WILLIAM RAINEY HARPERPRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO,89'-'906The University of ChicagoMagazineVOLUME II JULY, 1910 NUMBER 6ADDRESSES AT THE LAYING OF THECORNER STONE OF THE WILLIAMRAINEY HARPER MEMORIAL-LIBRARYIINTRODUCTORY ADDRESS. BY HARRY PRATT JUDSONPresident of the University of ChicagoPRESIDENT HARPER died January 10, 1906. The question. of a suitable memorial was almost immediately taken intoconsideration, and. on the following first day of February theBoard of Trustees decided that the University general librarybuilding, so long needed, should be erected as the ·William RaineyHarper Memorial Library. The securing of a suitable fund was atonce undertaken. It was determined as most appropriate that sub­scriptions should be received from many sources, a large number ofsmall gifts being preferred to a few large ones only. The costof the building was fixed at $600,000, and -it was held wise at thesame time "to obtain an endowment fund of $200,000, for mainte­nance of the physical plant. Mr. John D. Rockefeller, August I,1907, offered to give three dollars for each one dollar contributedby others, up to a total of $600,000 from him. On April I, 19IO,the SUbscription was completed ; indeed in addition to Mr. Rocke­feller's gift of $600,000, the contributions of others at this time1 Delivered at" the laying of the corner stone of the William Rainey HarperMemorial Library, on the Seventy-fifth Convocation of the University, June 14,1910.237238 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEamounted to $210,075.68, which with interest on gifts paid in itis expected will amount by the time the building is completed toa total of about $93°,000. There are more than 2,000 subscribers.The architects, Messrs. Shepley, Rutan and Coolidge, sub­mitted upward of twenty sketches, each of which was carefullydiscussed by the building committee, of which Mr. C. L. Hutchinsonis chairman, and by the Board of Trustees before the final planswere accepted, December ro, 1909. It was necessary to makegeneral plans and elevations of the entire library group before theplans of the general library could safely be settled. Competitivebids were invited, and on December 27, 1909, the principal contractwas let to Wells Brothers, of Chicago.Ground was broken on January IO, I9IO, the fourth anniversaryof Dr. Harper's death, and today, June 14, I9IO, we lay the cornerstone with appropriate ceremonies.The Library will be to a large extent the heart of Universitylife. In it will be housed for some years to come the departmentallibraries and seminar rooms of the departments of philosophy,psychology, political economy, political science, history, and soci­ology. Here will gather the scholarship of the University" fromstudents and faculty. The building will be stately and beautiful,and both from its dignity and its use will be for all the years tocome a memorial worthy of the first president of the University.THE LIBRARY AND THE UNIVERSITYBY CLEMENT WALKER ANDREWS, A.M.Librarian of the John Crerar Library, ChicagoWHEN I accepted the invitation to deliver 'an address at thelaying of the corner stone of the William Rainey HarperMemorial Library, I did so with mingled pride, pleasure, and mis­giving. The pride and ,pleasure were felt both officially and person­ally; officially, in that the invitation seemed an acknowledgmentof the community of interest which should exist between universityand public libraries, as being both engaged in the diffusion ofknowledge; personally, in that it gave me an opportunity to. testifyto my respect and regard for the man whose memory we honortoday, and for the institution which he did so much to establish.On the other hand, my misgivings have been manifold. Inthe first place, I_ can only record my admiration for PresidentTHE LIBRARY AND THE UNIVERSITY 239Harper, since it would be an Impertinence for me to attempt tomake a proper appraisement of his services or to render anadequate tribute to his memory. And I am equally unfitted bytemperament, education, and experience to express in eloquentand effective phrases my strong belief in the importance to theUniversity of the work for which we are today providing a suitablehome. A scientific education and an almost wholly administra­tive career will discourage rather thoroughly the 'developmentof any germs of literary style which may have been inherited orplanted- in youth, while the scientific education alone will barprophecy, for' no scientist-s-except perhaps an astro..nomer=-willever prophesy unless he knows.It is with these and many other misgivings, therefore, that Iask you to'. listen to a simple presentation of the services whichthe Harper Memorial Library ought to render to the Universityand the problems which it has to solve in so doing.Naturally the first impulse is to seek an illustration which shalltypify these services. An anthropomorphic comparison seemsbarred by the claims of more important factors in university life.Only the faculty can be spoken of as the brains of the university;the . student body is of course the heart and blood, while the sinews,are proverbially reserved for the functions of the founder andtreasurer. A satisfactory symbol of the part played· by the knowl­edge of the past iri the education of the present tray perhaps befound in the water which quenches our thirst. This comparison,however, is by no means intended as a play upon the trite phraseof a thirst for knowledge. It is rather a statement that the informa­tion to be obtained. from books is an essential though not the onlyelement in intellectual life.It has been interesting and amusing to note to what fancifulextremes this comparison may be pushed without its breakingdown. It will be. sufficient if you will recognize that, granting thecomparison, the importance of the library to the university mustbe equal to that of a good system of water storage' and distributionin the civic and domestic economy, and further that as the volumeand head of the' water 'supply increase so does the necessity formore skilful construction, more costly maintenance, and more care­ful supervision. But it might be added that there is the samecombination of central reservoir with outlets for many differentkinds of service, the same need for care in the quality of the sup-240 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEply, and for foresight in determining the quantity needed, whilethe surprise of the man who draws hot water when� he wants coldis not essentially different from that of the engineer who finds thathis book on bridge-work is written for the dentist.There have been many sermons preached from EcclesiastesI2 :I2, "Of making many books there is no end." Most of themhave been from the point of view of the reader, as expressed inthe conclusion of the verse: "and much study is a weariness ofthe flesh." A few have been from the point of view of the writer,dwelling upon the weariness of searching out new material andnew forms of expression. Very few have been from the point ofview of the caretaker. It is true that someone, I think Miss Harra­den, has said that "books are many but few there be to dust them,"hut this I take to be rather a lament of the author over. thescarcity of readers than an appreciation of the burdens of thelibra�ian. I Indeed as the latter it is hardly adequate, for dustingis proverbially one of the duties least attended to either in the pastor in the future. The modern librarian, if up to ·date, dusts hisbooks by machinery and, if not, he lets them be dusted by proxythrough the readers.It is customary in the sermons referred to, to call attentionto the obvious fact that the author of the text had little reason tocomplain in comparison .. with those· who have lived since theinvention of paper and printing. It is not, however, the actualburden either then or now which challenges our attention, butthe promise for the future. The trustee who asked his librarianwhen he was going to stop buying books, was answered, "Whenpeople stop writing them." It is indeed true that the librarian isless apt to wonder at the number of books which have been writtenthan at those which have not. While unnecessary, useless, andharmful' books abound, authors have perversely neglected to writebooks which are greatly needed. To a very considerable propor­tion of inquiries he is obliged to reply that he knows of no bookon the subject. Nor need this proportion include such thoughtlessand, foolish questions as that of the Freshman who asks, on theadvice of his deskmate in the chemical laboratory, for So and So's"N otes on Stirring" or the amateur genealogist who expects tofind an annual compilation of, or index to, the obituary notices ofall the newspapers in the land. It is rather that the constantlyincreasing amount of original research furnishes new facts to beTHE 'LIBRARY AND THE UNIVERSITYstated and that the, constantly changing conditions of life andthought require restatements of old facts, while as a rule thewriters of books follow rather than precede these developments.How great are' the possibilities of the future is little under­stood by many of those who glibly quote the text. Yet there needbe no further examples sought than these furnished by two: verysmall sections of a comparatively small branch of 'physical science.My teacher in organic chemistry, the late Professor H. B. Hill,of Harvard, usedto begin his lecture on the alcohols, one of thesimplest classes of the compounds of carbon, with the statement thatthe number of possible individualmembers of the class was so largethat without going beyond the largest molecule then known (a sizeexceeded very considerably since), condensing all information inregard to each substance to one line of print (a condensation whichwould seriously modify the present style of' Doctors' theses), put­ting'thirty lines 'on a page,' and making one thousand pages intoa volume, it would require a library of one million volumes to holdour information in regard tofhe alcohols. When he came to theamines, or nitrogen bases, Professor Hill explained that, on accountof their more' complicated structure the number of possible iso­mers was so much greater that within the same limit of sizeof molecule, with the same condensation of information, the samesize of page and volume, and allowing for, convenient light andair an acre of ground for each library of one million volumes, ifwould take the whole land surface of the globe to hold our infor­mation in regard to the amines.' These statements were made, ofcourse, to impress upon the students the extent of the field ofresearch lying before them, and may be thought to have only aremote bearing upon the problems of the library of this or the nextgeneration. Consider, then, the change which has actually takenplace in the proportion of the university library to the studentbody. Soon after the present European universities were estab­lished they numbered their students by the thousand and their booksby the score or at most by the hundred; today the same universitiesstill number their students by the thousand but their books by thehundreds of thousands.It was probably the contemplation of some such ratio of actualand prospective' increase that led President Eliot to propose thelimitation of the growth of the university library by a removal ofthe least-used volumes to some central deposit of ,a. group of libra-242 THE UNIVERSITY· OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEries, a cold-storage system as it was' somewhat irreverently called.This remedy,. however, would cure, or rather palliate, only one,and that not the most pressing, of the difficulties of the situation,namely, the storage of the books. The plans of the building whichis to arise here are a conclusive proof that it is. easy to providefor the storage of the ·increase of our collections for years tocome without undue sacrifice of either convenience or beauty.No, the. pressing difficulties caused by the actual and prospec­tive increase in the number of books are those connected withtheir convenient and intelligent use rather than those of storageand handling, 'and the former difficulties increase faster than thebooks themselves, while the latter hardly increase as fast.\ Perhaps the most important problem in the organization ofthe university library is the relation of the main library to thedepartmental libraries. At one time it might have been statedas the problem of main library or departmental libraries, but theneed of each is no 'longer in debate .. The problem is not peculiarto university libraries, as it might seem to be, for it is 'essentiallythe same as that of main library and branches in a large city.The same forces govern; distance as a centrifugal and expense asa centripetal. The same variety has existed in ·the past; theindependent departmental libraries of the Massachusetts Instituteof Technology of two decades ago contrasting hardly more stronglywith the extreme centralization of Harvard College Library ofthe eighties than did the Boston Public Library. of the samedate with branches which were independent libraries in almost' allrespects, . with the extrem� centralization of the Chicago PublicLibrary Up' to a very recent date. The tendency toward a. commontype is as evident in one as in the other; the departmental libra­ries of the Institute are now' under central control and a centrallibrary has been established, while Harvard has 'established depart­mental and classroom libraries and special reading rooms; on theother hand the· changes in the Chicago Public Library are knownto all of you, and the centralizing tendency of the Boston PublicLibrary system, though not so noticeable, has had numerous andimportant manifestations.Experience, therefore, appears to indicate that the best solutionof this problem lies, as is almost always the case, somewhere betweenthe two extremes. As has been said, the determining factors aredistance and expense. The greater the distance between 'the build-THE LIBRARY AND THE UNIVERSITY 243ings of the university the greater will be the convenience of largedepartmental libraries;. but the larger the libraries the greater willbe the expense of their effective maintenance. Stated concretely,volunteer assistance at odd moments will take sufficient care of alibrary of say one thousand volumes with only the simplestrecords; a library of two thousand volumes on a single subjectwill require at least an author catalogue and some regular assist­ance; while one of ten thousand volumes will require for itsproper supervision and management full catalogues, shelf-lists,.etc., and at least two paid .. assistants. The weight to be given tothese two factors of distance and expense will vary very greatlyin different cases. In some cases the distance is so .great as todemand segregation, or at least duplication, at' whatever cost. Onthe other hand" there is much to be said against the view that thedepartmental libraries' should be as large as the funds of the insti­tution will permit. Unless the university is in the unusual, if notunprecedented, position of having more money than it knows whatto do with, the funds available for the library purposes should bespent in making both central and departmental library approach asclosely as possible to the maximum efficiency of the system as awhole. I believe that this maximum efficiency does not require agreat development of the "departmental library where the centrallibrary is within fairly easy reach. This belief is -due to a con­sideration of the, different uses made of the collections.If the use of books .on a givent subject were confined to thespecial students of that subject, and to those among them whocould use them to the best advantage with only incidental assist­ance, the departmental libraries might well .be increased to amaximum. These conditions, however, do not exist.In the first place, only a small proportion of the students andnot all the teachers are able to use to the best advantage even thebooks on their special subject. The failure of our college coursesto provide bibliographical training is a commonplace in the dis­cussions of college librarians, and the results of this lack of train­ing are felt by all public libraries which include many collegeeducated men among their readers.In the second place, he is a very limited specialist who neverhas occasion to go outside his field. Even Dr. Holmes's scarabeeistmust have had occasion to study Egyptian archaeology and per­haps Egyptian agriculture as well. N ow, outside his own field244 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe most learned specialist is' dependent on the bibliographicallabors of others and is better served through the resources of acentral library than by his unaided search through an unfamiliardepartmental collection.In the third place, a large proportion of the books themselvescannot be distributed' to the satisfaction of all the departments .naturally interested in them. Only textbooks are written withregard. to the limitations of college courses, and the multiplicityof these textbooks is one indication of the variety of the courses.Moreover this proportion, already large, is increasing very fastwith the multiplying mutual relations of the sciences among them­selves, of the sciences and the useful arts, and of the broadeningscope, of the social sciences.The increasing number of books in a modern library of neces­sity has produced and will continue to produce an increasingcomplexity in the details of their treatment. To the layman itseems a very simple matter to buy a book, list it, and put it on theshelves; and yet in a large library between thirty and fortyseparate steps are required. Many of these are purely clerical buteven these require great care 'and attention and the more care thelarger the library. To revert to our simile, while these detailsare plumbing work rather than hydraulic engineering, yet it is evi­dent that the greater the head of water in the system, the moreimportant is the' avoidance of leaky joints.At least three of these steps, however, require much more thanclerical expertness or a general education. These are the selec­tion, the classification, and the cataloguing. The selection of thebooks to be' acquired is the first, and without, question the mostimportant, process in the management of any library and is theone most nearly independent of the size of the library, if indeedit is not inversely proportional to its size or rather to the size ofthe book funds. In the large public libraries it is usually leftalmost wholly to the judgment of the librarian, with only generaldirections as to 'scope and purpose and .an occasional query,usually prompted by' outside criticism, as to the inclusion or exclu­sion of a particular work. In college and university libraries, ontheother hand, the selection is usually made largely by therepre­sentatives of the departments. Where the books are purchasedfrom funds allotted to ,the departments, this would be a matterof course. Even where no such allotment is made' it is evidentTHE LIBRARY AND THE UNIVERSITY' 245that the departments will know more accurately, than anyoneoutside them their present and probable future needs.There is, nevertheless, another side to the question. It some­times happens that the selection of books for a department is putin the hands of one who is unfitted by temperament, or unablethrough press of other work, to 'make the selection as it shouldbe made. The result is an insufficient development of the libraryalong the lines of interest to that department, a fault not readilyperceived at the time, nor easily remedied afterward. Again, andmore frequently, it happens, that a new development of the teach­ing of the university finds the library bare of themost needed booksin that line simply becaustthere has been no department to orderthem. Still again there is a lar.ge class of works, such as theproceedings of the learned societies, which are too general 'foranyone department to purchase from its own funds but whichcontain matter of value to many departments, This class islikely to be very poorly represented in a library managed underthe extreme departmental system. In proof of this statement itmay be said that an American public library has a better collectionof such works than most of the university libraries of the countryor than many of those of Germany, and that this collection wasformed without undue or disproportionate expenditure,The system of selection should be, therefore, like that of organi­zation, a composite one. The larger part should be made by thedepartments, but this should be revised and supplemented by thelibrarian, or a library committee, in order that the developmentmay he reasonably symmetrical and, that futu;e needs may receivedue consideration.Probably no ,other questions of library economy are so muchdebated by library workers' and' so little by readers as the ques­tions of cataloguing. This 'is because the principles, which aloneinterest the latter, are taken for granted or as definitely settled,while the variety of cases for their application by the former isalmost infinite. For instance, the arrangement of the author cata­logue is assumed to be alphabetical and "as plain as ABC" is thepopular expression of simplicity and dearness. But to the cata­loguer of a large library, particularly if it contains many works inforeign languages, "as, plain as ABC" is equivalent to "as clearas mud." The present code of the American Library Associationrequires no fewer than one hundred and eleven rules to determine246 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEwhat is the author's name and how it shall be entered. Thiscomplexity :'promis�s to be 'further complicated by a perhaps unfore-'seen result of the new method of teaching children to read, namely,an uncertain knowledge of the accepted order of the letters of thealphabet. This result is perhaps not as yet very evident in this,part of the country, but the reference librarian of an easternuniversity has stated publicly that Freshmen not infrequentlyenter the library who are ignorant of this order and who consulta dictionary or the library catalogue by turning the leaves or open­ing the trays until they come to the combination for which theyare looking. Moreover he was followed by a school superintendentwho, while praising the new method, and claiming that .it didteach the alphabet, admitted that this was 'last and least and thatit was sometimes neglected. If such results are to be expectedgenerally it is evident that either a substitute will have to be foundfor the alphabetical arrangement or that the colleges will have tomake the teaching of the alphabet their first course in bibliography.A more immediate question, however, is that of the arrangementof the subject entries. The battle between the advocates of aclassed arrangement and those of an alphabetical one has beenwaged furiously in the past and still continues, with' occasionalinterruptions from the bystanders; some of whom, like the libra­rian of . Amherst, deny the need of either; and others, like thepresent speaker', advocate the combination 9.£ both.The position that no subject catalogue is needed is based uponthe argument that bibliographies, especially in the form of currentindexes, have now been . made so complete that they will serve thepurpose. No one 'who knows the facts can fail to' appreciate allthat Mr. Fletcher has done to make this view tenable, for to himwe, owe the continuance and expansion of the work of our ··owngreat librarian, Dr. Poole; and this work has been largely supple­mented by other valuable general tools, to say nothing of the manyspecial bibliographies which are now available. On the other hand,the librarian of Harvard in his latest report has so well stated thereasons against this view that I shall only refer to this reportas a sufficient authority for the subj ect catalogue.Assuming then that.there is to be such a catalogue, there is goodreason for hesitating long before deciding between a classed and analphabetical arrangement. For some subjects the former is clearlythe better and for others the latter as clearly. For some nationsTHE LIBRARY AND THE UNIVERSITY 247the former is clearly the more in accordance with the prevailingmode of thought; fot others it may be that the latter is. Person­ally" I hold that a combination can 'be found which .will give all oralmost all the advantages of both forms. This does not mean oneand the same combination for all libraries. On ·the contrary, thebest combination for one library might. and probably would varyconsiderably from the best for another.Nor is this a purely theoretical view. The John Crerar Library,through the combined thought and experience of.' the heads of itsstaff, has evolved such a catalogue ona veryelaborate and detailedplan. Miss Tyler; .of the Iowa Library Commission, has shownhow the smaller public libraries can obtain such. a combinationvery simply and economically. . Harvard, starting with an elabo­rate alphabetico-c1assed catalogue is breaking up those portionswhich have proved unwieldy or inconvenient in that form; theLibrary of Congress, starting with what was intended to be astraight dictionary catalogue, is adding more and 'more' alpha­betical classification.It should be remembered that the possibilities of the card cata­logue have been greatly increased by two developments of recentyears;' one, the substitution of the handy tray for the cumber­some drawer, and the other the possibility of obtaining printedcards from the Library of Congress and elsewhere. At presentalmost all the cards wanted by the average public library can be'so obtained and there is every prospect that in the near futuremost of those wanted ljy university and general reference libra­ries will be available. The main advantage of such cards is, ofcourse, the economy in cataloguing, but among the incidentaladvantages such as greater legibility, fuller information, etc., thereis one of importance in this connection, namely, the ability tomake as many additional entries as are desired, at a minimumexpense. The number which will be needed is, however, smaller thanmight be expected. The smallest possible average number of en­tries in the subject catalogue is of course greater than one for eachtitle, while in the very full catalogue of the John Crerar Libraryit .is not more than three. The difference in cost for extra cardsis about -one cent out of a total expenditure of from fifty toseventy-five cents in preparing the book for the shelves. The cost ofthe timerequired to handle these extra cards may be neglected, sinceit is nearly, if not quite, balanced by the actual saving in the work248 ,THE UNIVERSITY Of. CHICAGO MAGAZINEof classification, 'It is much 'easier to determine in how manyplaces an entry is wanted than in which one out of several it ismost needed, These .conditions, therefore, warrant the planningof elaborate catalogues.'The question of classification should be determined with refer­ence to the catalogue, and also with reference to the policy ofthe library in regard to allowing access to the shelves. Y et itis a question most likely to be argued upon ·purely theoreticalgrounds. This is because of a prevailing misconception of itsfunctions. The general assumption is that it should be a scien­tific classification of knowledge, in complete agreement with theprevailing views, and should enable readers to' go to the shelveswith absolute assurance that they will find in one place all -thematerial on a given subject, and that they will find that place with­out guides or catalogues, Yet a little consideration will show thatthis assumption is so impossible of realization, because of neces­sary contradictions, that it cannot even be called an ideal. In thefirst place a library classification is not of knowledge, but of books;of books of all ages as well as of the present; of books written byopponents as well as by supporters of prevailing theories of themutual relations of the subjects, and more often by those whoignore, whether intentionally or not, these theories. Again, on manypoints there are conflicting rather than prevailing theories: for in­stance, in the first draft of the classification of the InternationalCatalogue of Scientific Literature} the zoologists proposed to dividelocal fauna so minutely as to give each county of England a separateplace, while the botanists were satisfied for local flora with ninedivisions for the whole globe, and again the zoologists and. paleon­tologists began with men and ended with protozoa, while in thefinal draft the order was reversed, and, unless I am mistaken, atone time one advocated one order and the other the other. A thirddifficulty is that of putting one book in two places. Yet it is evi­dent that the same books may be sought by more than one classof readers for whom the logical positions wiII be very different.For instance, the question of the regulation of railway ratesinterests the railroad manager, the shipper, the political economist,the lawyer, and the statesman, Books on the subject have beenwritten from the point of view of each of these classes, and are,therefore, related to the literature of as many larger divisions.If all these are brought together a large proportion will be out ofTHE LIBRARY AND THE- UNIVERSITY 249their logical places. Books which deal with particular subjectsin respect to particular countries furnish an equally convincingillustration. It is evident that no classification can put all the bookson the subject together and also all books on the country, exceptby otherwise unnecessary duplication .. Though the prevailing lay view of library classification isuntenable, it does not follow that there is noIdeal which can beapproached in practice .. This may be stated as the assignment ofthe books to a convenient number of pigeonholes in a convenientorder with a convenient notation, and the provision of so fullindexes that a reader may b� referred at once to all the pigeon­holes which are likely to interest him .. It will be seen that there is nothing absolute about this ideal.There are .cases where the convenient number of pigeonholes maybe one, that is where there need be no primary classification, buta simple arrangement by serial number or author. If there is tobe no access to the shelves or if the library is small, the numberwill be much smaller than if access is allowed or if the cataloguesare insufficient. The convenient order will also vary greatly withthe circumstances. In a private or a little-used memorial collectionthe order of excellence of appearance may be thought desirable; ina library where no access is allowed or the delivery desk use isthe chief function, probably the order of popularity will seembest; in a library for scholars some systematic order by subjectswill be preferred. 'In special cases, arrangement by size or evenby donor may be necessary.There 'is a very general agreement that the most convenientnotation is a combination of letters and numbers, and all but afew libraries try to make their combinations as simple as possible,and prefer numbers to letters.Of the many schemes of library classifications used or proposedthe Decimal Classification seems to me best in theory and mostavailable in practice. It has the simplest notation, a fairly logicalarrangement which is capable of easy expansion to any extentdesired, perhaps the greatest elasticity in application, and, notleast, the widest use. While it has many defects and shortcom­ings, they are not so serious as to make it easy to replace or recastthe' scheme advantageously. Witness the attempt of the RoyalSociety and I might add, "Experto crede."The last subject to which your attention will be called is the.,250 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEremarkable development within the last quarter-century of therelations of the university library outside the institution. Thisdevelopment is, still going on; indeed some important features areeven now in' the first stages of discussion and experiment.The, relations referred to are along two distinct and yet inter­Woven lines of work: the service of readers not' belonging to theuniversity and co-operation with other libraries. The first com­prises not only the service of the' university library as a substitutefor or supplement to the. public library of the place but also' itsservice to visiting scholars and by means of inter-library loansto . scholars at a distance. The second includes the variousco-operative cataloguing 'schemes such as the great collectivecatalogue of the Prussian libraries, the similar .reference ·catalogues,patterned on that at Washington, now being formed at Harvard,Yale, Columbia, and other centers of study, the co-operative analy­sis of serials by three university and two public libraries, the Jointlists of serials, of incunabula, etc., and the very 'recent offer of theLibrary of Congress to extend its" printing of catalogue cards toinclude' desirable titles received from other libraries. It includes,moreover, the benefits derived from the discussions and consulta­tions of the librarians attheir state and national meetings. It needsonly a glance at the Proceedinqs of the American Library Associa­tion to see how much attention has been given not only to thoseproblems of library economy which are common to all libraries but,especially through the work of the sections and committees, to'those which are peculiar to special classes of libraries. The Col­lege and' Reference 'Section. was one of the first to be establishedand has been one of. the most active. Through it the problems Ihave reviewed are being solved with regard to present conditions,As these conditions change, new solutions must be found and newproblems will arise, but through this co-operation the desired resultswill be obtained most completely an� most quickly.I hope, ladies and gentlemen, that this review of the problemsof a university library may have seemed to you to justify my beliefthat the function of the university library, though subordinate, isan important one. It is true that it does not either teach or study,but it does render 'most necessary assistance in the carrying-out ofthese purposes of the institution, and any failure to render thisassistance as promptly and as efficiently as possible is an unneces­sary hindrance to the best work of the, university.Philosophy History Law Harper Memorial Library Divinity Modern Languages ClassicsNORTH FRONT OF LIBRARY BUILDINGS(from model)Classics Modern Languages Harper Memorial Library History PhilosophySOUTH FRONT OF LIBRARY BUILDINGS(from sketch)MEMORIAL TO PRESIDENT HARPERWe may hope confidently that the library whose corner stonehas been laid today will perform this service as it should be per­formed. If there is any compelling force in names and traditionssurely the Harper Library A the University of Chicago must be awell-planned, well-administered, and progressive institution whichwill meet, in the largest degree possible, the demands made upon it.THE LIBRARY BUILDING AS A MEMORIALTO PRESIDENT HARPERBY ERNEST DE WITT BURTONHead of the Department of Biblical and Patristic GreekHIS building, of which we today lay the corner stone, is erectedas a memorial to the first president of the University, Wil­liam Rainey Harper. By its erection the University is providedwith a long-desired instrument of education, and long-cherishedhopes find their realization. Yet to many gathered here this occa­sion has its chief significance not in these things, but in thefact that the building of which we lay the corner stone todayis a memorial to President Harper. It is eminently fitting thatthere should stand on this quadrangle for all time a buildingbearing his name. Under the name of the University of Chicagowe print on all official documents and papers the words "Foundedby John D. Rockefeller." And this is appropriate, for the wordsare the record of a fact worthy to be thus permanently asso­ciated with the name of the University. But we who have par­ticipated in the history of the University from its foundationare wont to think of President Harper also as not less truly thefounder of the University. As our great benefactor devotedto the creation of the new university in the West the accumu­lated result of years of toil and of a genius for the organi­zation of industry, so our first President invested in the Universityhis not less remarkable capacity for unremitting labor and foradministrative achievement in the field of education. It is suitable,therefore, that upon this quadrangle, which, under the guidinghand of President Harper, was converted from a strip of swampand prairie into the thing of beauty and of power that it is today,there shall stand one building so peculiarly associated with hisname that "through decades and through centuries'? that nameshall be daily on the lips of faculty and students, and each suc­ceeding generation asking, What mean these stones and this inscrip-252 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZJNEtion? shall be taught to remember William Rainey Harper asthe first president, and jointly with the University's greatest bene­factor, the founder of the University.When we ask ourselves what building would be most fittingthus to constitute a memorial to President Harper, four at leastsuggest themselves to our minds.A building devoted to the study of the oriental languages andliteratures might appropriately have been called the HarperMemorial Building. For it was in the field of these languages andliteratures that he made his reputation as a scholar, and exercisedspecially his remarkable powers as a teacher.The University Chapel might properly have been known as theHarper Memorial Chapel. For his studies in the oriental languagesand literatures were for him not an end in themselves, but ameans to the higher end, that in our modern life the religion andmorality which are enshrined in the sacred Scriptures of Christi­anity may find their highest possible expression and development.And' amid all the manifold tasks of his office as President, in themidst of his arduous toil as scholar and teacher, nothing was tohim matter of deeper concern than the healthful development ofthe religious life of the University community. We hope thatbefore many years pass there shall rise upon this quadrangle astately cathedral, devoted exclusively to the services of religion andby its dignity and beauty symbolizing the University's recognitionof the supreme place of religion in life. And this building, what­ever name it bears, will be the fulfilment of one of the dearesthopes of our first president.A building devoted to the administrative offices of the Uni­versity might not inappropriately be erected as a memorial toPresident Harper. For by giving it such title we should suitablyrecognize the extraordinary ability as organizer and administratorwhich President Harper displayed in the founding of the University.But it is also eminently fitting that the building which is toconstitute the center of the library system of the University,which, amid the many libraries of the University, is to be theLibrary Building, should be erected as a memorial to PresidentHarper. He was a man of books. Deeply interested in thedevelopment of the physical and biological sciences, and as anadministrator most careful to see that their interests were notneglected, he was yet himself a student of literature. His labora-Jl!!EMORIAL TO PRESIDENT HARPERtory was a library. He had" moreover, given earnest thought to thesubject of the organization of the University library. Some inthis audience will remember the series of bulletins in which,before a building was erected, or the ground broken on thisquadrangle, President Harper set forth his ideals for the newUniversity. And they will perhaps recall that no part of theplan there set forth was more carefully elaborated than that per­taining to the libraries. When, moreover, after some years itbecame expedient, on the basis of the experience of this andother universities, more definitely to formulate the future policy ofthe University in respect to its libraries, President Harper himselfserved upon the commission which conducted the investigationsnecessary for the formulation of such policy, and gave his heartyassent to the plan of library administration which that commissionformulated. The erection of this building, of which we today laythe corner stone, is the first step in the execution of that plan, thecomplete carrying-out of which will give to the University ofChicago not a central library building only, but a library systemunique among the university libraries of the world.But the building is not only a just honor to one who deserves tobe honored by the University. It is also a tribute of personalaffection from students, alumni, colleagues, trustees of the Uni­versity, and citizens of Chicago. More than two thousand twohundred persons have thus counted it a privilege to pay theirtribute of personal affection and of admiration to him whom mostof them always thought of and still think of as Dr. Harper.One of them indeed gave more than all the rest, a sum withoutwhich this great building would have been impossible. But he alsotherein paid his tribute of personal esteem for his fellow-worker inthe building-up of the University, and, as one of the thousandsof President Harper's friends, joined in the erection of a monu­ment to his memory. It is fitting that it should be so. For ina pre-eminent degree President Harper possessed the genius forfriendship. Hundreds of men in different parts of the land be­lieved themselves to have a peculiar place in his affection; andeach of them was right. He knew men not in masses, but man byman, and gave to each freely of his interest and his regard, andwon in return the loyal affection of thousands of hearts. In asense in which it is true of no other building on the quadrangle,254 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthis of which we lay the corner stone today will be a monumentof personal love and loyal affection.It is therefore a peculiar joy to us who have been his colleaguesto have the assurance that in the erection' of this building the Uni­versity is creating a permanent memorial to him whose name thebuilding bears. His work as founder will �bide. It deserves anabiding memorial. We yield allegiance and give willing honor tohim, who, long President Harper's colleague and fellow-worker, hasbeen called upon to carTY forward the work he began. A longline of able men will fill in succession the presidential office, andthe professor's chair. But none of them will do, and none of themwill undo, the work which President Harper accomplished. Tohim was given the unique opportunity of laying the foundations onwhich those who succeed him will build. Changes will come-wedonot wish that it should be otherwise-but no changes will destroythe foundations which he laid broad and deep. It has thereforebeen -the desire and intention of the Board of Trustees, of thearchitect, and of those who have been asssociated with them inthe planning of this building, that by its solidity, its beauty, itsfitness to meet the present needs of the University, and its capacityfor adaptation to the changing needs of the future, it should beinsured against the necessity of displacement or of radical modifica­tion, and should remain through the centuries to perpetuate thememory of President Harper, and keep his name on the lips of suc­ceeding generations. Its foundations go down through the unstablesand to rest upon the solid strata underneath; its towers, compactedof steel and stone, will rise, not tall and slender, swaying in thebreeze, but strong and massive. Strength and solidity are the key­notes of the building. When the buildings already designed tostand on the east and west of the Harper Memorial Building shallhave been erected, they will not mar, but only complete, the planof which the present building is the central and dominating ele­ment. .It is indeed impossible for men of the present generationto' foresee all of the future needs and demands of the library ofour University. It will undoubtedly grow far beyond the fore­casts of -today. We nevertheless cherish the hope that the needsof the future have been so far anticipated that however' great\may be the, future extension of the library system of the Uni­versity, it, will never be necessary structurally to modify theARTICLES DEPOSITED IN CORNER STONE 255present building. For we would have it a fitting memorial to oneof whom it was characteristic that he wrought not for the hour,nor for his own lifetime, but, seeking to meet the needs of thepresent, built also for the distant future.May this corner stone never be removed. May this buildingperpetually serve the needs of the University, and perpetually com­memorate the services of its first president, William Rainey Harper.ARTICLES DEPOSITED IN THE CORNERSTONE OF THE HARPER MEMO ...RIAL LIBRARYTHE list of articles deposited in the corner stone of the WilliamRainey Harper Memorial Library on June 14, 1910, includesthe following:Copy of letter from William Rainey Harper accepting the presidency ofthe University of Chicago.Books published by President Harper:Elements of Hebrew (1886); Introductory Hebrew Method and Manual(1886); Elements of Hebrew Synta,x (1888) ; Hebrew Vocabularies(1890); Religion and the Higher Life (19°4); The Trend in HigherEducation (1905); The Priestly Element in the Old Testament (I905);The Prophetic Element in the Old Testament (I905); A Critical andExegetical Commentary on Amos and Hosea (1905).President Harper's last Annual Report.President Harper's last Quarterly Report.President Harper's letter giving directions as to his funeral.President Harper's last letter to the Board of Trustees.Biographical data and photograph of President Harper.Documents showing President Harper's work for the American Institute ofSacred Literature.Statement of the University Board of Trustees adopted 011 the President'sdeath.Statement of the Board of Trustees of Rush Medical College adopted onthe President's death.Action of the University Board of Trustees on the Memorial to PresidentHarper.Old Testament and Semitic Studies in Memory of William Rainey Harper.Two volumes.Memorial Sonnet to William Rainey Harper, by Horace Spencer Fiske.Memorial number of the University Record) March, 1906.Memorial number of the Biblical World) March, 1906, and of the Journalof Theology, April, 1906.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMemorial number of the American Journal of S emitic Languages and Litera­tures, April, 1906.Memorial number of the Standard, January, 1906.Articles of Incorporation of the University and By-Laws of the Board ofTrustees.The University Reqisiers of 1892-93 and 1908-9.The Announcements for the Summer Quarter, 1910.List of subscribers to the Harper Memorial Library.The Daily Maroon. 'The University of Chicago Magazine.The Chicago daily papers.Programs of this, the Seventy-fifth, Convocation.Program of the exercises of laying the corner stone of the Harper MemorialLibrary.UNVEILING OF THE ALICE FREEMANPALMER MEMORIAL TABLETIADDRESS BY MARION TALBOT, A.M., LL.D.Dean of WomenTwo years ago the members and friends of the University metto receive the bells given in memory of Alice Freeman Palmerand to hear the wonderful story of her life and influence, Tonightwe assemble for a few minutes to take note of the completion ofthe memorial gift in metal. As her colleague and the one in ourcommunity who knew her longest, it falls to me to remind youbriefly of the remarkable personality memorialized by this gift.She came to the University at its "opening with her native qualitiesof sympathy and insight: enriched and strengthened by her yearsof experience as president of Wellesley College, member of the StateBoard of Education of Massachusetts, president of the Association ofCollegiate Alumnae, and honored counselor in numerous groups ofmen and women working for the good of mankind. From I892for three years she was in residence twelve weeks of each year,giving at the time of each visit new inspiration to all who wereworking and studying here, teachers and students alike, and con­tributing largely toward the establishment of high and worthyideals of attainment, conduct, and character.The placing of the memorial in this tower is typical of herinfluence. Where the men and women of the University pass toand fro for concerns both grave and gay, here will future genera­tions be reminded of her charm and her dignity, and when the bellspeal forth from the height above all who hear will feel an inspira­tion to be their best and worthiest selves. Our thoughts are turn­ing to the great president who laid the foundations of the Univer­sity deep and strong. William Rainey Harper found in AliceFreeman' Palmer courage and resourcefulness which were invalu­able in those critical days. It is right that those who enjoy the fruitof the seed then sown should from time to time be reminded of, 1 The Memorial Tablet is placed on the east wall of the corridor leading toMitchell Tower. The address was delivered on the evening of June 13, 1910.258 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe lavish outpouring of human life and gifts which characterizedthe founding of the University.On the bells above our heads are graven these inscriptions:A GRACIOUS WOMAN RETAINING HONOREASY TO BE ENTREATEDALWAYS REJOICINGMAKING THE LAME TO WALK AND THE BLIND TO SEEGREAT IN COUNSEL AND MIGHTY IN WORKROOTED AND GROUNDED IN LOVEFERVENT IN SPIRITGIVEN TO HOSPITALITYTHE SWEETNESS OF HER LIPS INCREASING LEARNINGIN GOD}S LAW MEDITATING DAY AND NIGHTThis tablet is specially adapted by the sculptor, Mr. DanielChester French, from the memorial recently placed at WellesleyCollege. It bears these words:JOYFULLY TO RECALLALICE FREEMAN PALMERDEAN OF WOMEN IN THIS UNIVERSITY, I892-I895THESE BELLS MAKE MUSICHOWARD TAYLOR RICKETTSIBY LUDVIG HEKTOENHead of the Department of Pathology and BacteriologyORe RICKETTS came to the University in 1902 to join thenewly founded Department of Pathology and Bacteriology.He had just returned from a year's visit to European labora­tories. Previously he was fellow in cutaneous pathology in RushMedical College for two years, taking up that work at the end ofhis service as interne in the Cook County Hospital. His medicalcourse he took at the Northwestern University Medical School,where he graduated in 1897.He was a modest and unassuming man, of great determinationand of the highest character, loyal and generous, earnest and genu­ine in all his doings-a personality of unusual and winning charm.His associates of the, hospital and !fellowship days who knew himwell, knew his ability and energy, his distinct fondness for the day'swork, all looked to him for the more than ordinary achievement.He deliberately turned away from the allurements of activemedical practice and decided to devote himself to teaching andinvestigation in pathology. He had early become possessed of nobleideals and had a pure love for the search after truth in his chosenfield, which abided with him and gave him a high conception of allhis duties and relations and placed a special stamp on his work.His instinct for research at no time was permitted to lie dormantand unused, but growing stronger it carried him on farther andfarther, and in due time the University freely and in special wayspromoted the work in which he was to accomplish such largeresults. The torch was placed within the grasp of hands fit to carryit forward, and during the few short years given him he advancedit farther than we may realize at this moment, because he brokeopen paths for future progress.His earlier researches are all marked by rare insight, directness,and accuracy, by clear and forceful reasoning; it is in his brilliantwork on Rocky Mountain fever, however, that Dr. Ricketts fully re­veals himself as investigator of the first rank. He took up the study1 An address delivered at a memorial service in the Leon Mandel AssemblyHall, May IS, 1910.259260 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof this fever in the spring of I906 as a sort of pastime during anenforced holiday on account of overwork.' The disease is a remark­able one; it occurs in well-defined areas in the Mountains, is sharplylimited to the spring months, varies greatly in severity, the mor­tality in one place being about 5, in another between 80 and 90,per cent. For some time it had been regarded as caused in someway by the bite 0'£ a tick. Dr. Ricketts promptly found that thedisease is communicable to lower animals and that a certain tick,which occurs naturally on a large number of animals in those regions,by its bite can transmit the disease from the sick to the healthyanimal.These observations opened a new field, and henceforth hedevoted himself untiringly to the investigation of the many prob­lems that arose one after another as the work went on, both inthelaboratory here and in the field. As we follow the various stagesin the progress of this intensely active work it becomes very clearthat Dr. Ricketts not only was gifted with imaginative power sothat he could see and trace the various lines along which the solu­tion of a problem might be sought, but that he also possessed in afull measure the capacity for that hard, accurate, patient worknecessary for the more difficult task of finding the one, true solution.This combination of speculative ability and the power to do steadytoil and even drudgery often under great difficulties made him agreat investigator and brought him success.Some of the experiments devised to lay bare the secrets of thedifferent orders of living things concerned in spotted fever aremasterful in their ingenuity and comprehensiveness, notably thosebearing on the hereditary transmission of spotted fever virus .. inticks, on the occurrence of infected ticks in nature, and on the partplayed by small wild animals like the squirrel as source for thevirus.Having solved many hard questions he caine to the conclusionthat in man spotted fever depends simply on the accidental' bite byan adult tick carrying active virus. As only adult ticks find theirway to man and as they occur only in the spring, the peculiarseasonal prevalence of the disease is nicely explained. It is almostunnecessary to point out that the work furnishes clear and directindications as to what to do in order to prevent the disease. Finally,last year, he discovered the immediate cause of spotted fever, namelya small bacillus, which he found in the- blood of patients and inHOWARD TAYLOR RICKETTS 26rticks and their eggs. Strains of this bacillus present in ticks fromdifferent places vary greatly in morbific power or virulence, andthis fact may explain why spotted fever varies so greatly inseverity.Many of the observations and discoveries in connection withthis work have a much wider significance, and will surely prove ofvalue and service on the ever-shifting battleground with infectiousdiseases.Rocky Mountain spotted fever in many ways resembles typhusfever. As he was' completing his three years' study of the RockyMountain disease, having determined its mode of transmission, itscause, and a rational method for its prevention, Dr. Ricketts becamemore and more strongly impressed with the thought which he hadhad for some time that the special knowledge and training thusacquired would prove of great value in the study of typhus feverand thereby perhaps be put to the best use. This idea met withencouragement, and in July of last year it was definitely decidedto take up the study of typhus fever in the City of Mexico, thatbeing the nearest place, so far as known, where any such work couldbe done. I speak of this date because I wish to make it �lear thatDr. Ricketts reached his decision before and entirely independentlyof the establishment by the Mexican government of certain prizesfor successful investigation of the typhus fever of Mexico( Tabardillo) .Typhus fever (also known as ship fever, camp fever, jail fever,hospital fever) has been one of the great epidemic diseases of theworld. Its devastations are recorded on the dark pages of history,the pages that tell; of war, overcrowding, want, and misery. Untilthe middle of the last century it prevailed in practically all largeEuropean cities; now it has largely disappeared, owing, it is believed,to better sanitary conditions; but it is still smoldering in manycenters, and in some places, as in Mexico, typhus in one of itsforms now claims hundreds of victims each year. When it assumesits most virulent forms typhus fever may become one of the mostcontagious of diseases, and there is no disease that has claimed S9many victims among physicians and nurses. It is stated that in aperiod of twenty-five years, of I,230 physicians attached to institu­tions in Ireland 550 succumbed to typhus. Of the six Americanscientists who have studied the typhus fever of Mexico sinceDecember last three have been stricken and two have died-Conneff262 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof the Ohio State University expedition and our Ricketts. It iswhen the sick are aggregated in hospital wards that the danger ofinfection is especially great. Until very recently nothing was knownas to the cause of typhus fever and the exact mode of its trans­mission.Fully acquainted as a matter of course with all the character­istics of the disease, Dr. Ricketts and his volunteer assistant, Mr.Russell Wilder, began their work 'in December last. Before manyweeks had passed results of great importance were secured; it wasfound that typhus is different from the Rocky Mountain fever,although they have many points in common; that the Mexicantyphus is communicable to the monkey; and that it may be trans­mitted by an insect (Pediculus vestamenti). Some of these resultsare confirmatory of very recent results obtained by others, but onApril 23 they were able to announce the new discovery of a micro­organism, a bacillus, in the blood of typhus patients and in theinsect. There is good reason to believe that this bacillus is theactual cause of typhus fever.While courageously and devotedly pushing this and other workon to completion Dr. Ricketts was stricken with typhus, and the un­finished investigations of such fundamental importance must betaken up by others. Thus a young and noble career of greatachievement and of large service to humanity came to a sudden andheroic end, and a new name was placed on the martyr roll ofscience.Those near to him know that he fully understood the dangersto which he would be exposed and the risks he would run. Hedecided he would take those risks, meet the dangers with all pos­sible means of prevention, and do the work that would come to hishands. And so he made the great sacrifice and gave all that a mancan give for his fellow-men.REMINISCENCES OF THE OLD UNI­VERSITY OF CHICAGOIN WAR-TIMExBY CHARLES LINNAEUS HOSTETTER, S.B., '65FROM the pages of an old diary come these reminiscences ofthe first University of ChicagO--memories of days whenhigher education in the Middle West was still in its pioneer stages.Members o-f these earliest classes still recall with avidity the goodtimes of college years, none the less important in their lives becausethey were passed without the present array of well-equipped labora­tories, commodious and well-ventilated classrooms, and groups ofdormitories affording every luxury of city life. As we look backinto the sixties we remember, perhaps better than anything else,that these were stirring times, resounding with the preparation ofregiments for war, the clamor of great public meetings, and theechoes of deadly combat on the firing line.The war for the preservation of the Union was in progress.Within sight of the University, on the north side of the campus,was a constant reminder of the country's peril. A high boardfence extended along the north line of the campus, near the topof which was an elevated walk where the soldiers with loadedmuskets marched back and forth, guarding the Confederate pris­oners of war within Camp Douglas.The class of '65 was patriotic and ready to serve its country.When President Lincoln called for an army of roo-day volunteersto aid in the final struggle against the South, members of that classwith other students from the University responded to the call.This was in May. The school record still bears the formal noticeof this action-"excused for the remainder of the term." In thismanner we spent our summer vacation. When our time of enlist­ment expired the country still had need of our regiment and wewere sent to St. Louis for picket duty to prevent Price's raid onthat city. When we returned to school, the large. bounty-a small1 Some 'of these reminiscences were presented by Mr. Hostetter in his talk atthe annual reunion of the College Alumni Association in the Reynolds Clubon June I4.264 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEfortune in the eyes of the college boys in those days-was not suf­ficent inducement to keep us in the service, for we were anxiousto graduate. This we did, and it was said, with honors, but howmuch we knew was another question.Many of the items in the old diary are interesting because theyafford a comparison with the present life of the undergraduate.What comment would the Junior of 1910 make on the pictureof college life told about in the following extract?January rzth, 1864.-This winter we had wood stoves in our rooms andhad to buy, saw, and 'carry up our wood. The wood-shed was our gym­nasium and all made good use of the old saw-buck. During this winterthe thermometer was frequently 10 and 12 degrees below zero, and notun frequently some poor fellow would run out of wood and could neitherbuy or borrow; his neighbors would take him in and double up in theirlittle cots.All boarded in the Commons. This is a sample of the bill offare: "Supper of bread and butter and old bread toasted andsoaked and one doughnut each." For breakfast we had: "Hashand boiled potatoes, bread and butter." If nat elaborate, neitherwere the bills exorbitant. Here is a sample of one:Bills to be paid at 87 Washington Street.Feby. 22, 1864.Mr.--To the University of Chicago Dr.Tuition Winter Term 4 April, '64 $ 8.10Room rent for same time 2·45Board, 19 Feb'y to April; 6 1-2 Weeks at $2 13.00W ashing 42 pieces at 40 cts. per doz. 1·40Received payment,M. G. CLARKE, per J. N. CLARKE.Later when gald had advanced to 30 per cent premium, and theprice of nearly everything had gane up accordingly, board wasadvanced to three dollars per week.The class of '65 heard same distinguished lecturers that winter,among others, J ahn B. Gough, who spoke on temperance, and thegreat naturalist, Professor Agassiz, on "the four divisions of theanimal kingdom, radiates, mollusks, articulates, and vertebrates."On the night of the latter lecture we gat back to' the University justbefore the door was locked. It was a rule that if it was neces­sary to be out late, one must have a note from the president, Dr.J. C. Burroughs, to' the steward to' gain admittance at a late hour,unless you had a friend on the inside who would see that sameTHE OLD UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOlower window was unfastened, after the steward had retired, orwere fortunate enough to be on the ground when ProfessorMathews, afterward author of Getting on in the World, and otherinteresting books, was returning late from visiting a lady friend.The writer was caught in} this predicament late one night, when,in turning a corner of the building, he suddenly came upon the pro­fessor. Affrighted, he did not know whether to run or beg formercy, when the professor, recognizing him, kindly said, "Well,I suppose that you would like to get in. Come, I have a key.", Will not our present undergraduates be interested to know, too,that the theater was tabooed by the authorities of the University?Members of the class of '65 and other students celebrated the ter­centennial anniversary of the birth of Shakspere by attendingthe theater. On their return they had to get into the buildingclandestinely through the lower windows.Members of the Senior class of '65 frequently walked downto the city to the Rush Medical College to take their lessons inchemistry of Dr. M. V. Z. Blainey. It was considered a greattreat to go down to the city after a snowstorm in a street cardrawn by four spirited horses. Ordinarily two slow mules were theonly means of locomotion, and went very little faster than onecould walk. About this time the Seniors donned high silk hats,so that it seemed much more dignified to walk than to ride in oneof the slow street cars. The cost of one of these tall hats wasequivalent to five weeks' board.The great Northwestern Sanitary Fair was held in Chicago toraise money for the Union soldiers at about this time. The geo­logical booth of the fair was in charge of the class of '65" and otherUniversity students. To the women in charge of this fair Presi­dent Lincoln presented the original draft of the EmancipationProclamation. Some years afterward the writer had in .his chargethis historic document, the greater part of which was in the hand­writing of the president.This brings us to some interesting entries in the diary whichwe quote verbatim:Monday, April 3rd, 186S.--At 8: IS o'clock this morning, Richmond fell.So says the telegraph this noon, and the electric fluid is spreading the gladnews throughout the length and breadth of the land. All hearts are filledwith rei oicing, for it is the harbinger of the end of the war. "Richmondis taken 1" resounds throughout the halls of our college. We rush to theroof to raise the old flag, and as it unfolds to the breeze, cheer after cheer266 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEgoes up. Soldiers, citizens and workmen re-echo the shout, "Richmond hasfallen !" Peace and prosperity se�m to smile in the distance and gladdenevery heart.Then came the news of Lee's surrender to General Grant andthe writer raised the flag on the roof of the college, April 10, 1865.A few days later there is the following entry:Saturday morning, April 15th.-Now comes the news that PresidentLincoln has been shot. Few could believe it; so confident had we becomethat the rebellion had been crushed; that war was virtually ended and the·bright dawn of peace was at hand. That such a tale should be told, thatsuch a deed should be done, seemed incredible. But such was the fact, andthe news that he died early in the morning of the same day on which wereceived it could not be doubted. Who did not mourn when the sad intelli­gence came? Like a father and a friend to all, by each one was he mournedand acknowledged to be the best friend of the North and the South. Thespirit of slavery 1nd of its minions is made visible by this outward act.They have wreaked their revenge on an innocent and just man, have evendestroyed their best friend, a man in whom the whole nation had confidence.He had in his mind a plan for the speedy reconstruction of the Union andhad just begun to carry it out. He was perhaps too lenient with the rebels,but then, when we thought that they were our fellow-countrymen we allacquiesced and believed that he was doing the best that could be done underthe circumstances. But God in his Providence has taken him away. In noother case, do I imagine that I can see so clearly the guiding hand of theAlmighty, as in the life of Abraham Lincoln. He seems to have been bornand reared for the part that he has performed in life.His tragic end prostrates the whole nation in grief. The city is drapedin the emblems of mourning. The streets but a few days ago were deco­rated in the gayest holiday attire, with flags and banners everywhere. Buttoday it seems like walking in the grave, as you pass along the pavements,and the banner of the nation, wherever it appears, hangs heavily with adeep, dark border of mourning. Such a transition from joy to sorrow thisnation or any other has never experienced. I was very busy, with others,procuring drapery and placing it on the college. For the first time vyehave hung the arch over the doorway of the main building with the emblemsof mourning.Lincoln's body was brought to Chicago and lay in state in therotunda of the old courthouse, where the class of '65 had theopportunity of looking upon that care-worn countenance.On the triple arch of mourning erected at Park Row, wherethe body was 'taken from the train, were these words, over thecentral arch: "Rest in Peace, Noble Soul, Patriot Heart"; oneither side of the arch: "We honor him dead who honored uswhile living," and "Faithful to Right; a Martyr to Justice.';THE DENVER RECEPTION TO PRESIDENT HARRY PRATT JUDSONFlashlight photograph showing the speakers' table and part of the assemblyTHE DENVER RECEPTION TO PRESI­DENT HARRY PRATT JUDSONBY ELLA R. METSKER, A.B., '06Secretary of the Rocky Mountain Alumni ClubAN event of unusual significance, especially with regard to therelations of alumni bodies of different institutions, was thereception and dinner given for President Harry Pratt Judson onMay 19 by the Rocky Mountain Alumni Club at the Albany Hotel inDenver. ,As a permanent intercollegiate organization is expectedto grow out of the movement started here, the importance of thismeeting cannot be overestimated.Members of the Rocky Mountain Alumni Club were the hostsof the occasion, but the attendance was not limited to graduatesof the University of Chicago, including alumni from all the impor­tant universities and colleges in the United States who now livein Denver. Wardner Williams, president of the Rocky MountainClub, was the toastmaster. The principal address of the eveningby the President of the University came as the last of a series ofnotable talks that will long be remembered.Now that the immediate glow and excitement of this banquethas passed, there still remains the unanimous verdict that it wasnot only a unique function, but more than ordinarily delightful, anda success in every particular. Repeatedly the speeches have beenpronounced varied and brilliant, not a single one becoming bore­some. The guests were highly representative of all colleges, andalso of Denver's leading citizens.On motion of Mr. James M. Brinson, deputy attorney-generalof Colorado, a committee was appointed to arrange for a perma­nent intercollegiate organization in Denver, out of the alumniassociations of all the colleges. It was pointed out that such anorganization might be able to exert strong influences on measuresof public importance in which college people wished to standtogether.The President's address was in his usual pointed and clear-cutstyle. He emphasized three things: the demand for more manualtraining and trades-schools, the need of moral education in thepublic schools, and the highly beneficial work being done in ouragricultural colleges.THE UNIVERSITY RECORDEXERCISES, CONNECTED WITH THE SEVENTY-FIFTH CONVOCATION, On the morning of June 14, 1910, the corner stone of the Wil­liam Rainey Harper Memorial Library was laid, the addresses inconnection with the ceremony being given by President Harry PrattJudson; Mr. Clement Walker Andrews, Librarian of the JohnCrerar Library, Chicago; and Professor Ernest DeWitt Burton,Head of the Department of New Testament Literature and Inter­pretation. The official record of the articles deposited in the cornerstone was read by Dr. Thomas 'W akefield Goodspeed, Secretary ofthe University Board of Trustees. Mrs. William Rainey Harperperformed the ceremony of laying the corner stone. The prayerwas given by Professor Charles Richmond Henderson, UniversityChaplain. The addresses appear elsewhere in full in this numberof the M aqaeine.Immediately after the corner-stone exercises the Seventy-fifthConvocation of the University was held in the Frank DickinsonBartlett Gyinnasiu�, the Convocation orator being President FrankWakeley Gunsaulus, D.D., LL.D., of the Armour Institute ofTechnology, who spoke on the. subject of "A Great Library."The Convocation Reception W4S held in the corridor leadingfrom Hutchinson Hall to the Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, andwas one of the largest in the history of the University. In thereceiving line were President and Mrs. Harry Pratt Judson; Mrs.William Rainey Harper; the Acting President of the UniversityBoard of Trustees, Mr. A. C. Bartlett, and Mrs. Bartlett; and theDean of W omen, Professor Marion Talbot, Immediately preced­ing the reception Dean Talbot gave the address at the unveiling ofthe Alice Freeman Palmer Memorial Tablet. The address isprinted: elsewhere in this number.DEGREES CONFERRED AT THE SEVENTY-FIFTH CONVOCATIONAt the Seventy-fifth Convocation of the University, held in theFrank Dickinson Bartlett Gymnasium on June 14, 1:910, twenty­seven students were elected to Sigma Xi for evidence of ability inresearch work in science; and fourteen students were elected to268FRANK WAKELEY GUNSAULUSPRESIDENT OF THE ARMOUR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYConvocation Orator, June 14" 1910THE UNIVERSITY RECORDmembership in the Beta of Illinois � Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa forespecial distinction in general scholarship in the University.One hundred and twenty-four students received the title ofAssociate; twenty-two, the two years' certificate of the College ofEducation; twenty-six, the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and one,the re-enacted degree of Bachelor of Arts; one hundred and five,the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy; and forty-three, the degreeof Bachelor of Science.In the Divinity School four students received the certificat.e ofthe Dana-Norwegian Theological Seminary, and nine that of theSwedish Theological Seminary; two students received the degreeof Bachelor of Divinity, and six that of Master of Arts.In the Law SGh091 four students received the degree of Bache­lor of Laws, and thirty-one that of Doctor of Law (rD.).In the Graduate Schools of Arts, Literature, and Science four­teen students were given the degree of Master of Arts, fourteenthat of Master of Philosophy, eight that of Master of Science, andthirteen that of Doctor of Philosophy, making a total of two hun­dred and sixty-six degrees (not including titles and certificates)conferred by the University at the Summer Convocation of 19IO.THE DEATH OF HOWARD TAYLOR RICKETTSThe death of Howard Taylor Ricketts, Assistant Professor inthe Department of Pathology and Bacteriology, which occurred inthe City of Mexico on May 3, 1910, brought sorrow to many mem­bers of the University and of Rush Medical College, and to otherfriends in Chicago. He was stricken on April 19 with typhusfever, while engaged in scientific investigation of the disease, anddied after an acute illness of fifteen days.Through the courtesy of the Mexican government it was pos­sible to transfer Dr. Ricketts' body to this country, and Mrs. Ricketts,who had gone to her husband early in his illness, and Mr. RussellM. Wilder, of the Department of Anatomy, who had been assist­ing Dr. Ricketts in his investigation, accompanied the body toChicago. The funeral party was met by an official delegation fromthe University of Chicago, which included President Harry PrattJudson and Professor Ludvig Hektoen, Head of the Departmentof Pathology and Bacteriology, and by seventy representative scien­tific and medical men of Chicago; and the University marshals weredelegated as a guard of honor. Interment took place at Kirkwood,Ill.270 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEDr. Ricketts received his Bachelor's degree at the University ofNebraska in 1894, and the degree of Doctor of Medicine at North­western Medical College in 1897. He was an interne in the CookCounty Hospital in 1898--99, fellow in cutaneous pathology in RushMedical College from 1899 to 1901, and also assistant in dermatologyduring the same time; and after a year of study in Germanybecame an Associate in Pathology in the University of Chicago.He was made an Instructor in 1903 and Assistant Professor ofPathology in 1907. Dr. Ricketts had recently resigned his positionin the University of Chicago to. take a full professorship of path­ology in the University of Pennsylvania, where he expected to.begin his work in the autumn.An appreciation of the work and service of Professor Ricketts,by Professor Ludvig Hektoen, Head of the Department of Path­ology and Bacteriology, appears elsewhere in this issue of theMagazine.A NEW MEMBER OF THE LAW SCHOOL FACULTYWalter Wheeler Cook, A.M., LL.M., of the University of Wis­consin Law School, has been appointed Professor of Law in theUniversity of Chicago, his work beginning with the Autumn Quar­ter, 1910. Professor Cook took his Bachelor's degree from Colum­bia University in 1894 and after two years spent in study abroadand three years in teaching mathematics at Columbia he receivedhis Master's degree. During two years of this time he held theJohn Tyndall Fellowship in Physics at Columbia. Meanwhile hebegan the study of law in the Columbia Law School, being gradu­ated with the degree of LL.M. in 1901. From 1901-4 he wassuccessively instructor, assistant professor, and professor of lawin the University of Nebraska; from 1904-6 he was professor oflaw in the University of Missouri, and in the latter year was calledto a similar position in the University of Wisconsin, where he hassince remained. Professor Cook gave instruction in the Universityof Chicago Law School during the Summer Quarters of 1906 and1909. He has written short treatises upon Trusts, Equity, andMunicipal Corporations. In the Law School he will give thecourses in Evidence and Criminal Law, and conduct part of thework in Equity and Contracts.THE UNIVERSITY RECORDTHE DEATH OF LESTER BARTLETT JONESThe funeral services of Mr. Lester Bartlett Jones, Associate andDirector of Music in the University of Chicago, who died at St.Luke's Hospital on July 7, 1910, were held in the Leon MandelAssembly Hall on july 9, members of the Faculties being presentin cap and gown, and Professor Albion W. Small, Dean of theGraduate School of Arts and Literature, presiding in the absence ofthe President of the University. Brief addresses were m�de by DeanSmall and Professor Theodore G. Soares, Acting Chaplain of theUniversity. The music was given by the University Choir, whosedirector Mr. Jones had been for a number of years.Mr. Jones, who was thirty-six years of age at the time of hisdeath, was a graduate of Knox College in the class of 1897, andbecame in 1901 Associate and Director of Music in the University.He was an officer of the National Music Teachers' Association, theMendelssohn Club, and the .Music and Art Society of Chicago. Hehad recently resigned his position in the University to becomedirector of the department of music in Coe College, Iowa, and hadlooked forward to his new work with keen anticipation. ProfessorWilliam Benson was present 'at the funeral as a representative ofCoe College.UNIVERSITY PUBLIC LECTURES DURING THE SUMMER QU AR TERThe series of University Public Lectures for the Summer Quar­ter of 19IO is notable for the wide range of subjects and the numberof institutions represented by the lecturers. The lecturers fromoutside the University, and their subjects, are the following:In general literature and art, three illustrated lectures were givenin June and July by Mr. Theodore Dahmen on the general sub­ject of "Masterpieces of Woodcut, Engraving, and Etching." Dr.Newell Dwight Hillis, of Brooklyn, gave early in July five lectureson the following subjects: "Oliver Cromwell and the Rise of theFive Liberties," "Ruskin's Message in Reform to the NineteenthCentury," "The New Position of the PUlpit in American Society,""Henry 'A! ard Beecher from the Viewpoint of the Preacher," and"America of Today and Tomorrow." "Aspects of Poetry" wasthe general subject of four lectures by Associate Professor Ray­mond M. Alden, of Leland Stanf�rd Jr. University; Mr. Leon H.Vincent, of Boston, gives in August five lectures on "AmericanLiterary Masters"; Richard Thomas Wyche, president of the272 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINENational Story Tellers' League, gives the second week in August aseries of five lectures and readings on the origin and art of storytelling, and the folklore of the South; and Ulysses G. B. Pierce,the chaplain of the United States Senate, gives later in Augustlectures on Emerson and Tennyson and an illustrated lecture onPompeii, Pozzuoli, and Solfatara.In historical and social sciences, four illustrated lectures on"R�yal Women: Their History and Romance" were given thesecond week in July by Mary Ridpath Mann; three illustratedlectures on "Caricature in American History" were given at theend of July by Professor Frank H. Hodder, of the University ofKansas; Professor Earl W. Dow, of the University of Michigan,gives on August 12 an address on John Calvin; and Professor Wil­bur C. Abbott, of Yale U ni versity, has as subj ects for lectures inAugust "Scholarship and Education" and "The Present Status ofHistory."In science, from June 24 to August 4, was given a notable seriesof sixteen lectures on the general subject of "The Theory of Evo­lution and Some of Its Implications." Professor Jacob E. Reig­hard, of the Department of Zoology in the University of Michigan,gave the eighth lecture in the series, having for his subject "Adapta­tion." "Physico-chemical Analysis" was the subject of twelve lec­tures by Professor H. C. Cooper, of Syracuse University; andWalter A. Tower, Assistant Professor of Geography in the Uni­versity of Pennsylvania, discussed in four lectures "The Study ofNations from the Geographical Standpoint." The subject of "Con­servation" was presented by Charles W. Hayes, chief geologist ofthe United States Geological Survey, and William S. HCl:l1, assistantforester of the United States.In philosophy and education, Professor Ellwood P. Cubberley,of Leland Stanford J r. University, presented in four lectures thesubject of "The Maintenance of a Public School System" ; WesleyN. Clifford, of the United States Department of Agriculture, dis­cussed "The Teaching of Forestry in the Public Schools" ; ProfessorWalter B. Pillsbury, of the University of Michigan, gave a lectureon "The Abnormal Phases of Mental Experience"; and Henry S.Curtis, former secretary of the Playground Association of America,discussed in a series of four lectures" A Normal Course in Play."Open-air plays were presented by the John Nicholson SylvanPlayers in Scammon Gardens from July II to 16, the repertoireTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDincluding The Taming of the Shrew} Rostand's Les Romanesques(in English), and Moliere's Le medecin malgre lui (also in English).The success of the plays called for a repetition of the series duringthe week of July 25-30.THE SCHUMANN CENTENARYUnder the auspices of the University Orchestral Associationthe' celebration of the hundredth anniversary of the birth of RobertSchumann was held in the Leon Mandel Assembly Hall' on May31. The program was presented by Madame Jane Osborn-Hannah,soprano, of the Met.ropolitan Opera Company; Mr. Heniot Levy,pianist ; and the Chicago String Quartet, consisting of Mr. LudwigBecker, first violin; Mr. Guy Woodard, second violin; Mr. WilliamDiestel, viola; and Mr. Franz Wagner; 'cello. Madame Osborn­Hannah presented "Frauen Lieben und Leben"-a cycle of eightSchumann songs; Mr. Levy gave on the piano Fantasie, Ope I7, andToccata, Ope 7; and, in conjunction with the Chicago String Quartet,the Quintet, Ope 44. ;The Orchestral Association has already announced for theautumn and winter of 19I0-11 a series of six concerts in the LeonMandel Assembly Hall by the Theodore Thomas Orchestra, andtwo recitals-a song recital by Madame Schumann- Heink, and apiano recital by Madame Bloomfield-Zeisler. The date of theopening concert is NovemberI I.THE FACULTIESIn Harper's Weekly of May 14 appeared a poem in memory ofMark Twain by Associate Professor James W. Thompson, of theDepartment of History."Prison Reform" was the subject of an address before theHamilton Club of Chicago on April 24 by Professor Charles R.Henderson, Head of the Department of Ecclesiastical Sociology.Assistant Professor James W. Linn, of the Department ofEnglish, gave an address before the graduating class of the HydePark High School in the Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, on June 23.President Harry Pratt Judson attended the reunion of his classat the recent commencement of Williams College, and was one ofthe speakers. The occasion was the fortieth anniversary of theclass graduation.274 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAssistant Professor Sophonisba P. Breckinridge, of the Depart­ment of Household Administration, contributes to the June issueof the J ournal of Political Economy a discussion of "The IllinoisTen-Hour Law."Associate Professor Francis A. Wood, of the Department ofGermanic Languages and Literatures, was given the honorarydegree of Doctor of Laws at the commencement of NorthwesternUniversity in June.Professor Edwin B. Frost, Director of the Yerkes Observatory,contributes to the June number of the Astrophysical ] ournal anarticle entitled "Corrections to Radial Velocities of Certain Starsof the Orion Type."Mr. Logan C. Macpherson, lecturer at Johns Hopkins Univer­sity, gave a series of five lectures in Cobb Lecture Hall from May 2to May II, the general subject of the series being "Railway andWater Transportation in Europe."Associate Professor Karl Pietsch, of the Department ofRomance Languages and Literatures, was recently elected a corre­sponding member of the Royal Spanish Academy. There are onlyfive other members in the United States.Professor Albion W. Small, Head of the Department of Soci­ology and Anthropology and Dean of the Graduate School ofArts and Literature, was given the degree of Doctor of Laws byWestern Reserve University on June IS, 1910.On June 5, in New York City, at the seventh annual meetingof the Collegiate Basket-Ball Rules Committee, Associate ProfessorJoseph E. Raycroft, of the Department of Physical Culture andAthletics, was made chairman for the coming year.Before the ways and means committee of the Chicago Associa­tion of Commerce, on May 25, Professor Shailer Mathews, Deanof the Divinity School and editor of the World To-Day) gave anaddress entitled "The Idealism of Commercialism.""The Appalachian Folds of Central Pennsylvania" is the sub­ject of a discussion in the April-May number of the Journal ofGeology) by Dr. Rollin T. Chamberlin, of the Department ofGeology. The contribution is illustrated by seven figures.At the Peace Day exercises held under the auspices of theCosmopolitan Club in Kent Theater on the afternoon of May 18,THE UNIVERSITY RECORD 275the speakers were Rev. Jenkin Lloyd Jones, of All Souls Church,Chicago, and Professor Paul Shorey, Head of the Department ofGreek.Professor Julian W. Mack, a member of the Law School Facultyand Justice of the Illinois Appellate Court, gave the annual Phi BetaKappa address before the Beta of Illinois Chapter at the Quad­rangle Club on the evening of June 13, his subject being "Problemsof Immigration."In the May (1910) number of the Gaceta Medica de Mexico,a publication of the National Academy of Medicine of Mexico, isa memorial tribute in Spanish to Dr. Howard T. Ricketts, whorecently lost his life in Mexico as a result of his scientific investiga­tion of typhus fever in that country.The eighth and final contribution to a "Reading Journey throughEgypt," entitled "The First Cataract; Aswan and Philae," byProfessor James H. Breasted, of the Department of Semitics,appears in the April number of the Chautauquan magazine. Thecontribution has seventeen illustrations.The chairman of the Pageant Committee of the Sane FourthAssociation of Chicago was Francis Wayland Shepardson, Asso­ciate Professor of American History. Mr. Shepardson is also atrustee of the Association, of which Marquis Eaton is presidentand Edgar A. Bancroft a vice-president.A Life for a Life is the title of a new novel by Professor RobertHerrick, of the Department' of English, which appeared early inJune, the publishers being the Macmillan Company of N ew York.Mr. Herrick's last novel, Together, reached nine editions. Bothnovels have been published within a year.Professor William Gardner Hale, Head of the Department ofLatin, discusses in the opening contributions of the School Reviewfor April and May the subject of "Latin Composition in the HighSchool." The discussion in the first contribution is from the pointof view of the college, and in the second from that of the manuals.Professor Paul Shorey, Head of the Department of Greek,contributes to the May issue of the Classical Journal an articleentitled" 'Integer Vitae' Once More"; and in the June numberof the Journal Associate Professor Robert J. Bonner, of the samedepartment, discusses the subject of "The New Greek Historian."276 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEIn the February number of the Journal of Religious EducationProfessor. Nathaniel Butler, of the Department of Education, hada contribution entitled "The Teacher's Constructive Moral Force."Mr. Butler was recently nominated for first vice-chairman of theways and means committee of the Chicago Association ofCommerce. I"The Early Religion of Palestine" is the subj ect of a contri­bution in the May issue of the Biblical W orld, by Dr. Daniel D.Luckenbill, of the Department of Semitics, the article having fourillustrations. In the June number Dr. Luckenbill continues hisdiscussion of the same subj ect, the article being illustrated byfive figures.At the University of Washington, on June I4, an addressbefore the Sigma Xi was given by Professor Alexander Smith,of the Department of Chemistry, his subject being "The BalanceSheet of Science." At the summer session of the same universityProfessor Smith gave a series o{ twelve lectures on the subject of"The Teaching of Chemistry.""The Attitude of Modern English Verse toward the CommonPeople" was the subject of a Phi Beta Kappa address at VassarCollege, on June 6, by Associate Professor Myra Reynolds, of theDepartment of English. Miss Reynolds is the first woman to givean address of that character at Vassar, of which institution she hasbeen for several years a trustee."Trails through Palestine" was the subject of an address atChautauqua, N.Y., on July 8, by Mr. Paul Vincent Harper, who isa graduate student in Semitics. Mr. Harper spent the year 190&-9in the American School of Oriental Study and Research in Pales­tine. He is a son of President William Rainey Harper, and gradu­ated from the University in 1908.On May 16, before the League of Religious Fellowship, Mrs.ZelIa Allen Dixson, Associate Librarian, gave an illustrated addressentitled "Monte Casino, the Cradle of Literature." Mrs. Dixsonbecame Assistant Librarian of the University 'Of Chicago in 1892,and was made Associate Librarian in 1895. Her resignation ofthe latter position took effect at the end of June.In the April number of Modern Philology Mr. Ralph E. House,of the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures, has aTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDcontribution entitled "The Comedia Radiana of Augustin Ortiz."The closing contribution of the number is by Associate ProfessorT. Atkinson Jenkins, of the same department, on the subj ect of "ANew Fragment of the Old French Gui de Warewic.))Two graduate students in Germanics at the University haverecently accepted appointments in educational institutions, Mr.Alfred Isaac Roehm, A.M., Indiana University, going to the Osh­kosh Normal School, Wisconsin, as head of the German depart­ment, and Mr. George Orin Shryver, A.B., Cornell University,accepting an instructorship in the Adelphi Academy, Brooklyn, N.Y."The Royal Feud in the Wadi HaIfa Temple: A Rejoinder,"by Professor James H. Breasted, of the Department of Semitics,is the subject of a contribution in the April number of the Ameri­can Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures. In the samenumber is a contribution on "Some Seals in the Goucher Collec­tion," by Professor Ira M. Price, of the same department. Thearticle is illustrated by thirteen figures."Observing a Cornet" is the subj ect of a contribution in theJuly issue of the World To-Day) by Director Edwin B. Frost, ofthe Yerkes Observatory. There are two striking illustrations fromphotographs of Halley's comet, one made at the Yerkes Observa­tory on June 6, I91O, by Professor Edward E. Barnard, and theother made in the Hawaiian Islands on May 10, I91O, by Ferdinand.Ellerman, formerly of the Yerkes Observatory.President Harry Pratt Judson was the president of theNorthern Baptist Convention which met in Chicago from May 6 toMay 13, 19IO. The chairman of the executive committee wasProfessor Shailer Mathews, Dean of the Divinity School. Theconvention was the largest in the history of the denomination,there being 3,000 delegates and registered visitors, besides a largeattendance from Chicago. The sessions were held in the BartlettGymnasium.Chaniecler, by Edmond Rostand, the French dramatist, wasgiven before the Quadrangle Club, Chicago, on the evening ofMay 27 by Assistant Professor Elizabeth Wallace, of the Depart­ment of Romance, who gave an interpretation in her own metricaltranslation. In the May-June (I9IO) number of Poet-Loreappears in English translation a five-act drama by Perez Gald6s,the great modern Spanish dramatist, the translation being made by278 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMiss Wallace. The play was given for the first time in the TeatroEspafiol in 1904.Assistant Professor Percy H. Boynton, of the Department ofEnglish, begins in the September (19IO) issue of the Chautauquanmagazine a series of articles entitled "A Reading Journey in Lon­don." The following outline indicates the periods to be charac­terized and illustrated: (I) Chaucer's London; (2) Shakspere'sLondon; (3) Milton's London; (4) Addison's London; (5) John­son's (or Goldsmith's) London; (6) Byron's London; (7) Dick­ens's London; (8) Victorian London; (9) Present Day London.Mr. Boynton will spend part of the present summer in completingthe series in England.Plane Geometry is the title of a recent textbook by AssociateProfessor Herbert E. Slaught, of the Department of Mathematics,and Dr. N. J. Lennes, of the Massachusetts Institute of Tech­nology. The volume of two hundred and eighty-five pages is veryfully illustrated, contains seven chapters, and has an index of fourpages. The purpose of the book as expressed by the authors' is,first, that the pupils may gain by gradual and natural process thehabit of deductive reasoning; and second, that they may learn theessential facts of elementary geometry as properties of the space inwhich they live, and not merely as statements in a book.Second-Year Mathematics for Secondary Schools is the title ofa textbook recently issued from the University of Chicago Press.The volume of two hundred and ninety pages contains eight chap­ters, illustrated by three hundred and twenty-four figures, and isthe result of collaboration on the part of Professor George W.Myers, of the College of Education, and instructors in the Uni­versity High School. The authors in the preface emphasize thestatement that this book and its predecessor, First-Year Mathe­matics, are an attempt at finding a form of secondary texts inaccord with the pedagogical and mathematical advance of recentyears.Professor Walter Sargent, of the Department of Education,continues in the .May number of the Elementary School Teacherhis discussion of "The Fine and Industrial Arts in ElementarySchools, Grade 7"; and in the June number of the sa1?1e j ournalhe discusses "The Fine and Industrial Arts in Elementary Schools,Grade 8." To this number also is contributed an article onTHE UNIVERSITY RECORD 279"Retardation Statistics of Three Chicago Schools," by ClaraSchmitt, Fellow in Education; and Associate Professor Otis W.Caldwell, of the Department of Botany, discusses "Natural His­tory in the Grades," the fifth grade being the particular one con­sidered. His article is illustrated by three figures.The opening contribution in the April number of the AmericanJournal of Theology is entitled "The Status of Christian Educa­tion in India," by Professor Ernest D. Burton, Head of the Depart­ment of Biblical and Patristic Greek. To the discussion of "TheTask and Method of Systematic Theology," Associate ProfessorGerald B. Smith, of the Department of Systematic Theology,makes a contribution in the same number, the other contributorsbeing Professor Benjamin B. Warfield, of Princeton TheologicalSeminary, and Professor William A. Brown, of Union TheologicalSeminary. Assistant Professor Shirley]. Case, of the Depart­ment of New Testament Literature, has in the same number anarticle on "The Religion of Jesus."Assistant Professor Elizabeth Wallace, of the Department ofRomance, is the recipient of the first graduate fellowship to beestablished in the Woman's College of Madrid, Spain. Miss Wal­lace is expecting to spend the first six months of the year I9I Iin residence there for the purpose of making a study of the life ofFernan Caballero, Spain's great woman novelist. The Universityof Chicago owns a series of several hundred letters written byCaballero to Antoine de Latour, covering the years 1856-76.They form a remarkable literary memoir of a critical period inthe history of modern Spain. Miss Wallace has the exclusiveuse of these letters and wishes to complete her research by con­sulting contemporary records in the libraries and collections ofMadrid.LIBRARIAN'S ACCESSION REPORTFOR THE SPRING QUARTER,1910During the Spring Quarter,April-June, 1910, there was addedto the library of the University atotal number of 5,972 volumes,from the following sources:BOOKS ADDED BY PURCHASEBooks added by purchase, 3,675volumes, distributed as follows: Anat­omy, 27; Anatomy, Pathology, and Physiology, I; Anthropology, 3; As­tronomy (Ryerson}, 29; Astronomy(Yerkes), 39; Biology, 2; Botany, 8;Chemistry, 9; Church History, 32 ;Commerce and Administration, I06;Comparative Religion, .. 58; Embryology,30; English, 138 ; General Library,146; General Literature, 65; Geogra­phy, 4I; Geology, 23; German, 2I;Greek, 61; Haskell, 76; History, 204;History of Art, 28; Household Ad­ministration, 5; Latin, 54; Latin andGreek, 21; Law, 1,020; Mathematics,23; New Testament, 15; Pathology, 8;Philosophy, 26; Physical Culture, 18;280 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPhysics, 27; Physiological Chemistry,I; Physiology, 31; Political Economy,358; Political Science', 17; PracticalTheology, 28; Psychology,., 149; PublicSpeaking, 3; Romance, 126; Sanskritand Comparative Philology, 49;Scandinavian Seminary, 7; School ofEducation, 366; Semitics; 71;. Soci­ology, 45; Sociology (Divinity), 21;Systematic Theology, 14; Zoology, 25.BY GIFTBooks added by gift, 1,637 vol-umes,distributed as follows: Anthropology,I; Astronomy (Ryerson), 9; Astron­omy (Yerkes), 10; Biology, 27;Botany, 3; Chemistry, I ; ChurchHistory, 2; Commerce and Adminis­tration, 20; Comparative Religion, 2;Embryology, 63; English, 3; GeneralLibrary, 796; General Literature, 7;Geography, 19; Geology, 21; German,2; Greek, 6; Haskell, 128; History,15; Latin, II; Latin and Greek, I ;Law, 15; Mathematics, 176; NewTestament, 4; Pathology, 4; Philoso­phy, 3; Physical Culture, 3; Physics,5; Physiological Chemistry, I; Physi­ology, 4; Political Economy, 48; Po­litical Science, 9 ; Psychology, 4 ;Romance, 9; Sanskrit and Compara­tive Philology, 3; School of Educa­tion, 179; Semitics, 3; Sociology, 9;Sociology (Divinity), 3; Zoology, 8.BY EXCHANGEBooks added by exchange for Uni­versity publications, 660 volumes, dis­tributed as follows: Astronomy(Yerkes), 9; Biology, 9; Chemistry,4; Church History, 4; Commerce and Administration, 2; Comparative Re­ligion, I; Embryology, 5; English, 4;General Library, 200; Geography, 2;Geology, 12; German, I; Greek, 20;Haskell, 191; History, 2; History ofArt, 2; Latin, II; Latin and Greek" 7 ;Law, 10; Mathematics, 70; New Tes­tament, I; Philosophy, I; Physics, 8;Political Economy, 29 ; PoliticalScience, 3; Psychology, I; Romance,31; Sanskrit and Comparative Phi­lology, I; School of Education, 6;Semitics, 2; Sociology, 7; SystematicTheology, I; Zoology, 3.SPECIAL GIFTSH. H. Belfield, textbooks and mis­cellaneous-s-gna volumes and 426pamphlets.H. F. Brewer, periodicals-e-ar vol­umes.Chicago Architects' Business Asso­ciation, Handbook-s-ay volumes.Zella A. Dixson, miscellaneous-35 volumes.M. E. Emrick, medical periodicals-4 volumes and 35 pamphlets.H. S. Fiske, The Nation-4 volumes.Grand Army of the Republic,J ournal-22 volumes.C. R. Henderson, miscellaneous-9 volumes and 865 pamphlets.J. R. Mann, United States govern­ment documents-c-ag volumes.New York City, Commissioner ofTaxes arid Assessments, reports-e-ravolumes.United States government, docu­ments and reports-c-r ar volumes and381 pamphlets.GENERAL ALUMNI ACTIVITIESWORK OF THE COUNCILAlthough in existence orily ninemonths on July I, 19IO, the AlumniCouncil decided to close its booksfor the first year on that date andbegin new records, conforming withthe fiscal year of the' University.The secretary's records show that645 orders for the Magazine havebeen filled within that' time and that494 orders for the Directory are onfile. Furthermore the secretary hasa bout 100 unpaid orders on whichthe regular membership fee can berealized. This support of the alumnihas been a source of gratification tothe officers of the Council as it in­dicates that participation of gradu­ates in alumni matters can be madean actuality.By agreement with the Universityhalf of the SUbscription money afterthe 500 mark is passed goes to theUniversity. These payments are nowbeing made and will continue dur­ing the life of the present contract,which does not coincide with thefiscal year, as it was drawn up foreleven months beginning October I.The present subscription list of theMagazine, made up of over 1,000alumni, is a paid -list, conforming tothe rule of the Council that all sub­scriptions be paid in advance. Mem­bers of the associations who havesigned blanks stating their wish toreceive the Magazine should sendtheir dollar as soon as possible inorder . that their names may beproperly enrolled.During the summer. the secretaryis endeavoring to keep the list of oldsubscribers intact by asking all alumnito renew at once if their subscrip­tion has expired. The work of get­ting renewals is as important asadding new names. It is only withthe help' of the older alumni thatthe Magazine can hope to reach afirm financial basis, and expand insize and numbers. The Council islooking forward to a generous re- sponse to the letters by September I.As the work of compiling theDirectory ran well into the springmonths it was decided to add thegraduates of 1910 in full to thebook, thereby increasing its useful­ness as a record of Chicago gradu­ates. The final proofs are now beingverified and the date of distributionis approaching rapidly. The recordsare in better shape now than theyever have been, but the cost involvedin the process of bringing them upto date is so great as to be almostprohibitive.A BULLETIN OF INFORMATIONA small bulletin of informationtelling about the alumni club move­ment and the steps necessary for theformation of a club has been pub­lished by the Alumni Council andwill be sent to any alumnus who isinterested. The bulletin contains thearticles of association adopted by theclubs throughout the United Statesand is designed principally to inter­est the members of a prospectiveclub.The secretary is planning aschedule of alumni meetings through­out the United States for the falland winter, at each one of which theUniversity shall be represented bysome member of the faculty and thealumni by a member of the AlumniCouncil. Instead of arranging fora meeting at a date when a memberof the University happens to visit acity, engagements will be madeseveral months before, so that localsecretaries will have plenty of timeto plan for .a successful gathering.Meetings will he held not only incities where no clubs have yet beenorganized, but it is hoped that atleast two big meetings a year' canbe held in every city where analumni club exists, so that everyclub may show progress.Local secretaries will find a smallTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEcard file an inexpensive manner forkeeping the records of the alumni intheir territory. This will make co-.. operation . with the Chicago officeeasier. When an alumnus comes toa - locality the club secretary shouldwrite the Alumni Council secretaryin order that comparisons may bemade with the alumni records. Themaintenance of the alumni filesinvolves a financial burden of con­siderable size, so that any additionalhelp of this kind will be welcomed.At the same time the secretary willnotify the local officer whenever theChicago office hears of an alumnuscoming into his territory. The localclub is then in a position to bringthe interests of the University tothe attention of the graduate.ALUMNI AT THE LUNCHEONAlumni participation in the U ni­versity Luncheon on June 14 wasmore marked than on any previousoccasion of this kind. In order togive this function more significancein the eyes of alumni and especiallyto impress on the new graduates thatthey were now a part of the alumnibody, the general dinner usuallyheld in the evening had been aban­doned in favor of the Luncheon.The College Alumni Association an­nounced the Luncheon as part of thealumni activities for the day andevery effort was made by the Presi­dent's office to make alumni feelthat they had a .particular interestin this event.For this reason, perhaps, the at­tendance of alumni was larger thanever before. The total number ofpersons present was 382, of which240 were new graduates who re­ceived degrees that morning, andover 100 were older alumni. Manyalumni failed to use their ticketsbecause of the late hour at whichthe Luncheon was finally called.President Harry Pratt Judson pre­sided. Several short addresses weredelivered. The Class of 1905, whichhad charge of the day's program, wasrepresented by Schuyler B. Terry.Miss Annie M. MacLean, Ph.D., '00,and Charles S. Eaton, '00, spoke forthe class of that' date, recounting the experiences of its members andvoicing their hopes for the future.Harry O. Latham, president of theClass of 1910, spoke for the gradu­ates, and H. E. Flannagan repre­sented the Law class of 1910.Charles R. Henderson, '70, of theold University of Chicago, and An­drew C. Bartlett, representing theboard of trustees, made the closingtalks. At the close of the Luncheonthe assembly rose and sang the"Alma Mater," after which a rous­ing "Chicago" was given for Mrs.William Rainey Harper.The question of moment before allbranches of the alumni organizationfor the coming year is "How can thealumni attendance at this Luncheonbe increased ?', It is undoubtedlynecessary to make more of this func­tion, . for the reason that on no otheroccasion do new graduates receivea welcome which makes them feelso truly a part of the Universityalumni. Experience has shown thathardly fi fty new graduates attendthe evening dinner, or interest them­selves in the alumni events follow­ing the convocation. After a week­end of activities including Class Daywith its varied events, the interclassdance and the convocation itself, thecandidates for degrees cannot enterinto the spirit of the alumni meet­ings in the evening. The presentarrangement makes them a part ofthe alumni events before they breakranks and. leave the campus. Theneed for a strong alumni luncheonis apparent to all who have giventhis phase of the matter any thoughtwhatever. On the other hand theprogram will have to cope with thefact that University alumni in Chi­cago are young business men whoare not able to leave their work inmidday in order to attend this func­tion. The alumni officers will wel­come suggestions that are likely tolead to a solution of this problem.ALUMNI MEETINGSCHICAGO ALUMNAEOne of the most successful gather­ings of alumnae ever held at con­vocation time took place in theGENERAL ALUMNI ACTIVITIESQuadrangle Club on June I I at theannual luncheon of the ChicagoAlumnae Club. The attendance wasexceptionally large. The principalevent of the afternoon's programwas the presentation of three shortplays by Miss Phebe Bell, MissJeannette Barnett, and Miss FrancesDonovan, one of which was repeatedat the alumni reunion in the ReynoldsClub on June 14.NEW YORKMiss Ellen Yale Stevens, '00, washostess at tea for the women of theEastern Alumni Association at theWomen's University Club on Fri­day, May 6. Plans for next yearwere discussed and sentiment wasstrongly in favor of having a mum­ber of informal dinners next season.MAUDIE L. STONE, '96SecretaryMILWAUKEETheodore B. Hammond, '84, whohas been active in alumni matters inMilwaukee, was chosen president ofthe Milwaukee Alumni Club at itsannual meeting in May.CHICAGO BAPTIST REUNIONTrue Chicago spirit was every­where manifest on the night ofMay I I, when the faculty and alumniof the Divinity School of the Uni­versity held their reunion in theLexington Avenue Baptist Church.The meeting was brought about be­cause of the large attendance ofChicago alumni at the NorthernBaptist Convention.It was a round-up. Gray, '00,of Boston, shook hands with Bur­lingame, '99, of San Francisco, andthat was the east and west of it.Merrifield, '06, of St. Cloud, Minn.,met Cheesman, '08, of St. Louis, andthat was the north and south of it.The preliminary announcement wasthat one hundred and forty alumniwould be present. When the menwere finally seated two hundred andtwenty-five alumni and friends ofthe Divinity School had gathered toexchange reminiscences. Many of the company actually forgot to eat,so delighted were they to see all theold friends once more at the Mid­way. When President Judson ap­peared two hundred men sprang totheir feet to yell as they had donein times past before degrees hadbeen conferred upon them. Thesnappy Chicago yell was followed bynine 'rahs for the President and forDean Shailer Mathews, who presidedat the dinner.Dean Mathews did not come tomake a speech. He was simply thetoastmaster, and as such he madethe speech of his life. It was agreat occasion for Chicago alumni.They heard a message from theheart of a man who during the yearshas been rendering yeoman serviceto make such a gathering of Chi­cago men possible. That nightmany realized, perhaps as never be­fore, that something hard to define,but commonly called "tradition" hasgrown up within the Divinity School.Whatever it is, it is one of the mostvalued of the many assets of collegeor seminary. Chicago has it. Itsinfluence was felt when DeanMathews spoke of the EvangelisticBand, past and present. It was feltwhen Dr. Clifton Gray, '00, uttered abeautiful tribute to the memory ofthe lamented Herrick. The elementof time has had little to do withChicago spirit. It was born in adecade. Primarily, Chicago menare not the advocates of a systemas such-theological or otherwise;they win, as Dean Mathews statedin his rare speech, because they arein earnest. In an especially happymoment he attempted to name hisideal for the Divinity School."I have been thinking of threewords which express my conceptionof our work as Divinity men," saidDean Mathews. "I want to handthem over to you: Reality, Efficiency,Contagious Faith."During the applause that followed,President Judson, who had alreadybeen announced as one of thespeakers, arose and said:"I wish to interpret Dean Mathews'motto for you: Get the biggestpossible result with the least possi­ble fuss."THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 'Robert B. Davidson, "97, led thecheering, and speeches were alsomade by Dr. W. C. Bitting, GeorgeE. Burlingame, '99, Frederick L.Anderson, '88, George R. Berry, andTheodore G. Soares, '97.Perhaps this idea of "doing serv­ice quietly" was demonstrated -atthe convention in no better waythan that described by Dr. W. C.Bitting, who said:"Someone remarked to me thatthe professors of the Divinity Schoolwere not in evidence at the ses­sions of the convention. 'Why arethey keeping themselves in hiding?'I was asked."I asked my inquirer whether hehad noticed two gentlemen at thehead of the stairs of Bartlett Gym­nasium, quietly directing the peopleto the convention floor. 'Yes,' heanswered." 'Well,' said I, 'one is theprofessor of New Testament The­ology; the other is the professorof Homiletics. Did you notice thatgenial person distributing pro ...grams upon the convention floor?He occupies the chair of SystematicTheology. And did you observe thatgentleman who is everywhere at thesame time-now on the floor of theconvention-now directing someoneto the telegraph office-s-now con­ducting some distracted lady to the'lost and found' department-now atthe executive headquarters-every­where helping, directing, advising,soothing, inspiring, and in truthmaking us all feel that, for the timebeing at least, we own the Univer­sity of Chicago? That man, myfriend, is the dean of the DivinitySchool himself. He is rendering aservice that most ushers would re­fuse .to do for me or any otherpastor.' "COE S. HAYNE, '00PERSONAL ANDGENERALDR. MAC LEAN'S NEW BOOKAnnie Marion MacLean, Ph.D.,'00, professor of sociology at Adel­phi College, and one of the speak- ers at the University Luncheon onJune 1:4, is the author of Wage­Earning Women, just published bythe Macmillan Co. Some of MissMacLean's earlier investigations havebeen printed in the AmericanJournal of Sociology. The presentwork is, the outcome of an investi­ga tion "Conducted throughout thecountry under the auspices of theNational Board of the YoungWomen's Christian Associations ofthe United States into the status ofwomen in the most important indus­tries. An advisory committee offive was named to consult with MissMacLean, Dr. Charles R. Hender­son, '70, being a member.In this book Miss MacLean hasincorporated the results of an inves­tigation which she conducted, witha corps of twenty-nine assistants,into the lives and environment ofover I'35,000 women and the con­ditions governing 400 establishments.Of these about cone-half were locatedin New York and Chicago and theremainder in different parts of thecountry, chosen because they weretypical of the section. New Jersey,Massachusetts, Connecticut, Penn­sylvania, Michigan, Iowa, Nebraska,Missouri, Oregon, and California areamong the: states included. Theactual time spent in the investigationoutside of office work was a totalof 208 weeks. 'HENRY DiCKIE, A.M., '95Henry Dickie, A.M., '95, is nowpastor of the First PresbyterianChurch at Chatham, Ontario. Mr.Dickie was inducted into the pastoralcharge on September I3, I 909, afterhaving had charge of a church atWoodstock, Ontario. He receivedthe degree of D.D. from the Presby­terian College in Montreal. In theyears of I904-5, he attended the Uni­versity of Cambridge, England, andcompleted a thesis on I dolatry inI.srael in the Eighth Century, B.C.He also spent several months at theUniversity of Toronto in preparationfor the degree, which was taken atMontreal on April '3, 1907. A copyof his thesis has been placed in theUniversity library. 'GENERAL ALUMNI ACTIVITIESDR. JOSEPH E. RA YCROFT CHOSENDr. Joseph E. Raycroft, '96, Asso­ciate Professor of Physical Cultureand Supervisor of the Teaching ofHygiene at the University of Chi­cago, was elected chairman of theCollegiate Basket-Ball Rules Com­mittee at the annual meeting heldrecently in N ew York City. Dr.Raycroft is also secretary-treasurerof the Intercollegiate GymnasticAssociation, and a director of thePlayground Association of America.THE PROBLEM OF FINANCESN early every alumni body in theMiddle West has at some time orother been confronted by the problemof financing alumni undertakingsand making the secretary a salariedofficer. University of Chicago alumniat one time financed the associationby subscription, and at the presenttime work through the medium ofthe Magazine. Wisconsin alumniare planning to solve their problemby raising $3,000 annually for a periodof years to support a_general secre­taryship. Twenty-five members ofthe graduating class at once agreedto pay $5 a year toward this fund.J. G. Wray, in speaking for this planat the Wisconsin reunion on June 21,said:It is proposed to secure subscrip­tions of not more than $25 and notless than $5 per annum, for a periodof five years, with the understandingthat at least $3,000 per annum bepledged. It is the intention to havethis general secretary of the alumniassociation in charge of the manage­ment of the Alumni Magazine} toprepare a directory of alumni andformer students of the University, tokeep in touch with the alumni throughthe medium of the Alumni Magazine}by correspondence, and by organizinglocal alumni associations in citieswhere an organization seems feasible. JUNE DEGREES AND TITLESAt the Convocation of the Uni­versity on June 14, the number ofthose receiving degrees and titles was414, divided as follows: Ph.D., 17;J.D., 28; Ph.M., 14; S.M., 8; A.M.,22; D.B., 2; LL.B., 4; S.B., 44;Ph.B., 108; A.B., 27; Associate inLiterature, 61; Associate in Arts,IS; Associate in Science, 26 ;Associate in Philosophy, I7; "Two­year certificate," 22. The re­cipients were geographically dis­tributed as follows: California, 3;Connecticut, I; Florida, I; Georgia,3; Idaho, 2; Illinois, 233; Indiana,IS; Iowa, 33; Kansas, 6; Kentucky,4; Massachusetts,s; Michigan, 12;Minnesota, 4; Missouri, 8; Mon­tana, 3; Nebraska,s; N ew York,s;North Dakota, 2; Ohio, 2; Okla­homa, 4; Oregon, 2; Pennsylvania,4; South Dakota, 2; Tennessee, 6;Texas, 7; Utah, 3; Washington, I;West Virginia, I; Wisconsin, 10 ;Canada, 3; Germany, I; Japan, 3;New Brunswick, I ; PhilippineIslands, I.Statistics of attendance at theUniversity for the year ending inJune, I91O, show an attendance of6,007 students for the year I909- TO,as against 5,659 for the year 1908-9.NOTEWORTHY ALUMNI GIFTSYale University announced on Com­mencement Day the receipt of $152,-000 from alumni. Of this amount$52,000 was contributed entirely bythe members of two classes of Yale'85 and Sheff '85. The directors ofthe alumni fund were able to give$50,000 to the university, most ofwhich will go to increase the salariesof the faculty,THE ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OFPHILOSOPHYHER.BERT E. SLAUGHT, PH.D., '98, SecretaryNEW DOCTORSAt the Summer Convocation, June14, 19IO, the following thirteen can­didates received the degree ofDoctor of Philosophy:In the Department of Sociology,Luther Lee Bernard, A.B., Univer­sity of Missouri, 1:9°7.In the Department of Philosophy,Eila Harrison Stokes, S�B., OhioWesleyan University, 1899; A.M.,Ibid., 1901.In the Department 0 f History,Schuyler Baldwin Terry, A.B., TheUniversity of Chicago, 1905.In the Department of German,Willis Arden Chamberlin, A.B.,Denison University, 1890; A.B.,Harvard University, 1891 ; A.M.,Denison University, 1894. AlfredIsaac Roehm, A.B., University ofIndiana, 1906; A.B., Ibid., 1907.In the Department of English,Edward Payson Morton, A.B., Illi­nois College, 1890 ; A.B., HarvardUniversity, 1892; A.M., Ibid., 1893.In the Department of Mathe­matics, Theophil Henry Hildebrandt,A.B., University of Illinois, 1905;S.M., The University of Chicago,I 906. Egbert J. Miles, A.B., Uni­versity of Indiana, 1906; A.M.,Swarthmore College, 1907.In the Department of Physics,John Matthias Kuehne, S.B., Uni­versity of Texas, 1899; S.M., Ibid.,I90I.In the Department of Chemistry,Alan Wilfrid Cranbrook Menzies,A.M., University of Edinburgh,1897; S.B., Ibid., 1898.In the Department of Geology,Joseph Bertram Umpleby, A.B.,University of Washington, 1908;S.M., The University of Chicago,1909·In the Department of Pathology,Benjamin Franklin Davis, A.B.,University of Wisconsin, 1907. In the Department of Neurology,Charles Brookover, Ped.B., OhioUniversity, 1894; S.M., Ibid., 1895.The total number of Doctors isnow 580. Thirteen of these are de­ceased.THE ANNUAL MEETINGThe sixth annual meeting of theAssociation was held at the Quad­rangle Club on Monday, June 13,1910, following the annual luncheongiven to the Doctors by the Uni­versity. The guests of honor at theluncheon were President HarryPratt Judson and Professor CharlesOtis Whitman, Head of the De­partment of Zoology. Other in­vited guests were Professor JohnM. Coulter, Head of the Depart­ment of Botany, and Associate Pro­fessor Robert A Millikan, of theDepartment of Physics. About fiftymembers of the Association werepresent. 'The words of greeting from Presi­dent Judson were full of cheer andoptimism. Following the reading bythe chairman of the original invi­tation issued by President Harperin 1905 for the first annual lunch­eon, President Judson spoke of thepurpose of this first meeting andthe steps which had been taken,especially during the past year, toorganize' effectively the variousalumni bodies and to federate theorganization. in the central AlumniCouncil. He showed that a longstep in advance had been taken andthat the prospects were bright forfurther strengthening of all alumniinterests in the immediate future.Two important questions werediscussed at the business meeting,relating to the questionnaire whichhad been circulated among all theDoctors during the preceding year.286THE ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OF PHILOSOPHY 287The first was the resolutionrecommending to the Universitythat the giving of grades on Doc­tor's examinations be discontinued.The vote by letter on this wasstrongly in favor of abolishing thegrades. The affirmative was dis­cussed at the meeting by Dr. CharlesJ. Chamberlain and the negative byProfessor Robert A. Millikan (Ph.D.of Columbia). The vote here wasalso strongly in favor of the resolu­tion.The other question related to thecauses to which may be attributedthe lack of broader culture amongcandidates for the doctorate. Therewas no resolution offered on thisquestion but numerous letters wereread from those who had discussedit by mail. Extracts from thesewill be published in a later num­ber of the Magazine.The most notable contribution to this discussion was a short paperpresented by Professor Charles O.Whitman, Head of the Departmentof Zoology. The paper arousedgreat interest and will be publishedin a later issue of the Magazine.The election of officers for theensuing year resulted as follows:President-Roy C. Flickinger, '04,Evanston.Vice-President-Frank H. Fowler,'96, Galesburg.Corresponding Secretary-EleanorP. Hammond, 'gB, Chicago.Secretary- Treasurer-Herbert E.Slaught, '98, Chicago.Additional members of the execu­tive committee: Gilbert A. Bliss, '00,Chicago, and Robert J. Bonner, '04,Chicago.The report of the secretary­treasurer showed the total receiptsof the year to be $243.42 and thetotal expenditures, $242.77.THE DIVINITY ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONEDGAR' J. GOODSPEED} D.B., '97, SecretaryTHE DIVINITY SCHOOLThe Evangelistic Band of theDivinity School is to devote the en­tire summer to evangelistic work inthe Middle West.The annual meeting and dinner ofthe Divinity Alumni was held at theQuadrangle Club, Tuesday evening,June 14. In the absence of thepresident and. vice-presidents, DeanMathews presided. After the re­ports of the secretary-treasurer hadbeen received, the following officerswere elected for 1910-1 I :President-Judson B. Thomas, '80.First Vice-President-Clifton D.Gray, '00.Second Vice-President- J. F. San-ders, '95.Third Vice-President=-William T.Paullin, 'oS.Secretary- Treasurer-Edgar J.Goodspeed, ' 97.Executive Committee-Warren P.Behan, '07, Chairman; Andrew F.Anderson, '04; William E. Chal­mers, '97.Dr. Co E. Hewitt reported asnecrologist the deaths of Messrs.Coffman, Myattway, Halbert, andEmbree.ALUMNI NEWSAfter a very successful work,Thomas Stephenson, '85, has re- signed the pastorate of the BaptistChurch at La Grange to becomegeneral missionary for' Montana..Samuel N. Reep, formerly of theDivinity School, and Grace A.Austen; of Chicago, were married inChicago, March 23, 1910. They willreside m Minneapolis, Minn.. Quinof' Harlan, D.B., '05, is sta­tioned at Guantanamo Naval Station,Cuba.Kornataro Katataye, D.B., '09, issuperintendent of the Japanese Mis­slO� Home, 3338 Vernon Ave.,Chicago,, Leslie Ernest Sunderland, D.B.,1�, and Ella E. Holbrook, of Cleve­land, 0., were married at Cleveland,June 14, 19IO. Mr. and Mrs. Sun­derland will reside in Cleveland.Philip G. Van Zandt, D.B., '10,and Mary Bowen, of Chicago, weremarried at Sharon, Pa., June 22,191°1 J?r. John L. Jackson, D.B., '76,officiating. Mr. and Mrs. VanZ�ndt will reside in Merrill, Wis.A. J. Saunders, D.B., '10, aftersome years of study in America hasreturned to his home in Aust�alia,and has accepted the pastorate 0 fthe First Church of Christ in Free-mantle, West Australia. s ,At the Seventy-fifth Convocationheld June 14, 1910, in Bartlett Gym�nasium, the degree of D.B. wasconferred upon' Eli J. Arnot andClarence E. Campbell.THE LAW SCHOOL ASSOCIATIONRUDOLPH E. SCHREIBER, J.D., '06, SecretaryTHE ANNUAL MEETINGThe fourth annual reunion andbanquet of the University of Chi­cago Law School Association washeld on Friday evening, June 10,I9IO, at Vogelsang's Restaurant, 178Madison St., Chicago. Hon. Dor­rance Dibell, justice of the Ap­pellate Court for the Second Dis­trict of Illinois, was the principalspeaker of the evening. His sub­j ect was "The Presentation andDecision of Cases in the Appellate Court." Professor Clark. ButlerWhittier addressed the meeting asthe representative of the Law Schoolfaculty. Leon P. Lewis, of Louis­ville, Ky., spoke on behalf of thealumni, and Howard E. Flannaganresponded for the graduating class.Officers for the year I9IQ-n wereelected as follows:P�esident-Henry P. Chandler, '06.Vice-President-George Sass, '06.Secretary- Treasurer-Rudolph ESchreiber, '06. .288THE COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONintendent of buildings and groundsWhen the annual dinner of the at that time made him especially?accalaureate alumni was given up familiar with the first plans ofm order to make more of an alumni President Harper for the develop-event out of the University Lunch- ment of the University, so that hiseon in Hutchinson Hall on Convoca- anecdotes about the late Presidenttion Day the officers of. the College were listened to with eagerness. Mr.Alumni Association felt that some Hostetter re�ated interesting remi­kind of meeting should take the rnscences of life at the old Universityplace of the dinner. For this reason of Chicago, some of which are con­an evening program was arranged tained in his article in this month'sfor the Reynolds Club, consisting of issue of the Magazine.talks and a play on the third floor Much interest centered around theand a dance on the second floor of presentation of a one-act play bythe Club. About one hundred the alumnae of the University en­alumni attended these events and titled The Smith Mystery. The playfrom their standpoint the evening was given on the third floor of theproved most enjoyable, although the Club, with Miss Phebe Bell, Missnumber present was not large in Frances Donovan, and Miss Jeannetteproportion to the number of gradu- Barnett in the cast. It was one ofates in Chicago holding the bacca- three plays given the Saturday be-laureate degree. Several causes con- fore at the annual luncheon of thetributed to make the attendance Chicago Alumnae Club at the Quad-small, the principal one being that rangle Club. The performancehardly any of the alumni who at- proved a delightful entertainmenttended the exercises at the William and w�m .for the players prolongedHarper Memorial Library and in enthusiastic applause.Bartlett Gymnasium cared to return Secretary Hansen spoke briefly ofin the evening for a meeting. An- the part taken by the College Alumniother reason was the fact that a Association in the work of thege�era I notification of all alumni by Alumni Council and gave the resultmail was abandoned early in the of. the balloting for officers, whichspring because of the cost involved this year had been done on a replyand notices of" the meeting were sent postal card sent to every active mem­only to those members who had paid ber who had paid his dues for thetheir dues. year. The following officers wereWhile the dancing was enj oyed by chosen for the new year:nearly all of the alumni present the P�esidel�t-Harry Abells, '97.principal interest centered about the FIrst Vlce-President�Dr. John F.program in the theater on the third Rhodes, '76.floor of the Reynolds Club. This Second Vice-President-Mrs. Chas.wa� presided over by Harold H. S. Eaton, '00.SWIft, one of the vice-presidents Third Vice-President-Charles Sof the Association, in the absence of Winston, '96. .President Warren P. Behan, '94, Secretary-Harry A. Hansen, '09.who had been called out of town. Members of the Executive Com-Theodore B. Hammond, '84, now mittee-Hugo Friend, 'as, Harry F.president of the Milwaukee Alumni Atwood, '98, and Marie OrtmayerClub, and Charles L. Hostetter '65 '06. 'one of the oldest alumni of the' first The president of the graduatingUniversity of Chicago, gave the class, Harry O. Latham, '10, willprincipal addresses. Mr. Hammond serve as the representative of thatspoke of the early days of the Uni- class on the Executive Committeeversity and compared the present for one year.advantages of the students with those Mr. Abells was present at the re-of the past. Mr. Hammond's con- union and was asked to speak. Henection with the office of the super- declared it his intention to serve the289THE ANNUAL REUNIONTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEinterests of the Association loyallyand to the best of his ability, andthanked the members for his election.The events of Alumni Day calledfor two ball games, one between thevarsity and the alumnae and theother between teams of alumni.Under the leadership of FrederickSpeik, '05, a group' of old-timersenjoyed several hours of strenuousrunning after balls on MarshallField. Even the winners refused tocount the score after the game ended,but the varsity women defeated thealumnae 21 to 9 in another part ofthe field and were not afraid tocheer about it. The batteries forthe women were Mary Heap, pitcher,and Eleanor Freund and Marie .Ort­mayer behind the plate, being op­posed by Florence Lawson and Mar­garet Sahlman for the varsity.E. W. C;LEMENT, '80Alumni of the old University ofChicago will be' interested in know­ing that E. W. Clement, '80, who hasbeen teaching in Japan for the pasttwelve years, is on his way to theUnited States to visit his old friends.He left Japan on April 25 by wayof Korea, Manchuria, Siberia, Russia,Germany, and England, and willreach America ,July!. Mr. Clementwill visit the alumni in Chicago latein the summer. HARRY D. ABELLS, '97The new president of the CollegeAlumni Association is Harry Del­mont Abells, who took the degree ofS.B. in June, 1897. Mr. Abells be­gan his academic career as an in­structor in Morgan Park Academy.Upon the re-organization of this in­stitution a few years ago Mr.Abells became its principal, theposition he now holds. He hasalways been interested in alumnirna tters and hopes to be active inthe 'interests of the Associationthroughout the year.Warren P. Behan, '94, the retiringpresident, remains a member of theExecutive Committee, so that thisbody will retain the benefit of hiscounsel.MAXWELL K. MOOREHEAD, '04Maxwell K. Moorehead, '04, wasappointed by President Taft onApril II, 19IO, American consul atRangoon, India. Mr. Mooreheadentered the consular service in 1906,being appointed consul at St. Thomas,Ontario, after examination, forwhich he had prepared himself inthe College of Commerce and Ad­ministration. Since then Mr. Moore­head has' been consul at Belgrade,Servia; Acapulco, Mexico; and St.John, New Brunswick, from wherehe has now been promoted to Ran­goon.UNDERGRADUATE LIFETHE ANNUAL INTERSCHOLASTICThe Interscholastic contest onMarshall Field this year proved tobe one of the most successful everheld. More than 250 high-schoolboys entered the meet and foughtfor the honor of their variousschools. The well-balanced teamof the University High School dem­onstrated its superiority by pilingup a total of 28� points, an enor­mous lead over the next two com­petitors, Harvard School and LakeForest, who tied for second placewith 10 points each. Oak Park camein third with 9 points. Thirty-sevenschools took points in the events ofthe day, all of which were hotlycontested. The only record brokenwas in the pole vault, when Schobin­ger, of Harvard, went I I feet, 70inches half an inch better than theforme� record made by him lastyear.The Interscholastic championshipin the tennis singles was won bySquair, of Englewood, from Bragg,of Evanston Academy. The scorewas 6-2, 6-1, 6-1. In the doubl�sBragg and McKay won from Squairand Lamb after a hard struzgle, thescore being 6-1, 4-6, 6-1, and 6-3.All men who reached the finalswere presented with cups. Squairreceived the championship cup forthe singles and Bragg and McKaywere each presented with a silvercup for the championship in thedoubles.ATHLETICSAt a secret meeting held by thetrack men on June 8 "Bunny"Rogers was chosen captain of thetrack team of 1911. Rogers,whose forte has been the polevault has been on the team forthree' years, his first year beingspent on the Freshman team. Hehas won his "C" twice and has takenmany points for Chicago. The track team will not losemany of its best men this year.Those who will be graduated areW orthwine in the hammer throw,Captain Comstock in the distances,Caldwell in the distances, Whipp inthe quarter, Bresnahan in the half,and Brown, Gill, and Fishbein inthe broad jump.The Order of the "C" held itsannual banquet in the cafe of theCommons on the evening of Junethe roth. Twenty new men wereinitiated into the Order. They were:For football, Sunderland, Young,Menaul, Rademacher, Gerend, Smith,Kassulker and Sauer; for basket­ball, Edw�rds; for track, �ifford E.Long, Caldwell, and WhIPP; forbaseball, C. Roberts, G. Roberts,Steinbrecher, Latham, Baird, andBoyle' and for tennis, Gardner. L.Brent 'Vaughn, '93, made the speechreceivinz the new men, and talkswere h;ard from Blank, '94, Dick­erson, '94, and F. C. Cleveland, '08.Earle Peabody was given honorarymention for having come the longestdistance to attend the banquet,journeying from Amarillo, Tex.Two new "C" songs were sub­mitted and sung by the men. Theywere "The Song of the 'C,'" byDonald R. Richberg, '01, and "Songof the Emblem," by Harry W.Gottlieb, '00. The officers electedfor the year were: A. A. Stagg,president; Dr. Joseph E. Raycroft,'96 secretary and treasurer; andH�rry D. Abell�, '97, third mem­ber of the executrve committee.THE "CAP AND GOWN"The election of Cap and Gownofficers this year was marked by aclose race for only one place. Thechoice of the second managingeditor was in doubt until the lastballots were counted. Walter J.Foute won over Baar by only twovotes and over Leith by three.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe officers elected were:Managing Editors=-LawrenceWheeler and Walter J. Foute.Business Managers-E. R. Huttonand Ralph J. Rosenthal.Literary Editor-James C. Dy­mond.SENIOR CLASS DAYOn Monday, June 13, the Seniorsheld undisputed sway over the cam­pus and made things merry, withtheir revels. The exercises com­menced with the flag raising, whichwas opened with an address by DeanTufts, representing the University,and a response by Francis MOrchard on behal f 0 f the class.Immediately following this cere­mony the class play entitledMiriam's Mission was given in Man­del Hall. According to availablereports it was eminently satisfactoryand the all-star cast of Ralph Ben­zies, Frank Orchard, Etta Shaupe, \Carlie Souter, "Pat" Page, JoePegues, and "Hal" Latham, quitecaptured the audience.What is called the: Senior Frolicstarted in "Sleepy Hollow" at 12 M.What purported to be a baseballgame in the beginning soon degener­ated into a rousing "rough-house"between Seniors and Juniors. Itis reported that the Seniors were inthe end victorious by a score of 6to 5, which upheld the traditions.The Senior Luncheon was given inHutchinson Cafe at 1 P.M. Afterluncheon, Hoffman, Hunter, Hirschl,Young, Miss Souter, Miss Dickey,and others spoke briefly.The Class Bench exercises beganat 2: 30 o'clock with an address byHarry o. Latham, class president.J essie Heckman gave an interestingclass history, and was followed. bythe class orator, Oscar W orthwine,who emphasized the value of hardlabor prompted by inspiration gained from a university education. Eliza­beth Fogg presented the time-worncap and gown to the Class of 1911,the response being made by HazelStillman. The class hammer washanded down to the Class of 1911 byMansfield Ralph Cleary and a re­sponse made by Calvin Smith whothen knelt and was dubbed knightof the hammer. The Senior Bench,the emblem of class good fellowshipsince '96, was handed down byOrville Page to the next yearSeniors, who were represented byHilmar Baukhage.The class gift was presented by J.Sidney Salkey. It consists of abronze tablet to be placed in memoryof William Rainey Harper in theentrance hall of the Harper Memo­rial Library. In response on behalfof the University, President HarryPratt Judson highly commended thistribute.THE UNIVERSITY SEALPresident Judson announced to theSenior class on May 27 that theUniversity would undoubtedly havean official seal by next fall. Foreighteen years the question of a Uni­versity seal has been agitated and inthat time many designs have beensubmitted to the committee of theboard of trustees, which has thematter in charge, but all have beenobjected to for one reason oranother. The design now nearlycompleted it is thought will .over­come all . former objections.The President expressed his regretthat the diplomas of this year's classcould not be impressed. with the newseal. He-urged upon the class theirduty of loyalty toward the Uni­versity and the necessity of keepingin touch with the University andother alumni through the mediumof the alumni clubs.