THOMAS WAKEFIELD GOODSPEEDSECRETARY OF THE UNIVERSITY BOARD OF TRUSTEES(From a painting in Hutchinson Hall, by Louis Betts, the gift of Captain Henry Goodspeed)The University of ChicagoMagazineVOLUME II MARCH, 1910 NUMBER 4THE REVENUES AND EXPENDITURESOF AMERICAN AND EUROPEANCITIESBY CHARLES EDWARD MERRIAM 1Associate Professor of Politicai ScienceTo many people a man's finances-how much he earns and howmuch he spends-constitute his most interesting attribute.But, strange to say, few people evince the same type of interest ingovernment. This is especially true of our municipal governments:the average citizen knows little, and cares less, about the revenuesand expenditures of the city government under which he lives.And yet municipal finances are of great importance. The socialsignificance of the city is everywhere recognized; and the value ofefficient city government in determining the length and breadth ofthe lives of its inhabitants is evident to the most casual observer.That the municipal expenditures are the core of all municipal gov­ernmental activities is quite obvious, and that these expenditures ar�dependent on municipal revenues is perfectly plain. The study ofmunicipal finance is, then, of considerable value. An interestingdivision of this field of work is the comparative study of therevenues and expenditures of American and European cities. Thefollowing is a brief .summary of such a study,I. REVENUESA comparison of municipal revenues is not an easy task, forthere are many possibilities of error. In the first place, allowances11 Professor Merriam is a member of the City Council of Chicago andchairman of the Commission on Municipal Expenditures appointed by themayor of Chicago.I4ITHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmust be made for differences of governmental organization. Theadministration of municipal functions in some cities is under thecontrol of a single corporation; while in others it is distributedamong a number of more or less independent bodies, such as schooldistricts, park districts, sanitary districts, poor districts, and coun­ties. Thus, in Chicago there are eight local governing bodies.Nor can the mere totals of revenues be used as bases for com­parison. It is necessary to distinguish ordinary revenues, thoseused to defray the "running expenses" of government, and extra­ordinary revenues, those secured from the sale of bonds and thelike for purposes of permanent improvement.It is likewise necessary, if intelligent comparisons are to be made,to divide ordinary revenues into general and commercial revenues.General revenues are those obtained to pay expenses incurred inthe exercise of general governmental functions, such as generaladministration, public health and safety, charities and corrections,streets and sewers, education and recreation. Commercial revenuesare those obtained in the exercise of industrial or semi-industrialgovernmental functions. Each of these groups must be carefullysubdivided: under general revenues come direct taxes, indirect'taxes (license, fines, etc.), and state grants; under commercial rev­enues come revenues from the several municipal industries, receiptsfrom public service privileges, departmental receipts, and specialassessments.Particular care must be given to the tax rate; in one city itmay be levied entirely for local purposes, and in another partly forstate purposes. The basis of valuation must also be considered indetermining the actual rate of taxation: in one city the rate maybe a certain percentage of the actual value; in another, the ratemay be twice this percentage based on one-half the actual value.It must, moreover, be noted that sometimes all, or a part, of a taxlevied by the state goes to the city.If all these precautions be taken, it is possible to bring out somevery interesting facts as to the differences in the sources of revenueof American and foreign cities.Considering first the commercial revenues, it at once appearsthat European cities generally receive a larger proportion of theirincome from municipal industries than do American cities, and ofcourse make correspondingly greater outlays. There is no noveltyin this bit of information; yet it brings out strikingly the Euro-REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES OF CITIES 143pean tendency toward municipalization. It is important toobserve that in addition to this revenue from municipal industries,European cities also receive larger returns from public-service privi­leges. Considerably less is secured in foreign cities from specialassessments, although the differences in the methods employed makecomparisons of items difficult.Turning now to general revenues, there is a striking differencebetween the amounts received from the central governments inEurope and the United States. In this country the amounts of suchstate grants are small, being usually in aid of school funds. InEuropean cities a considerable portion of the general revenues isthus obtained. In Great Britain a large part of such revenues isin the form of "local taxation licenses, inheritance taxes, and probateduties, which are levied and collected by the central government,but paid over in whole or in part to the local authorities." In addi­tion there are subventions or grants for particular local functions,the largest amount being for school purposes. Besides these directgrants, the central government pays for the support of certain func­tions which are in part municipal; such as courts, prisons, parks,and museums. On the Continent, direct grants and subventions aresmall in amount; but the support of the police, courts, prisons,secondary schools, museums, and parks must be considered asequivalent to such grants.Municipal revenues at home or abroad are not, however, chieflyderived from commercial revenues or from state grants, but fromthe remaining item of general revenues-taxation. And this itemof revenue becomes especially important in view of the fact thatit seems to be the only one capable of great expansion.In England very little is secured through indirect taxes or li­censes, while thedirect tax is levied upon real estate. This tax, or"rate," is not, as in the United States, based on the capital value, butupon the rental value of the property-s-after deducting expenses forrepairs, insurance, and renewals. The personal property tax is notemployed.In France the direct taxes form about one-third of the totalmunicipal tax revenue. These are obtained by additions to the fourdirect taxes levied by the central government on lands and buildings,personal property, doors and windows, and trades. Another thirdof the tax revenue is secured through the octrois or duties levied onarticles of consumption-chiefly on foods and drinks. The remain-144 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEing third consists of special local taxes levied chiefly on trades whichmake use of the roads.German cities, like the English, secure 'but little revenues fromindirect taxes, a small amount coming from the octrois and miscel­laneous licenses. The major portion of the direct tax is obtainedthrough additions to the state income tax. Next in importance isthe real estate tax. In some German cities this is levied in the formof a progressive unearned increment tax; in others it is similar tothe English real estate tax based on rental value.' In Berlin aboutIS per cent. of the tax revenue comes from special trade taxes leviedprincipally on liquor dealers and department stores.The principal source of revenue, in the cities of the United St1tesis the general property tax levied on the capital value of real estateand personal property. Special taxes are employed in many cities:-thus N ew York has a tax on bank shares, and Boston, taxes onstreet railways, bonds, and corporations. Trade-taxes are largelyused in the South; while St. Louis has a merchants' and manufac­turers' tax, and' Philadelphia a merchandise tax. The largestamounts of indirect taxes come from licenses, the liquor trade fur­nishing the greatest percentage of such revenues.II. EXPENDITURESIn comparing the expenditures as in comparing the revenues ofcity governments, many precautions must be taken. Thus itis neces­sary to distinguish ordinary expenditures, the payments for "runningexpenses," and extra-ordinary expenditures or outlays, the paymentsfor permanent improvements. Sometimes, as in the case of treeplanting, this is somewhat difficult. Then it must be rememberedthat annual extra-ordinary expenditures are not comparable, becausethey vary greatly from year to year. For purposes of comparison,interest focuses on the ordinary expenditures. These must beclassified; they may be- grouped into general expenditures, inter­ests, loans repaid, and municipal industries. The general ex­penditures, which represent the running expenses of the funda­mental, non-industrial features of municipal government, must becarefully divided and subdivided. The subdivisions must be crit­ically examined in order to avoid inaccuracies in comparison, forthe same term may be differently used in different cities. Forexample, street curbing is sometimes included in street paving, side­walks, or guttering, or carried separately. In some cities engineer-REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES OF CITIES 145ing costs are lumped together, while in others they are assigned tothe department for which the work was performed. Snow removalmay be found under street cleaning, general street works, or streetpaving. Hospitals may be considered a feature of public health,or of charities and corrections. Tenement-house inspection maybe made a part of health or building administration, or separatelylisted.In addition to these difficulties, differences in municipal organi-zation and systems of account, and the state support of certainfunctions in some cities must, as in the case of revenues, be allowedfor.The figures carefully collected and classified, the question thenarises as to the best basis of comparison. Lump expenditures forthe same function in different cities are plainly not comparable. Toparallel the expenditures of London and St. Louis for schools isevidently fallacious. A more discriminating comparison may beinstituted on the basis of per capita disbursements, thus takingpopulation into account. �Table I illustrates such a comparison for several functions. Atable of this nature suggests a number of inquiries. Why is Chicagospending less per person for health purposes than N ew York, Phila­delphia, Boston, St. Louis, London, and Glasgow? What is thereason for Philadelphia's comparatively small expenditure for sew­ers, New York's large expenditure for schools, Vienna's smallexpenditure for libraries? Are these differences due to differencesin local needs, revenues, or efficiency? -While these per capita comparisons are of value, they have thisserious defect: no allowance is made for the diversity in prices,wages, and salaries in Europe and the-United States. Thus Chicagoand Berlin spend 19 and 20 cents respectively for sewers; and St.Louis and Glasgow both spend 35 cents for recreation. Yet it isvery probable that 3S cents will buy more recreation in Glasgowthan in St. Louis, and that Berlin's 20 cents for sewers will goconsiderably farther than Chicago's 19 cents.It might then be safer to shift our standard of comparison to therelative amounts spent in each city for the various functions, to askwhat proportion of the expenditures goes to support this activity orthat. Table II partially answers this question: it shows the per­centage distribution of the expenditures for general governmentsamong several of the principal departments. In this manner theTABLE IPE.R CAPITA ORDINARY EXPENDITURESM' 11 I Street �� ..Fire Charitie3-�.Police Depart- Health . tsce anc- Cleaning Street Sewers Municipal Schools Libraries Recreationand �� ous and Refuse Lighting Industriesment Corrections :l Streets Disposalr:London ........... $r .92 $0.23- $0.17- $4·79 $2.21 $0·40 $0.43+ $0.47 $r .or $3.00 $0. IS + $0·44-Paris .............. 2.56 .26 .10 4.25 1.56 .89 .67 .50 .8<) 2.69 .24- .22Berlin ............ 2.90 .27- .07 2.63 .20 .52 .04 .69- 1. 13 3.89 .03- .29Vienna ........... I. 23 .16_:_ , .02 1.92 1.03 ·45 .07 .25 2·71 3.69 .02+ ·34Glasgow .......... .85- .12 .32 1.94 .38 .76- .58- .13 8.14 2.14 .04- ·35New York.' ....... 3.52 1.82 ·46 1.90 .72 1.49 ·39 .19 1.47 6.08 .29 .65Chicago .......... 2.13 1.14 .13 .j S .19 ·59 .19 .20 1.01 3·77 .14 ·93Philadelphia ...... 2.26 .92 .24 1.20 ·79 .83 ·94 .09- 1.22 3.89 .22 ·5°St. Louis .......... 2·43 1.62 .22 1.21 1. r9 1. 25 '·79 .r2- 1.39 3·47 . II ·35Boston ........... 3.27 2·39 ·33 2.89 1.95 1.73 1.29 ·55 2·40 6.25 ·57 I. 70TABLE IIPERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF GENERAL ORDINARY EXPENDITURESPirc Charities Street I I I Miscellane-Police- I Depart- Health and Cleaning Street Sewers ous I Schools I Libraries I Recreationand Refuse Lightingment Corrections Disposal StreetsLondon ................... 10·5 1.4 1.03 29.0 8.2 2.6 2·9 13·7 18.6 ·95 2·7Paris ..................... 15·7 1.5 ·59 25.0 5·4 3·9 2·9 9·3 15·9 1.3 1.3Berlin ..................... 26·7 I.5 .50 19.0 6.6 ·3 4.8 .1+ 26·4 .18 2.0Vienna .................... 10.2 1.3 .19 15·9 8,9 .6 2.0 8.6 29·4 2.0 2.8Glasgow' .................. 9·7 1.4 3.70 22.6 6·9 6·7 1.8 4·4 24·9 ·4 4·1New york ..... 0 ••••••••••• 17.0 7·7 r .6 8,3 2·4 2.2 1.0 3·9 29· �·4 2.0Chicago ................... r7·0 .89 . 89 6.<) 5·4 I.5 1.7 1·7 36 . ·7 2·9Philadelphia ............... 17.0 6·7 1.<) 7.0 3·7 7 ·4 .69 6.6 23· 1.4 3.0St. Louis ........ ; .. �....... 16.0 9·4 1.5 7.2 3·7 5·5 1.5 8.2 22. ·7 �\7Boston ................... '1 12.0 8·7 1.2 12.2 8.8 5.1 2.2 7·7 23·7 1.8 \4J.2 H�0\�tl1�.......�?J�....,�C)�\'),28�c;)c-�e��ttJREVENUES AND EXPENDITURES OF CITIES 147relative importance of a given function in a given city may easily becompared with the importance of the same function in another city.The results are striking. Although the per capita expenditures forrecreation in Glasgow and St. Louis are identical, yet the relativeimportance of this function in the former city is about two and one­half times its relative importance in the latter city.One of the most notable generalizations to be drawn from sucha comparison is that American cities, as a class, seem to lay morestress on fire protection and less on charities and corrections than doEuropean cities. The greater importance of fire protection is saidto be due to greater necessity, owing to the more flimsy buildingconstruction; the lesser importance of charities and' corrections isascribed partly to the smaller amount of poverty and partly to thegreater development of private charities.Aside from these, no exact generalizations as to the importanceof particular departments of general government in American orEuropean cities can be made. The greater tendency toward munici­palization in the foreign cities has already been commented on inspeaking of revenues.As a matter of fact the figures seem to indicate a greater lackof homogeneity among American cities as a group than wouldnaturally be expected. Boston and London seem to have more incommon as regards the importance of health administration thando Boston and Chicago; N ew York and Vienna apparently agreein ascribing more importance to schools than do Glasgow and Phila­delphia.CHARLES REID BARNESEY JOHN MERLE COULTERHead o,f the Dep�rtment of BotanyP- ROFESSOR BARNES was so much more to me than anunusually efficient colleague in the Department of Botany"that it is difficult to speak of him only in his official relations. Al­most as soon as I had taken my first college position at HanoverCollege, my alma mater, Barnes appeared as a student, and fromthat time we continued to be intimate companions and partners inscientific pursuits.He took his Bachelor's degree in 1877, did graduate work atHarvard University, where he was closely associated with Pro­fessor Asa Gray, and in 1880 became professor of botany at PurdueUniversity. In 1886 he took charge of the department of botanyat the University of Wisconsin, and for twelve years was one ofthe most efficient instructors and administrators of that institution.In 18g6 the Department of Botany was organized at the U ni­versity of Chicago, and its development seemed to me to beImpossible without the stimulating presence and high scientific idealsof my comrade of twenty years, arid in 18g8 he came to help, Towork together in the same institution was a pleasure to both of usthat perhaps only our own families appreciated.It was in 1875 that the Botanical Gazette began its existence,and in 1883 Professor Barnes became co-editor. He had the edi­torial genius. which entered into every detail, from general policiesto printing, �J:ld �without him the journal could never have attainedits present s -iccess. He was complete master of all the endlessdetails that enter into such work, so that in form, in accuracy, inhigh standards of every kind, the journal became a model. Par­ticularly. noteworthy was his work as a reviewer, in which he wasperhaps unexcelled. He grasped the significant things of a contri­bution and presented them with a clearness and force that wereunusual. Moreover, he felt keenly his responsibility to the readersof the journal and to his science, and let no doubtful results orinferior work slip by without Incisive comment. For this reason,he gained the just reputation of being perhaps the most acute criticof botanical work. It was this quality that made him an unusuallyI48CHARLES REID BARNESPROFESSOR OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGYDied February 24, 1910CHARLES REID BARNES I49important factor" in a department active in research. An investiga­tion or a thesis which had run the gauntlet of his frank and keencriticism was equipped to face the public.As a teacher Professor Barnes had few equals. There was aclearness and precision in his statements that left nothing to bedesired. His subject frequently put this power to severe test, forit deals with most complicated situations. This clearness of state­ment was reinforced by a personality so winning on account of itsbrightness and friendliness, that students were won not only to thesubject but to the man. This is teaching at its highest level, and itis perhaps true that our colleague has left even more lasting im­pression through his personality than through his subject.His ripened experience as a teacher and an investigator hadjust expressed itself in a textbook for college use. It is a pleasureto know that he was able to read the final proofs, and that the workwill appear just as he had it in mind. \ He had also planned, incollaboration with one of his colleagues, a series of contributionswhich would culminate in a university text for graduate students.This work had advanced so far that it will be completed under thejoint authorship that had been planned.The many-sided efficiency of the man in the department, aseditor, teacher, critic, frien.I, should be rounded out by his remark­able power as an administrator. To him the interests of the depart:"ment and its building were always in mind, and the watchful carethat everything was just as it should be made the work of all movesmoothly.His loss to the department, in all he stood for to his subject, tohis colleagues, and to his students, is simply irreparable. We canface the future with confidence, for a department outlives its men,but a resource that may be replaced in amount but never in kind hasnow become a memory.TRAVEL IN THE INTERIOR OF CHINABY ROLLIN THOMAS CHAMBERLIN, S.B., '03, PH.D., '07 1Research Associate "in. GeologyIN other parts of the world no doubt the name of Thomas Cook &Son may be mighty, but it availeth nothing in the remote interiorof China. It is true that occidental modes of travel do avail some­what on the borders of the empire. Light-draft passenger steamersascend the Yangtsze Kiang for nearly a thousand miles from thecoast. They also steam several hundred miles up the Si Kiang inSouth China and ply on some other streams. Furthermore, it is truethat a few railway lines have advanced into some of the moreaccessible parts of the empire and are being pushed still farther atthe present time. .But these are merely scattered threads upon themap of the Chinese empire. Aside from them, travel in this ancientcountry as yet differs little from what it was 2,000 years ago, whenCaesar had not yet opened military roads in Gaul or reached Britain.Developed and matured in antiquity when provincialism wasthe rule, the old transportation systems of China are but just begin­ning to feel the first effects of the tran iformation which has sweptover many other parts of the globe. Provincialism still holds inlarge degree, for the different provinces are more or less individualin their leading modes of transportation. If the traveler sets outfrom the capital for Mongolia it is the heavy, springless Peking cartwhich draws him through the arid sands and stifling dusts ofwestern Chihli, and jolts him.over the stony ascents that lead up tothe Mongolian Plateau. Once in Mongolia he may desert the rat­tling cart for the horse or the camel. In Central or South China hemay resort to the swaying sedan chair. In this he may doze withdelight after he discovers that the light-hearted coolies who bearhim also enjoy their part of the process. In the heart of WestChina, on the plains of Chengtu, capital of the splendid province ofSzechuan, the Chinese wheelbarrow is the local specialty for passen­ger and freight alike. The traveler may indeed go in the sedan,or mount a horse, but the wheelbarrow is the specialty in this per-l Dr. Chamberlin was one of the secretaries to the Oriental EducationalCommission sent out by the University of Chicago, which returned in August,19°9.GREAT EAST STREET IN CHENGTUThe three parallel ruts in the middle of the street are made by wheelbarrowsTRAVEL IN THE INTERIOR OF CHINAhaps the finest provincial city of the empire. The parallel groovesin the middle of its principal streets which at once catch the travel­er's eye, are not car tracks but the furrows which the wheelbarrowshave slowly worn in the stone pavements.Riding into this region ourselves in the somnolent ease of sway­ing sedan chairs which had carried us over nearly four hundredmiles of paved path from Central China, we were not a littlesurprised to see leading citizens and bespectacled scholars, other­wise dignified, pushed along dusty country roads in squeaky wheel­barrows. The squeak seems to be an indispensable asset. BigChinese parasols easily intercepted the headache compelling sun­beams, but nothing subdued the squeak or warded off the cloudsof dust which whitened the wheelbarrow passenger from skullcapto shoes.But though the wheelbarrow may be as uninviting and uncom­fortable as it is undignified, the sedan chair borne by sinewy cooliesis a really luxurious mode of travel. Fortunately it is much morewidely available than any other single style of conveyance. Whilethe passenger may curtain "himself in at liberty, the windows oneach side of the chair-box and the open front allow ample views ofthe passing country. The chair itself, set in slightly reclining atti­tude and made comfortable by cushions, enables the occupant to.draw the curtains and fall into a nap at any time. The long, pliablebamboo poles which support the chair-box yield just enough tocounteract the walking movements of the coolies and give a gentlerhythmic sway. But like most luxuries, it is inviting for a timeonly. Though the Chinese ride in these chairs for long distances ata stretch, the foreigner finds thai a couple of hours or so of confine­ment in a single position with little chance for shift, and less chancefor conversation with his traveling companions, is amply sufficientfor the time being. The result is likely to be that he and his com­panions, at the expense of their dignity in the eyes of the Chinese,get out of their chairs and tramp together alongside the caravanwhile they chat over the constantly interesting sights and incidentsof the way.A passenger may be carried by two, three, or four coolies, thatdepending quite as much upon the amount of dignity which hewishes to assume, as the weight he really carries. Inured by longtraining and thoroughly hardened by practice, these coolies willcarry the chair with its occupant up and down hills and over lowIS2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmountain ridges twenty-five or even thirty miles a day and keep thisup day after day for several weeks at a time. But even morenotable than the endurance of the chair bearers is the strength ofthe coolies to whom it falls to carry the baggage. With the aidof a short pole balanced upon his shoulder and a basket suspendedfrom either end of it, each of these baggage carriers will walkbriskly all day under a load of perhaps eighty pounds. They maynot be large men, but chairmen and baggage carriers alike aremarvels of physical endurance. And for this arduous labor theyreceive three hundred or four hundred copper cash per day, equiva­lent to fifteen or twenty cents of American money. Out of suchwages as these they must provide their own food and pay theirown inn money.Though these meager wages would appear on first thought tomake travel ridiculously cheap, it will be found, if one stops toreckon in the short distance traveled daily, that a journey in thistime-honored fashion is quite as expensive, mile for mile, as in thestateroom of a Pullman car on a limited train in our own land ofhigh prices. But if slower and even expensive, it is vastly interest­ing. The density of interest is a good match for the density ofpopulation in the unspoiled interior of China.The modes of transportation are no more bizarre to the occi­dental traveler in the interior of China than are the appointmentsfor the night's rest after each day's journey. Outside of the largeEuropeanized treaty ports hotels as we understand the term areunknown. The oriental equivalent is the Chinese inn-a ramblingone-story structure built around inner courts and passages. Inthe more pretentious inns of North China, one usually passes insuccession two or three courts before he reaches the chief suite ofrooms at the inner extremity. Opening off from these courts arequarters for guests and their servants. There may be a half-dozenor more of these rooms, in one of which is a fireplace where thevoyageur's servants may prepare his meals.The most essential features of the Chinese inn are the wallsand roof which are always, but sometimes almost alone, present. Ofsecondary importance, though generally present, is the floor, some­times of wood, sometimes of brick, but sometimes only of earth­surface. To these appointments are added a table and a set ofbenches or stools, and usually a raised platform. The inn providesnothing whatever in the way of bedding, and supplies no meals. ItsA SEDAN CHAIR AND THE FOUR TRUSTY COOLIES WHO CARRY ITTRAVe:� IN THE INTERIOR OF CHINA. 153function is simply to furnish a place where the traveling publicmay camp under cover. The crowded condition of the country andthe extreme degree to which every scrap of available land is culti­vated, leave no room outdoors on which to camp. Unless theOriental has servants and coolies he literally takes up his bed andwalks, assuming that he has a bed; but traveling, except by return­ing coolies and porters, is usually confined to those who can afforda retinue of servants.Upon arrival at an inn in the evening the chair carriers passthrough the outer gate and set the traveler's chair down in thecentral court. It is only n�cessary for him to crawl out of thechair, take formal possession of the dining-table and associatedstools or benches, and wait. His servants in the meanwhile unpackthe baggage baskets as the rest of the caravan comes straggling in,set up the beds and help the cook prepare and serve the eveningmeal. The best servants in the world, these operations progressrapidly considering the difficulties, but to the tired traveler dinneroften seems a long time in coming.There are two great nations of cooks-the French and theChinese. But in the culinary art as in everything else there is sucha wide difference between eastern and western taste that the occi­dental traveler generally prefers to take with him a stock of pro­visions from foreign Shanghai and hire a train of coolies to carrythe outfit rather than accommodate himself to Chinese cuisine. Afare not altogether unlike that of an American camping party, butvaried with much steamed rice and chicken curry, is a compromisecommonly adopted.While such a compromise placates the palate of the Occidental,it arouses the greatest curiosity among the natives. At breakfastor dinner this curiosity makes little difference, for these meals areeaten within the semi-private recesses of the inn, but the noonluncheon while on the march is taken in the public court of somewayside inn or some tea house. There is nothing to keep back theswarm of inquisitive spectators except the ineffectual efforts ofthe servants and the pair of -soldiers 'whom the local magistratesends along to serve as an escort. A crowd of a hundred peeringvillagers press in as close to the lunch table as they dare, andelbow each other for choice positions in the front row where theymay watch the foreign menagerie eat. Not a motion by one of thediners on exhibition but what is observed by a score of eyes. If theI54 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEencircling wall of vastly amused spectators draws rather too closeunder pressure f�om the less favored ones behind, or becomes toonoisy, the soldiers make a show of forcing the assemblage backjust as policemen clear necessary space for the players on a crowdedbaseball field at home. But these crowds are so thoroughly goodnatured that they are more amusing than offensive. It is a freecircus for them and, like a group of boys around a monkey cage,they enjoy nothing more than a joke turned on one of their ownnumber.There is no real privacy for the foreigner anywhere in theinterior of China, but the evening meal eaten in the chief guestroom at the farthest end of the innermost court may be enjoyed incomparative quiet. Still it is likely to be interrupted once or twiceby the [u-to, or official representative of the coolies, who is notlikely to fail to seize the psychological moment to come for theday's wages of the chairmen and baggage carriers. The negotia­tion of this requires time and patience, for the fertile mind of thecoolie chief usually discovers some reason why more than theregular amount of money should be paid on each particular day.But after a due amount of diplomatic sparring the sum stipulatedin the contract is paid over and he retires.The native traveler spreads out his bedding, if bedding he has,upon a bunk platform, perhaps two and one-half feet high, builtalong the side or across the end of the sleeping-room. The for­eigner does well to use a folding cot upon which he may place hiscamp-roll or sleeping-bag. Chinese crawling insects have not yetsolved the problem of the camp-cot legs, and if strong and strangeodors can be ignored, there is every reason for a sound night's rest.Though the Chinese are very hard workers and toil well into thenight, 'the noisy street traffic which disturbs slumber in Americanand European cities is completely absent. Disturbance of slumbermay come from another quarter in the cold season of the year.The foreigner accustomed to tight houses and steam heat is aptto be roused before daylight by an all-pervading sense of chill, forthe doors of the abode, even when closed, are not proof against thewind, and the only source of artificial warmth is the limited heatthat may be supplied from beneath the brick platforms or by smallcharcoal braziers if, indeed, either of these have been provided.But life in China being essentially an open-air life, even behindclosed doors, harm does not often result.AT EACH VILLAGE THROUGH WHICH A FOREIGN PARTY PASSES THE AMUSED NATIVES SWARM ABOUTTHE CHAIRS TO CATCH GLIMPSES OF THE CURIOUS PASSENGERSTRAVEL IN THE INTERIOR OF CHINA ISSIn the morning little time is lost in dressing, for the tediousconventionalities of western dress have been curtailed. Water forwashing is fetched from some well or nearby rice field and beforebeing served is warmed over the cook's fire by the attentive servants.The personal traps are bundled into the grips and turned over tothe coolies who have to select, assemble, and adjust their individualpacks for the day and start ahead .while the westerner gets hisbreakfast. After the meal comes the settling of the "hotel" bill andthe departure, leaving the servant's to gather up the remainingparaphernalia and follow. Should some member of the party sofar forget himself as to mourn over some luxury of home hotellife lacking in the night's appointments, he justly lays himself opento reproof, for the party has perhaps paid at the rate of four centsapiece for the night's accommodations.A UNIVERSITY CONSCIOUSNESSBY DONALD RICHBERG, A.B., '01IN less than two. decades money and brains have forced the growthof the University of Chicago, until now, through the achieve­ments of builders of stone and masons of intellect, we present toan amazed and somewhat irritated collegiate world the semblanceof a great university.Those who study the University with loyal interest, but withoutillusion, may well be impressed with the idea that in the very shadowof this semblance there ever lurks a timid actuality, conscious appar­ently of defects in clothes or manners-putting forward the fairappearing Christian to repeat to the world's Roxane the hopes andaspirations of him hidden beneath the balcony.The realized dreams of architects cannot make us a great uni­versity. A faculty roll of honored names is merely the index of acatalogue of the accomplishment of workers in laboratory andlibrary, and I beg leave to assert that a great catalogue fails to insurea great university.The University is a mighty factory. The most modern andefficient machinery has been graciously donated for its service.Trained, high-salaried superintendents, foremen, and machinistshave been employed to keep the wheels going round. Wood, stone,steel, cement, system-all the essentials of great business-arefound here. But personality-the breathing, pulsing personalitythat means life; reproduction; immortality; a universityconscious­ness-its poor oxygen-stimulated heart flutters feebly in the breastsof the alumni who gather around the big tables in Hutchinson Hallon Alumni Day.Having written what, despite the protests of the English depart­ment, I shall insist on calling an introduction, let me start on my realpreachment. Why is it that we, the alumni, have no common con­sciousness that makes us and the University "now and forever, oneand inseparable"? Or, to put it otherwise: why is that consciousnessso feeble as to be almost nonexistent, a thing of so little force andenergy that it is only at odd moments that we feel its existence?, As a collection of individuals we are not at all ashamed of our­selves. \Ve are willing to place our achievements and personalities156A UNIVERSITY CONSCIOUSNESS 157in competition with any equal number of graduates of any college.But as an alumni body, surely we are a poor weak thing. Admittingthis, of course our first search should be for someone on whom tolay the blame. Ah! Here we are: the faculty! Let us chant inunison: "They started us out all wrong. They certainly did. Asindividuals they are beyond reproach. In individual work they areworthy all honor and acclaim. But as a collective body they haveno appreciation of what a university consciousness or personality is,and that is where we caught the disease that killed our spirit."No, even as we listen to our complaining, we are conscious thatwe have not yet found the cause. Whatever be the sins of thefaculty they are simply caught in the same net that has enmeshed us.Either of us could have given the other body a university spirit andneither did.Now, brother alumnus, if at this point you know just what thematter is, please stop reading. Sit down and write the Last Wordon the Subject, and I am sure it will be printed in the very nextissue of this Magazine. But if you feel the perplexity which hasgrown on me in the last few years of cogitation on the SUbject andwhich I have endeavored to arouse in your mind, pray read on;since here, without attempting to excite interest by delaying untilfuture issues, I will present to you my remedy. I present it shrink­'ingly, I am not entirely confident of its ability to resist attack. Iam not as proud of the child as I thought I would be.In the opening paragraph I observed that the University wasa forced growth. It did not grow slowly from a small beginning. Itdid not start in the usual way: a man, an idea, and a struggle forcarfare. The man and the idea may be discerned by the alert­minded, but the struggle for carfare, which is equally important, wasconspicuously absent. Money and brains, enormous quantities ofboth, were contributed. Inside less time than necessary for a classto graduate, a full-fledged university was in operation. Of courseit was impossible to grow a personality in that time. An attemptwas made to supply the lack by adopting the orphan personality ofthe old University, but the chief effects of that adoption seem to bethe efforts of the old alumni to keep green the memory of the Old,despite the gray paint brush of the New, and an assumption ofmaturity and paternity by the new alumni bearing a striking resem­blance to the spectacle of Willie clad in father's trousers.The responsibilities of the faculty of the new University must158 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEhave been- great, but they could hardly have been greater than thoseof the students. Those noble souls did their very best in the earlydays. All the usual activities of college were hurried into birth;athletic teams, students' publications, rushes, songs, and traditions,were created overnight. When the wearied undergraduates pausedfor breath, or perhaps for time to cram for examinations, the faculty,alive to the urgent needs of the day, "made student customs."· Allthis panting activity might have supplied that spirit of which weare now in need, but for one inevitable weakness .... The student bodybeing small in numbers naturally provided what might be termeda small college personality and for a few years their work appearedwell done. Then the absurdity of such provision began to dawnupon both faculty and students. The University had grown to beas a man of mighty stature and even mature intellect, yet otherwisewas as undeveloped as a child. I "Our powers of assimilation had not been cultivated. We hadgrown on predigested foods. Even now we do not assimilate. TheUniversity does not fuse its students. They come as individuals.The University has become no larger, no more permanent for theirpresence. They have not become part of an institution. The spiritof the institution has not become a part of them. Theseare broadstatements; they are not wholly true. But we must state our prob­lem in broad terms if we are to attempt its solution. Time willprobably solve our questions, but we are intolerant of delay, Thespirit which built the University in a decade is impatient to buildits personality. We must give to this forced growth a forced indi­viduality-a soul big enough to rule the body. This is my guessat the Remedy.The Alumni Association should be an endowed institution. Itshould be possible for that association to keep in touch with eachgraduate of the University and keep him in touch with Chicago.The annual meeting should be made a great gathering, a festal occa­sion, arranged and planned through the preceding year. The alumniclubs in distant cities should be federated into the one central organi­zation. They should be in close communication with the campus atall times. Class secretaries should keep their lists up to date, readyat call to co-operate with the general secretary. All alumni publi­cations should go free to every alumnus of sufficient spirit to joinan alumni club. All these are platitudes-stale demands-obviousneeds---yet the various organizations of alumni are insufficient toA UNIVERSITY CONSCIOUSNESS 159satisfy even the fundamental necessities for the cultivation of auniversity spirit. The business is too large for the capital available.The alumni of fifty years would be required to finance the needsfor the alumni of the University of Chicago. It is properly the partof the administrative officers of the University to call attention toits needs, to increase its service to education. They must also rec­ognize the transitory character of that service unless the Universitybecomes a breeding force, a creating energy, a conscious life, apartfrom its buildings, its equipment, - and its faculty. Yet is it as fittingthat the administrative officers should call attention to this need asthat the alumni themselves should announce it? Weare a part ofthe University. We are not passing beneficiaries of charitabledonors. We are not products of a man-refinery. We are the red­blood corpuscles in a self-perpetuating institution. But we realize,alas! that our pulse is so feeble that it serves for exhibition purposesonly, while a galvanic battery operates the heart. Pray do notunderstand that I am proposing more electrical stimulation througha subsidized alumni association. We do need, however, sufficientfunds to get our red-blood corpuscles together in a fighting mass,to overpower the germs of indifference, to work for the time whenthe heart of the University will beat independent of artificial stimu-lation..If each donor of buildings or endowment funds to the Universityof Chicago had 'set apart a small percentage of his gift for an alumniendowment fund, he would have added to the monument, which hewill leave at the University, that element of permanent value, whichwith all due regard for the power of invested capital, I respectfullysuggest, exists only in that intangible quantity sometimes termedcollege spirit, sometimes alumni interest, and which I have termedUniversity consciousness.This consciousness exists. You may feel its pulse feebly beatingin the communications that come to the Alumni Council. Perhapsyou are seized with contrition. You wish to pay dues to the CollegeAlumni Association. You ask for the treasurer. The secretarysmiles sadly. "There is no treasurer-nothing for him to do. Thereare no dues. You may subscribe to the Magazine for one dollar."Poor weak pulse-yours and mine! Can we buy, beg, or borrowfood and strengthen its beat-or must we let it flutter on until thecoming generations accomplish the task that should be ours ? Wemust have either voluntary service or funds with which to purchase160 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthat service. It is unfair to expect that our small alumni can con­tribute all the service required or the funds wherewith to do thework. Yet I am convinced that both money and time would becontributed in much more generous measure were the possibilityof success during his lifetime within the reasonable expectation ofthe alumnus.It would seem proper at this point to suggest at least in outlinewhat might be accomplished by this capitalized alumni energy.Such a suggestion will be no better as a prophecy than outlining thecareer of a toddling child. Yet we are under the obligation ofparenthood. The University consciousness is our child and we mustnourish and cherish it in the fond hope that its maturity will justifyour labors" To cheer ourselves through its measles and colic,through its childish perversities- and follies, we may well dream ofthe accomplishments of its distant manhood.First, we must gather into one compact, disciplined army ourscattered soldiers.Second, we must adopt definite, written policies and designateofficers to carry them out.Third, we must establish mediums of communication which willkeep all alumni and alumni clubs in close touch with the centralorganization and the University. Alumni should receive not onlythe Magazine, but also the official News Letter and special noticeof all important developments in the University. They should benotified of any opportunities whereby in any particular locality orunder special circumstances they may be of service to the University.Statistics should be collected regularly by class secretaries andalumni clubs for permanent reports and items of passing interestgathered to make the Magazine a real medium of alumni news.When the alumni are a unit, capable of enduring accomplish­ment, their real work can be undertaken-the transmission of thepersonality of the University from class to class, benevolentlyassimilating succeeding generations of undergraduates.A system might be adopted whereby each class would regarditself as peculiarly responsible for the welfare and guidance of theclass of five years later. Representatives of the alumni could lendtheir aid as desirable in class affairs of their wards through collegeand finally officially receive them into the alumniassociation, Thesealumni councilors would, be near enough their wards in collegeyears to appreciate and understand them and at the same time theirA UNIVERSITY CONSCIOUSNESSown interest in the University would thus be sustained during thesecond year out of college, when that interest is subject to mostrapid decline.As I try to write down a mass of unformed, half-baked, probablywholly futile suggestions for the activity of a future great alumniorganization, I am again impressed with the uselessness of planningthe manhood labors of the teething child. Our task is the develop­ment of a University consciousness. The sooner we discard oursham maturity and accept our youth as an opportunity and not aburden, the sooner we begin to work and talk sincerely, the soonerthere will come into being a greater University of Chicago-a uni­versity which will not only organize, but breed men to serve theworld in the light of fixed ideals and to fabricate dreams into purposeand achievement.THE UNIVERSITY RECOR.DTHE DEATH OF PROFESSOR CHARLES R. BARNESCharles Reid Barnes, Professor of Plant Physiology in theUniversity, died suddenly at his residence in Chicago on February24·Professor Barnes, who received the Bachelor's, Master's, andDoctor's" degrees from Hanover College, Indiana, and later tookspecial courses in botany at Harvard University, was for severalyears professor of natural history at Purdue University, and 'in1886 took charge of the department of botany at the University ofWisconsin, where he remained for twelve years. In 1896, when theDepartment of Botany was organized at the University of Chicago,the Head of the Department invited Professor Barnes to come to. Chicago, and in 1898 he accepted the invitation. Professor Barneswas co-editor of the Botanical Gazette from 1883, and gave closesupervision to all the details of the journal. He was also Dean ofthe Colleges of the University of Chicago from 1900 to 1904; andExaminer for Colleges from 1904 to the time of his death. He wasgeneral secretary of the American Association for the Advance­ment of Science for the year 1895-96, and vice-president of thesame organization in 1899; and also secretary of the BotanicalSociety of America from 1894 to 1898, being elected in 1903 tothe presidency of the same society.At the funeral service, held in the Leon Mandel Assembly Hallon Sunday afternoon, February 27, the President of: the Universitypresided and the University Chaplain, Professor Charles R. Hender­son, gave an address. An address was also given by Dr. OscarC. Helming, pastor of the University Congregational Church. Anappreciation of Professor Barnes by his colleague, Professor JohnM. Coulter, Head of the Department of Botany, appears else­where in this issue of the Mcqaeine.HONORS FOR EXPLORATION AND RESEARCHCommander Robert E. Peary, discoverer of the north pole, wasthe guest of President Harry Pratt Judson at a large receptiongiven at the President's House on the afternoon of February 26.In the evening of the same day Commander Peary was the guest162UNIVERSITY RECORDof the Geographic Society of Chicago at a banquet and receptionheld in the La Salle Hotel, when he was presented with the HelenCulver gold medal for arctic exploration; and a similar medal waspresented to Professor Thomas C. Chamberlin, Head of the Depart­ment of Geology in the University of Chicago, for original researchin glacial formations. Professor Chamberlin accompanied Mr.Peary on one of his expeditions to Greenland. President Judsonpresided at the banquet, at which six hundred guests were present.Later in the same evening Commander Peary was the guest at theUniversity Club, where Professor Rollin D. Salisbury, Head of theDepartment of Geography, made a brief address, introducing Mr.Peaty to the members of the club. Professor Salisbury was amember of a relief expedition that several years ago went to Green­land in search of Mr. Peary.THE FOURTH AND FIFTH CONCERTS BY THE THEODORE THOMASORCHESTRAOn January 25, the Theodore Thomas Orchestra, under thedirection of Frederick Stock, gave to a large audience in the LeonMandel Assembly Hall a programme of great interest, as follows:Overture-"J essonda" SpohrSymphony No.6, "Pathetique," B Minor, Opus 74, TschaikowskyNorwegian Rhapsody . LaloFinal,e from "Das Rheingold" WagnerOn March I, the Orchestra presented a request programme ofunusual variety, which was received with enthusiasm by the audi­ence. The programme included the following selections, especialinterest being shown in the unfinished symphony and in the closingnumber:Overture-e-v'The Magic Flute" MozartSymphony No.8, B Minor (unfinished) SchubertVariations on a Theme by Haydn, Opus 56 BrahmsOverture-"Merry Wives of Windsor" . NicolaiSuite-from the Ballet "Casse-Noisette," Opus 7Ia, Tschaikowsky1. Ouverture miniature; 2, Danses caractei-istiques ; (a) Marche,(b) Danse de le fee. dragee, (c) Trepak, Danse Russe, (d)Danse Arabe, (e) Danse Chinoise, (f) Dansie des Mirlitons;3, Valse des Fleurs.The sixth and last concert of the season will be given on theafternoon of April 5 in the Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, and will164 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEbe preceded on the afternoon of April 4 by a free lecture-recital byMr. Glenn Dillard Gunn, illustrating the following programme:Overture-"Leonore," Opus 72, NO.3.Symphony NO.4, D Minor, Opus I20Overture-"Sakuntala"Scene Religieuse from "Les Erinnyes" MassenetVioloncello obligato by Mr. Bruno SteindelSuite-"Sylvia"Military March-"Pomp and Circumstance," Opus 39 BeethovenSchumann, GoldmarkDelibesElgarTHE FACULTJESAt the recent election of the Union League Club of ChicagoPresident Harry Pratt Judson was elected a member for three yearsof the Committee on Political Action."An Apology for Tennyson" was the subject of a lecture beforethe Woman's Aid Society of Chicago on March 1, by ProfessorPaul Shorey, Head of the Department of Greek."Social Utopias" was the subject of an address before the Chi­cago section of the Council of Jewish Women, held in Sinai Templeon February 14, by Professor George E. Vincent, of the Departmentof Sociology.In the January (1910) issue of the American Journal of SemiticLanguages and Literatures appears an article on "Some Hittite andMilannian Personal Names," by Dr. Daniel D. Luckenbill, of theDepartment of Semitics.At an open meeting of the Equal Suffrage League, held in CobbHall on the afternoon of February 23, an address was given byMrs. Helen Loring Grenfell, former superintendent of public in­struction in the state of Colorado."Improvements in Industrial Life Insurance" is the subject of adiscussion in the January (1910) number of the A merican Journalof Sociology, by Professor Charles R. Henderson, Head of the De­partment of Ecclesiastical Sociology.In the Chicago Tribune of February 23, 19IO, Assistant Pro­fessor ]. Paul Goode, of the Department of Geography, discussedthe advantage to the city of Chicago of allowing the Sanitary Dis­trict to construct the new harbor of Chicago.Dr. Bernhard C. Hesse, who received his Doctor's degree inchemistry from the University in 1894, has been made temporaryUNIVERSITY RECORDsecretary of the Eighth International Congress of Applied Chem­istry, which is to meet in the United States in 19I2.In Fullerton Hall of the Art Institute, under the auspices ofthe Chicago Women's Aid, Professor Ferdinand Schevill, of theDepartment of History, gave an illustrated lecture, February 9, onthe subject of "Venetian Art."Under the auspices of the Chicago Society of the ArchaeologicalInstitute of America an illustrated lecture on "The Olympic Games"was given in Kent Theatre on February II, by Professor CharlesB. Gulick, of the Department of Greek in Harvard University."The Nitrate Deposits of Chili" is the subject of the openingcontribution in the January-February (I91O) number of theJournal of Geology) by Professor R. A. F. Penrose, Jr., of the De­partment of Geology. The contribution is illustrated by sevenfigures.At the third meeting of the Federated Women's Clubs of thetwelfth congressional district of Illinois, held in Rockford, January21-26, 1910, Associate Librarian ZelIa Allen Dixson gave an illus­trated lecture on the subject of "Monte Casino, the Cradle of Lit­erature."Professor Albert Bushnell Hart, of Harvard University, gavea series of four lectures in Haskell Assembly Room from February7 to February 10, the subject of the series being "An American inthe Orient-Japan, China, the Philippines, and English and RussianPossessions.""Education in the Philippines" was the subject of an addressbefore the Woman's Club on February 9, in the Fine Arts Building,Chicago, by Professor William D. MacClintock, of the Departmentof English. Mr. MacClintock gave, about a year ago, a series oflectures on English literature before the Teachers' Association ofManila.At the celebration of the German emperor's fifty-first birthday,held by the German Maennerchor of Chicago on January 28, Pro­fessor James H. Breasted, of the Department of Semitics, gave,partly in English and partly in German, a tribute to i the emperor;and Professor Starr W. Cutting, Head of the Department of Ger­man, also eulogized Emperor William in German.The second contribution on "Excavations in Palestine," by Dr.Daniel D. Luckenbill, of the Department of Semitics, appears in the166 THE UNIVpRSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEFebruary issue of the Biblical World. The article has three illus­trations. In the same number also is a contribution entitled "Jesus'Work in Galilee: His Healing Ministry," by Professor Theodore G.Soares, Head of the Department of Practical Theology.Professor Julius Stieglitz, of the Department of Chemistry,gave an address before the Syracuse section of the American Chem­ical Society, January 8, on the subject of "The Electric Theory ofOxidation and Reduction," and also an address before the IllinoisAcademy of Science, February 19, on "The Relation of Pure andApplied Chemistry to the F'rogress of Knowledge and to PracticalAffairs.""Principles of Teaching Latin" was the subject of an addressby Professor Frank J. Miller, of the Department of Latin, at thesixth annual conference of Secondary School Principals and Teach­ers held at the University of Cincinnati, February 26, 1910. At thesame conference Mr. John M. Crowe, of the University HighSchool, gave an address on certain needs in the teaching of Englishcomposition."A University Professor in Politics" is the subj ect of a contri­bution in the February (1910) issue of the World To-Day, byProfessor Shailer Mathews, editor of the magazine. The articledescribes the work of Associate Professor Charles E. Merriam, ofthe Department of Political Science, as chairman of the ChicagoCommission on City Expenditures, and is illustrated by a full-pageportrait of Mr. Merriam. ."..._"Temples and Tombs of Western Thebes" is the subject of acontribution, fully illustrated, in the February (19 IO) issue of theChautauquan magazine, by Professor James H. Breasted, of theDepartment of Semitics. The article is the sixth in a series entitled"A Reading Journey through Egypt." Mr. Breasted, also gave alecture, February 25, before the Arche Club of Chicago on the sub­ject of "Early Portraiture in Sculpture."Associate Professor Otis W. Caldwell, Supervisor of NatureStudy in the School of Education, contributes to the Februarynumber of the Elementary School Teacher an article on "NaturalHistory in the Grades." In the same number, Professor WalterSargent, of the Department of Education, has a contribution onthe subject of "The Fine and Industrial Arts in the ElementarySchools, Grades 4 and 5." The article has six illustrations. \UNIVERSITY RECORDAt the eleventh semi-annual meeting of the BibliographicalSociety of America, held in New York City at the Columbia U ni­versity library on December 3I, I909, Dr. Adolph C. von Noe, ofthe Department of German, presented a paper entitled "On RecentGerman Books on the United States of America." At the samemeeting Associate Professor Leon C. Marshall, of the Departmentof Political Economy, gave a paper on the "Bibliography of Eco­nomics in the United States."Professor Eduard Meyer, LL.D., of the University of Berlin,gave a series of three lectures in the Leon Mandel Assembly Hallon February 23 and 24, the subjects being as follows: "Alexanderthe Great and the Absolute Monarchy," "Papyri of the JewishColony at Elephantine," and "The Greek Colonization of the Eastafter Alexander." Professor Meyer received from the Universityof Chicago at the fiftieth Convocation on. March 22, 1904, thehonorary degree of Doctor of Laws.Associate Professor Charles E. Merriam, 'of the Department ofPolitical Science, who is chairman of the Chicago Commission onMunicipal Expenditures, contributes to this number of the Magazinean article on "The Revenues and Expenditures of American andEuropean Cities." Mr. Merriam is the author of a monograph onmunicipal expenditures, which was issued under the auspices of theCity Club of Chicago, and has also written volumes entitled "AHistory of American Political Theories" and "Primary Elections.""Main Currents in Contemporary German Literature" was thesubject of an address before the Institute of Arts and Science ofSt. Paul, Minn., on February I6, by Assistant Professor MartinSchiitze, of the Department of German. Mr. Schiitze is also togive during the summer two series of lectures at the University ofMunster, Germany, on the subjects of "The Naturalistic Movementin Literature" and "Modern American Literature." On March 21,he gave an address on "The Poetic Drama" at Erie College, Paines­ville, Ohio."The Ultimate Test of Religious Truth: Is It Historical orPhilosophical?" was the subject of a discussion in the January(I91O) number of the American Journal of Theology, by ProfessorJames H. Tufts, Head of the Department of Philosophy. The dis­cussion was also participated in by Professor Eugene W. Lyman,of Bangor Theological Seminary, and Professor E. Hershey Sneath,168 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof Yale University, In the same number Professor James H.Breasted, of the Department of Semitics, has a critical note on "TheEarliest Social Prophet."Among the fifty members of the permanent Chicago committeeof the National Conservation Association are Professor Julian W.Mack, of the Law School; Mr. Harold F. McCormick, of the Uni­versity Board of Trustees; and Mr. Wallace Heckman, GeneFalCounsel and Business Manager of the University. ProfessorAndrew C. McLaughlin, Head of the Department of History, aspresident of the Quadrangle Club, was one of the presidents ofeighteen organizations in Chicago to welcome President Taft onMarch 17, when he gave an address in the Auditorium on the sub­ject of "Conservation of National Resources."Director Charles H. Judd, of the School of Education, con­tributes to the February number of the School Review an article"On Scientific Study of High-School Problems." The article wasfirst given in the form of an address delivered November 20, 1909,at the twenty-second Educational Conference of Academies andHigh Schools in Relations with the University of Chicago. In thesame number of the journal is a contribution on "The Place ofManual Arts in the Secondary Schools,',' by Professor WalterSargent, of the Department of Education. This article was alsofirst given as an address at the twenty-second Educational Confer ..ence of Academies and High Schools.The Astrophysical Journal for January, 1910, contains a contri­bution entitled "On a Great Nebulous Region and on the Questionof Absorbing Matter in Space and the Transparency of the N ebu­lae," by Professor Edward E. Barnard, of Yerkes Observatory.The contribution is illustrated by three plates. Mr. John A. Park­hurst, also of the Observatory, has an article on the subject of"Precautions Necessary in Photographic Photometry." The con ...tribution is illustrated by nine figures. In the same number of thejournal is a contribution on "The Analysis of the Principal MercuryLines by a Diffraction Grating and a Comparison with the ResultsObtained by Other Methods," by Assistant Professor Henry G.Gale and Mr. Harvey B. Lemon. The contribution is illustratedby ten figures."Industrial and Commercial Education in Relation to Condi­tions in the City of Chicago" is the subj ect of a report made by theUNIVERSITY RECORDCommittee on Industrial and Commercial Education of the ChicagoAssociation of Commerce. The report, of sixty-four pages, by sixmembers of the Association, one of whom is Professor NathanielButler, of the Department of Education, consists of nine parts, asfollows: I. On the Meaning of Industrial Education; II. Aim andScope of Industrial and Commercial Education; III. Present Socialand Economic Conditions; IV. Graphic Representation of the Edu­cational Situation; V. Some Provisions for Industrial and Com­mercial Education in Chicago; VI. Some Provisions for Industrialand Commercial Education in Other Cities; VII. Suggestive Pro­grammes; VIII. Recommendations and Conclusion; and IX. Ref­erences.Dr. Johann Jacob Meyer, of the Department of GermanicLanguages and Literatures, published in the year I909 through theLondon press, Luzac & Co., in a book of 300 pages, an Englishtranslation of Professor Hermann Georg Jacobi's AusqeuidhlteErzilhlungen. in M a/zarilsh/ri, Leipzig, I886. The title, Hindu Tales,gives little idea of the work involved in Dr. Meyer's critical andexplanatory notes on the Prakrit originals of these stories, thesignificance of which has been recognized by European critics. Mr.Meyer has also just published through the press of Georg Wigand,Leipzig, a volume of 650 pages entitled Vom Land der tausendSeeen. Eine Abhandlunq iiber die neuere finnische Literatur undeine Auswahl aus modernen finnischen Novellisten. The book in­cludes a two-hundred-page sketch of the development of Finnishliterature, regarded by Finnish critics as authoritative. The interestof the Finns in this first-hand study of their national literature isseen in the recent gift to Dr. Meyer of an album containing a largecollection of photographs and autographs of living Finnish writers.The opening contribution in the January (19IO) number of theBotanical Gazette is entitled "Chromosomes in Osmunda," by Dr.Shigeo Yarnanouchi, of the Department of Botany. This is theone hundred and thirty-second contribution from the Hull BotanicalLaboratory and is illustrated by one plate. The one hundred andthirty-third contribution from the Laboratory is entitled "TheOrigin of Heterospory in Marsilia," by Dr. Charles H. Shattuck,of the University of Idaho. The contribution is illustrated withfour plates and one figure, and acknowledgments are expressed toProfessor John M. Coulter and Assistant Professor Charles ].I70 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEChamberlain, of the Department of Botany, under whose directionthe work was carried on. The one hundred and thirty-fifth contri­bution from the Hull Botanical Laboratory, entitled "The Re­forestration of Sand Plains in Vermont," appears in the Februarynumber of the same journal. The author is Clifton Durant Howe,of the University of Toronto. The article is illustrated with a mapand fifteen figures. An acknowledgment of assistance is made toAssistant Professor Henry C. Cowles, of the Department of Botany.At the meeting of principals and superintendents of EasternIllinois held at Charlestown from January 22 to 26, Director CharlesH. Judd, of the School of Education, was a representative of theUniversity of Chicago. Professor Nathaniel Butler, of the De­partment of Education, gave a commencement address at theEastman High School at Detroit, Mich., on January 26; and the Central High School of Detroit on January 27. Mr. Butleralso spoke on February 10 before the Farmers' Institute and SchoolConference at Ottawa, Ill. Professor George E. Vincent, Dean ofthe Faculties of Arts, Literature, and Science, gave an addressbefore the Northwestern Ohio Teachers' Association at Cleveland,on February 14. Mr. Butler and Mr. Judd also gave addressesbefore the Society of College Teachers of Education at Indian­apolis, Ind., from March I to 4; and before the Department ofSuperintendents which met at the same time. Associate ProfessorClyde W. Votaw, of the Department of New Testament Litera­ture, was a representative of the University at the meeting of theReligious Education Association held in Nashville, Tenn., fromMarch 8 to 10.At the Boston meeting of the American Chemical Society­Section C of the American Association for the Advancement of Sci­ence-papers were presented by the following men who were atone time connected with the Department of Chemistry in the Uni­versity of Chicago: Richard S. Curtiss, formerly Docent in theUniversity, now professor of organic chemistry at the Universityof Illinois; William McPherson, Ph.D., r899, head of the depart­ment of chemistry in the Ohio State University; Ralph H. McKee,Ph.D., 190I, professor of chemistry in the University of Maine;William D. Richardson, chief chemist of Swift and Company; H.C. Cooper, professor of chemistry, Syracuse University; William L.Evans, Ph.D., 1905, associate professor in the Ohio State Uni-UNIVERSITY RECORD 17Iversity; S. F. Acre, Ph.D., 1894, professor in Johns HopkinsUniversity; J. Bishop Tingle, professor in Toronto University;William J. Hale, Research Assistant in the University, 1904, nowassistant professor of chemistry in the University of Michigan.Papers were also presented at the same meeting by ProfessorAlexander Smith, Professor Julius Stieglitz, Dr. Edith E. Barnard,and Mr. A. W. C. Menzies, of the present staff cf the ChemistryDepartment.LIBRARIAN'S ACCESSION REPORTFOR THE AUTUMNQUARTER, 1909During the Autumn Quarter, 1909,there was added to the libraryof the University a total number of5,851 volumes, from the followingsources:BOOKS ADDED BY PURCHASEBooks added by purchase, 3,267 vol­umes, distributed as follows: Anat­omy, 33 ; Anthropology, 32 ; As­tronomy (Ryerson), 8; Astronomy(Yerkes), 31; Bacteriology, 18; Bi­ology, 5; Botany, 12; Chemistry, 17;Church History, 44; Commerce andAdministration, 23; Comparative Re­ligion, 12; Dano-N orwegian Theologi­cal Seminary, 18 ; Dano-N orwegianand Swedish Theological Seminary,I6 ; Embryolozy, 3 ; English, 136 ;English, German, and Romance, 3;General Library, 99; Geography, 32;Geology, 40; German, 95; German andRomance, I; Greek, II9; Haskell, 36;History, 376; History of Art, 16;History of Art, and Latin, 4; House­hold Administration, 2; Latin, 138;Latin and Greek, 14; Latin, Historyof Art, and Sanskrit and Compara­tive Philology, I; Law School, 348;Mathematics, 33 ; New Testament,5 I; Pathology, 23; Philosophy, 59;Physical Culture, 4; Physics, 31;Physiology, 20; Physiological Chemis­try, 18; Political Economy, 105; Po­litical Science, 27; Practical Theology,28; Psychology, 6; Romance, 173;Sanskrit and Comparative Philology,43; School of Education, 732; Sem­itics, 36; Sociology, 70; Sociology(Divinity), 21; Systematic Theology,26; Zoology, 29.BY GIFTBooks added by gift, 1,902 volumes,distributed as follows: Anatomy, 1;Anthropology, 4; Astronomy (Ryer­son), 2; Astronomy (Yerkes), 12 ;Biology, 15; Botany, 6; Chemistry, 13;Church History, 68; Commerce and Administration, 29; Comparative Re­ligion, 2; English, 10; General Li­brary, 751; Geography, II; Geology,18; German, 2; Greek, 6; Haskell,284; History, 41; History of Art, 4;Latin, 5; Law School, 55; Mathe­matics, 21; New Testament, 12; Path­ology, 3 ; Philosophy, I; PhvsicalCulture, 25; Physics, 5; Physiology,1; Physiological Chemistry, 2; Politi­cal Economy, 56; Political Science,10; Practical Theology, 75; Romance,4; School of Education, 250; Semitics,36; Sociology, 35; Sociology (Divin­ity), 2; Systematic Theology, 23;Zoology, 2.BY EXCHANGEBooks added by exchange for U ni­versity publications, 682 volumes, dis­tributed as follows: Astronomy(Ryerson), 1; Astronomy (Yerkes),15; Biology, 2; Botany, 1; ChurchHistory, 58; Commerce and Adminis­tration, 2; Comparative Religion, 6;English 2; General Library, 136;Geology, 12; Greek, 51; Haskell, 4;History, 5; History of Art, 30; Latin,40; Latin and Greek, 6; Mathematics,156; New Testament, 7; Philosophy,I; Physics, 5; Political Economy, 3 I ;Political Science, 3; Practical The­ology, I I; Sanskrit and ComparativePhilology, 2; School of Education,26 ; Semitics, 40 ; Sociology, 12 ;Systematic Theology, 17.SPECIAL GIFTSF. 1. Carpenter, Princesse Cloria, orThe Royal Roma nee, 1665-1 volume.C. R. Henderson, theological andmiscel laneous-c--r on volumes and 245pamphlets.Harriet Monroe, Bridgewater Treat­ises, and Vindiciae Hibernicae, 18 I 9-13 volumes.A. K. Parker, miscellaneous-l 07volumes and 28 pamphlets.V. V. Phelps, miscellaneous-s-r r 2volumes and 74 pamphlets.Quadrangle Club, periodicals-c-ridjpamphlets.G. L. Raymond, his own work&-8volumes.United States government, docu­ments and reports-c-ao j volumes.DISCUSSION AND COMMENTUNIVERSITIES OF THE MIDDLE WESTT HAT the development of educational institutions in the MiddleWest has been wholly out of proportion to a similar develop­ment in other parts of the country was clearly shown in a series oftables given by Edwin E. Slosson, Ph.D., '03, in his final paper 011"Great American Universities," published in the Independent ofMarch 3. "Western University Competition" was likewise madethe subject of an interesting editorial in the Yale Alumni Weekly ofrecent date, and although comment was entirely on the figures forthe last decade, the effect of which Yale is considered to have over­come, the article was nevertheless illuminating from many pointsof view. In considering the new Yale University Catalogue theWeekly deduced the following:Taking ten western states, including California, each with its large andthriving state university, it will be found that during ten years, while thetotal Yale registration has increased about 30 per cent., the Yale representa­tion from the ten western states has increased S8 per cent. If the decade,however, -be split in two and certain allowances made, it will be found thatYale, during the last five years, has been running almost neck and neckwith her western rivals. Their competition has simply cut off her earliergains and a trifle more and the actual rivalry seems to have largely spentitself. The leading competitive states appear to have been Ohio and Illinoiswith, very likely, the University 0 f Chicago a special force in the lattercommonwealth added to the state institution,Mr. Slosson's figures, we will admit, were not intended to showthe growth of western educational institutions as compared withthose of the East, but were drawn up to compare fourteen univer­sities which he felt merited the title that he gave his series. Thecomparison, however, is so favorable to the Middle West that weare tempted to give details, based as they are on the authentic reportsgiven by university authorities, Professor Tombo's recent contribu­tion to Science on comparative registration, the figures of theCarnegie Foundation, and the World Almanac. In choosing thefourteen universities Mr. Slosson took seven which may be groupedas of the East: Harvard, Yale, Columbia, Pennsylvania, Princeton,Cornell, and Johns Hopkins; five which belong to the Middle West:172DISCUSSION AND COMMENT 173Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Illinois, and Chicago; and two ofthe Pacific Coast: Stanford and California. In age the East totalsI,042 years, Harvard, the oldest institution, having 273 years, andJohns Hopkins, the youngest, 33. Together the Middle West canshow only 233 years of life, while California and Stanford togethermake 67. It is well to bear in mind this great disparity in age inconsidering the following totals:COMPARATIVE GROUP STATISTICSEast Middle West Pacific CoastTotal number of students ............... 27,r73 24,065 6,267Students in the College of Arts [under-graduate] .......................... 7,799 7,33r 2,823Students in the graduate schools .......... 2,588 r,226 498Students in the summer schools .......... 4,2j4 6,263 878Students in law schools .................. 2,035 I,664 r60Students in schools of medicine ........... 2,149 I,244 188Number of living alumni. ............... 84,817 45,653 10,459Income for the last fiscal year ............ $8,075,216 $7,3I5,07° $2,H)3,SOODoctorates conferred ...... ......... 2 r67 699 66Figures such as these, dealing with groups, bring small satisfac­tion to the alumni of a university which, they know, has an importantplace in the history of the rise of western universities.' Here wefind Chicago, the youngest of the fourteen, younger than Stanfordby one year, occupying the following positions in the tables:Total number of students enrolled (third): Columbia, 6,132; Harvard,5,558; Chicago, 5,487; Michigan, 5,259.Students in the college of arts' (sixth): Harvard, 2,720; California,1,827; Michigan, 1,770; Wisconsin, 1,6I7; Minnesota, I,567; Chicago, 1,464;Yale, 1,229.Students in the graduate schools (second): Columbia, 797, Chicago, 44I;Harvard, 423; California, 414.Students in the summer schools (fitst ) : Chicago, 3,253; Columbia, 1,g68;Harvard, 1,377; Wisconsin, 1,333; Michigan, I,225.Students in the law schools (eighth): Harvard and Michigan tie forfirst place with 760; Chicago enrolling 199.Students in schools of medicine: Pennsylvania first with 544; Chicagotenth with 146.N umber of living alumni: Michigan first with 20,205; Chicago twelfthwith 4,915.Income for the last fiscal year: Columbia first with $2,207,501; Chicagosecond with $I,899,755; Harvard third with $1,827,789.Doctorates conferred: Chicago first with 448; Columbia, 436; Harvard,4I8 ; Yale, 394.I74 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAN OPPORTUNITY FOR ALUMNIWhat Donald Richberg, '01, says in his article 0!1 "A UniversityConsciousness" in this Magazine brings before the reader someof the things alumni have been thinking about for a decade. As acriticism of conditions it is a great deal more important than thefacile smoothness of the style and the good humor of the writerwould indicate. Mr. Richberg has given us something to thinkabout, and more than that, has suggested a way for the alumnuswhose intentions are good but whose spirit is weak to be of somevalue to the institution that gave him his degree. Alumni interestsin the University are still in the formative period, but they will notbe there long if everyone of the men and women graduated fromChicago contributes his mite of interest to the allied organizations.This year the alumnus will be given every opportunity to show thevaluation he places upon the ties that bind him to his alma mater.The alumni events in June will be important enough, and spectacularenough, if need be, to make the occasion thoroughly interesting,even for the loop business man who has been wont to discuss theinefficacy of alumni propaganda while subscribing to some othermagazine, and to lament the lack of spirit over his lunch in a down­town restaurant. Ample notice of all events will be given likewise,so that everyone near and far will have plenty of warning, andengagements may be made weeks beforehand, and seats for thedinners reserved by mail, telephone, and telegraph. Whatevergeneral comment in Mr. Richberg's article is applicable to alumni, isin the same degree applicable to the University. Let us begin anearnest, determined effort to make the future alumnus feel thatthere is a great deal more to be gained in a university than threemajors of learning a quarter; let a moderate emphasis be kept like­wise on what we at Chicago are wont to correlate under the name of"student activities"; let the students get a better and more effect­ive glimpse of the tangibility of the University by frequent generalmeetings in which both students and faculty take part, therebyinsuring its homogeneity. The true spirit of a university is not in­stilled into men after they have a degree, but during their four yearsof undergraduate work. Frequently it is not absorbed-not evenin those universities where every other short cut through the shrub­bery is a poet's walk, and every room is sacred to the memory ofsome hero in love, war, and industry-often it is instilled only byteaspoon doses of required attendance at meetings that a studentDISCUSSION AND COMMENT 175might shun if they seemed perfunctory and ritualistic, but laterlearn to love if he found them helpful and inspiring. Following outthe thought of Mrs. Weber's contribution in the January Magazinelet us inject into the four years of undergraduate work a little moreof personality and a little less of system; a little more kindly inter­course between instructors-yes, and even professors-and theyoung men and women who some day are to pass the torch ofknowledge on to another generation; for, after all, the supremeachievements of mankind are achievements of personality, and whilewe admire the accuracy and endurance of a mechanical instrumentwhich performs without fatigue, we worship the master whosebrain makes that instrument a living and a breathing thing. Let usconsider both sides of the problem and then seek its solution withall the strength at our command.THE MODERN DRAMA FOR UNIVERSITY STUDYWhen the modern commercial world turns to universities andcolleges for advice and inspiration, we of the charmed academiccircle are wont to rub our hands in glee "and look with mild disdainupon the intrusion of the newcomers. Truly, it is gratifying tolearn that Mr. Henry B. Harris, a New York producer of plays,wishes to endow a chair of dramatic literature and play-writing inan eastern university, and that Mr. Frederic Thompson, of thesame city, offers $5,000 for the best drama of American life writtenby a Yale undergraduate. And yet, after our first feeling of satis­faction has passed, and we look the gift-horse in the mouth, we areprompted to remark that perhaps both these men are not appealingfor aid, but actually conferring a benefit; that they have becomephilanthropists instead of mendicants; that they are asking us toget up and do something which it has long been our duty to do, andwhich, with a singular aloofness not at all characteristic of Ameri­can aggressiveness and unconventionalityv we have consistentlyrefrained from doing.The university world has become actively interested in politicsand journalism; why not the modern drama? Not so many yearsago learned professors preferred writing abstruse monographs onthe decadence of American political institutions to leadership in thebattle for clean public morals. The coming of courses on journal-176 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEism into the curricula of American universities is even more recent;today schools of journalism are still regarded as a doubtful experi­ment,' and the place assigned to them in the minds of the elect is alittle lower than the departments of literature and English, andhalfway between manual training and agriculture. Yet- the Ameri­can press remains the greatest factor for influencing public opinionever created by man, and without the inspiration of men whoseminds have been trained to think clearly and logically in the inter­ests of the common good, it goes on perverting news, suppressingtruth, abetting corruption, and violating the sanctity of the homeand the family. 'Lastly come the plays on the contemporaneous stage. Modernproductions are so far beneath the notice of the litterateur that fewuniversities give any attention whatsoever to American dramaticconditions, even from an empirical standpoint, and plays of thepresent that are discussed in lectures for their virtues and theirfaults are largely continental in origin. At the same time theAmerican theater speaks to an audience only a little less in propor­tions to that addressed by the American newspapers; an audiencewilling to laugh, to cry" to be humored, encouraged, aroused,alarmed, and educated by all the subtle arts of representation.It is this which makes us think that perhaps the debt to Mr.Harris and Mr. Thompson is on our side; that they are calling ourattention to a problem; that they are giving us the opportunity tocome honorably out of hiding, drop the air of indifference to thingsof the moment, and become a living force for the good of that whichmust soon claim a place in our national life-the American drama.This cannot be done without due attention to undergraduateneeds. It should begin with a helpful supervision of plays producedby students, not so drastic as nearly every member of the facultymight recommend, but with a view toward building up the desire forbetter drama even in the simpler forms. The substitution of theclassics as a regular diet on short notice would hardly bring aboutthe desired change in taste. There is room for the classics side byside with the modern drama, influencing its development to betterand higher forms; but one can hardly hope that our great body ofcandidates for a Ph.B. will care to sit through a play in Latin except'tor curiosity's sake. The substitute of Greek and. Latin plays forthe present work of the students at the University is naively sug­gested by the Chicago Tribune of March 8-one day after its ownDISC US..) ION AND COMMENT 177inexplicable exploitation of the recent performance of Goliath bythe Dramatic Club-in the following:The University is now old enough to justify its classical students inproducing one of the Greek or Latin classics, as has been done in Englandand at our older institutions of learning in the eastern states.So far as undergraduate plays are concerned, they are as a rule trivialnonsense, poor copies of meretricious music hall material. Even in thelighter vein our students are far behind their cousins.' .The recent originalLatin play written and produced by the boys of Westminster school, :mextract from which was reproduced in these columns a few months ago,proved this. It was excellent, not only as to its Latinity, but also in its fun.It is a long step from a musical satire to the Latin play of theWestminster School, and it is hoped that in bridging the chasm wedo not forget that modern drama has a place in our national life,and that perhaps it is worth study in spite of its many faults. It isalways worth remembering that nearly all the great playwrights ofthe ages achieved not only greatness in their own time, but won alsothe plaudits of the multitude, and that there was nothing esotericabout William Shakspere's personality or his writings.In the Wisconsin Alumni Magazine Thomas H: Dickinson,associate professor of English at the University of Wisconsin, de­clares that an enlightened patronage is absolutely necessary if we areto have a better drama. Answering the question, "What can theuniversities do in raising the standard of drama in the UnitedStates ?" he says:The first service such a chair could render would be in raising thestandard of average information as to the place the drama can occupy inthe world of thinking men. The Anglo-Saxon peoples are far behind anycontinental country in the respect given to drama as a molder of opinion;and America is far behind England. Partly by heritage and partly bytraining the English speaking peoples have grown to look upon drama as avehicle for frivolous amusement only. In France, Scandinavia, Russia, andGerma-ny drama has flourished in a far more significant way than this.There it has been the people's forum and the people's newspaper. Thatthere is nothing inherently despicable in drama itself is shown by the factthat in these nations the keenest thinkers have not been ashamed to useits strong forces of popular appeal for the spreading of their doctrines andideals.The universities can help no less significantly by cultivating the bettertaste for plays as carefully as they now 'try to cultivate the better tastefor reading.ALUMNI CLUBSG�NERAL ALUMNI ACTIVITIESNEW YORKA group of about forty enthu­siastic eastern alumni gathered togreet President and Mrs. HarryPratt Judson at a dinner at theHotel p, �1·mitage, N ew York, onthe evening of Wednesday, Feb­ruary 2. A keen disappointmentwas in store, however, for Presi­dent Judson was summoned im­mediately before the dinner tothe sickbed of a near relative. Mrs.Judson, carrying out her commis­sion, in a very neat speech not onlymade the company feel the presi­dent's sincere regrets, but also nar­rated in a very interesting way therecent happenings at the U niver­sity, thus posting the eastern alumniup to date.The toastmaster was Mr. JosephE. Freeman, 'g8, president of theassociation. The following toastswere given: "The National Scopeof the University of Chicago," Dr.E. c. Sage of the General Educa­tion Board; "Evolution and theAlumni Association," ProfessorHarry B. Learned of the SheffieldScientific School; "The Branches,"Dr. Isabel Bronk of SwarthmoreCollege, and "Loyalty to' the U ni­versity," Dr. J. Herman Randall ofthe Mount Morris Church, NewYork.The annual election of officerswhich followed the dinner resultedin the following being chosen toserve for the ensuing year:P.resident-Dr. E. C. Sage.Vice-Presidents-Miss Anna Bodlerand Joseph E. Freeman.Treasurer-Charles V. Drew.Secretaries-Miss Maudie L. Stoneand Milton J. Davies.Executive Committee-e-Miss EdithE. Schwarz, Mrs. Henry R. Caraway,Dr. J. Herman Randall, MaximilianMorgenthau, j-, and Dr. F. S. Wein­garten.The alumni are planning to holda "Bohemian dinner" within thenext few months.MILTON J. DAVIES, '03Secretary SIOUX CITYAlthough announced for March 4an unavoidable change in arrange­ments necessitated the postponementof the Sioux City dinner for DeanGeorge E. Vincent to April 1. Thedinner took place at the Mon­damin Hotel. It was preoededby the election of officers for thesucceeding year. Besides the regu­lar list of alumni Mr. Herbert W.Brackney, the president of the club,has succeeded in getting the ad­dresses of thirty-five former stu­dents of the University.ST. LOUISOn the occasion of the visit ofPresident Harry Pratt Judson toSt. Louis on March 8, when he madethe annual address before the CivicLeague, a group of interestedalumni of the University under theleadership of Mayo Fesler, '97,gave him a reception on the after­noon of that day, at which the St.Louis Alumni Club, the twenty­third in the list, was organized.The following invitation was sentto about sixty alumni residing inSt. Louis and vicinity:The alumni and former students ofthe University of Chicago are invitedto an informal r-eception in honor ofPresident Harry Pratt Judson in theparlors of the Southern Hotel, at 5P. M., Tuesday, March 8, 1910.The question of organizing a U ni­versity of Chicago Alumni Club willprobably be considered at that time.Will you kindly extend this invi­tation to any alumni and former stu­dents whom you know?E. A. Balch, '97Abram Ebersole, '95Alice Lachmund, '00E. P. Lyon, '07Wm. C. Gunnerson, '04Lewis Gustafson, '00Althea Somerville, '01Mayo Fesler, '97Daniel M. Schoemaker, '08SEATTLEThe Northwest Alumni Club heldits winter meeting informally at theGENERAL ALUMNI ACTIVITIESresidence of Mr. and Mrs. Milo J.Loveless, ex, in Seattle, on Febru­ary 12. The programme consistedof the reading by Charles EugeneBanks, late of Chicago, of some ofhis own poems, and dramatic read­ings by Mrs. Lillian WilliamsCoiseman. This was followed bya valentine party in which the menpr,esent selected their partners forsupper by shooting darts from .anair-gun at paper hearts labeled withthe names of the alumnae. Thecommittee ruled that the manshould pair with the woman whoseheart he pierced, no one to knowwhether it was the one aimed at ornot, and suggested this as a goodrule in real life. Twenty-four Chi­cago alumni and a dozen more oftheir friends enj oyed this most de­lightful evening.S. D. BARNESJ '94OMAHA AND DAVENPORTInformal reunions of alumni tookplace in cities visited this yearby the tour of the Glee Club of theUniversity. The principal meet­ings were held in Omaha andDavenport, la. At the latter citythe Rock Island Alumni Club wasa strong factor in giving the cluba welcome. The engagements forvacation week filled by the GleeClub were as follows:March 19-Lincoln, Neb.March 20-0maha, Neb.March 22-N ewton, Ia.March 23-Davenport, Ia.March 24-Dixo'n, Ill.TEXASA reunion of all alumni andformer students in Texas for pur­poses of org-anization has beenplanned for next month. Arrange­ments are in the hands of JohnSimnson Abbott, '07, who holds theposition of dairy and food com­missioner for the state of Texas,with offices at Denton. The re­union will probably be held in FortWorth or Dallas. Mr. Frank W.Dignan, A.B., '97, Ph.D., '05, isplanning to represent the AlumniCouncil. . 179SPOKANEThe following alumni reside inSpokane, Wash., according to a cor­rected list sent to Secretary Han­sen by Miss Lily Grey:Guy Broackway, 331 Rose Avenue.J essie Cecelia Boyington, 804 AliceAvenue.Oscar Paul Lineau, 604 AugustaAvenue.Signa D. Bostrom, Fifth Avenue.William Corbett Healion.Margaret B. Allardyce, 2524 La­monte Street.Thomas A. Bonser, 29 Twenty­seventh Avenue.Mrs. H. C. Calhoun, 1025 East In­diana St., Spokane, Wash.Lily Grey, care Spokesman-Review.CHICAGOOver eight hundred invitationswere sent out by the officers of theChicago Alumni Club calling atten­tion to the annual dinner of the club.A report of the meeting will begiven in the next Magazine. Theinvitations read as follows :The annual dinner of the ChicagoAlumni Club will be held at the Uni­versity Club, Monroe Street and Michi­gan Avenue, at 6: 30, Thursday eve­ning, March 17. This is not -thealumni association. Every man whohas ever attended the University iswelcome. There will be good foodand lots of it. There will be goodspeaking and little of it. The athleticsituation will be thoroughly dis­cussed. No evening clothes allowed.Illinois had 125 out. Shall we taketheir dust? $1.50. Come. Reply'now on attached card.J. W. LINNJ '97, PresidentG. O. FAIRWEATHER, '07, SecretaryTHE EASTERN ORGANIZATIONMilton J. Davies, '03, secretary ofthe Eastern Alumni Club, has sentthe Alumni Council Secretary acopy of his card file of alumni inthe New England and easternAtlantic states. This list provesthe care taken by this club to pre­serve a complete record of thealumni, and is deserving of emula­tion by clubs which have not yetadopted this method of keeping intouch with members in their owncities and in places near by:180 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWilliam R. Roney, '76, is nowpresident of the Guanajuato De­velopment Co., president of the OroGrand Mines Co., vice-president ofth-e Securities Corporation, vice­president of the Pinguico MinesCo., The Peregrina Mining Co.,and Milling Co., and the MexicanMilling and Transportation. Hewas general engineer for the West­inghouse interests for twenty-fouryears and has had large experiencein mining, smelting, and millingenterprises in the United Statesand Mexico. Mr. Roney's addressis 165 Broadway, New York City.Charles R. McMillen, '03, who lSalso in New York City, became in­terested in the legal aspects of realestate and the administration of es­tates soon after his graduation andfor some time was connected withChauncey Keep and Seymour Mor­ris at 13'5 Adams Street, Chicago.In May, 1907, he moved to NewYork City and at the present timeis assistant to the president of theUnion Bag and Paper Co., 17 Bat­tery Place. Mr- McMillen lives at78 Beech Street, East Orange, N. J.ALUMNI NEWSCLAY CLEMENT'S CAREERMany a reminiscence of the oldUniversity of Chicago was calledup by graduates of that institutionwhen they read of the death ofClay Clement, actor and playwright,on February 20, in Kansas City,Mo. Mr. Clement had been play­ing the part of the drainman inThe Servant in the House therewhen taken ill with pneumonia,which was cornnlicated by uraemicpoisoning.Clay Clement was the stage nameof Clement Vlasingham Geiger,who was a graduate of the pre­paratory department of the oldUniversity and later became amember of the class of 1887.Properly Mr. Geiger should appearon the alumni records as ex-'87,but the Class of '87 failed to re­ceive its diplomas, the institutionclosing its doors before that time.Mr. Geiger read law in the officeof Judge W. L. Snell following the close of the University, althoughhe appeared on the stage as earlyas 1884. He won a position forhimself by the success of his ownplay, The New Dominion, in whichhe took the leading role. He wasalso the author of A Southern Gen­tleman, and Ping Pong, and col­laborated in the writing of InHampton Roads and Sam Houston.Alumni of the first University re­call with interest his graduationfrom the preparatory department,when he delivered an eloquent ora­tion on "Benedict Arnold." Hewas a valued member of the TriKappa Literary Society and of thePhi Kappa Psi Fraternity. Mr.Geiger was born in 1863 and wasthrice married. His body was takento Paris, Texas, for burial, in orderto carry out a compact made be­tween himself and a friend withwhom he was interested in a ranchthere. They agreed years' ago thatwhen one died the other' wouldclaim the body and take it for burialto this property.LECTURES FOR THE HAREMProfessor Emily Ray Gregory,Ph.D., '99, head of the departmentof biology in the American Collegefor Girls at Constantinople, hastaken charge of an active propa­ganda for the improvement of thepublic health in Constantinople.Favorable mention of her work ismade in a recent issue of The Sur­vey of New York City. Under thenew regime in Turkey every re­form is possible, a condition indirect contrast to the old adminis­tration. Taking advantage of thisDr. Gregory has prepared articleson hygiene and sanitation whichwill be introduced gradually intothe papers in all the differentlanguages of Turkey and the Bal­kan Peninsula with which theAmerican college is in touch. Lec­tures are also offered to the womenof the harems who have not hadthe proper educational opportuni­ties. These women are invited tothe college one afternoon a weekfor a lesson in English on a popu­lar subject.. Dr. Gregory recentlyspoke to this class on the cause andprevention of typhoid fever.GENERAL ALUMNI ACTIVITIESTHE ALUMNI COUNCILWhile awaiting the report of theCollege Alumni Association on itsplans for Alumni Day before pro­ceeding farther with the general ar­rangements the Alumni Council atits meeting on February 3 in theCommons Cafe considered addi­tional plans for promoting the M aga­zine and interesting alumni in theclubs. Each member of the Councilpresent agreed to write or com­municate with alumni who had be­come delinquent in their obliga­tions, and to inspire other alumnito join the band of active workersfor the expansion of alumni inter­ests.THE OMAHA SETTLEMENTSettlement work in Omaha, Neb.,has been inspired mostly by the Social Settlement Association whichhas for its secretary, Miss AnnaLockwood Peterson, A.B., '99. Theorganization was founded in March,1908, by the Omaha branch of theAssociation of Collegiate Alumniand conducts a Settlement Housewhich has become the center of use­ful activity and wholesome recrea­tion. Over two hundred boys andgirls came to the house during theyear to attend classes in housekeep­ing, cooking, industrial work, gym­nastics, sewing, weaving, and paint­ing. A story hour is conducted on.. different days of the week, and i �branch of the public library hasbeen established in the Settlement.Miss Peterson is teaching, Latinand Greek in the high school atOmaha.THE ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OFPHILOSOPHYHERBERT E. SLAUGHT, PH.D., '98, SecretaryALUMNI NEWSIrving King, '04, has an article inthe February, 1910, number of thePopular Science Monthly on "Aus­tralian Morality." Dr. King is nowassistant professor of education inthe State University of Iowa.During the first six weeks of theAutumn Quarter Associate ProfessorOtis W. Caldwell, '98, visited highschools and colleges in Massachu­setts, N ew York, Pennsylvania, andOhio, making a study of the teach­ing of the sciences, particularly ofthe sciences of the first year of thehigh school. Twenty-two highschools and seven colleges and uni­versities were visited.Associate Professor Herbert E.Slaught, '98, was one of the judgesat a debate in Elgin, Ill., on theevening of February II, between theteams representing the Elgin andFreeport high schools.Rev. John C. Granbery, '09, ispastor of the Methodist EpiscopalChurch, South, of Philippi, W. Va.Jerome H. Raymond, 'oS, is presi­dent of Toledo University and pro­fessor of economics and sociology."The Chalk Formations of N orth­east Texas" is the title of an articlein the May, 1909, issue of the A meri­can Journal of Science, by Pro­fessor Charles H. Gordon, '95, ofthe University of Tennessee.The following articles by AdolphC. von N oe, 'oS, were recently pub­lished: "Die Oesterreicher in denVereinigten Staaten von N ord­amerika" in the OesierreichischeRundschau of July 15, 1909, Vienna;"Leitgedanken zum Professorenaus­tausch" in the I nternationale W och­enschriit fur Wissenschaft, Kunstund Technik, of Tuly 24, 1909,Berlin.Miss Amy E. T.anner, '98, is headof the department of pedagogy inthe Children's Institute, Worcester,Mass.James W. Fertig, '98, is superin-182 tendent of schools, at Summerville,S. C.Edmund Buckley, '94, is editor ofa monthly publication called M ud­lauia, published at Kramer, Ind.Charles Arthur Paullin, '04, isabout to undertake a piece of re­search work in London for the Car­negie Institution of Washington.David P. Barrows, until recentlydirector of education in the Philip­pines, i� now professor of educa­tion in the University of Califor­nia.William H. Ross, '07, is assistantchemist of the agricultural experi­ment station at the University ofArizona, Tucson, Ariz.John M. Gillette, '01, is professorof sociology in the University ofNorth Dakota. He is also presidentof the executive committee of theNorth Dakota Child Labor Com­mittee.Thomas J. Riley, 'OLi, is assistantprofessor in the department of soci­ology at the University of Missouri,Columbia, Mo.Wallace Craig, '08, is associateprofessor of philosophy and psy­chology at the University of Maine,Orono, Me.Frederick O. Norton, '06, is deanof the college of liberal arts andprofessor and' head of the depart­ment of Greek, at Drake Univer­sity, Des Moines, la.Frank G. Lewis, '08, has been ap­pointed instructor in Hebrew atCrozer Theological Seminary, Ches­ter, Pa. He also has charge of thelibrary of the Seminary.Norman DeWitt, '07, of VictoriaCollege, Toronto, Canada, read apaper before the meeting of the Do­minion Educational Association re­cently held at Victoria, B. c., andwas elected secretary of the sectionof higher education.Anthony L. Underhill, '07, hasbeen appointed assistant professorof mathematics at the University ofTHE ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OF PHILOSOPHY 183Minnesota. He was last year in­structor at the University of Wis­consin.Charles H. Shattuck, '08, hasbeen called to the chair of forestryat the University of Idaho, Moscow,Idaho. He was formerly professorof botany and forestry at ClemsonCollege, S. C.Jeremiah S. Young, '02, has beenappointed assistant professor in thedepartment of economics and politi­cal scienoe at the University ofMinnesota. He is the author of abook entitled Civil Government ofWisconsin published by Hinds,N able and Eldridge. He was presi­dent of the Southern MinnesotaTeachers' Association and read apaper on "The School and Health"before the association at its recentannual meeting at Faribault.Ralph H. McKee, '01, has resignedas professor of chemistry at LakeForest College to' become head ofthe department of chemistry at theUniversity of Maine, Orono, Me.Dr. McKee is vice-chairman of thedivision of organic chemistry of theAmerican Chemical Society.Samuel B. Sinclair, 'or, formerlyvice-principal of the Ottawa, Can­ada, Normal School, has been ap­pointed head of the School forTeachers of MacDonald College,McGill University. Dr. Sinclair isan honor graduate of Toronto Uni­versity and comes to his new po­sition of responsibility after longtraining and experience in the schoolsystem of Canada.At the Puget Sound Marine Sta­tion, Friday Harbor, Washington,there were present this year amongthe thirty-nine students and instruc­tors eight representatives of theUniversity of Chicago, includingthe following Doctors: Howard S.Brode, '96, professor of biology,Whitman College, W all a Walla,Wash., who was director of educa­tional work at the station; Theo­dore C. Frye, '04, professor ofbiology, University of Washington,who was instructor and businessmanager at the station; John F.Garber, '03, instructor in biology, Yeatman High School, St. Louis,Mo.; Roy L. Moody, '08, assistantprofessor of zoology, University ofKansas, Lawrence, Kan., who wasa lecturer at the station; and JohnP. Munson, '97, professor of biology,State Normal School, Ellensburg,Wash., who was also a lecturer atthe station.Among the promotions at LelandStanford Jr. University for thepresent year were the following:Henry W. Stuart, '00, to. the rankof professor in philosophy, andLeonas L. Burlingame, '08, to therank of assistant professor ofbotany.James F. Abbott, '06, has beenpromoted to. a full professorship inzoology at Washington University,St. Louis, Mo. Dr. Abbott wasformerly professor in the ImperialJapanese Naval Academy. Hespent the past summer vacation inthe wilder parts of Japan.Oscar �1(elton, '08, has beenawarded the first prize of a thou­sand dollars by the Committee ofEconomists for a paper upon "TheCase against Socialism." Pro­fessor Skelton is a member of thefaculty of Queens University,Kingston, Canada.Walter F. McCaleb, '00, is presi­dent of the West Texas Bank andTrust Co., San Antonio, Tex.Werrett W. Charters, '04, is pro­fessor of the theory and practiceof teaching in the University ofMissouri.Hemming G. J ensen, '00, is in­structor in botany and pharmacyat the Northwestern School o.tPharmacy of Northwestern Univer­sity.The Government of the Districtof Columbia, A Studj' in Federaland Municipal A dministration, isthe title of a volume of three hun­dred pages, recently issued by JohnByrne and Co., of Washington,D. C. The author is Walter F.Dodd, 'os. who was formerly con­nected with the division o.f law,Library of Congress, and is now onthe faculty of Johns Hopkins Uni­versity.THE DIVINITY ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONEDGAR J. GOODSPEED_, D.B., '97, SecretaryALUMNI NEWSH. C. Leland, D.B., '79, has re­signed the pastorate of the FirstBaptist Church at Lexington, Ill.He will reside at Billings, Mont.Charles H. Hobart, D.B., 'So, ofOakland, Cal., has resigned thesecretaryship of the Oakland ChurchExtension Society.J. W. Conley, D.B., '81, pastor oithe First Baptist Church, Omaha,Neb., has resigned and will removeto FresnO', Cal.Robert B. Smith, D.B., '92, isentering upon the ninth year of avery successful pastorate in theFirst Baptist Church of EI Paso,Tex. As a result of its missionarypolicy, four new churches have inthis time been founded and developed in E1 Paso under its leader-ship. ,C. F. Lusk, B.Th., '92,\ has re-signed his pastorate at Stella, Neb.Theodore G. Soares, D.B., '97, isacting as minister in charge at theHyde Park Baptist Church, Chicago.The Evangelistic Band under theleadership of E. L. Dakin, spentJanuary 21-23 with the First BaptistChurch of Rockford, Ill., givingimportant help to' the pastor, R. B.Davidson, D.B., '97· F. VV. Bateson, D.B., '98, is enter­ing upon a promising pastorate withthe Central Baptist Church, ofOlympia, Wash.W. A. Waldo, D.B., '99, is be­ginning his fourth year in the pas­torate of the Wilson Avenue Bap­tist Church, Cleveland, Ohio.Edwin Simpson, D.B., '03, ofQuincy, Ill., has accepted the pas­torate of the First Baptist Church,of Adrian, Mich.E. A. E. Palmquist, D.B., 'oS, ispastor of the First Baptist Chu:rchof Connellsville, Pa.W. J. Howell, A.M., '06, a mem­ber of the Divinity School 1905-7,is meeting with encouraging suc­cess in his pastorate at Columbia,Mo.Arthur E. Myers, D.B. 'og, hasentered upon a promising workwith the Baptist Church of CharlesCity, la ..E. C. Murphy, a member of theDivinity School in 1908-g, has be­come pastor of the First BaptistChurch of Ridgefield Park, N. J.At the Spring Convocation, heldMarch 15, 1910, the degree of D.B.was conferred upon Philip G. VanZandt. In January, 1910, Mr. VanZandt became pastor of the FirstBaptist Church of Merrill, Wis.THE LAW SCHOOL ASSOCIATIONRUDOLPH E. SCHREIBERJ' J.D., '06, SecretaryThe address of Charles RoyalSercomb is 539 Terrace Avenue,Milwaukee, Wis.Willard Walter Wynekoop diedat Chicago, February 18, 1910.Irving J. Solomon is with Mayer,Meyer, Austrian and Platt, withoffices on the fourteenth floor ofthe American Trust and SavingsBank Building, Chicago.Perry Curtis Stroud is in Por­tage, Wis.J oseph Chalmers Ewing is nowlocated at 27 First National Bank Building, in Greeley, Colo. Hishome is at 1309 Ninth Avenue.Harold Frederick Hecker may beaddressed at Summerfield, Ill.The secretary wishes to know theaddress of Robert Percy Eubanks.Rufus Clarence Fulbright is withAndrews, Ball and Freeman, Hous­ton, Texas.The address of Thomas S. Milleris 600 E. North Street, Washington,la.Ralph Clarence Putnam is inAurora, Ill.184THE COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONTHE Q!!�RTERLY MEETINGThe Executive Committee of theCollege Alumni Association met inthe office, of Secretary Hansen inEllis Hall on February 24. Theprincipal business of the' eveningconcerned the programme forAlumni Day in June, and the recom­mendations of the Committee onAlumni Meetings of the Councilregarding the direction of events.The Council at its January meetingrecommended that the College As­sociation hold its dinner in the even­ing, as heretofore; that it takecharge of the athletic events andthe demonstration, and in generalact as the directing body for theday, largely because the bacca-laureate alumni will be present in 1865larger numbers than alumni holding C. L. Hostetter of Mt. Carroll,higher degrees.Upon vote the Executive Commit- Ill., is engaged in editing a historyof Carroll County, Ill., to be pub­tee agreed to', concur in the resolution Iished soon by' the Munsell Publish-making the noon luncheon the ing Company of Chicago.Alumni Luncheon, and to encour-age alumni to be present at this 1879function. The plan of having c N. Patterson lives at 227alumni march in the Convocation Eighth Ave., Minneapolis, Minn.procession was also indorsed. The He has given up active work in the'question whether or not alumni pulpit and is now engaged in minis-should wear a button or tag of terial supply.some kind designating their degree 1895and class was referred to the sec- Irene Robin-r+ Abbott lives atretary for inquiry and a later re- 254I Peck St., Muskegon, Mich.port. It was decided to hold the Harriet Gertrude Blaine is deanregular dinner of the organization of women at Wheaton College,at 6 o'clock on Alumni Day in Wh 111 Sh IlL·Hutchinson Hall. The Committee eatonv Il . e a so teac res atinrecommended that the other asso- and French in the college.ciations also hold their dinner at Agnes Claypole Moody resides atthe same hour, in order to partici- 2826 Garber St., Berkeley, Cal.pate in the demonstration later in 1897the evening, It was decided to ask Charles Augustus Lemon is aeach of the other associations to minister in Medina, O. ,appoint a committee to meet with Carr B. Neel is in business inthe College Association to perfect Salt Lake City, Utah.and execute plans for' the day. Philip Rand lives at Salmon City,An interesting discussion regard- Idaho,ing the standing of former stu-, 1898dents on the rolls of the Associa- Mary Sherman Allison resides attion was brought up. I t was felt "State Center, la.that proper provision had not been li Max Batt is a member of themade for those who were students Public Library Commission of theof several years' standing but had State of North Dakota.I8S failed to take their degree, andwho are now among the most activesupporters of alumni clubs in thecountry. Upon motion of Mr.Donald Richberg, '01, it was de­cided to recommend to the annualmeeting that an associate member­ship be made, to include membersof the alumni clubs. . This resolu­tion will be placed before the alumniat the annual meeting in June.A special meeting of the Execu­tive Committee to take up currentreports will be held during March.NEWS FROMCLASSES THEI86 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEN els Johann Lennes has a po­sition on the faculty of the Massa­chusetts Institute of Technology atBoston.1899Angeline A. Bergey lives at 445LaSalle Ave., Chicago.Andre Beziat de Bordes is on thefaculty of Tulane University.Amos A. Ebersole is assistantpastor of the Central Union Church,HDnO'lulu, H. 1.Alma Le Due is teaching in Chi­cago. Her address is 4015 LakeAve.Ig00Francis Holmes Abbott resides at431 Williams s-, East Orange, N. J.Margaret J. Calvin lives at Trans ...fer, Pa.Ig01Jennie M. Kuyper is a missionaryin Yokohama, Japan.Anstruther A. Lawson is in thebotanical department of the Uni­versity of. Glasgow.Louise H. Shailer resides at 62Windsor Road, Waban, Mass.Zayda Wentz lives at 7141 YaleAve., Chicago,Ig02Arthur F. Beifeld is practicingmedicine at 327 Oakwood Blvd.,Chicago.Laura T. Brayton lives at 6549Harvard Ave., Chicago. JElizabeth W. Cleaveland is teach­ing in the high school at NewHaven, Conn. Her address is 133Howe St.Grace Coulter Yarnelle lives atFort Wayne, Ind.Ig03Marie Anna Chamberlin's homeaddress is 149 Reiger Ave., Dallas,T,ex.Verhe Adrain McGeorge lives inEureka, Cal.Ig04Francesca Beatrice Cloby, nowMrs. J ohn L. Stafford, lives inChicago,Katharine Louise Neel is teach­ing in N ewberry, S. C.J essie Hoyt Ames resides at 123E. Lovell St., Kalamazoo, Mich.1905Dora A. Atkinson is a high-schoolteacher in Chicago. Vernon C. Beebe has been electedtreasurer of the Seventh Ward Re­publican Organization in Chicago.Mr. Beebe is the head of an ad­vertising business with offices at1515 Masonic Temple.Grace M. Charles lives at ISONorth Cuyler Ave., Oak Park, Ill.David Charles Cook, Jr., is withthe David C. Cook Publishing Com­pany in Elgin, Ill.Louise G. Larrabee lives at 5106Cornell Ave., Chicago,1906Grace Beed resides at 3402 Har­rison St., Kansas City, Mo.Gertrude L. Bouton, now Mrs.Harold L. Axtell, lives in Moscow,Idaho.Herbert H., Bunzel, Ph.D., '09,has been appointed biochemical ex­pert in the Bureau of Plant Indus­try, Department of Agriculture, atWashington, D. C.Raymond H. Burke is director ofmusic in Miami University, Oxford,Ohio.Ella May Jones is a teacher inthe Chicago schools.Harvey B. Lemon is a graduatestudent in physics and mathematicsat the University.Arthur Newcomb has resignedhis position as Assistant GeneralSuperintendent of Buildings andGrounds at the University. He willdevote his time to the completionof his studies in the Divinity Schooi.Nellie E. Oxnam lives at homeat 331 Englewood Ave., Chicago.Joseph Pedott has received the de­gree of Doctor of Philosophy, magnacum laude, from the University ofBerlin. He intends to go to Paristo study under the economist, PaulLeRoy-Beaulieu.William H. Symmes resides at4700 North Paulina St., Chicago.Hattie C. Vannatta is a· high­school teacher in Grand Rapids,Mich.1907Maud Butts is engaged as ateacher and lives at 6040 InglesideAve., Chicago. 'Grace M. Fernald lives at 2034North Capitol St., Washington,D. C.Gertrude Lennes lives at Heone,Norway.THE COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCI.(l.TIONY oshitaro Nakamura is teachingin Seattle, Wash. His address is909 First Ave.Chauncey Pettibone is researchassistant in the department ofchemistry at Harvard.Eleanor Whiteford is teaching atSandwich, Ill.1908Winifred Barnett is employed inthe First National Bank at KansasCity, MO'.Elizabeth Barnhart is living athome in Greensburg, Pa.Portia Carnes is a teacher ofreading with studio at 410 HandelHall, Chicago.Gertrude Olive Dickerman isteaching in the high school atLibertyville. Ill.Grace Bell Dotts is teaching inDenver, Colo. Her address is 920Ogden Ave., Denver.Carrie E. T. Dracass is teachingin the Englewood High School.She recently edited an edition ofCarlyle's Essay on Burns and Ivan­hoe.George A. Harper lives at ,I424Forest Ave., Wilmette, Ill.Ruby Lee Lamb, A.M., is teach­ing in Darling, Pa.Arthur Eli Myer is a minister inCharles City, la.Fred M. . Outhouse is practicinglaw in Chicago with offices at I207,I35 Adams St.Channing Lovell Sentz is engagedin the practice of law with officesat 1003 Atwood Bldg., Chicago.1909Alice, Bright, Mrs. E. R. Parker,lives. at 6023 Kimbark Ave., Chicago.John Vincent Balch is teachingat the St. Albans School at Knox­ville, Ill.George A. Stephens is a memberof the faculty of the politicaleconomy department at the Univer­sity of Nebraska., ENGAGEMENTS'08. Jack Ransom to GladysBaxter, '08.'08. Ethel Witkowsky to HugoPick. '09. Harry Osgood Latham toMarj orie Scholle.MARRIAGES'97. Frank Earl Hering wasmarried to Mrs. Claribell Orton onJanuary 21, in South Bend, Ind.)Mr. Hering is national president ofthe Fraternal Order of Eagles.'04. Lambert A. Hopkins, ex,was married to' Marion Stinchfield,'09, on Saturday, March 5, at St.John's Episcopal Church in Wash­ington' D. C. Mr. Hopkins waswell knowri as a track athlete whilein the University. They will maketheir home in Chicago.'06. Helen Newr+an Roney wasmarried to Lieutenant CommanderHenry B. Price, U. S. N., on Sep­tember 2S, at Burlington, la. Theywill make their home in Washington.'08. Hortense L. Becker wasmarried to Charles Stumes ofChicago on February 23 at theStandard Club in Chicago.'oS. George D. Buckley, ex, wasmarried to Helen Catharine Ma­loney, ex-'08, on February 10 at thehome of the bride in Ottawa, Ill.'08. Jack W. Nickolson, ex, wasmarried to Wenona Greiss, ofAustin, Ill., on December 23, I909.Mr. and Mrs. Nickolson will re­side in Ellis, Kan, where the groomis in the mercantile business.DEATHS'72. Hervey Wistar Booth died onJanuary 6, 1910, at his home in OakPark, Ill.'So. Francis T. Colby died at hishome on Greenwood Ave., Chicago,December 22, 1909, after an illnessof eight years. He was 49 yearsof age at the time of his death.Mr. Colby was formerly colonel ofthe Seventh Regiment 1. N. G.'87. Clement Geiger, ex, knownas actor and author under the nameof Clay Clement, died on February27, in Kansas City, Mo.'01. Julia E. Kennedy died lastmonth in Seattle, Wash., after along illness. She was 61 years oldat the time of her death. MissKennedy was superintendent ofs-chools in Seattle in 188&188 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE'02. Dr. William G. Tight diedrecently in New Mexico. He wasnresident of the University of NewMexico.'04. Willard Walter Wynekoopdied on Saturday morning, Febru­ary 19, at the home of his mother,4442 Sheridan Road, of pneumonia. He took a J.D. degree from theUniversity in 1906 and has beenpracticing law in Chicago.'07. Grace Noblett died Satur­day, February 19, at the home ofher parents in Springfield, Ill., ofconsumption.