PAUL SHOREYHEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF GREEKConvocation Orator, March 16, 1909The University of ChicagoMagazineVOLUME I APRIL, 1909 NUMBER 6THE SPIRIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO!BY PAUL SHOR�Y, PH.D., LL.D.Head of the Department of GreekTHE poet Aristophanes having been summoned before the Senateand Trustees for indiscretions uttered in his first appearanceupon the stage, put into the mouth of the Protagonist of his nextplay these words :"Be not surprised, most excellent spectators,If I a humble bookman have presumedTo claim an audience on affairs of state.The words I speak are bold, but just and true.No jack in office can accuse me now,That I defame the city before strangers.For this is the Lenaean festival,And here we meet, all by ourselves alone;No deputies are arrived as yet with tribute,No strangers or allies; but here we sitA chosen sample clean as sifted cornWith our own denizens as a kind of chaff.Similarly, let me remind you that this is the Spring Convocationor lesser Dionysia. We are en famille. There is, I trust, no "chielamang us takin' notes." The deputies bearing the June or Decem­ber tribute have not arrived. Ou'r good allies and eminent alumni,Ambassadors Bryce and J usserand, are not with us. The President1 Delivered on the occasion of the Seventieth Convocation of the University,held ill the Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, March 16, 1909.2 After Frere.230 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof the Board of Trustees is away, and the mice are holding an ex­perience meeting. Even apart from these considerations. when Ireview my long line of distinguished but diverse predecessors, from.Senator Chauncey Depew to Mr. John Temple Graves, I am en­couraged to fancy that this platform serves the same purpose as theDial-not our eminently proper Chicago organ of polite and judicialcriticism, but its transcendental eponym, the Dial of Margaret Fuller,whose mission it has been said was "to give everybody a chance tosay anything." I have not embarrassed our President by demandingcarte blanche. Everybody in this audience is aware that an instructoris free to say "all that may become a scholar and a gentleman"-witha wide and charitable margin for human frailty and scholastic in­eptitude.The subject chose itself by elimination. Those who wish to heara member of the home staff discourse on the carbon compounds orthe rehabilitation of the antispast may attend his seminar, or invitehim to lecture for what has been described as f. a. m. e.-'·fifty andmy expenses." And, at the other end of the topical scale, the largerthemes of commencement oratory are available only for speakerswhom the audience come to see, not to hear. Everybody pricks uphis ears when Mr. Roosevelt affirms that "the world must be peo­pled," or Mr. Taft rejoins that there still remains a modest missionfor the ministering spinster. But these oracles falling from thelips of a teacher of Greek would hardly create a ripple. Journalism,daily canvassing all things, human and divine, has preoccupied thestate of the nation, the sovereignty of the Pacific, the finality ofthe Christian religion, psycho-therapy, and the nonentitious intellectof woman against. all except those whose eminence makes "whosaid it?" more significant than what he said. IBut anyone of us may properly describe his feelings, beliefs,and aspirations about the University in the hope that his words mayhelp to precipitate and crystallize like sentiments in the minds ofothers.You may demur that it is impossible that an institution createdout of hand by the money power and only seventeen years oldshould have grown a soul, or you may challenge my authority topose as its interpreter. And I could only plead in confession andavoidance on either count. No individual, from Mr. Rockefeller tothe freshest matriculate, can define the spirit of the Universitywith any authority beyond that of the inherent persuasiveness andTHE SPIRIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 231'\convincing sincerity of his words,' No man can create a sentimentor force it upon others. One can' merely describe what he himselffeels. If our University is only an endowment, an aggregation ofbuildings, a three years' "stand" for ambitious young professors enroute from Podunk to Cambridge, an educational makeshift forwestern and southern students who cannot go East, no ingenuity ofdisquisition will make my words other than idle. But if perchanceit is an impulse, an idea, an ideal, a spirit, and a soul, then it wouldbe a pity to miss the joy of conscious participation in these higherthings because of a priori prejudice that they cannot be.To me as a Platonist the a priori presumption is the other way.For the essence of Platonism is not the metaphysical dogma of theuniversal before the thing, but the practical religious faith in theidea dominating the thing from above or informing it fromwithin. For "soul is form and doth the body make." No mere"mechanism can live even for seventeen years with the vitality ofthis University, or do the work that it has done. Men may seemto make a great thing by summary and manipular methods, butif it lives it lives not only molded but in turn molding with a lifeof its own, and to ideal issues which the first projectors could not allforesee and which they cannot altogether control. Yet it is noton this general presumption that I speak, but out of a warm per­sonal feeling. And so the way to the heart of the subject liesthrough a brief chapter of individual, but perhaps typical, auto­biography. Born in Iowa, passing my boyhood in the arnorphicChicago of the late sixties and early seventies, studying at Harvard,Leipzig, Bonn, Athens, and Munich, I found myself at thirty whatmany a nomadic American must confess himself to be-a manwithout a country. There was a vague and dilute sentiment ofAmericanism; but the warmth of local attachment, the glow of civicpride, the sense of a fixed and rooted moral home were lacking.Some Platonic preconception made me peculiarly sensitive to the lit­erary 'expression of these feelings-to the Persae and Eumenides ofAeschylus, the recurrent Leit-M otiv of rerum pulcherrima Roma inthe Aeneid, the note of exalted and imaginative patriotism that singsthrough English poetry from Shakspere to' Swinburne. I envied theeducated Parisian or Oxonian the perspective and background ofglorious local tradition that gave unity of emotion and intellect to hislife. I even coveted the fond provincial faith of New England or theSouth. But I never anticipated for myself more than this Platonic or232 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEliterary divination of such feelings. It was difficult to. attach imagi­native associations to the Davenport and Chicago of my boyhood.And when once in my Wanderjahre, upon Mount Parnassus at theentrance to the Corycian Cave, "deep-arched, beloved of birds, thehaunt of gods," I stumbled upon a can of Chicago corned beef myheart was not patriotically stirred. H ae tibi erunt artes-"these willbe thy arts," I muttered with the cynicism of youth.Who could then divine that within a few years Chicago wouldcreate at an economic loss, on her desolate "Lake Front," a world'sexhibition of arts and sciences that not by size but by its architecturalbeauty, its large harmonies of art and nature and refinement of detailwould dim the meretricious splendors of Paris and Vienna? Thatshe would possess four great libraries, the most effective teachingschools of art and music, the only self-supporting orchestra, andone of the leading universities of the country, and that while stillfeeding the nations she would export professors to' Berlin and Halle,Classical Philology to Leipzig, and one of my own students toteach archaeology in Athens. You may well be amused at thenaivete of this effusion. But these contrasts as felt in the cumu­lative experience of the past seventeen years have given me thething I lacked-the emotion of loyalty-a pride and a hope whichI am not careful to distinguish in their application to city anduniversity though the University is the theme today. I believe thisexperience to be typical, and that some of us unduly restrain theexpression of it-from false shame, fear of that apxa'iov OV€t,So�,that antiquated gibe, "Chicago brag," apprehension of the ironicalor jealous comment of older communities, or the sense that all ex­ultation is premature where so much remains to be done.It is proverbially easy to praise Athenians at Athens, or Parisiansin Paris-and would be to praise Chicagoans in Chicago if it werenot for something which sophisticated Chicagoans have more to fearthan Chicago brag-namely Chicago blague. Herbert Spencer wouldhave called it "the anti-patriotic bias." Mr. George Ade's name forit is "knocking." You still cherish a traitorous doubt whether theMississippi Valley can grow any other flower of civilization thanPillsbury's best, or the metropolis of pork produce any other by­products than the bristle of self-assertion or the squeal of self-,consciousness. You still wonder if we are not, as a visiting Britishbrother innocently told the American Philological Association, "toofar away." You have learned to respond when Emerson says:THE SPIRIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 233"Massachusetts, Connecticut River, and Boston Bay you think paltryplaces and the ear loves names of foreign and classic topography.But here we are and, if we will tarry a little, we may come to learnthat here is best." But you would merely smile if one who is not anEmerson should attempt to enforce a like moral here and today.Now it may be a defect of the historic sense, or some bluntness ofaesthetic perceptions, but I am shamelessly and impenitently incapa­ble of recognizing that Ryerson, Hutchinson, Haskell, Hull, Man­del, Snell, Cobb, Walker, Kent, Beecher, Foster, Green, Reynolds,Blaine, Mitchell, and Hitchcock are less potent and pleasing namesto conjure with than-Wigglesworth.I cannot even concur in the familiar commonplaces about ourugliness. All Anglo-American cities are hideous in their congestedand utilitarian districts-and if we never go in quest of beautywe shall not find it. It would be easy to cite Wordsworth, Ruskin,and Thoreau to the effect that the true lovers of natural beauty arenot those who demand the Alps or nothing. Not to speak of poten­tialities visible as yet only to a few creative dreamers, Chicago hasmiles of residence streets more attractive to the eye than manythat we cross the ocean to admire. Her parks are not only beautifulbut accessible. If they have nothing of Switzerland they containexquisite bits of Holland. And for six months of our malignedChicago year one may take station between the blue of the lakedeepening to purple and the crimsoned lagoon fading to gray toobserve the changes of sunsets that, reflected on Mediterraneanwaters, would wake the tourist's ecstacy. We may leave those todescant on the ugliness of Chicago who will not walk ten minutesfrom our campus to see how the northeaster hurls his foam on thebarrier of the J ackson Park esplanade, or watch day by day howspring comes back to the "Wooded Island."And our campus itself, all unfinished as it stands, already revealsto the discerning eye more than the mere promise of its future dig­nity, beauty, and charm-the dignity of long vistas and broad levelapproaches, the charm of predetermined unity in multiplicity, thebeauty of symmetrically grouped and harmonious edifices fitted oneafter the other each into its preappointed place. It is, we like tofancy, symbolic of the largeness, the freedom, the accessibility, thesagacious prevision, the wise adaptation of means to tends, the prac­tical idealism of the University that already is and is to be when wehave passed away.234 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThis approach to my theme is, as I warned you it would be, achapter of sentimental autobiography. Mr. Chesterton has recentlywritten an ingenious book to explain how assaults upon Christianityhave made him a Christian, and Professor Royce has written aneloquent book in praise of the mere emotion of loyalty. Thought­less disparagement of Chicago has. helped to make me a Chicagoan,and I have been merely glancing at some of the moods throughwhich I have won my way to the experience of loyalty withoutwhich, Mr. Chesterton affirms, no one can understand or rightlycriticize either a creed or an institution.Suppose it conceded that a man may entertain such sentimentsfor Chicago, and that our University is not the latest type of adegree-manufactory but an organism infused with a soul and aspirit, can I define that spirit? No. But I can try, and haply provokeothers to do better. The Roman poet of materialism, when askedif the new psychology could explain the soul, said that nothingcould be simpler. It was merely a mixture of two or three peculiarkinds of vapor plus an unnamable something. Similarly it mightbe said that our soul is a blend of the university spirit, the westernand Chicago spirits, plus a nameless something of our own.I once, feebly feeling after epigram, defined the university spiritas the "passionate pursuit of passionless intelligence." The re­porter took from this what slight point it possessed by recording itas the "passionless pursuit of passionless intelligence," and in thisform the poor little saying was worried and mangled by the bull­dogs of the strenuous life and repeatedly held up to scorn as the lastword of decadence by no less a sociological authority than Mr. JackLondon.It is obviously only a half-truth. The university must alwaysremain the foster mother and the asylum of this mood. But thevery word universita:.s shows that she is much more. In the inevitabledivision of labor spesial forms of knowledge may and must be pur­sued in this temper. 'But the ideal of the totality and organization ofknowledge is dedicated to the service of humanity. The university isnot only a spring but a reservoir. Its function is not merely the crea­tion but the diffusion and even the application of knowledge. In itscosmic aspect it is one of those vast shrines of the ideal with which,in place of Grecian temple and Gothic cathedral, the scientific spiritis girdling the globe from Chicago to Khartoum in a cosmopolitancult whose potency stays the pulse and checks the breath of himTHE SPIRIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 235who pauses to realize its meaning. In its local aspect it is an essential \organ of a complete 9'!vic li fe, as indispensable to the self-realizationof a modern city as a courthouse, an art institute, an orchestra, alibrary, a park. Socrates proved to Charmides that if he did not fearthe individual cobblers and fullers who filled up the assembly he neednot be stage-struck in their collective presence. But beware ofapplying this fallacy to a faculty. The individual specialist claimsand merits little deference. But there is something almost uncanny,not to say awe-inspiring, in the thought of all the ideas that seethebehind the brows of those colleagues composed and bent to thecourteous semblance of attention to the commonplaces of this occa­sion. The university is not the individual who at dinner- cannotspeak though you urge conference, nor the sum of such. Thewhole is more not only than the part but than all the parts.Not to dwell on these truisms, let us recall that the Universityof Chicago is not an improvised university superstructure on thefoundation of a petty local school. It has been from the start a trueuniversity devoted to research, claiming the whole of knowledgefor its province, and entering at once on equal terms into the inter­national fellowship of its peers. Hence the piquant contrast betweenthe reflection of its image in the scientific journals of Europe andthat presented by some nearer and less authentic mirrors of modemlife. From the day these halls were opened our ideals and, to candidallowance, our standards have been th0'se of Oxford and Berlin. Wehave done and shall do an enormous amount of missionary work inand out of our classrooms, We have made and shall make allreasonable concessions to American traditions and local necessities.But of the university ideal and the university spirit we have abatednot a jot. If the state of the roads in new territory makes it inad­visable always, in the chaste idiom of Concord, to "bitch our wagonto a star," we have steered our course by the stars.I am not one of those who believe that this presence and pre­dominance of the university spirit is a damper upon undergraduatelife. The University needs this contact with the youth and parentsof the city to keep itself in touch with life. The functions of teach­ing and research may be so adjusted as to help, not hinder, eachother in their joint realization of the university idea. And the airof the undergraduate classroom is brighter and fresher for a windowopening upon infinity. There may be lads who are safer in thenursery of the small college, as there are boys who require the236 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINErestraints of the parental school or military academy. But self­respecting, 'earnest young men will be glad to breathe, even asfreshmen, the larger, serener, more liberal air of an institution wherestudy is not thought a hindrance to education, a school that hasnever dreamed of hazing, or discipline for disorder, or a naturalenmity poisoning the sacred relation of teacher and taught, or themonastic exclusion of women, and other foolishness of theimmature life.It is not easy to celebrate the western spirit without provokingsatire, and inviting adhesions which one could spare. When, someyears ago, not yet aware that irony is a two-edged tool, I wrotethat "the men of the Mississippi Valley must rise in r-evolt againstthe provincial despotism of Boston and N ew York and create aliterature as broad as their prairies and as shaggy as their buffaloes,"the enthusiastic approval of the adepts of the new thought burdenedmy mail for many a day.The opposition between East and West has become what italready is on the first page of the "father of history"-a war of epi­grams. The familiar gibes and retorts have been deprived of theirpoint by the increasing homogeneity of our people, the diffusionof wealth and opportunity, the habit of travel, the steam ship, therailway, and the march of the cosmopolitan mind. The inex­perience and isolation of pioneer days have no meaning now for ourclasses and very little for our masses. But it may be plausibly main­tained that in the rapidity of the evolution it is we who have mostnearly achieved the modern, unprejudiced, rational, scientific, cosmo­politan attitude of mind ; and we who have best known how topreserve and combine with these acquisitions some of the nativehuman qualities of which the more boisterous panegyrists of thewestern spirit are thinking. How far our percentage of literates,as appraised by reposeful or elaborate manners, voices cultivatedto a melodiously modulated chant and more or less. intermittentItalian a's, may still fall short of the standard of the colony whichin the words of its great Puritan divine is "under the conduct of asholy, as prudent, and as genteel persons as most," I am not carefulto inquire. But we are not insensible to the graces of which thesethings are the supposed symbols or shibboleths because we stillrefuse to estimate men by these things alone. In our appreciations,if, not always in our practice, we have attained the happy mean thatneither clownishly scorns nor snobbishly idolizes the last refine-THE SPIRIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 237ments and sophistications of long-established social tradition. Andthat because of the fortune that has cast our lot in the central andtypical American city of the central American territory. Thisregion has known the hardships, the crudities, the deprivations ofpioneer and frontier conditions. It has never known. the complacentfinality of self-contented provincialism. Materially the home of aprosperity upon the alms of whose superfluous bounty vast historicempires could have lived; it is now, perhaps, better prepared toenter upon the spiritual inheritance of the twentieth century thanprovinces which have seemed to preserve the traditions of a moreintense distinctive and picturesque local life ; and which among thesetraditions cherish the exegesis of Cotton Mather: "Upon that ex­pression in the sacred Scriptures, 'cast the unprofitable servant intoouter darkness,' it hath been imagined by some that the regionesexterae of America are the tenebrae exteriores which the nnprofit­able are there condemned unto." The future will think not in termsof states and provinces, but of empires and cities, not in terms ofthe persistence of local tradition, the pride of blood, and the super­stition of race, but of the amalgamation of types, the creativeharmony of contraries, the scientific adjustment to environment, andthe complete human life for all men.The very absence of fanatical state patriotism and pride of racemade this region the home of him whom Lowell caned "the firstAmerican," the chief seat of national patriotism in the Civil War;and now fits it for the cosmopolitan humanitarianism of the future.If the pioneer Wiest had the defects of its qualities, the matureWest will have the qualities of its defects.There will be no defect of patriotism. For the patriotism of thefuture, like that of Greece, Rome, and Italy, will be kindled at thehearth of the city; and in no city will it burn with more ferventglow than in this seething center of continental energies, this all­embracing home of opportunity, this predestined metropolis of thenew world. Even those who cannot be moved by anything Chicagoyet has done, must thrill at the thought of her possibilities-poten­tialities predetermined for the philosophic eye by situation andclimate, and already so far realized by the enterprise of the Puritan,the fidelity of the German, the versatility of the Celt, and the releasedand partially Americanized energies of a vast and motley immigra­tion that only wilful blindness can fail to foresee the outcome. Itis here that the pregnant confusion of the European tribes will238 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEissue in a creative fusion; here that the experiment of social de­mocracy will be tried on the largest scale and in the happiest condi­tions; here that the conflict between the old austere, self-reliantindividualism and the generous fanaticisms of utopian humani­tarianism will be fought out or compromised; here that the com­patibility of all these things with culture, art, science, scholarship,and all the refinements and graces of life will be put to the fairesttest.To bring the university spirit to such a city, to be in some sortthe instrument of its highest consciousness, to aid it to solve itsproblems and help it to find itself, to win it to the love not merelyof whatsoever things are strong, kindly, and human, but of what­soever things are elevated, true, gracious, serene, refined, andhumane, to embody and typify its boundless hope, its generoushumanity, its indomitable will, can there be a larger opportunity, anobler mission for any institution of learning?Out of these moods involved in the opportunities and aspirationsof our environment, and 'Out of the nameless something that weourselves have evolved in the conflicts and adjustments of our col­lective life is the spirit of the University of Chicago engendered.We mix from many lands,We march for very far ;In hearts and lips and handsOur staffs and weapons are;The light we walk in darkens sun and moon and star.I t doth not flame and waneWith years and spheres that roll,Storm cannot shake nor stainThe strength that makes us whole,The fire that moulds and moves us of the sovereign soul."War is the father of all things" said the old flowing philosopher.And it is in a sense the author of the unity of feeling that is emerg­ing from the battle of ideals inevitable in our first far-fetchedfaculty. We are learning not to differ except in opinion; to describeone another in affirmations, not negations; to hold fast to the endwhile experimenting with the means; to be more surprised andshocked at my mentioning that the doctors of philosophy at anygiven convocation may be a Chinaman, a widow, and a negro than atthe fact; to fumble, to stumble, to blunder, to err undismayed, butTHE SPIRIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 239never to falter or lose sight of the goal-above all to will and tobe free."I will" is not a graceful motto for a maiden except perhaps inthe one crowning occasion of its utterance. As natural Turks menprefer Victor Hugo's little girlWho often said "I dare not," but never said "I will."But the thing, however phrased, is an indispensable ingredient in thesoul of a university or a city. We are learning that will is bestmanifested not in self-assertion and obstinacy, but in the patience,flexibility, - resourcefulness, and the incapacity for discouragementof our presidents. But, at the risk of losing the touch I talk of, Imay be permitted to add in this hour of expansion that this power ofthe will, the will to achieve, is ours, informing benefactors, trustees,officers, faculty, and students alike. And few young scholars cancome within the range of its influence for a year without feeling theimpulse for life.And withal we are pre-eminently free. I do not refer to theLehrjreiheit without which a university is unthinkable; but to afreedom which we hardly appreciate and which is not easily definedthough Pericles touched on one aspect of it when he boasted:We do not look askance at the diversity of one another's pursuits, norlay it up against our colleague if he follows his own bent, nor visit himwith sour looks, that vex his spirit if they cannot harm his prospects.When the westerner boasts of superior energy, thoughtful easternersare apt to reply that the life of the older crowded community isreally the more strenuous, the competition fiercer, the social parademore exacting, the straight-jacket of convention more irksome.They are right.As Mr. Chesterton puts it: "The man who goes to Timbuctoois fleeing from the too-stimulating society of his equals." NowChicago is not Timbuctoo, and except for epigrammatic purposes,we are not on the frontier .. But in the development from the rampantyet relaxed individualism of the frontier to the cultured restraintand caste-like social control of older civilizations we have halted, Ilike to fancy, at the golden mean which permits and fosters themaximum diversity of type. We gossip like other communities andour gossip like theirs is an appetizing mixture of wholesome humancuriosity with a spice of malice. But it is not the soft, finical,240 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEinsistent monotone of brain-blighting, soul-suffocating iteration ofthe demand for conformity to one predetermined pattern in thematter of grandfather, wife, pronunciation, dress, education, opin­ions, and accomplishments. From that we are saved by the westernspirit, the Chicago spirit, the University of Chicago spirit, whichvalues a man for what he is, not for what he is not; which hasmany preferences but few exclusions, which recognizes diverse andeven contradictory kinds of excellence, and eschews all rigid andperemptory judgments. And thence arises that indefinable sense offreedom which those who have long enjoyed it here miss bitterlywhen they go away. Be somebody and you may be anything fromwhat Bagehot calls a "German professor devoted to accents, tobacco,and the dates of Horace's amours"-to "a lecturer in uacuo ignorantof exact pursuits and diffusive of vague words." You are at libertyto pursue and achieve your ideal whether it be to burn in yoursolitary shrine with a pure, hard, gemlike Walter Pateresque flameof culture, to run for alderman of the seventh ward, to discover apoint in, the doctrine of the enclitic de overlooked by the Germans,or harangue Russian anarchists at Hull House.The last phrase may seem to some 'Of my radical friends anilliberal assault upon their freedom. But it is not, unless theyare willing to' adopt the attitude of Alcott who, when one ofhis, communications was rejected on the ground that it was im­possible to fill the journal with the copy of one contributor, how­ever excellent, replied in high dudgeon that he was sorry to learnthat the Dial was no longer an organ of free speech. In a reallyfree community the question, "Dost thou think, because thou art vir­tuous; there shall be no more cakes and ale ?" has for its proper pend­ant the question, "Dost thou think, because thou art a freethinker,there shall be no more prayer meetings?" The University is neithera sectarian school nor a hot-bed of infidelity, though the Carnegietrustees pronounce it the one and the rural brethren are sometimessuspicious that it is the other. It is neither a college of socialistpropaganda nor the hired advocate of capitalism, though the sapientreporter often sets it down as both. Radical and conservative, toaccept the convenient but rough designations, are the names of twoabiding and necessary psychological types. Both seek to build abetter habitation for the life of the human spirit. They differ onlyas to the precise quantity of dynamite that they deem it advisableto apply to the imperfect tenement that gives it shelter now. TheTHE SPIRIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 24Iapportionment of radicals and conservatives in the University isprobably about that which obtains among educated men elsewhere.But in the last few years obvious causes have given to' our publicexpressions of radical sentiment a conspicuous notoriety whichmight almost justify a staid senatorial elder in saying with LordEldon "that if he had his life to begin over again he would bedamned if he would not begin as an agitator." If the silent con­servative half, not ·to say majority, of us venture to' point this out,or someti�es arouse themselves to discharge paper pellets of satireat their vivacious colleagues he must be indeed sensitive whO' suspectstherein any invasion of his liberties. The conservative might asplausibly complain that his tongue is tied by the taunt that he isa retained attorney. But this is altogether too fine a fear. Freemenare not to' be awed from the career of their humor Dr their convictionby a phrase.But all these good things, it will be said, we enjoy only as thevassals and by sufferance of a benevolent feudalism. We areendowed, and the future belongs to the university supported by thestate. The state universities certainly have a great and inspiringfuture. But if the future is theirs, we shall be expropriated in dueseason, and be a state university too. Leaving such long views to'prophets, we may meanwhile rest in the good old faith that God ful­fils himself in many ways. American education will be the betterfor the magnanimous competition of divers types, and not the worsefor preserving some refuges where politics cannot enter. The notionthat freedom of thought and speech are less secure in endowedthan in state institutions commends itself to' satirical English social­ists, yellow journalism, and the brilliant historian of Rome. It is apity that the facts are against it. But they ar'e---so conclusivelythat there is no more to be said.There is indeed but one profitable utterance about our endow­ment. It is the word of Doctor Johnson: Clear your minds of cant.Neither Peabody nor Girard nor Ezra Cornell, nor johns Hopkins,nor Vanderbilt, nor Leland Stanford, nor Mr. Carnegie, nor Mr.Rockefeller created the economic order of things that made theiraccumulations possible. Both Mr. Carnegie and Mr. Rockefellerhave said in print that they do not deem that order to be the finalstage of social evolution. Mr. Rockefeller has merely hinted a mod­est doubt whether our state legislatures as now constituted are betterqualified to conduct large business affairs than their present man-242 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEagers. Neither he nor Mr. Carnegie can know any more than we whatthe remote future has in store. Meanwhile they are trying to do alittle good with the vast power that is in their hands. Our conven­tions demand brevity here. Praise of our founder from us mightbe suspected of sycophancy, and censure is the mere itch for notorietyor the coltish impulse to exhibit independence by kicking and shying.But reserve may be excessive. We are surely not precluded froma decent and grateful recognition of a generosity unparalleled inhistory. To those who ar'e jealous of all personal eminence orexaltation of a name we may without invidiousness observe thatthere is a John Harvard University, a Johns Hopkins University,a Cornell University, a Leland Stanford University, a VanderbiltUniversity-but a University of Chicago. And in the face of wil­ful repetition of the foolish calumny that our opinions are dictated,we may and must in justice to ourselves and our founder reply thatthe Universityof Chicago is the freest place in the world, not only aplaceWhere girt by friends or foesA man may spealo the thing he will,but, what is far more, a place where a man may work out his owndestiny and be the! thing he will.We have been styled a college made to order, or, more graciously,a university by enchantment. And one who merely contemplatesthe stately panorama of buildings that now occupy what an Aeschy­lean command of cumulative epithet might describe as the deso­late, God-forsaken, weed-grown, mud-splashed, malaria-wrapped,frog-croaking, gander-haunted, cow-pasturing swamp of 1891,may well attribute the transformation to witchcraft and Aladdin'slamp. But we to whom these buildings are but the symbol andthe shell of the life they contain, we who know or can divinewhat it has cost to do the work of a century in seventeen years,we who have shared the travail of creation, borne the shocksof collision and the strain of adjustment in the effort to findourselves, and awaken at last to' the perception that we are not amere fortuitous concurrence of infinitely repellent particles but aliving organism and a collective soul, we can acquiesce in no soullessname for the process that has brought this thing to pass. We askfor words charged with humane and moral meanings-generosity,faith, self-sacrifice, courage, devotion, and work. The munificenceand modest self ..... effacement of our founder, the generosity of theTHE SPIRIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 243citizens of Chicago whose names our successors will delight to honor,the prophetic faith, the unsparing self-sacrifice, the undauntedcourage of President Harper who gave us not only the consecrationof his tireless life but the example of his death, the devoted sagacityof our trustees who have borrowed from business Dr stolen fromwell-earned leisure the countless hours they have bestowed on thewise administration of our affairs=-the work-but we have allworked-This only is the witchcraft we have used.I must not conclude without a word to our graduates to whomthis day belongs. In the public funeral orations of Athens thesupreme topic was the nature and spirit of the institutions that hadbred men to die for their country. Your training is for life, notdeath. This is not a funeral but a birth, and the thoughts of thegraduate as he peeps from his shell naturally turn to the future,to the flights for which this academic incubation has fledged him.No man can be argued into a feeling, and if any of you areprepossessed by the notion that this University is merely an educa­tional convenience of the latest pattern which you have temporarilyutilized-and there an end-a peroration would not aliter your con­viction. You could not expect to' take leave of us with quite theromantic sentiment with which a Harvard man may be supposed tobid farewell to' Memorial or Massachusetts Halls, or an Oxonian tolook back upon the sweet city that from her dreaming spires "whis­pers the last enchantments of the Middle Age." But are you surethat it is less inspiring to be an ancestor than a descendant? I trustthat some of the suggestions imperfectly presented here may starttrains of thought that will convince those 'Of you who need to reasontheir emotions that a Chicagoan too may discover rational groundsfor loyalty to' his alma mater. Daniel Webster, in the DartmouthCollege case, said with an impressive pause: "It is a small college­but there are those who love it." The University of Chicago is abig college+a big heartless machine say some who do not rightlyknow it-but there are those who love her largeness andliberality, her sanity and common-sense, her equalization of oppor­tunity, her humane hospitality to men and ideas, her practicalidealism, her flexible yet indomitable spirit-love her for her breadthof charity, her faith in truth, and her faith that truth will make menfree. May you be of the number.244 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELastly, though my voice can add no weight to moral exhortation,there is one word of admonition which I will address to you-theadmonition of which American life stands most in need today.Fortune is still as in the pagan world a divinity. There is such athing as luck. There are apparent gains. to be won by smartness,ingenuity, and cunning. But do you, in the words of Emerson,"leave as unlawful these winnings and deal with cause and effect,the chancellors of God." "The best way," said the old pre-Socraticsage, "the best way to have the name and credit of being anythingis to be it." If what seem to be dazzling exceptions in business,politics, or literature momentarily obscure our vision of these eternaltruths, here in the crumbling of the older creeds is an opportunity forthe 'exercise of the theological virtue of faith. Keep, then, the faith,the rational faith that true success, the only success worth the win­ning, is earned success-the success of the man who like PresidentTaft, or, why should I hesitate to add, President Judson, simply"does the work for which he takes the wage."This conviction is not only a faith, it is prudentially the best ruleof policy. They tell you that "all the doors are barred with goldand open but to golden keys;" and that the age of opportunity ispast. It is not true. The career open to talent, the door open toindustry, honesty, and efficiency never stood more widely open thanin the United States today. From professorships of Greek to col­lege and railway presidencies the demand for trained competencyis greater than the supply. Things refuse to be badly managed long,says the old Latin adage. But there is an immense number of thingsthat are badly or loosely managed in our great, hustling, prosperous,careless America. The jobs are finer or bigger than the men. Andthe men who make themselves fit will get the jobs. If this wereonly a probability a man with any religion in his soul would chooseto stake his life upon the chance. But it is !llore than a probability­it is almost a certainty.The adolescent heroes of Balzac and Zola are constantly con­templating from their mansards the panorama of subjected Parisand dreaming of schemes to conquer, as they phrase it, and exploitthe mighty metropolis by ingenuity and intrigue. Do you go forthto conquer this vast, chaotic environing life, and conquer yourdue place of work and service not by cunning and smartness or"pull" but by your approved and tested efficiency and fitness to' serve?The standards, the ideal, the theory of fitness the University hasTHE SPIRIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 245ever held before your eyes, and experience will enable you to realizethem if you do not forget her lessons.The admonition which we address to you who go forth comesback to us who remain. If one-half of our mission is to keep alivethe pure theoretic life in which Aristotle discovered the supremeblessedness of the gods and on which the hardest-headed man ofscience will assure you still depends the possibility of such utopiasas science promises to humanity-if half of our task is this dis­interested but not passionless pursuit of passionless intelligence-s­the other half is conflict and service. We too have yet to achieveour conquest of the great city and the conquest of our due placeamong the counselors and guides of her immeasurable future. Weshall not be without rivals. The colossal potentialities latent hereare as magnets to all the competing social ideals, fanaticisms, andcupidities of the world. In this fiery crucible is fused the matter ofthe new democracy. What shall shape it? The uncompromisingselfishness of exploiting individualism, the anarchic leveling ofsocialism, or sweetly mediating reason and clear-eyed intelligence"turning to scorn with lips divine the madness of extremes"? Onethreatening answer muttered in the dens of misery and ignorance,growling froni the neglected jungles that hem in our homes, weheard the other day magnified in the megaphone of a "best seller."You remember in the closing pages of Mr. Sinclair's novel thedrunken rout that revels through the burning streets with the helotcry "Chicago will be ours."From the University, as from every organ 'Of the higher life inour city, let the response go ringing back: "Chicago shall be ours"­ours from the beginning by the munificence and loyal support of hercitizens ; ours in the end by their confidence and pride that we mustearn; ours not to exploit but to serve in her perplexed endeavor toreconcile freedom and discipline, commercialism and idealism, powerand beauty; ours not in the aloofness of intellect, the pharisaism ofculture, the condescension of science, but in the fellowship of thefiner and more discriminating democracy that will find a place forthe service of all the old aristocracies in the enlarging life of thehuman spirit-the spirit of the Chicago that is to be and of Chicago'sUniversity.THE PRESIDENT'S QUARTERLY STATE­MENT ON THE CONDITION OFTHE - UNIVERSITYI'0' URING the Winter Quarter two members of the faculty, Pro-fessor J. Laurence Laughlin, of the Department of PoliticalEconomy, and Professor Albert A� Michelson, of the Department ofPhysics, returned from a meeting of the Pan-American ScientificCongress at Santiago, Chile, where they represented the Universityof Chicago. In order to meet that engagement they traveled twentythousand miles. They have brought back important information onmany subjects which will be of value, not to the University alone,but to other interests in this country in its relations with SouthAmerica. :Professor Ernest D. Burton and Professor Thomas C. Chamber­lin are now both in China, engaged in the investigation for whichthey were commissioned a year ago. Preliminary reports indicatefruitful results from this very interesting inquiry into educationalconditions and possibilities in the Far East.The University owes to the public not merely that its doors beopen for instruction and that its faculty and advanced students beengaged in active scientific investigation, but also that any membersof the University should be ready to give the public the benefit ofany special knowledge which may ,be able in any way to render apublic service, During the last winter the Chicago Harbor Com­mission has made an elaborate report which will have much to do,doubtless, with the future economic development of Chicago. Thisreport has been made under the direction of Associate ProfessorCharles E. Merriam, secretary of the commission. Assistant Pro­fessor J. Paul Goode, of the Department of Geography, was ap­pointed by the commission as specialexpert and in that capacity hasmade a study of harbor conditions in the principal European andAmerican cities.The selection of Associate Professor Merriam at the recentprimary elections in the seventh ward as candidate for membershipin the Common Council of the city, a selection which will undoubt-1 Presented on the occasion of the Seventieth Convocation of the University,held in the Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, March 16, 1909".246PRESIDENT'S QUARTERLY STATEMENT 247edly be ratified at the polls next month, will give the city the benefitof his thorough scientific knowledge of municipal affairs. TheBoard of Trustees of the University, as well as the city of Chicago,are honored by the choice of one of the trustees, Mr. Franklin Mac­Veagh, as Secretary of the Treasury in President Taft's cabinet, andit is confidently believed that his large abilities and ripe experiencein business will in turn be of great service to the nation.In scientific research the University departments have beenas usual busily engaged. One of the most striking resultshas attended the long and patient study of the Rocky Mountainspotted fever by Dr. Howard T. Ricketts, of the Departmentof Pathology. Within the last few weeks Dr. Ricketts has suc­ceeded in isolating the microbe of that perplexing disease, and hehopes to attain further results in the line of preventive medicinewhich may be of great benefit to the Rocky Mountain states. Suchbrilliant discoveries as these are not merely encouraging to the Uni­versity, hut to the whole field of scientific medicine.The Rev. Dr. Frank W. Gunsaulus recently presented to the Uni­versity a very interesting painting of the "Tom" quadrangle, Oxford.This painting, formerly the property of Dr. Liddell, the eminentGreek lexicographer, was brought by the donor from Oxford, andis now appropriately on the walls of the Hutchinson Commons, abuilding which is itself a replica of the Christ Church Commons.The subscription for the Harper Memorial Library was closed inFebruary last, and amounts in round numbers to $814,000. Of thissum $590,8I1.09 cash are now in the University treasury drawinginterest. The remainder will be paid promptly, and the building istherefore assured. The plans have been completed, and the architectsare busy with the details. It is expected that at an early date thecornerstone may be laid, and thus in a reasonable time this magnifi­cent building will be added to the facilities of the University.Within the past quarter three generous gifts have been receivedby the University from the founder. The first is a cash gift of$76,960 for various purposes, mostly connected with the care and im­provement of the physical equipment of the institution. The secondgift of $100,000 ($20,000 a year for five years) will be devoted todevelopment of the School of Education under the guidance of thenew Director, Professor Charles Hubbard Judd, of Yale, who takesup his duties at the beginning of the next Summer Quarter. The Uni­versity will therefore be enabled to take a long step forward in the248 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEadvancement of this interesting branch of its work. The third is thegift for endowment of one million dollars. The income from this' giftputs an end forever, we trust, to the annual deficit in the Universitybudget. This deficit reached its maximum a few years ago, to theamount of $275,000. It has progressively decreased, being estimatedfor the fiscal year beginning July I, I 909, at $38,000. The incomeon the gift of one million dollars above noted, therefore, it will beseen, covers it completely. There is perhaps a popular impressionthat an annual deficit is a valuable asset for an institution 'Of learning.That opinion is not shared by the Board of Trustees 'Of the Uni­versity. It is believed by them that the only safe way in which toplan for the development of future years is to base such develop­ment on the sound financing which keeps expenditures within thelimits of income. Hereafter we trust and believe that we shall haveto say nothing about a deficit.HONORS TO THE HEAD OF THEENGLISH DEPARTMENTBY FRANK CLYDE BROWN, A.M., '02 1PROFESSOR John Matthews Manly, Head of the Departmentof English, has recently been giving a course of lectures atthe University of Gottingen, in accordance with the arrangementbetween the Prussian government and the University of Chicagofor the exchange of professors.Professor Manly spent the autumn in England. His visit toCambridge was made the occasion of a reception and dinner atPeterhouse by Dr. A. W. Ward, president of that college. Pro­fessor Manly was also an honored guest at the famous banquetgiven by the Lord Mayor of London at the Mansion House onDecember 9 in celebration of the Milton Tercentenary. He wasone of the speakers at a banquet in celebration of the same event,given at University College, London, by the English Association.During the course of Professor Manly's speech, on the latteroccasion, he stated that if Milton were now alive he would doubt­less favor all advanced movements, but that he would certainlyoppose woman suffrage.These remarks called forth the following sonnet in Punch:TO MILTON(With sincere apologies to Wordsworth)"Milton, if he were alive now, would be in favour of every advancedmovement except women's suffrage."-PROFESSOR MANLY) of Chicago.Milton! thou shou1dst be living with us now:England hath need of thee: she is a denOf roaring lions-women versus men;Women, who used to be content to bowTo man's authority, have lost somehowThe kna:ck of doing so. Hence I take my penTo say how much I wish thee back again,1 Mr. Frank C. Brown, a Fellow in the Department of English of the Uni­versity of Chicago, was engaged in English research in the British Museumduring the autumn and was present on the occasions mentioned in the follow­ing contribution.249250 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETo teach them manners. People say that thouDidst own the very attribute we need,Namely, "a voice whose sound was like the sea;"Imagine what an asset that would beAt meetings where the Suffragette holds swayWith frequent interruptions, and indeedThe speaker's duty on herself doth lay!At a meeting of the Philological Society in December, Pro­fessor Manly was invited to discuss the question of authorship ofPiers Plowman and reply before that body to the article by M. Jus­serand on the question. Soon after this meeting the Early EnglishText Society issued a special number, consisting of ProfessorManly's article on "The Last Leaf," his contribution in Vol. II ofthe Cambridge History of English Literature, the letter of Pro­fessor Bradley, published in the Athenaeum, concerning ProfessorManly, and a "Foreword" by the director of the society, Dr. F. J.Furnivall.Dr. Ward, the general editor of the Cambridge History, hasasked Professor Manly for another contribution for that series, andthe editors of the new Encyclopedia Britannica, have asked him towrite the article on "Middle English" for that work.Professor Manly is expected to return to London in April tomake an address on Shakspere at .King's College.THE WORLD'S DEBT TO DARWIN. IrBY EDWIN GRANT CONKLIN, PH.D.Head of the Department of Zoology in Princeton UniversityNATURAL selection, or "Darwinism," is usually spoken of as ifit were the only factor of evolution which Darwin recognized.As a matter of fact only three chapters of The Origin of Specieswere devoted primarily to this subject, whereas three were devotedto variation and its laws, and his great work on the Variations ofAnimals and Plants, which he omitted from the Origin merely tomake the latter a shorter and more readable account, occupies twolarge volumes. It is particularly unjust and untrue to. say thatDarwin's theory of evolution recognized only the negative factorof elimination. In reading the criticisms of Darwin's theory onecannot fail to be impressed with the fact that many of the criticsdo not know Darwin's works. Let us earnestly hope that one ofthe results of the Darwin anniversaries which are being held thisyear throughout the civilized world will be to induce people gener­ally, and the critics in particular, to read Darwin's books and thusto gain some accurate knowledge of his. theory of evolution. Iconfess that every time I look into. his books it is with some newsurprise and admiration. How' thoroughly modern they are inmost things; apparently they might have been written after theNeo-Lamarckian, the Neo-Darwinian, the Mutation, the Orthogene­sis and all the modem theories, and one feels inclined again andagain to' look critically at the date of the book. It is an interestingfact that most of the objections, which have been advanced in recentyears to the Darwinian factors, were considered at length by Dar­win in later editions of the Origin, and it is amusing to read thesemodern objections and then find the answers given by Darwinhimself in calm, judicial, and convincing manner. One who knowsDarwin's works can understand and in a measure sympathize withthe enthusiasm of Emerson for Plato, when he said, "In Plato areall things, whether written or thought."The positive side of Darwin's theory, and Indeed of every othertheory of evolution, is the variability of organisms, and the princi-1 Delivered in the Leon Mandel Assembly Hall on February 1, 1909, as thefirst in a series of Darwin Anniversary addresses. Part I of the addressappeared in the March (1909) number of the Magazine.251252 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEpal question which confronted him, as it confronts every evolution­isttoday, was this: What is the nature and what are the causesof variation? Darwin devoted many years of intense labor to thestudy of this problem and in his many volumes he brought togethera larger amount of information on this subject than has ever beencollected by anyone man before or since. He concluded that thecauses of variation are in the main these: (I) The influence ofthe environment and of changed conditions of life; (2) the effectsof the use and disuse of parts; (3) the organic correlation of onevariation with another so that the two necessarily arise together.Again and again he asserts as one of his principal conclusions,which he makes especially 'emphatic by placing it at the head ofoertain chapters, that "variability of every kind is due to changedconditions of life." He considered the value of sports, or whatDeVries calls mutations, in the production of new races, and hedecided that their value was not usually very great. He consideredthe question as to whether variations occur in every direction, orprincipally in one, whether they are multifarious or unifarious, andhe concluded on the whole that the evidence was chiefly favorableto the former view.It is in these three directions that our knowledge of the originof variations has made the greatest advance within recent years,viz., the effects of the conditions of life in producing newrates; the value of sudden sports or mutations; the ques­tion whether variations are fluctuating or definitely directed. AIlof these factors were considered by Darwin, and to the first heassigned great importance; and if the evidences now to' be hadshow that' the second and third factors named are more importantthan he supposed, they do not fundamentally nor seriously changehis theory. In some quarters there is a tendency to hail the muta­tion theory of DeVries and the orthogenesis theory of Eimer andWhitman as antagonistic to the Darwinian theory, but there is abso­lutely no reason why all of these factors may not coexist har­moniously, Both DeVries and Whitman hold that natural selec­tion is a factor and an important one in the evolution of organisms,and now that even Driesch says that "it is certainly a vera causa,"that "it is indeed self-evident," we may conclude, I think, that thefundamental and essential parts of Darwin's theory of the causesof evolution are unshaken and unshakable.Few of Darwin's followers have been as wise or catholic as he;THE WORLD'S DEBT TO DARWIN 253both the so-called "Darwinians" and the "Lamarckians" have beenintent on finding one universal law, one single cause, of all organicevolution. Weismann, as is well known, taught that the one all-../'sufficient and all-powerful cause of evolution is natural selection.However, when the inadequacy of this negative, eliminating factorwas made perfectly evident, he undertook to save his hypothesisby extending the selective or eliminating process from the indi­vidual or person to the parts or organs of which it is composed, andfinally to the hypothetical and wholly invisible units which consti­tute its protoplasm. But in spite of this ingenious expedient Weis­mann has been compeUed to admit that the "cause of hereditaryvariation is in the direct effects of external influences on the ger­minal protoplasm," and he is thus brought practically to the positionwhich Darwin held. On the other hand many of the Lamarckiansundertook to prove that the direct effects of the environment, or ofthe use and disuse of parts, were inherited and that they constitutedthe all-sufficient cause of evolution. But it has been conclusivelyshown that the direct effects of environment on the adult organism,or of use and disuse of its parts, are not usually inherited : whereas,as Tower has shown, changed conditions of life do affect thegerminal protoplasm and thus produce inherited variations.Neither Weismannism nor Lamarckism alone can be accepted asa sufficient cause of evolution, and it is but another testimony to thegreatness of that man of men, that after exploring for two-scoreyears all the ins and outs of pure selection and pure variation, menhave come back to the position outlined and unswervingly main­tained by him. Darwin believed in more than one factor, andthere is more reason now than ever before to recognize additionalcauses of evolution. If the views of DeVries and Whitman bewell founded, the whole problem of evolution will be immenselysimplified and the greatest objections to the Darwinian theory willdisappear; viz., (I) the lack of sufficient time for evolution; (2)the paleontological evidences that evolution has been in definitelines; (3) the inutility of many specific characters; (4) the com­plete disappearance of many rudimentary organs; (5) the har­monious coadaptation of parts.It must not be supposed, however, that we have already reacheda complete and satisfactory solution of the evolution problem orare, indeed, near such a solution. The problem is among the mostcomplicated with which the mind of man has ever attempted to254 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEdeal. It is evident that the heart and center of the whole theoryis in the nature and causes of variations, or mutations, and concern­ing this we know very little. There is a growing and, I think, well­founded conviction among biologists that the causes of variationare not wholly extrinsic, or environmental, but that they are largelyintrinsic or constitutional; that phylogeny, like ontogeny, dependschiefly upon internal changes, due to the nature of the organizationitself. This view has been set forth with especial force by Nageliand Whitman.Darwin's theory of evolution includes much mOl}e than the doc­trine of descent; it attempts to explain by natural causes the won­derful and exquisite adaptations of organisms to their conditions oflife. The deepest and most mysterious problems of biology do notcenter in the structure of organisms, nor in their functions, nor evenin their origin, but in their fitness. The subject of organic adapta­tions is undoubtedly a dangerous one for the scientist, but it isa subject which lies in the background of every biological problem.One cannot speak of any organ or tissue of an animal or plantwithout illustrating such adjustment. Consider the fitness of theskeleton for support, of the muscles for contraction, of the alimen­tary system for digestion and absorption, of the heart with its valvesfor pumping and the blood vessels for circulating blood. Considerthe fitness of the nervous system for receiving and transmittingstimuli; the fitness of the eye for seeing, of the ear for hearing, ofthe tongue for tasting. Think of the fitness of every organ for itsparticular use, and then consider the peculiar fitness with whichthese organs are co-ordinated into a harmonious whole.Such adaptations to general conditions of existence are so com­mon that to most persons they do not seem remarkable, while somepeculiar adaptation, such as the leaf insect or the Venus fly trap,seems wonderful simply because it is not common. Many of thesemore uncommon adaptations have played an important part in allthe theories as to the causes of evolution which have been advancedduring the past century. As illustrations of these we may brieflyenumerate the following: Adaptations to particular conditions oflife; such as the fitness of horses' limbs for running, of those ofseals for swimming, of those of birds for flight, of those of molesfor burrowing; the loss of wings by some insects inhabiting stormyTHE WORLD'S DEBT TO DARWIN 255islands, the loss of eyes by cave animals, the loss of digestive systemby some parasites. .Some of the most remarkable of all adaptations are those con­nected with reproduction, such as the contrivances for insuringcross-fertilization in animals and plants, and for the protection andnourishment of the young.The ability which- many eggs, embryos, and adults have ofrestoring lost parts, and in general 'Of resuming the typical formafter injury, constitutes another class of fitnesses which is 'Of thegreatest interest.Innumerable attempts have been made both by philosophers andbiologists to find a natural explanation of this fundamental phe­nomenon of life. One need only enumerate the "perfecting princi­ple" 'Of Aristotle, the "active teleological principle" of Kant, Lam­arckism, Darwinism, several kinds of selection, and finally theentelechy of Driesch, to indicate over what a field these explana­tions have ranged, and it must be confessed that no explanation yetattempted is sufficient and satis factory to explain all kinds ofadaptations.Adaptation is here used to express a state of fitness of anorganism in some particular regard for some particular condition.Of such adaptations there are two main classes, ( I) individualadaptations which are not characteristic 'Of the species, but whicharise in the soma in response to' extrinsic stimuli, and (2) racial orspecific adaptations which are inherent and which are not calledforth during the life of the individual in response to the conditionsfor which they are fitted. To account for the latter two differenttheories have been proposed, Lamarckism and Darwinism.Lamarckism is a theory of individual, contingent adaptations.It is known that extrinsic changes frequently produce adaptivemodifications in organisms, and Lamarckism maintains that theseindividual, somatic modifications are ultimately inherited and thatin this way specific adaptations arise. Thus all inherent or ger­minal adaptations are supposed to be derived from acquired orsomatic ones, but of CDurse Lamarckism does not undertake toexplain the origin of the latter.. As we know, Darwin believedthat some individual adaptations, especially those which resultedfrom the use or disuse of parts, might be inherited and thus becomeracial or specific adaptations. This theory is reasonable and would,if true, afford a good explanation of inherited adaptedness, Un for-256 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtunately there is no evidence that such acquired adaptations everare inherited. For years this evidence has been earnestly sought,but no such confirmations have been found as would certainly havebeen the case if this kind of inheritance were at all common.Modern Darwinism, on the other hand, rejects the possibility ofthe inheritance of such acquired adaptations and maintains thecomplete distinctness of acquired and inherent fitness. Darwinshowed in masterly manner that the continual elimination of theunfit, or the, poorly adapted, and the preservation of favored oradapted races would gradually improv-e the standard of fitnessuntil such exquisite adaptations as are found, for example, in thecase of the eye, might be reached. All adaptations which are forthe good of the species rather than of the individual, admit of noother natural explanation; such adaptations could not have arisenfrom one individual, as Lamarckians assume, since they benefit thespecies at the expense of the individual. If to the factors whichDarwin recognized there be added some such factor as mutationor orthogenesis, most if not all inherited adaptedness of animalsand plants may be so explained. This seems to me to be the crown­ing feature of Darwin's great theory. It is not so much its species­forming power as its ability to explain on simple and natural princi­ples the wonderful adaptations of the living world.On the other hand, neither Darwinism, Lamarckism, nor anyother mechanical explanation so far proposed is able to explainsatisfactorily all the equally woriderful individual, or somatic,adaptations of organisms. All theories' of evolution hold thatracial adaptations ate due to experience; Lamarckism, that theyare the directly inherited effects of individual experience; Darwin­ism, that they are the indirect results of experience, through thepresentation of many variants to selection and the survival of the-best adapted. No theory yet advanced could explain adaptationsto conditions never experienced before, and yet many individualadaptations are of this sort. Bear with me while I recite a few ofthe cases which have recently been held by several writers to befatal to Darwinism. It has been found that if the lens of the eyeof a newt is removed it will be regenerated perfectly within a fewweeks. Now it may be assumed that such an: injury as this nevertook place in nature, and yet Darwinism and Lamarckism canexplain this regeneration only by the supposition that the loss of thelens has taken place so frequently among the ancestors of the newtsTHE WORLD'S DEBT TO DARWIN 257that present newts are perfectly adapted to this Injury. Otherindividual, or contingent, adaptations of a still more striking kindare found in the adaptations of organisms to certain poisons, par­ticularly bacterial poisons or snake venom. It has been shown thatagainst these toxins, antitoxins are formed and for every toxin, orat least for every tox-albumen, its own peculiar antibody. Nowmany of these poisons are of such a sort that it is perfectly certainthat the immediate ancestors of the forms poisoned could neverhave experienced them, and yet the response is as perfect as itcould be if it had been due to long experience.There are therefore adaptations which appear suddenly and infull perfection and which neither Lamarckism nor Darwinism norany other system so far advanced can explain, and this has ledseveral biologists, notably Wolff and Driesch, to the conclusion thatthese theories of evolution "fail along the line." But this conclu­sion seems to me hasty and extreme. There are many adaptations,as we have seen, which are beautifully explained by the Darwiniantheory, viz., all racial adaptations which are inherent and are notfirst called forth by the contingent stimulus to which they are theappropriate response. On the other hand adaptations of the lattersort are pure problems of physiology, rather than of phylogeny .....If regulation or regeneration is one of the fundamental proper­ties of life as characteristic of the lowest organism as of the highestit can also be left out of the list of those things the origin of whichevolution may reasonably be expected to explain; but the develop­ment of particular structures and functions to meet particular con­ditions of life, such as organs of locomotion, sensation, digestion,and reproduction; organs and instincts of protection, offense, anddefense, and all the multitudes of diverse forms and ways in whichorganisms are fitted to carryon the fundamental properties of lifeamidst the most varied conditions, these diversities we may reason­ably expect evolution to explain, and we have found that it is thecrowning glory of Darwin's theory that it is, on the whole, able toexplain them.This is a brief summary of Darwin's most important work.Some of it, as we have seen, has been and still is of very greatimportance; other portions were of less value and have since beenabandoned. In this respect his work is not unlike that of otherscientists and yet we all recognize that Darwin occupies a uniqueposition .in biology; that indeed he stands almost alone in the great-258 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEness of his influence on the world, and that his name can be properlyassociated only with that of the great Englishman, by whose sidehe lies in Westminster Abbey, Sir Isaac Newton, and with two orthree others in the whole history of science.What is the secret of the tremendous influence which Darwinhas had upon the entire world? He was, of course, a remarkableman, remarkably well prepared for a supremely great work. Keenobserver of nature in many lands, gifted with unusual ability incollecting, classifying, and systematizing facts, endowed with afertile imagination, and with great powers of generalization, andyet cautious, slow in reaching conclusions, honest beyond all others,a man who worked every day of his life to the limit of his strength-none like him had ever before grappled with the mysteries ofcreation.But apart from his own peculiar fitness for this work Darw.inwas unusually fortunate in his opportunity and his environment.The world fwas ready for him. Lamarck, St. Hilaire, Mendeladdressed a world not ready to receive their messages. But in 1859the need of some rational explanation of the origin of species waskeenly felt and many naturalists were groping in the dark forsome natural solution of this problem. In his autobiography Dar­win says in explaining the success of the Origin of Species:What I believe was strictly true" is that innumerable well-observed factswere stored in the minds of naturalists ready to take their proper placesas soon as any theory which would receive them was sufficiently explained.The problem itself was one of the greatest which had ever beenraised in the history of science. Step by step miraculous inter­vention in nature had been eliminated and supernaturalism - hadbeen driven from astronomy and geology and embryology andtook its last gr-eat stand on the special creation of species. To manygood people evolution seemed to be an attempt to drive God entirelyout of his universe, Furthermore, it presumed to determine m�h'splace in nature, and to many it seemed that if man were descendedfrom the beasts which perish he could not be the son of God. Ithas been said that there are two subjects in which all people areinterested: theology and politics. Evolution certainly caused adisturbance in theology and it accordingly came with a shockto all Christendom. The necessity of defending it before the publicconverted scientists into controversialists, and probably no scientifictheory ever before received so much popular attention.THE WORLD'S DEBT TO DARWINAgain, Darwin owed very much to his friends ; especially toLyell, Hooker, Huxley, and Asa Gray. The idea of fighting forhis theory seems to have come to him only gradually after the firstshock of the brutal assaults upon it. He wrote to Hooker:I begin to' see that the theory is worth fighting for. I foresee that thefight �i11 be a long one; but if Lyell, yourself, and Huxley take it up, weshall certainly win in the ,end.Many a discovery, like that of Mendel, is launched meeklyand modestly into the world, to sink to oblivion or to be rediscoveredonly at some future time. Not so with a militant truth: it chal­lenges and demands attention, and in the case of Darwin's theory,it richly deserved it.N ext to his friends Darwin owed most to' his enemies; theattacks upon him and his theory were so violent, so brutal, so outof reason, that his own sane, calm, and absolutely honest courseshone with all the more luster. To these unreasonable attacks andto the same reaction which was bound to follow, Darwin, as wellas Lincoln, his great contemporary, owed very much.But wholly apart from these features which contributed onlytemporarily to his reputation and influence, Darwin stands as oneof the leaders of science for the great work which he did; workof lasting value, which has not yet been outgrown and which cannever be forgotten. He stands as a leader in science because of themethods of his work; he was so. broad, and science has since becomeso specialized that we can never hope to see his like again. Hewas so honest in dealing with objections to his theories and so sanein judgment that he was never carried away by his own enthusiasm.Above all, he was so patient in his work that his example may beespecially commended t'O this impatient age; on everyone of hisprincipal works he spent from ten to thirty years of the hardestlabor of which he was capable, and it is not to be wondered at thathis work has lasting value. Charles Darwin stands today and willcontinue to stand for years to come as lone of the most impressiveand influential figures of all history.A NEW VOLUME IN ZOOLOGYHENRY HOLT & CO. of New York have recently issued avolume in zoology, by Frank R. Lillie, Professor of Embry­ology in the University of Chicago. The book, entitled The De­velopment of the Chick, is intended as an introduction to embry­ology. In the preface the author says that it has been necessary tofill certain gaps in our knowledge of the development of the chickby descriptions of other birds. But the account does not gO' beyondthe class aues and applies exclusively to the chick except wherethere is specific statement to the contrary. He also says that theaccount has been written directly from the material in almost everypart and has involved some special investigations.In the introduction are discussed the cell theory, the recapitula­tion theory, the physiology of development, embryonic primordiaand ,the law of genetic restriction, general characters of germ-cells,and polarity and organization of the ovum. In the six chapters ofPart I are treated the development before laying and the first threedays of incubation, this part involving the study of the origin ofthe primordia of most of the organs. The matter concerning thelater development is classified by the organs concerned, and consti­tutes Part II, containing eight chapters.The writer's judgment as to the best method of presenting theproblems of embryology is given in the preface:The best introduction to the problems opened up by the study ofembryology is a careful first-hand study of some one species. It is in thissense that the book may serve as an introduction to embryology, if itsstudy is accompanied by careful laboratory work. ... ,. The fact thatcomparative and experimental embryology receive bare mention is not dueto any lack of appreciation of their interest and importance, but to theconviction that the beginner is not prepared to appreciate these problems atthe start; to the belief that our teachers of embryology are competentto remedy omissions; and finally to the circumstance that no one book can,as a matter of fact, cover the entire field, except in the most superficial way.The volume, of 475 pages, is illustrated by two hundred andfifty figures, those showing the circulation in the embryo and theyolk-sac being fine examples of color-work. Eighteen pages ofappendices, covering the general literature of the subject and thespecial literature of the several chapters, and an index of sevenpages, conclude the volume.260THE UNIVERSITY RECORDEXERCISES CONNECTED WITH THESEVENTIETH CONVOCATIONProfessor Paul Shorey, Ph.D.,LL.D., Head of the Department ofGreek, was the Convocation oratoron March 16, 1909, his address,which was given in the Leon MandelAssembly Hall, being entitled "TheSpirit of the University of Chicago."President Harry Pratt Judson pre­sented the quarterly statement on thecondition of the University. Theaddress and statement appear else­where in full in this issue of theMagazine.The Convocation Reception washeld in Hutchinson Hall on theevening of March 15. In the re­ceiving line were President andMrs. Harry Pratt Judson; the Con­vocation orator, Professor PaulShorey, and Mrs. Shorey; the Con­vocation preacher, Dr. Samuel Me­Chord Crothers, of Cambridge,Mass.; the new member of the Uni­versity Board of Trustees, Mr.Thomas E. Donnelley, and Mrs.Donnelley; and Professor MarionTalbot, Dean of Women.DEGREES CONFERRED AT THESEVENTIETH CONVOCATIONAt the seventieth Convocation ofthe University, held in the LeonMandel Assembly Hall on March 16,1909, nine students were elected tomembershin in Sigma Xi for evi­dence of ability in research work inscience, and twelve students wereelected to membership in the Betaof Illinois 'chapter of Phi BetaKappa for especial distinction ingeneral scholarship in the University.Forty-one students received thetitle of Associate; five, the two-yearscertificate of the College of Educa­tion; nine. the degree of Bachelorof Arts; twenty-nine, the degree ofBachelor of Philosophy; fourteen,the degree of Bachelor of Science;26r and six, the degree of Bachelor ofEducation.In the Divinity School four stu­dents received the degree of Bache­lor of Divinity, and one student thedegree of Master of Arts.In the Law School nine studentsreceived the degree of Doctor ofLaw (J.D.).In the Graduate Schools of Arts,Literature, and Science 1. wo stu­dents were given the degree ofMaster of Arts; one, that of Masterof Science = and three, that of Doctorof Philosophy-making a total ofseventy-six degrees (not includingtitles and certificates) conferred bythe University at the Spring Convo­cation.THE GENERAL FACULTY DINNERAt Hutchinson Hall on Mondayevening, February 15, more than ahundred members of the UniversityFaculties met at dinner and wel­comed the guests of the evening,Professor John M. Coulter, Head ofthe Department of Botany; Pro­fessor J. Laurence Laughlin, Headof the Department of Political Econ­omy; Professor Albert A. Michel­son, Head of the Department ofPhysics; and Professor Charles R.Barnes, of the Department of Botany.The President of the Universitynresided and introduced the speak­ers, Prof.essor Barnes giving somea:ccount of recent botanical investi­gations in Mexico in company withDr. W. J. G. Land; ProfessorLaughlin and Professor Michelsong-iving incidents and impressions oftheir recent trip to the Pan-Ameri­can Scientific Congress at Santiago,Chili, where they presented papersas representatives of the University;and Professor Coulter describing thewreck of the "Republic" and thetransfer of passengers to the"Florida" and the "Baltic."THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETHE CORRESPONDENCE-STUDYDEPARTMENTThe number of different studentswho were at work in the Corre­spondence-Study Department duringthe year 1907-8 was 2,200-an in­crease of 348 over the enrolment for1906-7. This is a larger increase bynearly one hundred than that of anypreceding year. These students wereat work in 321 courses, under the di­rection of 127 instructors. Severalstudents took more than one course,so that the average registration ineach of the 321 courses was exactlyten.In point of view of attractivenessas determined by registration, thefirst seven sub j ects are: English,Mathematics, History, Latin, Phi­losophy-Education and Psychology,German, and the Romance Lan­guages. There were 961 registrationsin English, and the registrationsranged from that number down to199 in the Romance Languages andLiteratures.Of the total number of registra­tions (3,203) , 900 were completed.Over 1,600 registrations held overinto 1908--g. On 70 per cent. of thefinished courses a final examinationwas taken for University credit. Therapid growth of the credit-seekingelement in the student body hasrisen in the last ten years from 27per cent. to 70 per cent.Last year there were a few moremen students than women students.The reverse was true the year before.As a rule there are about the samenumber of men as women.The number 0.£ those who matricu­lated in the University through theCorrespondence-Study Departmentwas- 16.31 per cent. of the total num­ber of matriculants in the Univer­sity in 1904-5; 14.25 per cent in1905-6 ; 18.37 per cent, in 1906-7;and 19.81 per cent., or 566 students,in 1907-8.The Correspondence-Study Depart­ment is becoming more and more a"feeder" to the University, and onthe other hand is enabling many,who for various reasons have beenobliged to leave college before com­pleting their work, to continue andgain a degree.' THE FACULTIES"The Railway in the West" wasthe subject of an illustrated lecturein Kent Theater on March 9 by Mr.Cy Warman, the well-known authorof railway stories."Shakspere's London" was thesubject of an illustrated lecture atHull House, Chicago, on January 20,by Mr. David A. Robertson, of theDepartment of English.Professor Nathaniel Butler, Deanof the College of Education, spokebefore the Chicago Association ofCommerce at the Auditorium Hotelon February 27, his subject being"Opportunity."Dr. Reuben M. Strong, of the De­partment of Zoology, gave an illus­trated lecture on the subj ect of"Evolution" at Hull House, Chicago,on the evening of January 24."Valuation of Railways" is thesubject of a contribution to theApril number of Scribner's Maga­zine, by Professor ]. LaurenceLaughlin, Head of the Departmentof Political Economy."The Deserts of Arizona" was thesubject of an illustrated lecture be­fore the Chicago Academy of Sci­ences on February 26, by AssistantProfessor Henry C. Cowles, of theDepartment of Botany."The Theory of Cosmic Evolu­tion" was the subj ect of an addressbefore the City Club of Chicago onFebruary 27, by Associate Pro­fessor Forest R. Moulton, of the De­partment of Astronomy and Astro­physics.Assistant Professor J ohn Cum­mings, of the Department of Politi­cal Economy, contributes to theMarch issue of the Journal of Po­litical Economy a discussion of the"Cost of Production as a Basis ofTariff Revision.""Ultimate Chicago" was the sub­j ect of an address before the ChicagoCredit Men's Association at a ban­quet given in the Auditorium Hotelon February 17, by Assistant Pro­fessor Herbert L. Willett, of theDepartment of Semitics."The Freer Gospels and Shenuteof Atripe" is the subject of an illus­trated reprint from the March (1909)number of the Biblical World, con-THE UNIVERSITY RECORDtributed by Assistant ProfessorEdgar J. Goodspeed, of the Depart­ment of Biblical and Patristic Greek.At the Chicago Academy of Sci­ences on the evening of March 5Assistant Professor Wallace W.Atwood, of the Department ofGeology, gave an illustrated lectureentitled "Studies in Geology: TheGrand Canyon of the ColoradoRiver."At the meeting of the Chicagocharter convention on February 26Professor Ernst Freund, of the LawSchool Faculty, was asked to redraftcertain articles in the proposedcharter for the city of Chicago soonto be presented to the Illinois legis­lature for consideration.Siena: The Story of a MediaevalC o mmune is the title of a volumerecently issued by Charles Scrib­ner's Sons, the author being Asso­ciate Professor Ferdinand Schevill,of the Department of History. Thevolume is abundantly supplied withmaps and illustrations."Seventeen Years' Work in Lab­rador" was the subj ect of an illus­trated public lecture in the LeonMandel Assembly 'Hall on February4, by Dr. Wilfred T. Grenfell, themedical missionary who has done soremarkable a work among the fish­ermen of the Labrador coast."The Freer Manuscripts of theBible" was the subject of an illus­trated lecture given March IO in theHaskell Assembly Room under theauspices of the Chicago Society ofthe Archaeological Institute ofAmerica, by Professor Henry A.Sanders, of the University of Michi­gan.Mr. Franklin Mac V eagh. who hasbeen since 190I a member of theUniversity Board of Trustees, be­came on March 8 a member ofPresident Taft's cabinet. His posi­tion as Secretary of the Treasurywill not prevent his continued serv­ice as one of the University's trus­tees."Some Problems in Forensic Psy­chology" was the subj ect of a seriesof six University public lecturesgiven from February 9 to 25 in theLaw Building by Dr. Sydney Kuh,"Simulation and Dissimulation ofInsanity" and "The Medico- Legal Aspects of Hypnotism" being dis­cussed in the closing lectures.At the third annual meeting of theClassical Association of Kansas andWestern Missouri held in KansasCity on February 19 and 20, 1909.Associate Professor Frank J. Miller,of the Department of Latin, gave anaddress on "The Lyric Mood," andalso presented a paper on "Evidencesof Incompleteness in the Aeneid."The latest publication in the seriesissued by the American branch ofthe Association for InternationalConciliation is a reprint of the Con­vocation address published in theOctober (I908) number of the U ni­versity of Chicago Magazine, 'en­titled "The Approach of the TwoAmericas," by Joaquim Nabuco,LL.D., Litt.D., Brazilian Ambassa­dor to' the United States."Industrial Education, the W ork­ing-Man, and the School" is thesubj ect of a contribution to theMarch number of the ElementarySchool Teacher, by Professor GeorgeH. Mead, of the Department ofPhilosophy. In the February issueof the same journal is a second in­stalment of a discussion of "TheKindergarten Programme," by MissBertha Payne, of the School of Edu­cation."The Roosevelt Regime" is thesubj ect of a contribution in theMarch number of the World To­Day, by Associate Professor Fran­cis W. Shepardson, of the Depart­ment of History. In the same num­ber of the magazine is an articleon "Anti-Japanese Legislation" byMr. Samuel MacClintock, who re­ceived the Doctor's degree from theUniversity at the Winter Convoca­tion of I 908."Arnold of Rugby" was the sub­ject of a University public lecture inthe Leon Mandel Assembly Hall onMarch I, the speaker being MissEthel M. Arnold, of London, Eng­land. The address, which was ofunique interest, was listened to by alarge audience. Miss Arnold is thegranddaughter of Thomas Arnold,the niece of Matthew Arnold, thepoet, and the sister of Mrs. Hum­phry Ward, the novelist.Three University public lectureson Church Architecture, by Mr.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHarry W. J ones, of Minneapolis,were given in the Haskell As­sembly Room from February 23to 25, the special subiects of thelectures, which were illustrated, be­ing as follows: "Early ChurchArchitecture," "American ChurchArchitectural Problems," and "Prob­lems of the Present Day: ChurchPlanning, Designing, and Altera­tion."In the March issue of the C hau­tauquan Assistant Professor GeorgeB. Zug, of the Department of theHistory of Art, makes the seventhillustrated contribution to -the sub­j ect of Dutch art and artists, thespecial subj ect in this number being"The Animal Painters and Paintersof Architecture of Still Life." Inthe same number Mr. Carl H. Grabo,of the Department of English, dis­cusses Milton's indebtedness to. theDutch poet, Vondel.At the fifth annual meeting of theClassical Association of the MiddleWest and South, held in NewOrleans on February 24 and 25, As­sociate Professor Frank J. Miller,of the Department of Latin, pre­sented a paper on the subject of"The Thirteenth Book of theAeneid." Associate Professor Gor­don J. Laing, of the same depart­ment, led in the discussion of a paperentitled "The Vilification of theAncients: An Episode in the Historyof Ignorance."Charles Scribner's Sons have justissued a new edition of the Historyof Egypt� by James Henry Breasted,Professor of Egyptology and re­cently "Director of the EgyptianExpedition of the University ofChicago. An account of the newdiscoveries made in Egypt since 1905and of the modification of previousopinions which they have caused hasbeen included in the new edition,and the volume, of more than sixhundred pages, contains new andimproved maps.On March I, 1909, there was sentto the city council of Chicago ther-eport of the Harbor Commissionappointed by the mayor of the cityin January, 1908. Associate Pro- fessor Charles E. Merriam, of theDepartment of Political Science, hasbeen secretary of the commission,and special reports have been madeto the commission by AssistantProfessor J. Paule Goode, of theDepartment of Geography; GeorgeC. Sikes, A.M., '94; and George G.TunelI, Ph.D., '97.As a contribution to a symposiumon the purpose and organization ofphysics teaching in secondaryschools Associate Professor RobertA. Millikan, of the Department ofPhysics, had an article in a recentnumber of School Science andMathematics on "The Aims andNeeds of High School Physics." Inthe Proceedings of the NationalEducation Association for 1908 ap­pears also a discussion by Mr. Milli­kan of "The Function of the Lec­ture Demonstration in SecondarySchool Physics."Und"er the auspices of the Univer­sity of Chicago Dramatic Club aUniversity public lecture on the sub­ject of the Italian dramatist, Goldoni,was given on March 2 in KentTheater by Mr. Hobart C. Chatf.ield­Taylor, of Chicago, The lecture wasgiven in connection with the pres­entation of the Italian comedy, TheFan, by the .Dramatic Club of theUniversity on the evenings of March4 and 5. The play was given in thetranslation of Henry B. Fuller, theChicago novelist, and the interpre­tation was unusually entertainingand success ful.A series of eleven University pub­lic lectures on the general sub] ect ofSchopenhauer and Nietzsche, by Mr.William M. Salter, was given in theLaw Building from January 5 toMarch 15, the first seven lectures be­ing upon the subject of "Schopen­hauer." The subjects of the lastfour lectures were as follows:"Schopenhauer's Contact with The­ology," "Schopenhauer's Way ofRedemption and Doctrine of Nir­vana," "Schopenhauer's Ethical andSocial Doctrine," and "Nietzsche."The addresses by Mr. Salter weregiven under the auspices of the De­partment of Philosophy.DISCUSSION AND COMMENTCOLLEGES OR CLASSES?When the Senior College Councilasked the President of the Universitya month ago to bring about an ad­justment of the college and classsystems at the University it ex­pressed. the long-standing studentsentiment that neither system wasbringing the best results and that achange was necessary. The actionof the Council was brought beforethe Faculty, and Dean James R.Angell, Dean Robert M. Lovett, andProfessor Herbert E. Slaught werechosen to meet with a student com­mittee 'composed of Miss KatharineSlaught, William P. MacCracken,Alvin F. Kramer, and Aleck Whit­field to learn the student attitude,and submit, if possible, plans for arevised system.When the college system for thefirst two years was introduced fouryears ago it was not thought thata solution had been reached in theproblem of bringing students closertogether, but it was felt that the col­lege group would prove useful be­cause it had many advantages overthe class. The quarter system atthe University had weakened the old­time American class system. I twasnot known without recourse to therecords what class a certain studentbelonged to. By remaining in resi­dence during the Summer Quarterhe might have passed beyond hisclass; by dropping work he mighthave fallen behind it. Men whograduated in December and Marchfelt that they belonged nowhere inparticular. The college, however,drew together men who were fol­lowing the same course of study.Whether they graduated in Marchor in June did not matter; they wereinterested in the same work, dis­cussed the same topics,' arid con­sulted the same Faculty members.The pre-Medics passed easily intoScience College, and the pre-legalmen found congenial companions inPhilosophy.The classes have done little morethan form the basis for social or- ganizations, but in the colleges pro­fessional organizations have growna,s well. College organization, fur­thermore, has been stimulated bycontests in basket-ball, track work,and debating. Dances and smokershave been held by colleges. Thereare numerous organizations like theGreenroom and the Sock and Buskinthat are distinctly identified withone college.The best thing about the collegesystem is its present organization ofdelegates, who meet as the JuniorCollege Council. Each delegaterepresents a distinct group of people.The powers of the council have notyet seen their best development. Asthey grow and expand they will be­come more and more the models forstudent government in America.On the other hand the numericaldivision has not been equal in allthe colleges. Among the men therehas been a preponderance of num­bers in Philosophy, and among thewomen in Literature College. ArtsCollege, both of the men and women,has been small in numbers. Thisweakness became more evident whenmembers of the women's collegeswere grouped this year not, accordingto the 'courses they had chosen, butin order to equalize numbers. Thisdisclosed at once a defect whichwould have to be met in the per­fecting of the system.Another anomaly is the fact thatin spite of the college system theFreshmen and Sophomore classeshave persisted as distinct organiza­tions. They have not done muchmore than elect officers and give oneor two dances, but this has sufficedto identify members of a commonbody. The absence of the collegesystem in the third and fourth yearsleft this the only form of organi­zation which students in those vearscould cling to. The six Senior di­visions became mere mechanicalgroupings, announced whenever adeleg-ate to the Senior CollegeCouncil was to be chosen. Whenstudents become alumni they areknown as members of their class,265266 THE UNIVERSITY OF C;HICAGO, MAGAZINEnot of their college, and it is hisclass, and not his college, that thealumnus recalls.Close observation seems to indi­cate that the class system can neverbe a complete success at Chicago solong as the quarter system prevails.The success of the latter is so evi­dent and has left its imprint so in­delibly on American educationalmethods that any change there is notto be thought of. If the class sys­tem is to prevail it must be adaptedto the quarters-if' that 'can be done.I f the College system is to bechosen, it must be extended over thefour years and developed into a stillstronger organization.That is Chicago's problem, andhow she solves it will be watchedwith interest by universities all overthe country. Princeton is workingout the preceptorial system to herown satisfaction. The form of or­ganization that will prove best forChicago will be peculiarly her own,but at the same time will remedy thedifficulties of scores of universitiesthat are working to' bring their stu­dents into closer relations with eachother and their instructors.PUBLIC SPEAKING CONTESTSBeginning with the Autumn Quar­ter a series of contests in extemporespeaking will be inaugurated by theDepartment of Public Speaking toreplace the declamatory contests ofthe Autumn and Winter Quartersand the annual oratorical contest ofthe Spring Quarter. The plan is toprovide a new test of ability whichwill place all participants on a morelevel footing and thereby make thevictory worthy of the effort. Anoutline prepared by the Departmentis being considered by the UniversitySenate for adoption.Members of the Department aswell as the University public haverealized that in past contests somemen had a great advantage overothers. Ofttimes they presenteddeclamations with which they hadwon academic contests years andyears before. Preparation over along period with the assistance ofskilled coaches made them proficientto a high degree. Men who .entereda declamatory contest for the first time were at a disadvantage. Theirtraining could extend only over aperiod of weeks. They ·chose aselection from Grady or Websterand expected to cope with adver­saries who were better prepared.The new 1?lan means the passingof the one-piece man. By demand­ing extemporaneous talks the De­partment places a value on readinessand versatility. Participants are tobe limited to classes, which narrowsthe field of competitors. Freshmenare to have two contests, one eachin the Autumn and 'Winter Quarters,and are to have one hour to preparetheir talks. Sophomores are tospeak in the Winter Quarter and .areto be given two to three hours forpreparation. Juniors also are ex­pected to come in the 'Winter Quar­ter with twenty-four hours in whichto prepare. Seniors will be giventwo days. The details have beengiven much study by Professor S.H. Clark, head of the Departmentof Public Speaking, and ProfessorFrederic M. Blanchard. Confer­ences have been held with DeltaSigma Rho, the honorary debatingfraternity, whose members havelong urged a better debating and de-clamatory system. IAs the new plan cannot be in­troduced this year. the annual ora­torical contest will be held in theSpring Quarter. All students eligi­ble for public appearance and havingcredit for not more than four yearsof work may enter. Original orationsnot over 2,000 words long must besubmitted to the Dean of the SeniorColleges not later than April 15.Registrations must be made beforeApril 8. Not all the dates have beenset, but the preliminary contest willbe held about May I. Three scholar­ships will be given as prizes, theirvalue being respectively $120, $80,and $40.WOMEN AT COLLEGE"What is the secret of the successof the college girl? University pro­fessors have attempted to accountfor her popularity, her growth innumbers, and her work as a student.Some of these professors have beenmen, and perhaps they have notbeen entirely just in their estimate.DISCUSSION AND COMMENTAt least that is what Madge C. J en­ison, who writes entertainingly inthe April Delineator-a woman'smagazine-would have us believe,"American Girls and American Col­leges" is the title of her paper, 'andunder it she adds, naively, "Theformer seem to have something thebest of it in the race for collegiatehonors."This writer views with interest theattempts to compare the work ofmen and women in college and to ac­count for the progress of theAmerican woman. The Dean ofWomen at the University of Chicagois reported as recommending thatwomen take more work, to offset theextra drain, executive, journalistic,and athletic, which comes upon men.A professor of English is quoted assaying the following regarding thepre-eminence of women in scholar­ship: "They are less distracted byoutside demands of every kind thanare men. If they are -on the Maroonit is an honorary position. They donot have to' stay up all night to getthe edition out on time."Interesting comparisons betweenEastern and Western methods ofeducation are made by the author.All universities are supposed to besuspicious of the progress of womenas intending to' take away honorsfrom men, but it is stated thatin spite of the fact that out of thir­teen universities the women outnum­ber the men in seven, and that Min­nesota, Nebraska, and Californiahave nearly twice" as many womenas men enrolled, the West is uni­formly more willing to compromisewith the women than the East.If Cornell is not "always gracious;says Miss Jenison, she has alwaysplayed fair. An instance was heranswer to the exception Columbiamen made because a woman helda place on the debating team ofCornell University last winter. Cor­nell defended the election of thewoman student. Ann Arbor, accord­ing to the writer, does not scorn thecoed, as has been implied in otherMagazine discussions, but rather "themen at Ann Arbor take the girls,for the most part, very little intoaccount. Certainly Michigan isquite unlike Chicago and Madison.She treats her women with a differ- ence. The life of a woman, if notso separate from that of men, stillcenters largely about Barbour Gym­nasium. The men come into it, butlike commuters whose investment iselsewhere." Comparing two or threeuniversities the writer says:At Chicago and Madison, Oberlinand Northwestern, coeducation is ac­cepted quite naturally, as it is through­out the West. Far from scorning theircoed, these universities could not getalong without her. The success offraternity balls depends not upon im­ported girls as at Cornell and Michi­gan, but upon the university girls themen can get.I t is in colleges away from a largecity, circling much inside themselves,and where the inequalities among stu­dents, socially and financially, are notgreat, that one finds, as a rule, themost pleasant feeling. In such placesas Oberlin and Northwestern there issomething very sweet. Berkeley andStanford point with nicety this dis­tinction. Berkeley has something ofthe Eastern aloofness in the attitudeof her men, and is not averse to keep­ing the life outside of the classroomseparate. I t is a matter of soine bit­terness to the girls at Berkeley atpresent that they are not allowed towear a big "C" on their sweaters forpre-eminence in athletics. So oppres­sion works variously in various places.The women of Chicago surelyhave not been relegated to secondplace either in student activities orsocial affairs. In spite of the factthat Chicago is a large city, and thatmany of the male students havewomen friends not connected withthe University, the woman studentis always in the maj ority at theChicago social functions. Girlshave been elected to various offices,and it is always considered "goodpolitics" to place a popular girl insome position. The Maroon hasalways had women reporters, and if,indeed, they have not helped on thenight shift, or covered some of themore strenuous assignments thatfall to the 10't of the men, they atleast have shown their willingnessto learn what is essentially a man'sgame.THE PRECEPTORIAL SYSTEMFour years ago students in theJunior College were divided intogroups of six and asked to adviseand consult with members of the268 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEFaculty who were assigned-to thegroups. The object was to bringstudents into closer personal rela­tions with each other and with someolder man who should prove an in­spiration to them in their .work.The plan was never carried outfully enough to become as impor­tant a factor in student life as thepreceptorial system at Princeton.This is described in detail in theIndependent of March 4, by EdwinE. Slosson, Ph.D., '94, whose paperson American universities have beenmentioned in the Magazine.Dr. Slosson finds the preceptorialsystem an attempt to restore the lossof personal relationship between in­structor and student, brought aboutby the growth of American univer­sities. The preceptors have therank and title of assistant professorsand are now fifty in number. Theyhave been limited largely to thehumanities, as the "elbow instruc­tion" of the laboratories is thoughtpractically to have taken their placein the sciences. Dr. Slosson explainsthe working of the system as fol­lows:The undergraduate carries fivecourses at a time of three hours aweek each. Two of these hours con­sist of the ordinary lecture or class­room work; the third is devoted to thepreceptorial conference. In this thestudents meet at any convenient hourof day or evening in the study. of thepreceptor in groups of three to six,and more or less informally discussthe subject-matter of the course. Thepreceptor is not expected to attend thelectures or to follow the course fromday to day, but to give the studentssuch drill and personal assistance asthey most need and to guide and en­courage them in collateral reading.The preceptor shifts his students from one of his groups to another untilthose of like mind and capabilities arebrought together, and he may employvery different methods with the differ­ent grou-s and vary the amount andcharacter of' the work as he pleases.The conferences are intended to beregarded as opportunities rather thantasks and the student is expected tokeep his date with his preceptor as hedoes a business or social appointment.The preceptor has nothing directly todo with the student's grades, althoughhe may debar him from examination ifhe regards his work as unsatisfactory.The . writer believes the precep­torial relation gives an opportunityfor unforced friendships betweenolder and younger men. The loveof learning, he declares, must becultivated by personal contact ; it iscontagious rather than infectious.Of the preceptor himself Mr. Slos­son says: "Whether the preceptoris a good thing or not depends onthe preceptor. He must know boysas well as books." In this and fol­lowing paragraphs he suggests thereal key to the situation-the per­sonality of the teacher, by whichthe system must succeed or fail:"The real test of the system willcome in later years, when the pre­ceptors get old, and lazy, and tired,and mechanical, and no longer ableto tell apart the young men who filethrough their studies in unendingline." Here again is the demandfor that which James Conover writesabout in his recent book, Personalityin Education, in which he says:"After all improvements in books,methods, and appliances, the teacheris the one absolute requisite, and alltrue advance must go through him;he must ever be the exponent ofwhat he is teaching."UNDERGRADUATE LIFE6, losing to the Evanston Freshmen"Champions of the West" is a by the score of 24 to 23· At thewell-merited title for the University close of the first half the count wasof Chicago basket-ball five, who 22 to 22, and in a five-minute play-closed the season on March I3 with off the Evanston team scored a fielda clean record of victories and the goal and the Maroon five gaineddistinction of two consecutive one point on a free throw. Thoughchampionships. Unfortunately, how- the team lost several games duringever, the Maroon team will not the season, it developed promisinghave the privilege of contending for candidates for the Varsity squad ofnational honors, owing to complica- I9IO. The five played Culver Mili-tions in the eastern conference and t�ry Academy, Lake Forest, N aper-the inability of Columbia Univer- ville, the Freshman squads of Illi-sity, whose team has practically cap- nois and Northwestern, and othertured the eastern championship, to teams.accept the dates offered by Dr. By defeating the Law School teamJoseph E. Raycroft. Several at- by a score of 20 to' IO on March 5tempts were made to arrange a the Science College basket-ball fiv�series of three games with Colum- regained their lead in the inter-bia. As this scheme failed, Dr. college basket-ball championship con-Raycraft put aside Pennsylvania's test. The Law School took firstoffer with the statement that noth- rank a few d�ys before �Y winninging is to be gained by games with consecutive victories, while Sciencethe latter, owing to the fact that was losing to Literature and Philoso-Pennsylvania has been defeated phy. Law's only chance is to tieseveral times. up .t�e series by winning all the re-The story of the season reflects m�111111g. games, Science havingmuch credit on the entire team and finished Its schedule. Literature hasespecially on Captain William a number of· postponed games toGeorgen and "Long J 01111" Schom- dispose of.mer, who closed their career at Six athletic meets have been ar-home in the Wisconsin game in ranged for the Maroon track squadBartlett Gymnasium on March 6. duripg the Spring Quarter. O�The gym was crowded with student April 17, the try-outs will be heldfriends of the team and of the two to pic� a squad to' meet Pennsylvaniamen who played for the last time. at PhtladeIJ?hla on April 24· On MayThe following victories were won 8 there will be a dual meet withby the champions during the last Wisconsin at Madison, and on Aprilmonth of the schedule: 15 .with Illinois at Bartlett Gym-. February 6-Chicago 18; Wiscon- nasrum. On May 25 Purdue will beSIn 15. here, and on June 5 the intercol-February I3-Chicago 27; Minne- legiate meet will take place thesota 2. interscholastic meet on June r'2 be-February I4-Chicago 17; Illinois ing the closing event of the Quarter.IS· Comstock, in the mile and half-mileFebruary I9-Chicago T7; Indiana 1 'J n, Crow ey in the shot put, discus, andFebruary ao-s-Chicago 32; Purdue 12. hurdles, LIngle in. the quarter, Stoph-February 26-Chicago 23; I1linois 1 et In. the two-mile, and Timblin inI I. t�e mile, half, and quarter are con-March 6-Chicago 18; Wisconsin 4. sidered Maroon point winners.March I3-Chicago 20; Minnesota The Freshman track team metI51-he Freshman basket-ball team IIlinois at. Champaign on February6 and also 111 Bartlett Gymnasium onclosed a successful season on March February 27, suffering defeat on269ATHLETICSTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEboth occasions. The preliminariesof the Cook County finals were heldin Bartlett on February 27.Chicago was entered in but oneevent in the Wisconsin AthleticCarnival held at Madison on March13, the relay team competing in theConference event.In a dual meet between the Chi­cago Athletic Association and theMaroons, held in Bartlett Gym­nasium on February 23, the latterteam took the laurels by 48 to 38.The event was closely contested tothe finish, the final outcome depend­ing upon the relay race, beforewhich the score stood 43 to 38. Atthis meet Clair Jacobs broke his ownworld's record of II feet, 8Ys inches,made on January 30, by going overthe bar handily at 12 feet, 3 inches.Jacobs attracted the attention ofcritics in one of his first appear­ances at the First Regiment Armorythe first of the year. Coach Staggpredicts that before he finishes 'hiscareer he will set a mark which can­not be beaten.Illinois track athletes retrievedtheir defeat in Bartlett Gymna­sium on February 5 when theydefeated the Maroon squad atChampaign March 5 by a score of50 to 36. The Illinois athletes wereespecially strong wher-e it had beenleast expected. Schommer andJacobs were the only heavy point­winners for the Maroon. It was"Long John's" last appearance inConference athletics and he wascheered roundlySpring football practice beganwith the opening of the SpringQuarter. On March 3, the candidatesattended a dinner in HutchinsonCommons, when next year's pros­pects were discussed. Thirty-ninemen came out for the team, makinga squad larger than both teams lastfall., The football schedule has beencompleted and includes the follow­ing games:October 2-Northwestern at MarshallField.October g-Indiana at MarshallField.October 16-I11inois at MarshallField.October 30-Minnesota at Minne­apolis. November 6-Purdue at MarshallField.November 1�-Cornell at Ithaca.November 20- Wisconsin at Mar-shall Field. .With the exception of Schommer,Steffen, and Iddings, the 1908 line­up will be intact next fall and withthe ample supply of recruits fromthe 1912 squad, should be exception­ally strong. Northwestern appearson the schedule for the first timesince 1904. The coming season willbe the first since 1904 with aschedule of seven games.The University swimming teamwon two meets in February, onewith Lewis Institute and the otherwith Illinois. In the meet with Illi­nois on February 19 Coach Knud­son's team took first and secondplaces in the sixty-yard' contest,and second and third in the one­hundred-yard distance plunges, win­ning both the r elay race and thepolo game. The score was 32 to IS·Return meets were held with LewisInstitute in Bartlett Gymnasium onMarch 13 and at Champaign 011March 20.Maroon prospects for the baseballseason are growing brighter. Dur­ing the Winter Quarter Coach Staggkept a squad of candidates hard atwork. Outdoor practice was begunin the spring vacation A mong theold and new men who may expectplaces all the team are Pevues,shortstop; Ross, third base; Page,pitcher; Meigs, first base, andCleary, outfield, all 1908 men; Stein­brecker, catcher; Collings, the starFreshman, fielder, and Kasselkur,second base. Fred VV. Gaarde,catcher and captain of the I908championship team, is elated overthe prospects. The schedule is notfully complete, but Illinois and Wis­can sin will be played.Tennis will be one of the fore­most summer games in both theEastern and Western Conferences.Captain Allan Ross is preparing formeets in the Spring Quarter withIllinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, andCornell, and possibly Omaha andSt. Louis, who may enter the West­ern Intercollegiate Conference. Anew feature which is being plannedis competition with teams of theEastern Conference, including Co-THE LAW SCHOOLHUTCHINSON HALL AND MITCHELL TOWERTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINElumbia, Harvard, Yale, Dartmouth,and Cornell, in the meet at Long­wood, Boston, in May.THE REYNOLDS CLUBAt the annual election of officersat the Reynolds Club on March 5the following were chosen:President-Winston P. Henry.Vice-President-Ralph Cleary.Treasurer-;-William Crowley.Secretary-Earle Goodenow,Librarian-Harold . Latham.An amendment to the constitutionof the club to make all formerofficers honorary members was lostby a vote of. 248 to 113, a three­fourths vote . being necessary foradoption.On the evening of March 13, thesocial events of the Quarter at theReynolds Club were brought to aclose with an informal dance. Theattendance was large. PresidentHenry has announced the followingtentative programme for the SpringQuarter:April r6-Ladies' night and dance.Limited to members.May 7-Smoker. Limited to mem­bers.,May 22-Ladies' night and dance.Limited to members.June 12-Interscholastic dance,Members and guests.Two bowling meets, one the annualinter-fraternity event, and the otherthe annual individual handicapmeet, were conducted by the Rey­nolds Club in February. In the first,Sigma N u won the final by defeat­ing Delta Upsilon by a margin of95 pins. The members of the win­ning team were Walter Morrison,William Beverly, Clyde Casey,Thomas Hagerty, and Fred· w.Gaarde. Freeman Morgan wasawarded two prizes, one for thehighest average throughout thetournament, 1'72, and one for thehighest average of 198 pins for threeconsecutive games. Clyde Caseyrolled the highest score, 232, and wonan individual prize. Forty memberswere entered in the individual handi­cap tournament, with handicapswhich put them on an equal basis.George B. Shay took all the honors,winning the superb silver cup forthe highest number of pins above his handicap and also a box ofcigars for the highest score. Histotal of pins in five games was 1,008and his highest score 231.DRAMATICSMay 13, 14, and 15 have been setas the dates for the annual Black­friar play, which will be called TheL'jlrical Liar. The authors areHoward Blackford, Hurnard Ken­ner, Richard Myers, and CharlesWillard. The try-outs will be heldon April 5 under the direction ofDewitt B. Lightner, who has beenappointed manager. George Herbert,coach of the Purdue opera for thelast few years, has been placed incharge. Mr. Bartley Cushing, forseveral seasons director of the plays,has taken a position with HarrisonGrey Fiske in New York City andis unable to assist this year.A most creditable presentation ofGoldoni's "The Fan" was given inLeon Mandel Assembly Hall onMarch 4 and 5. The expense at­tendant on the staging of the playcaused a deficit, which may be wipedout by a special performance dur­ing the Spring Quarter. Artistically,the play was successful in every re­spect. The principal parts, in thehands of Miss Willowdeen Chatter­son, Albert Henderson, Ralph Ben­zies, Hilmar Baukhage, Helen LouiseEtten, and other members of theDramatic Club; were well presented.The story proved interesting, andthe audience was at all times deeplyappreciative to the efforts of theClub. Coach Wallace declared him­self satisfied in every way with theresults. Interest in the play wasincreased by the lecture of Mr.Hobart Chatfield- Taylor on theafternoon of March 2, who declaredthat Goldoni ranked with Shakspereand Moliere as a writer of comedy.Releevema at Green) a play byFlorence Kiper, with music byElizabeth Burke, which won the con­test of the W. A. A, will be pre­sented in Leon Mandel AssemblyHall on April 16, as part of theprogramme of the annual W. A. A.vaudeville to raise money for . thenew gymnasium fund. The enter­tainment is under the direction ofMiss Frances Herrick.DIVINITY DORMITORIES AND COBB HALLTHE WOMEN'S HALLSTHE ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OFPHILOSOPHYHERBERT E. SLAUGHT, PH.D., '98, SecretaryOf the Doctors from the Depart­ment of Political Economy the fol­lowing notes are of interest:Wesley C. Mitchell, '99, is lec­turing on economics at HarvardUniversity.Miss Anna P. Youngman, '08, isinstructor in economics in Welles­ley College.Earl U. Howard, 'oS, is assistantprofessor of economics at N orth­western University.Simon J. McLean, '97, is a mem­ber of the Board of Railway Com­missioners in Canada.John C. Cummings, '94, is Assist­ant Professor of Political Economyat the University of Chicago.Char 1es C. Arbuthnot, '03, is pro­fessor of economics at Western Re­serve University, Cleveland, Ohio.Murray S. Wildman, '04, is assist­ant professor of economics at theUniversity of Missouri, Columbia,Mo.Herbert J. Davenport, '98, is headof the department of politicaleconomy at the University ofMissouri.Worthy P. Sterns, '00, is specialexaminer in the Bureau of Corpo­rations, Department of Commerceand Labor, Washington, D. C.Stephen B. Leacock, '03, is atMcGill University, Montreal, Can­ada; 'as head of the department ofeconomics and political science.Dr. Harry A. Millis, '99, assist­ant professor of economics at Le­land Stanford University, is now onleave of absence and has charge ofthe investigation being conductedby the United States immigrationcommission in the Rocky Mountainand Pacific Coast states.In the recent symposium on theContributions of Science to Religion,by members of the Faculty at theweekly meetings of the YoungMen's Christian Association of the University of Chicago, two of thespeakers were Forest R. Moulton,'00, and Herbert E. Slaught, '98.Among the chairmen of sectionsfor the Denver meeting of theNational Education Association areAssociate Professor Herbert E.Slaught, '98, of the mathematicssection, and Associate ProfessorOtis W. Caldwell, '98, of the bio­logical section. 'The Evening Post of New Yorkin a recent issue refers editoriallyto an article by Albert N. Merritt,'07, in the Journal of PoliticalEconomy on "The Scope of Govern­mental Functions," in which Dr.Merritt sharply opposes the parcelspost as a bad business proposition.A book entitled Modern A ccount­ing has just been published byHenry R. Hatfield, '97, associateprofessor of accounting, Universityof California. Professor Hatfieldaims to present in this volume theprinciples of accounting in their im­portant relations, and discusses thefinancial status and the profits ofcorporations.Solomon F. Acree, '02, was chair­man of the organic chemistry sec:­tion at the thirty-ninth generalmeeting of the American ChemicalSociety, held at Baltimore, Md.,during the holidays. He also readthe following papers: "The Quan­titative Study of Organic Reactions,""Studies in Catalysis," and "Studiesin Tautomerism." -. Further reports concerning MissKatharine B. Davis, '00, indicatethat she was active in the reliefwork among the Italian earthquakesufferers. She took part ,in thework of rescue and in the furnish­ing of clothing to the sufferers inSyracuse, and organized the cob�bIers for the purpose of providingshoes for the needy.THE ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OF PHILOSOPHY 275In the series of addresses recentlygiven at the University of Chicagoin celebration of the Darwin Cen­tenary, Associate Professor ForestR. Moulton, '00, spoke on '''CosmicEvolution ;'" Assistant Profes.sorHenry C. Cowles, '98, on "The In­terpretation of Environment;" andProfessor Frank R. Lillie, '94, on"The Theory of Individual Develop­ment."The Psychology of Thinking isa book recently published by IrvingE. Miller, '04, professor of psy­chology and pedagogy in the StateNormal School at Milwaukee, Wis.In this book the author gives a re­construction and reinterpretation ofthe thinking process from the bio­logical point of view in accordancewith which the most recent contri­butions to general psychology havebeen made.President Edwin E. Sparks, '00,of the Pennsylvania State College,addressed a large meeting in Chi­cago at the Lincoln Centenary.Two thousand persons attended themeeting, which was held in Bat­tery B. Dr. Sparks pictured Lin­coln as a warm-hearted southernerand illustrated his great love forthe South by giving instances ofLincoln's efforts to bring aboutreconciliation even during the prog­ress of the Civil War.A t the sixth annual conventionof the Religious Education Asso­ciation held in Chicago severalDoctors of the University of Chi­cago took part. These includeClyde VV. Votaw, '96, who readtwo papers before the denartrnentof Sunday schools ; Theodore GSoares, '94, who. gave a report ofan investigation before the depart­ment of theological seminaries; andMrs. Ella F. Young '00, who spokeon "Direct and Indirect Moral I n­struction in Schools."The following articles publishedin the Biological Bulletin are of ir­terest : By Professor Frank R.Lillie, '94, of the University of Chicago, an article on "Polarity andBilaterality of the Annelid Egg; Ex­periments with Centrifugal Force"in the January number; by ProfessorH. H. Newman, '05, of the depart­ment of zoology of the Universityof Texas, an article in the Octobernumber on "A Significant Case ofHermaphroditism in Fish;" and inthe November number an article on"The Homing of the BurrowingBees (Anthophoridae)" by CharlesH. Turner, '07, of the University ofChicago.In the address of the retir ing presi­dent of section A of the AmericanSociety for the Advancement ofScience, given at the annual meetingat Baltimore, Md., J908, on "RecentProgress in the Solution of theProblem of Several Bodies," Asso­ciate Professor Forest R. Moulton,'00, of the University of Chicago,is mentioned as one of the importantcontributors. Dr Moulton discussedthe four-body problem of three arbi­trary masses, in motion according toeither of Lagrange's solutions, and aninfinitesimal body; and rinds thatthere are eighteen solutions of arbi­trary period in which the finitebodies lie on a line, and ten inwhich they are at the vertices ofan equilateral triangleAt the annual meeting of theAmerican Mathematical Society heldin Baltimore, Md., in December,1908, the following papers wereread hy Doctors of the Universityof Chicago: "Some Sufficient Con­d itions in the Theory of Implicitrunct��)lls," by William R. Longley,06 ; 'On Linear TransformationsWhich Leave an Hermitian FormInvariant," by John 1. Hutchinson,'96; "Tests Comparing the ApsidalAnzles and Periodic Times forDifferent Laws ?f Central Force,"by Frank L. Gnffin, '06; "On theConstruct jon 'of the Coordinate Sys­tems of Analytic Profective Geome­try," by Gilbert A. Bliss, '00; "OnCertain Solids in Riemannian Space;'and "On the Rank of a Matrix," byArthur Ranum, '07.DR. SAMUEL D. BARNES, S.B., 'Q4Physician, Seattle, Wash.EDWARD O. SISSON, A.B., '93Assistant Professor, University of WashingtonEXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE NORTHWEST ALUMNI CLUBMILO J. LOVELESSL;wyer, Seattle, Wash.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI ASSOCIATIONHARRY A. HANSEN, '09, Acting General SecretaryNEW ALUMNI RECORDSApril marks the beginning of thecampaign conducted by the secre­taries of the Alumni Association,the Divinity Alumni Association, theLaw School Association, and theAssociation of the Doctors of Phi­losophy, to secure complete recordsof every alumnus of the Universityof Chicago for the Universityalumni records, which are constantlyconsulted for statistics and informa­tion. The first step is the sendingof a circular leiter to all graduatesasking them for data to supplementthe information they furnished ontheir graduation. This asks for suchfacts as the present occupation ofthe alumnus; whether he is a mem­ber of important societies and as-'sociations; if he is married, andwhat public and other importantoffices he has held since graduation.This information will be placednot only on the alumni records atthe University, but also in the newdirectory, which will be the firstbiennial directory under the newplan of correcting the statisticsevery two years. The latest directoryof this kind was published June I,1906, and contained lists of all grad­uates up to April I, I906. The firstgeneral register of the Universitywas published in I903, and gave alist of the graduates up to July I,1902. With tl-e increase of alumniand their important activities inmany fields, it becomes necessarythat accurate records be made atshorter intervals, and that more im­portant information be secured.When all the information has beencompiled the secretaries expect topresent an exhaustive report of theactivities of the graduates, which arelittle less than marvelous, con­sidering the comparatively short lifeof the University of Chicago. The directory cannot be madecomplete and accurate without thecooperation of every alumnus, bothin filling out in detail the blanks,and in returning them promptly inthe stamped envelope. Because ofthe office work that the directoryentails it is necessary to have theinformation on file at the earliestpossible moment. It is believed thatthis help, after a thorough canvasswill result in a directory ·complet�in every detail. The fact that thealumni of the University are stillyoung and active, as well as easy toreach, is expected to facilitate thecollecting of data.PREPARE FOR BALLOTINGJohn Franklin Hagey, '98, presi­dent of the Alumni Association, hasnamed a nominating committee toprepare the list of candidates foroffice to. be elected at the annualballot in May. According to theconstitution the printed ballots areto be sent to every alumnus beforeMay I. The ballots will be senttogether with the blank issued bythe Bureau of Alumni Recordswhich every alumnus is requestedto fill out and return without delay.The quarterly address to theSeniors receiving degrees wasomitted by President Hagey forthe Spring Convocation. Plans arebeing prepared for a more tellingcanvass.THE PITTSBURG ALUMNI CLUBA successful meeting of thePittsburg Alumni Club was held. onFebruary 13 at the home of Mrs.Eugenia W. Weller, '97, 5747 HoweSt. Those present were Rev.Thomas A. Sherbondy, Waldo P.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBreeden, '97, Rev. L. P. Valentine,Miss Lillian Jordan, Miss BerthaB. McLeod, Miss Elizabeth Barn­hart Edward Rymarson, Miss Lil­lian' M. Frasch, Miss ElizabethLlewellyn, Miss Lulu Allabach,Misses Grace and Vinnie Knoppen­berger, and Mrs. Eugenia WinstonWeller, '97·Waldo P. Breeden was electedchairman, and Mrs. Weller waschosen temporary secretary. Thetemporary organization will becontinued until the next meeting,which was set for April j; A com­mittee, consisting of Mr. Sherbondy,Miss Frasch, and Mr. Rymarson,was appointed to locate all othergraduates and former students ofthe University of Chicago in Pitts­burg and vicinity, so that they mayhe enrolled as members of the club.Professor George E. Vincent waspresent during the early part of theevening, and gave an interestingtalk on the progress of the Univer­sity, sketching with 'characteristichumor its present-day life. Pro­fessor Vincent was obliged to leaveat about nine o'clock, so that hecould not be present at the businessmeeting. The secretary was in­structed to write Professor Vincentabout the action taken at the meet- ing, and to express appreciation ofhis presence.EUGENIA WINSTON WELLER} '9'7,SecretaryTHE MILWAUKEE ALUMNI CLUBThe Milwaukee Alumni Club wasorganized in the rooms of the HotelPlankinton on the night of March9. About twenty-five alumni wereenrolled as members in the newclub, sixteen of them being present.There are over thirty in Milwaukeeand vicinity, and it is expected thatall will be made members beforethe next meeting. A temporaryorganization was effected, and com­mittees were appointed to makeprovisions for a constitution, tocommunicate with all alumni notalready heard from, and to arrangefor the next meeting. James H.Gagnier, '08, was made temporarypresident, and Miss Belle Herman,'04, temporary secretary. P.erma­nent officers are to be chosen at thenext meeting, at which the constitu­tion will be adopted. The Milwau­kee Club plans to hold its firstannual dinner in the latter part ofApril, and will have members of theUniversity Faculty as its guests.JAMES H. GAGNIER} '08SecretaryTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO LAWSCHOOL ASSOCIATIONRUDOLPH E. SCHREIBER" J.D., '06, SecretaryALUMNI NEWSWilliam H. L. Bell, '07, may beaddressed at 107 Dearborn St., careof Matz, Fisher & Boyden.James B. Blake, '07, is withMiller, Mack & Fairchild, Milwau­kee, Wis. His home address is 523Prospect Ave.Herbert W. Brackney, '98, ispracticing law in Sioux City, la.His office is 201 Iowa Building.Charles V. Clark, '02, is associatedwith the firm of Eddy, Haley &Wetten, 184 LaSalle St. His homeaddress in 2524 North Forty-secondCourt, Chicago.Henry H. Morey, '07, is practicinglaw in Decatur, Ill.S. Crawford Ross, '06, has an office in the Schiller Building, RoomI 103. He lives at the Hotel DelPrado, Chicago.C. Paul Tallmadge, '05, is withBulkley, Gray & More, with officesin the Home Insurance Building.Charles J. Webb, '07, is now lo­cated at Kettle Falls, Wash. H:eis a member of the firm of Baldwin& Webb. Mr. Webb is the presentcity attorney of Kettle Falls.The secretary of the Law SchoolAssociation, Rudolph E. Schrieber,'06, 912 Monadnock Block, Chicago,desires to know the addr'esses ofthe following former law students:Curtis A. Bynum, Paul D. Crocker,Sydney A. Cryor, Robert P.Eubanks, Earle H. Fleming, CharlesE. Gallup· and William C. Healion.THE DIVINITY ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONEDGAR J. GOODSPEED., D.B., '97, SecretaryTHE DIVINITY SCHOOLMrs. Henry H. Hewitt, of Albion,N ew York, has bequeathed to theDivinity School $3,000 as a studentaid fund, in memory of her hus­band, a brother of Dr. C. E. Hewitt.The Roundy bequest recently leftto the Divinity School for scholar­ships, amounted to $6,000 insteadof $4,000, as previously stated.The Evangelistic Band, led byWarren H. MacLeod, recently madea most success ful visit to the PlanoBaptist church, of which Claude E.Boyer, '09, is pastor.At the Divinity School publicworship, held fortnightly on Thurs­day evenings, E. W. Duncan, Asso­ciate Professor Gerald B. Smith,Harris L. MacNeill, and ProfessorCharles R. Henderson, D.B., '73,have preached the past quarter.Associate Professor J. "V. Mon­crief, of the Department of ChurchHistory, sails April 13 for Rotter­dam. Professor Moncrief willspend six months in travel andstudy in England and upon thecontinent.In the absence of Associate Pro­fessor Moncrief, George Cross,Ph.D., '00, professor of churchhistory in McMaster University,Toronto, is lecturing on churchhistory in the Divinity Schoolthrough the Spring Quarter.Professor Ernest D. Burton,representing the University in itsOriental Educational Investigation,in China, has visited Hongkong,Canton, Swatow, Amoy, Foochow,Shanghai, Hankow, and Peking.On February -2 Professor Burtonmade an address at Shanghai on theoccasion of the dedication of amemorial tablet set up by the In­ternational Ijistitute. The tablet wasunveiled by the Viceroy, TuanFang. Professor Thomas C. Cham­berlin joined Professor Burton atShanghai February 2.Professor Franklin Johnson, ofthe Department of Church History, contributes to the Baptist HomeMission Monthly_, for March, an in­teresting sketch of his father underthe title, "Some Recollections ofHezekiah Johnson." Hezekiah J ohn­son was a pioneer missionary toOregon, going thither across theplains in 1845 with a train of sixtywagons drawn by oxen.The Lincoln centenary recalls thefact that Professor Franklin J ohn­son was a delegate from Oregon tothe Republican convention whichnominated Abraham Lincoln forthe presidency in 1860. After par­ticipating in the convention inChicago, Dr. Johnson proceeded toHamilton, N ew York, where he con­tinued his studies.ALUMNI NEWSC. R. Eastman, D.B., '04, is pas­tor of the Baptist church at Vallej 0,Cal., and is meeting with substan­tial success. This is a point ofgreat importance because of theproximity of the large Navy Yardat Mare Island.John M. Linden, D.B., '04, pastorof the Baptist church at OregonCity, Ore., is meeting with remark­able success, two hundred peoplehaving within the past few monthsunited with that church.H. B. Hazen, '05, has acceptedthe pastorate of the Baptist churchat Centralia, Ill.Robert Routledge, D.B., '06, pas­tor of the First Baptist Church ofHuntington, Ind., has been ap­pointed president of the BaptistHome Mission Society's College atEI Cristo, Cuba.Under the leadership . of its pas­tor, W. D. Ward, D.B., '07, theChristian church of Rockford, 111.,has recently purchased a buildingsite, and provided an attractivechapel building.W. J. Peacock, D.B., '08, of Clin­ton, Ia., has accepted the pastorateof the Baptist church at Mt. Car-280 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEroll, Ill., and began his work thereMarcn 14.Douglas C. Macintosh, a mem­ber of the Divinity School, 1905-8,fellow in Systematic Theology,1905-7, and now professor in Bran­don College, Brandon, Manitoba,has been called to the professorshipof Systematic Theology in theDivinity School of Yale University.O. D. Briggs, '09, pastor at Dun­dee, II 1., was ordained to the min­istry at Dundee, February I I, 1908.Harris L. MacNeill, a memberof the Divinity School since 1906,and fellow in New Testament liter­ature, 1907-9, has been called tothe professorship of theology inBrandon College, Brandon, Mani­toba, recently held by Douglas C.Macintosh.Under the leadership of thepastor, Alonzo. H. Arbaugh, of theDivinity School, the English Evan­gelical Lutheran Church of theAtonement has secured a large lotat the corner of Seventieth andLaflin Sts., Chicago, and has erecteda chapel.Four Chicago alumni have recentlyresigned from the board of trusteesof Wayland Academy, on accountof their removing from Wisconsin: c. A. Hobbs, D.B., '71, R. M.Vaughan, D.B., '98, F. T. Galpin,D.B., '04, and John W. Hoag, D.B.,'05.Howard B. Woolston, D.B., '01,is taking graduate work at Colum­bia University.Dr. C. A. Hobbs, D.B., '71, for thepast twenty-five years pastor of theBaptist church of Delavan, Wis.,has resigned to accept the pastorateof the Baptist church at MichiganCity, Ind. Dr. Hobbs' long serviceat Delavan has been in every waynotable.Professor Charles R. Henderson,D.B., '73, sailed March 23 for Gib­raltar. Dr. Henderson will spendsix months in travel and investi­gation in Spain, France, Germany,and Switzer land, representing theUniversity at the centenary celebra­tion of the universities of Genevaand Leipzig.Dr. R. E. Manning, Th.E., '74, forfourteen years past superintendentof the Baptist City Mission Societyof Chicago, has resigned that po­sition. Dr. Manning is highlyesteemed by all concerned in thiswork and it is hoped he may beinduced to reconsider his action.SPECIAL NOTICEBefore June I, 1909, we must add four hundred (400) names toour present subscription list. This is in strict accordance with thecontract entered into last October.Can we not look to each Alumnus to do his or her part in thebuilding up and strengthening of the Association by helping us toobtain the necessary four hundred (400) subscribers?Tell every Alumnus you know, who does not get the Mcgaeine,to let you send in his order.W:e shall record here faithfully each month the names of thoseAlumni who have sent in new subscribers and the number securedby each.NAMEH. E. SLAUGHTE. L. McBRIDERECORDER'S OFFICE SUBSCRIBERS SECUREDPATRONIZE THESE ESTABLISHMENTSCLASSIFIED INDEX TO OUR ADVERTISERSAmusementsBlackfriar Play, p. 7BanksIllinois Trust and Savings Bank, 237 LaSalle St.,p. 22 .Woodlawn Trust and Savings Bank, 451 E.63rd St., p. 22Western Trust and Savings Bank, La Salle andAdams Sts., inside back coverNational Safe Deposit Co., 119 Monroe St.,p.22Chicago Savings Bank and Trust Co., 72 Mad­ison St., p. 23Hibernian Bank, 122 Monroe St., p. 23Baths and Barber ShopsR. P. Adams, 480 E. 63rd St., p. 32The Saratoga Barber Shop, 161 Dearborn St.,P·32Books and PublishersCal1aghan & Company, 114 Monroe St., p. 14A. Kroch & Company, 26 Monroe St., front iThe University of Chicago Press, p. 17A. C. McClurg & Co., 215 Wabash Ave., p. 15The Little Book Shop, 434 E. 55th St., front iThe System Co., 151 Wabash Ave., p. 18Barnes-Wilcox Co., 262 Wabash Ave., p. 15Carpenters and MasonsS. M. Hunter & Co., 5643 Jefferson Ave., p. 17Cement R.oofing and Steam Pipe CoveringsThe Philip Carey Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, p. 7ChocolatesMary Elizabeth's Chocolates, 42 River St., p. I4American Commerce and Specialty Company,Chicago, p. 3 2Cleaners and DyersThe Woolry, 393 Ogden Ave., p. 12Clothiers (Men's)Brooks Clothes Shop, 138 E. Madison St., p. 19Wells Clothes Shop, 131 Dearborn St., outsideback coverF. W. Baker, 334 E. 63rd St., front ivClothiers (Women's)Metropolitan Garment Shop, 77 Jackson Blvd.,p. iv-frontCoalDow, Carpenter Coal Co., 446 E. 63rd St., p. 3 ICommission MerchantsGaribaldi & Cuneo, S. Water and Slate Sts., p. 21CorsetsThe Wade Co., 34 Washington St., p. 29CostumesAmerican Cotillon and Carnival Works, 82Wabash Ave., p. 20 CotillonsAmerican Cotillon and Carnival Works, _82Wabash Ave., p. 20DairiesThe Bowman Dairy Co., 1422 State St., p. 26A. F. Rourke, 5637 Jefferson Ave., p. 18DecoratingAmerican Cotillon and Carnival Works, 82-Wabash Ave., p. 20Delicatessen and BakeryHolmes, 404 E. 63rd St., p. 15Desks and Office FurnitureMatlock Co., 331 Wabash Ave., p. 32The Weis Manufacturing Company, Monroe,Mich., p. 33DrugsCentral Drug Co., 100 State St., p. 10Dry GoodsMandel Brothers, front iiiCarson, Pirie, Scott & Co., inside front coverEngravingThe Levytype Company, 96 Fifth Ave., p. 32Floor DressingStandard Oil Company, Chicago, p. 33FoodsPostum Cereal Company, Battle Creek, Mich.,p. I -Case & Martin Company, Wood and WalnutSts., p. 31FursC. Henning, 88 State St., p. 12Robert Staedter Company, 155 State St., front iiiP. Frenkel, 95 East Washington St., p. 19GlovesThe Fownes Glove, front iThe Perrin Glove, front iHattersMitchell & Mitchell, 68 Adams St., p. 3Hay «GrainJoseph Fahndrich & Son, 5426 Lake Ave., p. 16Heating ApparatusL. H. Prentice Co., 24 Sherman St., p. 6Heat R.egulationThe Johnson Service Co., 93 Lake St., p. 6CLASSIFIED INDEX, TO OUR ADVERTISERS-ContinuedHosieryEverwear Hosiery Co., Milwaukee, Wis., p. 28Holeproof Hosiery Co., Milwaukee, Wis., p. 21HotelsBismarck Hotel, Chicago, p. 2 IBrevoort Hotel Company, Chicago, p. 24Cumberland Hotel, New York, p. 34Grand Pacific Hotel, Chicago, 'p. 25'The Harvard Hotel, 5714 Washington Ave.,p. 34 �,The Union Hotel, II7 Randolph St., p. 15The Vendome Hotel, 62nd St. and Monroe Ave.,p. 25Maroon Hotel, 58th St. and Ellis Ave., p. 7InksCharles M. Higgins & Co., 271 Ninth St.,Brooklyn, N. Y., p. 7InsuranceMarsh & Me Lerman, 5 I 9 LaSalle St., front vNorth American Life of Toronto, TribuneBldg., Chicago, front vlEtna Life Insurance Co., 134 Monroe St.,front vLadies' TailorsUnity Skirt Company, 209 State St., p. 8P. D. Weinstein, 433 E. 55th St., p. 18Joseph Weisbaum, 24 E. Adams St., p. I ILaundriesFidelity Laundry Co., 684 E. 63rd St., p. 29Machinists' Supplies and ToolsSamuel Harris & Co., 23 S. Clinton St., p. 29Mechanical and Furniture RepairsUniversal Repair Company, 5509 Cottage�rove Ave. and 5623 Jefferson Ave., p. 26MiscellaneousSylvester J. Simon, 14 Quincy St., p. 28Maison Hume, 57 Randolph St., p. 15Stolz Electrophone Co., 1299 Stewart Bldg.,p. 16Paints and OilsJ. J. Zoller & Son, 139 E. 53rd St., p. I IPhotographyThe University Photograph Shop, 397 E. 57thSt., p. 16PlumbingHulbert & Dorsey, 2II Randolph St., p. 29Pool and BilliardsThe Adams Billiard Parlor, 478 E. 63rd St.,P·32State's Billiard Parlor, 213 State St., p. 15PressclippingsArgus Pressclipping Co., 352 Third Ave., NewYork, p. 13 Provisions and QroceriesMadison Avenue Packing Company, 6309Madison Ave., p. 4Carroll's Packing House Market, 396 E. 63rdSt.,p.20Ackerman Market House, 277 E. 57th St., p. IIW. E. Miller, 550 E. 55th St., p. 4Thomas Stenhouse; 550 E. 55th St., p. 4O. T. Wall & Co., 407 E. 63rd St., p. 24QuarriesThe Bedford Quarries Co., 204 Dearborn St.,p. 27Razor SuppliesKeenedge Co., Keenedge Bldg., Chicago, p. 32RestaurantsKing Joy Lo, 100 Randolph St., p. 26King Yen Lo, 275 Clark St., p. 20The Capitol Tea Room, 209 State St., P: 5The Roma, 146 State St., p. 3 IVogelsang's Restaurant, 178 Madison St., p. 5Union Hotel and Restaurant, II7 RandolphSt., p. 5Clover Lunch Club, 185 Wabash Ave., p. IIR. V. Braiden, 522 E. 55th St., p. 5Maroon Hotel and Restaurant, 58th St. andEllis Ave., p. 7SchoolsNorthwestern University Dental School, p. 9Professor T. F. Ridge, 26 Van Buren St., p. 9Wayland Academy, Beaver Dam, Wis., p. 9The Sheldon School, 209 State St., front viU. of C. Summer School, p. 18SeedsVaughan'S Seed Store, 84 Randolph St., p. 7StationersFrank W. Black Co., 332 Dearborn St., p. 19Dun well & Ford, 171 Wabash Ave., p. 30Steamship LinesFrench Line, 7 I Dearborn St., front vSurgical InstrumentsW. J. Boehm, 171 Randolph St., p. 30TailorsMilian Engh, 163 State St., p. 19D. H. Sachen & Co., 134 Monroe St., front iiW. J. Lafferty & Son, 77 Monroe St., front iiTeachers' Agencies.B. F. Clark, Steinway Hall, p. 31TobaccoE. Hoffman Company, Chicago, p. 10TrunksAbel & Bach, 46 & 48 Adams St., p. 16TypewritersDavies Typewriter Exchange, 185 Dearborn St.,p. 13 --The Typewriter Exchange, 3 I 9 Dearborn St.,P·13Wearing ApparelUnited Shirt & Collar Co., Troy, N. Y., front ivBUILDINGFOR--- ..Children particularly need food contammg the elements thatmake the soft gray matter in the nerve cells and in brain.When brain and nerves are right the life forces select thebone- and teeth-making parts and the muscle-making elements andday by day build up a perfect and powerful structure.So people should let the youngsters haveGrape-Nutsand Cream every day. They like it and you can be absolutelycertain you are feeding them wisely and scientifically.A few weeks will prove it to you by the appearance andactivity of the child.Do your duty by the children." There's a Reason"Postum Cereal Co., Ltd., Battle Creek, Mich., U� s. A.-'1""-NEWS FROM THE CLASSES[News items for these columns should be sent to the classsecretary-reporters whose names are given at the head of thenews from each �Iass. Death notices and engageme�t andwedding announcements should be sent direct to the Editers.]The followinz alumni are acting as classsecretary-report�rs for their respective years;other secretary-reporters are indicated in thefollowing news columns. They wil� gladlyreceive information from any of their class­mates for insertion in this department.1862. George W. Thomas, 4039 Lake Ave,1867. Wm. W. Everts, Roxbury, Mass.1868. Henry A. Gardner, First National BankBuilding.1870. Charles R. Henderson, the University.1872. Hervey Wi star Booth, 505 MonadnockBlock.1374. George Sutherland, Grand Island, Neb.1875. Dr. John Ridlon, Chicago Savings BankBuilding.1876. Dr. John E. Rhodes, 100 State St.1878. Eli B. Felsenthal, 100 Washington St.1879. Edward B. Esher, 84 LaSalle St. �1880. Alfred E. Barr, 189 LaSalle St.1881. George Warren Hall, 162 WashingtonSt.1882. Francis Humboldt Clark, 511-514, II2Clark St.1884. Lydia A. Dexter, 2920 Calumet Ave.1885. David J. Lingle, the University.1886. Lincoln M. Coy, Unity Building.1893. Jesse Dismukes Burkes, Teachers Train-ing School, Albany, N. Y.1894. Warren P. Behan, 153 LaSalle St.1895. Jennie K. Boomer, 6025 Monroe Ave.1896. Mrs. Agnes Cook Gale, 5646 KimbarkAve.; Dr. Joseph E. Raycroft, the University.1897EFFIE A. GARDNER36 Loomis StreetMary Evelyn Lovejoy resides at SouthRoyalton, Vt.18<)8MRS. CHARLOTTE CAPEN ECKHARTKenilworth, Ill.JOHN FRANKLIN HAGEY252 E. Sixty-third PlaceHarold L. Axtell was married last June toGertrude S. Bouton, '06, at Orange, Cal. Mr.Axtell is at the University of Idaho, Moscow,Idaho.Roelof Janssen took his Doctor's examina­tion in the department of Greek, Latin, Phi­losophy and Semitics at the University ofAmsterdam this past semester. He has beenpursuing his study in Germany, Scotland, andHolland. At present he resides at Zeeland,Mich.1899JOSEPH T. ALLIN4805 Madison AvenuePERCY B. ECKHARTFir t National Bank BuildinzMajorie Benton Cooke made her stagedebut February 23 at the Illinois Theater ina programme of "song and story." She wasassisted by Grace Nelson. Miss Cook gaveseveral original monologues. Alice Davis, A.M., '04, is studying socialeconomy at Columbia University.Arthur Jones is assistant professor ofphysics at Purdue University.Alma de L. Le Due is pursuing a course ofstudy in Columbia University.Minnie M. Paisley is teaching in the highschool at Dinuba, Cal.Anna L. Peterson teaches in the Omaha,Neb., high school. Rer address is 712 ParkAve.1900MARGARET MARIA CHOATEBartholamew-Clifton School, Cincinnati, O.CHARLES S. EATON107 Dearborn StreetMargaret J. Calvin is taking graduate workin Columbia University.Sarah F. Lindsay is a teacher in the highSchool of Mace, Idaho.Erwin W. E. Roessler is taking a graduatecourse in languages at Columbia.Howard Woodhead has announced hismarriage for this month. He is affiliatedwith Butler College at Indianapolis, Ind.1901ARTHUR EUGENE BESTOR571I Kimbark AvenueAllen L. Curtis is registered as a gradu­ate student at Columbia.Helen Gardner lives at 877 East Seventy­third St.Ernest L. Talbert is professor of sociologyand economics in Ramline University, St.Paul, Minn.1902L. HAZEL BUCK EWINGBloomington, Ill.FRED. D. BRAMHALLThe UniversityXenophon de Blumenthal Kalamatiano iswith the J. 1. Case Co., Racine, vYis.Aurelia Koch lives at Gandy, Neb.Roxane E. Langellier is teaching Fret;chin the Morris High School, N ew York CIty.John T. Lister, ex, is teaching in the nor­mal school at Greeley, Colo.Hedwig Loeb has moved to 5171 MichiganAve.Ludwig J. Marienburger, A.M., is with theCentral Y. M. C. A. as principal of thedepartment of languages.Mary Morrison is assistant principal of thehig-h school at Nooksack, Wash.Florence I. Morrison lives at 701 N. NewJersey St., Indianapolis, Ind.Walter K. Smart is assistant professor ofEnglish at Armour Institute. He lives at1039 E. Fifty-fourth St.Helen M. Walker instructs in German inthe high school at Clinton, Ia.Bertha E. Ward is at her home in Hatteis­burg, Miss.Continued on advertising page 4-2�Mitchell & MitchellCelebrated�2. HATSWith a reputation second to none.. The English"Health"Hats $3.00Imported feather-weightDerbies as fight as ordinaryounce crushers"Wilton"Hats' $3.00With superiority ofquality and finish to warrant.the extra dollarM4'J ohn B. Stetson & Co.' SUnrivalled Stiff $3 5' 0 to $5.00and Soft Hats •68 Adams Street(Near State)147 Dearborn Street(Tribune Building) 153 Madison Street(Tacoma Building)109 Dearborn Street(Portland Block)You will enjoy your business reiations with these establishmentsTELEPHONE HYDE PARK 1322RESIDENCE 1986 HYDE PARKAOISONAVENUEACKINGCOMPANY6309 MADISON AVENUEH. T. McGUIRE, Prop.CHICAGOw. E. MillerMarket550 East Fifty-Fifth StreetChicagoPhone Hyde Park'3760Thos. StenhouseGrocery 'and Market550-552 East Fifty-Fifth StreetChicago. :Sa.y( 4�NtvERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"· to the 'advertisersClass News continued from page 21903EARLE B. BABCOCK'Lhe UniversityLouise C Doefer is teaching in the highschool at Canton, Ohio. She lives at I2IOLawrence Ave.Frank W. De Wolf is assistant state geolo-gist of Illinois and resides at Urbana, Ill.Eli P. Gale lives at 786 Central Park Ave.Merle Marine lives at Mt. Vernon, Ia.Ralph Merriam is taking a course in theLaw School. He lives at 454 E. Sixtieth St.Della Gandy,' Ph.M., is teaching languagein the high school at Riverside, Cal.Alfred D. Radley is taking a course in theHarvard Law School.Alice A. Reiterman is teaching mathe­matics in the township high school at DeKalb, Ill.James c. Smith is nearing the end of hissecond years' work in the mathematicsdepartment of the State Normal School atIndiana, Pa.Arthur G. Thomas is in the Columbia Uni­versity Law School.Frida Von U nwerth is. registered in thelanguage department at Columbia.1904MARIE EVELYN THOMPSONSurf Street and Evanston AvenueTHEODORE B. HINCKLEYThe UniversityGeorge D. Berkhoff is instructor ofmathematics at the University of 'Wisconsin,Madison, Wis.Julien L. Brode has been appointed by thegovernment as special agent to investigateforeign markets for cottonseed products. Hewill proceed at once to Washington to receiveinstructions from Secretary Strauss and willthen sail for Europe. Since the time he leftthe University, Mr. Brode has been connectedwith his father in the cottonseed productsbusiness.Frank B. Hutchinson has taken the positionof sporting editor of the Associated Press ofChicago. For the past three years he hasbeen connected with the Inter-Ocean assporting editor.Raymond R. Kelly is professor of historyat Onachita College, Arkadelphia, Ark.Simon H. Williams is registered in thegraduate school at Columbia University.Charles D. Berta is .in the bonding busi­ness in Cleveland, Ohio.1905HELEN A. FREEMAN5760 Woodlawn AvenueCLYDE A. BLAIR"Clearmont, Wyo.Alice B. Briggs lives at 255 Ashland Boul.Minnie M. Dunwell lives at 226 AshlandBoulevard and teaches in the Albert G. LaneTechnical High School.Helena Gavins is in charge of the Englishdepartment at Lombard College, Galesburg,Ill.Continued on .adverfising p�ge�6R. V. Braiden, Ex: 1 0Commutation Tickets$3.50 for $3.00•Open Until 1 A.M.•Short Orders a SpecialtyMEALS AT ALL HOURS522 E. 55th St. Cor. Ellis Ave.Vogelsang'sRestaurantshows its appreciationof your patronage' bythe elegant service itoffers you in return-Banquet Room for Fraternity DinnersVOGELSANG'S RESTAURANT t.;;178 Madison Street liThe Capitol"TEAROOMFor Ladies and Gentlemen232 REPUBLIC BUILDINGS. E. Cor. State and Adams StreetsLuncheon ...... 1 to 4Table D'Hote Dinner, 5 to 7: 3 0HOME COOKINGA delightful place for ladies unattended to dineM3nion Hotel and RestaurantWill find Restaurants on two floorsWill find a special After-Theatre MenuWill find Splendid ServiceServing Only the Best theMarket AffordsFINEST ORCHESTRA IN THECITYHOLD YOl,)R FRA TER­NITY AND ALUMNIDINNERS HEREIII-II7 Randolph StreetYou will enj 9Y your business relations with these establishments M3Heat RegulationTHE JOHNSON PNEUMATIC SYSTEMTHE RECOGNIZED STANDARDINSTALLED IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO BUILDINGSCOMPLETE SYSTEMS FOR ALL METHODS OF HEATINGHot Water Tank RegulatorsReducing Valves for air, water, steamControl of HumidityJOHNSON SERVICE COMPANYH. W. ELLIS, Mgr.Chicago Office, 93 LAKE STREETESTABLISHED 1877L. H. Prentice Co.Engineers andContractorsforHot BlastHeating andMechanicalVentilation Steam andHot WaterHeatingandVentilatingApparatusPower Plants and Power Piping24-26 SHERMAN STREETNear Board of TradeCHICAGOProbably the largest firm of this kind in the world,viz.: exclusively Heating Apparatus, Steamand Hot Water that Heats.M3 Class News continued from page 4Anne 1. Gibney is teaching in the highschool at Franklin, La.Ruth E. Graves, 5852 Rosalie Ct., is in theeditorial department of Rand, MeN ally & Co.Katherine M. Howell is teaching science inthe high school at Bushnell, Ill.William G. Mathews has a position with theKansas City Star, Kansas City, Kan.Nellie E. Merriam lives at 6153 LexingtonAve.Katherine M. Moran is studying psychologyand sociology at Columbia.G. F. Reynolds is with the ShattuckSchool, Faribault, Minn.Ada E. Roadifer lives at 1246 OakdaleAve, Chicago.I906HELEN RONEYFullerton Place, \Vaterloo. IowaF R. BAIRDOmaha, Neb.Frank R. Adams, ex, and Will Hough,ex, have produced a new musical comedy,"The Prince of Tonight.'� The play is beingstaged at the Princess Theater. The twoauthors recently left Chicago for CoronadoBeach, Cal.Clara C. Boeke has moved to Kinnear,Wyo.Ellen M� Clark is teaching history in thehigh school at South Haven, Mich.Mary L. Dement is teaching science in thehigh school at Kenilworth, Ill.Paul H. Dodge is teaching in ColoradoCollege at Colorado City, Colo.Irene V. Engle is teacher in the high schoolat Morgan Park, -Ill.Burton P. Gale has moved to 786 CentralPark Avenue.Luise Haessler is taking graduate work atColumbia University.Frank E. Knowles, ex, lives at Norman,Okla.James D. Magee, A.M., lives at 109 S.Juliette Ave., Manhattan, Kan.Elizabeth 1. Matheny is teaching in LaPorte, Ind.Isabelle O. Oakey is a teacher in LakeView High School. Her address is TheBrewster, 1886 Diversey Boulevard, Chicago.Lydia M. Olson resides at 239 WestHewitt St., Marquette, Mich.Alice M. Porter is teaching in the highschool at Little Falls, Minn.Helen M. Post is superintendent of theschools at West Lebanon, Ind.Lena A. Schaefer is a teacher in the Frank­lin. 0., high school.Elizabeth W. Robertson is instructor ofdrawing and manual training at the StateNormal School at Duluth, Minn.Lucille Roch litz is teaching in the highschool at Belvidere, Ill.Clara G. Seymour is teaching in the SouthDivision High School, Milwaukee, Wis.Continued on advertising page 8Say "UNiVE"RSITY OF 'CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-6-Hotel MaroonCorner Fift7-eighth Street and Drexel AvenueUnder New Management. House has been entirely renovated, re­papered, and repainted. New lunch counter installed. First-classaccommodations at reasonable rates,--a trial is convincing. Tickets$3.50 for $3.00. All service a la Carte. Open 6:30 A.M. to 2:30P.M., and 5 to 8 P.M.TheBlackfriarsPRESENT THEIR SIXTHANNUAL PLAYThe Lyrical LiarAt Mandel HallMA Y 13-14-15Tickets on Sale at Information OfficeM'AGNESIACOVERINGSTHE dividend-earning capacity of a steamplant is greatly increased through theuse of Carey's Coverings on steam pipes,boilers and connections.Carey's Coverings will keep the heat in thepipes___;.none is lost through radiation and con­densation. They greatly reduce the amountof coal necessary to run the plant, becauseexcessive firing is obviated. ICarey's Coverings are not harmed by theexpansion or contraction of pipes or byvibration. They last longer than other cov­erings. They will increase the capacity of theplant by delivering dry steam to the engines.Endorsed and used by the United StatesNavy, War and State Departments. Recom­mended and specified by architects and en­gineers. Recommended by technical institu­tions.Write for catalogue a n d further particulars.THE PHILIP CAREY COMPANYGeneral Offices: Sta. If, CIN<ilNNA TI, 0., U. S. A.BRANCHESIn all large cities through­out the United StatesCanada and Mexico FAGTORIESLockland, OhioHamilton, OntoPlymouth Meeting, Pa.1\.12M4 ., � INKSHIGGINS ( ADHtSIVESThe kind yr u are sure to use with con­tinuous satisfaction in home, office,or schoolAT DEALERS GENERALLYCHAS. M. HIGGINS & CO.Manufacturers27I Ninth Street, Brooklyn, N. Y.Branches : Chicago, Londonsow NOWVAUGHAN'S"Chicago Parks"LAWN SEEDThe best permanentmixture. Makes closevelvety turf. No foulseeds; no weeds.New crop sure togrow.Write or callPer lb. 25c. !) Ibs� $1.00 15 lbs. $2.90HVaughan's Flowers Garland the Earth"Oar 160 page "Gardening Illustrated" FreeVaughan's Seed Store84-86 Randolph Street, CHICAGOor 14 Barclay Street, NEW YORKGreenhouses, Trial Grounds and NurseriesWESTERN SPRINGS, ILL. M4You will enjoy your business relations with these establishments-7-Unity Skirt and Suit ,CompanyAdvance Styles, 1909One of our Cre_ations, Special to U. of C.Students and Graduatesonly. We will make to your measure a suit tailored to yourparticular figure at the extraordinary low price of $30.We make you the most remarkable offer ever given bya high class Ladies' Tailoring Establishment. We havethe best and most skilful tailors for making Ladies' TailoredSuits. We have never made suit's of such high class rna­terials for less than $50.00 and you may order your newSpring Suit, of almost any kind of material and save just$20.00.Unity Skirt CompanyLadies' Tailors506-508 Republic Building, 209 State StreetTelephone Harrison 1612 CHICAGO Class News continued from page 6·Howard F. Taylor, A.M., teaches in theShortridge High School, Indianapolis, Ind.1907EDITH B. TERRY6044 Jefferson AvenueW. E. WRATHERCare Gulf Pipe Line, Be .. umont, Tex.Flora D. Adams is taking work at Colum­bia University.Paul R. Gray is cashier of a bank atVerona, Wis.Wellington D. Jones has been made a mem­ber of the Faculty of the University. Hewill teach a course in physical geography inthe Spring Quarter. .Geraldine R. Lermit is teaching at AschamHall. She lives at 5146 Jefferson Ave.Clara L. Little teaches in the Denver pub­lic schools. She lives at 2249 Marion St.,Denver, Colo.George F. Lussky is on the faculty of Con­cordia CoJ.Iege at Fort Wayne, Ind.Wilfrid K. McPartlin is teaching inMichigan City, Ind.R. Eddy. Mathews, has recently closed acontract with the Ford Motor Car Co., fortheir agency at Marquette, Mich.Adolph P. Peirrot is on the faculty of theUniversity of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. Heis instructor in public speaking.Lenerl Pansie Morehouse, now Mrs.Arthur D. Howard, lives at 4229 rath Ave.N. E., Seattle, Wash.Dudley H. Miles, A.M., is assistant pro­fessor of English in the Southwestern Uni­versity at Georgetown, Texas.George J. Miller is instructor in UniversityHigh. He lives at 5613 Kimbark Ave.1908ELEANOR C. DAY6no Kimbark AvenueOlga Vandracek is now teaching commercialcourses in the LaSalle Peru township highschool.Ada Louise Weckel, S. M., teaches sciencein the Central High School of St. Louis, Mo.Ida M. Waters teaches grade work in theGrand Rapids, Mich., schools.Paul White is head of the athletic depart­ment of the State Normal of Maryville, Mo.Lela M. Wright is an instructor in Germanand English in the high school of HotSprings, Ark. Miss Wright may be addressedcare Supt. F. W. Miller. Box 63, in that city.1909Virginia Ketcham is teaching in the In­dianapolis grammar schools.Frances L. Matthews, ex-too, is author of abook, recently published, entitled, A Substi­tute Wedding Journey. Miss Matthews is atpresent traveling with her father In theOrient.Ned A. 'Merriam, ex; is director of ath­letics at the Texas Agricultural College, Col­lege Station, Texas.Continued on advertising page 10Say "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-8-'-Northwestern UniversityDental SchoolThis school offers exceptional ad vantages to young men and women of education forthe study of dentistry. While great attention is paid to the teaching of technic and theory,practical instruction to develop operative skill and dexterity, and quick diagnostic judg­ment is not overlooked. The graduates of this school are admitted to examination forpractice in every state.The Faculty is Composed of a Large Staffof Experienced TeachersThe equipment and apparatus of the school are especially designed for the successfulteaching of modern dentistry. Its large clinic rooms for operative and prosthetic dentistryare unequaled anywhere. The opportunities offered students for special preparation to enterindependent practice are not exceeded by any other school.Advance students are permitted to remain in school under clinical instruction duringthe months intervening between the regular annual courses, the great clinics being opencontinuously the year around.The school year covers thirty-two weeks of six days in each of actual teaching. Thenext annual session begins October 5, 19°9.For further information addressSECRETARY OF THE DENTAL SCHOOLDepartment FNorthwestern University Building87 Lake Street, Chicago M3WAYLANDACADEMYAffiliated withThe University of ChicagoBEAVER DAM, WISCONSINA co-educational homeschool, with excellentequipment, high stand­ards of work and moder-ate rates ' ..Send for Catalogue toPrincipal EDWIN P. BROWN Prof. T. F. RidgePrivate Dancing AcademyRooms 536-538 Athenaeum Bldg.26 Van Buren Street, Chicago, Ill.School of ActingSchool of DancingSchool of Dramatic ArtSchool of VocalCultureWaltz, Two-Step, Reverse andGraceful Leading GuaranteedYou will enjoy your business relations with these establishments-9-IF YOUR DEALER WILL NOT SUPPLY YOUS d U 40 t for this new size,en s C S 1%. oz. can. of• Sp i l m a n MIX­ture-the best tobacco you ever smoked. Absolutely pure,��i�:� fi�;Z;:d�ound at\ 7�����1�OBACCOWithout a bite or a regietContains no artificial flavor or glycerine. Most tobaccos do.1% oz., 40C.; 373 oz., 75C.; �lb., $1.65; I Ib.,$3.30prepaidAt most first-class tobacco storesFREE' Interesting booklet HHow to• Smokp a Pipe." Ask for itE. HOFFMAN COMPANY, MFRS. CHICAGOM4VICTOR THORSCH CO.��f.i:ttt, S��ClJVtFOR SALE EVERYWHERECentral DrugCompanySTATE AND WASHINGTON STREETSDiagonally across from Marshall Field & CompanyWe carry the largestand best assortmentof Drug Merchandisein the city. Our pricesare the lowest. Weinvite your inspectionCentral Drug CompanyM4 Class News continued from page 8J. J. O'Conner, ex, has a position with theBureau of Charities.Marion G. Peabody, ex, who is now Mrs.Fred Parker, resides at 6146 Jackson ParkAve.Paul Whittier Pinkerton, ex, lives at 1023East Nineteenth Avenue, Denver, Colo. Heis a fruit farmer and also attends the U ni­versity of Denver.Paul Princell, ex, vice-president of his class,and captain of the polo team, is now at YaleUniversity.Mabel Raichlen, ex, is doing graduate workat Columbia University. She lives at SoMorningside Ave., West, New York City.Howard F. Shepherd, ex, is in the employof the United States Reclamation Serviceon the Garden: City, Kansas, proj ect.Lucy E. Smith, ex, is an instructor at MaryInstitute, Washington University, St. Louis,Mo.1910Helen Gunsaulus, ex, is at present travel­ing in Europe.Inez Jackson, ex, is attending Wells Col­lege this year.Wilma Robbins, ex, is living in LosAngeles, Cal.R. H. Shultz, ex, has taken a position withHammer & McDonald, attorneys-at-law inthis city.Melville J. Thomas, ex, is engaged withM3 the engineering corps in the employ of theUnited States Steel Corporation, Gary, Ind.T9IIEarle Berry has written a comedy whichis to be given a hearing by Henry W. Savage.Sydney Gardiner, ex, is with Peabody,Houghteling & Co., 181 LaSalle St.Mina Sedgwick, ex, is attending the Uni­versity of Louisiana.ENGAGEMENTSEx-' 10. Helen Mildred Bright to FrederickH. Bengel. Miss Bright lives at 6515 HarvardAve.EX-'10. Henry Ullmann, son of Wm, B.Ullmann, 4932 Lake Ave., to Miss Helen Lus­combe, of Woods Hole, Mass.'98. Cecil Page to Daisy Bell, daughterof Mr. and Mrs. James Hamilton Bell, 4037Drexel BouI.MARRIAGES'00. Bertha Barnet was married on Decem­ber 4, 1908, at the home of her mother inChicago, to Dr. G. W. Beach, of Binghamton,N. Y.DEATHS'76. Charles J. Roney died at Los Angeles,Cal., Tuesday, February 2, aged 60 years.At one time he was secretary of the West­ern Society of Engineers in Chicago. HeContinued on advertising page 12Say "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-10-TelephoneHyde Park 1345J. J. Zoller « SonManufacturers of Pure MixedPaints and Eclipse Piano andFurniture Polish ,8 ,8 ,8PAINTiNG AND DECORATING139 East Fifty .... Third Street CHICAGO24 East Adams Street Phone Harrison 1772Joseph 'WeisbaumLadies' TailorfJf Here you will find at your disposal a select line of Spring andSummer designs. t;jJ Special attention is being paid to University'of Chicago students and alumni.PHONE HYDE PACJ(K 1629Our food is home cooked andwholesome. Our patrons say,"Our bread is especially fine."No membership fee to students.Service 11 to 2�5 to 7.Clover Lunch Club185 Wabash Ave.(North of Adams)cACKERMAN8flARKET - HOUSECOMPANY277-79 EAST 57TH STREETCHICAGOM3 MYou will enjoy your business relations with these establishments-11-High ClassFURSc. HENNING86-88 State StreetCHICAG 0, ILL.TELEPHONECentral 3525New Life for 8LANKETSWE thoroughly clean, revive and renew them andreturn them to you as soft and fl�cy as whennew. q We also make a specialty of Oriente I RUlrs,Carpet., 5teemer RUlrs, Bath Robes end DownComforters, q References-any customer who haspatronizedTHE WOOLRYI'IIotIe Weat 1795 393 OODEN AVE" CHICAOO"'3"3 PERSONALITY IN EDUCATION1 n the course of twenty years' experiencein teaching at a boys school a master gainsmuch valuable information based, not ontheory, but on actual observation. For thatreason Personalit+ ill Education, by Mr.James P. Conover; master in St. Paul's Schoolat Concord, N. H., has many suggestions tooffer to the teacher and to those interested inthe growing boy. He follows the develop­ment of the child in its best years and bringsas testimony the results he secured in theclassroom, showing by concrete examples howthe best that was in the boy was broughtout. Mr. Conover's plea is for personality.Teaching he regards as a great and nobleprofession. "Nothing is so fine in this worldas human life," he says, "so it may well besaid that of all professions none is so fineas that which has for its object the propertraining and development of that life, and noman may look with such confidence as theteacher for the high reward." This attitudetoward his profession pervades the entirebook. Mr. Conover feels that the teachermust first of all be whole, else he cannotinstill character into the lives of others. Trueleadership, he feels. can come only to thestrong, attractive, disciplined, and humble­minded, who never allow their pupils to losesight of the ideals of life. The leader mustgo before in all things that make a man, hesays, not only in striking points of personalcharacter and good manners, but also inhabits that conduce to bodily health and goodtemper, as well as in habits of study andscholarship.The author believes emphatically that re­ligion begins and ends in the teacher. Thechild must feel that the teacher is sincere inhis worship. There can be no true religionwhere the daily life of the school is not soordered as to teach truth, good-fellowship,and respect for authority.Mr. Conover's chapters on school disci­pline, class work, and examinations speak fora better understanding of the scholar by theman. The teacher must be humble, just, andever ready to welcome any opening that willbring him nearer to the hearts of his charges.He plans his disciplinary measures with theidea of bringing out the better nature of thechild. His control of a schoolroom is basedon kindness. The author regards a refer­ence to authority on the part of the teacheras a display of personal weakness, used onlyContinued on advertising page 14Class News continued from page 10was a brother of William R. Roney, of NewYork, Frank B. Roney, of Los Angeles,Henry B. Roney, organist and concert man­ager of Chicago, and the late Thomas C.Roney, former dean of Armour Institute.LITERARY NOTESSay "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-12-" Typewriters"TEL. 2653 CENT. AUTO. 7725ALL MAKES R.ented,For Sale and Repaired.FULL LINE OF TYPEWRITER SUPPLIES ATDavies Typewriter.Exchange3d floor - 185 De_arborn St.M3TELEPHONE HARRISON 4065The Type�riter ExchangeBRANCH AMERICAN WRITING MACHINE CO., INC.Sell, Exchange and Rent New, Rebuilt, and Second-handTypewriting MachinesA. J. COUSE, MANAGER ALL MAKES319 Dearborn Street, ChicagoM3When in Needof Newspaper information, special articles, or various topics foruse in debates, or research work, consultone ArgusPressclipping BureauOtto Spe_ngler, Director352 Third Avenue NeW' YorkOur foreign offices will save you trips abroad for researches, andbring all facts to your study.TerDls R.ates for Debates$35.00 for 1,000 Clippings $ 5 .00 for each topic, unlimited$20.00 for 500 Clippings number of items, cash with$ 11.00 for 250 Clippings order.$5.00 for 100 ClippingsM4You will enjoy your business relations with these establishments-13-Made by herself and sisters inSyracuse, N. Y.A sweetmeat of food-valueNourishing to the bodyPleasing to the taste, andprepared with absolutecleanlinessMary Elizabeth'sChocolatesWHOLESALE DEPOT42 River Street, ChicagoE. HOSKINS, Mgr.Phone Central 1304When you want the Best ask forMARYELIZABETH'SC H 0 CO L ATE sCALLAGHAN & CO.114 MONROE STREETUsually have For SaleLAW BOOKSRequired inTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOTHEY INVITE YOUto inspect their stockSTUDENTS are allowed special discountsTHE LARGEST generalLAW BOOK SELLERSand PUBLISHERSin AMERICACALLAGHAN &CO.M3 Class News continued from page I2as a last resort. The teacher who studieseach individual case, just as the doctor, andlearns how to treat it," thereby proves hisfitness for his profession.Personality in Education should prove avaluable guide not alone to the teaching pro­fession but to all interested in the develop­ment of the child. It is issued by Moffatt,Yard & Company, of New York.NEW PRESS PUBLICATIO�SAnnouncement is made by the Universityof Chicago Press that a new service book forthe Sunday school entitled Scripture andSong in Worship)' arranged by Francis Way­land Shepardson and Lester Bartlett Jones,will be issued this fall. A recent volume of398 pages, The Teaching of I esus about theFuture) by Henry Burton Sharman, endeavorsto examine all utterances of Jesus about thefuture which lay beyond the time of hisdeath, as reported in the Synoptic Gospels.The appearance of Studies in the First Bookof Samuel, by Herbert Lockwood Willettcalls attention not only to this book, but tothe series of which it is a part, the Con­structive Bible Studies, which were conceivedby President William Rainey Harper and hiscolleague, Professor Ernest De Witt Burton,and which have been edited by Dr. Burtonsince the death of President Harper.BOOKS RECEIVEDPersonality in Education. By James B.Conover, master in St. Paul's School, Con­cord, N. H. Moffat, Yard & Company, NewYork. 265 pp. $1.25 net.Studies in the First Book of Samuel. ByHerbert Lockwood Willett. (ConstructiveBible Studies, Secondary Series.) The Uni­versity of Chicago Press, Chicago. 305 pp.,illus. $1.50 postpaid.MAGAZINE ARTICLESBotanical Gazette (February, 1909). "Vas­cular Anatomy of the Seedling of MicrocycasCalocoma," by Helen Angela Dorety, Ph.M.,'07·Elementary School Teacher (March, 1909).Book reviews by Bertha Payne, '07, GeorgeJ. Miller, '07, and Jessie E. Black, '08.Journal of Political Economy (March1909). Review of Cole's Accounts) TheirConstruction and Interpretation) by TrevorArnett, '98.School Review (March, 1909). "The Teach­ing of Agriculture in the High School," byFrederick M. Giles, '98; Reviews by IrvingElgar Miller, A.M., '02, and James FlemingHosic, Ph.B., '01, Ph.M., '02.The World To-Day (March, 1909). "Anti­J ananese Legislation," by Samuel Mac­Clin tock, '96.Say "U�IVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-14-THE BEST PLACE TO BUY BOOKSBOOKS MA�E. THE BEST CHRISTMAS GIFTS.BOOKS ARE EASY TO BUY, EASY TO SEND,AND COST VERY LITTLE. BUY YOURCHRISTMAS BOOKS AT OUR STORE, WHERE THELARGEST STOCK, THE GREATEST VARIETY, ANDTHE BEST FACILITIES ARE AT YOUR DISPOSAL.EVERYTHING IN BOOKSSEND FOR ANY OF THESE CATALOGSBooks for Libraries Books of Art Foreign BooksOld and Rare Books Monthly Bulletin Technical BooksA. C. Me CL URG & Co. 2. I 5-2.2. IWabash Ave.In addition to MILLINERY andFRENCH NOVELTY JEWELRY,we have added a "SAMPLESHIRT WAIST" Department(Room 709, Masonic Temple), forthe sale of High- Grade WAISTS'&BLOUSES, which will be retailedat strictly uPOPULAR PRICES"MAISON HUME57 RANDOLPH STREET - CHICAGOMasonic Temple, Ground FloorMR. HUME was formerly part owner of theMAISON NOUVELLEM4When you are in townsay to your friend"Let's go to theState's BilliardParlorIt is so club-like"2I3 State Street Second Floor( Just South of Adams) M4 C. M. Barnes -Wilcox Co.262 Wabash Ave.Will buy textbooks youno longer need and sellyou those you do needat cut prices.HOLMES'Delicatessen and Home 8akeryPhone Hyde Park 3789The Home of Goodies ProperlyCooked, also Real EnglishPork Pies and Everything forEvening Spreads -:- - : - -:-404 East Slxty-Thlrd StreetYou will enjoy your business relations with these establishments-15- M4Mr. Lecturer:We make THEBEST lantern slides.Very truly yours,Commercial Dept. LANTERNSLIDESUniversityPhotograph Shop397 E. 57th StreetNear KimbarkJos. Fahndrich& SonHayGrainand Feed5426-28 Lake Ave.Tel. Hyde Park157 M3CHICAGOM DoYouHear Well?The Stol� ElectPOpholle- A. New,, SelellUDc alldPraeUeallnvenUon for thoae who are Deaf or PartiallyDeaf-.n JIIOW BE TESTED IJII YOUR OWJII· HOME.Deal or partially deaf people mil), now make a month's trial ofthe Stolz Electrophone at home. ·Thls personal practical testaerves to prove that t�e device satisfies, with ease. everyrequirement of a perfect hearing device. Write for particularsat once. before theofferla withdrawn, for by thispersonal testplan the Jlnal selection of the one compltttl1/8atisfactorv hear­Ing aid Is made eBSY and inexpensive for everyone.This new Invention. the Stolz.Electro­phope(U.S. Patent No. 763.S1�) renders�r����r�:r����rl��i��U:lfr������horns, tubes, ear drums, fans. etc. It is a!�I :������%�tei:r:���I��'::��tl.ijfea the sound waves in such manner as tocause an aston1sh1na inorease in the clear­neS8 of all .ounds. 1 t overcomes the buzz ..lng and roaring ear nclses and, also, so con":'tantly and ele(;trlcallv exercises the vital partso( the ear that, usually, the natural _tided"healing Itself Is' gradually restored.What Three Bu·.lnesa Men S8Y.The ElectropbuD_ J. nry .. tld.dor,. B.lnglmalllD .1._and great I D btarlDI qu.lltle. make. It preferableFI.idI::.... �� :bn!� �.e :.Ii:OY�, ���ll:�; �::;�l:t���.Io.:_"',j..JiIo1pa A .... and RherSt., Cblcago.I lot ,0 deaf l could Dot h.u with m, tpeaklnrtube and W&I .,hl.,d to tr, tb. Eleetropbon e,Le •• conlpltUou.tb.De' .. 'I...... Arter flfteeD :rear. (It deafo •••• dlloomfori aDdworry J o"w hear perf.et11 at churoh and at COD'oott •• W • .n.. UTLEY,HI,l •• Mp.,8.A. Muwell.t Co., Cbtoaco-I ha .... DOW ated 1� Eleotropboue 01''''' :rear. ud lUIOW' tnt It I ... ftnt-Glue,.eleotlfic hearlq deYlce. Without It.people ha,e totbout d-lrectl, 111. m,_r to mateme tt. ..... With it,.! can hear dl.tlnctl, when .poken to In an ordldaq tone. Belt ohll,IT ·H.unGII.PED 111' BEAD I!OIRII:R, which w.,. .. terrlbl.aunntiou. LEWIS W. MAY,CUhler,l00 to. or call (caUlf you can) at our Chfcage offices (or particulars orour personal test.offer and list of other prominent endorsers who wJl1answer inquiries. Physicians 'cordially invited to Investigate aurists'QPinioDs� .SlolZ Electrophone CO., 1299 Stewart Bldg., CblcagoBranch Offices: .... Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Seattle. Indianapolis, ,DesMoines, Toronto. Foreign Office: 8�.8S Fleet St .• London, Enl(.TRUNKS, BAGSand SUIT CASESAFULL LINE OF SMALL�EA THER GOODS.WE ALSO CARRY A FULLLINE OF SMALL CASESSUITABLE FORCARRYING BOOKSABEL ®. BACH co.46 and 48 East Adams StreetRepublic Bldg •• A few doors East of State St.M3Say "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-16-AFTER THE FIREwe will adjust your loss and doyour repairs completelys. M. HUNTER & CO.5643 -45 Jefferson AvenueCarpenters : Plasterers : Masons�Telephones: Office, Hyde Park 1318Hunter, Residence, Hyde Park 2171Holt, Residence, Midway 1761II New Work: Alterations: Repairs : Remodeling JRecent BooksThe Teaching of Jesus about the FutureAccording to the Synoptic GospelsBy HENRY BURTON SHARMANAll utterances of Jesus, reported in the Synoptic Gospels, about that Future which lay beyond the time of his death arebrought under examination and are considered both severally and in their relation to the whole body of his thought on theFuture. The results set forth are not based on the Synoptic Gospels as we have them. Within these Gospels are thedocuments used in their construction. These are restored and made the basis of the investigation as to Jesus' thought onthe Future. Net $3.00, postpaid $3 26. .The Religious Attitude and Life i11; Isla11ZBy DUNCAN BLACK MACDONALDIt is universally conceded that the formal theology of a people is not a safe index to its real religious life. The theologyof Islam is treated in a host of volumes, but singularly enough no author of the present generation has even attempted todepict for Occidentals the Moslem religion as a fact in the daily consciousness of its followers. This lack is supplied by"The Religious Attitude and Life in Islam." 330 pages, ramo, cloth; net $1.75, postpaid $1.88.Social Duties from the Christian Point of ViewBy CHARLES RICHMOND HENDERSONA textbook for advanced classes in Sunday schools and similar organizations. The following topics are treated in aninspiring and practical way: Social aims; The family; Material conditions of domestic life; Neglected children; Work­ingmen; Rural communities; Publichealth of cities; Urban economic interests; Urban educational tasks; Churches andreligion in cities; Municipal government: Charities and correction; Great corporations; The business class, the leisureclass, and socialists; National and state government and taxation; International duties. 330 pages, r emo, cloth.postpaid $1.25.------------------------------------ADDRESS------------------------------------The University of Chicago Press Chicago New YorkDept. 61You will enjoy your business relations with these establishments�I7- M4P. D. WeinsteinLADIES'TAILORSpecial Attention to StudentsREASONABLE PRICESSatisfaction guaranteedPhone: Hyde Park u8:!.433 East Fifty-Fifth StreetNortheast Corner Lexington Ave.A. F. ROURKEWHOLESALE AND RETAILDEALER INPureCountry Milkand Cream5637 Jefferson AvenueTelephone Hyde Park 214M The University of ChicagoOffers 42S courses by 200 instructorsfor the Summer Quarter inThe Graduate Schoolsof Arts and Literature, Ogden School ofScience.The CollegesUndergraduate Colleges of Arts, Liter a­ture and Science.The Professional SchoolsDivinity, Law, Medicine and Education.The Summer Quarter is one of the regular quarters ofUniversity work. The courses are the same in character,method, and credit value as in other parts of the year.1st Term June 21·July 28. 2nd Term July 29-Sept.3(Autumn Quarter begins October J)Detailed information on request.The University of ChicagoChicago, IllinoisWill you acce�t this-- --business book if we--send it free?Sign and mail the coupon below. Send no money ITake no risk,One hundred and twelve of the world's master busi­ness men have written ten books-e-a.czc pages-I,497vital business secrets. ideas, methods. In them is thebest of all that they know about-ePurchastng -Salesmanship -ePosttlon-Getttng-Credits -Advertisinll -e-Pcsttlon-Holdlug-Collections -Correspondence -SellinII!' Plans-Accountlnll -Man-Handlini' -Handlina' Customers-e-Cost-keep+ng -Man-Training -eBuslness Generalship=-Organieatton -Office Systems -Competition Fightinz-Retallini' -Short - cuts. and and hundreds and hun-- wholesaling- Methods (or every deeds of other vital bust--ManufacturinQ' line and department ness subjects.A 9.0S9-word booklet has been published describing, explaining.picturinll the work. Pages 2 and 3 tell about managing businessesgreat and small; pages 4 and S deal with credits, collections andwith rock-bottom purchasing; pages 6 and 7 with handhng andtraining" men; pages 7 to 12 with salesmanship, with advertising.with the marketing of goods through salesmen. dealers and bymail; pages 12 to IS with the great problem of securing the highestmarket price for your services-no matter what your line; and thelast page- tells how you may get a complete set-s-bound in hand­some half morocco, contents in colors-for less than your dailysmoke or shave, almost as little as your daily newspaper.Willyou 1'"�(ld the hook if'lll6 send it fr�elSena no mo1t�y. Simply sim the CO"POh..The System Co., 151-153 Wabash Ave •• Chicall<!If there are, in your books. any new ways to increase my bus­iness or my salary. I should like to know them. So send onyour 16-paQ'e free descriptive booklet. l'U read it. 247�4Nam.·� __Address _Business .. _Position.Say "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-18-BROOKS CLOTHESTHE STUDENT MAY JUSTLY BE CALLED., ," GENTLEMEN'SCLOTHES"ATTRACTIVE AND SEDATE,CLEVER, BUT NOT OFFEN­SIVE, ORIGINAL AND YETIN GOOD FORM. NONEOTHER POSSESS THEIRDIGNITIES.OUR PRICES$20 to $35BROOKS CLOTHES SHOP138 E. MADISON ST. OPPOSITE LA SALLETELEPHONE RANDOLPH 942MILIAN ENGHIDailnr163 STATE STREET, SUITE 52CHICAGO, ILLINOIS "Blac-Ko" Ink Pencils"Blac-Ko" Lead Pencils"Blac-Ko" Loose LeafMemorandum Books"Blac-Ko" Loose LeafLedgers"Blac-Ke" Carbon PaperASK FOR "BLAC-KO" BRANDAt the PressM PHONE CENTRAL 4051Furs Made to Orderand Storedat very LOWRATES now.Old Furs andSeal Garmentsremodeled tolook like new.We call and De­liver.Will give thebest of Refer­ences.p_ FRENKEL ���:KRLYeRAS. A. STEVENS & BROS.Room 43, 95 E. Washington St.You will enjoy' your business relations with these establishments MMN.E.CornerClark &Van BurenStreets 2nd Floor,Entrance277 ClarkStreetKing Yen Lo CO�Under the Managexnent of Mr. Chin F. FoinThe first and only Chinese High-Class Restaurant in the world. Other places copy our ideas.Superior service and cuisine with revised bill of fare at popular prices. A special section of ourdining-room set aside exclusively for ladies.The menu of King Yen Lo now includes Steaks and Chops and all other meats, which areserved in the same high-class character that earned for King Yen Lo its world-wide reputation asa Chinese Chop Sooy Restaurant.Do You Know Joy? He is the only Mandarin Chef in America. His cooking made ourplace famous in the world. Now he is with us again. Kitchen open for inspection. Also delightto show you how to prepare our cooking.Before and After the Play A Special AttentionMr. Ripley's Celebrated Orchestra Every Evening Phone Harrison 4783King Yen Lo C0n1pany275-77-79 Clark St •• ChicagoM3American Cotillonand Carnival Works80.8-2 Wabash Av�., Chicago, Ill.MANUFACTURERSand IMPORTERS, CotillonFigures and FavorsSerpentinesand ConfettiWe make, sell, and put up allkinds of Decorations for Ban­quets, . Balls, Receptions, etc., etc.Would be pleased to submit esti­mate on any decorating desiredfor your coming events RESTAURANTS ANDHOTELS SUPPLIEDCarroll'sPacking HouseMarketsSuccessor to J. J. HANRAHAN. Wholesaleand Retail Market396 East Sixty-Third StreetTelephone Hyde Park 1091757 West Forty-Seventh StreetTelephone Yards 1673,CHICAGOSay "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-20- M4Garibaldi& CuneoFRUITSANDNUTSTelephone Central 2330South Water and State Sts.CHICAGO There is But One"Holeproof Hosiery"It has the name "Holeproof" on the toe.Please do not judge the genuine byheavy and coarse imitations."Holeproof" is the originalguaranteed h os iery. Weworked 31 years to perfectit. No maker with less ex­perience can make a hoseas good.It is light, soft and attractive.There are a hundred otherhosieries with guarantees likeours. But you don't want hoseeumbersome.heavy and coarse."Holeproof" today costs thesame as the common.You may as well have it.We pay an average of 63c apoundforouryarn.Ourscomesfrom Egypt. We use 3-ply yarnthroughout with a 6-ply heeland toe. Thus we get supe­rior wear.We spend $30,000 a year forinspection. You'll insist on"Holeproof" if you'll compareall kinds. But don't say merely"Holeproof Hose." Look for thename on the toe, else you mayget an imitation not even halfso good.If you want the most for yourmoney you must see that youget "Holeproof."This guarantee comes in eachbox of six pairs: "If any or all ofthese hose come to holes or needdarning within six months fromthe day you buy them, we willreplacethem free.".Now 25c a Pair6 Pairs-Guaranteed 6 Months-$1.50Up to $3.00The genuine "Holeproof" are sold in your town. On re­Quest we will tell you the dealer's names. Or we will shipdirect, charges prepaid. on.receipt of remittance."Holeproof" are/made for men, women and childre=Ask your people to try them. .'Ask for our Free Booklet, "How to Make Your Feet Haj.����?---HOLEPROOF HOSIERY CO., 295 4th St., Milwaukee, Wis.M4M3 Holeproof SoX-6 pairs. $1.50: Medium and lighb weight. Black,black with white feet, ]jght end dark tun, navy blue. pca r l gray, lavon­der, light blue, green, gnu-metal end modo. Sizes, 9!4" tv 12. Six pairsof a size and weight in a. box. All one color or assorted, as desired.Holeproof Sox (ex t ra light weight)-Malie entirely of SeaIsland cotton. (\ pairs. $�.OO.Holeproof Lustee-Sox-.c pairs, $3.00. Pinished like silk. Extralightweight. Black, nevy blucc Ileht and dark tall, pear-l I;l;Tn.v. lavender,'light IlI11e. green. gun-metal, khaki and mode. Sizes. 9% to 12.Holeproof Full. Fashioned Sox - 6 pairs, $3. Same colonand sizes as Lustre-Sox.Holeproof Stocklngs-($_.pairs. $2.CO. Llcdium Iweight'. Black, tan, and black with white feet.Sizes,'"'8 to 11. . ..Holeproof Lustre-Stocklngs-6 pairs. $3.00.�ii�::��i��. silk. Extra light weight. Tan and black.. 1'1 IBoys' Holeproof Stocklngl'l- 6 pairs. $3.00. I'Black and tan. Specially reinforced knee. heel and toe.Sizes, 5 to 11.Misses' Holeproof Stocklngs-6 pairs, $3.00. 'Black and tan. Specially reinforced knee. heel and toe.Sizes. 5 to 93i. These are the best children's hose made Reg U. S. Pat.>Odoy. Office, 1906.You will enjoy your business relations with these establishments-2[-J. B. FORGAN,E. K. BOISO r,D. PECKHAM,C.N,GILLETT PRESIDENT• VrcK·PRESIDENTSECRETARY AND MANAGER- TREASURERNational SafeDeposit CompanyCapital $2,500,000Boxes Rented and ValuablesStored in Fire- and Burglar-Proof Vaults .. ::First National Bank BuildingTelephone Central 942Chicall:o IllinoisTmst&Sa1iIu!,sBankCAPITAL AND SURPLUS$J3,200,000.00La Salle Street and Jackson Boulevard, ChicagoThis Bank Loans Exclusively on conservative in its methods and has the lar2-est capital and surplus of any savings bank inthe United States,INTEREST-Allowed on Gumnt Ar.roants(ierUflr.ates of Deposit. SavlllGs DepositsBond, Foreign Exchange andTrustDepartmentsCORRESPONDENCE INVITEDILLINOIS TRUST SAfETY DEPOSIT COSAfE DEPOSIT VAULTSWhy not get interest on your money?We pay 30/0 on all savings accounts.You do not have to spend time intrips to the bank, your account canbe handled equally as well by mail.We also solicit your checking account ..Begin today.IInnhluUtU wrust & @Jubings lunk,451 E. 63rd Street (near Woodlawn Ave.)Say "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers--22-CHICAGO SAVINGS' BANK AND TRUST CO.STATE AND MADISON STREETSOFFICERSLUCIUS TETER, PresidentEDW ARD P. BAILEY, Vice-President HOUSTON JONES, CashierJOHN A. McCORMICK, Vice-President WM. M. RICHARDS, Assistant CashierDIRECTORSEDWARD P. BAILEY, National MalleableCastings Co.CHAUNCEY B. BORLAND, Real EstateH. K. BROOKS, American Express Co.PKENTISS L. COONLEY, Link Belt Co.ROBERT B. GREGORY,Lyon & HealyWM. G. HIBBARD, JR., Hibbard, Spencer,Bartlett & Co.HENRY H. HILTON, Ginn & CO.JO HN E. JENKINS, Jenkins, Kreer & Co.CLAYTON MARK. Nat.Malleable Castings Co.WM. E. O'NEILL, Attorney JOS. E. OTIS, Western Trust & SavingsBankC. D. PEACOCK, JR., C. D. Peacock, Inc.CHAS. H. REQUA, ReQua Bros.DANIEL B. SCULLY, D. B. Scully SyrupCo. -LUCIUS TETER, PresidentGEO. H. WEBSTER, RetiredRUDOLPH MA TZ, 'Matz, Fisher & Boyden,AttorneysW ALTER H. WILSON, Comptroller City ofChicagoDEPARTMENTSCHECKINO, SAVINGS, REAL ESTATE LOANS, INVESTMENT BONDS, TRUSTS. DRAFTS AND FOREIGN EXCHANGE, SAFETY DEPOSIT VAULTSAccounts of Banks, Bankers, Individuals, Firms, and Corporations, solicited upon most favorable terms.One hundred dollars will start a Checking Account, and Savings Accounts may be opened with a depositof one dollar or more, upon which we allow interest at 3 per cent. compounded semi-annually.For the convenience of our customers the Savings Department of this bank is open EVERY SATURDAYFROM 9 A.M. TO 8 P.M.THE ONLY BANK ON STATE STREETOLDEST SAVINGS BANK IN CHICAGO ESTABLISHED 1867THE HIBERNIAN BANKS. E.CORNER CLARK AND MONROE STREETSGeneral Banking and Trust BusinessTrust DepartmentAccepts and executes trusts of all kinds.Real Estate DepartmentBuys and sells real estate on commission; collects rents;manages estates; sells high-grade first mortgages; makesloans on improved real estate.Savings Depositsof One Dollar or more received, on which interest isallowed at the rate of three per cent per annum, com­pounded half-yearly.OPEN SA TURDA Y NIGHTS FROM 6 TO 8 O'CLOCKWE RESPECTFULLY SOLICIT YOUR PATRONAGEYou will enjoy your business relations with these establishments-23- M4TheNew Hotel BrevoortChicagoSPECIAL ATTENTION TOAFTER-THEATRE PARTIESThe Twentieth Century Hotel- Absolutely I fireproof ·VISIT THE Cf?_AINBOW ROOM -,Restaurant Grill Room \13uffetUnsurpassed i'n Appointments and Dec)�rationsMargulie's Orchestra. ARTHUR :M. GRANT. Manager.M3STAPLE andFANCY GROCERIESChoice Cuts of MeatsFish, Poultry, Oystersand Game in SeasonO. T. WALL & COMPANY407-409 East 63rd Street Telephones Hyde Park 2 and 22Branch Store, 6515-17 Washington Avenue. Telephone Hyde Park 2372.O. T. WALL E. G. LANGFORDSay "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers M3Grand PacificHotel Clark Street andJackson BoulevardChicagoTable Unexcelled·Prices ModerateWe tnake a specialty ofClub and Fraternity 'Dinners\THE VENDOME HOTEL===============62d and Monroe Avenue, Ohicago,lIIinois----CONDUCTED ON THE GOOD OLD AMERICAN PLAN�WITH A CUISINE UNEXCELLEDOffers to permanent and transient guestsaccommodations and service such as onlya first-class management can give.Furnishings unsurpassed ; 400 rooms, allen suite, and all with private bath.Transportation facilities unsurpassed­Illinois Central Express trains, South SideElevated Express, 6 1St and 63d St. surfacelines-within 15 minutes' ride of businessand amusement centers.TELEPHONE PRIVATE EXCHANGE\. HYDE PARK 4100. W. S. SAlTER, PROPRIETORM3You will enjoy your business relations with these establishments-25- M3Ring loy [0"LET'S GO TO TO�IGHT"Catering Exclusboely toCaltarea People Vocal ana InstrumentalMusicThe ONLY Oriental place to dine.The most beautiful Chinese Restaur­ant in the world. Entirely differentfrom. any other. Splendid service.American Dishes if you prefer. Mod­erate prices.:: :: :: :: ::M:ain FloorTelephone Central 6876 100-102 RANDOLPH STRE:ETOpposite the Garrick TheatreM3UNIVERSAL REPAIR COMPANY5509 COTTAGE GROVE AND 5623 JEFFERS,ON AVE.Sign Painting and Fancy Lettering.Painting and Decorating.House and Room Cleaning and Packing.We make a Specialty of exterminating insects.All mechanical and Furniture Repairs.Nickel Plating. -:- Mirrors resilvered.Skates and Bicycles our specialty.WE REPAIR, RENT, AND SELL THEMFRANK DE GEER, PROP. Drop us a cardM�Call upon us." .. Bowman Dairy Company ...�1k bottled 1;:' the couJ7h:yMilk · Cream · Butter : ButtermilkDo our wagons serve you 1Why not h,!Ve the best? -4221-4229 S'fate Stree�Telephones at all d.ivision offices.'Evav#to-u v Chicago •.• Oak .2>aYA:Say "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-26--The University Buildingsare built of H Old Hoosier tt Stonefrom the celebrated H Hoosier ttQuarry, of the Bedford QuarriesCo., the largest and best quarry ofOolitic limestone in the world.A century hence they will still bea monument to those under whosedirection they have been erected.The Bedford Quarries CompanyChicago Office: 204 Dearborn StreetNew York Office: No.1 Madison AvenueCleveland Office: 818 Euclid AvenueQuarries? and Mills: Oolitic, IndianaYou will enjoy your business relations with these establishments-27- M2"The Hose withthe RealGuarantee" Sox youcan't kick outor�"Kick about"You will have no complaint to make about Ever�earSox no matter how hard you are on sox, or how quieklvyou'''kick out" a pair of the ordinary kind.Six pair of Everwear Sox often last a year···and more-s­but they MUST and WILL last you six months. If. a holedoes appear in any pair we will give you a new parr free.We know 'that it will not be necessary for you to return a. single pair; that they will not only giv� you better wearthan any sock you ever put on your feet, but the most satisfactory wear •.•more comfort and a better fit. .EVERWEAR SOX are made of the finest Egyptian cotton. They will not shri nk,stretch or fade. Being knit entirely )-Vi�hout a seam .there are no rough placesto chafe the feet. Men's'Sox are made 10 hght ap.d medIUm weight. Color�, black,black with white feet, blue, steel gray, and hght an.d dark tan. Ladies hosein black, black with white feet and tan. In boxes �f SIX l;>alr .•• $2.00, one srze 10, a box assorted colors If desired.Men's silk lisle hose, Summer and Fall weightscolors; black, blue, light and dark gray, tanand champagne; Ladies silk lisle hose inblack and tan, $3 per box ofsix pair, coveredby the same positive guarantee. Ask yourdealer for them today. Remember the name-sEVER WEAR. If he .doesn't handle them sendus his name, with the ,Price, stating the "!,Ior andsize desired and we will shIp them postage paid,Send for our interesting free booklet "AnEVERWEAR Yarn". .Everwear HOliery Co., Dept.2SMilwaukee, Wit,A new pair for each pair thatdoes not wear six months.THIS new book, by Sylvester J. Simon, the well-known PhysicalCulturist, gives the key to the attainment of physical perfection,as the title indicates, It shows how to obtain and maintain themaximum of physical and mental health, strength and vigor. How torid one's self of bodily ailments by rational and scientific methods. Howto acquire "personal magnetism," and poise. It teaches women how tobecome more beautiful in face and figure, more graceful in carriage andrepose. It aids men successward by showing them how to developnerve force and. brain power,Natural Treatment of Bodily AilmentsUPhysioal Perfeotion"It is not a book of mere generalities. It tells just how to relieve different conditions of Ill-health, without the aidof drugs, apparatus, or mechanical means of any kind. There are exhaustive chapters on the cure and avoidance bynatural methods of Obesity, Leanness, Dyspepsia, Constipation, Skin diseases, Rheumatism and other Blood troubles,disorders of Liver, Kidneys and Bladder, Nervous ailments, affections of Head, Throat and Lungs, etc.There are special chapters on the care of the body through all:stages of life from infancy to old age-including oneon longevity. A valuable feature is a special index giving a ready key to exercises that develop or reduce variousmuscles, or that affect different organs or parts of the body,By Founder of Great He�lth InstituteThis book is thoroughly practical all the way through. It is the work of a man who has probably treated morepatients by drugless methods than any other person in the world. Professor Simon's nature-cure institute, occupyingan 8-story building at 14 Quincy Street, Chicago, is the largest and most successful of it's kind. Thousands, includingmany physicians, have sought PHYSICAL PERFECTION at this famous health home, and have found it. It- was inpursuance of persistent requests of enthusiastic graduates that Professor Simon put his methods of instruction intoprint. No one who secures a copy of "Physical Perfection" would part with it for many times its cost.Silk Cloth Edition, 208 palres, illustrated with 46 special plates drawn fromphotoarapbed models, printed on fine paper, $3.00 prepaid. Larlre illustrateddescriptive pamphlet, with table of contents, free upon application. Send at once.SylvesterJ.Simon" 14-A Quincy Street" Chicago" III.Say "UNIVEItSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" ·to the advertisers-28-Telephone. Main 1972C.P. HULBERT J. T. DORSEYSAMUEL HARRIS & CO.MACHINISTS' ANDMANUFACTURERS' Hulbert & DorseyTOOLS PLUMBING andDRAINAGECONTRACTORSANDSUPPLIES2II RANDOLPH STREETCHICAGO23 and 25 S. Clinton St.CHICAGOM3Wade CorsetsHigh grade and artistic corsets Made to Order from thebest imported and domestic fabrics. It is the One Corsetthat gives a correct figure.The WADE Company 34 Washington St.SPECIALTY -Rubber Goods for Flesh ReducingThe Fidelity Laundry684 East Sixty-third Street Telephone Hyde Park 1252Quality and Service UnexcelledRegulation Price List;y ou will enjoy your business relations with these establishments-29- M3M4Chemical, Physical, Electricaland Surgical Glass Apparatus X Ray and Ultra Violet TubesMercurial Air Pumps, Etc.w. J. BOEHM1 71 E. Randolph StreetPhone Main 2700 CHICAGOManufacturer and ImporterijJ qr ijJ unr nf ttuy funrttnn uartrabirtdly nrtth tijt quttlity nf tnnttattoua ttubprngrttututts tn USt. JtIIt furuisij the htst iuiltturt Jrngrttututts�u1titatinu!i nub(1tnlltgt1 1J1rttttruitY1 i;ttllttttb Jtrsnuttl �ttttinutryiluuwdl Uu� 1J1nr�171 muhusq 1\ttr.� (1t4itugo� 1I11iu015_ Say "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-30- MNATHAN C. DOW, President F. D. CARPENTER, Sec'y and T�eas.Do�, Carpenter Coal Co.M3OFFICE: 4-46 East Sixty-Third StreetPhone: Hyde Park 219YARDS: 7 I st Street and Illinois Central TracksPhone: Hyde Park 218The University of Chicago MagazineCarries more Advertising than any otherpublication of its kind �n the United States21st Yearohe- Clark Teachers' IIAgency B. F. ClarkChicago Stein'W'a7 HallSpokane, Wash., 225 Pe7ton Blk Good September vacancies are comingto us and are being filled every day.Early application secures the maxi-mum benefit. "Do it now."IF YOU LIKE GOODPIEAsk for a Piece ofCase&Martin'sConnecticut Pie"Always Good" The ROMAItalian Table D'HoteSOc 15c $1 00Inciudillg Win�. Also a la Carte ServiceOPEN DAILY AND SUNDAYS FROMt i A. M. TO 9 P. M.SPAGHETTIsuch as one gets in Italy146 STATE STREETSECOND FLOORYou will enjoy your business relations with these establishments-3I-PURE - DELICIOUS - NOURISHINGFor Sale-Drug Stores and Cigar StandsW�sl�TnAgencr AMERICAN COMMERCE & SPECIALTY CO.On Sale al "/{ernolds Club :;V:orlhweslern "Building. CHICAGOTHE ADAMS BILLIARD PARLORWE DELIVER ORDERS FORCIGARS AND CIGARETTESSpecial Rates to Students478-480 East Sixty-third StreetTELEPHONE H. P. 278Tonsorial Parlors in connection conducted bythe TWO CHARLIES DESK STABLESCHAIRSSAFESOFFICEAPPLI­ANCESMAT LaC K co.. COMMERCIAL FURNISHERS 331·333 WABASH AYE.LONG DISTANCEPHONE_ MAIN 905AUTOMATIC 6952�,L�,,��,���YG���,�r .��ao�:.� 2 � Csafety razor blades for only 2 Yz'cents each. You can't afford to throwawayold blades when we will sterilize, resharpeu,and made them better than new at thistnfling price. \Ve return your own � articu­lar blades. One trial will convince you ofthe merits of our service. Stamps taken inpayment. State number and make of blades and wewill send a convenient mailing package free. Write now.KEENEOOE COMPANY. 841 Keenedge Bldg •• CHICAGOM:;Say "UNivER-SITY OF CHICAC,O MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-32-Hygienic Importance01 Dustless FloorsThe hygienic importance of dustless floors is to-day of as muchsignificance as proper ventilation. Schools, hospitals, sanitariums,stores, offices, corridors and public buildings all have large floorspaces which collect dirt and dust with great rapidity. This dust,with its living millions of micro-organisms, is easily set in circula­tion, thus greatly increasiug the dangers of contagion.The simrlest and most sa tisfactory of all methods for eliminatingthe dust evi has been found inSTANDARDFLOOR DRESSINGThis preparation applied to floors several times a year will reducedust nearty one hundred per cent.Tests have proved conclusively that the atmosphere of rooms withurureated floors contains twelve times more dust and its accompany"ing germs than the air in rooms having floors treatedwith Standard Floor Dressing.Moreover, it preserves the floors and improvestheir appearance-prevents them from splinteringand cracking and greatly lessens the labor of caringfor them.Standard Floor Dressing is sold by dealers gener­ally. In barrels, half-barrels, one gallon and fivegallon cans.Not intendedfor household use.A Free DemonstrationWe will gladly demonstrate Ihe worlh of Standard FloorDressing ,by actua use. On request from proper authoritieswe will treat part of one floor or corridor in school, hospilal,sanitarium, slore or public building,-AT OUR OWN EXPENSE.Write for parliculars,STANDARD OIL COMPANY(Incorporated)Four-DrawerVertical 'FileThis is our famous No. 421 Vertical Let-ter File, a Solid Oak, Four-Drawer File,handsomely finished on all four sides, in Weathered or GoldenOak. It is solid and substantial, perfect in construction, andfirst-class in every detail. This File is now in use in everyState of the Union, and we have in print scores of letters fromsatisfied customers everywhere which we will be glad to sendon request. Every File is sold on our positive guarantee­satisfaction or your money back. Price $12.00 f. o. b. Monroe;Equal To Any Files Madein Capacity-each drawer holds 5,000 letters ;in Convenience-every paper quickly accessible;in Durability-built for permanent, hard eeeviee.Solid Oak-Duat Proof-Roller Bearinl!s. Patent Follower in EachDrawer-Oxidized Metal Fittings.O h S· No.321 Three-Letter Size Drawers $9.75t er Izes: No.221 Two-Letter Size Drawers $6.75F.O.B. FACTORYTh etI1�. ME C 98 Union Street, Send for our catalOI!e g 0 . and free booklet of• • Monroe, Mich. Vertical Filillll.- M3(Capacity, 20,000 Let�era)You will enjoy your business relations with these establishmentsAN IDE A L PLACE TO L I V ETHE HARVAR,D·A HOME-LIKE PLACE FOR REFINED PEOPLE.Telephone Hyde Park 1533Twelve minutes to the Loop. Five minutes to Park, Lake, or-Universitjs. . . -.:"Home Cooking. Social Advantages. O!!iet, Elite Neighborhood.HOTEL CUMBERLANDNEW YORK5. W. Corner Broadway at 54th StreetNear goth St. Subway Station and 53rd St. ElevatedKept by a College ManSpecial Terms forCollege Teams Headquarters forCollege MenIdeal Location, Near Theatres, Shops,and Central ParkNew, Flcdern, and Absolutely FireproofMost Attractive Hotel in New YorkTransient Rates $2.50 with Bath and upTen Minutes' Walk to 20 TheatresSE!N!> FOR BOOKLETSHARRY P. STInSON R. J. BINGHAMFormerly witlt HotellmjJer£al Formerly witlt Hotel Woodward, M3Say "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-34-