The University of ChicagoMagazineVOLUME III DECEMBER, 1910 NUMBER 2PROSPECTING IN ALASKABY WALLACE WALTER ATWOOD,I S.B. '97; PH.D. '03Associate Professor of GeologyMANY of the stampeders who stood in line at Chilcoot, Chilcat,or White Pass, Alaska, in the spring of 1897 or I898 havemade good and left the country. Others have made good several timesand are today looking for someone to "grub-stake" them for anotherprospecting trip. Some were misfits in such a country, and most of themhave drifted away. Those men were headed for the rich placer depositsof the Upper Yukon Basin. It was necessary for them to carry upontheir backs their bedding, small camping and prospecting outfits, andsome of the provisions which they would need while in the interior.They could safely rely on catching an abundance of fish and on shootingor trapping sufficient game to keep them supplied with fresh meat.After they had passed the coast ranges they soon found themselves in asemi-arid country, and as the season advanced the days grew longerand longer until throughout the months from May-to September thesun was above the horizon most of the twenty-four hours.That was a period of mad excitement. The fellows who stoodin line recall the exceedingly slow progress to the summit of the pass.They recall that if anyone stepped aside to rest; as many fellows did,and sat down in the snow bank near the trail, it was in some instancesnecessary to wait as much as twenty-four hours before there was a g�pin the line so that they could resume the climb. In the mad rush toget in to the in terior they cared Ii ttle or nothing for the other fellow.It was � strife, a struggle to get there as soon as possible. If a manmisstepped and fell into a snow bank at the side of the trail, even thoughI Professor Atwood has recently completed a survey of the coal resources ofAlaska under the auspices of the United States Geological Survey.5354 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEhe was loaded with a heavy pack and almost helpless, he would be leftto struggle by himself as the line closed up. Ov�r White Pass it waspossible to take horses, and there, when the trail was covered withsnow, many a horse misstepped and rolled into a snow bank or down themountain side. The men left such horses, and often the packs whichthe horses carried, rather than give up their places in the line and bedelayed for even a fraction of an hour. The whitened bones of theskeletons of horses and the fragments of camp outfits scattered alongthe White Pass trail today, testify to the probability of this story.Some of the men who went into the interior worked singly; others,in groups of two, three, or four, formed partnerships and traveled faroff from the main highway, the Yukon River, in the search for gold­bearing gravel. Each day as they traveled they would stop and testthe gravel banks along the streams. Where camp was pitched theywould sink holes into the gravel, and where possible go down to bed­rock. The material was sampled from time to time by the help of agold-pan. The most expert member of the party would take enoughsand and gravel to fill the pan, and working at the side of the streamor in some pool of water, begin the process of sorting these sands andgravels, in the hope that he might separate whatever gold there wasin the pan from all lighter material. The "panning-out" of the goldis accomplished by using an abundance of water and by a rotary motionof the pan which loosens the sands and gravels so that the heavier maygradually settle to the bottom. When it is believed that the gold hasgone below the uppermost layer, that part is gradually allowed to washover the edge of the pan. More water is used, the rotary motion iscontinued, and little by little as the gold is believed to be settling downtoward the bottom of the pan the lighter materials, the sands and gravels,are allowed to wash over the rim. In time there is nothing left withthe gold but the black sands, which are the heavier minerals commonlyassociated with the placer gold. With sufficient skill and care even theblack sands may be washed over the rim without the loss of the gold.By this process these men who were opening up the natural resourcesof the great Northwest Territory located rich claims. They could notafford, with their crude pioneer methods of mining, to work any low­grade deposits. Where the gold ran from 35 to 40 cents a pan theyestimated that when two men were working together with a single sluice­box they would each net from twenty to twenty-five dollars a day, butthat was not more than a bare living. The period when they couldwork was limited to three months, and sometimes to less than that.PROSPECTING IN ALASKA 55The expense of provisions and clothing for the coming winter was sureto be very heavy, and they estimated that the twenty to twenty-fivedollars per day would just mean a "grub-stake" through the winterand allow them to continue a hunt during a portion of the followingsummer for an unusually rich "pay-streak."In those years when the first great stampede into Alaska and theKlondike region occurred, there were at least 40,000 people added tothe summer population of that great Northwest country. In I900 whengold was discovered in the beach along the south shore of the SewardPeninsula, another mad excitement arose. To that new camp 20,000people rushed. Many left their diggings in the Upper Yukon district,many went direct from San Francisco or Seattle; others, hearing ofthis great strike, left their mining camps in South Africa; others camefrom Australia, and some from almost all other parts of the world tothis new "strike," in the hope of becoming rich in a few days. Manyof those who came knew nothing whatever of prospecting or mining.They had read that the gold was found in the gravels as nuggets or assmall grains. Some appreciated that placer gold is not commonlyvisible to the naked eye, but is won from the gravels by most carefulprocesses of panning or sluicing. It is reported, however, that amongthose who rushed to that beach where Nome is now located, there wasone fellow who carried a garden rake. He lost no time, when helanded on the beach, in dropping all his personal baggage but the rake,and rushing to the water's edge he began to work over the beach materialwith that homely garden implement. His work attracted some atten­tion, and when asked why he was working with a rake, he explainedthat it was his intention "to just take the coarse stuff and leave therest for the other fellows." In those days, there were instances whenmining machinery was shipped to various parts of Alaska and landedon the beach wherever it seemed convenient for the establishment ofa mining camp, before the gravels had been tested or any mineraldeposits located. Thousands and thousands of dollars have beensquandered in most absurd projects. There now stands on the bankof the Yukon a great traction engine. It was taken to that countryto be used for drawing great sled-loads of coal over the soft tundra­covered lands in summer and over the snow in winter. The wheelswere equipped with rims fully two feet in width and with sharp teethto prevent slipping. The engine was set up on the bank where it nowstands, at an expense of at least $5,000. Several months were spentin an attempt to get this engine over the tundra lands, but at the closeTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof the summer, after a failure to move it more than one hundred feet,the project was abandoned.The earliest mining in Alaska was done by a San Francisco company,originally organized to bring ice from Alaska to California. They,however, abandoned their original plan when they reached the shoresof Cook Inlet, and became interested in the coal outcropping along thebeach. Previous to that time there had been some primitive miningcarried on by the natives. The indigenous inhabitants worked in thestream banks with the aid of caribou horns, and found in this waymetallic copper, which they used in the manufacture of arrowheadsand other weapons and implements.But these early epochs in the discovery of the mineral resources ofAlaska have passed. The mad excitements, with their attendantinflux of gold-seekers, are probably over. Though the small operatorsstill predominate in the isolated districts and millions of dollars in goldare annually produced by the crude equipment of the pioneer miner,yet the advent of the trained engineer and the capitalist is introducingnew methods of mining and making possible the extraction of goldfrom deposits which could not profitably be worked by the pioneer?There is still a large field for the individual prospector. Little morethan one-fifth of the district of Alaska has as yet been surveyed. Manystream beds known to contain gold-bearing gravels have not yet beensufficiently prospected to determine their true values. With improvedconditions in transportation, with the reduction in the cost of pro­visions and clothing in this country, the work of the pioneer prospectorand miner will be less arduous.The reports issued by the United States Geological Survey indicatethat Alaska has produced in commercial quantities gold, silver, copper,lead, and tin, and of the non-metallic minerals, coal, petroleum, gyp­sum, and marble. In addition to these minerals, deposits of iron,tungsten, antimony, quicksilver, asbestos, sulphur, mica, peat, andgraphite have been found which may prove to have commercial impor­tance.Since 1880 over $150,000,000 worth of gold has been produced inAlaska. Since 1902 the production of tin in Alaska has reached nearly$100,000. Copper thus far mined has a total value of about $5,000,000;the silver, a total value of about $I,50o,000. The value of the marbleand gypsum produced in Alaska since I90I is approximately $I50,000.The Alaskan resource which may be of first importance to the develop­ment of that country and of the Pacific coast of North America-ifBOUND FOR THE KLONDIKE GOLD FIELDSCopyrigltlcd b), B. L. Sil1J..�/eyALONG THE TRAIL TO CHILCOOT PASSPROSPECTING IN ALASKA 57not first, second only to gold-is the coal. The great deposits of coalhave hardly been scratched. They include anthracite, semi-bituminous,bituminous, sub-bituminous, and vast quantities of lignite. Theknown areas of coal include 30.6 square miles of anthracite, 54.7square miles of semi-bituminous, 472 square miles of bituminous coal,and 86I square miles of lignite. The total of the above areas is I,238square miles. Coal has been reported from many unexamined portionsof the territory, and it is fair to anticipate that the grand total will bemuch larger than the present known area.Prospecting in Alaska need not be limited to the mineral resources.The fisheries are annually producing an income of about $IO,OOO,ooo.Vast areas are clothed with magnificent forests, which some day, underproper supervision, should yield large incomes. There are thousandsof acres of tillable land, extensive ranges suitable for cattle and sheep,and the ice in which the San Francisco Company was interested hasnot yet been entirely exhausted.PRESENT PROBLEMS OF INSTRUC­TION IN THE UNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOREPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON INSTRUCTIONI TO THECOLLEGE FACULTY, BASED ON STATEMENTS FROMINSTRUCTORS, ALUMNI, AND UNDERGRADUATESSYNOPSISI. INTRODUCTORYII. METHODS OF INSTRUCTIONA. General Methods and Means of Instruction: The Existing Practices, andOpinions as to Their Value.B. Special Suggestions.III. SHOULD CLASSES MEET FOUR OR FIVE TIMES A WEEK?IV. SHOULD STUDENTS KNOW THEIR GRADES?V. How MUCH TIME Is DEVOTED TO STUDY, AND WHAT IS A REASONABLEREQffiREMENT?VI. 'VASTE OR UNSATISFACTORY COURSESVII. DISHONESTYVIII. SUMMARYI. INTRODUCTORYThe Faculty of the Colleges of Arts, Literature, and Science adoptedFebruary 13, 1909, the following vote:In order that the Faculty may be profited by a knowledge of actual conditionsand of the methods employed in college work, and especially in order that helpfulsuggestions may be obtained from such methods as have proved valuable, the Com­mittee on Instruction is hereby authorized and instructed to prepare suitable blanks.and to obtain from all instructors, offering undergraduate courses, full statementsconcerning the methods employed in conducting such courses, to be accompanied bysuch comment or suggestion as may seem appropriate.To aid in carrying out the purpose of this vote, blanks were sentalso to alumni of the Colleges who had graduated during the past sevenyears, and to undergraduates. Replies were received from 122 instruct­ors reporting on 210 courses; from 219 alumni, and from 174 under­graduates.I The Committee on Instruction when the work upon this report was begunconsisted of Charles R. Barnes, Harlan H. Barrows, Starr W. Cutting, Edith F. Flint,Gordon J. Laing, Leon C. Marshall, Robert A. Millikan, Herbert E. Slaught, JuliusStieglitz, Frank B. Tarbell, and James H. Tufts, chairman. Messrs. Barrows, Cutting,Laing, Marshall, Millikan, Slaught, Tarbell, and Tufts have taken part in its finalformulation.58PRESENT PROBLEMS OF INSTRUCTION 59The names signed to alumni and undergraduate statements wereremoved before the returns were inspected by the Committee, but theclerk ascertained and indicated upon the return, the scholarship gradeof the writer. In the case of the alumni the sex and academic degree,in the case of the undergraduates the college (whether Junior or Senior),was also noted.SCHOLARSHIP AND CHARACTER OF THE ALUMNI AND UNDERGRADUATESWHO REPLIEDThe replies from alumni and from undergraduates were groupedas follows: (I) those coming from alumni or students of A or B grade;(2) those coming from alumni or students of C or D grade. About one­third of those graduating from the colleges of the University attain agrade of B or over; less than that ratio of Junior College students attainthis grade. The grades of those sending in answers were as follows:AorBCorD ALUMNIMen, Sr ; Women, o r ; Total, r72.Men,43; Women, 14; Total, 57.AorBCorD UNDERGRADUATESSeniors, 72; Juniors, 22; Total, 94Seniors, 35 ; Juniors, 45; Total, SoThe replies are therefore on the whole from a selected class. Thealumni and Senior College students who reply are the good scholars.The Junior College students who reply are about average in scholar­ship, but they, as well as the alumni and Senior College students, arethe earnest students. The evidence for this statement is found in thereplies to the questions which ask for information as to the time devotedto study. The C and D alumni and undergraduates report on theaverage as much time spent in study as the A and B alumni andundergraduates. It is difficult to suppose that this would be true if allthe C and D students reported. The fact that the replies come inlarger number from those of good scholarship and serious purpose makesthe answers in most cases more valuable. In the case of the particularquestion concerning the time spent in study, allowance must be madefor the character of the group represented; it would be interesting tohave a candid statement from all kinds of students, but it is doubtfulwhether this could be had. On the whole the answers to the severalquestions from those of C and D grade agree strikingly with the answersfrom those of A and B grade.60 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEOCCUPATIONS OF THE ALUMNI SENDING REPLIESThese are: teaching, I38; other professions, 27; at home, 7; notindicated, 47; total, 219.A count made a few years ago showed that about 43 per cent of thealumni gave their occupation as teaching. There is some reason tothink that the percentage of recent graduates engaged in teaching isless, rather than greater, than that of the earlier count. It is safe tosay that the returns are therefore from a selected group, so far as occu­pation is concerned. It is natural that teachers should take an interestin such an inquiry, and their opinions as to educational methods are,we believe, worthy of serious consideration.II. METHODS OF INSTRUCTIONA. GENERAL :METHODS OR MEANS OF INSTRUCTION: THE EXISTING PRACTICES,AND OPINIONS AS TO THEIR VALUEUnder this head we Include such general methods as the lecture, theinformal discussion, oral and written quizzes, oral reports on assignedtopics, shorter or more extended papers. The returns of instructorsshow the existing practice, and by implication the value attached tothese various methods by instructors; the returns from alumni andundergraduates show their estimates of these methods.I. LECTURES; OBSERVATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL WORK; QUESTIONAND DISCUSSIONPractices of inst1�uctors.-(a) Lectures. The inquiry addressed toinstructors as to lectures was: "What number of hours per quarterdo you devote in each of your courses to lectures, (a) formal, (b) informal,(c) read?"The answers could not all be brought under the exact numerical testproposed, but may be classed as follows:None Few Half Mainly AllFormal. ..... 41 30 25 3 8Informal. .... 5 60 29 22 IIRead ........ 34 10 .. 3 IIt appears from this that 46 give no lectures, formal or informal, andthat 44 use lectures (formal or informal) mainly or entirely. Thelarger number use a few (up to half) formal or informal lectures. Ifthis is taken in connection with the replies as to the use of observationaland experimental work, and of question and discussion, it is obviousthat the prevailing practice is a combination of informal lectures, eitherPRESENT PROBLEMS OF INSTRUCTION 61with observational or experimental work, or with questions and discus­sions based upon readings.(b) Observational and Experimental Work. Observational andexperimental work is used in practically all courses in the natural sciences.Observational work is also employed in courses in art and to a limitedextent in other branches to give a first-hand or a more vivid impression.Experiment, on the other hand, aims to train the student to use his ownjudgment and checks his accuracy by objective tests. This latter endis met in other subjects by other means. Themes, translation, mathe­matical problems, composition, written analyses and criticisms ofarguments or theories, especially when criticisms can be based onsources-all call for power of analysis, for reasoning, and to some extentafford objective tests, although in most cases these tests cannot be asexact as those afforded in the laboratories of the exact sciences. Themain interest in the replies of the instructors on this point will lie in thespecial methods which individual departments or instructors employ.These will be noted below.(c) Questions or Discussions. The question asked was: "Howmany hours do you give to questions or discussions (a) based on asingle textbook; (b) based upon prescribed reading in various books;(c) based upon observational and experimental work; (d) in prepara­tion for assigned work?" The answers are for the most part not givenin numerical form, but have been grouped as follows:None I Part Mainly Alla) .. ......... 30 32 33 5b) ... .. . 4 76 34 ..c) .... . . 8 39 14 ..d) .. 5 42 9Opinions of alumni and undergraduates as to the relative valuesof lectures and informal discussion.-The question asked of alumni andundergraduates was: "Other things being equal, did you receive morebenefit from lecture courses or from courses in which informal discussionby instructor and class predominated?"Of the alumni, 56 answer in favor of lectures; 138 in favor of informaldiscussion. Of undergraduates, 56 favor lectures; 74 favor informaldiscussion; 28 a combination of the two; 9 say it depends on thesize of the class. Of the alumni replies, therefore, 71 per cent favorinformal discussion and 29 per cent lectures; of the students, 44 percent favor discussions, 33! per cent lectures, I7 per cent a combination.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMore detailed analysis of the replies by grade, sex, or college is of doubt­ful value on account of the small numbers under certain of the sub­divisions; the numbers and percentages for the alumni are as follows:MEN WOMENGRADES A,B I GRADES C, D GRADES A,B GRADES C, DNumber Percen. Number Percen. Number Percen. Number Percen.-- -- -- -- -- -- --Favor Discussion ........ 57 75 20 61 56 75 5 50Favor Lectures .......... 19 25 13 39 19 25 5 50For the undergraduates the numbers and percentages:SENIORS JUNIORSGRADES A,B GRADES C, D GRADES A, B GRADES C, DNumber Percen. Number Percen. Number I Percen. Number Percen.-- -- -- -- -- --Discussion .............. 29 43 15 43 5 26 25 54Lectures ............... 24 36 7 2I II 58 19 31Combination ........... 9 13 9 26 3 16 7 15The most notable variations are that the C-D groups of alumnishow a less marked preference for discussions, and that the A-B gradeof Juniors show a decided preference for lectures.With these figures may be compared the replies of the alumni tothe questions, "Would you advise having more lectures (a) in theJunior Colleges; (b) in the Senior Colleges ?" Sixteen would havemore in the Junior Colleges; 184 would have less. Seventy-one wouldhave more in the Senior Colleges; 107 would have less. The verdictas to lectures in the Junior Colleges is perhaps the most nearly unani­mous of any in the series.Opinions of instructors as to the value of lectures.- The followingquestion was asked of instructors: "What in your judgment is thevalue of lectures as a means of instruction in the courses here described(1) for Junior College students; (2) for Senior College students?" Theanswers may be grouped under four heads (see first table on p. 63).Most of these reasons would doubtless commend themselves as jus­tifying an occasional lecture, especially in connection with methodswhich provide for much active work on the part of the student. Butthe prevailing judgment of instructors, alumni, and students wouldseem to force any instructor who relies solely or largely on lectures,PRESENT PROBLEMS OF INSTRUCTIONparticularly for Junior College students, to consider carefully whetherhis course is so exceptional in its circumstances as to justify this method.For Junior For SeniorColleges Collegesa) No value .................... 21 9b) Information-No book available .......... 14 22To supplement. ............ 23 26c) Method-To secure simplicity or betterorganization ............. 8 15To state problems .......... 7 8For comprehensive survey ... 5 4To "save time" ............ 4 Id) To awaken interest ........... 10 6In some cases instructors state that they lecture not from choicebut from necessity-the class is so large that other methods are imprac­ticable. In these cases the Department or the authorities which havethe decision in the matter should consider the same question.2. ORAL OR WRITTEN REPORTS AND TERM PAPERSPractice of instructors.-The replies to the question: "To whatextent do you require (I) written papers, (2) oral reports?" were asfollows: Written reports: daily, II; semi-weekly, 7; weekly, 33;bi-weekly, 29; monthlyy ag ; semi-quarterly, 10; quarterly, 16; "sev­eral," 17; "frequent," S; none, 10. In reply to the question: "Arewritten papers read?" 160 reply yes; S, no; 2, "some"; and of those141 correct them; 8 do not; 13 correct some. They are returned byISO; not returned' by 4; some are returned by 8. As to oral reportsthe replies are: "much use," 2S; "several," 20; "little," 29; "none,"14. Evidently a greater use is made of written than of oral reports.The opinion of alumni and undergraduates is decided upon this point.Opinion of alumni and undergraduat�es.-As to written papers thequestion read: "Did you find particularly valuable (I) frequent writtenexercises to be prepared out of class; (2) term papers?ALUMNI UNDERGRADUATESFrequent Papers Term Papers Frequent Papers I Term PapersYes ......... 174 151 102 74No .......... 36 51 40 39THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAs to oral reports, the alumni answer, yes, 100 no, 93. The questionto the undergraduates was more fortunately framed so as to distinguishbetween value to the person making the report and value to the rest ofthe class. The results are striking. The replies read: To the one makingthe report, yes, 122, no, 16; to the rest of the class, yes, 26, no, 105.An opinion so nearly unanimous as that of the undergraduates on thispoint is certainly deserving of attention. The use of oral reports wouldseem to be wise only when measures have previously been taken by theinstructor, through personal conference or otherwise, to make sure thatthe report to be given is one that will be profitable to the class-unlesspossibly in the case of classes so small that the advantage to the indi­vidual reporting is not too decidedly outweighed by the dissatisfactionof the rest of the class. The point of difference which makes a discus­sion or question-and-answer method useful, and an oral report not so,is doubtless that the former can be used to develop the subject and sokeep the exercise a class exercise, in spite of the inaptness of individualanswers; while an oral report may wander or fail to have point ororganization, or be presented with too little force, so that it becomesan individual performance.3. WRITTEN TESTS AND ORAL QUIZZESPractice of instructors.-The question to instructors on this pointwas not framed to cover exactly the points emphasized in the questionsto alumni and undergraduates. It read: "In case of lectures to whatextent do you employ (I) quizzes conducted by yourself; (2) quizzesconducted by others?" The answers are: None.o ; quarterlyy j ; semi­quarterlyy a ; monthly. r S; "occasional" or "several," 30; "frequent,"21; bi-weeklyv ro; weekly, 28; semi-weeklyv j ; daily, 25.Opinions of alumni and undergraduates.-Of the alumni 157 foundfrequent written tests in class especially valuable; 52 did not. Ofundergraduates 102 find them so; 40 do not. Here there is a differencein percentage between the answers from Senior College students andthose from Junior College students which may perhaps indicate eitherthat the first group have grown to value this more because of its intrinsicworth as an educational instrument, or that because of the freer andmore informal character of Senior College courses frequent tests aremore needed. The figures are given in the table on p. 65.Taken in order, the increase in the percentage who find such fre­quent tests valuable, from 58 in the C-D Juniors, to 83 in the A-BSeniors is significant.PRESENT PROBLEMS OF INSTRUCTIONOral quiz or written test?-The question, Which is preferable, theoral quiz or the written test, was proposed to the undergraduates.The opinion is nearly unanimous; 28 favor the oral quiz; 113 the writtenSENIOR COLLEGES JUNIOR COLLEGESGRADES A, B I GRADES C, D GRADES A, B GRADES C, DNumber Percen. Number Percen. Number Percen. Number Percen.-- -- --- -- -- -- --yes ....... 1 48 83 21 70 12 67 21 58No ........ 10 17 9 30 6 33 15 42test; 9 a combination of the two. There is no noteworthy differencein the different grades, or between Seniors and Juniors. But thereasons given for the answers are significant and suggest at once to theteacher the respective purpose which each may well serve.The reasons assigned for preferring the oral quiz are: " requiresquick thought," 2; "errors can be corrected and explanation given,"13; "gives training in speaking," 2; "makes the student more logicalin speaking," 3; "prevents misunderstanding of questions by student,or of answers by teachers," 3.The reasons assigned for preferring the written test are: "givestime to think and organize, and present more logically," 57; "studentis more at ease," I7; "less chance for 'bluffing,'" 7; "gives all equalchances on same questions," II; "gives a chance at more than onequestion," 18; "is fairer," 22; "is more thorough," I4; "calls for morepreparation," 6.It is obvious that those who favor the oral quiz think of the directbenefit to the student; those who prefer the written test think of itprimarily as a means of grading, although the training in organizingmaterial carefully is undoubtedly valuable to the student.4. NOTEBOOKSNo comprehensive question was set as to the use and value of note­books. The question proposed upon the instructors' blanks was: "Inthe case of observational and experimental work, (I) are notebooksrequired; (2) are they corrected and returned?" The answers to (I)are: yes, 54; no, 9; to (2): yes,49; no, 6.B. SPECIAL MEANS OF INSTRUCTION FOUND VALUABLE BY VARIOUS INSTRUCTORSThe estimate placed on a special plan or means of instruction heredescribed would "no doubt be affected by the answer to the question,66 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWhose plan is it? It has been thought best not to give the names ofthe instructors. The main question that the reader will ask is: CanI use this in my own work? But it may fairly be said that most of thesuggestions printed come from those who are regarded as highly suc­cessful teachers.I. An instructor in Botany: A combined lecture and quiz, 2 hours a week, isbased upon one principal text, other assigned readings, laboratory observations, andreasonable inferences from all these. Of chief service is the building-up of the situationson the blackboard, making every possible thing graphic.II. The courses in Physiography and General Geology have laboratory work,I hour, classroom discussion and informal lecture, 5 hours, about eight writtenpapers a quarter, use maps daily, lantern slides perhaps once in two weeks, picturesa good deal. Specially useful are the following: (I) After written exercises callingfor discussion of one topic, I often dictate a discussion of the same topic such as Ishould have been glad to have students write. They compare with their own paper.Very effective. (2) Have students read each other's papers, each reading one. Readermakes comments and signs. Papers come back to instructor. (3) Many problemsassigned which call for application of principles developed in class. (4) Conferences:groups of four, on maps which illustrate subject of discussion. Effective. Mapsrequire advance study. One weekly meeting outside class hour.III. An instructor in History: I think very well of the private conference. Aquarter of an hour of confrontation of student with instructor does more towardestablishing an understanding than a long succession of general quizzes. A privateoffice is a necessary equipment of a good course in history. Up to the present, alas!such a room has not been furnished.IV. An instructor in Geography: I furnish each student a mimeograph copy ofa detailed synopsis of the work, with the references. I also post an extended list ofquiz questions to cover the field of work.V. An instructor in Anatomy: We urge students to use systematically the card­catalogue (library-index) method in filing his observations of laboratory work, andhis notes on lectures and reading.VI. An instructor in Sociology: I cause students to submit written questions onthe reading, which either seek information or raise questions of difference betweenthe views in the different authors read, or between these views and the instructiongiven in class. These are taken up and answered by other students or myself. Thisleads to discussion and interest.VII. Several instructors in English: Personal conference is most important.The reading of students' themes in class accompanied by criticism is valuable.VIII. An instructor in Astronomy: Being perfectly frank with the studentregarding what you wish and why you wish it, and then undertaking to attain it whileon a level with and in sympathy with the student.IX. An instructor in Physics: "Back-handed quizzes." One student asks aquestion to be answered by another, and so on.X. An instructor in Mathematics: Interest is aroused through constant contactwith the concrete and practical side of the subject; it is maintained by holding strictlyto the range of topics and presentation of material within the reach of the class;PRESENT PROBLEMS OF INSTRUCTIONenthusiasm is kindled by glimpses at all appropriate points of the avenues leadingout, and more extended theory and application.XI. An instructor in Physiology: Conferences, 15 minutes per week, with eachstudent. I have found this method most valuable, though requiring a great deal oftime.XII. An instructor in Geography: Whenever (in lecturing) the point is one whichthe class can reason out I stop lecturing and throw it into the informal discussion.XIII. Instructors in History and Latin: Taking the students into the libraryand actually showing them the books; telling them about the authors; (History) tellingthem how history is taught abroad; telling them about the men who are teaching it inAmerica. (Latin) Showing them what the library contains acquaints them with thefield of classical philology, and corrects the impression of some that Latin is onlygrammar. Some have stayed a whole afternoon asking questions. They go back withawakened interest.XIV. An instructor in Latin: When a student has translated a part of the advanceI call upon some other student to criticize his rendering. Then with the co-operationof the class I take up the criticisms made. The students do not seem to have theslightest hesitation in sitting in judgment on their fellows, and I find that this plantends to keep the whole class alert. The students understand that the quality oftheir criticism is as important for the class-rating as the quality of their own trans­lation. One part I reserve for translation by myself.XV. An instructor in Political Science: Each student has a collection of leadingcases, to which is prefixed a syllabus of topics and references covering a wide rangeof reading. There is a daily quiz, and a discussion on the subject-matter of thesyllabus, with occasional reports on special topics and occasional papers.XVI. Instructors in Modern Languages: Constant use of the language in theclassroom; it is practice, and not theory or grammar rules, that gives the beginner anyreal knowledge; daily written work, corrected by the instructor and worked over bythe student, and much oral drill are absolutely necessary in the elementary work.XVII. An instructor in Chemistry: Written answers at beginning of hour to somequestion dealing with a subject of especial significance and susceptible of brief treat­ment, about 15 to 18 times per quarter. The order of topics in laboratory and lec­ture is the same; the lectures or classroom exercises follow the laboratory work on thesame topic. Continuous instruction is given in the laboratory.XVIII. An instructor in Neurology: One hour a week the class meets in sectionsof about eight students with an assistant for informal quiz and formal reports fromthe students on assigned topics. These reports are generally demonstrations fromactual laboratory material supplemented by reports on reading assigned.XIX. Instructors in Political Economy: As far as possible an inductive methodis used. A syllabus, consisting of practical problems and actual cases, has beenprinted for class use, and the class discussion, as well as the readings, centers in thesyllabus. As a means of stimulating discussion, "problems for over-night solution"are frequently assigned. The main effort is directed toward having the student reachindependent conclusions from an analysis of the facts of the industrial world.XX. An instructor in Philosophy: A typewritten sheet of questions given out(a) in connection with a text to direct attention to the important points and the lineof argument, or (b) to present a problem and suggest the various possible lines ofattack, in order to stimulate reflection before the topic is discussed in class.68 TIlE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEIII. SHOULD COURSES IN THE SENIOR COLLEGES MEET FOUR ORFIVE TIMES A WEEK?This has always been a moot point in our University. Believingthat the opinions of faculty and students should be of some value ifcompared, questions were asked as follows: (I) of the instructors, "Inyour judgment, has a four-hour course more advantages for SeniorCollege students than a five-hour course?" (2) of the undergraduates,"Other things equal, have four- or five-hour courses proved moreprofitable to you?"The instructors reply: in favor of four-hour courses, 63; five-hour,42. The undergraduates (limited for the most part to Senior Collegestudents) reply: in favor of four-hour courses, 61; of five-hour, 42.Contrary to the opinion some entertain, it is the students of grades Aand B who favor the four-hour course most decidedly, viz., in SeniorColleges, 34 for four-hour, 14 for five; of C and D grade, 15 for four­hour, 12 for five. The instructors show some evidence of "group influ­ence;" inasmuch as most departments are unanimous, but the obviousfact is that they divide according to subjects. Almost without excep­tion instructors in subjects which make much use of the library andrequire much reading and writing of the student prefer the four-hourcourse; those departments in which the student's time is largely employedin the laboratory prefer five hours. The 63 votes for meeting four timesa week come as follows: Philosophy (including, in 1909, Education),7; Political Economy, 6; Historyv g ; Sociology, 3; Household Admin­istration, 3; Semitic Literature, I; Greek, I; Latin, 4; Romance, 7;German, 3; English, 14; Mathematics, 3; Geology, I; Physiology,r ; Botany, 2; Public Speaking, I. The 42 votes for five hours comefrom Psychology, I; Political Economy, I; Political Science, 2; His­tory, 2; Latin, I; Romance, I; English, 2; Mathematics, 2; Astron­omy, I; Physicsv a ; Geology,8; Geographyy j ; Zoology, 5; Anatomy,I; Physiology, 2; Botany, 5; Public Speaking, 1.The reasons which the students give fit very well with the differencesin subject-matters and methods which determine largely the prefer­ences of instructors. The reasons for preferring four hours are: "givesmore time for the library," 50; "more time to reflect and organizematerial," 13; "more time for relaxation," 8; "more variety," 6.In favor of five hours the reasons are: "more work done," 10; "lesswasted time," II; "class more valuable than private study," "get morefrom instructor," 8; "work better unified," 9.Sixty-four instructors state in reply to a question, that in classesPRESENT PROBLEMS OF INSTRUCTIONmeeting four hours a week they aim to provide additional work corre­sponding to a fifth hour, and sixteen that they do not, although manyof these latter state that the class is given enough work to occupy allthe available time. On the genera] question one instructor in Englishremarks: "Two hours is often enough in my work where personal con­ference is important. As a rule I think American students hear toomuch talk in class."The Committee believes that the practices of different departmentsaccord on the whole with differences of method belonging naturallyto different subjects and different personalities, although it is veryplausible that the more able student may find greater proportionate gainfrom individual work on one whole day each week, while the less giftedor less industrious is more profited by work with the instructor.IV.' SHOULD STUDENTS KNOW THEIR GRADES?Opinion of both alumni and undergraduates on this is strikinglyone way. The alumni reply, yes, 148; no, 57; the undergraduates, yes,138; no, 22. The reasons given for and against are mainly its effectas a motive; those who favor letting the grades be known urge that itencourages and stimulates the good students, and warns the careless,while those who oppose this policy believe it appeals to a wrong motivein inciting study for the sake of grades. Several urge other reasons:the effect on the instructor of making him fairer or more careful; theopportunity to rectify mistakes+-one alumnus speaks of an error in hisown experience which evidently impressed him as flagrantly unjust,and which could have been rectified if he had known of the error at thetime; the opportunity to get an instructor's judgment as a means ofestimating one's work (not necessarily as the motive). Aside from thequestion of motive, perhaps the most forcible objection expressed is thatinstructors vary so widely in their standards that grades have no realvalue, and students are tempted to select courses in which high gradesare habitually given. This objection applies rather t? the use of anymarking system than to making the grades public. 'A study of thepractice of instructors on this point may be made later.With reference to the question of motives, it may go without dis­cussion that the student who studies chiefly for marks has little gen­uine scholarship. But it is too easily assumed on both sides that thedesire for marks is necessarily the chief motive in the case of those whowant to know their grades. Probably few scholars, among those whlfJhave given themselves to investigation as their life-interest, would lTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEcontinuously do their best work without some sort of encouragement orcriticism from fellow-scholars. And it does not necessarily argue a lowmoral tone if a man is sensitive to the judgments of those whom hebelieves to be superior in character or attainments to himself. If it isthe master who praises or blames, the art or the scholarship may stillbe true, the character may be sincere. The committee believes thatthis desire to get a true line on their work, and thus to criticize andcorrect themselves, is implicit in the desire of many if not most of thosewho like to know how their instructors have graded them. Hence itfavors the policy of communicating to each student his grade in eachcourse at the end of each quarter.v. How MUCH TIME Is, AND How MUCH SHOULD BE DEVOTEDTO STUDY?I. ACTUAL AND IDEALExisting practice.-The alumni were asked: "What was your aver­age time in preparation for a major course (other than a laboratorycourse)?" The answers must be read in the light of the fact that theycome from a selected group. Of the 190 answering this question, I53were of grades A or B; only 37 of grades C or D. As might be expected,the former report more time than the latter, but it is not justifiable toattribute much importance to this in view of the small number of C orD grade who report. By grades the figures are:GRADES A OR B GRADES C OR D TOTALAbsolute No. Percentage Absolute No. Percentage Absolute No. Percentage1 hour ...... 23 15 II 30 34 ISIi hours ..... 39 26 9 24 48 252 hours ...... 80 52 14 38 94 493 hours ...... II 7 3 8 14 7153 37 190There is a general impression that women devote rather more timeto their studies than men. So far as the group here represented isconcerned this is true though not in a striking degree. The number ofmen of A or B grade is 77; of women of the same grades, 76; Thesegroups are then comparable, so far as they go. The figures are:PRESENT PROBLEMS OF iNSTRUCTION 71MEN WOMENAbsolute No. I Percentage Absolute No. PercentageI hour ................... 14 18 9 12I! hours .................. 22 29 17 222 hours .................. 36 47 44' 573 hours .................. 5 6 6 977 76As only nine women of C or D grade gave figures, no significancewould attach to comparison in that group. As regards the generalcomparison, it is to be borne in mind that about SO per cent of the menwho graduate are paying their own expenses, wholly or in part. Thisis probably reflected in the considerable percentages of A or B men whodevote less than two hours to preparation.In framing the question addressed to the undergraduates the aimwas to learn how much time was given to strictly academic work, in allits parts. In consequence, the replies are not exactly comparablewith the replies of the alumni. The question read: "How many hoursper week! on the average, including the class periods, do you spendupon a major course?" The answers given in many cases read: "from10 to I2," "from I2 to I4." Such answers were recorded as "II" or"I3" respectively. The following table presents these answers, andalso under the column headed "Ideal" the answers to the question,"How many hours per week in your opinion should the average studentbe expected to spend?"C AND D A AND B TOTALHOURS SPENT ABSOLUTE PERCENT- ABSOLUTE PERCENT- ABSOLUTE PERCENT-NUMBER AGES NUMBER AGES NUMBER AGESActual Ideal Actual Ideal Actual Ideal Actual Ideal Actual Ideal Actual Ideal-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --Below 9 ..... 5 4 6·9 6.0 6 7 7.0 8.1 II II 7.0 7.29 and 9!· ... 5 3 6·9 4·5 3 I 3·5 I.2 8 4 5.1 2.610 and IO! .. II II 15·3 16.4 19 21 22.1 24·4 30 32 19.0 20·9II and II! .. 3 10 4.2 14·9 6 6 7·0 7.0 9 16 5 7 10·512 and 12! .. 20 6 27.8 9.0 14 IS 16·3 17·5 34 21 2I.5 13·713 and I3! .. 5 9 6·9 13·4 8 16 9·3 18.6 13 25 8.1 16·314 and I4! .. 4 6 5.6 9.0 7 3 8. I 3·5 II 9 7.0 5·9IS and IS! .. 10 II 13·9 16·4 12 8 14.0 9·3 22 19 13·9 12·416 and above 9 7 12·5 10 4 II 9 12·7 10 4 20 16 12·7 10·5-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --Total. .... 72 67 100 100 86 86 100 100 158 153 100 100THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe Chart shows the average for all students reporting:Ac tual______fd'�al __ui � � � ci ] in� ...c:= ...c: ...c:= ...c: li0\ ,.;Ieq ,.;IN ,.;� ! ,.;Ieq 1""Ir�?; 0\ 8 � j"..9 "t 'V "t "t "t "t:::Cl) C\$ ::: ::: � ::: �� 01 C\$ � C\$ C\$ �8 1-1 � � ;j"1-1 1-1 in Vl:l :>0,.;� ..0C\$�'V �::: C\$c::l �11")1-1Confining ourselves first to the actual time reported as spent inwork, perhaps the most instructive grouping of the figures is the follow­ing: a group of those reporting IO-I2! hours includes 46 per cent;those reporting 13 or more hours, 42 per cent; less than 10 hours, 12 percent. The chief difference between the A and B students and the Cand D students is that the largest number of the former reports 10 andIO!; of the latter, 12 and I2!. If we attempt to interpret these figuresin hours of preparation, instead of in total time spent on the course,there is a chance for error owing to the general terms in which the stu­dents express answers in some cases, and also to the doubt as to howmany of the courses taken meet four hours a week. But it is perhapsas close an estimate as can be made to interpret the three groups asfollows: Less than 10 hours, I hour or less of preparation; 10 to 12!hours, I! hours of preparation; 13 or more hours, 2 hours or more. Theresults, thus interpreted differ from the alumni replies chiefly in that the1!-hour group is largest at the expense of the 2-hour group.What is a reasonable amount of time for study?-Probably mostinstructors consider two hours a reasonable requirement for dailypreparation, except in the case of laboratory courses where there are2-hour periods in the laboratory and less preparation is required. Thealumni were asked: (a) "Is two hours a day a reasonable time; (b) IfPRESENT PROBLEMS OF INSTRUCTION 73not, what do you consider a reasonable average?" The replies to (a)are: yes, 159; nO,49. To (b) the replies are: 1 hourvo; I! hours, 29;3 hoursv g. As a large proportion of these replies come from teachersit may be that this simply repeats prevalent academic standards. Itwill be noted, however, that whereas 60 per cent of the alumni reportedtheir actual time as two hours or more, 79 per cent think that two hoursor more is reasonable.Undergraduate opinion.-The undergraduates are guilty of no suchbreach between theory and practice, They were not asked the lead­ing question: "Is two hours a reasonable time?" and as is shown in thepreceding table and chart their "actual" and "ideal" time is nearlythe same. Not only do the numbers and percentages nearly coincide;inspection of the individual papers show that in almost every case thestudent gives as the" number of hours which the average student shouldbe expected to spend" a number either just the same as that which hespends, or one varying very slightly from it. The exceptions are mainlyin cases in which the student has reported himself as spending some verylarge number of hours, and thinks this too much. E.g., a JuniorCollege student, grade C, reports four hours per day but thinks threehours (outsides of class) enough. Another, grade B-, spends 15-20hours a week (including class hours), but thinks 10-15 enough. A thirdalso of C grade, reports 15-25 per week, including class periods, andthinks 16 or 17 proper. One student near the other extreme, however,is not entirely at ease in Zion, for while reporting a total of 7 spent(including class periods) he thinks the average student might beexpected to spend 9 or 10. One Senior College student, grade B, givesa schedule for a "rational day" which is inserted here: "I rise at 6:00and go to bed at 10:00, which leaves a ro-hour day, used as follows:meals, 2 hours; in class, 3 hours; going and coming, I hour; gym,chapel, class meetings, 1: hour; library service, 2 hours; recreation, Ihour; study, 6 hours.2. EXCESSIVE TIME REQUIREMENTSThe alumni were asked: "Did you ever take a course in which therequirement was far in excess of two hours a day?" and the undergrad­uates, with slightly different phrasing: "Did you ever take a coursewhich constantly required so much time that other courses had to beslighted ? What course? How much time did it take ?"The alumni report on the question was: yes, 125; no, 72, with adifference in the ratios from the men and the women. Of the men of74 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEA or B grade the answers were: yes, 40; no, 38. Of the women of A orB grade, yes, 52; no, 20. The courses which alumni specify as requir­ing time for preparation in excess of 2 hours a day fall into two classes:(r ) About a score of courses are mentioned by from one to three persons.No importance can be attached to these replies. It is to be expectedthat individual students will find some one course very exacting. (2)More significant are classes in which a large number agree that thecourse required" far in excess of two hours." Seven name" Mathe­matics" without further specification, and three, "Languages." Thesemay be due to natural inability in these lines. Seven say Latin, andeight, more definitely, Latin Prose. Then follow Germanv g ; EnglishComposition (especially course 3), IS; English Literature (periodcourses, the novel), 19; Mediaeval History, 37; Modern History, II;other history courses, 7.Of the undergraduates 91 have taken a course requiring so muchtime that other courses had to be slighted; 62 have not. As might beexpected, a larger proportion in the Senior College (yes, 60; no, 34)have found such courses than in the Junior College (yes, 31; no, 28).On account of the smaller total number, the specifications are given forthose courses mentioned by more than two r. required Latin, 4; Sociol­ogy, course 52, 4; course 51, 4; Political Science, course 14, 3; Trigo­nometryy a ; Commercial Geography, 3; Physiography, 5; Chemistry,course 35, 4; History, mediaeval, 5; English Literature (period courses,especially 48), 8; English composition (especially course 3), 8.It may be said that instructors in English literature hold that, whiletheir courses often do require more than an average amount of time, thework involved is ordinarily much less exacting in character (e.g., inthe course on the novel) than study for some of the other subjects. Itmay be said further that several of those reporting the requirement inEnglish Composition as calling for more than average time, added thecomment, "but it was worth it."What is the "reasonable" attitude? Two positions might conceiv­ably be taken: (I) that there is no limit to be considered in assigningreading or preparation, except what experience shows to be the maximumwhich good students will reach; (2) that some regard is due to otherinstructors, and it is not wise to drive one's pedagogical automobile atfull speed in a crowded thoroughfare, even if one does have a higher­power engine. The Committee believes that this second position isthe just and fair one, and that the best results are secured by a spirit ofmutual consideration. The best agency for aiding in the better adjust-PRESENT PROBLEMS OF INSTRUCTION 75ment of time requirements is believed to be the special officers recom­mended in a later section (VI). These high-pressure courses probablybear harder on the students in the Junior Colleges than in the SeniorColleges. In the Junior Colleges the average student is pursuingmainly a required curriculum. He is nearly certain to meet some study(Language, Mathematics, etc.) which is for him peculiarly difficult.He has little opportunity to arrange his work so as to give extra time toone subject without slighting others or neglecting health. There are,in the Junior Colleges, according to the returns to the next question tobe considered, few if any courses "for which little or no preparation isrequired." Moreover, if Senior College work is intended to approxi­mate advanced work in any respect, it should properly have largehorizons. The instructor will naturally indicate reading sufficient tooccupy not only the average student but the exceptional student whomay wish to specialize in this field. But just in connection with thisdesirable practice arise two occasions for legitimate complaint: (I) therecommendation of long lists of readings without any clear distinctionbetween what is expected to be read immediately and what is givenmerely as belonging properly to the literature of the subject and henceas suggestion for possible reference, at the time or later, without expec­tation that it is necessarily to be read as part of the course. Apparentlywell-grounded complaints have come to the Committee of failure tomake this distinction. (2) Sudden assignments of large amounts ofreadings, or of papers; when two or three instructors simultaneouslymake such demands and allow a very short time for the task, the studenthas a right to feel that there is something wrong.3. ARE THERE COURSES FOR WHICH LITTLE OR NO PREPARATION ISREQUIRED?In reply to this the alumni answered: yes, I27; no,63. The under­graduates' replies to the more personal query: "Did you ever take acourse, other than a review course, which required practically no timeoutside of the class hour?" were: yes, I04; no, 47.Three questions at once arise: (1) Who take such courses, the goodstudents or those of lower grade? (2) Which courses are of this char­acter? (3) Are they necessarily undesirable courses on this account?When the elective system was at first introduced into Americancolleges the same advantages were claimed for it as were supposed byzealous advocates of free competition to attend upon that system inthe economic world. No instructor would continue to offer "snapTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEcourses," because this would attract a large number of less serious stu­dents, and no instructor would wish either to teach classes of "snap­seekers" or to have the reputation among his colleagues of giving coursesso "soft" as to be elected largely by those in search of an easy life.The opposite complaint is now often heard: The elective system, it issaid, encourages snap courses. Instructors, being human, like to be"elected." College authorities, it is alleged, want numbers, and henceplace a premium upon the work of the instructor who can attract largeclasses.As to the first question, What sort of students elect the courses underconsideration? we have no adequate data as yet, but the replies to ourquestionnaires, so far as they go, indicate that as many good studentsas others have taken such courses. The alumni replies by grades are:GRADES A, B GRADES C, DMen Women Total Percen. Men Women Total Percen.-- -- -- -- -- --Yes ....... 47 54 91 61 20 6 26 62No ........ 30 27 57 39 14 2 16 38The only groups which give more no's than yes's are the Bachelors ofArts (men), grades A or B, yes, IO, no, 13; and the Bachelors of Philosophy(men), grades C or D, yes, 4, no, 7.The undergraduates' replies by grades are:GRADES A, B GRADES C, DSeniors Juniors Total Percen. Seniors Juniors Total Percen.-- -- -- -- -- -- --Yes ....... 25 4 29 35 9 9 18 27No ........ 39 15 55 65 22 28 50 73It will be noted that there is a far larger ratio of "yes" replies fromthe alumni than from the undergraduates. This might be supposed to bedue to the different forms of the question proposed. But the alumni seemto have treated it in nearly every case as meaning, "Were these amongthe courses you took?" It would appear that the undergraduates hadnot at the time of making out the schedules had as many opportunitiesas the graduates. Indeed one Senior College student, as if catching ata suggested privilege hopelessly beyond his powers of discovery, answers," No! I should like to know of one!" As it is not the purpose of thisreport to serve as a vade mecum to such seekers, the names of the coursesPRESENT PROBLEMS OF INSTRUCTION 77cited are not given, but it may be said that every department offeringcourses to undergraduataes, except Anatomy and Pathology, appearson the list, and in addition this sweeping phrase, "all lecture courses."It is, however, proper to connect with this the answers to the relatedquestion proposed to the alumni: "Did you find that some courseswere valuable in spite of the fact that little or no preparation was neces­sary ? " To this 1 the replies were: yes, 114; no, 20; and the specificgrounds of value mentioned (without being asked for) were: as review,6; inspiration, 3I; general information, 46. Some of the writers spokein high terms of the courses which appear oftenest on the list.It does not follow that the courses in question might not be evenmore valuable if there were more active work performed by the studentin connection with them. It may be that all possible excellences arenot to be looked for in one and the same instructor, and further, thatto make certain subjects too rigorous and precise is liable to deprivethem of certain other values. Hence the Committee is not preparedto recommend specific legislative action. Two suggestions, however,seem pertinent: (I) The facts cited, taken in connection with those asto excessive time requirement above, show need of greater uniformity.It is believed that fuller discussion within departments would be oneway of bringing attention to this need of better adjustment, and that ifthe recommendations made at a later point in the report as tore me­dies for defective instruction should be adopted, there will be furtherprogress. (2) It is not to be assumed that the students who elect onecourse of the sort requiring no preparation will voluntarily balance itwith another requiring excessive time. There is therefore need ofespecial advice and direction for those individuals who wish to havetoo large a part of their intellectual food predigested, or to make stimu­lants the staple of their diet, and in any case Junior College studentsshould be rigorously excluded from such courses.VI. WASTE, OR UNSATISFACTORY COURSESEducational waste may be due to lack of application or of adequatepreparation on the part of the students, to defective equipment, todefective administration, or to poor teaching. The Committee hasaimed to see whether it appeared to alumni or instructors that there wereserious defects 'of these various kinds, and as far as possible to locatethe more obvious. Several questions asked bear upon these points:Instructors were asked, "Does the foregoing description of your coursesmeet your ideals? If not, what change or changes do you suggest (I)THE UNHTERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEin point of material equipment, (2) in other conditions on �which resultsdepend?" Alumni were asked: (I) "Were there any courses in whichyou failed to obtain a satisfactory understanding of the subject-matter?If so, was failure due, in your opinion, to (a) inadequate preliminarywork? (b) lack of application on your part? (c) defective instruction?If so, in what particulars? (d) inadequate facilities (laboratory, library,etc.)? (e) outside occupation or other causes?" Alumni were askedalso, (2), "Did you find that the effectiveness of instruction in any coursewas impaired: (a) by the size of the classes? (b) by the inclusion in thesame class of students of different grades of advancement?"Naturally few instructors would feel that their courses were perfect,and in the" no's" we have not included the purely subjective replieswhich merely indicated a general desire for improvement. Omittingthese, the instructors answer, yes, 25; no, 78. The alumni answerquestion (I) above, yes, I42; no, 63. It must be remembered that wehave on the whole a select group of alumni, but the percentages areapproximately the same in the various subdivisions, except for the menof C or D grade who received degrees of Bachelor of Arts and Bachelorof Science. Here the figures were, respectively, yes, 5; no, I; andyes, I3; no, I. In many cases the alumni do not specify just how manycourses were unsatisfactory, but one gets the impression that the aver­age would not be over two courses. Of the total number of alumnireplying to the questionnaire 24 had spent one year in residence, 43 twoyears, 53 three years, and 88 four years. The average length of resi­dence was thus almost precisely three years, and the average number ofcourses which each had taken was twenty-seven. The particular kindof unsatisfactory courses detected by this inquiry, i.e., "courses in whichyou failed to obtain a satisfactory knowledge of the subject," is notnumerous enough to form a large proportion of the work taken-s-a outof 27. Some of the worst forms of bad teaching do not necessarily fallunder this head. The instructor may be "awfully intelligible" and stilla failure. One receives from the replies, however, the general impres­sion that the instruction as a whole appears to the alumni to have beenexcellent. The specific points to which attention is called by alumnias well as by instructors are therefore all the more worthy of seriousattention. We begin with the more objective matters.I. DEFECTIVE EQUIPMENTFifty-seven instructors specify defective equipment as interferingwith their work. Of these, seven find the classrooms unsuited either inPRESENT PROBLEMS OF INSTRUCTION 79arrangement or in lighting or in ventilation; twenty lack books, espe­cially sufficient duplicate copies for large classes; twenty-six suffer forwant of apparatus of various kinds, such as maps, charts, lantern slides.It is natural that this particular lack should not be appreciated as readilyby the student as are other lacks. He knows at once if the instructorfails to "get his interest"; he is not so likely to notice the defectsin equipment. Only six alumni mention this under (I) above, althoughhad the question been worded less narrowly it might have brought outa different reply. Returning to the specific needs noted by instructors,some-such as those of better lighted classrooms for courses in whichblackboard work is essential, or for more space-it may not be possibleto meet until new buildings are gradually erected, but it is certainly astrong appeal when an instructor says: "We have the largest classesin the country [in his subject] and the worst equipment." It is worthnoting that recommendation for such enlarged space or new buildingis made for practically every Department represented in our list, in thePresident's Report to the Trustees for 1908-9. The complaint ofpoor library service, and in particular of the trouble due to the largereliance upon student assistants, is, it is understood, to be seriouslyconsidered in the new library organization. This Committee can onlyregister emphatically its belief that perhaps no simple general need ismore pressing.There are, however, two kinds of equipment which seem to be sogenerally lacking and so much desired that the Committee believes itimportant to dwell upon the point. These are, first, duplicate copiesof books in the libraries for use of large classes. Some conference withthe librarians further emphasizes this point. The simple fact is thatour library practice is a generation behind our laboratory practicein the respect of giving each individual opportunities for contact withsources, and so of being able to hold him responsible for daily work.What would be thought of a botanical laboratory with one set of mate­rial and one microscope to which a class of forty were" referred," or ofa similar equipment in any physical science? The last touch of absurd­ity is added when, as is alleged to have happened more than once, thesingle library copy to which a large class has been referred with therequirement of a report upon it, has itself been drawn by the instructor!Some courses are able to use case-books or source-books which theindividual student may own, but in the case of many subjects suchbooks are not yet in existence, and in the case of others the sources aretoo voluminous. The only basis for an adequate method of study is a80 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEsupply of duplicate copies. One objection to providing sufficientduplicates at present is that they disappear rapidly from the shelves.It is recommended that the Library consider some such plan as thefollowing, which is analogous to the methods used in laboratories. Theduplicate copies not to be placed on the open shelves, but issued to thestudent (or group of two or three) at the opening of the course, or fromtime to time; these copies not to be returned each day but retaineduntil no longer needed for consultation or review. If necessary tosecure the return, a deposit similar to that required for microscopes oreven a coupon ticket, similar to that used in Chemistry and Biology, forcourses in which a large number of texts are thus furnished; any incomefrom such special tickets to be expended in maintaining or extendingthese facilities for duplicate copies.The second need often recurring is that for maps, charts, lanternslides, photographs, objects for observation coming under the general headof museum material. All of these may, like the source-books mentionedabove, come under the general head of first-hand sources, or at leastrepresentation of such sources. Twenty-two instructors from fifteendepartments express their needs of such material. It is significantthat here again the requests come largely from the same Departmentswhich ask for better library equipment. The historical and socialsciences and the departments of language and literature are just beginningto seek-or at least the public has not yet appreciated the need ofgranting-facilities similar to those provided as a matter of course forthe natural sciences. It is believed that in many cases this is a con­dition common in other institutions. The expense of such equipmentis relatively smaller than that of lines of university expenditure whichare more generally recognized but probably are not more rewardingeducationally. The Committee therefore recommends that the Facultytake some appropriate manner of presenting its views on --this point tothe attention of the proper authorities, and that the advancing demandsof modern instruction be brought to public attention as occasion offers,in order that public sentiment may require and support more adequateprovisions. In the Department of English stress is laid on the needof printed or mimeographed source material. This is but another anda promising indication of desire to work with first-hand material andindividually.2. SIZE OF CLASSESThirty-one instructors believe their classes are too large. Fromthe alumni, in reply to the question: "Did you find that the effective­ness of instruction in any course was impaired by the size of classes?"PRESENT PROBLEMS OF INSTRUCTION 81the replies were, yes, 148; no, 61. Several instructors regret that thesize of the class forces them to use a lecture method when they wouldprefer discussion. .It seems to be agreed that when a class numbersover 25 or 30 it becomes difficult for any but exceptional teachers so toconduct discussion as to maintain interest and secure active co-opera­tion on the part of the whole class. It is not in all cases perfectly simpleto reduce the size of classes. For the excessive size of some classes isdue to the natural desire of students to be under certain excellent teach­ers, and it may not be on the whole a gain to be in a smaller class witha less expert teacher. The laboratory sciences show greater flexibilitythan other departments in this respect, in that they often combineindividual or group training with the opportunity to meet an inspiringor otherwise effective teacher for part of the class exercises. Theteachers in the Department of English (rhetoric and composition)secure both individual and group work by a combination of class exer­cises and personal conferences. It is a question for serious considera­tion, if in other departments where classes exceed the limit of say 20,and even in some less than this, a greater flexibility in method wouldnot secure better results. So far as the general organization of class­room groups is concerned there has been little change in Americancolleges for the past two centuries except to make the groups larger.It is at least a question whether certain of the criticisms upon collegeinstruction which are current do not arise in part from the almostexclusive use of the large group as a unit of instruction. A properdevelopment of the individual side would in many cases necessitatedifferent structural arrangements, and here again it is possible thatsome other departments are behind the natural sciences in properdevelopment. Certain of the suggestions under "Special Methods"above are pertinent here.3. INCLUSION IN THE SAME CLASS OF STUDENTS OF DIFFERENT GRADESOF ADVANCEMENTThe alumni answer the query whether such classification impairedthe effectiveness of instruction, yes, 122; no, 65. As it appears to theCommittee that its question on this point was not so framed as to givesufficient and unambiguous data, no comment or recommendation ispresented upon this topic.4. DEFECTIVE INSTRUCTIONAs already stated, the general impression from the replies is thatthe great proportion of instruction is regarded as excellent,THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEOf the 142 alumni who reported themselves as having failed "toobtain a satisfactory knowledge of the course," 104 considered thatthis was due to defective instruction. The specific defects mentionedfall chiefly under two groups, (a) personal attitude, (b) method. (a)The teacher was "lazy," 2; irritable, 4; "self-centered," 3; listlessor not interested in his subject, 11; not interested in students, 8.(b) The teacher" talked over the heads of the class," or did not realizehow little previous foundation for the subject they had, 13; "wenttoo much into detail to the neglect of the broader issues," 6; was "toovague," 5; was "inexperienced," 6; "did not know how to teach,"33, with the additional comment in some cases that the young instructoror assistant was more interested in obtaining his own higher degreethan in the work of the class. Obviously no Faculty action can doanything to remedy the first group of "defects." For the second groupperhaps the most important single remedy would be the more completeadherence to the policy of having elementary courses conducted by themost expert teachers. This may not be so essential in certain languagecourses where technique is well established, and in subjects where thegeneral content of the course is fixed by a text. But in subjects wheremuch depends upon perspective, where the methods are still uncertain,and where the content is largely a matter of selection depending onthe discretion of the teacher, or, as in the men tal and social sciences orliterature, where the principles require interpretation and illustrationfrom a considerable range of experience, the more mature and expertteacher ought to direct the course, or at least to keep in close contactwith it.What is the best agency for discovering and remedying defectiveinstruction? It may easily be the case that in some departments ourpast method of administration, in which the head has usually beenselected for his eminence in research, has not been favorable for securingdue attention to the needs of undergraduate instruction. In fact ithas been no one's business to look after this particular problem. TheDeans of the colleges are necessarily confronted with evidences ofunfortunate instruction, but the Deans of the colleges have understoodtheir duties to be the administration of Faculty regulations respectingstudents, and the incidental character of the office (the Dean is notrelieved from any instruction) does not encourage or permit the assump­tion of additional responsibility. The President of the University isnecessarily dependent largely upon the recommendations of Headsof Departments. As Mr. Birdseye has pointed out, there is no official,PRESENT PROBLEMS OF INSTRUCTIONin these modern colleges which are parts of great universites, who hasspecific responsibility in respect to the particular problem of collegeinstruction. It is the belief of the Committee that this should notcontinue. It recommends two modifications, or extensions, of ourpresent administrative organization:(1) The selection of a dean or other officer to whom shall be intrustedspecific responsibility for undergraduate instruction. Such an officershould be relieved sufficiently from instructorial duties to enable himto make this work of investigation, advice, and administration principalrather than incidental. He should be able to study local problems notonly by themselves but in the light of all that is being worked out inother institutions. For this, time and clerical facilities are necessary.He should be in touch with students, and advise constantly with thedepartment officers named under (2) below. He should make recom­mendations to the President, or Dean of the Faculties of Arts, Literature,and Science, concerning matters affecting undergraduate instruction,and his advice would naturally be sought in the matter of appointmentsor promotions so far as these fall under that head.(2) The appointment, in each of the larger departments whichhave to do with undergraduate instruction, of some member of thedepartment who shall give especial attention to the problems of under­graduate instruction in that department. He should advise on the onehand with his colleagues in the department and on the other withsimilar officers in other departments, and especially with the generalofficer or dean named in (1) above. He might be designated as theDepartment Adviser for Undergraduate Work or by any similar title.VII. DISHONEST WORK BY STUDENTSAt the inception of its work the Committee had not contemplatedtaking up this problem but it was in a measure forced upon its atten­tion by the action of student councils requesting the establishment ofthe Honor System. Conferences were held with a representative com­mittee of twelve students, and a frank discussion led the Committeeto suspect that dishonest work was more common than they had hithertosupposed, although the students believed it to be largely "localized"rather than universally diffused. They said it was practiced (1) by afew individuals in any course taken by them, (2) very generally in theclasses of certain instructors. If an instructor was not personallyrespected, if his course had been so conducted that the student felt all"up in the air" as to its content, if the instructor was demonstrativeTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEin showing suspicion of cheating and in taking measures against it, ifthe examination was regarded as "unfair" either because of excessiverequirement of sheer memory or ,because of calling for material nottreated as important in the course, or finally if the whole grade for thecourse was understood to be determined by a single examination-inall such cases there was liable to be considerable dishonest work. Itwas regarded by many as legitimate in such cases to "slip one over onthe instructor."This conference determined the Committee to ask for further in­formation from alumni and undergraduates. Alumni were asked: Con­cerning dishonest work on the part of students (a) to what extent doyou think it prevailed when you were a student? In what courses?(b) Should there be more stringent faculty surveillance? (c) Shouldthe honor system be adopted?What the alumni think as to the prevalence of dishonest work and itsremedy.-The alumni answer to (a) above as follows: none, 24; little,135; much, 39. The percentages run almost the same for men and forwomen, for A -B grades and for C-D grades, and for Bachelors of Arts,Science, and Philosophy. The kinds of courses mentioned will be notedbelow. To (b) "more stringent surveillance," the replies are, yes, 41;no, 131. To (c) "should the 'honor system' be adopted?" the repliesare yes, 106; no, 60.What the undergraduates think . -To the question: "Do you considerthat dishonesty in class or examination work is common?" the under­graduates reply as follows: no (without any qualification), 57; notvery, only a little, 15; somewhat common, 4; petty, not serious dis­honesty, 2; common in certain courses, though not generally prevalent,35; prevalent in all classes, 43. These figures are certainly depressingand indicate either that dishonesty is more prevalent now, or else thatthe select group of alumni were less well informed than the group ofundergraduates.It is believed however that the gravity of the situation so far as thestuden ts are concerned is affected by the following facts: (I) TheUniversity has never made any general effort to render dishonestydifficult; examinations are constantly held under such conditions ofcrowding as to offer direct temptation to dishonesty. (2) The groups ofcourses specified below as those in which dishonesty is most commonshow (a) that it decreases from the Junior to the Senior Colleges; (b)that it is especially prevalent in certain courses which are to be con­demned on other grounds; (3) the frequent references by alumni toPRESENT PROBLEMS OF INSTRUCTION 85certain courses, taken in connection with the absence of such mentionby undergraduates, makes it probable that, in some cases at least,examinations set in those courses were "unfair."In what courses is dishonesty common?-The answers may be classi­fied (1) by general groups; (2) by specific departments or courses.(1) General groups of courses, or kinds of work. Of these the moreimportant are:Alumni Undergraduate TotalNotebooks ............................ 3 4Papers ............................... 3 0 3Where very definite answers are required,not original thinking ................ 0 3 3Lecture courses ....................... 10 5 15Large, crowded courses ................. 3 3 6Junior College or required courses ........ 10 9 18When "honor system" is used ........... 0 4 4The Committee does not deem it wise to print the list of specificcourses named. Nearly all of them fall under the categories of theabove table. Fifteen departments are mentioned on two or morereturns; one is mentioned on thirty. By groups of departments,those numbered in the Register I to VI (Philosophy, History, SocialSciences) are mentioned by 41 (counting only those mentioned by twoor more); those in Departments XI to XVI (Language) by 54; thosein Departments XVII to XXVII (Mathematics and Natural Sciences)by 31.The Committee believes that dishonest practices are sufficiently prev­alent to require the serious attention of Faculty and students. Neitherbody alone can correct the evil completely. As this report goesto press an earnest agitation for the adoption of the honor systemis in progress among the undergraduates. Pending this discussion theCommittee refrains from recommendation, except the very obvious one,that such of the incentives or occasions for dishonesty as are noted abovebe removed so far as it is within the power of administrative officersor instructors. This is far from going to the roots of the matter, buta radical cure must have the co-operation of the student bodyin someform.VIII. SUMMARY1. A dean or other officer should be selected, who should be relievedlargely from instructorial duties, and given the especial task of investi­gating conditions and problems of undergraduate instruction, and86 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEassigned such administrative functions as may be appropriate. Heshould advise with students, colleagues, and the President, or Dean of theFaculties, and be intrusted with large responsibility. In each depart­ment offering a considerable amount of undergraduate work a memberof the staff should be appointed to consider undergraduate instructionand advise with the general officer before named and with his colleagues.2. Lectures as the principal means of instruction, particularly forelementary classes, are, in the opinion of the great majority of instruct­ors, alumni, and undergraduates, unwise.3. Oral reports are likely to do more harm than good unless properlyguarded.4. Written quizzes are regarded as a fairer means of grading thanoral tests.5. Certain subjects are better handled in courses meeting five hoursa week, others in courses meeting four hours.6. Students should know their grades.7. There is need of better adjustment in the time required for prep­aration; some instructors require too much; a few require little or none.This could be most successfully approached through the agenciesrecommended under I.8. The most pressing demands in equipment for proper instructionare: (1) Duplicate books in the libraries. These should be provided foras certainly as laboratory supplies. (2) Maps, charts, slides, and simi­lar aids.9. Dishonesty is sufficiently common to make it important foradministrative officers, instructors, and students to co-operate in meas­ures to reduce it to a minimum.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOTEAM IN JAPANThe following letter received by President Harry Pratt Judson fromthe American Embassy in Japan will be of especial interest to all friendsof the University and all admirers of genuine sportsmanship:AMERICAN EMBASSY, TOKYOOctober 25, 19IOMy DEAR SIR: It gives me great pleasure to enclose to you translations of articleswhich have appeared in the vernacular press, highly praising the behavior and sports­man-like qualities of the members of the baseball team of the University which hasrecently been playing here. It has been a great pleasure to have these young gentle­men in Japan, and I beg to add my personal hearty concurrence in the opinions of theJapanese press.President Harry Pratt JudsonThe University of ChicagoChicago, Illinois. lam,Very sincerely yours,(Signed) MONTGOMERY SCHUYLERCharge d' AjJairesNOTES FROM THE JAPANESE PRESSJAPANESE-AMERICAN BASEBALL MATCHES. (The Mainichi Denpo, October 24, 1910)EDITORIALBaseball has become the most popular outdoor game among students;it attracts more spectators and stimulates them more than any othergame. Besides the requirement of thinking promptly and clearly, thetraining it gives for efficiency in team work constitutes the principalobject of this game. The American people who are the originators ofthe game might indeed say that of all the games in the world baseballis the most active, most highly organized, and most refined. TheAmerican people's own estimate of baseball may not be quite unreason­able if we take into consideration the fact that of all foreign games adoptedby our students baseball is the most popular and attracts the largestnumber of spectators, and that several international matches have beenheld. If baseball makes progress at this rate in this country and if wedo not have any new international game, then baseball will become thenational game as it is in America.88 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINENot only has baseball made good progress among Japanese studentsin this country, but also that fact is known in America, where baseballwas originated. Our Keio and Waseda teams have been to Americathree times, while American college teams have come to us four times.We are unable to tell how many times Japanese teams have played withother American teams such as those from warships. Without referenceto warship teams or professional teams, the contact of American andJapanese teams will, besides promoting the game itself, contribute muchto a better understanding between the two nations.The University of Chicago team now visiting this country consistsof students of good moral standing and excellent scholarship. They arereal American gentlemen whose amiability is an object-lesson to. ourstudents. We have been told that in the principal American collegesstudents of inferior scholarship cannot join baseball teams no matter howgood players they may be. Following this example, our schools haveadopted a rule whereby those students who have failed in examinationscannot become members of the representative school teams. It willthus be seen that the evils that the enlightened public feared mightattend the game of baseball have been prevented.If baseball matches can be held by Japanese and American studentswho cross the ocean and if thus the students of the two countries culti­vate friendship, then international baseball matches between Japaneseand American students can no longer be regarded as sport pure and simple.We hope that baseball in this country will make sound progress amongour students and that we may be able to have more international matches.It is natural tp expect in this connection that the graduates of variousschools will make it easier to have international matches. Americawill feel proud if one of her national games becomes an internationalgame, in which the Japanese nation alone can take part. If our peopleintend to make baseball an international game, the American people willextend to us their most cordial support. We therefore take the libertyof advising those Japanese who are interested in baseball to start nego­tiations. We make this suggestion in the interest of things of a broadernature than baseball pure and simple.(The Mainichi Denpo)Tokyo, Tuesday, October 25, 1910The Chicago team left for Osaka yesterday morning where they goat the invitation of the Osaka M ainichi Shimbun. They will give threematches there with the Waseda team, who have also been invited bythe same paper.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO TEAM IN JAPAljThroughout the seven matches here the Chicago men proved to be vic­torious, and the team left behind them not only the unbroken record ofvictory, but also a more important impression on the minds of the publichere of their excellent behavior, entirely beyond reproach even in minordetails. The team's behavior throughout the game was exemplary andwell worthy of the great university they represent.In moments of excitement every person is liable to lose control of histemper and especially is this the case the world over with young men.But in many occasions of thrilling excitement and close contests theChicago team always maintained calm gentlemanly attitude. Not aword of indecent language came out of their lips.In the United States, the East claims almost a monopoly of polite­ness and refinement. The West is generally considered as rough andunrefined. But from this West we had the pleasure and satisfaction ofwelcoming here a baseball team most exemplary not only in the skillof the art but also in their conduct on the field. They have given usvery useful lessons in many ways, and especially to our youths whorank behind nobody in their tendency to get excited, the Chicago teamand their behavior throughout the seven games on the Waseda fieldstand out very prominently as a model of conduct, and as we record thisfact we are simply echoing the unanimous impressions of the tens ofthousands who witnessed every match on the Waseda ground.We believe and expect that in Osaka also the same thing will be placedto their record, and such happy impressions left behind will doubtlesslygo a long way in keeping up the traditional friendship now happilyexist­ing between the United States and our country. It may be said of theChicago team that they have done a considerable service in the inter­national relations of the country they represent and the country of theirvisit."THE MEANING OF SOCIAL SCIENCE"UNDER the title given above the University of Chicago Press issuedin November a volume by Professor Albion W. Small, Head ofthe Department of Sociology and Anthropology. The book, of over300 pages, contains a series of lectures given before a company of gradu­ate students drawn from all the social science departments. The authorsays that "in variety of points of view the group so made up fairly repre­sents the larger public to which appeal is now taken."Of the ten lectures included in the volume five discuss "The Unityof Social Science," "The Disunity of the Social Sciences," "The Sociologi­cal Reassertion of the Unity of Social Science," "The Center of Orienta­tion in Social Science," and "The Social Sciences as Terms in OneFormula." Lectures VI, VII, VIII, and IX have to do with the descrip­tive, analytical, evaluating, and constructive phases of the subject,and the closing chapter discusses the future of social science.In the opening lecture the author says that it seemed to him thatthe work of our social science group would be much more intelligent if every candidatefor the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in social science should survey the whole fieldof social science some time during his graduate years from the standpoint of each granddivision of social science, and under the guidance of a representative of each divi­sion .....With reference to the future of social science, the author recognizesthe necessity of individual initiative in research but asserts that co­operation must be the law of science in the attainment of its larger results.I would not extinguish scholarly individuality in an institute of social science inwhich men would be merely so many cogs in a scientific machine. I would not, ifI could, organize a scientific society able to absorb all of each investigator's personalityinto its corporate program. I am yearning for no socialistic foreordination of medioc­rity. Science can enjoy full health only with plenty of latitude for individualinitiative in research. Scholars must have all the liberty they can use to run downclues of their own. On the other hand, scientific health will never develop maximumscientific strength till organization of research fully recognizes as the law of science,as of the rest of life, that" we are members one of another."Among other volumes by the same author are Adam Smith andModern Sociology and The Cameralists: The Pioneers of German SocialPolity, both volumes, like the present one, being published by theUniversity of Chicago Press.A RECENT VOLUME IN BOTANICALSCIENCEUNDER the title of Morphology of Gymnosperms there was recentlyissued by the University of Chicago Press a volume written incollaboration by Professor John M. Coulter, Head of the Departmentof Botany, and Assistant Professor Charles J. Chamberlain, of the samedepartment. The book, of 460 pages, contains nine chapters, with asummary of literature cited (22 pages) and an index of six pages.In 1901 was published Part I of the Morphology of Spermatophytes,by the same authors. It had grown out of a special course given tograduate students for several successive years.During the last decade the special course referred to has been continued for suc­cessive generations of graduate students, with a constantly widening range of material,and from new points of view. In addition to this extensive and repeated criticalexamination of material, a number of special investigations have been carried on inthe laboratory ..... These special contributions from the laboratory have aggre­gated twenty-six since 1901, and have dealt with fourteen genera ..... This hasenabled us to present the living groups from an entirely different standpoint, and touse many illustrations prepared in this laboratory. The present account thereforeis based upon our own work, supplemented by the work of other investigators, ratherthan a compilation from literature, supplemented by occasional personal observations.At the close of the preface the authors say that a book of this natureis in a certain sense out of date as soon as it leaves the press.Papers will continue to appear which would have been of great service in thisvolume, and yet perhaps no great group of plants is just now in better condition for apresentation which professes to be only a concise summary of knowledge, useful instimulating and guiding further research.The volume is illustrated by over 460 figures, some of which are ofespecial beauty and significance.A NEW VOLUME IN PHILOSOPHYIN November a volume entitled Pragmatism and Its Critics, by Addi­son Webster Moore, Professor of Philosophy, was issued from theUniversity of Chicago Press. The book of 300 pages contains twelvechapters, some of the headings of which are: "The Issue," "The Riseof Absolutism," "The Rise of Pragmatism," "How Ideas 'Work,'""Truth-Value," "Pragmatism and Its Critics," "The Pragmatic'Universal,'" "Professor Perry on Pragmatism," "Pragmatism andSolipsism," "The Social Character of Habit and Attention," and "TheEthical Aspect."The book had its origin in a course of informal lectures on "TheOrigin and Meaning of Pragmatism," delivered publicly in the Uni­versity of Chicago during the Summer Quarter of 1908. The materialof the lecture course is contained in the first five chapters. The revisionconsists largely in the introduction of technical considerations omittedfrom the spoken lectures. This is especially the case in the fifth chapter,on "How Ideas 'Work.'" which is almost entirely new.In the preface the author says that he hesitated to publish the lec­tures at the close of the course, recognizing that the time had come inthe development of the pragmatic movement for systematic and detailedapplications of pragmatic conceptions and methods to specific problems,rather than further discussion of general principles. But as the generaldiscussion went on, much of it appeared to neglect some phases of themovement which the lectures and some published papers had especiallyemphasized. These phases were: (I) the historical background of themovement; (2) the central role of the conception of evaluation in thedevelopment of pragmatism; (3) the social, or perhaps better, the" situational" character of consciousness and a fortiori of thinking. Theneglect of the last point seemed especially vital. In view of this theauthor persuaded himself that the emphasis of these features by thelectures and papers gave them relevance and unity enough to justifytheir publication together.The book is dedicated to Professor John Dewey of Columbia Uni­versity, the author's former teacher, to whom he expresses great indebted­ness in the way of content and point of view, and he also acknowledgesvaluable suggestions from his colleagues, Professor James H. Tufts,Professor George H. Mead, and Professor James R. Angell.92HARPER MEMORIAL LIBRARYFrom the Architect's DrawingHARPER MEMORIAL LIBRARYShowing Stage of Construction, December, 1910THE UNIVERSITY RECORDTHE DEATH OF CHARLES OTIS WHITMANProfessor Charles Otis Whitman, Head of the Department of Zoology,died suddenly of pneumonia at his home in Chicago on December 6,1910•Professor Whitman came to the University of Chicago at the timeof its opening in 1892, from Clark University, and has been ever sincethe head of the Department of Zoology.Mr. Whitman was graduated from Bowdoin College in 1868, wherehe also received the Master's degree in 1871. He was for a year masterin the English High School at Boston, and later took his Doctor's degreeat the University of Leipzig (1878). In 1879 he was a fellow at JohnsHopkins University, and in 1881 was professor of zoology at the ImperialUniversity of Japan. He spent the year 1882 at the Naples ZoologicalStation, and in 1883-85 was assistant in zoology at Harvard University.For three years he was director of the Allis Lake Observatory. From1889 to 1892 he was professor of zoology at Clark University, from whichinstitution he was called by President William R. Harper to the head­ship of the Department of Zoology in the University of Chicago.In 1894 the University of Nebraska conferred upon him the honorarydegree of Doctor of Laws, and in the same year the honorary degree ofDoctor of Science was given him by Bowdoin College. He was a mem­ber of the National Academy, associate fellow of the American Academyof Arts and Sciences, a foreign member of the Linnaean Society, and amember of numerous other scientific bodies. He was also editor of theJournal of Morphology, the Biological Bulletin, and the Biological Lectures.His more recent researches were in embryology, the evolution ofcolor characters in pigeons, the natural history of pigeons, and hybridi­zation.One of the most significant features of his life-work was the foundingof the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Mass., of whichhe was for twenty years the director.At the funeral service held in the Leon Mandel Assembly Hall onDecember 8 the President of the University presided, and addresseswere made by Professor John M. Coulter, Head of the Department ofBotany, Professor William Gardner Hale, Head of the Department ofLatin, and 'Professor Frank R. Lillie, of the Department of Zoology.93'94 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe appreciation of Professor Whitman's life and scientific work by hiscolleague Professor Lillie will appear in the next issue of the Magazine.The body was accompanied to Wood's Hole, Mass., by ProfessorJohn U. Nef, Head of the Department of Chemistry; Professor AlbertP. Mathews, of the Department of Physiology; Assistant ProfessorB. C. H. Harvey, of the Department of Anatomy; and Professor Lillie.AN EXCHANGE PROFESSOR FROM GERMANYDuring the Autumn Quarter of 1910 Lorenz Morsbach, professor ofEnglish at the University of Gottingen, has given courses at the Univer­sity of Chicago, in exchange for courses conducted at the University ofGottingen last year by Professor John M. Manly, Head of the Depart­ment of English. The courses given by Professor Morsbach werea seminar in Early Middle English and "Selected Chapters in theHistory of the English Language." Professor Morsbach was the guestof honor at the general faculty dinner of the University, held in Hutchin­son Hall on the evening of October 4, and on November 4 he gave anaddress in Fullerton Hall of the Art Institute before the GermanisticSociety of Chicago on the subject of "The Vagaries of English Spelling."On November 28, in the same place, he gave a lecture in German, entitled"Lehrmethoden und Ziele des neusprachlichen Unterrichts an dendeutschen Oberrealschulen."Professor Morsbach also gave two lectures before the GermaniaClub of Chicago, one entitled "Was Wissen Wir Ueber Shakespeare,"and the other "Ben Jonson, Shakespeare's Rivale und Schoepfer desWirklichkeits-Dramas."His work as an exchange professor was especially successful both inthe lecture-room and in social relations, and his son, who accompaniedhim, fully identified himself with the University by taking regularwork during the Autumn Quarter.THE MEETING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF THE AMERICANPHYSICAL SOCIETYThe regular annual meeting of the American Physical Society washeld in the Ryerson Physical Laboratory on November 26. There wereabout seventy physicists in attendance, most of wh�m came from thelarge universities of the states of Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio,Indiana, Iowa, and Minnesota.There were twenty-seven papers upon the program, five of whichwere contributed by representatives of the Ryerson Physical Labora-THE UNIVERSITY RECORD 95tory. The subjects and authors of these five papers were as fol­lows: (I) "Limitations Imposed by Slip and Inertia Terms uponStokes Law for the Motion of Spheres through Liquids," by Mr. H. D.Arnold; (2) "The Increase in the Positive Potentials Assumed byMetals under the Influence of Ultra-violet Light," by Professor RobertA. Millikan; (3) "The Photo-electric Potentials of Aluminum as aFunction of the Wave-Length of the Incident Light," by Mr. J. R. Wright;(4) "The Spectrum of the Spark under Pressure and an Application ofthe Results to the Spectrum of the Chromosphere," by Assistant Pro­fessor Henry G. Gc:.tle and Mr. W. S. Adams; (5) "An ExperimentalDetermination of the Instantaneous Temperatures Produced by SuddenExpansion in a Fog Chamber," by Mr. E. K. Chapman.Between the morning and afternoon sessions the Society was enter­tained at the Quadrangle Club as guests of the University. The meetingwas regarded by members of the society as one of unusual interest.LECTURES ON THE HASKELL FOUNDATIONThe course of six lectures given on the Haskell Foundation and underthe auspices of the American Committee for Lectures on the History ofReligions, was on the general subject of "The Development of ReligiousIdeas in China," the lecturer being J. J. M. de Groot, Ph.D., professorin the University of Leyden. The series, which continued from Decem­ber 9 to 16, 1910, discussed the following subjects: "The Tao or Orderof the Universe"; " The Tao of Man"; " Holiness" ; " Asceticism.Prolongation of Life"; " Worship of the Universe"; and "Social andPolitical Taoism." This is the fifteenth series of lectures on the HaskellFoundation, the fourteenth having been delivered in January and Febru­ary, 1910, by Professor Morris Jastrow, Jr., of the University of Penn­sylvania, on the subject of "The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria."The Haskell Lectureship, established by the late Mrs. Caroline E.Haskell, is under the direction of the Department of ComparativeReligion, the lectures being given annually. The Barrows Lectures aredelivered every three years in cities of India.A DINNER IN HONOR OF THE NEW LIBRARIAN OF THE UNIVERSITYThe President-of the University, the Director of Libraries, the LibraryBoard, and the staff gave a dinner, November 18, to welcome Mr. J. C. M.Hanson, who has recently been appointed Associate Director of theUniversity Libraries. A company of seventy-five persons, all but one of96 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthese being members of the University and officially connected with theLibraries, gathered in the School of Education dining-hall, and spentan evening of especial interest to all associated with library management.Professor Burton presided, and speeches were made by the President;Professor Andrew C. McLaughlin, Head of the Department of History;Director Newman Miller, of the University Press; Miss Julia L. Dickin­son, of the Library Staff; Mr. W. N. C. Carlton, president of the ChicagoLibrary Club; and Mr. Hanson.All united in a cordial appreciation of Mr. Hanson's worth as ascholar and a librarian, and in congratulating the University upon hav­ing secured one of so distinguished a reputation; and also in the expres­sion of the hope and expectation that the Library of the University ofChicago will speedily take a foremost place among the university librariesof the country,THE TWENTY-THIRD CONFERENCE OF ACADEMIES AND HIGH SCHOOLSIN RELATION WITH THE UNIVERSITYThis annual Educational Conference met according to custom onNovember II and 12. At the conference of deans and principals onFriday afternoon Professor Nathaniel Butler, Examiner for Affiliations,reported upon the work of the Committee on Accredited Relations ofSecondary Schools, of which he is chairman.Assistant Professor james W. Linn, of the Department of English,discussed the question, "What Modifications in the Present EntranceRequirements in English are Desirable P" Principal H. B. Loomis,of the Hyde Park High School, led in the discussion of this question,which aroused general interest. Assistant Superintendent John D.Shoop of Chicago discussed "The Two-Year Course in the ChicagoHigh Schools."The general conference on Saturday morning considered the topic,"Motivating the Course of Study of the Secondary School." Amongother speakers Frank M. Leavitt, Associate Professor of IndustrialEducation, gave a paper on "The Relation of the Movement for In-.dustrial and Vocational Training to the Work of the Secondary Schools."The departmental conferences were held as usual, with interestingprograms. The following University men contributed to these pro­grams: Edwin S. Bishop, of the University High School, on "Some NewImprovements in Some Old Experiments," in the conference of thedepartments of Physics and Chemistry; Assistant Professor CharlesGoettsch and Assistant Professor Hiram P. Williamson reported to theTHE UNIVERSITY RECORD 97conference in German and Romance on certain methods of teachingobserved by them in Germany and France; Associate Professor HenryW. Prescott gave a paper before the Greek and Latin conference on"Some Impressions and Conclusions Gained by a School Inspector,"and Professor Frank B. Tarbell contributed "Some Remarks uponPriene." In the conference of the Department of Mathematics Asso­ciate Professor J. W. A. Young was among those who made reports.One of the notable features of the conference was the presence at theUniversity of 237 visiting students, seniors from schools in co-operationwith the University of Chicago. These students were present to takepart in the prize examination and the contest in declamation. Theirnumbers were distributed as follows: In Latin, 37; Physics, I6; English,64; Germany g a; Mathematicsy gg ; Declamation, 60.Fifteen schools in Chicago and forty-two schools outside of Chicagowere represented. Of these latter, twelve schools were from Indiana,three from Wisconsin, one from Kentucky, one from Iowa, and one fromNebraska. Three and one-half prizes and twelve honorable mentionswere won by the Chicago schools and three and one-half prizes andseventeen honorable mentions were won by the schools outside of Chicago.The prizes were as follows: In Latin one-half prize each to KellamFoster, of the Calumet High School, and Hale Hollingsworth, of theGoshen, Ind., High School; in Physics the prize was won by HaroldPfeiffer, of the Crane Technical High School; in English, by Inez Haeske,of the South Bend, Ind., High School; in German, by Ruth Koenig,of the South Bend, Ind., High School; in mathematics by Elmer Plaff,of the Carl Schurz High School; and in declamation the two prizeswere won by Frederick Van Grove , of the Wendell Phillips High School,and Evelyn Williams, of the South Bend, Ind., High School.To the winner in each examination or contest is assigned a scholar­ship in the University of Chicago, of the value of $I20, and honorablemention is given in each department to those whose work merits it.THE FACULTIES"The Legend of the Trojan Settlement in Latium" is the subjectof the opening contribution in the November issue of the ClassicalJournal, by Associate Professor Gordon J. Laing, of the Departmentof Latin."Social Hygiene" was the subject of an address by Professor CharlesR. Henderson, of the Department of Sociology, before the Woman'sAid of Chicago in Sinai Temple on December 6.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"Conservation in Illinois" was the subject of an illustrated addressby Associate Professor Wallace W. Atwood, of the Department ofGeology, before the Woman's Club of Chicago on December 14."Great Seaports of Europe" was the subject of an illustrated lecturebefore the Germanistic Society of Chicago at Fullerton Hall on Decem­ber I9 by Associate Professor J. Paul Goode, of the Department ofGeography.Professor Ernest D. Burton, Head of the Department of New Testa­ment Literature contributes to the November issue of the BiblicalWorld a discussion of "Religion and Ethics in the Thought of the ApostlePaul: Gal. 5 :6.""Four Principles Underlying Religious Education" is the subjectof a contribution in the October number of the American Journal ofTheology, by Associate Professor Clyde W. Votaw, of the Departmentof New Testament Literature.President Harry Pratt Judson gave an address on "The Place ofVocational Training in a General College Course of Instruction" beforethe Association of Life Insurance Presidents at its meeting in the LaSalle Hotel, Chicago, on December 9.The Bardon Papers: Documents Relating to the Imprisonment andTrial of Mary Queen of Scots have recently been" edited for the RoyalHistorical Society by Dr. Conyers Reed, of the Department of History.The volume is No. I7 of the Camden third series.In the November number of the Astrophysical Journal appears acontribution entitled "Measures on Nineteen New SpectroscopicBinaries," by Oliver J. Lee, Computer in the Yerkes Observatory.Nineteen tabulations are included in the article. '"In the October-November number of the Journal of Geology Pro­fessor Samuel W. Williston, of the Department of Paleontology, has acontribution entitled "New Permian Reptiles: Rachitomous Vertebrae."The article is illustrated by three figures and one plate.Professor J. Laurence Laughlin, Head of the Department of PoliticalEconomy, presented a paper before the Association of Life InsurancePresidents at its convention in the La Salle Hotel, Chicago, December10, his subject being "The People's Investments through the Agencyof Life Insurance."The one hundred and fortieth contribution from the Hull BotanicalLaboratory, "The Peg of the Cucurbitaceae," illustrated with six figuresTHE UNIVERSITY RECORD 99appears in the November number of the Botanical Gazette, and is thejoint work of Dr. William Crocker, of the Department of Botany, Lee1. Knight, and Edith Roberts."Our Problem in the Philippines and Its Relation to Education"was the subject of an address on December 2 before the West EndWoman's Club of Chicago by Professor William D. MacClintock, of theDepartment of English. Mr. MacClintock gave in Manila two yearsago a series of lectures on English literature.Among the delegates appointed by the governor of Illinois to attendthe National RIvers and Harbors Congress held in Washington, Decem­ber 7-9, were the following: Mr. A. C. Bartlett and Mr. Harold F.McCormick, of the University Board of Trustees; Mr. Wallace Heck­man, Counsel and Business Manager of the University; and AssociateProfessor Charles E. Merriam, of the Department of Political Science."Chicago's House Problem: Families in Furnished Rooms" is thesubject of the opening contribution in the November number of theAmerican Journal of Sociology, by Assistant Professor Sophonisba P.Breckinridge, of the Department of Household Administration, andEdith Abbott, Assistant Director of the Chicago School of Civics andPhi.lanthropy, who received the Doctor's degree from the University in1905.In the November issue of the School Review Professor Paul Shorey,Head of the Department of Greek, contributes to a symposium on theValue of Humanistic, Particularly Classical, Studies in the New Educa­tion, "The Case for the Classics." In the same number appears acontribution from Associate Professor J. Paul Goode, of the Departmentof Geography, on the subject of "Some Fundamental Principles ofJapanese Education."Dr. Julia A. Norris, instructor in the School of Education, contributesthe opening article to the November number of the Elementary SchoolTeacher entitled" A Graduate Course in Schoolroom Gymnastics." In thesame number of the journal is a contribution on "Our Inherited Practicein Elementary Schools," by Associate Professor S. Chester Parker, ofthe Department of Education, his particular subject being" PestalozzianObject-Teaching and Oral Instruction."Judith is the title of a poetic drama recently published by Henry Holt& Co. of New York, the author being Assistant Professor Martin Schutze,of the Department of German. The drama, of about 300 pages, is basedon the apocryphal story, the principal tragic motive being an irrecon-100 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEcilable conflict between a noble woman's fanatic patriotism and hermoral nature and personal integrity. Hero and Leander, Mr. Schutze'sfirst drama, appeared two years ago from the same publishers.The introduction to The Diary of James K. Polk, published by A. C.McClurg & Co., Chicago, was contributed by Professor Andrew C.McLaughlin, Head of the Department of History. The editing of thediary was begun by the late Professor Charles W. Mann, of the LewisInstitute of Chicago, and finished by Milo F. Quaife, Ph.D., '08, who isnow assistant professor of history in the institute. On account of thedeath of Mr. Mann, most of the work of editing was done by Mr. Quaife.In recognition of his achievements as professor of Romance languagesin Johns Hopkins University, a memorial volume to A. Marshall Elliott,made up of contributions by his former students, is being prepared.Among the contributors are Associate Professor T. Atkinson Jenkins,of the Department of Romance, to whose suggestion the volume is due,and Professor William A. Nitze, head of the same department. Thevolume will contain a score of contributions in French, Spanish, andItalian."The Cosmopolitan Idea" was the subject of an address in the LeonMandel Assembly Hall on December 2, before the Cosmopolitan Clubof the University of Chicago, by Professor John M. Coulter, Head of theDepartment of Botany. The program of the evening was furnished bythe Japanese members of the club, and the Japanese consul, Hon. K.Yamasaki, gave an address on the subject of "Japanese Students inAmerica." The program was of unique interest and attracted a largeaudience.The University of Chicago Press announces a Bibliography of Eco­nomics for IgOg, a cumulation of the bibliography appearing in theJournal of Political Economy from February, 1909, to January, 1910,inclusive. The Bibliography contains 275 pages and more than 7,000entries. The subjects covered are: accounting and business methods:agnculture and the land problem; colonies and dependencies; combina­tions and corporations; commerce and trade; communication; eco­nomic history; industries; 'insurance; labor problems; race problem;migration and population; money, banking, and credit; resources;social economics; socialism, communism, and anarchism; statistics;stock exchange and investment; taxation, public finance, and tariff;theory; transportation, etc.Among the members of the citizen's committee organized with refer­ence to the garment workers' strike in Chicago were Professor ErnstTHE UNIVERSITY RECORD 101Freund of the Law School, Professor Emil G. Hirsch of the Departmentof Semitics, Professor Julian W. Mack of the Law School, ProfessorGeorge H. Mead of the Department of Philosophy, and AssistantProfessor Sophonisba P. Breckinridge of the Department of House­hold Administration. Professor Mead was appointed as chairman of asubcommittee to report to the general committee, and with him wereassociated Miss Breckinridge and Professor Charles R. Henderson, ofthe Department of Sociology. The subcommittee on investigation ofgrievances presented its report at Hull House on November 4. At themeeting held in the Leon Mandel Assembly Hall at the University ofChicago Mr. Mead was also one of the speakers.At the meeting of the American Historical Association held in Indian­apolis from December 27 to 30, Associate Professor James W. Thompson,of the Department of History, took part in the discussion of "TheDoctor's Dissertation in European History." Professor George H.Mead, of the Department of Philosophy, took part in the Round Tablediscussion of "The Relation of History to the Newer Sciences of Man­kind." A paper on "The Waning Power of the South in the North­west, 1856-1860," was presented by William E. Dodd, Professor ofAmerican History; William H. Allison, who received the Doctor'sdegree from the University of Chicago in I903, participated in thediscussion on "The Collection of Materials Bearing on Religious andChurch History"; and Professor Andrew C. McLaughlin, Head of theDepartment of History, presented a paper on the subject of "Secessionand Coercion.""The Shakespeare Quartos of I619" is the subject of the openingcontribution in the October issue of Modern Philology, by Mr. WilliamJ. Neidig, of the University of Wisconsin, who was at one time a graduatestudent and Reader in English in the University of Chicago. The dis­cussion is illustrated by thirteen plates, reproductions of photographstaken in the British Museum under the direct personal oversight ofAssistant Professor David A. Robertson, of the Department of English.The photographs were of the inside pages of text and were of such accu­racy as to furnish a basis of measurements for the type bodies of thevarious title pages which have been incorporated in the present study.The indebtedness of the writer to Mr. Robertson in other ways is alsoacknowledged, as is also the assistance of Professor John M. Manly,Head of the Department of English, with whom Mr. Neidig tookgraduate courses.102 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe fifth Oriental Travel Study Class of the University of Chicagowill be under the direction of Professor Theodore G. Soares, Head of theDepartment of Practical Theology, and will sail from New York Cityat the end of January, 19II, to be gone until May. The members ofthe class will visit cities in Egypt and Palestine and will also stop atConstantinople, Athens, and Corinth. The tour ends at Naples. Theleaders of former classes have been Dean Shailer Mathews of the DivinitySchool, Associate Professor Herbert L. Willett of the Department ofSemitics, and Professor Ira M. Price, of the same department. Theparties have usually averaged about twenty-five members, who havehad laid out for them a course of regular reading, lectures, and discussionduring the tour. In several places, also, lectures will be given by mis­sionaries and scholars who have been long residents of the country andare specialists in some field of study interesting to the class.LIBRARIAN'S ACCESSION REPORTFOR THE SUMMER QUARTER, 1910During the Summer Quarter, I9IO,there was added to the library of theUniversity a total number of 4,I88volumes, from the following sources:BOOKS ADDED BY PURCHASEBooks added by purchase, 2,533 volumes,distributed as follows: Anatomy, 39; An­thropology, 3; Astronomy (Ryerson), 18;Astrononmy (Yerkes), 9; Botany, 44;Chemistry, 17; Church History, 40; Com­merce and Administration, 6; ComparativeReligion, 33; Embryology, 12; English, 141;English and German, I; English, German,and Romance, 4; General Library, 97;General Literature, 5; Geographyv aa; Geol­ogy, 27; German, 68; German and Romance,I; Greek, 54; Haskell, 7; Historyv cj ; His­tory of Art, 40; Latin, 63; Latin and Greek,I7; Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit and Com­parative Philology, I; Law School, 707;Mathematics.iga: New Testament, 2; Pale­ontology, I; Pathology, 5; Philosophy, 7;Physical Culture, 2; Physics, 2; Physiologi­cal Chemistry, I; Physiology, 32; PoliticalEconomy, 59; Political Science, I44; Prac­tical Theology, 25; Psychology, 46; PublicSpeaking, 2; Romance, 32; Sanskrit andComparative Philology, 54; ScandinavianSeminary, 2; School of Education, 386;Semitics, 50; Sociology, 31; Sociology (Di­vinity), I; Systematic Theology, 22; Zoology,2.BY GIFTBooks added by gift, 1,225 volumes, dis­tributed as follows: Anatomy, 3; Anthro­pology, I; Astronomy (Yerkes), II; Biology,29; Botany, 4; Chemistry, 3; Church His­tory,9; Commerce and Administration, II; English, II; General Library, 880; Geog­raphy, 10; Geology,28; Germanv g ; Greek,3; Haskell, 41; History, 22; History of Art,2; Latin, 6; Latin and Greek, I; LawSchool, I; Lexington Hall, I; Mathematics,7; Music, I; New Testament, I; Pathology,I; Philosophy, 4; Physics, 4; Physiology, I;Political Economy, 58; Political Science, 3;Practical Theology, 5; Psychology, I; San­skrit, and Comparative Philology, 2; Schoolof Education, 34; Semitics, 6; Sociology, 9;Systematic Theologyv s: Zoology, 3BY EXCHANGEBooks added by exchange for Universitypublications, 430 volumes, distributed asfollows: Anatomy, I; Anthropology, 3;Astronomy (Ryerson), r; Astronomy (Yerkes),6; Biology, I; Botany, 18; Church History,5; Comparative Religion, I; Embryology, r;English, 4; English and German, I; English,German, and Romance, 2; General Library,165; Geography. s; Geology,8; German, 7;Greek, 25; Haskell,s; History of Art, 2;Latin, 20; Latin and Greek, 6; Law School,2; Mathematics, 9; New Testament, I;Physics, I; Political Economy, 21; PoliticalScience, 6; Practical Theology, I; Psy­chology, I; Romance.ia; Sanskrit and Com­parative Philology, 2; School of Education,22; Semitics, 4; Sociology, 19; SystematicTheology, 2.SPECIAL GIFTSUniversity of Michigan. Freer Collec­tion, Old Testament Manuscripts, Part I.Washington MS of Deuteronomy and Joshua.Facsimile, with introduction and descriptionby Henry A. Sanders.Trustees of Parsee Punchayet Funds andProperties, Par see books-9 volumes.W. C. Wilkinson, perlodicals=-ag volumes.United States government, documents andreports-e g ro volumes and 681 pamphlets.DISCUSSION AND COMMENTA SUMMARY OF THE CONFERENCE SITUATIONDoubts regarding the future usefulness of the Conference of theUniversities of the Middle West were definitely settled at the meetingof the delegates on Saturday, December 30. The position of the Con­ference on the chief issues of reform in athletics was not only reaffirmed,but strengthened by regulations which were adopted unanimously.The most important ones are the following:That members of the Conference agree not to hold athletic relations with uni­versities or colleges that have been members of this Conference and have withdrawntherefrom, or being members now or hereafter shall withdraw therefrom, until they arereinstated therein.That this Conference will maintain athletic relations in football and baseballwith universities and colleges in the Middle West only except as to existing contracts.That each member of this Conference shall schedule not less than four footballgames with other members of this Conference, and shall endeavor as far as possibleto rotate its games from year to year, so as to play all the members of the Conference.These regulations make it impossible for the University of Minne­sota to schedule games with the University of Michigan until the latteris reinstated in the Conference. By the same token the Universityof Chicago will not be able to play Cornell after the existing contractexpires. The delegates evidently found a close adherence to the rulesof the Conference necessary if it was to continue the great reforms ithas already accomplished for intercollegiate, non-professional athletics.Friends of the Conference were exceedingly gratified at the loyalty toits aims shown by the University of Minnesota. An attempt on thepart of newspaper writers to make it appear that Minnesota wouldbreak with the Conference, rather than give up the annual game withMichigan, led to strong indorsements of the Conference by Minnesotaalumni. Resolutions were adopted by the graduates in Chicago declar­ing it to be their unanimous opinion that nothing should be done todisturb Minnesota's friendly relations with the Conference. TheMinnesota Alumni Weekly took a commendable stand in favor of theConference. In a recent issue it reprinted William Scott Bond's articleon "The Intercollegiate Conference and the University," published orig­inally in the Chicago Alumni Magazine for May, 1908. This issue of theWeekly also contained the following comment:The Minnesota alumni living in Chicago are in position to know and judge,perhaps better than the alumni around the University or in any other part of the103I04 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEcountry, just what Minnesota should do in this matter and just how vital the propersettlement of the present controversy is to the maintenance of Minnesota's good nameamong the western colleges. We believe that the alumni of Chicago are absolutelyright in their contentions, and, while we should like to see an annual game with theUniversity of Michigan, if it can be played under proper regulations, we do not wantto see that game unless it can be so played; and, as we stated in the last issue of theWeekly, it is vastly more important that Minnesota should retain its games withWisconsin and Chicago than that it should have an annual game with Michigan,whether inside or outside the Conference.Shortly before the Conference met Chicago newspapers publishedreports from Ann Arbor reflecting on the good faith of Director Staggand the University of Chicago in the Conference matter. As the reportsshowed a startling ignorance of facts they were credited to the work ofimmature correspondents, who so frequently have misrepresented thetrue opinion of Michigan alumni and students. The wide publicitygiven the statements, however, led Director Stagg to reply in a letterto the press, in which he set forth the historical facts relating to Michi­gan's connection with the Conference, and declared that the Universityof Chicago had at all times shown its friendliness toward Michigan andhad endeavored in every way to hold Michigan in the organization. Mr.Stagg stated emphatically that there had been no politics in the Confer­ence. He said:It should not be necessary to state that the University of Chicago does not seekto control the Conference in any way, and never has sought to control it during thefourteen years of membership. It is an insult to the integrity of the faculty membersof the other institutions for such a thought to be suggested. During the whole four­teen years in which I have represented the University of Chicago, I can truthfullysay there has never been any politics displayed in the way of lobbying of combinationsof which I can remember. The questions which come up before the Conference aretaken up and discussed with entire candor, such as might be expected from a group ofbroad and fair-minded gentlemen who were deeply interested in the general aspect ofintercollegiate athletic relations.Alumni of Michigan and Chicago have long regretted Michigan'swithdrawal from the Conference and have enthusiastically advocatedher return. Most gr.aduates agree that undergraduate opinion hasentirely too much to do with the athletic relations of the colleges. Whenthe alumnus realizes how quickly good-natured rivalry may be turned inthe student mind to prejudice and ill-will, he feels that the less studentshave to do with the regulation of athletics the better. Alumni of theUniversity of Illinois are pleased that the Daily lllini has recently recog­nized the indebtedness of the Middle -West and the entire country tothe Conference, and has warmly espoused its cause. "The WesternConference saved football from annihilation," said the Illini in a recentDISCUSSION AND COMMENTappeal to Michigan. The wish of Illinois for the return of Michiganis no more hearty that that expressed by Chicago, Minnesota and therest of the Conference colleges. It is to be hoped that another year maysee Michigan again a member of the Conference.An important stand was taken by the Conference when it adopted arule providing for an investigation into the eligibility of athletes atConference meets. It was agreed that all non-Conference collegesmaking entry in the Conference meet shall be required to furnish theathletic history of their representatives.THE PROMOTION OF AMERICAN TRADE BY AN ALUMNUSTo accomplish results of international significance and of inesti­mable benefit to Americans in their trade relations with Europeancountries has been the good fortune of Julien L. Brode, '04, whose workas a special agent of the Department of Commerce and Labor hasgiven him prominence. Mr. Brode was appointed by the depart­ment under the direction of Secretary Oscar Strauss on March I, 1909,and was told that he would be controlled by no instructions in hisinvestigations, but would be expected to make his own plans and itiner­aries, keeping in mind only the purpose of his office-to find new outletsfor American trade, overcome prejudices that might exist anywhereagainst American goods, and advise American manufacturers andexporters how to increase their trade with foreign countries. Hewas appointed to fill a vacancy in the office of the special agentfor the cottonseed products interests. Mr. Brode's name was presentedby the Interstate Cottonseed Crushers' Association and approved atonce by Secretary Strauss.About the most far-reaching work accomplished by Mr. Brode sincehe began his labors for the department was the establishment of directsteamship connection between New York and Constantinople, whichis now doing much to build up American trade in the Levant. Out ofthe $142,000,000 of imports annually received at Constantinople theshare of the United States was only about an average of 2! per cent,due largely to lack of direct steamship connection with New York. Bymeans of the newly organized steamship service the commerce of Con­stantinople and the Black Sea countries is brought two weeks nearerto New York, with the result that America will claim a much largershare.Mr. Brode performed another valuable service for the cottonseedproducts industry in the United States when he induced Norwegian106 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEsardine packers to substitute cottonseed oil made in America for thehigh-priced olive oil which they used in packing sardines. Cottonseedoil is 50 per cent cheaper than olive oil, which comes from France, wherepractically none of the Norwegian sardine products are sold. Thereare used annually at Bergen and Stavanger about 8,000 barrels of oliveoil for sardine packing. The substitution of cottonseed oil for olive oilwill mean a saving to the consumers of Norwegian sardines of over$300,000, and an increase to the American export trade of $233,200.Some of the most important work in which Mr. Brode has beenengaged this year has been connected with an endeavor to have favor­able changes made in the tariffs of four different countries. Manycountries have unfavorable and unjust tariff measures against Americanproducts which are hard for shippers to detect in reading the schedulessent to the United States, but which come to light under investigationsby special agents of the Department of Commerce and Labor. Mr.Brode has found many serious obstacles in this work, but believes thathe will succeed in securing for American business men some much-neededreforms. That this work of the special agents has been found valuableby the government is proved by the fact that the original appropriationof $50,000 for this purpose by Congress has already been increased to$roo,ooo.NEW ALUMNI CLUBSWilliam J. McDowell, '02, of Chicago, who has the welfare of thealumni clubs at heart and has taken a personal interest in the work oforganization, believes that there is no reason why sixty additional clubsshould not be founded at once in American cities. His estimate isbased upon a review of the number of alumni residing in cities where noclubs have as yet been organized. While it is true that the AlumniCouncil can suggest plans it remains that most of the work of organi­zation must be done by local committees, made up of alumni who feelthat the small sacrifice of time involved is well spent. In many citiesthe Council has found energetic, enthusiastic alumni who have pushedthe work of forming a club to a conclusion. In others alumni have beeninterested for months, and are watching for a suitable opportunity toorganize. To the many graduates still without club affiliations, butwho know that large groups of alumni are collected in their localities,the officers of the Council particularly wish to address their plea forco-operation. Is there any reason why we should not have clubs inToledo, Columbus, Kalamazoo, Grand Rapids, Memphis, Dallas, LosAngeles, San Francisco, and Indianapolis?THE FOOTBALL DINNER OF THECHICAGO ALUMNI CLUBENTHUSIASM is generated sometimes by numbers; more often bya deep sense of loyalty to a common cause. Both factors enteredinto the exceptional success of the alumni reunion of the ChicagoAlumni Club, held on November 9, in College Hall at the UniversityClub. The object of the reunion was to give a rousing reception toDirector Amos Alonzo Stagg, the football team of 1910, and the squad.This was accomplished so well that the" Old Man's" heart was glad atthe expression of confidence in his work, while the players felt that itwas as honorable to be on a losing as on a winning team. The goodfellowship and cordiality shown by men from nearly a score of classeslikewise made loyal adherents of a group of Seniors, who were presentby special invitation.Nearly one hundred and twenty alumni and guests had assembledwhen Stacey Mosser, '97, took his place at the speakers' table. Thenewest and the oldest classes were represented in this number. Themen of the first decade were especially prominent because most of theinspired songs, yells, and interpolated remarks came from their group.Seated directly in front of the speaker were such "old grads" as JamesW. Linn, '97, Joseph E. Raycroft, '96, Henry G. Gale, '96, L. BrentVaughan, '97, Donald R. Richberg, '01, Philip S. Allen, '97, ClarenceHerschberger, '98, John F. Hagey, '98, William S. Bond, '97, Harry D.Abells, '97, most of whom were either down on the program for remarks,or else became voluntary contributors. The graduates of the firstUniversity of Chicago were likewise represented. The, Seniors hadamong their number Vallee O. Appel, president of the class, Roy Bald­ridge, president of the Reynolds Club, Nat Pfeffer, editor of the Maroon,and Paul Gardner, head cheer-leader, under whose direction the oldand the new yells were given with vigor.Much amusement was caused by the sporting extra of the YearlyBuffoon, "yellow as any and only a penny, think of it! "-which containedall the old songs and some new ones, and served as an appetizer betweencourses. Advertisements which spared no one called the attention ofthe alumni to such attractions as Blanchard's Band, McCracken'stheatrical engagements, Twohig and Johnson in "Dope," Hough andAdams' comic opera, "Dr. Ray," and other names long familiar107108 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEto readers of the Maroon. The Buffoon even contained an editorialpleading that the one yell of the University which has becomefamous, "Chicago Go 1" should not be replaced by countless otheryells of doubtful effectiveness. Although the names of the editors werenot mentioned because "the entire staff has been declared ineligible forpublic appearance," the principal work on the Buffoon is credited tothe inventiveness of Donald Richberg. Besides editing the Buffoon,and leading the assembly in songs Mr. Richberg contributed to the funof the evening by reading the following sketch, entitled, "Mr. Hooleyon Debrutalized Football."MR. HOOLEY ON DEBRUTALIZED FOOTBALL"Oi sphint th' afthernoon at .Marshall Field," remarked Mr. Hooley on the eveningof October 28, 1910."So?" said Mr. Dennissey. "At the dry-goods emporium or the slaughther­yard on Fifty-sivinth Street?""Slaughther-yard?" echoed Mr. Hooley, "how ye do show yer ignorance, Din­nissey. Oi was at the football field but 'tis no slaughther-yard in these days. Thebrave little bhoys that wear the Maroon wint thru this afthernoon's battle with thefiery giants from Minnesoty an' all their broken bones was a bint toenail an' ascratched eyebrow. The Minnesoty brute thot scratched the eyebrow was nearlytrun off the field be th' angry mob of umpires that assailed him from ivery side.""Oh, oi've read thot the rules is changed," said Mr. Dennissey loftily. "Therecently disorganized game must be much more entertainin' fer the spictators.""Ye bet it is," said Mr. Hooley. "There was wan unendin' roar from thebleachers from start to finish; ivery mon, womin and child standin' on each othersfeet yellin' rules at his neighbors at the top av his lungs. On ivery play somewan didsomethin' wrong. But there was an official fer ivery player, and thin some fer goodmeasure, an' it wasn't offen a mon could git away with a good play without bein'caught at it. Time and time agin the brawny warriors av the North marched downthe field and time and time agin the grim line a v umpires, referees, linesmen, fieldjudges, and attindant definders av the faith, shoved 'em back agin."Mind ye, the Chicago lads weren't loafin' on the job. With their rule-booksclasped firmly in their right hands four or five would grab a Minnesoty giant withthree fingers av their lift hands an' slowly but surely, usin' wot Mrs. Iddy calls 'mali­cious magnetism,' they would thrip up his mintal error and bring 'im crashin' to theground."Thin, ivery time, up runs the bold referee and sounds his whistle." 'Let go 'is nose,' he shouts. 'Is it bleedin?' No! Play is fair! How about itMr. Umpire?'"The umpire rushes up blowin' a toy cornet." 'Thot bow-legged mon hild the lift end,' he cries. 'Fifteen yarrds.'" 'No,' says the referee. 'Linesman says they lose the ball.'"'Rule 68,' shrieks the linesman."'Right ye are,' says th' umpire.'''Time,' yells the field judge, playin' a little chune on the oboe.FOOTBALL DINNER OF CHICAGO ALUMNI CLUB I09"'Three minutes fer tay and crackers,' says the referee. 'We'll meet aftherwardsat t'other ind av the field.'"Mainwhile ye can pictur th' mad excitemint in the sthands! Min who have nivirwept before are cryin' like little children. Tears of rage course down their manlycheeks. One big sthrong mon, who was sthandin' nixt to me, sobbed in me ear: 'Oi'venivir seen the like befur. Wan more pinalty and we'd had a touch-back. The umpirelosht his nerve or we'd have licked 'em sure.'""The papers said the Minnesoties had a Swede named McGovern wot was purtygood," said Mr. Dennissey."He's all av 'thot," said Mr. Hooley. "He'll be a daisy whin he lams the rules.He aint larned yit to quit runnin' when he's been tagged. Mony was the time aChicago mon tapped him in the hind quarther right at the sthart and he'd go tearin'away thirty yarrds-only to be brot back by th' umpire. Wance sivin or eight mintagged him, but th' officials were all tryin' to siperate a couple 0' ruffians, wot wereshteppin' on each others toes and usin' bad language, so they weren't watchin' Mc­Govern and he made a touchdown. We all yelled 'foul, foul' but I guess they didn'thear us."Ye see there's shtill room fer improve mint Dinnissey. Oi think nixt yearthey'll add another official or two. Wan is badly needed to resthrain the brutaltongues av some av th' players. It aint fair to permit wan mon to call another namesthot wud make a yeller dog fight an' thin rule th' other off fer sluggin'. I'm goin'to suggist to Perfessor Stagg thot they put wan Judge of Morals on the field andpinalize a team tin yarrds fer iviry cuss word or insultin' gisture."They ought to cut out the sponge too. Think. av th' cruelty av soakin' a manwith ice wather and wakin' 'im up an' makin' 'im play, whin he gits his wind knockedout, an all he wants is some nice warrum place to go lie down in, where he can die allalone by 'imself. It's an outrage I say. I hope nixt year they have a rule requirin'hot wather bags to be used, an' no sponges allowed on the field.""Do ye think," said Mr. Dennissey, "they'll ivir be able to ligislate the brutalityout av the game?""Not the way they're goin' about it," replied Mr. Hooley. "If they'd quittryin' to git the brutality out av the rules and cut out the brutes thot play the gamethe thing wud be done in a minute.""No, no," protested Mr. Dennissey, "min is bound to be rough, whin they gitsexcited; ye can't change human nachure.""Ye git me point exactly," said Mr. Hooley. "Wan new rule an' there'd be nomore brutality, but the biggest crowds at games thot ye ivir did see. Take the gameaway from th' min, they're nachurally brutes, and give it to the gintle suffragittes."If ye want to see debrutalized football, Dinnissey, go out an' watch the co-edsplay hockey."The buoyant spirits of the alumni gave rise to cheering and applauseat frequent intervals, so that the chairman had some difficulty in makinghimself heard. The table of "prominent grads" was waiting, however,for the announcement that "Teddy Linn will read a poem by request."William Scott Bond asked for a hearing. "I wish to inquire bywhose request?" he asked.IIO THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"There has been no request of any kind," declared L. Brent Vaughan,an assertion in which everyone seemed to agree."Mr. Chairman," said Henry G. Gale, "there is an error in the pro­gram. The line should read: 'by permission.'"After this explanation had been accepted by the alumni with muchapplause Mr. Linn was allowed to begin his poem, which includedreminiscences of the old days without number. Personalities, witti­cisms, and puns all had a place in the poem. Interruptions by applausewere frequent.Mr. Stagg and Captain Crawley of the team were called on foraddresses, and Mr. Stagg was asked to lead the assembly in "Hear DemBells" in which everyone joined with enthusiasm. Mr. Stagg said:This evening is the best yet in the history of Chicago as far as I know. So faras I am able to recall the alumni have never given a welcome to the team as they havetonight. I hope this is but the beginning of your expression of love and loyalty. AsCaptain Crawley has said the teams that fight year after year differ in material andtalent, but there is no difference in the men; they have got within their breasts the trueChicago loyalty and spirit, which counts for more than anything else in a team. Iknow many of you personally because you have been under my direction; I knowothers of you because I have seen you on the campus, and I am glad that you standby the Chicago team. The men have worked just as hard this year as any otheryear. They did not have the physical talent and the experience, perhaps, of teams ofother years, but they worked just as hard and faithfully in the games we have alreadyplayed with Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota, and Northwestern. In fact, I will say thatI have never worked harder with any team. We realized that we were up against it.Perhaps I did remark, as you may have noted, that we had the poorest team sinceI891. ("How about I895 ?") We lost eleven of last year's men-"C" men, and eightout of twelve of our best Freshmen were not eligible. This left us four or five Fresh­men and only a few men on the squad. With this crowd we were not rich, until yourealize the kind of men they are. They have been constantly called all the namesthat I could invent to get up their fighting spirit, and they stood it and did their levelbest and are entitled to rest on the record of the progress they have made.For next year we expect all men back but Crawley and "Bunny," and the Fresh­man team has good men who, if the faculty is willing, will help fill their places. How­ever it is an uphill fight for Chicago most of the time. Consider that the actualnumber of men we have to select from is only about 700. Purdue has three times asmany, Illinois four times, Minnesota five times, Indiana twice, and Northwesterntwice. We not only have a hard fight to get men but to keep them. It is uphill workin football, track, and baseball. We could make a still better showing, I am satisfied,if one-fourth to one-third of our men were not ineligible; this reduces the number tochoose from still further. In spite of this we don't feel that we are out of it. I mustconfess that personally I sometimes feel discouraged. I wish I had the chance tomeasure up with other coaches, to get as good a show as the other fellows, and this isespecially true when I feel what I could do if I only had certain men-if I could onlywork out with them certain ideas as they come to me. But I am contented to workalong with what I have-we are developing men at the University of Chicago;. menFOOTBALL DINNER OF THE CHICAGO ALUMNI CLUB IIIwho count for character, and for stability; men who have to be the best kind ofstickers, for we won't have quitters.Because we have to fight all the time men who come here have that idea fromthe beginning. Most of them show no fear or timidity in a hard piece of work thatis developing men of the right fiber. My best satisfaction is in seeing the strongtype of men that come from the University of Chicago.The applause and cheering at the end of Mr. Stagg's talk was deafen­ing. The quiet seriousness with which it was delivered calmed atonce all attempts at levity and paved the way for a discussion of therules of eligibility, which made the alumni feel more a part of the Uni­versity than they had in years. It was opened by Dean Linn, who said:The question of men on the team being declared ineligible brings up a matterregarding which I would like to say a few words. The men who administer the rulesof eligibility in the Junior Colleges-and this applies practically to the entire Uni­versity, for the men in the Senior College have their conduct established in the JuniorColleges-are Dean Lovett, Dean Gale, who is here tonight, and myself. You allknow the loyalty of Mr. Lovett and Mr. Gale, and I hope there is no man heretonight who questions for a moment my loyalty to the University and my personaldevotion to Mr. Stagg. The reason that these men are dropped from the University,or declared ineligible, is because they will not study. Now I know that there is noathlete who would for the moment think of breaking training. I have never heardof any man breaking training. If he did he would be considered a traitor. Not tobreak training is a tradition in the University.And yet while a man will consider it a disgrace to break physical training, hedoes not consider it a disgrace to break intellectual training. Intellectual trainingis important, but may be broken at any time. There is no tradition against it. Thegreatest service that we as alumni can do is to create a tradition against breakingintellectual training. The greatest good we can do is to use our influence among themen so that they will consider it a disgrace to become ineligible. Some of you heretonight are members of fraternities; as such you have a very direct influence over alarge number of men in the University. Those of you who are not members of fra­ternities still have a strong indirect influence which you ought to make use of. Thisis something in which we, as alumni, can be a great power.Dean Henry G. Gale rose and assured the assembly likewise of hisdevotion to the University and declared that he spoke not as an officialof the University, but as an alumnus in seconding the request made byDean Linn.Songs, cheers, and send-offs made up the rest of the program. Whenthe assembly broke up alumni declared they had enjoyed the bestalumni reunion of the year. This spirit is perhaps best reflected in astatement which "Phil" Allen, '97, otherwise Associate ProfessorPhilip S. Allen, made to Paul Harper, secretary of the Club: "I amsending you herewith my money for the dinner. I couldn't begin topay you for the good time I had."GENERAL ALUMNI ACTIVITIESPITTSBURG ALUMNI MEETAlumni of the University residing inPittsburgh, Pa., met with Dr. James H.Breasted, Professor of Egyptology andOriental History in the University, onNovember 21. On the same eveningProfessor Breasted delivered a lecturein the Soldiers' Memorial Hall of Pitts­burgh, this being one of a series of sixlectures given in that city.INFORM A TIONThe Alumni Secretary wishes to directthe attention of alumni to two publishedstatements which are not generallyknown:" The Magazine is published . . . . inthe months of November, December,January, March, April and July."­Quoted from announcement under tableof contents in the Magazine."The University year runs from JulyI to July 1. Graduates in the SummerQuarter will find themselves classifiedunder the numerals of the followingyear."--Quoted from p. x of the AlumniDirectory.LAWRENCE DE GRAFF, '98Judge Lawrence De Graff, '98, of theDistrict Court at Des Moines has thedistinction of receiving the largest num­ber of votes ever cast for a Republicancandidate in the history of Polk County,Iowa, according to the Des MoinesCapitol. The newspaper adds the fol­lowing information:The judge was elected on Tuesday with avote of 8,803. Until he made this record BenNess, Polk county's popular sheriff, held thehonor, as he received the largest vote evercast before at the election two years ago.Mr. Ness, however, holds second honor thisyear, as he ran only 600 votes behind JudgeDe Graff.In the Second precinct of the Fifth wardJudge De Graff was the only republicancandidate for district judge that carried theprecinct. The only other republican tocarry it was John B. Sullivan, candidate forstate senator. The democrats carried every­thing else.The judge received 1,342 more votes thanthe candidate for district judge who received the smallest number. His large vote is believedto be due to the conscientious manner inwhich he conducted the office of countyattorney, which he held for three years, andthe fairness with which he has dealt outjustice since he has been on the bench.THANKS CHICAGO MENWilliam J. Neidig, a former graduatestudent in English at the Universitymakes acknowledgment in an article inModem Philology for October of the helphe received from Professor John M.Manly and Assistant Professor David A.Robertson, '02. Mr. Neidig's article on"The Shakespeare Quartos of 1619" isan important contribution to informa­tion regarding the date of printing of thequartos of 1600. Photographs of thetitle-pages under discussion, reproducedwith the article, were taken by Mr.Robertson in the British Museum.EARL w. PEA�ODY, '96An announcement signed by F. L. Fox,general manager. of the Atchison, Topeka& Santa Fe Railway Co., gave the in­formation that Earl W. Peabody, '96,has been appointed assistant to the gen­eral manager with office at Amarillo,Texas.C. WALTER BRITTON, '01C. Walter Britton, '01, cashier of theSecurity Savings Bank at Sioux City, Ia.,was delegate for the University of Chicagoat the inauguration of Rev. Luther Free­man, D.D., as president of MorningsideCollege, on October 19. Delegates repre­senting the principal universities andcolleges were present.JOHN MILLS, '01John Mills, '01, professor of physicsand electrical engineering at ColoradoCollege, Colorado Springs, Colo., is theauthor of An Introduction to Thermodyna­mics, a manual for engineering students,published this fall by Ginn & Co. Thebook is a clear presentation of the por­tions of elementary thermodynamicswhich are essential to the engineer ofII2GENERAL ALUMNI ACTIVITIEStoday. Mr. Mills acknowledges in hispreface " the inspiration of ProfessorR. A. Millikan of the University ofChicago, a friend and former teacher."The book is described as suitable for usein third-year engineering courses or inregular college courses in thermody­namics. The text constitutes at the sametime a complete course for generalscientific or engineering students, and anadequate preparation for further work inpure thermodynamics or in the specialstudy of the design and operation ofsteam engines, or compressed-air ma­chines. CHICAGO ALUMNAE CLUBThe Chicago Alumnae Club at itsregular fall business meeting electedthe following officers:President-Kate B. Miller.Vice-President-Helen T. Sunny.Secretary-Treasurer-Hazel D. Kelly.The mid-winter meeting will be heldon Saturday, January 7, at the home ofPresident and Mrs. Harry Pratt Judson.It is to be a reception for members of theClub and women graduates of the Uni­versity resident in Chicago.THE DIVINITY ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONEDGAR J. GOODSPEED, D.B., '98, SecretaryAmong the visitors to the recentmeeting of the Board of the NorthernBaptist Convention were Edward RufusCurry, '87, and Rev. E. A. Hanly, aformer student in the Divinity School.Mr. Curry is pastor of Calvary BaptistChurch of Chicago. Mr. Hanly holdsthe pastorate of the oldest church inthe United States, the First BaptistChurch of Providence, R.I., establishedby Roger Williams.Albert Wayland Fuller, '8I, after along pastorate in the Baptist Church atEI Paso, Ill., has become pastor of thechurch in Galva, Ill.Thomas Stephenson, Th.B., '85, hasresigned the pastorate of the Baptistchurch at La Grange, Ill., and becomesuperintendent of missions for the stateof Montana.Edward M. Stephenson, Th.B., '88,representative of the American BaptistPublishing Society for the state of Colo­rado, recently received the degree of D.D.from Denver University.Joseph Jenkins, D.B., '98, has closedhis work as pastor of the Baptist Churchof Toulon, Ill., and will become pastorof the Baptist Church at Macomb, Ill.,the first of the year.Alphonzo Augustus Hobson, Ph.D.,'03, has been made Secretary to thePresident of the University of Pittsburgh.Since graduation from the University Dr.Hobson had been pastor of Beth EdenBaptist Church, Pittsburgh, Pa. Richard Edwin Sayles, '03, has re­signed from the Eastern Avenue Bap­tist Church of Joliet, Ill., and has becomepastor of the First Baptist Church ofDuluth, Minn.William Henry Garfield, '04, of lola,Kan., is acting pastor for three months ofthe First Baptist Church at Ottawa, Ill.Clarence Spence Burns, A.B., '06,has removed from Fairbury, Ill., toColdwater, Mich., where he is pastor ofthe First Baptist Church.Vergil Vivian Phelps, Ph.M., '04;Ph.B., '02; D.B., '07, recently removedfrom New Haven, Conn., to Billings,Mont., where he is pastor of the Baptistchurch.Announcements of the acceptance ofpastorates by former students of theDivinity School, who did not howeverreceive degrees, have been received atthe office of Dr. Charles E. Hewitt,Student Secretary of the Divinity School.C. H. Scheick resigned his pastorateat Pittsburgh to accept a call to the Bap­tist Church of Anamosa, Ia., his dutieshaving begun December I. J. F. Baker,ex-iro, is pastor of the Baptist Churchof Normal, Ill. J. H. Carstens hasbegun his pastoral work in the BaptistChurch in La Grange, Ill., having dis­continued his work at Austin, Minn.C. T. Ilsley, ex-Yo, closed his pastoratein Indianola, Ia., accepting a call tothe Baptist Church of South Omaha,Neb.THE ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OFPHILOSOPHYNEWS NOTESMary Hefferan, '03, Assistant inBacteriology, at the University ofChicago, withdrew from her Uni­versity work a year ago on account ofthe illness of her mother, whose deathoccurred recently.Studies in Spiritism is the title of abook by Dr. Amy E. Tanner, '98, whichwas recently published by D. Appleton& Co. The work was undertaken at thesuggestion of President G. StanleyHall, of Clark University, who speaksof the treatise in high praise.Dr. Evan T. Sage, '08, of the Univer­sity of Idaho, taught at the summersession of the University of Pittsburgh,relieving Dr. Berthold L. Ullman, '08,who holds there the chair of Latin.Charles O. Paullin, '04, has publishedtwo articles in -the United States NavalInstitute Proceedings entitled "Duelingin the Old Navy" and "Services ofCommodore John Rodgers in the Warof 1812," and also a volume, printed bythe Arthur H. Clark Company of Cleve­land, entitled Commodore John Rodgers,A Biography, based on original researchand giving a graphic account of the oldnavy.Frank H. Pike, '97, has been activein research, having published sixteendifferent articles in various scientificjournals during 1906, 1907, and 1908,among which were several studies inResusci ta tion in the A merican Journalof Physiology and in the Journal ofExperimental Medicine. In 1909 thefollowing important papers appeared:"The Histological Changes in NerveCells Due to Total Temporary Anaemiaof the Central Nervous System, " Journalof Experimental Medicine, XI (1909),257-65; and "Studies in the Physiologyof the Central Nervous System. I.The General Phenomena of SpinalShock," American Journal of Physiology,XXIV (1909), 124-52.Irving E. Miller, '04, is professor ofthe science of education and dean ofresearch and professorial work at theState Normal School, Greeley, Colo.Glenn M. Hobbes, Physics, '05, is secretary of the American School ofCorrespondence, Chicago.Robert F. Earhart, Physics, '00, hasbeen made associate professor of physicsat Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.Roy C. Flickinger, Greek, '04, presi­dent of the Doctor's Association, has beenpromoted to an associate professorshipin Greek at Northwestern University.Charles Brookover, '10, is professor ofnatural science at Buchtel College,Sandusky, Ohio.Peter A. Claassen, German, '09, isprofessor of modern languages at OhioUniversity, Athens, Ohio.Luther L. Bernard, Sociology, '10,is instructor in sociology at AdelbertCollege of Western Reserve University,Cleveland, Ohio.Edith M. Twiss, '09, has been ap­pointed assistant professor of botany,with charge of plant physiology andbacteriology, at Washburn College, To­peka, Kan. For some years MissTwiss taught in the Cleveland highschools.William E. Garrison, '97, has beenelected president of the New MexicoCollege of Agriculture and MechanicArts. He was formerly at the NewMexico Normal University, Las Vegas,N.M.Joseph K. Hart, '09, has been electedto an assistant professorship of philos­ophy at the University of Washington,Seattle, Wash.Charles A. Ellwood, '99, professorof sociology in the University of Missouri,is the author of an elementary text insociology, entitled Sociology and ModernSocial Problems, just published by theAmerican Book Company. Among thearticles recently contributed by Dr.Ellwood to various periodicals on socio­logical problems are: "Philanthropy andSociology," The Survey, June 6, 1910;"The Sociological Basis of Ethics,"I nternational Journal of Ethics, April,1910; "The Psychological View ofSociety," American Journal of Sociology,March, 1910; "How History Can BeTaught from a Sociological Point ofView," Education, January, 1910.II4THE COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONNEWS FROM THECLASSES1896Charles Dorrance Dibbell was declaredthe foremost juror in Illinois at a recentbanquet of leading attorneys and Circuitjudges at Joliet.1897William Scott Bond was a member ofthe committee which investigated theineligibility charges against the athlete,Nelson of Leland Stanford Jr. University,when he competed in the Western Inter­collegiate Meet of I9IO at Illinois.Edith Ewing Schwarz has changedher address to I7 Madison SquareNorth, New York City, N.Y.Burton Jesse Simpson is a physicianand surgeon with offices at 6340 HalstedSt., Chicago.18g8Inez D. Rice (Mrs. Henry M. Adkin­son) lives at Capitol Hill Station, Denver,Colo.Robert Elliott Graves is practicingmedicine in Chicago. His address is4249 Hazel Ave. , North.Lulu May Hough lives at Fenton,Mich.William L. Mercer is county superin­tendent of schools at Rochester, Minn.Arthur W. Smith is an associate pro­fessor at Colgate University, Hamilton,N.Y.Fred Merrifield is director of theBaptist Student's Guild at 503 E. HuronSt., Ann Arbor, Mich.Bertha' May Henderson resides atI234 Eggleston Avenue.Elizabeth M. MacFarland lives athome in Danville, Ill.Isabelle Vedder is now Mrs. MauriceStevens. Her address is I460I UnionAvenue, Harvey, Ill.1899Walter Cavanaugh, ex, former centeron the Varsity football team, is nowassistant manager of the SimmonsManufacturing Co., at Kenosha, Wis.Herbert C. Durand is now city editorof the Chicago Daily News.Newell M. Fair engages in the bankingbusiness at Mankato, Kan. Muriel Massey (Mrs. W. F. Dowd) isengaged in missionary work at Buckeye,Maricopa County, Ariz.Ella Martha Hayes is teaching mathe­matics in the Indian University atBacone, Okla.Arthur Taber Jones is assistant pro­fessor of physics at Purdue University.Alma Le Due is at present in Paris,France.I900Robert Lee Hughes is principal ofschools at Irving Park, Ill.Ernest Edward Irons is a physicianwith offices in the People's Gas Building,Chicago.Roswell H. Johnson is a consultinggeologist on oil and gas at Bartlesville,Okla.James Fred Miller is engaged in farm­ing at Larned, Kan.Harry Bauland Newman is in the retailcloak and suit business at 209 StateStreet.Henry Schwarm is superintendent ofschools at Hamilton, Mont.1901Clarence W. Richards, formerly West­ern intercollegiate tennis champion, iswith the Carr, Ryder Adams Co. atDubuque, Ia.Otto F. Hakes, ex, is vice-president ofthe United States Radiator Co., ofDunkirk, N.Y.James Snitzler, ex, is president of theSnitzler Advertising Co. of Chicago.Erwin W. Roessler is head of themodern language department in theHigh School of Commerce, New YorkCity, N.Y.Ernest Lynn Talbert is an instructorin the State Normal School at Milwaukee"Wis.1902Lees Ballinger manages the KeokukCanning Co., establishment at Lansing,Mich.Joseph W� Bingham, J.D., '04, isassistant professor of law at LelandStanford Jr. University, Cal. ·Leon P. Lewis, J.D., 'oS, attorney inLouisville, Ky., edits the Phi GammaDelta Magazine.lISII6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEArchibald Lawrence Hoyne is a prac­ticing physician with offices at 20I W.Sixty-third St.Clarence Carey Leffingwell is wi thP. F. Collier & Son, New York City, N.Y.Florence Irene Morrison lives at 70INorth New Jersey St., Indianapolis, Ind.Margaret Wortman Van Wyck lives atHopewell Junction, N.Y.1903Charles Murfit Hogeland is in thesales department of Philip Ruxton, Inc.,6742 Lowe Ave.Alfred D. Radley is a member of thela w firm of Radley & Radley, Peoria, Ill.Annie Reynolds is an assistant in thenormal school at Reedsburg, Pa.Edith Coffin Bellamy is now Mrs.Forrest Shreve and lives at Tucson, Ariz.1:904Harry Van Velsor, ex, is president ofthe First National Bank at Quincy, Wash.1905Francis L. Parker is city chemist ofCharleston, S.C., and lecturer on medicaljurisprudence in the Medical College ofthe State of South Carolina.Albert Wesley Evans is assistant prin­cipal of Lane Technical High School.1906Charles A. Lutz, ex, Lieutenant in theMarine Corps, is stationed at Colon,Canal Zone, Panama.Bertholf Pettit after graduation fromBoston Tech has taken up engineeringwork in Chicago.Stirling B. Parkinson, ex, returned inNovember from a fifteen months' so­journ in Europe.Mary Ella Robinson lives at 2747Penn St., St. Joseph, Mo.John Stephen Wright is an attorneywith offices in the Scarritt Building,Kansas City, Mo.1907Will J. Cuppy, author of MaroonTales, pursues graduate work in Englishin the University of Chicago.Edith M. Twiss, Ph.D., '09, has beenappointed Assistant Professor of Botanyat Washburn College, Topeka, Kan.Mazie May Slocum is now Mrs. C.J. Dye, residing at Dixon, Ill.Robert Eddy Mathews is with theBitter Root Valley Irrigation Company,Commercial National Bank Building,Chicago.Lydia M., Olson is librarian of the Northern State Normal School at Mar­quette, Mich.1908Maurice Eaton Post is superintendentof schools at La Conner, Wash.Barbara Grace Spayd is teaching inToledo, Ohio. Her address is 2I24 Park­wood Ave.Henry W. Sumner is teaching and livesat 4242 St. Lawrence Avenue, Chicago.George F. Thompson is instructor ofmathematics and science in the EdwardWaters Academy at Jacksonville, Fla.Hildur C. Westlund is teaching mathe­matics in Chicago. Hes address is I952South Springfield Ave.William E. Wrather's address is 404Scanlan Building, Houston, Tex.Elsie Milner is now Mrs. CharlesLouis Michod and lives at 58 VictoriaPark, Los Angeles, Cal.1909John M. Montgomery, ex, is at presentconnected with the Marshall WellsHardware Co. of Duluth, Minn.Roy J. Maddigan, ex, former Varsityshot-putter, is now with the AmericanRadiator Co., in Cincinnati, O.Karl P. Shuart has been doing specialwork in the Brooklyn Public Library.Harold Iddings, ex, has returned tohis homestead at Fort Benton, Mont.,after coaching the football team at MiamiUniversity.Herbert A. Kellar, instructor in His­tory and English at Manganita Hallpreparatory school, Palo Alto, Cal., ispursuing studies preparatory for theDoctor's degree.Herbert J. Stark, ex, resides on a ranchnear Underwood, S.D.Howard P. Blackford may be addressedat the Williams Bldg., Vancouver, B.C.Mary R. Thomas lives at 89' Gains­boro Street, Boston, Mass.Charles L. Gotham is a student atRush Medical College.Henry R. Halsey lives at 1223 EastFifty-seventh Street.1910George A. Funkhouser, ex, is payingteller of the Winter National Bank atDayton, O.,Winston Patrick Henry is with theHenry Gas Co., at Nowata, Okla.Edwin P. Hubble, Rhodes scholar fromIllinois, won the Freshman high jumpat Oxford.Hurnard J. Kenner, ex, writes for theForum of Fargo, N.D.THE LAW SCHOOL ASSOCIATIONENGAGEMENTS'06. Herman Spoehr and FlorenceMann, a graduate of Smith College. Mr.Spoehr is plant physiological chemistunder the Carnegie Institution, his workbeing conducted at Kent ChemicalLaboratory.'09. Heber P. Hostetter, J.D., '10, andFlorence A. Scofield of Winona, Minn.,a graduate student at the University in1909. Miss Scofield has a position withthe United States government schoolsin the Canal Zone, Panama. Mr.Hostetter is practicing law in Chicago,having an office at 502 Chamber ofCommerce Building. He was prominentin deb a ting while at the U niversi ty andis a member of Delta Chi and DeltaSigma Rho.MARRIAGES'10. Lyle Barnes, ex, and AgnesGahan. The couple reside at 4921Grand Blvd.'10. Lee Wellington Pardridge, ex,and Pauline Smith.'10. W. Frank Richie, ex, and Eliza­beth Hall of Hinsdale, Ill.'10. Leroy Carr Allen, ex, and ElsieRettinghouse at Boone, Ia., on Oct. 25. Mr. Allen was captain of the baseballteam, and has since acted as coach of theCornell College team, Mount Vernon, Ia.The couple will be at home after Jan. I inHurley, S.D.DEATHS'06. Henrietta van Wormer Turney(Mrs. T. G. Turney) died at her homein Maywood, Ill., on Saturday, Novem­ber 12. She is survived by her husbandand a two-weeks' old daughter.'09. Yohei Tsunekawa, A.M., docentin Japanese at the University, 1909-10,died in Evanston on September 5, oftuberculosis.'10. Stephan Pierce Blake died athis home in Lake Helen, Fla. While inthe University he specialized in the Greekdepartment, and after graduation taughtin the schools at Harvard, Ill., when hewas attacked with tuberculosis.'10. Robert P. Baker, died suddenlyafter a short illness a t his home inChicago. Mr. Baker was a memberof Alpha Delta Phi fraternity. He wasengaged in the bond business, into whichhe went only a short time before. Inhis memory services were held in theAlpha Delta Phi House, at which Dr.Alonzo K. Parker officiated.THE LAW SCHOOL ASSOCIATIONRUDOLPH E. SCHREIBER, '06, Secretary.William Hayden Jackson, A.B., '99,residing at 5726 Monroe Ave., is prac­ticing law.Ralph Curtiss Manning, '03, is managerof a poultry farm in Warrenville, Ill.Ota Patty Lightfoot, '05, and DavidHurlburt have formed a law partner­ship, with offices in the Fort DearbornBuilding.Otto F. Grimm, ex-'08, has locatedhis law offices at 97 Randolph St.Albert Blaine Enoch, '08, is employedin the la w department of the RockIsland Lines, 134 Van Buren St.John Lamar Hopkins, '08, occupiesoffices in the Marquette Building, suite1407.Earl DeWitt Hostetter, '09, has enteredthe law offices of Wilkerson & Cassels,420 the Rookery.Henry Frank Driemeyer, '09, havingmoved from Pinckneyville, Ill., is prac- tieing law in East St. Louis, Ill., withoffices in the Adele Building.Irvin I. Livingston, '09, has affiliatedhimself with the law firm of Ryan &Condon, 72 I, First National BankBuilding.Leo Wei! Hoffman, '10, is with HarryC. Levinson, lawyer, Room 1001, 100Washington St.Horace Nebeker, LL.B., '06, spokeat the principal football rally of theUtah Agricultural College at Logan,Utah, on October 7, representing thecitizens of Logan at a demonstrationwhich included a parade through theprincipal streets and a bonfire. Stu­dent Life writes of his address: " Hiswords showed the students that theycould expect the most hearty supportand co-operation of the townspeople.His speech was forceful to a highdegree."UNDERGRADUATE LIFEDR. HENDERSON'S ADDRESSESStudents in the University have awarm place in their hearts for ProfessorCharles R. Henderson, the Universitychaplain, who speaks frequently atchapel exercises in the Leon MandelAssembly Hall. The following is oneof the particularly impressive bits ofthe chaplain's philosophy of life:At the foot of the mountain the broadreservoirs find their resting-place. Theyare fed by countless streams and tiny rillsfrom high up the mountain. As these smallertributaries run low, so does the reservoirbecome shallower.The period of your lives in college is aformation, a preparation for your work in theoutside world. Years ago when your fatherswere crossing the plains, terrified by Indians,or trying to work out a scanty existence forthemselves and for their parents, they wereencountering tasks which fitted them tomeet and solve the problems of today. Andin the same way your daily deeds, whetherit be learning a Latin verb, solving a mathe­matical problem, or working in down-townstores, are fitting you to solve the problemswhich shall confront you in the future; infive, ten, or may be, fifty years hence.Young men: it all lies with you! Chooseyour daily work with this in view, and dothese duties well. See that your streamsand rills are full, so that you may in the futurepossess broad and glorious reservoirs.HELP FOR UNITED CHARITIESA score of students, under the super­vision of Roy B. N elson, secretary ofthe Y.M.C.A., and Professor CharlesR. Henderson, ha ve been solicitingmonetary assistance for the UnitedCharities. Dean Sophonisba P. Breckin­ridge and Dr. Henderson deliveredtelling appeals for personal contributionsat the women and men's chapel exercises.The total amount of money raised atthe University compares favorably withthe fund raised at Northwestern Uni­versity and other institutions in Chicago.THE HONOR SYSTEMThe honor system may be tried atthe University if the students favor it.For several years it has been discussedas a remedy for "cribbing" in examina­tions. This year the editors of the Daily Maroon, and a group of studentson the campus have waged a continuouscampaign for its adoption. The Under­graduate Council has declared in favorof a system similar to the one in use atPrinceton University. At a recent fac­ulty meeting Nathaniel Pfeffer, RoyBaldridge, Ned Earle, and WilliamMacCracken spoke in favor of the plan.It is understood that unless the studentsvote almost unanimously in favor ofthe project there will be some doubt asto its institution.BLACKFRIAR PLAY ANNOUNCEDCapturing Calypso, a comedy writtenby Hilmar R. Baukhage and RalphBenzies, received the unanimous choiceof the judges of the annual Blackfriarplay contest. The five judges, AssistantProfessor Percy H. Boynton, AssistantProfessor David Allen Robertson, '02,Harold H. Swift, '07, and Henry Sulcer,'06, and Frederick Hatton, dramaticcritic of the Evening Post, announcedtheir decision after a final consultationat the University Club, on November 26,where they were the guests of HaroldSwift. Relative to the decision, Assist­ant Professor Boynton said: "Thejudges unanimously agreed upon therewritten play of Benzies and Baukhage,which was submitted last year, and theyfurthermore commended the high qualityof two other plays, and expressed thehope that tbe authors would rewrite andimprove them for competition next year."The other plays submitted were: TheI dots of the School, The Lord of Luzon,and Bones of a Skeleton. Music for thewinning play will be selected later.ATHLETICSAlthough the football season for Cap­tain Crawley's heroes has not been aseries of triumphs, praise for good, hardwork is due every player on the squadand to Director Stagg and his assistantsWalter Steffen, John Schommer, andOscar Worthwine. The result was pre­dicted by various experts at the startof the season, when there was a dearthof experienced material. Against heavyodds the men worked hard and long toII8UNDERGRADUATE LIFEperfect their game, displaying the trueChicago fighting spirit in every contest.The November Magazine containedthe report of the Indiana, Illinois, N orth­western and Minnesota games. Purduewas conquered comparatively easilyby the score of 14 to 5. They wereoutweighed eight pounds to the man.Chicago scored three points in the firstquarter on a place kick by Crawley.In this quarter Purdue made its onlytouchdown after a diagonal line-up,ending in a prettily executed forwardpass. In the third quarter Crawleyagain succeeded with a place kick, andin the final quarter made Chicago'sonly touchdown.On - the Thursday before the Cornellgame the men were taken to the stationin a tallyho drawn by several hundredenthusiastic supporters and given arousing send-off for the game with Cor­nell. On Friday, November II, theypracticed at Geneva, N.Y., arriving inIthaca on Saturday morning in asexcellent condition as at any time duringthe year, with the exception of Sauer,who had not been in practice for a week.Neither Cornell nor Chicago could beregarded as representative of East orWest, but the contest proved to be ahard one, as it decided two ties. Cornelloutweighed Chicago and had moreexperienced men in the line, but by anexhibition of anything but sluggishplay Chicago held the score in the firsthalf to 0 to o. In the last half Cornelleffected two touchdowns and place kicks,gaining a total of eighteen points, whichmade the final score, 18 to o. Crawleyand Rogers performed star work, whileEb Wilson ran the team in good shape,and was remarkably strong in his punts.The men were treated to a day of sight­seeing at Niagara Falls, and then returnedto Chicago to spend a strenuous week ofscrimmage and wind sprints (" staggers,"as the players call them) in preparationfor the final game with Wisconsin.About 300 rooters, taking advantageof a special rate, accompanied the teamto Madison on a special train. Fromthe spectator's point of view the game wasintensely exciting. The ball was not takenacross a goal line in the first quarter.In the second quarter Wisconsin broughtthe ball to the two-yard line by snappyend runs, and then Buser, the star tackle,carried it over for the first touchdown.In the third quarter Maroon rootersgained hope, when Chicago brought the II9ball to Wisconsin's ten-yard line, butwas held. Again in the final quarterYoung, Crawley, and Rogers steadilyadvanced the ball, spreading consider­able gloom over the immense crowd ofWisconsin rooters. Wisconsin provedobdurate, and Gillette, made a seventy­yard run to a touchdown. The finalscore was 10 to o. Umpire Wrenn,against the expostulations of Crawleyand Menaul, suspended Buser for slug­ging Menaul.The following is the record of thegames for the season:October 5-Indiana,6; Chicago, o.October I5-Illinois, 3; Chicago, o.October 22-Chicago, 10; Northwestern, o.October 29-Minnesota, 24; Chicago, o.November 5-Chicago, 14; Purdue, 5.November 12-Cornell, 18; Chicago, o.November 19-Wisconsin, 10; Chicago, o.Charles Rademacher, left guard, hasbeen elected captain of the I9II foot­ball team. Fifteen men were awardedC's. They are: Crawley, Rogers, Car­penter, Davenport, Kassulker, Menaul,Paine, Rademacher, Sauer, Sawyer,Whiteside, Whiting, Wilson, H. Young,and R. Young.Next year gives promise of a winningteam. Crawley and Rogers are the onlyveterans to be lost by graduation, buttheir vacant positions will bring outwarm contests if the promising membersof the Freshmen squad remain eligible.Norgren, captain and halfback, andFletcher, the speedy quarterback, andseveral other players of speed and bulk,will make the regulars work for theirpositions. Twenty-five Freshmen weregranted their numerals, six the reservenumeral, "R '14," and four the sweaterswithout emblems.The making of next year's schedulehas been postponed until January. Inall probability the same colleges will beplayed, although many prefer a gamewith Michigan to replace Purdue, North­western, or Indiana.The Maroon soccer football team metthe players from Illinois on MarshallField, as a curtain raiser to the Chicago­Purdue football game. The orange andblue kickers were more experiencedand finally after a hard-fought strugglecaptured the contest by three goals.Under the coaching of J. P. Brady, theplayers had labored for several weeksto round into form, but their greennessshowed in a lack of team play. IllinoisI20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEeasily defeated them in a return gameat Champaign, 6 goals to I, on November12. .. This year's experience will helpbuild up a strong team next year.The cross-country team finished eighthof the ten teams competing in the annualrace between western colleges, held thisyear at Madison, just before the Wiscon­sin-Chicago football game. The Maroonrunners were clearly outclassed in oneof the speediest fields yet assembledfor the race. In the order of their finishthe men on the team are: Reed, Car­penter (captain), Roe, Lunde, andSeegers. Skinner, who had been chosento run, was forced to withdraw at thelast moment.Reports from the Orient continue tobring news of victories for the Uni­versityof Chicago baseball team. Aftera clean sweep in Japan from Waseda andKeio universities, the men sailed toManila, there meeting their first defeatat the hands of the United States marinesby the score of 4 to o. They playedseveral games in the Philippines, andthen returned to Japan. On December 7they left Yokohama, and are due inSeattle on December 23, and in ChicagoDecember 26.In a close contest the Freshmen de,...feated the Varsity swimming team by ascore of 39 to 34. At the end of thespeed events the Varsity held the leadby one point, the Freshmen then cap­turing the polo game and with it themeet. Captain Goes established a recordfor the 6o-yard swim, covering the threelengths in 34t seconds. Rundell gavepromise of developing into a star plungerfor the Varsity this year in meets withIllinois and Northwestern.GENERAL NEWSIn the Law School elections, Paul M.O'Dea was elected president of the first­year, John W. Allen of the second-year,and Ellis P. Legler of the third-year,classes.After a comparatively tame season ofpunishment, owing to a sentiment infavor of limiting the period, thirty­eight Freshmen were initiated into theThree Quarters Club at the Union Hotelon November 22. Francis M. Orchard,'10, acted as toastmaster, and toastswere heard from "Bunny" Rogers, 'II, Benton Moyer, '12, Lawrence Whiting,'13, and "It" Reichmann, '14.Marguerite Swawite has been electedto the presidency of the Short Story Club.Willard E. Atkins won the JuniorCollege extempore speaking contest.His subject was, " Resolved: ThatStudents Should Know Their Grades."Bert L. Taylor, known as "B. L. T.",was the guest at a dinner given by thePen Club on November 9. He gave aninformal talk on his career.Mrs. James R. Jewett gave a receptionto the Y.W.C.L., at which Miss JeanBatty talked on Association work inBuenos Ayres.At a recent meeting of the Cosmopoli­tan Club, representatives of variousnations told of the methods of courtingin their respective countries.In the final debate trials the follow­ing members were chosen to representthe University in the debates withNorthwestern in Leon Mandel AssemblyHall, and with Michigan at Ann Arbor:Lew M. McDonald, Albert F. Mecklen­burger, Paul M. O'Dea, Merrill I.Schnebli, Arthur P. Scott, and EdwardE. Jennings, with Arnold R. Baar andLeRoy D. Sargent as alternates. O'Deais the only veteran, although all of themen have had experience in debatingelsewhere.Dean George Edgar Vincent is therecipient of the honor of having the I9IICap & Gown dedicated to him. Workon the annual has been begun in earnestby the two managing editors, Walter J.Foute and Lester M. Wheeler. Theliterary committee is composed of Ben­jamin F. Bills, chairman, Ruth Reticker,Marjorie Hill, Florence M. Catlin,Donald L. Breed, and Cameron T. Lat­ter. The art committee in charge ofGertrude Emerson is especially strong,having as assistants Bess Courtright,Roy Baldridge, and Dale Bessire.Senior men are pledged to growmustaches to distinguish themselvesfrom other classes.The Junior men have established blueknob caps as their official headgear. Onthe afternoon of December 2, the JuniorClass gave a dance, its first social func­tion of the year, in the Reynolds Club.The Sophomores occupied the dance floorat the Reynolds Club on Saturday after­noon, December 3.