associate; four, thetwo years' certificate of the College of Education; one, the degree ofBachelor of Philosophy in Education; five, the degree of Bachelor ofArts; eighteen, the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy; and eight, thedegree of Bachelor of Science.In the Divinity School two students received the degree of Masterof Arts and one, the degree of Master of Philosophy.In the Law School two students received the degree of Doctor ofLaw (J.D.).In the Graduate Schools of Arts, Literature, and Science, four stu­dents were given the degree of Master of Philosophy; six, that of Masterof Science; and two, that of Doctor of Philosophy-making a total offorty-nine degrees (not including titles and certificates) conferred bythe University at the Winter Convocation.GIFTS FROM THE FOUNDER OF THE UNIVERSITY DURING PRESIDENTJUDSON'S ADMINISTRATIONThe gifts made by Mr. John D. Rockefeller to the University ofChicago since the beginning of President Judson's administration inJanuary, 1906, have been as follows:For the last half of the fiscal year 1905-6. . . . . . . . . . .. $ 1,5 II, 708.93The fiscal year 1906-7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,498,889.07The fiscal year 1907-8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,276,328.81The fiscal year 1908-9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. 1,176,877.50The fiscal year 1909-10. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 92,600.00For the first half of the fiscal year 1910-II. . . . . . . . . .. 10,203,322.22Total $19,759,726.53THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETHE ELECTION OF GEORGE EDGAR VINCENT TO THE PRESIDENCY OFTHE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTAOn December 13 the announcement of the election of Professor GeorgeEdgar Vincent, Dean of the Faculties of Arts, Literature, and Science,to the presidency of the University of Minnesota came as a great sur­prise to the Faculties and students of the University of Chicago, and,it is hardly necessary to say, brought universal regret.Professor Vincent has been associated with the University of Chicagosince 1892, when he became Fellow in Sociology. In 1894-95 he was anAssistant in Sociology, and in 1895-6 an Instructor. From 1896 to1900 he was Assistant Professor of Sociology, being promoted to anassociate professorship in the latter year. In 1904 he became full Pro­fessor of Sociology.For seven years he served as Dean of the Junior Colleges (1900-07),and for four years he has been Dean of the Faculties of Arts, Literature,and Science (1907-II).Mr. Vincent's undergraduate work was done at Yale, where he wasgraduated in 1885. The following year he was engaged in editorialwork and acted as literary editor of the Chautauqua Press. In 1888 hewas made vice principal of the Chautauqua system and in 1899 principal.He has been the animating spirit of the Chautauqua movement, whichhas made him known all over the country as an effective advocate ofpopular education.Dean Vincent had already refused several calls to college and uni­versity presidencies, and it was only that he saw in the presidency ofMinnesota a remarkable opportunity that he was persuaded to give uphis work in the University of Chicago.There is genuine regret at his going, both on the part of the Facultiesand of the student body. His combined energy, optimism, and enthusi­asm, together with great executive force and happy facility in publicspeech, have made him an unusual man in the academic world, and thefriends and students of the University of Minnesota are to be con­gratulated on his acceptance of the presidency, which begins on AprilI, 1911.THE APPOINTMENT OF JUDGE MACK TO THE NEW INTERSTATECOMMERCE COURTJudge Julian W. Mack, Professor of Law in the University of Chicago,has been appointed a member of the new Interstate Commerce Courtby President Taft. Judge Mack is a graduate of the Harvard Law School,1887; studied abroad for three years; and was admitted to the IllinoisTHE UNIVERSITY RECORD 153bar in 1890. From 1895 to 1902 he was a professor of law at North­western University, coming from there to the University of Chicagowhen the Law School of the latter was established in 1902.In 1903 he was elected judge of the Cook County Circuit Court,and was re-elected in 1909. From 1904 to 1907 he was assigned to thejuvenile court in Chicago, and since 1909 he has been upon the AppellateCourt of the first Illinois district. Judge Mack has been prominent formany years in charitable and philanthropic movements and in thoseconnected with social and civic reform. His appointment as a Democratby a Republican president is an unusual tribute to his fitness for his newjudicial position, where he will participate in the settlement of some ofthe most important problems now before the country.Judge Mack's duties upon the Commerce Court will necessitate hisretirement from most or all of his active work in the Law School. Hisclass in Trusts recently showed their appreciation of his work by pre­senting him with a handsome ivory-headed cane. After the termina­tion of his work upon the Commerce Court Judge Mack will remainone of the United States judges of the seventh circuit which includes thestate of Illinois.PROFESSOR MERRIAM'S CANDIDACY FOR THE CHICAGO MAYORALTYThe effective work of Associate Professor Charles E. Merriam, ofthe Department of Political Science, as chairman of the Merriam Com­mission on Municipal Expenditures and also as a member of the ChicagoCity Council, has brought him into such prominence that there is anorganized demand that he should be a candidate for the Republicannomination for mayor of Chicago in the primary election to be held onFebruary 28.Mr. Merriam's consent to be a candidate was secured only after specialefforts on the part of his friends and admirers. The letter announcinghis candidacy has no uncertain tone.An aroused public sentiment standing for courageous, progressive ideas has inmany places in this country achieved notable public victories. I believe the peopleof this city are in sympathy with this movement and are desirous of an opportunityof expressing their convictions effectively. The battle for genuinely honest, efficient,and popular government demands at all times the loyal support of every citizen.Especially in view of the present critical conditions in this city, I cannot turn asidefrom the performance of the duty you have indicated.The letter, addressed to representatives of the twenty-fifth, seven­teenth, twenty-sixth, thirty-fifth, and sixth wards of Chicago, concludesas follows:I54 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEUnderstanding that you are willing to undertake a campaign for the practicalapplication of progressive principles and policies to our city government, and believ­ing that many others are ready to join in a real movement of this kind, I accept yourinvitation to become a candidate for the Republican nomination for mayor, and willdevote myself to a vigorous championing of the principles for which we stand.Mr. Merriam is the author of A History of American PoliticalTheories, published by the Macmillan Company, Municipal Revenues ofChicago, and Primary Elections.THE FACULTIESPresident Harry Pratt Judson will deliver the commencementaddress at Vanderbilt University on June 21, I91I."The Japan of Today" was the subject of a University public lecturein the Leon Mandel Assembly Hall on December 7, by Bishop M. C.Harris, D.D., LL.D., of the Methodist Episcopal Church." Administration of Justice in the Age of Homer" is the subject of acontribution in the January, 19II, issue of Classical Philology, by Associ­ate Professor Robert J. Bonner, of the Department of Greek.Associate Professor Myra Reynolds, of the Department of English,recently edited with introduction and notes, for Scott, Foresman &Company of Chicago, a volume of Browning's selected poems and plays."The Portrait Sculpture of Egypt" was the subject of an illustratedaddress before the Chicago Society of Artists in the Art Institute onDecember 19, by Professor James H. Breasted, of the Department ofSemitics."Bank Notes and Lending Power" is the subject of the opening con­tribution in the December number of the Journal of Political Economy,by Professor J. Laurence Laughlin, Head of the Department of PoliticalEconomy.Professor A. A. Stagg, Director of the Division of Physical Cultureand Athletics, has recently been selected as a member of the AmericanOlympic Committee for the Olympic Games to be held in Stockholm,Sweden, in 1912.President Harry Pratt Judson and Mrs. Judson will be the guests ofhonor at the annual dinner of the Eastern Alumni Association of theUniversity of Chicago, to be given at the Hotel St. Denis, New YorkCity, on January 25."The Archaeology of the Chicago Area" was the subject of anillustrated address before the Chicago Historical Society, on DecemberTHE UNIVERSITY RECORD ISS13, by Associate Professor Frederick Starr, of the Department of Soci­ology and Anthropology."England's Waterway Revival" is the subject of the opening con­tribution in the January, I9II, issue of the Journal of Political Economy,by Mr. Harold J. Moulton, who has been for the last two years a Fellowin the Department of Political Economy.Contributions on the subject "Psychology" were recently madeto the Cyclopaedia of Education, published by the Macmillan Company,by Professor James R. Angell, Head of the Department of Psychologyand Director o� the Psychological Laboratory."Gold Mining in Alaska" was the subject of an illustrated lectureunder the auspices of the Field Museum of Natural History at FullertonHall in the Art Institute of Chicago, on November I9, by AssociateProfessor Wallace W. Atwood, of the Department of Geology.Professor J. Laurence Laughlin, Head of the Department of PoliticalEconomy, gave the annual address before the American EconomicAssociation, of which he is the president, at St. Louis on December 28,the subject of the address being "The Chief Causes of the Increased Costof Living.""The Last of the Shoguns" is the subject of a contribution in theJanuary, I911, number of the World To-Day, by Associate ProfessorFrederick Starr, of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology.The contribution is illustrated by a portrait of Prince Tokugawa, thelast of the shoguns.A recent publication by Ginn & Company of Boston is an edition ofSchiller's Die Jungfrau von Orleans, by Associate Professor Philip S.Allen, of the Department of German. Mr. Allen was also the editorof First German Readings entitled Herein!, published by Henry Holt &Company of New York.Constitutional Law is the title of a volume of four hundred pagesrecently issued by the De Bower-Chapline Company of Chicago, theauthor being Professor James P. Hall, Dean of the Law School. Thisis volume XII in a series of twelve volumes edited by Professor Hall,entitled "American Law and Procedure."The one hundred and forty-first contribution from the Hull BotanicalLaboratory is "Fertilization and Embryogeny in Dioon Edule" andappears in the December issue of the Botanical Gazette, the writer beingAssistant Professor Charles J. Chamberlain, of the Department of Botany.The contribution is illustrated by four plates.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEIn the October, 1910, number of Modern Philology, Professor JohnM. Manley, Head of the Department of English, has a contributionentitled" Elckerlijc-Everyman: The Question of Priority"; and AssociateProfessor Francis A. Wood, of the Department of German, has a contri­bution on the same subject in the same number. The articles arepublished in collaboration."Milton's London" is the subject of a contribution in the November,19IO, number of the Chautauquan magazine, by Assistant ProfessorPercy H. Boynton, of the Department of English. The contribution hasfifteen illustrations. In the December number of the same magazineMr. Boynton has a contribution entitled "The London of Pepys andAddison," with seventeen illustrations.The measure prepared by the Civic Federation's Committee onIndeterminate Sentence and Parole, to be introduced in the Illinoislegislature, has among its framers Professor Charles R. Henderson,Head of the Department of Ecclesiastical Sociology, who was recentlyelected president of the International Prison Congress, and ProfessorJulian W. Mack, of the Faculty of the Law School.Professor J. Laurence Laughlin, Head of the Department of PoliticalEconomy, was among the guests at the White House on January 7at the informal dinner given by President Taft to prominent advocatesof immediate legislation on the monetary question. Among the otherguests were Congressman John W. Weeks, of Massachusetts, and Presi­dent James B. Forgan, of the First Nationals Bank, Chicago.President Harry Pratt Judson gave in Washington, D.C., on Decem­ber 17 an address on the subject "From Diplomacy to War" beforethe International Conference of the American Society for the JudiciaSettlement of International Disputes. Among others taking part inthe program of the conference were former Secretary of State Elihu Rootand President William H. Taft. The address appears elsewhere in fullin this issue of the Magazine.The report by the Illinois Commission on Occupational Diseases hasrecently been sent to the legislature at Springfield. It is the result ofnine months' investigation by the commission, which included in itsmembership Professor Charles R. Henderson, Head of the Departmentof Ecclesiastical Sociology, and Professor Ludvig Hektoen, Head of theDepartment of Pathology and Bacteriology. Other members of thecommission were Dr. George W. Webster, president of the Illinois StateTHE UNIVERSITY RECORD IS7Board of Health, and James Simpson, vice-president of Marshall Field& Co. According to the report thousands of workmen suffer annuallyfrom industrial poisons, particularly lead. IProfessor James R. Angell, Head of the Department of Psychologyand Director of the Psychological Laboratory, is to give the first lectureson the Ichabod Spencer Foundation in Psychology at Union College,beginning January 23. This course was founded by Mrs. CatherineSpencer Leavitt in memory of her father, the Rev. Dr. Ichabod Spencer,of the class of 1823. The general subject of the course will be "ModernPsychology," the individual lectures being as follows: "General Psy­chology," "Physiological Psychology," "Experimental Psychology,""Abnormal Psychology," "Individual and Applied Psychology," "SocialPsychology," "Comparative Psychology," and "General GeneticPsychology and Summary."Associate Professor Gordon J. Laing, of the Department of Latin,has recently been honored by the Archaeological Institute of America,which has appointed him Professor of Latin in the American School ofClassical Studies in Rome, the appointment continuing for one year fromOctober, 19II. Mr. Laing has recently collaborated with ProfessorPaul Shorey, Head of the Department of Greek, in bringing out a revisededition of Horace, Odes and Epodes, the first edition, with introductionand notes, being by Professor Shorey. The new edition appeared amongthe autumn publications of 1910, from the press of Benjamin H. Sanborn& Co., Boston. Mr. Laing, in addition to his regular work in the Depart­ment of Latin, has been for two years General Editor for the Universityof Chicago Press.The Higher Education as a Training for Business is the subject of avolume of fifty-four pages by President Harry Pratt Judson, of theUniversity of Chicago, issued in January, 19II, by the University ofChicago Press. This is the second edition of the book. In the prefacethe author says: "It is believed that students who wish may obtainknowledge and training in a college course which will fit them to be moreefficient than would otherwise be the case in business activity. It isalso believed that a liberal education may provide not merely suchincreased efficiency, but also so much wider comprehension of societyand life as to enable one to be useful and to find interest in a multitudeof ways not usual with one who lacks such an education. A collegeeducation, in short, may enable one to earn a living. It should also teachone how to live."GENERAL ALUMNI ACTIVITIESTHE INDIANAPOLIS ALUMNI CLUBGraduates and former students of theUniversity organized the IndianapolisAlumni Club in Indianapolis, Ind., onFriday, December 23. Plans for ameeting were begun by the Council earlyin the month, it being believed that theassembly of the State Teachers Associa­tion would bring to the city a large num­ber of alumni who are now teaching inhigh schools. Many graduates sentletters in reply, expressing their heartyaccord with the plans of the club andtheir desire to support the organization,even if it proved impossible for them toattend on the date set for the meeting.The reunion was held in the ClaypoolHotel, in accordance with arrangementsmade by Emsley W. Johnson, '01. Dr.Herbert E. Slaught, '98, represented theUniversity and the Council, and describedthe work that had been done by otheralumni organizations in keeping recordof the movement of graduates, receivingnewcomers, holding reunions, and help to unite the alumni of the University.John LeMay, '95, told of the alumni clubformed in Indianapolis in the first decadeof the University's existence. Thosepresent agreed to communicate withother graduates and secure their attend­ance at a large Chicago meeting inFebruary, at which the club hopes tohave President Harry Pratt Judson asthe guest of honor.Officers were chosen as follows:President-James B. Garner, '97.Vice-President-Edwin E. Thompson.Secretary-Emsley W. Johnson, 'or.Member of Executive Committee-Eliza-beth McConnell, 'rooMr . Johnson is a member of the law.firm of Johnson & Mehring, with officesin the Law Building. He has beenwarmly active in the interests of theclub. Mrs. Johnson, who was KatharineGriffin, 'oS, before her marriage, is aloyal alumna.Indianapolis is regarded as an excellentplace for an alumni club, as over fiftygraduates and about half as many formerstudents of the University reside there.This number includes instructors inButler College and the Shortridge HighIS8 SchooL Graduates who intend to makeIndianapolis their home should communi­cate with Mr. Johnson.PLAN OKLAHOMA REUNIONA reunion of alumni in Oklahoma isbeing planned by graduates in Muskogee,where the State Teachers Associationwill meet some time in February. VestaL. Jameson, '08, of the Central HighSchool in Muskogee, is interesting gradu­ates in the movement.DECEMBER COUNCIL M.EETINGAs expected, plans for the June reunionoccupied most of the time at the meetingof the Alumni Council held on December6, in the Reynolds Club. The sentimentof those present was strongly in favor ofthe proposed June meeting. The plansof Dean Vincent and Harry Abells werediscussed in detail and it was decidedto enlist the help of the "men down town,"it being believed that the graduates ofthe University who have their offices inthe Loop district will be able to make themeeting a success independent of otherhelp.L. Brent Vaughan, '97, and WarrenGorrell, ex, spoke in favor of giving themanagement of the reunion to thosemembers of the Chicago Alumni Clubwho were responsible for the success ofthe meeting on November 9. Bothpromised their personal help and at theinvitation of Mr. Vaughan it was decidedto meet in the University Club for lunchon Wednesday, December 14, noticesto be sent to all graduates who might beinterested. Mr. Gorrell volunteered tohave copies of the plans of the Councilmultigraphed and mailed from his office."If the alumni who backed the ChicagoAlumni Club meeting take this up, " saidMr. Vaughan, "there is no doubt thatthis will be the biggest reunion we haveever had. I know that some of thealumni went down into their pocketsfor large sums to meet the deficit ofthat meeting, and they did it cheerfullybecause they had a splendid time. Thereare plenty of Chicago men who willGENERAL ALUMNI ACTIVITIESthink nothing of doing the same thingif they are assured that the reunion willbe really worth while. I haven't any fearsat all for the financial end, if we have aproper manager of the deficit."William J. McDowell, '02, reportedthe plans that had been made for thealumni dance at the Reynolds Club andsaid that seventy acceptances had beenreceived. He also called attention tothe regular weekly luncheon held onTuesdays at the Hotel Brevoort byChicago graduates.The Secretary reported that lettershad been sent to all alumni in Indian­apolis calling for a reunion on eitherDecember 2I, 22, or 23. No word hadbeen received from Texas alumni regard­ing the formation of a club there. TheSecretary also outlined the series ofspecial letters with which he proposedto announce the new A lumni Directory.Regular reports were received from theTreasurer and the Finance Committee.FOR THE JUNE, 1911, REUNIONOver twenty-five enthusiastic alumnimet for luncheon on December I4 at theUniversity Club and discussed ways andmeans for a big alumni reunion in June,I9II. Director A. A. Stagg was presentto hear the plans. Harry D. Abells,'97, gave a brief resume of the suggestionsthat had been made. The men presentagreed that the reunion was assured ifproperly financed, and empowered Mr.Abells to appoint a committee of fivewhich was to report on January 6plans for meeting the cost of the under­taking. Mr. Stagg said that it wasprobable that a baseball game of someconsequence could be secured for theafternoon of the meeting.The tentative committee appointedby Mr. Abells consists of L. BrentVaughan, '97, chairman; William ScottBond, '97, William J. McDowell, '02,Donald R. Richberg, 'OI, and Dr.John E. Rhodes, '76. Mr. Abells is amember ex officio.Preliminary plans for the reunionwere announced in the following sketchof the events, sent to many alumni:Object.-To bring the alumni of the Uni­versity of Chicago together in one big demon­stration, which shall eclipse anything evergiven by Harvard, Yale, Pennsylvania,Illinois, or other universities with largebodies of alumni. There' are over 1,400 159alumni in Chicago alone and several thousandformer students. There are 25 alumniclubs scattered over the country. There isplenty of material for a big reunion. All weneed is organization.Proposed organization.-A committee ofthe day, to manage the financial end of theundertaking and to work through numeroussubcommittees, each of which shall be directlyresponsible for the perfection of that part ofthe plan intrusted to it. Subcommittees totake charge of such details as costuming,dance, parade, baseball game, refreshments,programs, etc. Management to be vestedin alumni residing in Chicago and preferablywith offices in the Loop district.Plans for meeting.-I2 to I-Reunions in allfraternities and general alumni luncheonson the campus.2 to 5-Athletic events, for alumni teams.6:30 p.M.-Big alumni dinner for men andanother big dinner for the women, in separatehalls, on or near the campus.8 to ro+-Monster outdoor parade andpageant, culminating in bonfire and onegrand round-up, possibly on Marshall Field.10 to 12-Dancing party for all alumni inBartlett Gymnasium.Details.-A pageant representing the vari­ous stages of history of the University aswell as historical material from the alu�records, would be a great innovation here.Gro�ps of alumni could wear costumes repre­sentmg early traders, explorers, Indianssettlers, immigrants with prairie schooners'fire brigade of '71, duck hunters of the oldMidway, growth of the University, buildings(floats, etc.), reassembled football teams.Classes and groups might get costumes atnominal price before the events.THE ALUMNI ROOMWithin the last month the AlumniRoom in Mitchell Tower has been redeco­rated. The floor, which had becomemarred, was put in good order and waxedand casters were placed under all furni­ture. Records of the alumni which havebeen kept heretofore in the office of theSecretary i?- Ellis Hall will be placed inthe Alumni Room for safe keeping, andseveral important alumni pictures willbe hung there. Meetings of the AlumniCouncil will be held in this room when­ever the Council does not begin its sessionwith dinner in the Commons.T�e Alump.i Secretary will be glad toreceive copies of books by alumni;photographs of class and club meetingsarticles devoted to the work of the alumni'and any material of historic interest:These will be placed where all alumniwill have access to them.r60 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEALUMNI DANCING PARTYIn order to stimulate interest amongthe alumni in Chicago and preparefor the coming events in June a dancingparty was given on December 10 in theReynolds Club. Cards were sent toabout 200 alumni announcing the dance,with the result that about seventy couplessent word to the committee that theywould be present. For one reason oranother many were unable to keep theirengagement and the attendance provedunusually small, resulting in a deficitof about $25. The principal work forthe dance was done by William J.McDowell, '02, who has met nearly allof the deficit.During the evening those present held ameeting in the Alumni Room in MitchellTower and declared themselves heartilyin favor of holding a series of dances foralumni during the year. Mr. McDowelland Secretary Hansen gave short talkson the alumni work, urging the co-opera­tion of those present with the committee.The announcements for the dance weresigned by William J. McDowell, '02;George O. Fairweather, '07; David A.Robertson, '02; Harry D. Abells, '97;Donald R. Richberg, '02; Harry A.Hansen, '09; Mrs. Davida Harper Eaton,'01; Mrs. Ethel Freeman Strong, '01;Mrs. Elizabeth Butler Raycroft, '99;Agnes R. Wayman, '03; and CharlotteFoye, '95.ALUMNAE IN COLLEGE PLAYAlumnae of the University participatedon December 10 in the program givenby the Chicago College Club in MusicHall, Fine Arts Building, consisting ofthe performance of A Curious Mishapby Carlo Goldoni, and songs by theGlee Club. Two University of Chicagowomen, Frieda Kirchoff and MaryBockes Pardee, '99, were members ofthe cast. Eleanor L. Hall, '09, washead usher, one of her assistants beingNatalie Young. The dramatic commit­tee had for its chairman Bertha Iles,other members being Mrs. W. T. Hall,Northwestern; Eleanor Hall, Chicago;Natalie Young, Chicago; Dorothy Wins­low, Smith; Florence Mann, Smith;and Grace J ackson, Wellesley.The Glee Club sang in place of anoverture the serenade from Boito's M ephistophele and in the intermissionbetween the first and second acts,Elgar's "Fly, Singing Bird, Fly." TheClub has Mrs. Ralph Fletcher Seymourfor its leader, and its members are:Margaret Heath, Wellesley, secretary;Frances Montgomery, Chicago, '07,business manager; Minna Hoskins,Chicago, '09, librarian; Mrs. C. E. Finch,Northwestern; Agnes Bradshaw, Vassar;Mrs. E. L. Masters, Radcliffe; AnnieNewman, Chicago, '07; Mabel Parker,Chicago, 'or; Eleanor Hall, Chicago, '09;Mrs. W. F. Bridge, Bucknell; Mrs. N. W.Willard, Smith; Laura Jones, Wellesley;Florence Thomas, Smith; Verna Harris,Smith; Helen Dupuy, Smith.ADDRESS TO THE SENIORSHarry 'D. Abells, '97, chairman of theAlumni Council, spoke to the graduatingSeniors on the desirability of member­ship in an Alumni Association, at chapelon December 13 in Leon Mandel Assem­bly Hall. The closing chapel exercisesfor the Autumn Quarter were held atthe same time.WORK OF ABRAHAM BOWERSAbraham Bowers '06, has found agreat field for work as immigration secre­tary for the Young Men's ChristianAssociation, the position he assumed lastspring. In 1910 Mr. Bowers spent threemonths in Europe studying the futureAmerican in his native surroundings.Among the countries he visited wereGermany, Russia, Austria, Italy, Belgium,Holland, Roumania, and Switzerland.Mr. Bowers traveled in steerage, fol­lowing the custom of secretaries andimmigration officers. While on boardthe vessel from Naples to New York heorganized classes in English among theimmigrants. The Official Bulletin ofthe Young Men's Christian Associationof Chicago says Mr. Bowers is convincedthat in the twelve to eighteen days'voyage from Mediterranean ports toNew York most of the immigrants canacquire enough English to aid themgreatly in reaching their destination inAmerica, and also to afford a basis forfuture study.THE ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OFPHILOSOPHYHERBERT E. SLAUGHT, PH.D., '98, SecretaryNEWS NOTES in the High School" was the title of anaddress by Associate Professor HerbertE. Slaught, '98, before the mathematicssection of the Indiana State TeachersAssociation at Indianapolis on December23, I9IO. In the evening Dr. Slaughtassisted in the formation of an Indian­apolis Alumni club.Professor William B. Owen, '02, isentering upon his second year as principalof the Chicago Normal School. Hehad been, since its organization, Dean ofthe University High School and wasformerly principal of the South SideAcademy, which with the ChicagoManual Training School was merged inthe University High School when theSchool of Education was established.Dr. Owen started the academy at MorganPark the year before the opening of theUniversity and thus established thefirst feeder for the Junior Colleges.Herbert Marcus Goodman is thefourteenth member of the Doctor'sAssociation to pass into the next life.He died on August 19, 1910, at theCook County Hospital, where he was aninterne representing Rush Medical Col­lege. Dr. Goodman took his Bachelor'sdegree in science at the University inI905, and his Doctor's degree in Pathol­ogy and Bacteriology in 1908. Hismother, Mrs. Lillie P. Goodman, livesat 4533 Ellis Ave., Chicago.Adelphi College, at Seattle, Wash.,of which Dr. Emanuel Schmidt, '02,is president, has recently erected a newdormitory which has been named SchmidtHall in honor of the president. Thisinstitution is in a prosperous condition,having recently been placed on the accred­ited list of the University of Washington.Bulletin number 380, of the UnitedStates Department of Agriculture, en­titled "The Loco-weed Disease," wasprepared by C. Dwight Marsh, Zoology,'04, who is an expert in poisonous-plantinvestigation in the Bureau of PlantIndustry at Washington.Rev. Albert J. Steelman, EcclesiasticalSociology, 'oS, is superintendent of theWashington division of the Society forthe Friendless, with headquarters atSeattle, Wash. \The Association occupies the leadingplace in the new Alumni Directory andincludes twenty-six pages. The arrange­ment is by departments, subdivided byyears. An alphabetical index and anindex by states and cities of all the alumniafford convenient and quick cross refer­ence. It is the most complete and thebest arranged directory of the alumniyet issued. Copies may still be obtainedthrough the secretary at a special rateIn connection with the University Maga-zine.The Association was well representedat the meetings of the American Associa­tion for the Advancement of Science atMinneapolis, Minn., during the holidayweek. Among those who took part inthe various programs were the following:Henry C. Cowles, '98, secretary of thebotanical section; William H. Bussey,'04 and Anthony L. Underhill, '06, mem­be;s of the local committee of arrange­ments; Forest R. Moulton, '00, andWilliam D. MacMillan, '09, who readpapers in the astronomy and mathematicssections; Leonard E. Dickson, '96,Harris F. MacNeish, '10, and ArthurRanum '07, who read papers in mathe­maticS;' Herbert N. McCoy, '98, RobertA. Hall, '08. Solomon F. Acree, '02, andAllan W. Menzies, '10, who read papersin' chemistry; Oscar Riddle, '07, andMarion L. Shorey, '09, who read papersin zoology; Robert B. Wyley, '04,George H. Shull, '04, and Reginald R.Gates, '08, who read papers in botany;Erville B. Woods, '07, who read a paperin sociology; William K. Wright, '06,who read a paper in philosophy; IrvingKing, '09, Edward S. Ames, 'oS, Flor�nceE. Richardson, '08, and Walter V. Bing­ham, '08, who presented papers in psy­chology; and Herbert E. Slaught, '98,secretary of the Chicago section of theAmerican Mathematical Society, whopresented the preliminary report of thenational committee of fifteen on a sylIabusin geometry at the meeting of the Ameri­can Federation of Teachers of the Mathe­matical and Natural Sciences."The Present Status of MathematicsTHE DIVINITY ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONEDGAR J. GOODSPEED, D.B., '98, SecretaryWinfred E. Garrison, '97, is presidentof the New Mexico College of Agricul­ture and Mechanical arts, AgriculturalCollege, N.M.William Oeschger, '98, is chancellorof Cottner University, Lincoln, Neb.Edgar J. Goodspeed, '98, completedhis travels in foreign countries in timeto spend the holidays at home, and hasresumed instruction in the Departmentof Biblical and Patristic Greek of theDivinity School.George A. Campbell, '98, is pastor ofthe Austin Christian Church of Austin,Ill.Carl George Brelos, '00, living at 2120Avenue N., Galveston, Tex., holds thepastorate of the Christian church in thatcity.Erret Gates, '00; A.B., '99; Ph.D., '02,has been abroad for the past two years,engaged in investigating the origin of themovement for church union of the variousdenominations. He may be addressedin care of Dr. Markus, Emser Strasse 18,Berlin. He expects to return to resumework in the Autumn Quarter, I9II.William Bode, '01, who had beenpastor of Burton Heights Christian Re­formed church for five years, enteredthe University this year to work for hisPh.D. degree in Semitics.John P. Givens, '02, resides at Ross­ville, Ill.Austin Hunter, '02, is pastor of theJackson Boulevard Christian church,and lives at 243 I Flournoy St.Frank L. Jewett, '02, occupies theBible chair in Christian Church Univer­sity, Austin, Tex.Claire L. Waite, '02, has resigned hispastorate in Milwaukee, and is tempo­rarily in evangelistic work. His perma­nent address is 638 Mineral St., Mil­waukee.Rochester W. Irwin, '04, has movedfrom Washburn to Longpoint, Ill., wherehe is pastor of the Christian church.Harry Foster Burns, 'oS, recentlyaccepted a call to the Congrega tionalchurch in Superior, Wis.John Ewers, 'oS, residing at 6002 Alder Ave., Pittsburgh, is pastor of the EastEnd Christian church of that city.N. H. Robertson, '06, has been assistingRochester Irwin in conducting evangelis­tic meetings at the latter's church inLongpoint, Ill. Mr. Robertson occupiesthe pastorate of the Christian church atStanford, Ill.Henry Barton Robison, Ph.D., '07,ha ving resigned his pastorship of theChristian church, Mobile, Ala., hasaccepted the office of Dean of the BibleCollege in Christian University, Canton,Mo.Walter Donat Ward, '07, has returnedwith his wife to their home state of Ohio,Mr. Ward being pastor of the Christianchurch in Newark.H. M. Gain, '08, formerly a student inthe Divinity School, is professor of Greekin Christian University, Canton, Mo.Lacy P. Schooling, '08, at present isfarming a section of land near Gleichen,Alberta, Can.Eli Jacob Arnot, '10, lives at 5815Drexel Ave.Richard W. Gentry, '10, a fellow inChurch History in the University, actsas pastor of the Christian church atWaukegan, Ill.Bruce Edmund Jackson, '10, whosehome address is Creston, Ia., has accepteda call to the Baptist church of Bismark.C. D. Rasp, ex, '10, began pastoratework on January I in the Baptist churchat Fairbury, Ill.John Kivett Arnot, a student in theDivinity School during the year '09-'10,has become pastor of the Congregationalchurch in Tessendon, N.D.H. A. Vosberg, who will be remem­bered by graduates of the DivinitySchool some fifteen or twenty years ago,leaves the First Baptist church of Oak­land, Cal., to commence his duties aspastor of the Baptist church at Camden,N.J.John Granbery, who received hisDoctor's degree in 1909 in the depart­ment of New Testament Literature andInterpretation, is pastor of the MethodistEpiscopal church at Barboursville, W.Va.THE COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONNEWS FROM THECLASSES1894Warren P. Behan, D.B., '97, Ph.D.,'99, spoke at a meeting of the Y.W.C.L.of the University, on December 14.Dr. Samuel D. Barnes and Mrs.Barnes of Seattle, Wash., spent theChristmas holidays in Honolulu, sailingfrom San Francisco on December 13 onthe steamship, "Manchuria."1895Henry C. Murphy is president andmanager of the Evansville Courier Pub­lishing Co., of Evansville, Ind.1:897Mariila W. Freeman resigned her posi­tion of reference librarian in the Louis­ville (Ky.) Free Public Library on AprilI, 1909, to become reference librarianof the Free Public Library of Newark,N.J., which position she now holds.Miss Freeman spent the summer inEurope. She gives a yearly course oflectures on library administration at theNew York State Library School atAlbany, N.Y., and this year also one atPratt Institute Library School, Brooklyn,N.Y.r898Cecil Page- announces a change of hislaw offices from 206 LaSalle St. to 1322First National Bank Building.1899Lawrence Merton Jacobs is connectedwith the London offices of the NationalCity Bank of New York, the addressbeing Bank Buildings, Princess St., E.C.,London, England.Edward Frantz resides at Lordsburg,Cal.Ward A. Cutler is secretary and treas­urer of the Western Illinois HerefordBreeders' Association, and resides atCarthage.Roy B. Tabor, ex, of White & Tabor,a leading real estate firm in Chicago, hasbeen elected presiden t of the ChicagoReal Estate Board. Mr. Tabor is theyoungest man ever chosen to the presi­dency. He is a member of the ChicagoAthletic Club and the Chicago Golf Club. 1900Robert L. Hughes has changed hisresidence from 1539 East Sixty-first 7750 South Carpenter St.1901Walter W. Hart, formerly of Indian­apolis, now resides at 415 Park St.,Madison, Wis.Dean Sophonisba P. Breckinridge,J.D., '05, presided over two of the sessionsat the third annual convention of theAmerican Home Economics Association,held in St. Louis from December 27 to 30.1903James G. Randall lives at 2025 PennStreet, Syracuse, N.Y.1904Frederick R. Darling is principal of thehigh school at Walton, N.Y.1905The address of Victor J . West, who isteaching in Northwestern University, is1017 Grove St., Evanston, Ill.Lillian Ethel Vaughn is now Mrs.Henry W. Mordhurst and lives at 550Oakwood Blvd.Lyell C. Kinney is with the Germanhospital, corner Corinthian and GirardAvenues, Philadelphia, Pa.1906Ella R. Metzker has changed heraddress from 1439 Gilpin St., to 2184South St. Paul St., University Park, Colo.Helena M. Bassett resides at 6931Harvard Ave.Dr. Edna D. Day, a member of thefaculty of the University of Kansas, hadcharge of a number of sessions on die­tetics, household economics, textiles,and housing during the recent conven­tion of the American Home EconomicsAssociation in St. Louis.1907Augustus R. Hatton is professor ofpolitical science in Western Reserve Uni­versity, Cleveland, O.Earl DeWitt Hostetter directed thepublication of the Sigma Chi Directory,which was issued in November by theUniversity of Chicago Press.163THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHelen E. Purcell lives at 210 W. Mul­berry St., Normal, Ill.1908Wellington D . Jones has peen engagedby the Argent.ine government for �eo­lozical work In the South Americanrepublic. With B. Willis of the UnitedStates Geological Survey he will conductan artesian water survey along the forty­first parallel. The ground to be coveredis to be opened to colonization.William B. U rmston is practicingmedicine and has his office in the Plazablock at El Paso, Texas.Paul W. Pinkerton, ex, has movedfrom Broomfield to Redvale, Colo.,where the firm of Ehrhart, Goetzel &Pinkerton contractors and constructingengineers 'is engaged in building part ofthe Lilylands ditch through San MiguelCounty, Colo.Hugo Bezdek, after a brilliant recordas coach of the University of Arkansasfootball team, which he raised from thelowest standing among southern 'schoolsto the 19IO championship, has been unani­mously re-elected athletic coach .for !heensuing year. In token of their highestimation of their coach, the studentspresented him with a gold watch.r90gWilliam Patterson MacCracken hasdeparted for the state le�islature. atSpringfield, to gather some informationfor Dean James P. Hall of the LawSchool.Harold H. Schlabach may be addressedat 431 West Tenth Street, OklahomaCity, Okla..Lucy E. Smith is with Mary Insh.tuteof Washington University in St. LOUIS.Elizabeth L. Thielens, '09, and Jean­nette Thielens, 'II, returned in Novem­ber from a year's residence in Europeand since then ha ve been visiting EthelChamberlain Rabb, ex '09, in New York,Frances Nowak Miller, '08, in Pitts­burgh, and Lucia Cole Mi�er, 'o�, andEudora Smith Sale, ex '09, In Indianap­olis.Clarence Gilbert Pool, who after grad­uation attended Northwestern MedicalSchool, now practices medicine in N atch­itoches, La.The address of Helen E. Jacoby is 68Clifton Place, Brooklyn, N.Y.n�IOIO�� ¥'.��Winston P. H��ry ;�t:�ned from theoil fields of Oklahoma to spend the holi- days with his parents. He served asbest man for his brother, Huntington,whose marriage is announced elsewherein the Magazine.Raymond L. Quigley, ex, is the Di­rector of Athletics at Dakota NormalSchool, Aberdeen, S.D.A. N. Aiken, ex, practices medicine atHarvey, Ill.Emma S. Weld is instructor of domes­tic science in the High School at RedLake Falls, Minn.Charles Carlyle Colby has becomehead of the Geology Department ofMinnesota State Normal School, Winona,Minn.Harry S. Richards is an investigatorin the truancy inquiry which is beingconducted in Chicago this winter by theDepartment of Social Investigation ofthe Russell Sage Foundation.Charles G. Mason lives at 417 NorthMonroe St., Peoria, Ill.Francesco P . Ventresca is professor ofromance languages in the State Collegeof Washington at Pullman, Wash.Henry N. Gittler has a position in theadvertising department of the SvenskaTribunen Nyheter.Kate Knowles is teaching in the highschool at Brownsville, Tex., this year.19IIClarence A. Wood, may be addressedat the Court House, Syracuse, N.Y.�;a�f-�I912J ;:.�L. M. Gilman, ex, is now connectedwith his father in the manufacturingbusiness at Westfield, Mass.Karl Karsten, ex, was the only manwho succeeded in passing the Rhodesscholarship examination in New Mexico,and therefore will- receive the selection.For the past two years he has been inattendance at the University of NewMexico at Albuquerque.ENGAGEMENTS'05. Alice Seton Thompson and Hel­mut Berens, '06. Miss Thompson atpresent teaches in the High School atKokomo Ind., and Mr. Berens, whoresides at Elmhurst, Ill., is an instructorin German in Lewis Institute. Thewedding will take place next June.'05. Victor J. West and HelenStevens, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. JohnWalter Stevens, of 458 Holly Ave., St.Paul, Minn. Mr. West is instructor inTHE LAW SCHOOL ASSOCIATIONpolitics in Northwestern University atEvanston. Previous to his going toEvanston he took graduate work in theDepartment of Political Science at theUniversity of Chicago. He is one of thebest known "lay brothers" of the Black­friars and was a collaborator on some oftheir earliest productions. He is a mem­ber of Phi Gamma Delta.'08. Luther Dana Fernald, ex, ofNew York, and Harriet Furniss, ex '10,of Chicago Heights. The engagement wasannounced at a Christmas dinner givenat the Blackstone Hotel by the parents ofthe bride to University friends' of thecouple. Miss Furniss is a member ofKalailu and the Wyvern Club. Mr.Fernald is advertising representative ofColliers, with headquarters in Chicago.While in the University he was promi­nent in journalistic activities, becomingmanaging editor of the Daily Maroon inhis Senior year. He is a member ofDelta Upsilon fraternity. The weddingis expected to take place in the spring.MARRIAGES'06. Huntington B. Henry and AnnieMay Swift, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Ed­ward F. Swift, of 4949 Greenwood Ave.,on Thursday, January 5, 19II, at 8:30o'clock in St. James Methodist Episcopalchurch. Winston Patrick Henry, '10,brother of the groom, acted as best man.Mr. Henry is a member of Chi Psi fra­ternity, and was a vice-president of theReynolds Club. The couple will residein Bartelsville, Okla., where Mr. Henryis in the oil business. '06. Will Hough, ex, and FlorenceLord, ex '09, of Kenwood, on November12. Mr. Hough is the author, withFrank Adams, ex '04, of numerous suc­cessful musical comedies.'08. Florence Compton and HenryAlfred Danforth, ex, were married onJanuary 3 at the home of Miss Compton'sparents, Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Comp­ton, 6025 Madison Ave. They will livein Charleston, Mo. Both met five yearsago at the University.'10. Charles A. Rouse and FlorenceLonny, ex '09, of New Albany, Ind.,at Louisville, Ky., on New Year's day.The bride had been teaching elocutionin Chicago since leaving the U ni versi ty.Forth Worth will be the future residenceof the couple. Mr. Rouse is head of theEnglish Department of the Universityof Texas in that city.DEATHS'98. Maud Wilkinson, ex, daughterof William Cleaver Wilkinson, ProfessorEmeritus of Poetry and Criticism, diedon January 6 at Brooklyn, N.Y.'09. Brownell Carr Tompkins, ex,3021 Calumet Ave., died on December22, after a lingering attack of typhoidfever, which developed later into pneu­monia. Mr. Tompkins was a member ofAlpha Delta Phi fraternity, and duringhis collegiate course was prominent ina thletics. The funeral was held onDecember 24.'12. Helen Elizabeth Foster, "daughterof Professor George B. Foster, died onSunday, December 18, at her home 1432Hyde Park Boulevard after a long illness.THE LAW SCHOOL ASSOCIATIONRUDOLPH E. SCHREIBER, '06, SecretaryPorter H. Morgan has his office in theAmerican National Bank building inOklahoma City, Okla.Sidney A. Cryor is with the firm ofWinston, Payne, Strawn & Shaw, inthe First National Bank building,Chicago.Alden R. Hicks, '03, is now in TwinFalls, Idaho.Fleming D. Hedges, '10, is with Pop­ham, Wolfner & Rittenhouse in theRector Building, Chicago.J. Louis Brown, '09, is city attorneyat Murray City, Utah. The address of George B. Cohen, '07is Room IOIO, 153 LaSalle St.A. D. Pope is located at Magnolia,Ark.Sidney Lyon, '08, has his office at1612 Ashland Block, Chicago.Clyde C. Colwell, '06, has an office inRoom 65, 107 Dearborn St.Arthur A. Cocke, '05, is dean of theDallas Law School at Dallas, Tex. Heis a member of the law firm of Cocke& Cocke, with offices in the North Texasbuilding in Dallas. .UNDERGRADUATE LIFETHE QUARTERLY EXERCISESAt the closing exercises held in LeonMandel Assembly Hall on December 16Professor Andrew C. McLaughlin, Headof the Department of History, was theprincipal speaker and Richard Teich­graeber, '12, represented the candidatesfor the title of associate. Dean RobertM. Lovett presided, and Dean James R.Angell welcomed the students to theSenior College. Professor McLaughlinsaid:When I was waited upon to become thespeaker at this quarterly exercise, I acceptedwith what was probably unbecoming alacrity.Because it is so seldom that an instructorin graduate work has the opportunity to meet,talk with, and possibly deliver a message tothe undergraduate body at large, it is anextreme pleasure for me to appear before thisassembly of students.I do not intend to give you something newand original, but will try to bring before youa few old platitudes. After all it is no doubtmore difficult to say old things well than toutter new thoughts. Some people say thatTheodore Roosevelt rediscovered the tencommandments, which is certainly com­mendable and admirable. In other words,he could see how these old tried and triteprecepts applied to modern conditions, andcould say them with a newer, vital force.Grover Cleveland, a man great mentally aswell as physically, spoke many platitudes,and so did George Washington.Aside from comprehending the vastamount of unknown material, a student incollege should moreover absorb and assimi­late thoroughly those well-known acceptedthings, and make them a part of himself.There is an aphorism, which is half true,that it is not by the eating but by the digestingof the pudding that we form our opinion of it.A platitude is not especially inviting, but itis undoubtedly digestible. What we wantin this University and in any other, for thatmatter, is character-forming. In workingtoward this goal it is the duty of the in­structor to make the platitudes of his par­ticular course more palatable to the student.Happy indeed is that college man who in­stinctively imbibes and has a working famil­iarity with platitudes.A student should frequently reflect in acalm manner on the question, "What have Igotten out of my college life, and what am Igoing to get out of it in the future? " In thefirst place you have indulged in a certainamount of play. I t seems to me that youdo not play nearly enough, or, at least, not asmuch as I did, when I was in school, and Iwas not a very playful youngster either. Asrperson grows old, he realizes that he is never too old to play. It is a mental, moral,and physical necessity. The municipalitiesall over the country are taking the matterinto their own hands, and devising desirablerecreation. Nowadays a team does not playfootball, but it works football. The cheer­leader is the only one who has any fun. IfI were managing the affair, instead of threethousand spectators and one cheerleader,I would have three thousand cheerleadersand one spectator.My second platitude is that you choosehuman friends. Let your selection be choice,and be guided in your selection by these twomotives: First, Some of your associates willbecome the leading men of the country intheir various lines, and you owe it to yourselfto pick these people out and to court theirfriendship. This motive is primarily selfish,when considered singly, but let me say,secondly, that your friendship should bemutual, and of mutual benefit.Along this same line is my third and lastplatitude, namely, make friends with thepeople in the books. I do not mean by read­ing twenty pages of Bryce on Wednesday, orten pages of Emerson on Friday, which is thescheme of collateral reading devised to makeyou work. But I mean friendly, ruminativereading in your own home. Do you knowthe author of the, phrase, "Barkis is willin' " ?In what poem appears the famous quota­tion: "Where ignorance is bliss, 'tis folly tobe wise" ? Are you on intimate terms withBecky Sharp, Sidney Carton, King Arthur,and innumerable others? If not, you shouldbe. When you enter the world, you will bejudged by the amount of reading you havedone, more than any other one thing. Theywill ask, "Have you read this?" or, "Do youlike Poe's poems?" And if you have not,you will be judged accordingly. Learn howto use this magnificent new library building,which will soon be ready. It seems to methat, after all, the fundamental function of acollege training is to teach the student notso much facts themselves, although I do notmean to belittle this purpose, but how tofind these facts quickly and conveniently.Now is the time to read. Do not postponeit until you get out of college, thinking thatthen you will have more time, for emphati­cally you are wrong . You never will have amore opportune time to form the readinghabit, and become familiar with these friends,who will always remain with you. I havemy hands full trying to read the innumerablenumber of book reviews of the voluminousquantity of literature constantly flowingfrom the presses. Furthermore you mustwork against this newspaper habit, which isso easy to fall into, and from which you reappractically no benefit. Above all try tocreate within you a taste and a capacity forgood reading.166UNDERGRADUATE LIFERichard Teichgraeber took for thetheme of his talk. the furtherance offriendly and more close relations betweenthe faculty and students. He proposeda plan of faculty advisers for each stu­dent, such as in existence in severalinstitutions, notably Wisconsin. Duringhis introductory remarks, he likenedthose who were to take the associatetitle to the hare, who, being pursued, hadleaped to a rock in the middle of a stream,and feared the remaining distance to theother side was too far for his jumps. Hewas "between the devil and the deepsea." He declared they would soon beon the farther side. In another instancehis remarks brought forth ripples oflaughter, when he said: "I know ofseveral instances where the relationbetween the instructor and student isvery pleasant indeed. I have in minda case in which they were so intimatethat the student broke his engagementat the advice of his instructor. This isthe sort of relation we want the Univer­sity to encourage."Dean James R. Angell, of the SeniorCollege, in welcoming the new entrantsinformed them that while they wouldfind the society less than in the JuniorColleges, still it would be more select.As his platitude, he urged that the stu­dents try to remove as soon as possibleany requirements which may still clingto them, so as to be able to "breathefreely the real air of the Senior College."THE RETURN FROM JAPANSeveral hundred students who eitherlive in Chicago or had remained forthe holidays, were at the Union stationon Monday night, December 26, to wel­come home the University of Chicagobaseball team, from its triumphal in­vasion of the Orient. That day con­cluded a trip of about I9,000 miles cover­ing a period of four months, the detailedprogress of which has been reported in theNovember and December numbers ofthe Magazine. The entire team did notreturn, Captain Pegues and RalphCleary, in company with ProfessorGilbert A. Bliss, the representative of theFaculty, having left the party at Manilafor a tour through Egypt, the Holy Land,and Europe, and Steinbrecher, Boyle,and Ehrhorn remaining temporarily inManila to teach. The members of theteam who returned are: Page, Collings, Baird, G. Roberts, O. Roberts, Sunder­land, and Paul.On Friday night, January 5, the teamwas formally welcomed at a spirited andjoyous baseball mass meeting, held inLeon Mandel Assembly Hall. On theprevious night the LaSalle Theater hadas guests both the baseball and footballteams at an American- Japanese Nightperformance. Coach A. A. Stagg andthe Japanese Consul, Mr . Yamasaki,were also present. At the mass meetingspeeches were made by Dean George E.Vincent, Mr. Yamasaki, Coach Stagg,and all the members of the team present.The players spoke of the hospitalityaccorded them throughout the island.Mr . Yamasaki and Coach Stagg saidthat if Japan and America ever were tohave a war, it would be in the form of abaseball contest. When Dean Vincentapproached the platform, the studentsrose en masse to show their admirationand respect for him. It was probablyhis last time to address a Chicago massmeeting in his capacity as Dean of theFaculties. Collings in his talk remarkedthat the chances for the Maroons winningthe Conference baseball championshipthis season are the best in several years.Eight regular men and a large numberof recruits from last year's Freshmanteam will be out to fill the positions.The men have been together in practicesince last spring.The- trophies won 9Y the team, whichhave been on exhibition in the windowsof the University Press, include twomagnificent cups, and two figures ofbaseball players, cast in bronze, besidesthe balls used in the games. Results ofthe several series are engra ved on thecups. They are:Chicago, 8-Waseda, 4.Chicago, 20--Waseda, o.Chicago, I2-Waseda, 2.Chicago, 9-Waseda, 2.Chicago, 5�W aseda, o.Chicago I5-Waseda, 4.Chicagov g-e-Keio, I.Chicago, 2-Keio, I.Chicago, 5-Keio, 2.Chicago, 0-- Marines, I.Chicago, 4-Marines, 1.Chicago, 4-Marines, 1.Chicago, 5-Marines, o.Chicago, I2-Marines, 2.ATHLETICSAt the opening game of the basket­ball season the Varsity team defeated168 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe team from Northwestern by 24 to16. The first half was marked withragged playing on both sides but par­ticularly by the Maroon throwers. Inthe last half, however, Sauer, Goldstein,and Paine soon placed Chicago out ofdanger. Clark Sauer, who· has beenalternating at the forwards, and the onlyveteran on the team, has been electedcaptain to succeed Kelly, who is nowhead of the Information Office. The menin the lineup for the Northwestern gamewere: Sauer, Goldstein, Paine, Bell,Goettler, and Fulkerson. Other men,who have participated in the practicegames, are: Freeman, Frank, Baker,Mehl, and H. Young.Following are the results of the prac-tice games:Chicago 49-Winona Agricultural 7.Chicago 46-Armour Tech. 10.Chicago 50-Wendell Phillips 10.Chicago 4o-Hyde Park I3.Chicago 3I-Lane 10.Chicago 19-Lewis I I.The Conference games include thefollowing:January 7-Northwestern at Bartlett.January I4-Illinois at Champaign.January 20- Purdue at Lafayette.January 2 r-e-Indiana at Bloomington.January 28-Wisconsin at Madison.February 4-Indiana at Bartlett.February ro+-Purdue at Bartlett.February I8-Minnesota at Bartlett.February 24-Illinois at Bartlett.March 4-Wisconsin at Chicago.March I I-Minnesota at Minneapolis.An unusually heavy schedule has beenannounced by Coach Stagg for the indoortrack teams this year. Two meets willbe held with Northwestern, Purdue, andIllinois, and a team will also compete inthe conference in Northwestern's newPatten gymnasium. The meets on theschedule are:January 14-Irish-American Athletic meetin Seventh Regiment Armory.January 28-Northw.estern in Bartlett.March 3-Purdue Varsity and IllinoisFreshmen in Bartlett.March r r+-Illinois in Bartlett.March 25-Conference indoor meet atEvanston.Hopes of the aquatic victory were thisyear dashed by the loss of two of thefastest men on the squad. CaptainBenitez, of the swimming team, who alsowas counted on for the polo team, becameineligible when he was graduated at theWinter Convocation, and Keefe has entered Stetson University for the re­mainder of the scholastic year. OnDecember IS the Varsity swimmersreversed the result of a previous meet bydefeating the yearlings by the score of53 to 36. As a substitute for polo theteams engaged in a push ball contest,which was won by the Varsity, 2 goals toI. Two novel features were the costumerace and the life-saving event. In theformer men in civilian clothes at thecrack of the pistol removed coats andshoes, and swam one length of the tank.One contestant, Keefe, was still franti­cally attempting to rid himself of a par­ticularly obstinate shoe, when the otherswimmers touched the end. Thus farseven meets have been scheduled for theVarsity, in two of which Freshmanswimmers will be allowed to participate.Two are with Illinois, two with N orth­western, one with Wisconsin, and twopractice meets with the Central Y.M.C.A. Pennsylvania is expected to comewest about April, and it is likely thatthe Maroons will meet them. Follow­ing is the official schedule announced byCoach White:January 27-N orthwestern at Evanston.February 3-Central Y.M.C.A. at Bart-lett.February n-N orthwestern at Bartlett.February I7-IlIinois at Champaign.March 3-Central Y.M.C.A. at Central.March ro-e-Illinois at Bartlett.March 17-Wisconsin at Bartlett.March 25-Conference at Evanston.GENERAL NEWSThe last dance of the Score Club forthe Autumn Quarter was held in RosalieHall on Saturday afternoon, December10. The first of the Winter Quarterdances took place on Saturday after­noon, January 14, at Rosalie.The Junior Class will give two dancesthis quarter, the first one on theafternoon of January 27, and the lastone on either March 3 or 10. Bluetoques have been adopted as the head­gear of the third-year men. A skatingparty and a stag dinner downtown arealso being planned.The Sophomore Class scheduled dancesfor January 20 and February 24 in theReynolds Club. The women are planninga vaudeville performance under thesupervision of Dorothy Fox. Greytoques with yellow knobs are being wornby Sophomore men.