ANDREW JACKSON MONTAGUEFORMER - GOVERNOR OF VIRGINIAConvocation Orator, December 20, 1909The University of ChicagoMagazineVOLUME II JANUARY, 1910 NUMBER 3THE SOUTH AND THE NATIONIBY ANDREW JACKSON MONTAGUE, LL.D.Former Governor of VirginiaTHE catholic patriotism of this institution, its sympathy withevery section of our country, and the invitation which bringsme into this academic presence have rather determined my themeagainst my personal wishes. I will, therefore, venture to beg yourindulgent consideration of "The South and the Nation" as mysubj ect on this occasion.The English revolution of the seventeenth century resulted ina limited monarchy. The American revolution of the eighteenthcentury resulted in a limited democracy. The American limitationtook the form of a written constitution, for the Fathers wishedadequately to define and confine governmental powers. Our firstexperiment, the Articles of Confederation, was rather a fragile treatythan a constitution for a nation, and out 'Of the culminating chaos ofthese articles arose a government adequate for the preservation andpromotion of the achievements of the Revolution. The South wasno negligible factor in this revolution and the formation of the subse­quent governments. Her statesmen recognized the geographic,political, and ethnic forces of unity and progress. Henry 'earlydeclared in Carpenter's Hall, "I am no longer a Virginian but anAmerican." The Declaration of Independence was inherently anationalistic pronouncement. Washington's sword was not theExcalibur of Virginia. This great brandShot like a streamer of the northern morn,1 Delivered on the occasion of the Seventy-third Convocation of the Uni­versity, held in the Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, December 20, I909.9394 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEa light for the healing of a people into national unity and fraternity.Madison's and Pinckney's contribution to the Constitution was tomake it more than Ian amendment of the Articles of Confederation:these patriots were laying deep the foundations of a democraticempire. George Rogers Clarke's heroic achievements and the sub­sequent cession to the Union of the great Northwestern Territory,the center of gravity of which throbs in the power and progress ofthis mighty city, together with Jefferson's purchase of the LouisianaTerritory, awoke the powerful and irresistible forces of unification.The war of 1812 and that of Mexico, thirty years later, carriedon under the auspices 'Of southern statesmanship, necessarilyinvolved the application of nationalistic principles and powers.Monroe invoked the national power and prestige in underwritingfree governments for this hemisphere. Marshall's decisions gavenew vigor and scope to the national ideal, and made inevitableAppomattox. Clay, with his American system, and Jackson, withhis daring exercise of executive power, further proclaimed thenation's identity. But Jefferson's excessive fear of a strong govern­ment, his states-rights Kentucky resolutions, and his popular apho­rism that the least governmertt is the best government tended tocheck the tide of unification throughout the nation. The South,in the meantime, lagged in initiative and progressive statesmanship.She became intensely conservative. She accepted in general thelaissez-faire theory of govemment, save so far as efficient andaggressive powers were needed for the protection of the insti­tution of slavery. Here Calhoun's great genius. and influence cameinto play. His knowledge of goyernments, his exalted characterand impressive personality, and his power 'Of speech and pen consti­tuted him a leader of extraordinary influence. From his viewpointhis famous theory of concurrent majority or nullification was in theinterest of the Union, and, therefore, ,in a sense nationalistic, but,resultantly, his doctrine supported the particularistic or states-rightsschool.Slavery became a great economic factor, and southern statesmenundertook to protect and promote this vested interest just as manyAmerican statesmen of today support and protect some of the greatindustrial and financial interests of our country. The shadow ofAfrica was over the entire South. Millions of negroes with nocapacity for free government, and with no historic or civilized ante­cedence, were held in bondage against the universal conscience, TheTHE SOUTH AND THE NATION 95origin of this institution, however, should import 110 more censureto the South than to the North.Immigration, which is distinctively an American contribution tothe civilization of the world, made no headway into this darkenedzone. The negro and his industrial order kept away the skilled man,the artisan immigrant, and the South necessarily became agriculturalupon a vast and non-intensive scale. The plantations in many in­stances were small provinces, with a resultant social system thatinexorably favored the few at the expense of the many.There were few public free schools for the masses, and the con­structive forces of democratization were dormant or feeble. Thesteel rail and copper wire had not come in their full power. TheSouth was, therefore, by economic and social conditions largely iso­lated. She idolized her home, her church, and her state. She sawthe nation in a receding light; she saw the state face to face.Her statesmen were students of the government at hand. Theyknew the American Constitution as the churchman does his ritual.They did not perceive so much the ethnic and political forces whichhad brought the government into being and operation, and whichwere silently energizing the tendencies of unification, as they didthe powers and limits of the Constitution. They knew the reservedpowers of the states as a mariner the harbors of safety. They knewthe constitutional authorization of slavery, and they foresaw the vastdifficulties attendant upon the removal of an institution abhorrentto many of her people.The South's interest and education, therefore, necessitated thetheory of strict construction of the Constitution. She feared federalaid to internal improvements as if the aid were gifts from theGreeks; and she demanded plain authorization for almost everyexercise of federal power. The federal judiciary her Jefferson char­acterized as "sappers and miners" of the constitution, and sheconstantly feared the liberal or constructive extension of federalauthority by judicial interpretation. We can, therefore, readily seethat she was irresistibly drawn by social, industrial, and politicalgravity to the particularistic or states-rights theory of government,which was doomed sooner or later to clash with its rigid antipodes.That great impact occurred in 1861, and Appomattox was but aconcatenation of N avarino, Brussels, Lucerne, Solferino, Sadowa,Sedan, and Plevna. Evolution was making her inexorable marchfrom paternalism to individualism, and from individualism to nation-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEalism, and America swung into the irresistible attraction of thisworld-movement. It is now idle for either section to censure ordetract. As time wears on the good faith, patriotism, courage,genius, and self-sacrifice which the South contributed to that inevi­table war will loom larger and larger as the common heritage of theAmerican nation. Such qualities. as these, tempered by fire andpoverty and suffering, the whole nation should garner and cherishfor a day of need, the coming of which we know not.After due time and against almost insuperable difficulties theSouth emerged triumphant from the war's aftermath, without lossof traditions, and without impairment of her recuperative energies,or the purity and catholicity of her patriotism. So she now faces anew day, and the light falls upon her pathway at angles very variantfrom that of nearly a half a century ago. Slow tides of immigrationare setting in, and it is best that these tides should come slowly.Industrialism is breaking upon her with a force never before ex­perienced. Mine, and forest, and field are giving marvelous yields.From almost an exclusively agricultural status, she is becoming anincreasingly appreciable manufacturing factor. Transportation ismultiplying in quantity and in efficiency. Common public highways,the primal method of transportation, are being remade, in responseto the needs of rapidly growing communities. Indeed, the statisticsof our industrial progress have to be revised no sooner than tabu­lated. Still the South is a new country, of sparse population, andof vast, untouched resources. The utilization of her immense waterpower is just beginning; and her agriculture has not yet felt theenergizing force of intensive cultivation. Mr. Phillip Bruce, oneof America's most veracious -historians, reckons that the cotton beltcomprises an area of 700,000 square miles, and that so far, onlyabout 5 per cent. of this area is planted. He also asserts that withan intensive system of culture we could produce 100,000,000 bales.The possibilities of this industry are amazing, and yet from thepresent relatively small tilled area we find this staple not only themost commanding factor 'Of our exports, but an indefinite monopoly;for the experiments of foreign countries in growing cotton in theircolonies have not proven successful. Mr. Balfour's recent speechwill hardly arouse the English people to a course of action whichcould only mean, in the light of recent events, a repetition 'Of theirfailures.The formation of communal life is now an interesting develop-THE SOUTH AND THE NATION 97ment in the southern states. Good roads, trolley lines, rural maildelivery, telephone, experiment farms, sanitation) water supply, andpublic free schools all evidence the growth of those co-operativeforces which establish a community as differentiated from a mereaggregation of people. In such social groups are found the realforces of a democracy, for in them is developed an equality 'Of sturdyindividualism beneficently modified by co-operative influence andaction.In no particular has the South's attitude toward the scope andfunction of government changed more than in the matter of educa­tion. She formerly believed that education should be controlled bythe laws of supply and demand, and that all government aid andregulation of this mighty interest was unjustifiable paternalism.This position has been abandoned for some time, and, perhaps, at noperiod of American development has confidence in the potency ofeducation been so deep and widespread as in the southern states oftoday. We are realizing that education is an instrument sufficientfor the achievement of 'Our industrial conquests. Our raw materialsmust be made into finished products at the very places of theirsupply. Our lands must multiply their yields. Our water powermust be utilized, and our common roads must be built. In short,we are reconstructing our industrial life, for therein we see notonly our own progress but the recovery of our national prestige.The public free school, with manual, industrial, and technical train­ing, is the re-creative force of this industrial renaissance.The South's view of the states' rights is undergoing great modi­fication. The _duties, rather than the rights, of states now takeprecedence in thought and attitude. We recognize the force of thewarning of Mr. Root that federal encroachment is negligible, ifthe state has done that which the nation would do if not alreadydone. If, for example, we enact, as some of the southern stateshave done, adequate child-labor laws then there is no place or occa­sion for federal intervention. Should we fail to surpress lynchingand riots, we may expect that this will sooner or later be done by thefederal government. Likewise with sanitation and regulation ofcommerce, if the latter can ever be effectively regulated bythe severalstates.It may be doubted if the South will soon or indeed ever againassume distinctive leadership in the school 0 f "strict construction"of the American Constitution. The votes. of our representatives inTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECongress upon such subjects as appropriations for internal improve­ments, exhibitions, lotteries, quarantine, trusts, safety appliances,employer's liability, railroads, beef inspection, pure food, control ofcorporations, and preservation of natural resources significantly sug­gest the negative. Indeed, the indications are that she will more andmore follow the canons of Marshall and the liberal views of some ofthe early publicists.But it should be observed that the South has not relaxed herfidelity to her old ideals of government and interpretation of theconstitution so far as it may be necessary to exercise the powersessential to the preservation Of her race integrity. She may havebeen regarded as supersensitive in her rigid adherence to this polity;but sound ethnic considerations will eventually demonstrate that herviews and conduct have been an inestimable contribution to thegreatness of our nation. The instrumentality most recently em­ployed in effecting this polity has been the state constitution. InVirginia we long lived under a sort of mental and moral servitude.All questions gravitated to the control of the local governments bythe white race, and all other questions were subordinated to this one.Our new constitution was intended to modify this unwholesomecondition, in the interests of both the white man and the black man;and there now seems close at hand the revival of free discussionwhich must evolve a new order of leadership. N or does the consti­tution in my state perpetuate negro disfranchisement; rather, onthe contrary, is this: constitution the beginning of negro suffrage.The general policy of this constitution is, as in the case of several ofthe constitutions of the southern states, to' admit the negro to suffrageas fast as he is possessed of property or educational qualifications,and eventually we may expect the development of a negro electoratedetermined upon sound political principles. Thus the negro has,for the first time in his career, a stimulus for citizenship, and thewhite man is relieved of the necessity of practices which have beenlong undermining his ethical foundations.The constitutional methods of obtaining control of local govern­ments by the write people of the South is one of the most interest­ing political facts in her history, interesting in its method ofaccomplishment, and interesting as to its possible future effectsupon the whole country. Does this new status terminate the South'sisolation, and does it presage her political entrance into the orbitof national opportunity and national responsibility? The South'sTHE SOUTH AND THE NATION 99welfare, as well as that of the nation, must be promoted by her prac­tical participation in the larger affairs of the Republic. I will gofarther and declare that the people of the N orth, the Middle West,and the West could do no act more sagacious, more inspiring, andmore appealing to the moral imagination of the nation, than tosecure from the South a larger and more direct share in the workingof the national government. This contribution or co-operation ofthe South in an industrial and patriotic sense is already consum­mated; but how can it be accomplished in the field of practicalgovernmental administration? The answer seems clear: the relaxa­tion of her political rigidity; the division of her people into politicalparties. The answer is simple, but the performance is difficult. Theproblem is sociological and historical. The rigidity of the South isnot due primarily to political forces. The old Whig and Democraticparties dissolved in the fervent heat of the sociological furnace, andfrom that day we have really had but one party in the South. Thiscondition is, however, anomalous; for the political development offree government in England and in America has found its chiefpower in the attrition of ideas generated by party conflicts. Dif­ferences of views, contests of opinions, and alignments of opposi­tion have been the forces of progress and liberty. John Stuart Millhas 'Observed that the condition of the progress of a people largelydepends upon a conflict between rival powers; such as spiritual andtemporal; military and industrial; king and subj ects ; orthodoxy andreformation; and that when victory ends the strife and no succeed­ing conflict occurs, stagnation is apt to follow. It really seems thatdissentient opinions are required to energize the mind. It is a sortof manichean struggle essential to progress. Political parties, asimperfect as they are, constitute at once the basis and incentive forthe play of these rival powers, whereby 'Opinion may be opposed toopinion, criticism to criticism, argument to' argument, and withoutsuch contending formations, such rivalry of contesting forces, freegovernment would degenerate into an office-holders' oligarchy. Eng­land has long realized that her government was either inefficient orharmful without a stout opposition.The educational, communal, and industrial development, to whichI have so imperfectly alluded, are forces which should in themselveseventually divide the political opinions of the southern people intorival organizations. Indeed, evidences of this division are now athand. In the last Congress was seen a large number of southern100 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINErepresentatives Noting for an upward revision of the tariff. Theincongruity of a denunciation by many of our southern Congress­men of high protective duties as fraud and robbery, and then asubsequent vote for raising these duties should not weaken my argu­ment. The iron, coal, lumber, and manufacturing interests of theSouth found their voice in these statesmen, who made no attemptto reconcile their action to the traditional faith and precedents ofparty. Expediency was naively declared to be the cause of theiraction. One distinguished statesman dramatically said that "if thenation was going to steal, the South wanted her part." While thisstatement would not be a justifiable legal plea upon the assumedcharge of receiving stolen goods, yet it is proof presumptive ofeither a relaxation or change in public sentiment upon this historicparty question. The industrial forces have been effecting a politicalcleavage without indicating its lines upon the party map, and with­out a full appreciation on the part of its representatives of how farthey were registering this cleavage.So too with the increase of industrial growth must come divisionof opinion upon the subjects of interstate commerce and banking,as there has already come fierce divergence over the regulation ofthe sale of liquor. These are all evidences of the moving waters ofpublic opinion, the growth of flexibility in public sentiment, and heis a shallow or partisan observer who does not see bucklings in therigid surface of our body politic, and who does not hear rumblingsof discontent beneath.Should this division occur at any near day, whether from internalevolution or from wise federal statesmanship, the most interestingand important question in American politics will be, What directionwould the larger wing of this division take? What association wouldthis major division seek? Would it gravitate toward conservatismor liberalism ? Would it find association with reactionary or progres­sive irifluences? Would it aggressively co-operate in the elevationof the ethical plane of business and of politics? Or would it nega­tively and smugly take a seat in some great party machine inexorablyrevolving toward the "plums" of patronage, the "pork barrel" oftreasury appropriations, and the succoring and sinister contributionsof those possessing or seeking special privileges? The politicalinertia of the South, intensified by a powerful party organization,administered too often under the euphemism of patriotic comity, ora government of friends, by friends, and for friends, would uponTHE SOUTH AND THE NATION 101first appearances indicate the conservative or reactionary path as. theline of least resistance. Organization, whether industrial or political,has an affinity for organization, and party organizations not in­frequently associate themselves with commercial or industrial organi­zations. The "ultimate consumer," that is, the average man, is nota very aggressive, associative, 'Or organizing unit, and the more activeand combining forces might win. But the contest would be a tre­mendous one. Many of the better influences and forces longdormant would come forth in new power and gladness; and victorywould likely fall to that association of influence which would mostappeal to the South's traditional idealism and her political altruism.Such an appeal would recall the days when she was great not in serv­ing herself, but in losing herself for the nation. Her pride, hersentiment, and her duty would make a majestic response. Therepublic would thrill in its realization that democracy is fraternalism.The nation does not need to request the South's love. The nationpossesses that abundantly. But the nation does need the South'slarger service; and the South has" need to do that service.UNIVERSITY ATHLETICS IN JAPANBY FRED MERRIFIELD, A.B., '98, D.B., �OITWO. universities have been established by the. J gov­ernment, one at Tokyo, and one at KY'Dto, the old capital city.It also maintains "two higher normal schools for young men and'women, respectively; the Higher Commercial School, the ForeignLanguage School, the Technical School, the Nobles' School, thevarious naval and military academies, the School of Navigation, theFine Arts School, the TokY9 Musical Academy, the Blind andDumb School, the Agricultural College at Sapporo, and five higherschools, of which one is in Tokyo and four are in the provinces,'besides some two hundred middle schools which combine academyand college grades. There are also numerous private univer­sities and colleges of diff.erent standing, the best-known beingWaseda University and Keio Gijiku, founded by Count Osauna,the ex-premier, and the celebrated writer, Fukuzawa. The highereducation of Japanese women is provided for by the Higher NormalSchool for Girls, by thirty high schools, the Peeresses' School, andothers. There are also a few private institutions, such as the In­dustrial School for Girls and the Women's University, most ofthem located in Tokyo.While I shall deal more especially with athletic life in the uni­versities, yet it is well to note how much university sports areinfluenced by those of the lower schools, and how directly, also,. university methods, determine those of the preparatory institutions.This dose connection becomes more and more apparent as the youngmen and women of Japan press on, through great difficulties butwith increasing enthusiasm, to gain the best modern educationpossible.J udo, or j iuj itsu, the art of wrestling, is a form of sport peculiarto ,the Japanese and still very popular. To learn how to fall grace­fully and unhurt upon the mats; to trip one's opponent, catch himupon the hip and' flop him head over heels, or throw him over thehead from a lying posture; to break a strangle-hold or catch therival's wrist or leg or neck so that he can be handled easily and atwill-all these land many other tricks require infinite patience and102UNIVERSITY ATHLETICS IN JAPAN 103good humor as wen as perfect self-control and constant drill. Andhere the small men are by no means at a disadvantage, if only theybe well-knit and alert. It iSI from this native art that the Japanesehave gained their reputation for quickness, Indeed it is not toomuch to say that the skill and alertness inherited and cultivated inthis way have greatly influenced them in business, diplomacy, andin war. A "throw" is a "throw" with them, in any sphere of life;and the far-reaching effect of early athletic training is here mostmarked.Archery is another ancient form of exercise which still persists.The long how, hand-carved and graceful, is a fit weapon for thedignified warrior who wields it. The archer's every movementis slow and studied; distended chest, finger-hold, stolid look, hip andleg movements, and all. He looks as if the weight of a realm restedupon him and as if the very next shot might save his country frompressing danger. But it is this fine concentration and regard forall that is a part of the national heritage that makes the modernJapanese soldier so readily effective.A University fencing team \\; ould be interested in Japanese fen­cing. This is carried on with a long double-handed bamboo weaponin imitation of the ancient long-sword of the knights of Bushido,The body is well covered with armor and pads, but even these donot by any means give full protection from the fierce blows rainedupon head, shoulders, arms, and thighs by the skilful fencer. Some­times "the students, in the excitement of the contest and spurred onby war-cries from the hilarious onlookers, fight like demons iri­carnate ; but at the call of the judge, there is an immediate cessationof strokes and the vanquished warrior, perfectly self-possessed, layshis sword at the feet of his conqueror, acknowledging the latter'ssuperiority with a low, dignified bow to the floor.Tennis is played in Japan as in America, except rthat soft rubberballs are used, making it necessary to use harder strokes both inserving and returning. Not a few students are learning the westerngame and they soon adapt themselves to the harder ball andthe more careful strokes. American halls cost too much for theordinary student, and American rackets, although far superior inquality, cannot stand the strain of the moist climate of the E:ast;so that those who handle the eastern sporting-goods have little orno fear of western competition in' this line. English football andboating are coming into favor with a few students. H. B. Conibear,I04 THE UN--WERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEnow coach at the University of Washington, is trying to arrange acontest in rowing with one of the Tokyo crews. The cross-countryruns are very interesting also, perhaps more so because the runnershave to wind in and out among the checkered rice-fields which coverevery available foot of level ground in northern Japan. Afterreaching the goal, all the men indulge in tea and cake refreshments,explaining-how it was that they did not win, or telling how manytimes they fell into the mud-just as we do at home. I tried in vainto have some of the swifter runners, try American running-shoes,but neither the hope of greater speed nor the Marathon bait wouldtempt them to start the fashion. If only someone will set the pace,or the style in this case, plenty of others will follow. This may belargely a matter of courtesy, however. Even in baseball the Wasedamen forsake their spiked shoes for the customary tabi or low socks,because all opponents wear the latter, and also that they may nottear up the diamonds of the rival teams.It is a great sight, in the spring and autumn, to s,ee hundredsof boys and girls, from primary to university grades, walking alongthe streets of Tokyo or out in some famous country place, double­file, happy and chattering, seeing the sights of which they haveheard and read from the year One. These sight-seeing trips areof great value to the student class and, it is needless to say, every­one looks forward to the excitement, the exercise, and espeeially thefreedom from class discipline with pardonable eagerness.Held-day is observed in every school worthy of the name. Ingovernment institutions it is usually held on Sundays, as most peoplewelcome all the holidays possible, and the more regular and oftenthe better. At these annual events the students compete in running,jumping, vaulting, a tug-of-war, obstacle races, tennis, and jiujitsu.It is surprising how thoroughly even the women enter into thecontests. They cheer lustily, wave their red and white streamersincessantly, weep quite merrily, take the hard bumps and falls likeStoics, and lose. their hair-pins without a murmur or even a mo­ment's hesitation; Some say the Old Japan must fast be passingaway when even the women forget their dignity. But the westernsisters understand and sympathize. The spectators get almost asmuch exercise as the participants in the games, and sometimes theforeigners, especially, go away feeling as if they too had been "inthe game." The endless bowing till the back is horizontal, and thetrying heel-sitting business is enough to turn oven a youth gray. HeUNIVERSITY ATHLETICS IN JAPAN 105vows he will practice at home or send for some good lubricator tomake it all easier, yet he lacks the courage, and "next time" findshim just as unready as ever.But the great sport that today is sweeping Japan like wild-fire, isour good old game of baseball. Three years ago a 'COach had to huntfor candidates, for they were as scarce as the old Israelites when theMidianites drove them to the hills. N ow every man thinks he isa "champion." Everywhere town-lots, parks, and street-corners arefilled with swinging, striding youngsters who make the eyes ofthe uninitiated bulge with envy; while father, mother, and even theaged grandsire, come out to see the children play. Formerly theyclapped in applause; now they yell and sing and root in splendidwestern style, till the professors lift their spectacles in alarm, andthe faculty call a meeting and decide that this excitement must beheld in check, for it will surely lead to bloodshed.Waseda and Keio universities have easily the best teams inJapan; the former, by downright pluck and hard work, usually gainsthe championship title. The Japanese living in San Francisco haveoffered a cup to the winning team and this trophy has added interestto the games. It is not at all uncommon to see 5,000 and IO,OOOstudents at a game, and sometimes the numbers reach the 20,000mark. They say Japan is the children's paradise. Tell the umpiresto go there, too; for in three seasons of umpiring I received butone mild protest from the players, and firmness settled the matterthen very quickly.When the American battleship teams, the Wisconsins and Ohiosespecially, play with the Tokyo teams, the excitemenrt is intense, thecheering is soul-stirring, and the home music, played by a real bandand always in the proper key, sounds fairly heavenly. How therooters open their eyes when they see the American swatting, thebase-running and sliding, the tricky plays and the wild chancestaken by those long-legged, foreign dare-devils! There is greatgood humor all through these games, too, especially when the littlebrown players turn the trick upon the over-confident visitors.Every vacation the Waseda players scatter out over the countryto teach the eager middle-school boys the points of the game. And,of course, this brings an ever-increasing number of trained candi­dates Ito the wide-awake university at the metropolis. Foreigncoaching is eagerly welcomed on all sides; indeed, an American iskept busy answering calls and questions regarding the AmericanI06 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEgame. How they do work, too, to perfect the weak points so dis­covered! The Waseda University had the honor of sending thefirst baseball team abroad. The men won but seven out of twenty­six games, it is true, but they learned many new lessons from theCalifornia and Washington boys. Manager Abe said upon theirreturn to Tokyo, "We Japanese 'thought we would surprise theAmericans by our quickness; burt we can never play ball as theycan. They are quicker, stronger, and more heady than we can everhope to be." With time and thorough coaching, however, I am surethe Japanese players will give a good account of themselves.The moral value of pure athletics is simply incalculable, andnowhere more so than in Tokyo. The city is packed to overflowingwith 100,000 students of high-school age and above; new lodging­houses are being built by the hundreds; thousands of innocent andunprotected young men and women are pouring into the city forthat dim something known as an education, and of oourse the omni­present blood-sharks are waiting eagerly for their approachingprey. With small quarters, little recreation, or social life, and almostnothing to help them lay the foundations for a firm character, isit a surprise that alarming numbers waste their time and their livesthinking that this license must be .mcdern life at its best? Baseballcomes to the rescue more than all other forms of athletics combined :for it insists upon training and steadiness, irt creates a craving forbetter food, it makes the men feel the folly of too many hot baths,and, best 'Of all, it brings a small group of earnest men into closetouch with men 'Of noble purpose, Eke Manager Abe, professor ofEnglish at Waseda University. If only the leading athletes couldafford adequate training quarters and thoroughly nourishing food,at the same time being freed from the temptations common tostudent life by inspiring each 'Other to live purely, untold good mighteasily be accomplished. Such a group could have a marvelous in­fluence upon the thousands of aspiring athletics who regard these"champions" as their modern ideals. By their combined standagainst smoking, drinking, idleness, and dissipation in general, theycould strengthen many a man's character. But now the thousandsdrift and fall because "custom says, drink and smoke, bathe and bedamned, for this is life." Athletics, exalted and purified, is; theway of life to these masses of students.THE UNIVERSITY AND PERSONALITYBY PEARL LOUISE WEBER, PH.B., '99Personality is that which is most intimate to me-e-that by which Imust act out my life. It is that by which I belong to man, that by whichI am able to reach after God. And he has given me this pearl of greatprice. It is an immortal treasure; it is mine, it is his, and no man shallpluck it out of his hand.-Hugh R. Haweis.WHA T legitimate claims have considerations of personality upona great university? Time and again this question is broughtto mind with renewed emphasis, particularly with reference to theUniversity of Chicago. The reading of Dr. Thompson's article on"Things N Dt in the Curriculum" in the February issue of theMagazine last year, and other more recent articles, as well as. thecompletion last June of the first decade since the writer's graduationrevived a host of fond recollections and again raised the questionover which so many students of the University then and since havepondered.We recall with joy and reassuring satis faction that the questionof personality and personal influence had a place of marked impor­tance in the mind of our beloved President Harper. He was thestudents' friend, if nothing else. He was not too busy to take aninterest in the most personal affairs of the very humblest of hisadmirers.For reasons of love and loyalty, 'entirely unmixed with any spiritof criticism of her Alma Mater, the writer desires to call attentionto some conditions past and present, in the University of Chicago­conditions which are spoken of rarely by resident students, or onlywith much diffidence.We are told by those who urge the superior merits of the smallcollege, as against certain peculiar disadvantages 'Of a large uni­versity, that the latter affords to the student a much more meageropportunity for the development of personality and individualitythan the former. Can this assertion be truthfully made with refer­ence to the University of Chicago? Do�s: the University exalt knowl­edge above personality, or at the expense of individuality? Thereare those who would have us believe that she necessarily does both ;still others would offer consolation to the student by pointing outI07108 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthat she does these things in contradiction of her better self. Webelieve that the University of Chicago has in past years underratedindividuality and depreciated personality to some extent, uncon­sciously perhaps; but we do not believe that this partial failure todo justice to the personal aspect of life is essential to' the universityspirit, for spirit is personal. Deliver us from such a superficial, non­personal conception of education as that of Lady Hester Stanhopewho says:Education is all paint; it does not alter the nature of the wood that isunder it, it only improves its appearance a little. Why I dislike educationSQo much is that it makes all people alike, until you have examined intothem, and it is sometimes so long before you get to see under the varnish.To the student who is still thoroughly alive and human, Carlyle'sidea of a university is hardly more satisfactory:All that a university or final highest school can do for us is still butwhat the first school began doing-teach us to read. We learn to readin various languages, in various sciences; we learn the alphabet and lettersof all manner of books. But the place where we are to get knowledge,even theoretic knowledge, is the books themselves. It depends on what. we read, after all manner of professors have done their best for us. Thetrue university of these days is a collection of books.The young man or y'Oung woman who goes to a higher institu­tion Of learning, be it a small college or a great university, expectsto find vastly more than a collection 'Of books. If the student werepurely an intellectual being, merely a "greasy grind," as the under­classmen used to say, he might content himself with the fragmentsof knowledge that would aggregate from his "poring over miserablebooks." Yet even if we were to define the function of the uni­versity as the propagation of learning, as against culture, we shouldin the end be driven 'to the conclusion that the great force is afterall the teacher, and not the boek, But the student is not a mereunderstanding; "he is also, and above all else, a willing and feelingbeing"; and education is hot the development of intellect solely,but the evolution of man's manifold personal being. In the! wordsof Professor Dewey, "education is life." And "a man, on the whole,is a better preceptor than a book."A large university is par excellence, a community of persons,many 'Of whom are highly individualized. Shall the university, inits eager and passionate 'search after truth, foster and serve thiswealth of personality, or bury it beneath the dust? The answer tothis great question will be intimately and inseparably interwovenTHE UNIVERSITY AND PERSONALITY 109with the destinies of those who intrust their education to the Uni­versity, Presupposing that the immanent purpose of evolution isthe realization of moral personalities, education is the highest formof evolution; university education is higher education, What thenmay we not expect from the university? The world looks to theuniversity not for human machines or intellectual gymnasts, butfor unconditionally worthful personalities, ready and prepared toserve society and humanity. Therefore the more extensively shepromotes the realization of personality in her constituency, the moreacceptably will she serve the world and the more truly will shefulfil her grand and time-honored mission; for after all, all that wecall society, state, humanity, and civilization are the realization ofthese permanent, universal, and vital personal relations, which arebased on fellowship or sympathy.Perhaps some professors, and 'even students, may feel inclinedto say: "Fine words, no doubt, and in a sense very true, that educa­tion is the unfolding of personality; but between this highly senti­mental theory and our all-absorbing devotion to pure investigation,to which the dull prose of actual classroom instruction is rightlymade secondary, there is a great gulf, and we cannot attend to bothat the same time." Some would even go so far as to aver that anyattempt to work out in practice SOl "poetic" a conception of educationwould be to make learning vulgar. Objections like these, however,smack of egoism, if not of genuine selfishness. If learning "makesa man fit company for himself," culture makes him fit company forothers. The best thing a teacher can do for his pupils, whether inthe kindergarten or in the seminar room, is to give them himselffreely; and if this gift is to be of highest worth it must beaccompanied by sympathy and love. In the words of ProfessorFoster: "Whoever becomes personality reverences personality inothers." Does the university professor, in whom the student lovesto find an ideal personality, reverence personality in the student?How is it in our own University? Is the student merely a voicethat responds to the call of a name in the classroom; or an external,visible object which, when encountered on the campus or on thepublic highway, calls up no small train of associative thought in themind of the professor? Is the J)rofessor simply a figurehead ofintellectual authority to be noticed by the student only in case ofacademic emergency? Or are students and professors open booksto each other, fountains of living water, persons sublimely human,!IO THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEdrawn and knit together by the bonds of sympathy and fellowship?All of these conditions of students and professors have been seenand experienced at the University of Chicago in the past. "Oneman pins me to the wall, while with another I walk among thestars." We sincerely hope that by this time the relation of fellow­ship has won an undisputed predominance.Sympathy or fellowship isthe sole means by which persons comewithin the range of our life. It is to the social life, in a universityas elsewhere, what gravitation is to the physical. "There is noteaching," says Emerson, "until the pupil is brought within thesame state or principle in which you, the teacher, are; a transfusiontakes place; he is you and you are he; there is' a teaching; and by nounfriendly chance or bad company can he quite lose the benefit." Asa rule, whether we will or no, the professor's personality, be itexalted or degraded, 'creeps into the lives of his students ; and itdoes so in direct proportion to the pedagogical soundness of histeaching.NATURE IN ENGLISH PO.ETRYUNDER the title of The Treatment of Nature in English Poetrythere hasI recently been issued from the University of Chi­cago Press a second edition of a volume by Associate ProfessorMyra Reynolds, of the Department of the English Language andLiterature. In the Preface of this new edition the author says:The first edition of this book has long been out of print The naturalimpulse, after an interval of fen years, is to sub] ect a new edition to', acomplete revision, with the rewriting of many portions, Revision asdrastic as might he desirable has not, however, proved practicable. Variousstudies of special authors have been brought up to date in the light of newmaterial concerning them, as, notably, in the sketch of Lady Winchilsea.TwO' chapters, the one on '.'Painting" and the one on "Gardening," areentirely new, and it has, fortunately, proved possible to add a number ofinteresting illustrations of these chapters, mainly from old prints. Withthese exceptions the book remains substantially as it was ten years ago.Various phases of the subj ect discussed in the chapters are : "TheTreatment of Nature in English Classical Poetry," "Indications ofa New Attitude toward Nature in the Poetry of the EighteenthCentury," "Fiction," "Travel," "Gardening," and "Landscape Paint­ing." The book of over four hundred pages has sixteen full-pageillustrations, and is concluded with a general summary, a biblio­graphical index, and a general 'index of eleven pages.THE MEETING AT BOSTON OF THEAMERICAN ASSOCIATION FORTHE ADVANCEMENTOF SCIENCEAT THE sixtY,-first meeting of the American Association for theAdvancement of Science held in Boston from December 27,1909, to January 1, 19IO, there was a large representation from theUniversity of Chicago. The retiring president of the Association,Professor Thomas C. Chamberlin, Head of the Department ofGeology, gave an address in Sanders Theater, Cambridge, on thesubject of "A Geologic Forecast of the Future Opportunities ofOur Race." The address was preceded by an address of welcometo Harvard University by Professor William James. At the firstgeneral session of the meeting, Professor Chamberlin introducedthe new president of the Association, David Starr Jordan, presidentof Leland Stanford Junior University,On December 28, before the joint sessions of Mathematics andPhysics, Professor Albert A. Michelson, Head of the Departmentof Physics, presented a paper on "The Ruling of Diffraction Grat­ings." Other papers presented before the American PhysicalSociety were by Assistant Professor Henry G. Gale and Mr. HarveyB. Lemon on "The Analysis of the Principal Mercury Lines byDiffraction Gratings, and a Comparison with the Results Obtainedby Other Methods"; by Associate Professor Robert A. Millikan(with E. K. Chapman and H. W. Moody) on "The Cause of theDiscrepancy between the Observed. and Calculated Temperaturesafter Expansion in the Space between the Plates of a Wilson Ex­pansion Apparatus," and also by Mr. Millikan a paper on "SomeNew Values: of the Positive Potentials Assumed by Metals underthe Influence of Ultra-vi old \ Light."In the division of Organic Chemistry, a paper on "Stereiosomeric,Chloromido Ketones" was presented by Professor Julius; Stieglitz,of the Department of Chemistry. In the division of Physical In­organic Chemistry, Professor Stieglitz also presented a paper on"The Velocity of Saponification of Formic Esters." In this divisionalso, Professor Alexander Smith (with A. W. C. Menzies) pre-IIIII2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEsented papers as follows: (1) "A Simple Dynamic Method forDetermining Boiling Points and Vapor Pressures of Liquids orSolids with Small .Amounts of Material"; (2) "A Method forDetermining Vapor Pressures"; (3) "A Redetermination of VaporPressures of Water'and Mercury"; (4) "A Quantitative Study ofthe Constitution of Calomel Vapor." Mr. Menzies also presenteda paper on the subject of "A Method tor Determining MolecularWeights 'Of Dissolved Substances by Measurement of Vapor Pres­sure,"At the meeting of the American Society of Biological Chemists,Associate Professor Anton J. Carlson, of the Department 'Of Physi­ology, presented a paper entitled "Further Studies on the InternalSecretion 'Of the Thyroid."At the meeting of the Paleontological Society, Professor SamuelW. Williston, of the Department of Paleontology, presented twopapers, one on "The Paleontology of Man," the other on "Var­anosaurus Species, a Permian Pelycosaur." At the meeting of thesame society, Associate Professor Stuart Weller, of the Departmentof Geology, gave a paper on "The Internal Characters of SomeMississippian Rhynchonelloid Shells."At the meeting of the Zoology section, the retiring vice-presi­dent, Professor Charles J� Herrick, gave an address on "TheEvolution of Intelligence and Its Organs." At the meeting of theAmerican Society of Zoologists, a paper presented by ProfessorFrank R. Lillie was entitled "The Fertilization Membrane inNereis."At the meeting of the Botanical Society of America, there waspresented .on invitation of the Council a special paper by ProfessorCharles R. Barnes, of the Department of Botany, on "The Natureof Physiological Response"; and in a symposium on "N uclearPhenomena of Sexual Reproduction in Thallophytes and Spermato­phyte'S," Assistant Professor Charles J. Chamberlain, of the Depart­ment 'Of Botany, discussed the subject of "Gymnosperms."At the meeting of the American Psychological Association,Assistant Professor Harvey Carr, 'Of the Department of Psychology,gave a paper entitled "The Autokinetic Sensation"; and ProfessorJames R. Angell, Head of the Department of Psychology, partici­pated in the discussion of a report on "Methods of Teaching Psy­chology," with special reference to college and university teachingwith a laboratory; Director Charles H. Judd, of the School ofASSOCIATION FOR ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE II3Education, gave at the same meeting his address ICl;S president ofthe Association, on the subject 'Of "Consciousness and Evolution."At a later meeting of the same association, Professor George H.Mead, of the Department of Philosophy, discussed the subject of"What Social Objects Does Psychology Presuppose?" and Asso­ciate Professor Walter F. Dearborn, of the Department of Educa­tion, presented a paper on "Eye Movements in Children's Reading.",At the meeting of the Association of American Bacteriologists,a paper entitled "Studies on the Sanitary Production of Milk" waspresented by Mr. Paul G. Heinemann, Mr. Arnold ,B. Luckhardt,and Mr. A. C. Hicks.At the meeting of the American Physiological, Society, ProfessorLudwig Hektoen, Head of the Department of Pathology and Bac­teriology, presented on invitation, and with Associate ProfessorAnton J. Carlson, 'Of the Department of Physiology, a paper "Onthe Distribution of Antibodies in Normal and Immune Animals."Mr. Carlson (with Clara J acobson) gave a paper entitled "TheInfluence .of Thyro-parathyro-ectorny on the Ammonia-DestroyingPower of the Liver."Professor C. Judson Herrick, of the Department of Anatomy,presented at the meeting of the Association of American Anato­mists a paper on "The Relations of the Central and PeripheralNervous Systems in Phylogeny"; and also a neurological paperentitled "The Analysis of the Paraterminal Body and Its Relationto the Hippocampus in the Lower Brains."In the section of Education, "Application of the ExperimentalMethod to Problems in Education" was: the subject of a paper byProfessor Charles, H. Judd, Head 'Of the Department of Education;and a paper on "The Psychology of Social Consciousness Impliedin Instruction" was presented by Professor George H. Mead, 'Ofthe Department of Philosophy. Associate Professor Walter F.Dearborn, of the Department 'Of Education, discussed "Problems inthe Psychology of Reading." At the meeting of the same section,Dec-ember 30, Professor William Gardner Halle, Head of the De­partment 'Of Latin, discussed the subject of "Problems in Gram­matical Te:rminology."At the final session of the Association Professor Albert A.Michelson, Head of the Department of Physics in the University ofChicago, was elected president of the Association for the year 1910.THE UNIVERSITY RECORDEXERCISES CONNECTED WITH THE SEVENTY-THIRD CONVOCATIONHon, Andrew J ackson Montague, LL.D., former governor ofVirginia, was the Convocation orator on December 20, 1909, hisaddress, which was given, in the Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, beingentitled "The South and the Nation." The address appears else­where in full in this issue of the Magazine.The Convocation Reception was held in Hutchinson HaH on theevening of Convocation day� December 20. In the receiving finewere President and Mrs. Harry Pratt Judson; the Convocationorator, Hon. Andrew J. Montague; and the Convocation chaplain,Dr. William Coleman Bitting, of St. Louis, Mo.DEGREES CONFERRED AT THE SEVENTY-THIRD CONVOCATIONAt the seventy-third Convocation of the University, held inHutchinson Hall on December 20, 1909, eight students were electedto membership in the Beta of Illinois chapter of Phi Beta Kappafor especial distinction in general scholarship in the University,Sixty-six students received the title 'Of Associate; three, thetwo years' certificate of the College of Education; one, the degreeof Bachelor of Education; four, the degree 'Of Bachelor of Arts;twelve the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy; and eleven, the degreeof Bachelor 'Of Science.In the Divinity School one student received the degree sfBachelor of Divinity, and one student the degree of Doctor of Phi­losophy.In the Law School one student received the degree of Doctor ofLaw (J.D.).In the Graduate Schools of Arts, Literature, and Science, threestudents were given - the degree of Master of Arts; two, that ofMaster of Philosophy; and six, that of Doctor 'Of Philosophy­making a total of 42 degrees (not including titles and certificates)conferred by the University at the Winter Convocation.UNIVERSITY COLLEGEUniversity College of the University of Chicago was organizedin 1898 for the purpose of conducting afternoon, evening, and Satur­II4UNIVERSITY RECORDday classes in college subjects for those who found it impossible orinconvenient to attend the classes on the University quadrangles.The work of this college 'Of the University is naturally little knownto the alumni and students who have done all or at least most oftheir work on the University quadrangles. It has, however', occupiedan important place for those who have regular occupations through­out the school year.For seven years the work 'Of University College was conducted,�in the Fine Arts Building, 203 Michigan Avenue. This work wasmade possible by an annual contribution from Mrs. Emmons Blaine,of from five to six thousand dollars. The first dean of UniversityCollege was Professor Edmund J. James, now president 'Of theUniversity of Illinois. Later deans were Professors William D.MacClintock and Edwin ErIe Sparks. The annual enrolment duringthis period of seven years varied from 254 in 1899-1900 to a maxi­mum of 'SIS in 1901-2•The contribution from Mrs. Blaine having been discontinued atthe end of the college year 1905-6, University College was trans­ferred from the central portion of the city to Emmons maine Hall,59th Street and Monroe Avenue. Because of the inaccessibility of.the new location the attendance declined rapidly during the nexttwo years.In June, 1908, Mr. Walter A. Payne, Secretary of the Lecture­Study Department of the University Extension Division, wasappointed Dean of University College, and rooms were secured forthe college work in Association Building, 153 LaSalle Street. Anattractive programme of University courses was announced for thepast year, with the result that a total of 429 different students regis­tered for the work in the college. Of this number, 57 weregraduates; 16, seniors; 19, juniors; and 337, unclassified students.A similar programme of courses prepared with 'special referenceto the needs of teachers in the Chicago public schools was announcedfor the year 1909-10. The result was an enrolment of 430 differentstudents for the Autumn Quarter, a larger number than for thesame period 'Of any other year except 1901-2; and indications arethat the enrolment for the year will approximate, if not equal, thehighest enrolment in the history of the college, The enrolment forlast year and for the autumn 'Of the current year is thereforeabundant evidence of the demand for work of this character,u6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERECENT IMPROVEMENTS ON THE UNIVERSITY GROUNDSIn the spring of 1909 the grounds at Yerkes Observatory,Williams Bay, Wis., were made more attractive by the planting ofthe following tr-ees 'and shrubs.: three European lindens, threewHite pines, one white fir, one Austrian pine, one Norway maple,one Flemish apple, 'One bird cherry, one maiden hair, two nettle 'trees,three European alders, one Norman silver fir, four Cockspur thorns,two English elms" nineteen sugar maples, five Ciser Rubrun, fivestriped hark maples, 'and six American lindens.Earlier in the spring the poor soil about the roots! of the Bostonivy 'On various University buildings was replaced with good blackearth an-i a fertilizer, as follows: at Snell Hall, south 'end;' LeonMandel HaU, south end; Beecher Hall, north 'end; Cobb Hall, eastside r; North Hall, east side; Middle Divinity Hall, east side; SouthDivinity Hall, east side and south end; Haskell M useum, west side;and the Psychology Laboratory, north, east, and south sides. 'Late in the Autumn Quarter the University completed the 'Con­struction of a new macadam roadway, with acoompanying cementsidewalks, leading from Ellis A venue past the north end of CobbHall and thence running south along the east front of Cobb HaN,North Hall, Middle Divinity Hall, and South Divinity Hall, endingin a turning-place in front of the last-mentioned building. Inconnection with this roadway new sewers were laid, to take careof the drainage, and 'new water pipes installed, in order to give asupply of water for lawns, tr.ees, and vines. In connection with thisimprovement, also, another section of electric conduit was laid, in ac­cordance with the plan prepared by the B. & J. Arnold Company forthe campus. It was necessary to lay this section so that futureadditions could be made without interfering with the permanentwork of the roadway and the sidewalks referred to above, and alsoto care for the electric light cables which will have to be installedbefore the Harper Memorial Library can be lighted.Permanent approaches to the Lexington Avenue doors of FosterHan, Kelly Hall, and Beecher Han were recently made, and newstone steps were installed at these doors and permanent cement side ....walks laid. A new six-foot sidewalk was also laid from Fifty­seventh Street to' the west entrance 'Of Bartlett Gymnasium.During September a new water connection was made for theBartlett Gymnasium, the Tower Group of buildings, and the HuHCourt pond, so that water is now supplied to these places direct fromUNIVERSITY RECORDthe city water main. This reliev·es the pressure on the power plantpump and makes it possible to give better service 'On the top floorsof buildings, where strong water pressure is required. This actionwas made necessary by the large amount of water used in theBartlett Gymnasium natatorium and the HuH Court pond.Late in the autumn Swain Nelson & Sons' Company finishedplanting elm trees on the campus, as follows: east of HaskellMuseum, three trees; east of Cobb Hall, two; main driveway eastof Cobb Hall, two; Middle Court, two; west of Leon Mandel HaU,one tree; and in Hull Court, one tree. East of the President'sHouse the following shrubs were planted: two Altheas (Rose ofSharon and twelve Japanese barberries.AU of the trees mentioned were planted in a permanent way, inaccordance with previous custom. For each tr1ee there was firstexcavated a tree pit twenty feet square by three feet, six inches deep,which was filled with good black earth brought from the country,mixed with a suitable quantity of well-rotted manure. Lawns wereimproved by removing the poor soil and r-eplacing it with black earthfrom the country, as follows: (I) The lawn 'east of Middle Courtand south of Ryerson Physical Laboratory and north of WalkerMuseum. The ground south of Ryerson and the ground north ofWalker Museum were graded to follow the natural slope towardLexington Avenue, so that the tennis courts east 'Of Middle Courtwere left in a natural hollow, the banks being terraced and soddedon the west, north, and south sides. (2) The depression south ofWalker Museum was fined and permanently finished, so that theground in the women's quadrangle from Foster Hall to WalkerM useurn is now on one grade.THE FACULTIESProfessor Paul Shorey, Head of the Department 'Of Greek, wasmade president of the American Philological Association at itsmeeting in Baltimore on December 28 to 31, 1909.M. Joseph Bedier, professor in the College de France, gave aseries of rthree lectures in Cobb Lecture Hall, November 29 andDecember I and 3, on the subject of "Quelques genres lyriques duXII et du XIII siecle.""The Spirit of Greek Athletics" is the subject of an illustratedcontribution in the January (1910) number of the ChauiauquanII8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmagazine, by Professor Paul Shorey, Head of the Department ofGreek.Among the editors of Webster' s New International Dictionarywas Professor Rollin D. Salisbury, Dean of the Ogden (Graduate)School of Science, who had general charge of the definition ofterms in geological science.Professor J ames H. Breasted, of the Department of Semitics,has in the January (19IO) number of the Chautouqua» a contribu­tion on "Thebes: Karnak and Luxor"-a fifth article under thegeneral title of "A Reading Journey through Egypt."At the annual dinner of the North Central Academic Association,given at the University Club, Chicago, on December 30, 1909, Pro­fessor Frank ]. Miller" of the Department of Latin, led in the dis­cussion of the subject 'Of college-entrance requirements,Director Edwin B. Frost, of the Yerkes Observatory, con­tributes to the December (1909) number of the AstrophysicalJ ournal an appreciation of the well-known astronomer, CharlesAugustus Young, whose portrait forms the frontispiece of thenumber."The Art of Landscape Painting" was the subject of a Uni­versity public lecture in the Leon Mandel Assembly Hall on theafternoon of January 17, by Mr. Alfred East, president of theRoyal Society of British Artists. There was a large audience inattendance.At the Pan-Hellenic Conference, held in N ew York City onNovember 27 to discuss conditions of fraternity life in Americancolleges and universities, Associate Professor Francis W. Shep­ardson, of the Department of History, represented the Universityof Chicago.Professor Ludwig Hektoen, Head of the Department of Path­ology and Bacteriology, delivered the fifth lecture of the HarveySociety course on January IS, 1910, at the New York Academy ofMedicine, on the subject of "Certain Phases of the Formation ofAntibodies."In the Modern European History Conference at the twenty-fifthmeeting of the American Historical Association in New York City,December 27-31, Professor Ferdinand Schevill, of the Departmentof History, discussed the subject of "The Situation in Bosnia andHerzegovina."UNIVERSITY RECORD"Venice-Its Rise and Fall" was the subject of an address inIsaiah Temple before the art study class of the Chicago Woman'sAid 011 January 27, by Professor Ferdinand Schevill, of the Depart­ment of History. This was the first in a series of four lectures onVenetian art.Among the members of the new! Charities Commission of Illi­nois are Dr. Frank Billings, Professor of Medicine, and ProfessorEmil G. Hirsch, of the Department of Semitics, There are threeother members of the commission, which was appointed by thegovernor of Illinois.Professor G. W. Prothero, formerly of the universities of Cam­bridge and Edinburgh, gave a series of three lectures in HaskellAssembly Room on January 19, 20, and 21, his subject being"N apoleon III and Europe." A large audience listened to thelectures with great interest.President Harry Pratt Judson gave an address before theSouthern Educational Association on the subject of "Education andSocial Progress" at Charlotte, North Carolina, on December 30,1909. Among the other speakers was former President Charles W.Eliot, of Harvard University."The Unprotected Girl" was the subject of an address beforethe philanthropy department of the Chicago Woman's Club onJanuary 26, by Assistant Professor Sophonisba P. Breckinridge, ofthe Department of Household Administration. Miss Breckinridgeis also Assistant Dean of Women. '"Music as a Social Force" is the subject of a contribution in theJanuary (1910) issue of the World T o-Day, by Mr. Lester BartlettJones, Associate and Director of Music. Mr. Jones also gave anaddress on December 29 before the Music Teachers' National Asso­ciation, at its meeting in Evanston, Ill.At the joint session of the American Political Science Associa­tion and the American Association for Labor Legislation, held inNew York City during the holiday season, Professor Ernst Freund,of the Faculty of the Law School, discussed the subject of "Ad­ministrative and Constitutional Principles to Be Observed in LaborLegislation."As the opening contribution in the December (1909) numberof the Botanical Gceette, Assistant Professor Charles J. Chamber­lain, of the Department of Botany, has an article on "Dioon Spinu-I20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINElosum," which forms the one hundred and thirty-first contributionfrom the Hull Botanical Laboratory, The article is illustrated byseven figures.On January 26, 1910, at the annual dinner of the GeographicSociety of Chicago held at 'the La Salle Hotel, the Helen Culvergold medal was awarded to Commodore Robert E. Peary for dis­tinguished service in exploration, and to Professor Thomas C.Chamberlin, Head of the Department of Geology, for distinguishedservice in geographic research,"Travels in China" was the subject of an illustrated addressbefore the Geographic Society 'Of Chicago. 'On December 6 in Fuller­ton RaH of the Art Institute, by Dr. Rollin T. Chamberlin, ResearchAssociate in Geology. Mr. Chamberlin went as a secretary of theUniversity's Oriental Education Commission, which spent a yearin China and Japan studying educational and other conditions.At the banquet of the Unitarian Club of California held in SanFrancisco on the evening of November 29, 1909, Professor EdwardP. Krehbiel, of Leland Stanford Junior University, recently of theDepartment of History in the University of Chicago, representedthe University of Chicago. There were also representatives of theUniversity of Wisconsin, and of Yale and Columbia universities.At the fifteenth annual meeting of the central division of theModem Language Association of America, held at the State Uni­versity of Iowa, December 28-30, 1909, Associate Professor T.Atkinson Jenkins, of the Department of Romance Languages andLiteratures, presented a paper, which was read by title only, on thesubject of "The Contenz dou Mende, by Renaud d' Andon (13thCentury) ."Professor George E. Vincent, Dean of the Faculties of Arts,Literature, and Science, gavle four addresses before the SouthernCalifornia State Teachers' Association in Los, Angeles from Decem­ber 20 to 23, on the general subject of "Education and Efficiency,"and also a series of four lectures before the California State Teach­ers' Association in San Francisco from December 27 to 30, on thegeneral subject of "Group' Life of Children."The University 'Of Munster, Germany, has recently invitedAssistant Professor Martin Schiitze, of the Department of Ger­manic Languages and Literatures, to give two series of lectures,one series in German and one in English, during the summerUNIVERSITY RECQRD I21semester of 1910. "The Modern German Drama" was the subjectof an address by Mr. Schiitze on January 10 in Fullerton. Hall ofthe Art Institute before the Germanistic Society of Chicago.The portrait of Dr. Thomas W. Goodspeed, secretary and mem­ber of the University Board of Trustees, was recently placed 'Onthe east wall of Hutchinson Hall. The artist was Mr. Louis Bettsof Chicago, and the portrait, which represents Dr. Goodspeed ina Trustee's gown as Secretary of the Board, was the gift of hisbrother, Captain Henry Goodspeed, of Danville, Ill. A reproductionof the portrait will appear in a later number of the Magazine."China's Far West" is the subject of an illustrated contributionin the January (1910) number 'Of the World To-Day} by ProfessorErnest D. Burton, Head of the Department of Biblical and PatristicGreek. The unique illustrations are reproductions of photographsmade by Dr. Rollin T. Chamberlin, who was one 'Of the secretariesof the Oriental Educational Commission sent 'Out by the Universityof Chicago, Professor Burton and Professor T. C. Chamberlin beingthe members of the commission.Professor Thomas C. Chamberlin, Head of the Department ofGeology, has the opening contribution in the November-Decembernumber (1909) of the Journal of Geology, entitled "Diastrophismas the Ultimate Basis of Correlation." Dr. William C. Alden,Docent in Field Geology, has a contribution entitled "ConcerningCertain Criteria for Discrimination of the Age of Glacial DriftSheets as Modified by Topographic Situation and Drainage Rela­tions." The article is illustrated by six figures.The opening contribution in the Elementary School Teacher forDecember (1909) is entitled "Natural History in the Grades," byAssociate Professor Otis W. Caldwell, of the Department ofBotany; and in the January number of the same journal is a contri­bution on "The Fine and Industrial Arts in Elementary Schools,Grades 2 and 3," by Professor Walter Sargent, of the Departmentof Education, In the same number Associate Professor S. ChesterParker, of the same department, contributes a discussion of "OurInherited Practice in Elementary Schools," his special subject being"Rousseau in Relation to Contemporary Practice."Professor William Gardner Hale, Head of the Department ofLa.tin, contributes to the January (19IO) number of Classical Phi­lology an article on "Benzo of Alexandria and Catullus." "Hieremias122 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEde Montagnone and His Citations from Catullus" is the subject ofa contribution by Dr. Berthold L. Ullman, of the same department;Professor Paul Shorey, Head of the Department of Greek, dis­cusses "A Greek Analogue of the Romance Adverb"; and AssistantProfessor Robert J. Bonner, of the same department, discusses thesubject of "The Name 'Ten Thousand.'" In the same numberHenry W. Prescott, Associate Professor of Classical Philology, hasa note on "Plautus' Trinummus, 675."The paleontological expedition of the University of Chicago tothe Permian of Texas, under the direction of Professor SamuelW. Williston, of the Department of Paleontology, was especiallyfortunate the past summer in the discovery of a bone deposit yield­ing scores of skeletons-many of them complete-of reptiles andamphibians. The number of specimens secured and their kindscannot be fully determined until the material has been freed from itsmatrix in the laboratory. So far, skeletons of three forms havebeen prepared, one of them of a new species, genus, and family ofreptiles, the others of forms hitherto known only from fragments.I t is hoped to mount, after the manner of recent skeletons, at leasttwo of them during the present winter."Principles of Sanitary Science" is the general subject of aseries of lectures given in Kent Theater from January 10 to March14, by Assistant Professor C. E. A. Winslow, of the MassachusettsInstitute of Technology. The subjects of the lectures are the fol­lowing: "Health and Disease," "Bacteria and Other Parasites"(illustrated), "Sources and Vehicles of Disease," "Sewage andSewage Disposal" (illustrated) , "Water Supply and Public Health"(illustrated), "Milk and Its Dangers" (illustrated), "Insect Carriersof Disease" (illustrated), "Immunity and Its Control" (illustrated),"Tuberculosis and Vital Resistance" (illustrated), and "The Pastand Future of Sanitary Science." Mr. Winslow is giving coursesin the Department of Pathology and Bacteriology, in the absence ofProfessor Edwin O. Jordan during the Winter Quarter of 1910.Professor Morris Jastrow, Jr., of the University of Pennsylvania,gave in the Haskell Assembly Room from January 26 to February3, 1910, a series of six lectures on the Haskell Foundation, hisgeneral subject being "The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria."The subjects of the individual lectures, which were illustrated withthe exception of one, llwere as follows: "Culture and Religion,"UNIVERSITY RECORD I23"The Pantheon," "Divination," "Astrology," "The Ancient OrientalView of the Temple," and "Life after Death: Ethics." The last(fourteenth) series of lectures on the Haskell Foundation was de­livered in January, 1909, by Professor A. V. Williams Jackson, ofColumbia University, on the 'Subject of "The Religion of Persia."The Haskell Lectures are given under the auspices. of the Univer­sity of Chicago and the American Committee for Lectures on theHistory of Religions.At the ninth meeting of the Central Association of Science andMathematics Teachers, held at the University of Chicago onNovember 26 and 27, 1909, President Harry Pratt Judson gave theaddress of welcome. Professor Thomas C. Chamberlin, Head ofthe Department of Geology, was to have spoken on the subject of"Certain Features of China, Physical and Humanistic." In the en­forced absence of Mr. Chamberlin, Professor Ernest D. Burton, oneof the University'S Oriental Educational Commissioners, gave someof his impressions of the Orient. In the section meeting of PhysicsProfessor Albert A. Michelson, Head of the Department of Physics,gave a paper on "Some Recent Determinations in Physics," Associ­ate Professor Robert A. Millikan, of the same department, discussed"The Elementary Charge of Electricity," and Associate ProfessorOtis W. Caldwell, of the Department of Botany, discussed thesubj ect of "First-Year High-School Science Courses." A reportof the Committee on Fundamentals was made by Associate Pro­fessor Charles R. Mann, of the Department of Physics.In the November (1909) number of the Biblical World is acontribution on the subject of "Moral Training in the PublicSchools" by Associate Professor Clyde W. V otaw, of the Depart­ment of New Testament Literature. In the same number of thejournal Professor Theodore G. Soares, Head of the Departmentof Practical Theology, has an article on "Paul's Missionary Meth­ods"; and Assistant Professor Edgar J. Goodspeed, of the Depart­ment of Biblical and Patristic Greek, has a contribution on "Paul'sVoyage to Italy." "Why I Am Content to Be a Christian" is thesubject of a contribution in the December number of the journalby Professor Ernest D. Burton, Head of the Department of NewTestament Literature and Interpretation; and Assistant ProfessorShirley J. Case, of the same department, discusses "The Origin andPurpose of the Gospel of Matthew." ,DISCUSSION AND COMMENTCONVOCATION WEEK PLANSTHE tendency in University circles to make Convocation weekin J une considerably more of an occasion for Senior andalumni demonstrations should have included in its programme theshifting of the Senior Promenade to' June. While the WashingtonPromenade in February should he retained, ilt seems more inharmony with the spirit of Convocation to give the Seniors chargeof th'e promenade held annually at that time and now presided overby the Junior classes. This might also prove more of an incentive tomake alumni attend the last big social 'event of the year.A vote against transferring the Senior Promenade to June andabolishing the Washington Promenade was cast by the Undergradu­ate Council at a recent meeting. It does not seem necessary now toargue in favor of the two social functions enjoyed by Universitystudents during the year. They stand so isolated amid the plethoraof brilliant events that call the student to Midlothian, Ravinia,Bournique's, the Gold Room of the Congress Hotel, and the hundredother places where Chicago amuses itself that attention need notbe directed to the fact that genuine student functions are not re­markable for their frequency. What the Undergraduate Councilshould bring about is a greater interest in the promenades of theyea!r, so that students may be drawn to attend them rather than havetheir time taken up with functions off the campus, which do notform a part of University life, and often draw the interest of thestudent away from University associations.Incidental to making more of Senior activities comes the dis­cussion of a larger alumni demonstration in June. The attendanceat the dinner last year has led to the belief that much interest canbe summoned in alumni events: if they are made especially attractiveto.alumni. It is probable that the University Luncheon on Convoca­tion day will ibecome an alumni luncheon, laying emphasis on thefact that the Seniors of several hours before have become alumni ofthe University; and probably this will be made one of the importantfunctions of the week. Some 'Other suggestions that have come tomembers of the Alumni Council are:T'he general participation of the members of the four associations inthe Convocation procession, and the setting apart of a section of seats foralumni at the exercises.I24DISCUSSION AND COMMENT I25Making the alumni luncheon at noon a notable function by publishingat that time 3:11 the important news of the year.Making the afternoon of Alumni Day similar to Illinois Day, anderecting tents or marquees on the campus for the headquarters of alumnigroups, where costumes for the parade will be given out.An alumni field day on Marshall Field, at the end of toe parade,together with the usual baseball games and other events.A separate dinner for all the men of the University in the evening.This proposal is not thought to be feasible, as it is believed the alumnaecould not organize a separate dinner on an equally large scale.The more general participation of the members of the four alumniassociations in the field-day and alumni events, each retaining, however,its separate dinner and business meeting.A torchlight procession over the campus in the evening, torches to befurnished at nominal cost and kept in custody from year to year, makingthe event an annual function. This suggestion came from Dean Vincentand has been warmly seconded.Imaginative alumni have conjured up in their minds a scene 'Ofunexampled loveliness: the campus lighted with Japanese lanternsin all corners of the quadrangles; the University band-overworked,.perhaps, by this time, but still earning its tuition=-discoursing sweetmelodies in the center of one of the sunken courts ; the long linesof a: thousand flaming torches, winding over the grounds like afiery dragon in the quiet of the romantic summer night; the bright,laughing faces of happy groupis of; alumni, young and old, singingthe songs of seventeen classes. There bas been some talk of abasket picnic on Marshall Field following the athletic events. Sug­gestions are in order and welcome. Both Seniors and alumni willlook forward from this time on for the consummation of plans thatwill make Convocation week linger long and sweetly in theirmemory.REASSEMBLING THE CONFERENCEIt was the hope of many alumni of both Michigan and Chicagothat the close of the season of 1909 might bring about the returnof Michigan to the Conference. Many fair-minded observers whoare not biased by undergraduate prejudices fail to see why the twoobstacles still said to be in the way of Michigan's return-the train­ing table and the professional coach-cannot be satisfactorily ad­justed. It is time, too, that the great Michigan school swung itsinfluence strongly in favor of the clean athletic standards whichhave been so uniformly observed by members of the Conference.These standards have already made their influence on athletic devel-126 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEopments felt over the entire country and the time will come wheneven the East will admit that western athletic methods are singu­larly more in keeping with the best ideals of amateur sportsmanshipthan its own.Professor Andrew C. McLaughlin, Head 'Of the Department ofHistory in the University, and an alumnus of Michigan, believes thatthe question of Michigan's part-icipation in Conference athleticsshould be decided by the faculty alone. He writes the M ichiganAlumnus that the Conference is a body of representatives of collegefaculties who come together to attempt to regulate relations. Advo­cating this view he says:This subj ect has been discussed all the time as if it were a questionsolely for athletes, as to whether they preferred to play East or West.It ought to' be solely a question as to' whether the Michigan faculty iswilling to' co-operate with other faculties of the West and accept whatseems fair to the majority after a fair, candid, and gentlemanly considera­tion of a situation. To. satisfy student demands, which probably a largepart of the present student body now think unwise, the faculty were madeto' submit to' the proposition to withdraw from the meetings of the facultymen of the western colleges. The very organization and method ofappointment were altered-s-a step decidedly retrogressive=and Michigangave up a position in which she had always been a leader and retiredfrom a conference in which she had held an honorable place and in whichshe had much influence in the bettering of western athletics.It is hardly probable that another year will see Michigan still astranger without the gates. Alumni sentiment is almost uniformlyagainst the present policy, and while there has been some hope onthe part of Michigan men that a reorganized Conference, consist­ing of four or five big western institutions might be founded, itseems more likely that Conference difficulties will be adjusted andthe old organization retained.AN IMPORTANT ALUMNI CLUBAttention has frequently been directed in University circles tothe splendid organization maintained by alumni land former studentsof the University in Colorado-the Rocky Mountain Club. One ofthe first to organize it has not 'Only held its membership but in­creased it, and has become one of the strongest clubs formed byalumni. This was due principally to the interest taken in its workby its 'Officers, and to the personal efforts of its secretary, Miss EllaR. Metsker.Bulletins published from time to time by the club reflect theDISCUSSION AND COMMENTcare with which its functions are planned. A statement issuedabout a year ago gave a directory of all Chicago graduates in Colo­rado and adjoining states, The financial report of the secretaryfor the year was printed and sent to the members under date ofDecember I7, 1909. Officers of other alumni clubs may gain valu­able information from these records.The results accomplished by the Rocky Mountain Club havebeen noteworthy because a small group of enthusiastic alumniworked to make the club mean something to' its members. Whathas been done in Denver can be done in San Francisco, in LosAngeles, in Indianapolis, and in twenty other cities of the UnitedStates. In an alumni undertaking, as in every other 'effort that isto bring results, the personal element is invariably the strongestfactor. It is to the 'efficient local secretaries who do the most ofthe work of organization that the Alumni Council expresses itsdeep sense of gratitude.THE COLLEGE MAN IN BUSINESSAttempt'S to define the value of college training t'O a businessman are made periodically by some men who have had the goodfortune to acquire both wealth and education, by others who havethe education and lack the wealth, and, more often, by those whohave the wealth and lack the education. Few of the critics takeinto account that there are two points involved: the question whetheror not a college education benefits the life of a business man as awhole, or whether it makes him a more efficient machine to accumu­late money and become commercially successful. The estimate ofTheodore P. Shonts is of particular value because he recognizesclearly this distinction. Mr. Shonts approaches the subject as acollege graduate who has become a successful business man. In­deed, in view of his achievements he may be ranked as one 'Of thegreat employers of labor. As head of the Interborough Companiesof New York City he had charge of 25,000 men; while director ofthe construction of the Panama Canal he employed 45,000 men.He has been president of five railroads and a director in manycorporations. His views, printed in the January number of System,include the following:To the extent that a college-trained man can turn to' practical use themass of information acquired in his undergraduate days, to' the extentthat he can apply his mental discipline to the solution of conditions heTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmeets in the business world, to that extent, and no further, can hedevelop into a man of affairs.The only way to learn to think is to think. The college offers toteach him how. It shows him how to analyse, to' synthesize, to compare,to differentiate, to reason logically to correct conclusions. Such abilitiesare essential to the business man.The orderliness and system of a college training produces, other thingsbeing equal, the most accurate, logical, and discriminating mind. This isthe type of mind the business world demands.Some college-bred men have considered an education to be an accumu­lation of data. It ris their belief in knowledge as an end instead of ameans to a power, that has wrecked so many college men when theyentered business.The knowledge that the root of the Greek verb AOVEW is derivedfrom the Sanskrit is of no value to' him in holding his job as clerk in arailroad office, but the discipline that enabled him to solve the formerproblem will help him solve the problems that confront him in the latter.On this assumption the college man is to be preferred to the man withoutthis training.ALUMNI CLUBSGENERAL ALUMNI ACTIVITIESTHE ROCKY MOUNTAIN CLUBDINNERThe Rocky Mountain Club heldits third annual dinner at the BrownPalace Hotel in Denver, on Decem­ber 30, 1909, at 7 0" clock. Therewas an excellent menu, a fraternalfeeling, a better acquaintanceshiphaving grown out of the previousmeetings, a ready toastmaster, anda series of interesting toasts pro­posed by good speakers, elementswhich combined to make a verysatisfactory alumni meeting.The fact that the president, Dr.Herbert A. Howe, '75, was on dutyat Chamberlin Observatory, wherethe University of Denver was keep­ing open house to the State Teach­ers' Association, and that all threevice-presidents could not be present,gave the place of chairman of theevening and toastmaster. to. Ward­ner Williams, Ph.D., '98. Mr. Wil­liams filled the position with easeand fluency. Eugene Parsons, A.B.,'03, opened the programme with"Reminiscences." These were mostlyanecdotes of the professors ofthe old University. Noone, hav­ing heard, will ever forget thestory of Professor Olsen and Dr.Stuart, I the Damon and Pythias ofthat faculty. Under the title of"Progress" Harry E. Purinton,B.D., '97, paid tribute to the breadthof view and freedom of thoughtfostered by the University. HenryHarwood Hewitt, A.B., '96, perhapsthe foremost architect of Denver, pro­posed tq!e to.ast, "Leaven." He spokeof the University as instilling intoor implanting in men an element,which, permeating their lives, makesthem' practical men. He raised thequestion as to whether our gener­ally accepted notions of a "practicalman" were correct, and while hedid not attempt to answer his ques­tion he led one to believe that the notion commonly accepted is sordidand' far below the truth.The only woman responding to' atoast was Mrs. Cornelia Miles ofDenver, principal of the EbertSchool. . Mrs. Miles is at homewhen giving a toast, and handledher subject, "Secrets," wittily andgracefully. George Bedell Vosburg,Ph.D., '84, discussed "Specialists"and, orator that he is, pointed outwith emphasis the perils of special­ists, or the need of men to interestthemselves in more than one line.The guest of honor was JudgeLuther M. Goddard, LL.B., '65, theclearest jurist in Colorado. Whencalled on by the toastmaster, he re­sponded with an eloquent apostro­phe to "Learning." At the requestof Mr. Williams the guests stoodin silence for some . minutes inmemory of President William RaineyHarper.In the business meeting that fol­lowed comprehensive plans for thefourth annual dinner were dis­cu sed and approved, and the fol­lowing officers elected:President-Wardner Williams, ofDenver.First Vice-President-George Be­dell Vosburg, of Denver.Second Vice-President-Mrs. Ger­trude Caswell Spaulding, of Kersey,Colo. .Third Vice-President-Paul Hun­ter Dodge, of Colorado. Springs.The Secretary- Treasurer, Ella R.Metsker, was re-elected.Greetings were received fromJudge. Mack and Alonzo A. Stagg,of Chicago, and greetings were ex­changed with the alumni of Colo­rado State University, who heldtheir banquet at the Shirley at thesame hour.ELLA R. METSKER_, '06SecretaryA DINNER AT SIOUX pTY, IA.Herbert W. Brackney, 1'06, presi­dent of the Sioux City Alumni Club,129I3° THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEis making arrangements for thereunion dinner of the club to beheld on the evening of Friday,March 4, when Dean George E.Vincent will be the guest from theUniversity. The club is one of theyoungest of the alumni bodies,having been organized in May, 1909.All alumni and former students ofthe University in and near SiouxCity who are not already membersof the club are urged to send theirnames. to Mr. Brackney at once.THE KANSAS CITY ALUMNIOfficers were elected at a reunionmeeting .of the Kansas City, Mo.,alumni in the University Club inKansas City, on Friday evening,January 7. Fourteen graduates ofthe University attended. WilliamG. Matthews" '06, who was promi­nent in track and student activitieswhile in the University was madepresident, Judge William Thompson,'67, vice-president, and Mrs. Ingra­ham D. Hook, '05 (Dorothy Dun­can) secretary and treasurer. Alarge number of alumni and formerstudents of the University live inKansas City.ALUMNI NEWSJANUARY COUNCIL MEETINGUnder "Discussion and Comment"in this issue of the Magazine isgiven in detail a list of the sugges­tions . considered by the AlumniCouncil at its January meeting forthe Alumni. Day programme. TheCouncil met at the Men's Commonson Tuesday, january 4. The reportof the Committee on Alumni Meet­ings, made by Edgar J. Good­speed, d'97, Ph.D., '98, dealt princi­pally with plans for this day.Mr. Goodspeed reported that hiscommittee believed the CollegeAlumni Association should retain itsdinner in the evening of Convoca­tion Day, and also should takecharge of the alumni demonstration,for the reason that .it. was the lar­gest body represented in the Counciland would. have the largest num­bers. To the College Association also. was referred the suggestion ofan alumni button for Alumni Day.The committee suggested that mar­quees or tents be placed on thecampus for headquarters for variousalumni groups and that possiblybuttons and costumes for the alumnidemonstrations he given out there.These recommendations will betaken up by the College AlumniAssociation. The committee urged alarge participation by alumni in capand gown in the Convocation pro­cession, and furthermore that theUniversity Luncheon at noon bemade the Alumni Luncheon. Thereport was adopted upon motion ofGeorge E. Vincent, Ph.D., '96.The Council listened to' plans forpromoting the new alumni directoryand agreed to send a letter to everyalumnus calling attention to the use­fulness of the directory and urgingthe support of the combination offergiving the University of ChicagoMagazine and the Directory for$1.65.Present at the meeting wereMessrs. Slaught, Goodspeed, Schrei­ber, Vincent, Bond, Harper, andHansen. In the absence of Dr.Behan, the chairman, Dr. Slaughtpresided.PROMOTES CHINESE MAGAZINEWilliam F. Hummel, '09, is givencredit by the editors of the N an­king University Magazine, publishedat Nanking, China, with being itsoriginator. An editorial in the firstnumber says: "I t will be gratify­ing to the public to note -the ap­pearance of this magazine, which ispublished with the approval of theBoard of Control of the Faculty ofNanking University and at the sug­gestion of Mr. William F. Hum­mel, who may be said to he itsoriginator." The magazine is printedin English by the students. N an­king University embraces a prepara­tory school, a theological school, anda college of liberal arts, and is affili­ated with a medical college. It hassixteen professors, 'eleven assistantinstructors, and 310 students. Al­though located in China it was in­corporated under the laws of Massa­chusetts.GENERAL ALUMNI ACTIVITIESGETS HIGH JUDICIAL OFFICEHorace H. Lurton, recently ap­pointed justice of the Supreme Courtof the United States was at onetime a student in the old Universityof Chicago. Judge. Lurton is asoutherner by birth and breeding.He was born in Kentucky sixty­five years ago. In 1866 he wasgraduated as a lawyer from Cum­berland University. While he wasstudying law the Civil War claimedhis services. After the war he be­came chancellor of the sixth districtof Tennessee. In 1886 he was madejustice of the supreme court ofTennessee, and later became chiefjustice. President Cleveland made 131him a judge of the sixth judicialdistrict of the United States in 1893.LAWRENCE DEGRAFF PROMOTEDLawrence DeGraff, Ph.B., 'oS, wasappointed j udge of the districtcourt bench at Des Moines, la., b�Governor Carroll, of Iowa, on J anu­ary 3, to fill the vacancy caused bythe resignation of Judge JesseMiller. Mr. DeGraff has the de­grees of A.B., Dixon, '94, and LL.M.,Illinois CoHege of Law, '96. Hehas been assistant to' the attorney­general of the state of Iowa and atthe time of his appointment wasserving his second term as countyattorney of Polk County.THE ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OFPHILOSOPHYHERBERT E. SLAUGHT., PH.D., '98, SecretaryNEW DOCTORSAt the Seventy-third Convocation,December 20, 1909, the followingeight Doctors were add ed to thelist, making the total number now565, of whom ten are deceased:In English, David L. Maulsby,A.B., Tufts College, 1887 ; A.M.,.Harvard University, 1898.In Semitics, Ivan L. Holt, A.B.,Vanderbilt University, 1904·In Mathematics, Harris F. Mac­N eish, S.B., The University ofChicago, 1902; S.M., ibid." 1904.In Physiology, Walter J. Meek,A.B., University of Kansas, 1902 ;A.M., Penn College, 1907.In Chemistry} Herbert H. Bunzel,S.B., The University of Chicago,1906.Herman A. Spoehr, S.B., TheUniversity of Chicago, 1906.In Hebrew} George A. Peckham,A.B., Buchtel College, 1875; A.M.,ibid.) 1878.ALUMNI NEWSDr. Irving E. Miller, '04, of theState Normal School, Greeley, Colo.,read a paper before the ColoradoState Teachers' Association at itsthirty-fifth annual meeting in Den­VIer, on "The Relation betweenFunction and Technique in ChildDevelopment." He also read a paperbefore the Weld County Teachers'Association O'n "Education from aFunctional Viewpoint."Charles J. Bushnell, '01, is pro­fessor of history and politicaleconomy at the Agricultural andMechanical College, Stillwater,Okla., and editor of the biweeklybulletin of that institution, The NewEducation. Dr. Bushnell has re­cently been called upon for publiclectures at various educational meet­ings in the state.Frank H. Fowler, '96, professorof Latin at Lombard College, Galesburg, Ill., was elected secre­tary of the college section of theIllinois State Teachers' Associa­tion at the recent annual meetingat Springfield. He recently madethe suggestion in the EducationalBulletin that an educational day beset aside for bringing the advan­tages of education before thepeople.Rev. Albert J. Steelman, '05, whoduring the last four years has beenchaplain of the state penitentiaryat Joliet, Ill., has just been electedsuperintendent of the Society forthe Friendless for the state ofWashington, with headquarters atSeattle. Dr. Steelman had made alarge place for himself among thecitizens of Joliet by his activity inevery good cause. He is especiallywell 'equipped for work in this newfield. He was a pastor for eightyears in Ottawa, Ill., and for sometime was a missionary to Mexicoand has written a book on Charitiesfor Children in the City of Mexico.Dr. David Moore Robinson, '04,associate professor of Greek inJohns Hopkins University, hasbeen appointed professor of Greekin the American School of Classi­cal Studies, at Athens, Greece.Dr. Geneva Misener, '03, formerlyprofessor of Greek and Latin inRockford College, is dean of Ken­wood Institute, Chicago.Drs. Mary Hefferan, '03, andPaul G. Heinemann, '07, of the De­partment 0 f Pathology and Bacteri-010gy in a recent article in theJournal of I nfectious Diseases,made a detailed study of B. bulqa­ricus, the germ recommended byMetchnikoff in his book on Pro­longation of Life. This organism,imported from Bulgaria, is ex­ploited by various commercialfirms for the preparation of butter­milk. By special methods theauthors demonstrated its presencein ordinary foodstuffs such -c. asTHE LAW SCHOOL ASSOCIATIONmilk, cornmeal, etc., and in thenormal mouth.Victor E. Shelford, '07, Associatein Zoology in the University. ofChicago, 'recently published the fol­lowing articles, "Life Histories ofTiger Beetles," Linnean Society,London; "Distribution of TigerBeetles," Biological' Bulletin; "En­vironmental Tendencies," AmericanNaturalist. He has also read papersat the seventh International Zoologi­cal Congress, before the Entomologi­cal Society of America, the Ameri­can Association for the Advance­ment of Science, and the Geo­graphic Society of Chicago.Charles A. Ellwood, '99, professorof sociology in the University ofMissouri since 1900, had an articlein the Psychological Bulletin on"Professor Ross's Conception ofSocial Psychology," and one in theDelineator entitled "Is the AmericanFamily to Die?" Professor Ell­wood's department has over twohundred students. It maintains a 133school of philanthropy in St.Louis and an extension center inKansas City.Mintin A. Chrysler, '04, is pro­fessor of botany in the Universityof Maine, Orono, Me., having pre­viously been an instructor at Har­vard University.Herbert E. Fleming, '05, is a mem­ber of the civic committee on gasand electricity of the City Club ofChicago, and also of the committeewhich organized the Saturday after­noon walks under the auspices ofthe Chicago Playground Associa­tion.Clarence S. Yoakum, '08, is in­structor in philosophy at the Uni­versity of Texas. He is a memberof the Texas Academy of Science,and the Southern PsychologicalSociety.William Findlay, 'OJ, is professorof mathematics in McMaster Uni­versity, Toronto, Canada. He wasformerly instructor at ColumbiaUniversity.THE LAW SCHOOL ASSOCIATIO�RUDOLPH E. SCHREIBER, J.D., '06, SecretaryLAW SCHOOL NEWSMembers of the J ames ParkerHall Law Club conducted amoot court trial on January 15before a large audience composedlargely of members of the LawSchool. The trial began at 2o'clock and closed at 6, all formsof court procedure being observed.The case was worked up by DeanHall of the Law School and wasone in which he took part at thetime he was. practicing. ProfessorRoscoe Pound presided, Suit wasbrought by the Traders' NationalBank against Dean Benton to re­cover the amount paid on a hond towhich the signature was said to havebeen forged. Benton had signedbonds several times. to allow hisnephew .to secure money from theplaintiff. The nephew finally drewa large sum of money on a bondbearing his uncle's signature and fivemonths la.ter absconded with themoney. Benton refused to makegood the loss, asserting that the signature was a forgery, whereuponthe bank brought suit. The judgeinstructed the jury to return a ver­dict for the defense. Those takingpart in the suit were the followingmembers of the Law School:Officers of. the court.-ProfessorPound, Frank Taylor, and RoyBeeler.Litigants.-Plaintiff, Tom Moore,assistant cashier of the Traders'National Bank. Defendant, DeanBenton, alleged obligee on the bond.Witnesses.-W. A. Trimpe, hand­writing expert; A. C. McGill,notary public ; John Anderson, realestate dealer; and Irwin Church,cashier of the Merchants' Nationalbank.Attorneys for the plaintiff.-J. C.Pryor, Earnest Linderholm, and G.M. Waters.Attorneys for the defendant.-V.D. Dusenbury, J. A. Knowlton, andW. D. Freyburger.Jury commissioners.-Frank Bev­an, Andrew Collins, and Horace W.McDavi,1.THE DIVINITY ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONEDGAR J. GOODSPEED_, D.B., '97, SecretaryALUMNI NEWSA memorial sketch of the lateDr, Albert A. Bennett, D.B., '75,Yokohama, Japan, prepared by C.K. Harrington,' D.B., '04, and othermissionary associates of Dr. Ben­nett has been published (71 pp.).It �ontains a portrait of Dr. Ben­nett a sketch of his life, and a num­ber 'of memorial addresses,Under the leadership of R. M.Vaughan, D.B., '98, the Evangel andFirst Baptist churches of Berkeley,Cal., have united.Frank L. Anderson, D.B., '00,after a successful pastorate of fo�ryears at the N ormal Park BaptistChurch has resigned, to becomesuperintendent of the city missionwork of the Chicago Baptist Execu­tive Council. Mr. Anderson beganhis new work October I.R. B. Marshall, D.B., '00, has re­signed. his pastorate at Kankakee,Ill.; and will spend = the winter 10the South.E. C. Kunkle, D.B., '01, has re-signed his pastorate at Scottdale,Pa., to accept a pastorate at Wilke�­barre, Pa.. In the course of hISwork at Scottdale, a fine churchbuilding has been erected there.Peder Stiansen, a member of theDivinity School in 1902-3, has .re­signed the pastorate of the FIrstNorwegian-Danish Baptist Church,Brooklyn, N. Y., and has acceptedthe pastorate of the Logan SquareBaptist Church, Chicago.W. J. Eyles, D.B., '03, of Sa­vanna, Ill., has accepted the pastor­ate of the Baptist. church at Clyde,Ill.,A. F. Anderson, D.B., '04, ofHarrisburg, Pa., has become pastorof the N ormal Park Baptist Church,Chicago, . .succeeding Frank L. An­derson, IlB.� '00.A biographical sketch of the lateJ. W. T. McNiel, prepared �y MaryCarr Merritt, has been published atLos Angeles, Cal. ( 132 pages ;Elwell Publishing Co.). Mr. McNeil was a graduate of Richmond Col­lege and was a member of the Di­vinity School from 1900 �o I 904,when he was obliged by Ill-healthto go to Arizona. He undertooka pastorate in Albuquerque, in 1904,and died there March 5, 1907., atthe age of thirty-three.Rufus R. Ray, a member of theDivinity School, 1903-6, and MissElizabeth Pettie were married atTampa, Florida, June 30, 1909.Roy W. Babcock, a member of theDivinity School, 1906 and 1908,formerly pastor at Beaver Dam,Wis., has become pastor of theBaptist church at Downer's Grove,I11.Guy G. Crippen, a member of theDivinity School, 19Q7-8, and MissLaura D. Healy, of Denver, Colo.,were married in Denver, January 6,1910. Mr. and Mrs. Crippen willreside in Wausau, Wis.J ames A. Garrett, a member ofthe Divinity School 1907-9, and MissKatheryne C. Wise, of Norfolk,Va., were married at Norfolk, De­cember 22, I 909.At the Winter Convocation, De­cember 20, I909, the degree ofBachelor of Divinity / was conferredon John B. Pengelly,Alexander Robertson, a memberof the Divinity School last year, andMiss Helen Paine of Fairbank,Iowa, were married at Fairbank,January 5, 1910.Martin Sprengling, Fellow in theNew Testament Department, has'spent a year and a half in theOrient, making a special study ofbiblical and patristic manuscripts inthe ancient Iibraries of Jerusalem,Cosinitsa and Mt. Athos. Mr.Sprengling has discovered twouncial Greek manuscripts of theGospels previously unreported, andthus raised the number of Greekuncials from 166 to 168. Themanuscripts are of the seventh. andeighth century and one is a palim­psest. Mr. Sprengling resumed hiswork, in the University January I.134THE COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONJames Henry Gagnier, of theDivinity School, and Miss CleoraDavis, of Kalamazoo, Mich., weremarried June 30, I 909, at Kalama­zoo. Mr. Gagnier has been actingpastor of the Baptist church at BayView, Wis., concluding his workthere in October last. 135Thomas H. Cornish, of the Di­vinity School, has become pastor ofthe Austin Avenue Baptist Church,Chicago. .C. W. Kemper, of the DivinitySchool, has accepted the pastorateof the Windsor Park BaptistChurch, Chicago,THE COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONNEWS FROM THECLASSES1872Mrs. Alice Boise Wood resides atArlington, Mass.1874Gilbert E. Bailey is a consultingengineer in Los Angeles, Cal.1875Richard B. 'I;wiss, A.M., '77, ispracticing law in Chicago. Hishome address is 46 Thirty-thirdPlace.1876Henry 1. Bosworth, of Elgin, Ill.,has recently completed a beautifulresidence on the west side which heoccupies with his sister.R. L. OIds has resigned his pas­torate at Blue Hill, Me., to conducta fruit ranch in Colorado. He spentlast summer touring the West.1878Charles Ege is teaching in RockIsland, Ill.1879Florence Holbrook resides at 562Oakwood Boulevard, Chicago.Samuel J. Winegar is Chicagomanager. for the Ceii'tral- Life In­surance Company, with offices in theFirst National Bank Building. Helives in Oak Park.1881Charles Christian lives at 4152Berkeley Ave.1892Clarence B. Antisdel is serving asa missionary for the AmericanBaptist Missionary Union in India. I894William H. Kruse is professor ofLatin and history in ConcordiaCollege, Fort Wayne, Ind.I895Mabel E. Daugherty lives at 6021Kimbark Ave., Chicago.Lawrence J. De Swarte is aspecialist on. the eye, ear, nose, andthroat in Milwaukee, Wis. He wasmarried last year to Miss MadgeGuequierre.I897Grace Bird is head of the EngLishdepartment at the State NormalSchool, Plymouth, N. H.1898Grace Gibson, Mrs, Frank Adams,resides at 2128 East Superior St.,Duluth, Minn.Helen A. Baldwin is teachingLatin in the high school at Joliet,Hl.Laura H. Bevans, now Mrs. A.S. Bradley, lives at Locke, Wash.George A. Campbell. is in theministry and resides at 5822 SuperiorSt., Chicago.Alice Ransome, Mrs. Frank Laur­ence, lives on Denmark Road, Plain­field, N. J.1899Lee Byrne, A.M., the author ofThe Syntax of High School Latin,recently published by the Universityof Chicago Press, is an instructorin the Central High School at St.Louis, Mo.Elizabeth L� Moon, Mrs. Henry S.Conard, resides at Grinnell, Ia,Emanuel S. Young is preachingin Canton, Ohio.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1900Nellie M. Auten lives at Prince­ville, Ill.Margaret M. Choate is at homeat 1415 Belle Plaine Av,e., Chicago.Carl B. Davis is a practicing sur­geon with offices at 100 State St.Eva C. Durbin, Ph.M., is teach­ing history in the Englewood HighSchool.Cora Emrich lives at 1002 SouthNew Jersey St., Indianapolis, Ind.Edith Rickert is doing editorialwork in England. Her present ad­dress is Tibbles Green, Edenbridge,Kent, England. Miss Rickert con­tributed a story to the FebruaryRed Book.Blanche Swingley, Mrs. Frank H.Armstrong, lives at 1309 DavisStreet, Evanston, Ill.IgorMabel Abbott is teacher of Eng­lish in Lake High School and livesat 6034 Ingleside Ave., Chicago.Walter O. Beatty is farmingnear Greenfield, Ohio. He was mar-ried in 1908 to Miss Mary Kerr. 'Henrietta Helen Chase teaches inUniversity High School.The home of Katherine Lee Hartis at 2143 Eighty-third St., Benson­hurst, Brooklyn, N. Y.Katherine W. Paltzer lives at BI9Drexel Square.1902Solomon F. Acree is instructor ofchemistry in Johns Hopkins Uni­versity, Baltimore, Md.Mrs. Rachel Henton Challis is nowin Milan, Italy.Edna Elizabeth Haywood lives at415 Harrison St., Topeka, Kan.Mark Jacobs is principal of theGardena High School of LosAngeles, Cal.Clara L. Johnston is doing literarywork at her home in Elko, S. C.Peter C. Wright is a clergymanat Norwich, Conn.1903John Alexander Black is an in·structor of chemistry in WesternReserve University, Cleveland, O.His address is IT 334 Mayfield Road.Rollin Thomas Chamberlin is do­ing graduate work in geology at theUniversity. He lives at the HydePark Hotel. John G. H. Lampains, A.M., isinstructor in German at ArmourInstitute.1904Maxwell Adams has the professor­ship of chemistry in the Universityof Nevada, Reno, Nev.Irene Blackledge teaches in thepublic schools of Indianapolis, Ind.Her address is 316 East Eleventh St.Alfred C. Ellsworth is engaged inmining at Telluride, Colo.John J acola lives at Hancock,Mich.Thomas I. Meek is superintendentof Orr's Business Colleges in Chi­caeo. His home is at 6309 Yale Ave.Ada Jane Miller is instructor inEnglish in the Los Angeles StateNormal School, LO's Angeles, Cal.Helen Whitehead has the positionof assistant superintendent in theHouse of Refuge for Girls in Dar-ling, Pa..Alene Williams is teaching Latinin the East Aurora, Ill., high school.Her home address is 1432 Granville\ Ave., Chicago,1905Gustavus E. Anderson is asso­ciate professor of mining in thePennsylvania State CoUeg�. He. �asmarried m 1908 to' MISS LillianCash.Ellen W. Bates, Ph.M., lives at3522 Washington Ave., St. Louis,Mo.Florence N. Beers' resides at 1653West 34th St., Chicago. She wasmarried in 1908 tOo Rev. NormalPalmer.Arthur Wesley Coane is teachingin Neola, la.Ulysses R. Emrick lives. at 5700Kimbark Ave., Chicago.Carl Emanuel Leaf is chemist forthe C. B. & Q. R. R., with head­quarters at Aurora, Ill.Charlotte Leekley is a teacher inthe McKinley High School, Chicago.Her home is 1330 WashingtonBoulevard.Rhue Myrtle Miller is teaching inDanville, Ill.Strong Vincent Norton has theposition of assistant to the vice­president and general manager ofsales of the Goodrich Rubber Com­pany, at Akron, O.THE COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONDean Rockwell Wickes has beenappointed to a fellowship in the de­partment of New Testament andInterpretation in the University.He spent the last tWQ years in YaleU niversity where he received thedegrees of A.M. and B.D.Mary Ellen Wilcoxson has aposition as order clerk with Ginn &Co., Chicago. Hex home address is6049 Ellis Ave.1906J essie Andrews, Ph.M., is in­structor of German in the Univer­sity of Texas, at Austin.Marcus P. Baker is working inforestry at Butte Falls, Ore.John N. Brown, A.M., is teach­ing at Stamford, Texas.Raymond Frank Cashner has aposition as clerk in a railroad officeat 209 Adams St., Chicago.Arleigh Lee Darby is head of theLatin department of. WaynesburgCollege, Waynesburg, Pa.Joseph Eisenstaedt is resident phy­sician at the Cook County Hospital.Irene V. Engle is teaching in theChicago high schools. Her addressis 235 Baird Ave.Muriel Schenkenberg, Mrs. FrankW. Allen, lives at 556 West Seventy­ninth St., Chicago,Margaret Vincent was married in1908 to. Robert R. Wolters and re­sides at 421 Cedar St., Manistee,Mich.Edward R. Ferris is bond salesmanfor N. W. Halsey & Co., Chicago.He resides at Aurora, Ill.Abbie N. Fletcher is teachingLatin in the Broadway High School,Seattle, Wash.Leroy B. Greenfield is professorof English at Southwestern Col­leg,e, Winfield, Kan.Frederick Hornstein resides atBoone, la.John O. Lofberg is a teacher in.the Bradley Polytechnic Institute,Peoria, Ill.Susan McCoy is a teacher in thehigh school at Brainerd, Minn.James R. Ozanne is engaged ascorresnondent with the firm ofHart, Schaffner & Marx, Chicago.His home address is 2518 RidgeAve., Evanston. I37I907Gertrude D. Board is teachingEnglish in Wausau, Wis.George W. Cox is. taking a courseat Johns Hopkins University.Viola Deratt is a teacher in theEnglewood High School.Winifred P. Dewhurst, now Mrs.Franklyn B. Snyder, lives in Evan­ston, Ill.Sherman W. Finger is director ofphysical culture at Cornell Col­lege, Mt. Vernon, Iowa.Etta May Lacy teaches English inthe College of Industrial Arts atDenton, Tjex.Lyman T. Loose is a banker atNapoleon, Ohio,Arlisle E. Mather teaches Germanand English in the high school atHuron, S. D.Grace P. Norton teaches in theLoring Schools. Her home is 5832Washington Ave.Frederick W. Owens, Ph.D., isinstructor in mathematics at Cor­nell University.Milo M. Scheid is practicingmedicine at Rosendale, Wis. Hewas married to Miss Harriet Sizeron June 3, 1909·Clarence' G. Y or an is an attorneyin Manchester, Ia,1908Mary R. Appeldoorn teaches Eng­lish in the Kalamazoo, Michigan,high school.Jean S. Barnes lives at Gun Lake,Shelbyville, Mich.Phebe F. Bell is at her home at1530 East Sixty-sixth St., Chicago.Kitto S. Carlisle is practicing lawin Oklahoma City, Okla. He wasmarried in March, 1909, to MissDorothy McKiriney and lives at 820West Sixth St. .Hazel Cummings is teaching inElmhurst, Ill.Clinton F. Davison is instructorof physics in Princeton, N. J.Lucy Catherine Driscoll, A.M., '09,has been appointed assistant to thedirector of the Chicago Art Insti­tute. Her address is 6034 InglesideAve. ,Mabel C. Easterbrook is commer­cial teacher in the high school atGalesburg, Mich.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECharles H. Ireland is a clerk inthe First National Bank, Chicago.Perry C. Stroud is practicing lawin Portave, Wis.Clarence S. Yoakum is teaching inthe University of Texas, at Austin,Tex.1909Anna E. Newman is head of thegrammar and sociology departmentsat the State Normal School, More­head, Minn.Gordon Stewart is practicing lawwith his father in Kalamazoo, Mich.The firm name of N. H. Stewarthas been changed to Stewart &Stewart.Anna Louise Strong, A.M., r,e­sides at 1227 Hizhland Place, Seattle,Wash.Agnes Whiteford is teaching atRochelle, Ill. Her home address isRiverside.Carl Lambach has entered the LawSchool of the University.Edward L. McBride is employedin the bond department of N. W.Halsey & CO'.Senore M. Raffie is attending theCollege of Physicians and Surgeonsof Columbia University, in NewYork City. He has been employedby the Board of Education of NewYork City as a lecturer.Clara Robinson is teaching Englishhistory in the high school at Spring­field, Ill.Renslow Sherer is with the bonddepartment of N. W. Harris & Co.,Chicago.John Shideler is principal of thehigh school at T unction City, Kan. ENGAGEMENTS'05. Dudley K. French, ex, toHelen M. Nind, daughter of J. New­ton Nind of 5220 Washington Ave.MARRIAGES'02. Eugene Neubauer was mar­ried to Miss Ethel Maude Holt onWednesday, August II, 1909, atQuincy, Ill. Mr. and Mrs. N eu­bauer reside at Marengo, Ill., whereMr. Neubauer has charge of theBaptist church,'0'4. Louis Guy -Wilkins, ex, wasmarried to Miss Gladys Tobey onSeptember 8, 1909. They will maketheir home at 1517 East Sixty-fifthPlace, Chicago. Mr. Wilkins dealsin fraternity jewelry.'07. Evalyn Cornelius was mar­ried in December to' Ozro C. Gouldof Columbia University, They willlive in Seoul, Corea, Mr. Gouldhaving been appointed Americanvice and deputy consul general.Miss Cornelius is the daughter ofCharles Cornelius of 6500 MonroeAve. She was a member of theWyvern Club when in the University.'07. Ivy Irene Brown was mar­ried to Guy Carson Kinnaman onWednesday, December 29, at Mor­rison, Ill.DEATHS'09. Charles Alfred Hicks diedon January 4 at the Chicago BaptistHospital from inflammatory rheu­matism. Mr. Hicks was an Assist­ant in the Department of Bacteri­ology in the University.UNDERGRADUATE LIFETWO VICTORIES IN DEBATEDebaters from the University ofChicago won an unparalleled vic­tory on Friday, January 21, whenthe affirmative debating team de­feared Michigan and the negativeteam scored over Northwestern inEvanston, both teams debating thesame subject: "Resolped, That theexperience of the United States hasshown that a protective tariff shouldcontinue to be the national policy."Just what is the status of the tariffafter this forensic discussion re­mains undecided, but the standingof the Chicago debaters is no longerin doubt. Chicago's good fortunehas given new life to debating onthe campus and infused spirit intothe younger speakers.The negative team at Evanstonwon largely on constructive arcu­ment. The constructive case of theaffirmative team was also exception­ally powerful. The speeches in re­buttal given by the affirmative inMandel Hall were remarkable forclearness and force, and showed agrasp of the situation that Michi­gan did not have. Chicago's arzu­me!1t began with the history of thetariff and Its relation to prosperityThis led into an argument for th�protection of American labor azainstthe importation of cheap Asiatics.The final point was that the re­moval of the tariff would be an in­jury to American industry.The Michigan team based its as­sertions on the fact that the countryis no longer in the infant industrystage, and that the tariff has pro­duced trusts and political graft.DORMITORY CLUBROOMSAnother important contribution tothe social life of the students wholive in the University dormitories isthe opening of the new clubroom inHitchcock Hall. This building, do­nated by Mr. Charles Hitchcock al­ready contains the library of' thedonor, bequeathed to the Universityby his will, and containing a large139 and varied collection of works offiction, art, travel, science, and sub­j ects of a general nature. The c1 ub­room will add to the attractive­ness of the building, and will beopen to occupants of the rooms,serving as a lounging- and reading­room. I t is appropriately deco­rated and supplied with newspapersand periodicals. This will in nosense come into conflict with theReynolds Club, which has alreadyproved its inestimable usefulness asthe central clubhouse for all the menof the University.The extension of the clubroomplan in the dormitories will meetwith general favor among the stu­dents, because it enhances the valueof the dormitory as a home. TheHitchcock clubroom already hasserved to make men in the hallbetter acquainted with each other.The true esprit de corps exists no­where, however, in sO' true a formas in Snell Hall, which has long beennoted for the democracy and hos­pitality of its occupants. The factthat Snell Hall is not divided intosections, and that a common stair­way is used by all men in the build­ing is generally regarded as thecause of this attractive feature inits life.ATHLETICSMany candidates came out at theopening 'Of the basket-ball season.The spirited contest for places de­veloped good individual work andgave observers of the team hope fora successful year. Hubble and Sauerwere out early in the contest forcenter, while nine men appeared forforward, Clark and Kelly, of lastyear's team, proving strong candi­dates. The guards are Kassulker,Edwards, Tatar sky, Boyle, Swanson,Goldstein, Hoffman, and Page.Chicago defeated Lewis on J anu­ary 10 by the score of 32 to 26, andon January 15, Northwestern fell bya score of 31 to 4. Good team workwas displayed in both games. Ineach game two and sometimes threemen have played in each position.140 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEJ ames McKeag, captain of theI905� team, is coaching theFreshman basket-ball squad, whichhas developed a strong and fastfive. Kimball has been doing excel­lent work at center. Goettler andBell are playing excellent at guard,and Paine makes a good forward.Cary, who played Freshman foot­ball is also a fast candidate. TheFreshmen will play the IllinoisFreshmen at Bartlett on March 4 or5 and Northwestern at Evanston onMarch 10, with a return game atBartlett on March 12.Joseph Henry White of the Cen­tral Y. M. C. A. and of the C. A. A.has been made 'swimming directorto succeed Coach Knudson, who re­signed. Frank Collins was chosencaptain. Benitez is captain of thewater polo team. Rademacher andGerend have also been out for theteam.The return of Stophlet for trackwork has offset in a way the lossof Captain Comstock, who has goneto California for his health. Thefollowing schedules of future dateshave been announced: 'March 4-Illin'ois at Chicago.March r r=-Illinois Freshmen atChicago.March 25-Chicago Freshmen vs.Illinois Freshmen at Evanston.Outdoor meets will be held asfollows:May I4-Illinois at Urbana.May 2I-Wisconsin at Chicago,May 28-Northwestern Interscho-lastic; Purdue vs. Chicago at Chi­cago,June 4-Conference track meet.June r r=-Chicago Interscholastic.The baseball schedule is as fol-lows:April zo-e-Wisconsin at Madison.April 2J-N orthwestern at Evan-ston.April 27-Illinois at Chicago.May 4--I11inois at Chicago.May 6-Indiana at Chicago.May I4-Illinois at Urbana.May zo-s-Illinois at Urbana.May 2I-Purdue at Chicago.May 24-Minnesota at Chicago,May 28- Wisconsin at Chicago.June I-Northwestern at 'Chicago.June 3-Purdue at Lafayette. THE "CAP AND GOWN"Active work on the Cap and Gownfor 1910 has been going on for thepast three months under the direc­tion of the editors, Roy Baldridge,Vallee O. Appel, and Miss ErnestineEvans. The present book will bethe superior of any previous publi­cation because of the' excellence ofthe art work which has been doneby the undergraduate contributors.N ot a little of this was drawn byRoy Baldridge and Bess Courtright.The book will also have many origi­nal snapshots of people on the cam­pus and will present many attrac­tive articles and literary contribu­tions. The managers have been suc­c-essful in completing satisfactoryarrangements with the printers sothat the book will appear severalweeks earlier than usual. The officeof the Cap and Gown is in EllisHall. Communications may be ad­dressed also to the Faculty Ex­change.GENERAL NEWSThe annual Settlement dance, asuccess for two years in spite ofwind and weather scored for thethird time at Bartlett Gymnasium onFriday, February 4. Considerablepublicity that was given to the eventseveral weeks before, and the use oftags, brought excellent returns forthe Settlement fund. Three thousandtags had been printed and dis­tributed among the members of thecommittee, with the result that fewstudents were overlooked on TagDay. On the morning of J anuary28 a mass meeting to advertise thedance was held in Kent Theater,Miss Mary McDowell, head of theUniversity Settlement being theprincipal speaker.The Brownson Club gave. a danceat the Reynolds Club on February5· On J anuary 24 a reception washeld in Lexington hall at whichnearly one hundred were present.The Pen Club has elected RobertsB. Owen, president, Walter J. Foute,secretary, and Esmond R. Long, his­torian. Nathaniel Pfeffer, Har­grave A. Long, and Raymond J.Daly have been elected to member­ship,