JOHN WATSON FOSTERFORMER SECRETARY OF STATEConvocation Orator, December IS, 1903The University of ChicagoMagazineVOLUME I FEBRUARY, 1909 NUMBER 4THE DEVELOPMENT OF .INTERNA­TIONAL LAWlBY JOHN WATSON FOSTER, LL.D.Former Secretary of StateAT the outset of any consideration of the principles of interna­tional law we are confronted with the declaration that it doesnot possess the fundamental elements of law, and hence is not law;that it does not emanate from a superior authority; that there is nosupreme court of justice to resolve doubts and condemn transgres­sors; and that there is no executive clothed with international policepower, no sheriff, to execute the judgments of the court. It is notnecessary to a consideration of my subject to enter upon an ex­amination of the refinements of the discussion by Austin, Hooker,and others who have written at length respecting it. It is sufficientfor us to know that there is a code or system of laws or rules which,so far as they have been accepted, control or regulate the independentnations in their relations with each other and their respectivecitizens or subjects. That they are sometimes disregarded or thatthere is no power to' be invoked to compel obedience when they areviolated, does not.divest them of the character of laws.The same difficulty is often experienced by nations in the observ­ance or enforcement of their own municipal laws. The Sunday andthe prohibition liquor laws are a dead letter in many localities of theUnited States. Rebates were granted by the railroads in defianceof the law until the President finally caused the statute to be en-1 Delivered on the occasion of the Sixty-ninth Convocation of the Univer­sity, held in the Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, December 18, 1908.I37138 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEforced. The constitution of the state of N ew York prohibited book­making at horse-races, or any other kind of gambling, but formany years it has been ineffective for want of the proper legislation.The right to vote, guaranteed by the XVth amendment to the Con­stitution of the United States, has been abridged in a number ofstates of the Union, and yet there seems to be no disposition orpower to enforce section 2 of the XIVth amendment in regard torepresentation.The same Constitution prescribes that it shall be the duty of theexecutive authority of one state to deliver up a fugitive from justicewhen demanded by the executive authority of another state, andyet this provision is sometimes disregarded. A recent noted casewas that where the governor of Kentucky demanded of the governorof Indiana the delivery of the deposed governor of the formercommonwealth. The demand was refused upon grounds which seemto have been approved by the people of Indiana. Judge Cooleywrites that in such a case the governor has no moral right to refuse,but "if he does refuse, no power fas been conferred on the federalcourts to compel obedience."It may not be amiss to cite the celebrated case where the SupremeCourt of the United States decided, Chief Justice Marshall render­ing the opinion, that certain laws of the state of Georgia were inconflict with the Constitution of the United States. The authoritiesof Georgia, with the support of the President of the United States,Andrew Jackson, refused to observe and enforce the decision. Thedeclaration is attributed to the President : "John Marshall has madehis decision. Now let him enforce it."In all those cases where the statutes and constitutional provisionswere violated or disregarded they continued to be public law. Inlike manner international law remains as the rule 'Of conduct ofthe nations, notwithstanding the occasional instances where it hasnot been observed. The definition of it given by Hall may beaccepted:International law consists in certain rules of conduct which moderncivilized states regard as being binding on them in their relations with oneanother with a force comparable in nature and degree to that binding theconscientious person to obey the laws of his country, and which they alsoregard as being enforceable by appropriate means in case of infringement.While various reasons may control the conduct of governmentsTHE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 139in their international relations, such as the unwillingness to incurthe risk of war or that it is more convenient to observe certain rules,the great and impelling motive is respect for public opinion whichfixes the standard of right and justice. No nation desires to takesuch action as would place it outside the circle of civilized states.It is not to' be disguised that international law has the inherent weak­ness that there is no superior authority to enforce it; but the powerof public opinion, the moral sentiment of the world, is its greatbulwark and in most cases will prove effective.<1That the nations of the world have no disposition to' defy thissentiment is shown in the conduct of Japan and Russia in their latewar. It is understood that there was attached to the staff of themarshals and the admirals of the Japanese forces experts to advisethem in international law. And while the Russian commanders weredirected more by the grand dukes than by the professors or pub­licists, both belligerents claimed to be controlled by internationallaw. Though they did not always observe it during the conflict, theydefended their conduct, not on the ground that the law was notbinding on them, but by other reasons.The obligatory nature of international law is shown in the man­ner in which it has been accepted in Great Britain and the UnitedStates. Nearly two hundred years ago a learned judge of theEnglish bench declared in a well-known case, "that the law ofnations, in its full extent, was part of the law of England; that thelaw of nations was to be collected from the practice of differentnations, and the authority of writers." So also Lord Mansfielddeclared, a few years later, that "the law of nations was part of thecommon law of England." When during the same century somedoubt was cast upon this principle by English judges, Parliamentpassed an act declaratory of the law of nations, to remove aU doubtupon the subject. The language of Blackstone's Commentaries,published in the middle of the same century, was very explicit onthis point: "The law of nations (wherever any question arises whichis properly the object of its jurisdiction) is here adopted to its fullextent by the common law, and is held to be a part of the law of theland."At the very beginning of the history of the United States itsgovernment took steps to recognize the binding force of interna­tional law. Its action in this respect was explained by SecretaryWebster, as follows:140 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEEvery nation on being received, at her own request, into the circle ofcivilized governments, must understand that she not only attains rights ofsovereignty and the dignity of national character, but that she binds her­self also to the strict and faithful observance of all those principles, laws,and usages which have obtained currency among civilized states.Before independence was achieved the Continental Congressdeclared obedience to the law of nations "according to the generalusage of Europe." The framers of the federal Constitution took itfor granted that, as the law of nations had been for generationsa part of the common law of England in force in the Colonies, itbecame a part of the law of the new nation, and that fundamentalinstrument conferred power upon Congress to punish piracy andother offenses against the law of nations and to adopt rules respect­ing prizes.Both Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton at an earlydate recognized that the law of nations was an integral part ofthe laws of the land. James Wilson, one of the most active andinfluential members of the Constitutional Convention, in an opinionfrom the Supreme Court said: "When the United States declaredtheir independence, they were bound to receive the law of nationsin its modern state of purity and refinement." The deliverances ofthe Supreme Court of the United States have been uniformly of thesame tenor.I think I have said enough to show that, notwithstanding therefinements of language of ethical writers, the absence of a superiorauthority, and the occasional disregard of nations, there is a systemor code of international law which does regulate the conduct ofstates in their relations with each other and which they respect andobserve. I pass now to a consideration of the evolution or growthof this code.In the Hebrew Bible and in other even more ancient recordsand inscriptions there are evidences of the observance of certainusages as to international intercourse, such as embassies and rulesof warfare. But in those remote ages it was the struggle of onewarlike people to dominate all the rest, and consequently rights ofnations were little respected. In ancient Greece the AmphictyonicCouncil represented a few petty states, in which there existed certaincrude notions of international law, but all the world beyond weretreated as barbarians and enemies. In the long sway of the Romanrepublic and empire no independent nation was tolerated withinTHE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL L4W 141the reach of their warlike legions. It was not until the modernnations began to be evolved from the chaos resulting from the over­throw of the Roman Empire, and after they assumed some degreeof stability and independence and recognized in each other anequality in their intercourse, that international law began to be aformative code of principles controlling the conduct of nations.Two events in the first half of the seventeenth century had animportant influence in promoting this condition of internationalrelations. The first was the publication of the great work ofGrotius, De Jure Belli ac Pacis, in 1625, and the second the Congressand Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. But back of these, in the pre­ceding century, two opposing influences had been at work to bringabout the events just noted, under the leadership of the two greatmen of that century, the Emperor Charles V and the reformerLuther.In the Treaty of Westphalia a general representation of theleading nations of Europe had united for the first time in settlingtheir conflicting interests. The Congress of Westphalia in thistreaty demonstrated the possibility of adjusting great disputesamong nations by means of mutual discussion and an appeal toreason. It was a long and weary road the nations of the earth hadto travel to reach the First Peace Conference of the Hague in 1899,but the first step had been taken by the Congress of Westphalia.Grotius had a number of learned disciples during the succeedingcentury, whose published treatises marked the growth or develop­ment of international law, and whose influence tended to bring thenations steadily to a higher standard of international ethics. Themost advanced and authoritative 'Of these publicists was Vattel,whose work on the Law of Nations appeared just one hundred yearsafter that of Grotius, and is still cited as an authority, notwith­standing the progress made since his day.In no respect has the salutary influence of international law beenshown more than in the amelioration 'Of the severities of war. Fol­lowing the Treaty of Westphalia great reforms were introducedinto the practices of war; prisoners began to be exchanged; the law­lessness of the soldiery was restrained; the sack of cities and theindiscriminate destruction of private property diminished; andthrough the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries steady progress wasmade in the amelioration of war. To the United States belongs theI42 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEcredit of having framed and put into practice the first system ofrules to this end during the Civil War, which was made the basisof those of other nations which followed during the last quarter ofthe nineteenth century. The Geneva conventions, the Red Crossorganizations, and the rules adopted by the First and Second PeaceConferences at The Hague for the regulation of war on land andsea, mark a notable advance in the humane sentiment of mankind.The saying of General Sherman that "War is hell" must ever remaina sad truth, but much has been done through international law tosoften its asperities.One of the most potent influences in bringing about changes andimprovement in the law of nations has been commerce. This isespecially manifest in the modifications which have taken place inthe regulations respecting the high seas or ocean, at the demandsof a freer commerce. During the Middle Ages and even withinmodern times we have seen nations laying claim to an exclusivejurisdiction of the seas adjoining their territory. Venice claimeddominion over the Adriatic, and fortified it by a grant from thePope. The Danes and Swedes held the Baltic to be territorialwaters. England not only put forth a claim to the "four BritishSeas," but exacted maritime honors to her flag from Cape Finisterreto the North Cape, and adhered to this claim as late as the beginningof the nineteenth century. But as the European countries grewmore interested in commerce and the United States came into exist­ence, the national claims to the ocean gradually disappeared, andthe general rule of a three-mile territorial limit and the high seasfree to' all, came to' be recognized as the established law.Neutrality is one of the questions which has undergone greatchanges in modern times. Machiavelli condemned the doctrine ofneutrality on the ground that it was more profitable to declare forone or the other belligerent. The Italian princes and cities of thatperiod allowed both parties at war to' recruit in their territories. Itwas a common practice up to the end of the eighteenth century forsovereigns under treaties to hire out portions of their armies toother rulers at war, as is evidenced by the use of the Hessian troopsby the British government in its 'efforts to suppress the revolt of theAmerican colonies. That noted work of art, "The Lion of Lucerne,"commemorating the heroic self-sacrifice of the Swiss body-guard ofLouis XVI, which attracts the attention of all tourists, is anotherindication of the then existing practice of the use of foreign levies.THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 143The action of the King of France in furnishing from the royalarsenals artillery, small arms, and munitions of war to the revoltingBritish-American colonists, under the illy disguised medium ofBeaumarchais, also shows what little regard was paid at that dayto the rules of neutrality.The United States has the credit, now conceded by all foreignpublicists, of inaugurating the first serious attempt to establish thepractice of general neutrality. The action of the government wasbrought about by the effort of the first French Republic to embroilus in its war against England and continental Europe. After carefulconsideration and much difference of opinion among his advisers,President Washington issued a proclamation of neutrality which hashad a greater influence in molding international law than any singledocument ever issued. The paper itself is a simple announcementof the neutral attitude of the United States, and a warning to Ameri­can citizens to observe it; but its influence is in the significance ofthe act under the embarrassing circumstances surrounding the youngnation, the strict impartiality of its enforcement, and the resultinglegislation of Congress, which became a model for all other nations.The proclamation was followed by the act of Congress of 1794defining what were offenses against neutrality and affixing penaltiestherefor. This legislation was carefully revised in 1818, and hassince practically remained unaltered, and has been made the basisof the legislation of all civilized nations.Canning, the British statesman, gave the following testimony tothe action of Washington, in Parliament in 1823:If I wished for a guide in a system of neutrality, I should take thatlaid down by America in the days of the presidency of Washington.Hall, one of the latest English writers on international law, says:The policy of the United States in 1793 constitutes an epoch in thedevelopment of the usages of neutrality ..... It represented by far themost advanced existing opinions as to what the obligations of neutralitywere ..... In the main it is identical with the standard of conduct whichis now adopted by the community of nations.The proper observance of neutrality, as between belligerents bya neutral power, was the occasion of much controversy between theUnited States and Great Britain during the Civil War, and theaction of Great Britain was made the basis of the Alabama claims,resulting in the Geneva arbitration. For the government of thatarbitration three rules declaratory of the law were agreed upon, and144 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe parties further stipulated to ask the acquiescence in them of theother maritime powers ; but it was not until the Second Peace Con­ference at The Hague that the approval of all the nations was securedand they became incorporated into the code of international law,thirty-six years after they were agreed upon by the United Statesand Great Britain.The evolution of international law may be illustrated also by thehistory of what are known as the Four Rules of the Declaration ofParis of 1856, promulgated by the Great Powers of Europe as theresult of their conference at the close of the Crimean War. Therules of maritime commerce in time of war had their origin whenthat commerce was mainly confined to the Mediterranean, conductedby the Italian cities, and are found in what is termed the "Consolatodel Mare," or the maritime code of that day. With the discovery ofAmerica and the sea route to' the East Indies, commerce was greatlyenlarged and was transferred to the more important European na­tions. The old rules of the Mediterranean were not suited to thesechanged conditions. Neutral commerce set up claims which nationsat war were not willing to concede, and during the eighteenth andthe early part of the nineteenth century a controversy existed whichculminated or sought a solution in the Declaration of Paris of I856.It embraced the abolition of privateering, the exemption of neutraland enemy's goods under certain conditions, and defined blockade.But this result had been reached only after a century and a half ofcontroversy and war.The great powers of Europe invited the United States to acceptthe Four Rules of Paris. Our Secretary of State at the time, Mr.Marcy, offered to do so, if the powers would add to the Rules theexemption of all private property at sea during war; contendingthat we ought not to be expected to abandon privateering, unlessprivate property should be exempt from seizure, as otherwise theRules operated to the advantage of the nations with powerful navies.The controversy went on through the latter half of the nineteenthcentury, but at the opening of the Spanish War in I898 our govern­ment announced that it would not resort to privateering, and Spainmade a similar statement. From that date it may be regarded thatthe Four Rules of Paris have been accepted by the leading maritimenations of the world.While in this way new principles of international law are beingestablished by the slow process of evolution, the world is also out-THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 145growing other principles which have become obsolete or inapplicable.This is illustrated by the history of the doctrine of territorial rightsby discovery and occupation. Following the opening of the NewW orId and the movement for colonization, a system of rules grewup governing territorial rights, which no longer have application.One of the reasons given by President Monroe for the enunciationof the celebrated doctrine which bears his name, was that the Ameri­can hemisphere had ceased to be a field for colonization, because itsentire limits were occupied by established governments. And suchmay be regarded as the condition 'Of the entire habitable world. Asthe "Consolato del Mare" of the Mediterranean commerce no longeranswers as the rule of conduct of maritime trade, so also the ruleswhich governed the nations in adjusting their colonial limits andterritorial rights have ceased to have application with the progressof time. Changed conditions, the progress of science and invention,new demands, bring about modifications in international law.I regret that I shall not be able within the limits of this paperto pursue this review of the evolution of international law by otherillustrations. Enough has been said, I trust, to show that its growthor development is a slow process, but that there is constant progresstoward a higher standard of justice and fair dealing among thenations. This has been most clearly shown in the' work of the Trrstand Second P.eace Conferences at The Hague. That thev Iiave notaccomplished more makes it clear that the task is dl��ult and mustbe advanced by patience and conciliation.Before closing I desire to ask your attention to that branch ofinternational practice which has �lade the greatest advance in lateyears and which promises tJ be most fruitful of good results-theadjustment of controversies among nations by arbitration.This practice IS not of modern origin, as we find traces of it in+hc intercourse of nations in the earliest historical records. It wasnot uncommon among the Greek states. We find Thucydides refer­ring with approval to the declaration of the King of Sparta: "It isimpossible to attack as a transgressor him who offers toO lay hisgrievance before a tribunal of arbitration." The dominating spiritof Rome allowed little exercise of it; but when the popes attainedascendency in both spiritual and temporal matters, they often exer­cised the functions of arbitrator between contending sovereigns.Later, in the congresses of Westphalia, Ryswick, and Utrecht, pro­vision was made for the reference of certain subjects to arbitration.146 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE;As the warlike nations rose into importance the practice becameless frequent, and in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries littleresort was had to it. But toward the close of the latter period thenations began to look again with favor on the settlement of theirdifferences by an appeal to reason, and the nineteenth century wasthe most fruitful in the history of the race in a resort to arbitration.It is our proud boast that our own country stands at the head of thelist of the nations which have most often and on most importantquestions submitted their international disputes to this peacefulmethod of adjustment. In one of the first treaties after independ­ence, that with England of 1794, negotiated with a view to avoid athreatened war, provision was made for three commissions of arbi­tration. The first treaty with Spain, of 1795, likewise created anarbitration commission. The practice so early adopted has beenfaithfully observed throughout our entire history. Our governmenthas been a party to about eighty arbitrations of an internationalcharacter, embracing twenty different nations, including the mostpowerful and the weakest states. As a result of this policy, theUnited States has been engaged in foreign wars less than five yearsof its existence as an independent nation, a period of one hundredand twenty-five years.The country with which we have most often resorted to arbitra­tion is the one with which we have had the most intimate, the mostirritating, and perplexing relations; and it is greatly to the creditof both the United States and Great Britain that for almost an entirecentury they have been able to settle all their differences, some ofthem of the most grave and threatening character, by the peacefulmethod of diplomacy or arbitration.The other civilized nations have followed the example of theUnited States and Great Britain and have resorted frequently toarbitration to settle their controversies, especially in the last quarterof a century, one of them at least, Italy, having surpassed theseAnglo-Saxon nations in the number and scope of its treaties of thisclass. In one respect, however, the tribunals or commissions ofarbitration have not proved entirely satisfactory in their results.They have been composed of men, although intelligent and experi­enced in public affairs, yet as a rule without knowledge or practicein the duties of their new positions; and the consequence has beenthat their decisions have not been founded upon uniform principles,THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 147and they constitute a mass of ill-digested and ofttimes conflictinginterpretation or application of international law.The remedy for this defective system most usually suggested anddiscussed of late years has been the establishment of a permanentinternational tribunal representing all the nations of the earth, andbefore which they may bring their differences not susceptible ofdiplomatic solution, and have them settled by a high court composedof the most expert jurists of the world. The establishment of sucha tribunal has been the dream of philanthropists and philosophers,has been discussed by publicists, and even considered by wise mon­archs, during the past three centuries. Nothing more fully marksthe steady evolution of international law than the fact that theestablishment of such a tribunal seemed to be upon the point ofrealization at the Second Peace Conference of all the nations of theearth at The Hague last year.It was proposed at the First Peace Conference in 1899, but wasthen considered impracticable. At the Second Conference last yearno one subject was more fully and' exhaustively discussed and ex­amined. The desirability of the establishment of such a permanentinternational tribunal was unanimously approved by the assemblednations; and the method of exercising its duties, its government,and its support were agreed upon without much difficulty. Butwhen the question of the composition of the tribunal, the personswho were to constitute its members, was taken up for consideration,an apparently insuperable obstacle was encountered.The smaller nations insisted upon the observance of the principleof the equality of sovereign states, and many of them claimed arepresentation on the tribunal. Such a plan would require, in placeof a tribunal of fifteen or seventeen members as contemplated, abody of forty-five or more persons. It was held that such a numer­ous body would lose its judicial character, and that, besides, it wouldbe unjust to the larger and more powerful nations. While as ageneral principle the equality of states was conceded, it was insistedthat in practice it was in many respects a theory and not a reality.The same question arose between the larger and smaller states inthe formation of the federal government of the United States, andit became necessary to' 'effect a compromise of conflicting interests.It is hardly to be anticipated that the establishment of such atribunal, so ardently and so long desired, will be allowed to fail, butthat a way will be found to reconcile all reasonable differences of148 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZIlYEviews as to' its composition, and that the present generation will seeassembled in the Temple of Peace at The Hague a permanent inter­national tribunal, to which all the nations of the world may resortfor the peaceful adjustment of their controversies,Much has been said in recent years of some plan for a limitationof the enormous standing armies which have turned Europe into amilitary camp, and of some check upon the ever-increasing competi­tion in naval armament which seems to threaten the bankruptcy ofthe nations; but the discussio� has thus far been to little purposeor no practical result. If such an international tribunal as is con­templated could be established and could gain the confidence ofthe nations, it might in some degree at least furnish a solution ofthe question of limitation of armaments. Through the operationsof such a tribunal the governments of the world might have anIllustration of the fact that there is a cheaper, more satisfactory, andmore humane way of settling their controversies than by war; andas confidence in the tribunal grew the nations might more and morecome to believe in the efficacy of the tribunal to safeguard theirrights, and rely less and less upon their armies and navies.Today three powerful influences are arrayed against war-com­merce, democracy, and Christianity. The enormous growth ofmaritime commerce and the vast industrial interests dependent inlarge measure upon it, are mighty factors for the preservation ofpeace. Only yesterday, as time goes with nations, the monarchs ofthe world held its destinies in their hands and they could determineat their will war or peace for their subjects. Today not only inthe republics but in the monarchies, the people who bear the bruntof battle must be reckoned with; the spirit of democracy has ren­dered nugatory the boast of Louis XIV: "I am the State." Chris­tianity never was more responsive than in the present era to theteaching 'Of its divine founder, the Prince of Peace. Though nom­inally Christian nations engage in war, they cannot do it with thatreckless disregard of justice and humanity which marked the historyof past generations. The spirit of Christ more and more enters intothe counsels of nations. The present vast armaments and the ram­pant martial spirit seem to disprove this, but beneath the displayand bravado there is a sober sentiment of justice and right, andthe slow but steady evolution of international law is bringing thenations more and more to a higher standard 'Of duty, which is anaugury of the eventual triumph of reason and the reign of peace.WILLIAM RAINEY HARPERPresident of the University, 1891-1906 JOH:'< D. ROCKEFELLERFounder MARTIN A. RYERSO:'<President of the Board of Trustees, 1892-PORTRAITS IN HUTCHINSON HALLTHINGS NOT IN THE CURRICULUMBY JAMES WESTFALL THOMPSON, PH.D., '95Associate Professor of European HistoryWHAT does the college offer the student that is not in the cur­riculum? The question reminds us of that old one, "Is lifeworth living?" and the ready answer, "That depends on the liver."So it is with the college. It depends on the college.In general there are two main kinds of choice exercised in select­ing a college: ( I) the choice between a great university and asmall college; (2) the choice between the college near or remote.It would be germane to this paper, but take too long, to discuss therelative merits of the small college and the great university. Eachhas its claim, each affords peculiar advantages. In the matter oflocation, I am inclined to believe that it is good for a young man tobe sent away from home to college. It develops self-reliance, andnew environment, new associations often stimulate, awakeningdormant interests and inert sensibilities. If one-half the collegemen born in New England were educated in colleges west 'of theAlleghenies and one-half the college men in middle-western institu­tions were educated on the Atlantic seaboard, this country wouldhave new intimations of democracy and new perceptions of civicand social responsibility.Assuming that the college has been chosen, what education doesit afford outside of the curriculum? It is a trite saying that acollege education is an opportunity. But with all the opportunityafforded by a modern college education in the way of faculty,libraries, and laboratories, there are limitations about the systemthat are inevitable from the very nature of things.One of these limitations is that the idea of authority is so at­tached to college teaching. In the early years of college life, perhaps,this is necessary, for the crude and unformed mind of college youthneeds to be told what to think as well as to be told how to think.When the student becomes an upper classman, this authority oftenis relaxed and the student learns more and more to use his inde­pendent judgment. Nevertheless it is too true that there is toolarge an element of authority attached to college teaching. A man149IS0 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmust learn self-reliance of himself and by himself. Althoughexperience is not a course in the curriculum, it is nevertheless a partof a college education. There comes a time in every young man'scareer when his receptive faculties protest against the teaching ofauthority; when he perceives that if he continues to absorb and notgive out he will dwarf his nature; when expression, not impression,becomes the order 'Of his thinking. That is a precious moment whena man craves to utter his own thoughts, not what others have said;when even the best ideas of others seem to wear an alienated majesty.At such a stage the college man finds his audience in his fellow­students. In converse with his fellows he may constructivelydevelop his mind and form his own philosophy. This is one of thebest things a college education affords outside of the curriculum,and in last analysis it is the best part of education. No other maydo this for him and in no other way can it be done. Teaching,tradition, the experience of others, may help to form his philosophy;but if it is to be a philosophy worthy of a name, it must be his own.Compared with this result, the subjects he may have learned­mathematics, Latin, science, literature-are adventitious or at mostauxiliary.It is a defect of our higher education that it lacks philosophy.The prodigious analytical work of the present age spells progressundoubtedly, but we cannot be sure that we have passed the goldenmile-stone until we have synthetized that knowledge. This is theage of specialism; and most college teachers are specialists. Butlife is various, not particular in its requirements, its duties, itsopportunities, and the formation of a philosophy by ,each and allis one of the necessities. The sooner this is formed the better, andprovided he has received proper discipline and orientation, the yearsof college life are among the most constructive in a man's life.Orientation is partly derived from the curriculum and theteacher. It is more of the student's own making. College lifeat large, by which I mean college life outside of the limits of thecurriculum, in contact with members of the faculty, abounds withinfluences which help a man to ascertain his own latitude and longi­tude. Friendship is one of these. Many a man today looks backto his campus days, and remembers with a thrill the long walks inthe country in spring or autumn days, in company with a chum withwhom there was such veritable fellowship that even in silence therewas communion, and recalls the interesting and earnest conversa-THINGS NOT IN THE CURRICULUMtions they two had on all sorts of subjects, when the yeast of youthwas working in their young minds.Another source of power outside of the lines of the curriculumis books. In the classroom the study of literature may be a task.But browsing in the library and following where the spirit leads,the field of literature becomesAn untraveled worldWhose margin fades forever and forever.There is a periodicity about the stages of intellectual develop­ment. In one quarter the student may read omniverously in poetry,at another time, in history, or biography, or science. The initialimpulse may have been imparted by an instructor in one of thesecourses. But in its deeper significance such an interest is innate.Every young man experiences a "romantic movement" of his ownin the years from sixteen to twenty-one, and the literature of theRomantic Movement responds to these deep calls of his nature.Some of the best results of a college education, are to be derivedfrom general reading in a college library, where in the course ofthose genetic years, the sophomore and junior, the student has theprivilege of consuming whole alcoves of books, and then of anafternoon, with a single friend, going out into the country or downthe river, talking over the things they have read on the way.The attrition of germinating minds is of great intellectual stimulus.The thinking may be callow, and the philosophy be unformed, butprovided it is not trivial, it will be profitable. At such a time oflife the gleam of light that flashes across one's mind from withinis worth more than "the lustre of the firmament of bards and sages."Finally college life at large develops a spirit of appreciation.Appreciation is a hard thing to' acquire and a harder thing to keep.In contact with books and men a man learns that there are morethings in heaven and earth than are dreamt of in his own philosophy.In the discovery of his own philosophy, in the education of his owninterests, he learns the dignity and worth of other men's philosophyand other men's interests.In a recent conversation with a University senior who had wonhonors in history, Latin, German, and chemistry, I found to mysurprise that he was a candidate for the degree of Bachelorof Science, for I knew that many of his elective studies werehumanistic in their nature. When I expressed some curiosity, hereplied, "I intend to go into commercial chemistry after graduation.152 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEI shall be specializing for the rest of my life then and I am tryingto get as many culture courses as I can now." The answer dis­played an amount of discrimination and a depth of appreciation ofthe true value of a college education rare in a student. Not everystudent can be expected to do his own thinking as clearly as this;to show such definiteness of aim, such independence of materialambition, such disposition to measure life in terms of culture insteadof the stock-market or of manufacturing.There ought to be no antithesis between culture and active life.Yet how are these impalpable influences that develop the sense oftruth and beauty in the inner recesses of the soul to be preservedagainst the corroding influences of commercialism and industrialism?"The world stands on ideas," said Emerson, "and not on iron orcotton; and the iron of iron, the fire of fire, the aether and sourceof all things is moral force." The aspirations that lifted up thehearts of men in ages past are our inspiration today and the promiseof the future. They are of more value than stocks and bonds, thanrairloads and wireless telegraphy, than foreign markets or coalingstations. The college man must be made to see that there arecompensations other than those of the counting-room, values notmeasured with a rod, nor weighed in the scale, nor discovered underthe microscope nor analyzed in a laboratory, nor perceived with atelescope. The perception of moral problems, as Spinoza and jBrown­ing, and a host of other philosophers and poets have perceived andunderstood them, is a greater achievement even than weighing thestar dust, of forming worlds, or dissolving the sun's rays in aspectroscope.SYMPOSIUM ON THE DOCTORS'QUESTIONNAIREAT the annual meeting of the Association of Doctors of Phi­losophy in June, I907, it was voted to take up the study of therelation of the doctorate to the teaching profession by means of aquestionnaire to be sent to all members. Early in 1908 the follow­ing questions were formulated and sent out by the executivecommittee:In view of the fact that the great majority of Doctors are obliged toengage in the work of practical teaching, would you propose that theUniversity should in any respect modify its policy as to the doctorate?For example would you support any or all of the following propositions:(I) That candidacy for the doctorate should be conditioned upon a higherand broader standard of general culture; (2) That candidates for the doc­torate should be required to pursue courses in the philosophy of educationor in the pedagogy of special subj ects; (3) That the University shoulddiscourage a much larger number of persons from proceeding to thedoctorate.About seventy-five made formal response to these questions inwriting, and many of the replies indicated careful consideration ofthe subject, as is shown by the extracts from some of them givenbelow.At the annual meeting in June, 1908, Dr. Eleanor P. Hammond,corresponding secretary of the Association, presented the followingbrief summary of the opinions on the questionnaire as expressed bythe non-resident Doctors:A large majority answered the first question, on the need of ahigher standard of general culture, in the affirmative. Opinion onthe second question, regarding the advisability of pedagogical train­ing, was more evenly divided, and those opposed to such preparationwere quite as emphatic as those advocating it. The third questionwas generally regarded as allied with the first in such a way as tomake any explicit answer impossible apart from a profound con­sideration of the whole subject. Several practical suggestions wereoffered: On the first question it was proposed by some that greaterstress should be laid upon broader education in the undergraduatefield, now so frequently used for specializing; and by others that amore extended command of English, both theoretical and practical,I53154 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEbe added to the present requirement of French and German aspreliminaries for the higher degree; and by still others it was pro­posed that a special degree be created for those preparing for teach­ing or that the present Master's degree be rehabilitated for thatpurpose.Three formal papers on the subject were presented, brief outlinesof -which are here given. Two of these papers have alreadyappeared in the Magazine.The first paper by Dr. Julian P. Bretz, '06, of the Departmentof History, treated the question of the requirement of special train­ing for teaching in connection with the doctorate. He finds that alarge majority of the Doctors become teachers, and that the degreeis too frequently viewed by the candidate as of commercial value, amere asset for obtaining a position. Hence in his desire to obtainit the aspirant specializes too early and too exclusively, at the ex­pense of broad mental training, of personal and social development,and of contact with pedagogical subjects either theoretical or prac­tical.Dr. Otis W. Caldwell, '98, of the Department of Botany, theincoming president of the Association, also laid stress upon thenumber of Doctors who become teachers, and upon the constantdemand from colleges and normal schools for Doctors as membersof their faculties. His paper discussed the situation in relation tothis demand, and argued against the creation of a special teachingdegree.Professor Starr W. Cutting, Head of the Department of German,advocated the raising of the Master's degree from its present color­less character, the extension of its requirements to three years, andits treatment as a non-research degree, reserving for the doctoratethe field of pure research. This discussion will appear in the March.111 agazine.The informal discussion was participated in by ProfessorAndrew C. McLaughlin, Head of the Department of History, Pro­fessor John M. Manly, Head of the Department of English, andProfessor James H. Tufts, Head of the Department of Philosophy,all of whom expressed the deepest interest in the questions underconsideration. President Harry Pratt Judson characterized thequestionnaire as involving some of the most important problemsnow in the educational field. He summed the matter up in hisusual terse style somewhat as follows: A generation ago when theSYMPOSIUM ON THE DOCTORS' QUESTIONNAIRE ISSconception of the doctorate was new in this country, the facultiesof colleges were composed largely of men not highly trained in theirsubjects and gathered chiefly from the ranks of the Bachelors.Now the colleges are securing their faculties from the body ofDoctors of whom the annual output is far too small for the demand.One great problem-shall· our college teachers know their subjects?-has thus been answered. But we are now facing another problem,a problem of equal or greater importance=-shall our college anduniversity men know how to teach their subjects? This is a questionwhich cannot be answered satisfactorily without careful study andexperiment, but it is before us and must be answered.EXTRACTS FROM LETTERS BY MEMBERS OF THE ASSOCIATION INRESPONSE TO THE QUESTIONNAIREIn regard to the first question I have emphatic convictions. J thinkthe doctorate at present tends to minimize-indeed, to neutralize-the valueof culture. The intense specialization of the graduate work leading to aPh.D. has a tendency to unfit one to teach undergraduates. I have foundmy greatest difficulty in teaching American history, in which nearly halfmy graduate work was done. Being a master in a certain field of knowledgedoes not aid in teaching so much as being a master of the difficulties of thestudent, and intense specialization makes such a mastery more difficult. Ibelieve the doctorate should stand for culture as well as scholarship and atpresent it does not.In regard to the second question I think every Doctor should do somework in the philosophy of education and also in the pedagogy of his specialfield.1. I am decidedly in favor of requiring for the doctorate a higher andbroader standard of general culture. Twenty years ago, when the was a prerequisite for the Ph.D., it was possible to assume that theholders of that degree had done considerable work along the lines of generalculture. This is now no longer possible in view of either the free electivesystem, or the method by which three different degrees are given: the A.B.,the Ph.B., and the S.B., all of which are now accepted toward the Doctor'sdegree. It is now entirely possible for a man who has avoided most of thestudies making for general culture to receive his degree in some specialty inwhich he may have made some happy discovery which may serve as a thesissubj ect. The cultural equipment of these men may not differ in the leastfrom that of those who have pursued purely professional courses, such asengineering, without ever having taken a college course at all. In so faras these men are engaged in educational work it seems to me that theirinfluence is often not all it might be had they pursued broader linesof culture before taking the doctorate.2. I do not believe that candidates for the doctorate should be required156 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEto pursue courses in the philosophy of education, or in the pedagogy ofspecial subjects. Teachers, as well as poets, are born, not made; and it doesnot seem to me that these subj ects have any place in the requirements forthe doctorate, if for no other reason than that many Ph.D.'s have no intentionof teaching at all.3. I do believe that the doctorate is given to too large a number of per­sons, and that the restrictions should be along the line of the statementsmade in my answer to question 1.I find myself in accord with propositions I and 3, but I am not so favor­ably impressed by the second one. I certainly believe that a much largernumber of persons should be discouraged from going on to the doctorateof philosophy. I have held this opinion for a long time, and I still hold itbecause I see the degree cheapened by being put to unworthy uses. If thedoctorate is to mean anything at all it ought, in my opinion, to mean thatthe recipient can do independent investigation and that he will carry thespirit of research into the world, yet we see the degree used to signifymerely that the holder is prepared to teach a particular subj ect. The degreehas thus become merely a prerequisite. You will now understand, 1 think,why I do not assent to the second proposition. I would favor a separatedegree for university work looking to teaching: either the Master's degree,or a degree of Doctor of Education. Thus the doctorate could be reservedas a worthy designation of the ability to prosecute research.Regarding proposition I, I believe that in the past the University hasbeen entirely too lax in certain cases regarding the standard of general cul­ture which has been required. I know of at least two cases in one depart­ment where this has been true. I am almost ready to say that in additionto examinations in French and German every candidate for the doctorateshould be compelled to submit to examinations in English composition andin literature.Regarding proposition 2, I believe that no one should receive the doctor­ate without some knowledge of psychology, and that if properly arrangedcourses in education and pedagogy can be provided which will be appropriatefor all Doctors who intend to go into teaching, it seems to me that such, ifnot too prolonged, might well be made required subj ects.I agree most heartily with the first suggestion that candidates for thedoctorate should obtain a broader and higher standard of general culture.For the purposes of teaching this seems to me more important than theinsistance upon a contribution of something new in a thesis. From this timeon the Doctors will be called upon more and more to teach in secondaryschools as well as in colleges and this, in my mind, makes somewhat obli­gatory a little shift of emphasis in the giving of the Doctor's degree.The doctorate has in it three ends: knowledge, discovery, and teaching.The knowledge is fuller knowledge of a given subject or field than is gottenSYMPOSIUM ON THE DOCTORS' QUESTIPNNAIRE 157in a college course, but especially is it knowledge of the deposits where, andthe means wherewith, the Doctor may enlarge his acquaintance with what isknown on the subj ect. The Doctor should know how to put himself in pos­session of whatever is known on his subject. This knowledge is in orderto either discovery or teaching. The Doctor's degree should mean demon­strated capacity, and adequate training, for one or both of these ends. Thereare three classes of minds capable of attaining the doctorate: first, andmost numerous, those WNO have little aptitude for either original investiga­tion or teaching; second, and least numerous, those who excel in the powerof discovery, but are in the power of teaching; and third, and stand­ing between the other two in numbers, those who excel in the power ofteaching. Most of the first class should be Oslerized three years after obtain­ing the doctorate; a few should be preserved and exhibited as warningsagainst the useless vanity of university study by the incapacitated. Thesecond class are so few that no special provision need be made for them.Indeed they can hardly be known beforehand. Only their actual success indiscovery and failure in teaching can reveal them; and then they are so fewthat the most of them can be given a pension in the shape of a universityprofessorship, or be left to perish and thus make even the life of the learnedinteresting by touching it with human tragedy. I conclude, therefore, thatthe Doctor's training should aim at preparing him to teach. And to equiphim for his usual fate, it should train him to teach 'especially sub] ects thatlie outside his doctorate.I. Every teacher of a special branch should of course have sufficientacquaintance with all other lines of work to appreciate their specific valuein the curriculum. A lack of insight into the aims and workings of otherdepartments impairs the usefulness of the special teacher, even in the teach­ing of his own specialty, to say nothing of his work for the welfare of theschool as a whole. No Doctor should go out, furthermore, without someacquaintance with the history, literature, and thought of the last halfcentury.2. Every Doctor who intends to teach should at some time have had agood course in psychology. Philosophy of 'education, as I understand it,would be of little value, except as it involved a study of the history ofeducational methods and practice and of the history of the courses of study.This latter line of work I consider of very great value, for it seems to meimpossible for a man to understand thoroughly what present movementsmean, unless he has some knowledge of the past. It is just about as importantfor the 'estimate of the present and efficient work in it that a teacher knowthe past history of his profession, especially with reference to his ownspecialty, as for a statesman to .know political history. The Doctor shouldknow the pedagogy of his own subj ect, of course, and not only the collegepart, but the work in his line in the high school, and the grades, as well.He should know something of the actual conditions under which he will becalled to work, and toward this end it would be well for the University toarrange for occasional lectures by men well acquainted with these conditionsIS8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEin the various grades of schools and sections of the country. The workdone I in academies, high schools, and normal schools should become betterknown in the University than it is, and it would then stand in greateresteem. As it is, every Doctor (and most other postgraduates) knowsnothing much nor cares much for anything beyond college work. If he isobliged to go elsewhere, as most of them do, it is some time before he canreconcile himself to being among these "barbarians." This impairs his use-fulness for several years.3. The degree should, in my opinion be given rather to the exceptionalman than as a matter of course for so much work well done. I am dis­tinctly of the older notion, which seems to be passing to some extent, that ingranting the degree the University should feel as sure as in the nature ofthe case it can be, that the candidate is a person who bids fair to becomea scholar and to five up to the ideals for which the degree stands. If myobservation is correct, this is not by any means always the case. If thepossession of the Doctor's degree does not mean that a man is in a sensean independent scholar, then it is of no more value than the Bachelor's orMaster's degree, except as it stands for so many more years of work.As matters now stand, whatever the ideal held by the university worldin regard to the high calling of the Doctor in the field of pure research, thetact is that the great maj ority of the Doctors now turned out in thiscountry are nominated and pushed by their respective departments, forteaching positions, which they must fill successfully or be counted as failuresby all who measure the ratio of results accomplished to tasks undertaken.Success in teaching is well-nigh indispensable (save perhaps in a greatuniversity, where failure is less conspicuous because of the large numbersand multifarious interests). If the Doctor is to gain encouragement andopportunity to go on with his research, he must first establish a reputationfor himself, in the community where he goes, for soundness of judgment,clearness of presentation, and power to inspire and lead students; then,having made sure of his ground, he can have pretty much his own way inplanning and carrying out his work in the interest of his research. But,on the contrary, if in his blind devotion to his ideal he fails at the outset toteach successfully, to inspire and to lead students, he thereby cuts himselfoff from his very best resources for ultimately accomplishing his highestaims.These being the facts as realized in everyday experiences, the conclusionis forced upon us that the universities must prepare for teaching thoseDoctors whom it is proposed to recommend as teachers, and this prepara­tion must include breadth of culture, elimination of angularities, developmentof pedagogical sense, and some acquaintance with the great educationalmovements of the past and present. If it be urged that these, some or allof them, are either matters of personal quality or are foreign to the greatpurpose of the graduate school as director of explorations in unknownfields, then the other conclusion is forced upon us that only those DoctorsSYMPOSIUM ON THE DOCTORS' QUESTIONNAIRE 159should be recommended as teachers who possess by nature the prerequisitesor have developed them outside or in spite of the graduate school, and thatthe present indiscriminate practice of recommending any Doctor as ateacher, however narrow or however lacking in the. elements of pedagogicsense and power to teach, be superceded by a careful discrimination andselection of those who are prepared to teach and a refusal to nominate orrecommend those who are not.Such a discrimination will lead, as it should, to a more careful andpersonal consideration of every individual's candidacy for the doctorate, andwill compel a readjustment of curriculum and a recognition as a distinctmeld of that broad, thorough, and scientific training, commensurate with anystandard now set up for the doctorate, which is demanded by the man orwoman as a preparation for the highest attainment in teaching, leavingundisturbed the narrowest and possibly the deepest channels of pure researchto be followed by those who either have not the time or have not theinclination, or, perchance, have not the personal qualities needed in prepara-tion for teaching.This leads again and finally to the conclusion either that the number ofthose who are encouraged to go on to the doctorate should be greatlydiminished, or else that the basis of the doctorate should be greatly broad­ened so as to provide the highest standards and the strongest preparationfor the noble art of teaching, as well as to produce fine investigators.It is clear that a study of fundamental importance has beenundertaken by the Association, and it is proposed to continue thetopic for another year and to invite careful consideration of all itsphases as a basis for the discussion at the annual meeting in I909·It is urged that members of 'the Association continue to contributein writing to the corresponding secretary the results of their obser­vation and experience. These letters will be used from time to. timeas material for notes or short papers on the topic in these columnsduring the year. Special space has been allotted to the Doctors'Association, thus providing a means of intercommunication whichshould commend itself to all Doctors and which should be utilizedto' the full extent.CHARLES OTIS WHITMAN AS DIREC­TOR OF WOODS HOLE MARINELABO RAT 0 sv:THE resignation of Professor Whitman as Director of the MarineBiological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Mass., which wasannounced last summer, is of interest to anatomists, for he has beena very important factor in the cultivation of anatomical science inAmerica.During the twenty-one years in which he has been director ofthe Marine Biological Laboratory every opportunity and encourage­ment was given for the study of anatomy in its broadest sense, andwe have seen there those beginning scientific work encouraged andinspired by many distinguished investigators, all appreciating fullythe congenial scientific atmosphere which was established and keptalive by Professor Whitman.The most noteworthy investigations from this laboratory whichhave enriched anatomical science are thos.e on descriptive andexperimental embryology, cytology, and teratology, which, takentogether, form a scientific monument of the first rank, and havedone much to' establish our good reputation abroad. It certainlymust be gratifying to' Professor Whitman to' see this result.When the University of Chicago was founded, in I893, ProfessorWhitman was made head of the biological department, which in itsorganization was unusually strong on the anatomical side. It wasplanned at the beginning to divide the department as soon as cir­cumstances should warrant, and with the very rapid growth of theUniversity this took place within a year. Then the anatomical de­partment was established co-ordinate with those 'of zoology, physi­ology, and botany. This proved to be the most important step inthe organization of anatomical departments in America, and for itwe are largely indebted to Professor Whitman.But there is another event which should not be overlooked byanatomists, and that is the founding of the American MorphologicalSociety, in I890. The Association of Anatomists had been foundedtwo years before, and it seemed to Professor Whitman and his1 Reprinted from The Anatomical Record of November, TooR_160CHARLES OTIS WHITMAN 161twenty-five followers that the latter society was not likely to bevigorous, and their action in forming a new one gave an opportunityto' test this opinion. During the following five years, while Whitmanwas president, the morphological society flourished with greatenergy, while the anatomical society showed all signs of early decay.In 1899 the American Society of Zoologists was founded at Chicagoand the Association of Anatomists began to awaken at about thesame time; in 1902 the former absorbed the morphological, while thelatter expanded with as great force as the morphological did tenyears before. Scientific anatomists are under the greatest obliga­tions to Professor Whitman for the stimulus he thus exerted upontheir association between 1890 and 1900.At the time Professor Whitman was elected director of theMarine Biological Laboratory he also began the publication of hisexcellent Journal of Morphology) which, according to' the announce­ment, was to be devoted principally to embryological, anatomical,and histological subjects. The file of seventeen volumes=publishedduring a period of fifteen years shows, as. Whitman predicted, theimperative need of a journal of this kind. "The previous mixedcharacter and scattered sources of our publications have been twinevils that have become intolerable at horne and abroad. The estab­lishment of the Journal of Morphology may not be a deathblow tothese evils, but there is hope that it will, at least, relieve the mostembarrassing difficulties of the present situation." By 190r it becameapparent that the new journal could not pay its own way, and assoon as the publishers withdrew their support its end was in sight.However, the anatomists of the country, realizing fully the necessityof a journal of anatomy of this quality, at once secured a sufficientendowment to continue the good work in the form of a new journal,the American Journal of Anatoma, which has not only been afinancial success, but also acted as a means; of establishing other newjournals and strengthening old ones, as well as re-establishing theJournal of Morphology,The establishment of a modern scientific laboratory at WoodsHole, the making of the anatomical department at Chicago a uni­versity department, the indirect invigorating influence upon theAssociation of Anatomists, and the establishment of the Journal ofMorphology, are the four great services Professor Whitman hasrendered the science of anatomy in America. But there is another,162 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmore general and more important, service he has rendered our uni­versities, which, as years go by, will gradually grow and becomerecognized. This is the establishment of an institution for scienceand for scientists. The Woods Hole laboratory has, in its organiza­tion the true soul, for it is managed from top to bottom by scientists.In that institution the worthy young student is received with openarms, is inspired and encouraged, but is never called upon to prosti­tute himself as a research assistant; the overworked college professorfinds a scientific haven; and many distinguished biologists breathethere the congenial scientific spirit. The democratic organizationappeals to all, as the laboratory is ruled by leaders of its own choiceand not by a group of men who employ professors. Repeatedly hasWoods Hole declined riches when by its acceptance there was onlythe remotest possibility of interference with this indispensable inde­pendence. All of the proffers fell upon deaf ears. The nightingalemay be captured, but it can never be made to breed by the huntsmannor be made to sing in confinement. It must live in its own peculiarhabitat, and this is found for scientists at Woods Hole. In thiscountry we are searching for heroes in productive science, but "thebirds that may sing seem to avoid the golden cage."The spirit of independence and co-operation established andmaintained at Woods Hole by Professor Whitman, although con­stantly streaked with abject poverty, has made there the ideal homefor biology as well as the most productive and famous scientificlaboratory that America has yet seen. Whitman is the chief bene­factor of this laboratory, for he has endowed it with the right ideals.The corporation and trustees in accepting Professor Whitman'sresignation requested him to' serve as honorary director and trustee,but in declining this his fine spirit did not falter.Your action in which you express a desire to have me serve the labora­tory as honorary director and trustee is in itself alone an all-sufficientreward for whatever service I have rendered as director. Your good willis the all-important recompense, and no title that you could confer 'couldadd to the weight of your approbation. In fact, titles belittle the spirit. Letme have the latter without the former-without title or office of any kind.Please respect this wish and believe me, as ever, a sincere and devotedfriend of the laboratory.THE UNIVERSITY RECORDEXERCISES CONNECTED WITH THESIXTY�NINTH CONVOCATIONHon. John Watson Foster, LL.D.,former Secretary of State, wasthe Convocation orator on December18, 1908, his address, which wasgiven in the Leon Mandel AssemblyHall, being entitled "The Develop­ment of International Law." Thespeaker was introduced by the Presi­dent of the University, who is alsothe Head of the Department of Po­litical Science. The Convocation Ad­dress appears elsewhere in this issueof the Magazine.The Convocation Reception washeld in Hutchinson Hall on the even­ing of December 17. In the receivingline were President and Mrs. HarryPratt Judson; the Convocation ora­tor, Hon. John W. Foster, and Mrs.Foster; the President of the Univer­sity Board of Trustees, Mr. MartinA. Ryerson, and Mrs. Ryerson. Thereception was attended by manymembers of the Faculties as well asby graduates and their friends.DEGREES CONFERRED AT THE SIXTY�NINTH CONVOCATIONAt the sixty-ninth Convocation ofthe University, held in the LeonMandel Assembly Hall on December18, I908, twelve students were electedto membership in Sigma Xi for evi­dence of ability in research work inscience, and four students wereelected to membership in the Beta ofIllinois chapter of Phi Beta Kappafor especial distinction in generalscholarship in the University.Fifty-three students received thetitle of Associate; two, the two-yearscertificate of the College of Edu­cation; two, the degree of Bach­elor of Education; five, the degreeof Bachelor of Arts; eighteen, thedegree of Bachelor of Philosophy;and ten, the degree of Bachelor ofScience.In the Divinity School one studentreceived the degree of Master ofArts. In the Graduate Schools of Arts,Literature, and Science two studentswere given the degree of Master ofArts; two, that of Master of Sci­ence; and two, that of Doctor ofPhilosophy-making a total of forty­two degrees (not including titles andcertificates) conferred by the Uni­versity at the Winter Convocation.At this Convocation also the 'hon­orary degree of Doctor of Laws wasconferred by the President of theUniversity upon Walther JohannWever, J.D., Imperial GermanConsul-General at Chicago, the can­didate being presented by ProfessorGeorge Edgar Vincent, Dean of theFaculties of Arts, Literature, andScience. Dr. Wever has beenlargely instrumental in promotingespecially cordial relations betweenthe German universities and the Uni­versity of Chicago, and the confer­ring of the degree met with the veryhearty approval of the audience.In conferring the honor PresidentHarry Pratt Judson said:"Dr. Walther Johann Wever, 1m...,° perial German Consul-General in thecity of Chicago, administrator anddiplomat, loyal and efficient repre­sentative of your government in dif­ferent and distant parts of the world,unceasing in your efforts to fosterthat higher commerce between na­tions which consists in the inter­change of intellectual and moralpossessions and ideals, constant pro­moter of closer relations betweenGerman and American scholarship,faithful and valued friend of thisUniversity, and active intermediarybetween it and the German com­munity of this city:"For your many services to thecause of good-will and friendshipbetween two great nations, and par­ticularly in recognition of your highconception of the sphere and func­tions of the consular office, thetrustees of the University of Chi­cago, on recommendation of theUniversity Senate, have conferredupon you the honorary degree ofI63164 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEDoctor of Laws, in testimony ofwhich fact I bestow upon you thishood, which you may wear as aDoctor of the University of - Chi­cago, and this diploma. Receivethese in token of admission to thehonorary alumni of the University."REPRESENTATIVES OF THE UNIVER­SITY AT THE PAN·AMERICANSCIENTIFIC CONGRESSAs delegates to the First Pan­American Scientific Congress begin­ning its sessions at Santiago, Chile,December 25, 1908, the Universityof Chicago has sent Professor J.Laurence Laughlin, Head of theDepartment of Political Economy,and Professor Albert A. Michelson,Head of the Department of Physics.The delegates left Chicago in themiddle of November and will returnabout March 1. At the conclusionof the congress, at which several in­stitutions of the Association ofAmerican Universities will . be rep­resented, the Chicago representativesmay visit leading South Americancolleges. The itinerary, however, issubj ect to the exigencies of SouthAmerican travel. On January 2Professor Michelson presented apaper before the congress on thesubject of "Recent Developments inSpectroscopy," which attracted muchattention and discussion.INVESTIGATION OF EDUCATIONAL CON­DITIONS IN THE ORIENTProfessor Thomas C. Chamberlin,Head of the Department of Geology,accompanied by his son, Dr. RollinT . Chamberlin, of the United StatesGeological Survey, left the UnitedStates January 2, and will reachYokohama January 26 or 27, wherethey will meet a graduate student ofthe University, Mr. Y. T. Wang,who will act as interpreter for Pro­fessor Chamberlin during his investi­gations of educational conditions inChina. About February I ProfessorChamberlin will meet ProfessorErnest D. Burton, Head of the De­partment of Biblical and PatristicGreek, in Shanghai; thence he willgo to Hongkong or Canton, return­ing to Shanghai about February 15. Sometime between February 20 and28 he will be at Hankow, whence itis likely he will make a six weeks'trip visiting Chengtu. His move­ments after this are uncertain. Prob­ably his address will be Peking.While in China Professor Chamber­lin will also give his attention tocertain geological phenomena ofthe country. After leaving ChinaProfessor Chamberlin and his sonwill return to this country by wayof Siberia and Europe. ProfessorBurton will return to America byway of the Pacifi·c.THE FACULTIESProfessor Paul Shorey, Head ofthe Department of Greek, contributesto the January (1909) issue of theSchool Review the opening article,entitled "Hippias Paidagogos."Associate Professor Addison W.Moore, of the Department of Phi­losophy, gave an address January 6.on the subj ect of "Pragmatism" be­fore the Woman's Club of Chicago."The Rudovitz Extradition Case"was the subj ect of a contribution tothe January (1909) issue of theWorld To-Day, by Mr. Samuel N.Harper, Associate in the RussianLanguage and Literature."The Philippine Teachers' Vaca­tion Assembly" is the subj ect of anillustrated contribution to the J anu­ary (1909) issue of the World To­Day, by Professor William D. Mac­Clintock, of the Department of Eng­lish.Francis Wayland Shepardson, As­sociate Professor of American His­tory, was recently elected presidentof the Illinois Society of the Sonsof the Revolution. The society al­ready has a membership of nearlytwo hundred.Professor George E. Vincent,Dean of the Faculties of Arts, Lit­erature, and Science, was one of thespeakers at the annual banquet ofthe Illinois Manufacturers' Associa­tion held at the Auditorium Annexon December 8."President Gompers and the LaborVote" is the subject of a note con­tributed to the December (1908)THE UNIVERSITY RECORDissue of the Journal of PoliticalEconomy, by Assistant ProfessorRobert F. Hoxie, of the Departmentof Political Economy.Professor James H. Tufts, Headof the Department of Philosophy,has a contribution in the November(I908) number of the ElementarySchool Teacher entitled "Dr. Meyeron the Dangers of Knowing Thingswithout Doing Things."The Botanical Gazette for Decem­ber, I908, is opened with the secondbryological paper contributed by Pro­fessor Charles R. Barnes and Dr. W.J. G. Land, the subj ect being "TheOrigin of the Cupule of Marchantia."The article is illustrated by fourteenfigures.Under the general title of TheAwakened Church, Professor ShailerMathews, Dean of the DivinitySchool, contributes to the Januarynumber of the World To-Day a dis­cussion of the subj ect of "TheChurch and Scholarship" -the first ofa series of articles.Dr. Frank Wakeley Gunsaulus,President of the Armour Institute ofTechnology, Chicago, has presentedto the University of Chicago a largepainting of the "Tom Quad" ofChrist Church College, Oxford.This picture was in the possession ofDr. Liddell, the Greek lexicographer.President Harry Pratt Judson pre­sided at one of the earlier sessionsof the Federal Council of theChurches of Christ in America,which held its meeting the first weekin December at Philadelphia. Presi­dent Judson was made vice-presidentof the executive committee of theCouncil.A preliminary report to the Har­bor Commission of Chicago on thepossibilities of creating a great com­mercial harbor for the city was re­cently, made by Assistant ProfessorJ. Paul Goode, of the Department ofGeography, who has for severalmonths been studying the best fea­tures of harbor facilities abroad.Professor George Herbert Palmer,of Harvard University, has presentedfor the ringing room in MitchellTower a large, framed photographof Mrs. Alice Freeman Palmer, inwhose memory the chimes were given. When the decoration of theroom has been completed, this por­trait will be placed in that ·chamber.The Nobel peace prize for the year1908 has been divided between K. P.Arnoldson, of Sweden, and FrederickBajer, of Denmark. The former isthe father of Mr. Torild Arnoldson,formerly connected with the Depart­ment of German in the Universityof Chicago, but now professor ofmodern languages in the Universityof Utah."Photographic Observations ofComet c 1908 (Morehouse)" is thesubj ect of a contribution in the De­cember (1908) number of the Astro­physical Journal, by ProfessorEdward E. Barnard, of the YerkesObservatory. This is a second paperon the same subj ect, and is illus­trated by four plates of remarkableinterest.At the fifty-first meeting of theEastern Association of PhysicsTeachers held at Boston Universityon October 23 and 24, Associate Pro­fessor Robert A. Millikan, of theDepartment of Physics, gave anaddress on "The Relation of HighSchool and College Physics." Theaddress is published in full in theproceedings of the association.Under the general title of DutchArt and Artists, Assistant ProfessorGeorge B. Zug, of the Departmentof the History of Art, contributesan illustrated article to the January(1909) number of the Chautauquan,on "The Painters of the Peasantry.""Painters of Domestic Scenes" wasthe subject of Mr. Zug's contribu­tion to the December (I908) num­ber of the same magazine.A portrait of Professor J. Lau­rence Laughlin, Head of the Depart­ment of Political Economy.. formsthe frontispiece of the January(1909) number of the World To-Day, and there is also a sketch ofhis career in the same number. Pro­fessor Laughlin is now in SouthAmerica as a representative of theUniversity of Chicago at the Pan­American Scientific Congress at San­tiago, Chile.Professor William Ireland Knapp,Ph.D., LL.D., Head Professor ofthe Romance Languages and Litera-I66 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtures in the University of Chicagofrom 1892 to 1895, died in Paris onDecember 17, 1908. ProfessorKnapp was at one time connectedwith Vassar College and was calledto the University of Chicago fromYale University. He was regardedas an authority in Spanish historyand literature."The Gold Regions of the Straitof Magellan and Tierra Del Fuego"is the subj ect of the opening contri­bution in the November-December(1908) number of the Journal ofGeology) by Professor R. A. F. Pen­rose, Jr., of the Department of Ge­ology. The article is illustrated bynine figures. Professor Samuel W.Williston, of the Department ofPaleontology, contributes to the samenumber an article on the "NorthAmerican Plesiosaurs," illustrated byfifteen figures.In Classical Philology for January,1909, Dr. Berthold L. Ullman, of theDepartment of Latin, discusses thesubj ect of "The Book Division ofPropertius," and Professor Carl D.Buck, Head of the Department ofSanskrit and Indo-European Com­parative Philology, has a contribu­tion on "An Archaic BoeotianInscription," which is illustrated byone plate. Professor Paul Shorey,the managing editor of the journal,contributes a note on "ThucydidesII. 1 5-4," and also one on "EuripidesAlcestis 290 FF."President Harry Pratt Judson con­tributes to the January (1909) issueof the Elementary School Teacherthe opening article, entitled "Religionin the Public Schools." In the samenumber is a report of the secondannual meeting of the National So­ciety for the Promotion of IndustrialEducation, by Miss Lillian S. Cush­man, of the School of Education; and "The Kindergarten Programme"is discussed by Miss Bertha Payne,of the same school. A referencelist of current educational literaturein the periodicals is 'Contributed tothis number by Miss Irene Warren,librarian of the School of Education.To the November (1908) numberof the Biblical World Associate Pro­fessor Clyde W. Votaw, of the De­partment of New Testament Litera­ture and Interpretation, contributesan article on "The Apocalypse ofJohn." Professor Ernest D. Bur­ton 'continues his series of articleson the Biblical Doctrine of Atone­ment, this being the eleventh, underthe title of "The Teaching of theFirst Epistle of Peter and of theEpistle to the Hebrews." ProfessorCharles R. Henderson, Head of theDepartment of Ecclesiastical Soci­ology, also continues his series ofarticles on Social Duties-"SocialDuties in International Relations"being the title of the present contri­bution. "Recovery and Deciphermentof the Monuments of Ancient Ethi­opia" is the subj ect of a contributionin the December issue of thejournal, by Professor James H.Breasted, of the Department of Se­mitics. Professor Burton discusses"Atonement in the Writings As­cribed to John," and Assistant Pro­fessor Shirley J. Case, of the Depart­ment of New Testament Literatureand Interpretation, considers thequestion "Was Christianity aNewReligion?" In the January (1909)number, the conclusion of the seriesof articles on "The Biblical Doc­trine of Atonement" is contributedby Assistant Professor John M. P.Smith, of the Department of Se­mitics, and Professor Ernest D. Bur­ton; and the closing contribution isby Assistant Professor Shirley J.Case on the subj ect of "The FirstChristian Community."DISCUSSION AND COMMENTCOMPARATIVE STUDY OFAMERICAN UNIVERSITIESThe series of articles on "GreatAmerican Universities," by EdwinE. Slosson, Ph.D., '02, which isappearing in the Independent, willbe found interesting to Chicagograduates. Nine endowed universi­ties: Harvard, Columbia, Chicago,Yale, Cornell, Princeton, Pennsyl­vania, Stanford, and Johns Hop­kins, and five state universities,those of Michigan, Minnesota, Wis- consin, California, and Illinois, willbe considered.This choice of the fourteen great­est American institutions of highereducation is similar to that of theCarnegie Foundation, which in itsBulletin Number 2 (June, I9(8)ranks these universities with severalothers according to the moneyannually spent by them in instruc­tion. The figures are arranged bythe Independent as given in the ac­companying table:.� 1-< .... dod v =I:: "_vv .� v""" ].9S .9 v I-< :::l0 � � > :::l_ ci5.�.�rJ) I::I-< �H�u '§:o35 .._·a �I-< "01-< .s� �P ·E.e I::V o 0.. __vo.. 'sInstitution "'a �� � G) I:: o I:: 0..1:: --1::0:::l ..0'- 2:::; :>< 0 E-t lB�I:: 0..1-<.- Sill 'tnl:: �.� S<� ... ZmI:: _u 1::'- VU :; 2 �<: _ClS::I �::I ::IClSU)..!:: """ �� t� s d"'�c; E�� -::I -CIS .9 &�dCIS ... CIS- 'a"0 cOO �oo � >=1::-- <� � :><�.-E-t < E-t � �--- --- -- -� ---Columbia University ....... $1,675,000 $1,145,000 I 4,087 559 7·3 $280 $150 $130Harvard University ........ 1,827,789 841,97° 4,012 573 7 209 ISO 59University of Chicago ..... 1,304,000 699,000 5,070 291 17 .. 4 137 120 17University of Michigan .... 1,078,000 536,000 4,282 285 IS 125 30 95Yale University •........... 1,088,921 524,577 3�306 365 9 158 155 3Cornell University ......... 1,082,513 51°,931 3,635 5°7 7. I 140 100 40University of Illinois ...... 1,200,000 491,675 3,605 414 8·7 136 24 112University of Wisconsin .. � 998,634 489,810 3,II6 297 10 4 157 .. 157University of Pennsylvania. 589,226 433,3II 3,7°0 375 9.8 II7 150 -33University of California .... 844,000 408,000 2,987 350 8·5 136 .. 136Stanford University ......... 850,000 365,000 1.583 136 lI.6 230 20 210Princeton University ..... : 442,232 308,650 1,311 163 8 235 ISO 85University of Minnesota ... 515,000 263,000 3,889 303 12.8 66 20 46Johns Hopkins U niversi ty . 3II,870 211,013 6$1 1'J.2 3·7 324 150 174Some significant comparative regis­tration statistics, based on recentdata, are found in the issue of J anu­ary 7, which begins the series by anarticle on Harvard University.Institution No. of studentsColumbia 0 ••••••••••• 5,675Michigan 5,188Chicago 5,114Harvard � 4,948By including the women in Rad­cliffe College, since women studentsare counted in the other three insti­tutions, Harvard steps into secondplace with 5,342. The well-recognized fact of themore rapid growth of western overeastern institutions is brought out, aswell as the increasing tendency ofgraduate students to remain inAmerica for advanced study. Thereare now 68 men and 27 women,American students, in Berlin, asagainst 200 three years ago.The author comments on the Uni­versity of Chicago system in dis­tributing the emphasis to be placedon undergraduate work:VVhen order is brought out ofchaos it seems likely that the natural168 TEE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEcleavage plane between collegiate anduniversity work will be found to .bebetween the Sophomore and J umoryear, about where it is in Germany.This President Harper foresaw, ashe foresaw many other things nowcoming to pass, and he endeavoredto provide for It by c�ttmg . theundergraduate course at Chicago intotwo parts of two years each, theJunior College and the Senior Col­lege and turning over the work ofthe 'former as far as possible tosmaller affiliated colleges in all partsof the country. Unfortunately thisplan was never thoroughly carriedout and the distinction between thetw� colleges in Chicago is now littlemore than a catalog fiction.At Harvard a somewhat rigidentrance examination must be under­gone, but once that barrier is re­moved, the student's life is compara­tively easy. At Chicago, however,as at Stanford, the weeding processis continued all along the line. Thematriculant must not only presentsatisfactory evidences of scholarshipfrom an accredited school or pass anexamination for admission, but mustalso justify his continued residencein the University by maintaining ahigh standard of work. The recentpromulgation of the honor pointsystem, as set forth in the OctoberMagazine by Dean Vincent, has re­duced this culling process to an al­most automatic basis. Students whofail to secure nine honor points, or,in other words, are unable to main­tain an average higher than "D" inthe first three quarters of residence,are dismissed. Under this system,therefore, it is possible for a studentto spend a quarter in moving awayfrom the degree, rather than towardit.Dr. Slosson criticizes Harvard inthe .geographical arrangement andarchitectural attractiveness of itsbuildings. He says:I do not mean that all the build­ings should be alike-a-Columbia andChicago err on the other SIde-orthat a larger proportion of the in­come should have been spent onbuildings, but convenience of arrange­ment and unity of design could havebeen attained without difficulty.FOR A GREATER UNIVERSITYThere can be no better manifesta­tion of true Chicago spirit than that displayed in the last few weeks bythe University women in their agita­tion for a better gymnasium. Realiz­ing that this can be obtained only byconcerted action they are preparingnumerous schemes for raising moneythat shall be a foundation fund forthe much-needed gym. The newestsuggestion is that of Miss KatharineSlaught, who proposes that eachclass collect a mile of pennies. Thiswill realize $844.80 for a mile or atotal of $3,379.20 for the classes, alittle nest egg that looks small incomparison with the sum needed, butis large because it represents anhonest desire to help on the part ofthe University women.This is one of the most encourag­ing exhibitions of college loyalty inrecent months and is a good move­ment with which to start the newyear. In developing its resources theUniversity is just awakening to itsneeds. It looks forward to thehearty support of its alumni andstudents. A great many undergradu­ates already have sent their contribu­tions for the Harper Memorial fundto Dr. Goodspeed. Each one hasthe satisfaction of being a contribu­tor to the magnificent library thatis soon to be built on the campus,and a sense of personal interest inthe growth of the University ofChicago. Helping the Universitynow is one of the best demon­'strations of college spirit. Trueloyalty is not always displayed onthe surface, and it does not followthat the most loyal student is theone who yells the loudest, has themost pennants tacked up in hisroom, or wears the most emblems onhis coat lapels. It is known ratherby unfailing support when it iscalled for, an attention to the little,duties out of which the larger dutiesdevelop, and an earnest desire todo the best for the good of thew hole under all conditions and cir­cumstances. At the present momentthe work of raising funds for thenew library, the women's gymnasium,the University Settlement, or anyother worthy cause destined to be �fpermanent value, gives the loyal Chi­.cago man or woman an unequaledopportunity to show his devotion toa great end.DISCUSSION AND COMMENTABOUT THE ALL-AMERICANAs constant purchasers of thesporting extra we are at liberty topass on the selections for the All­American, the All-Eastern, and theAll-Western football teams, just aswe may declare ourselves satisfiedor dissatisfied with the south-pawwork of Ed Walsh or the twirlingof Rube Waddell. We may feel thatwe have been cheated out of a pla:ceon this or that team, and if the selec­tion made by the football coach, theathletic editor or the veteran playerdoes not appeal to us we may comeout with our own eleven and declarethat this is the only only and reallytruly All-American. It is quite anadjustable team-this All-American.Weare tickled when we read thatwe have a man on it, and yet wefeel that Walter Camp cannot bewholly unbiased because he is ofthe 'East, nor Yost because he iscoach at Michigan, nor can the reas­ons of the Chicago Tribune be ex­actly like those which govern thesporting editor of the Daily Maroon,because in each instance the manwho makes the selections has toshow 'some ability at reasoning inorder to hold his job. There arevery few men we can all agree on,and even if we do concede that oneor two players have achieved na­tional prominence there are still sixto eight places left for us to fill.And after we have read what thesporting editor has to say, we fillthe places with the men we thinkought to be honored and the nexttime the fellows get together wehave a long string of arguments proand con.Oh, that in the golden days tocome, when America shall have anational university and a nationaltheater, someone might endow a Col­lege of the All-American FootballTeam or a Hall of Fame for theHeroes of the Gridiron; that everyone of us might choose our delegatesto' this great conference of sports­men; that we might listen to theirdebates and orations from the gal­leries and feel that their selectionshad as much weight as the choiceof a rivers and harbors appropria­tion bill. Oh, that we might recordour admiration on tablets of bronze set in walls of marble in a hall thatshall be circular, so that no schooland no college may claim a betterposition than ours. We look for thedawn of the golden age when wemen whose shoulders have becomebowed from sitting on the bleachersand whose eyes have become weakwith much reading of statistics maysee the palm awarded by 'this greatcentral authority, which shall sit injudgment even as the queen of thejousts sat in judgment over thedoughty warriors in the days ofchivalry.BUSINESS SUCCESS FOR COL­LEGE MENRecent criticisms of college menin business have caused a series ofeditorial discussions in the dailypress and reopened the old subj ectof the value of the college-trainedman. as compared with the man nota college graduate. It is not to besupposed that this question ever willbe fully settled in the minds of allcritics for the reason that the per­sonal element enters into it justenough to keep students of sociologyguessing whether the man did whathe did because he was a collegegraduate, whether he would havedone better if he had not been, orwhether he would have increasedhis efficiency still further by waitingfor a Doctor's degree. This aside,however, every college man will ad­mit that many useful hints are hid­den away in the criticisms of workby university graduates. A case inpoint is the remark made recentlybefore the University CommercialClub by H. B. Riley, of the ChicagoTitle and Trust Company, that col­lege men expect big things on thejump and have not the patience todo the details necessary for them tolearn their business. "It is the littlethings that count," said Mr. Riley,"and they require a routine characterthat the highly educated man hasnot the patience to wait for. Themachine-like facility and grasp ofpurpose is what university men donot get. I think that if you havenot gone too far you can get intoa business like ours and make aTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEsuccess, but somehow you never do.You don't stick."Some of the recent discussions ofthe elective system, notably that byMr. Abraham Flexner in The Ameri­can College, bear on this remark byMr. Riley, in that they declare stu­dents do not show any direct aims intheir choice of studies, and oftenskip around in different courseswithout being materially interestedone way or the other. They com­plain of a lack of concentration anddefinite bent, many students beingunwilling to follow up the minorsteps in a department because of theroutine involved.The importance of concentrationand attention to detail has been em­phasized so often in chapel, in thelecture hall, and in the classroom,that college men may be supposed toknow the formula for success byheart. Yet it is not amiss to repeathere some recent contributions andcall to the mind of the undergraduatethat no matter how many courseshe may take up purely for culturepurposes jie must make much of hiswork subsidiary to one central effortinto which he must put his heart andsoul. "What constitutes a teacher,"says Professor George HerbertPalmer, of Harvard University, "isthe passion to make scholars." AndRev. Frank Crane, in an address atJunior College chapel, declared 'con­centration, the key to success, to be aform of insanity, adding the tersedeclaration: "To be successful, gomad."GARGOYLETTESOn the elective system.-The mindof the poor student is not likely tobe inj ured by desultory study and itdoes not matter much if it is, but aman with a powerful mind, asym­metrically trained, is too dangerousto be let loose in the community.­Ex.C oeducation.-I asked a Harvardprofessor why the Harvard men didnot associate with the Radcliffe stu- dents, and he said it was becausethe latter were of inferior socialrank, "being mostly from aroundBoston and merely teachers." Astudent I met at the Memorial din­ing-table gave another reason. Hesaid he had called on two Radcliffegirls the evening before, and "I neverhad a more tiresome time in my life.Those girls study so hard all daythat they haven't a bit of life leftin them." I sympathized with him,also with the Radcliffe girls, for I,too, had had to listen to his conver­sation.-E. E. Slosson, Ph.D., '02, inthe INDEPENDENT for January 7.On the spirit at H arvard.- TheHarvard man is not apt to be apropagandist. He does not force hisviews upon other people; perhaps be­cause he lacks confidence in hisviews, perhaps because he lacks con­fidence in other people. A Harvardprofessor, of whom I inquired aboutthe spirit of the university, said, "Ahealthy spirit of pessimism prevailsin all departments." -1 demoCollege (?) yell extension.-Acontest for the best college yell, suit­able for use in "The Fair Co-ed,"instituted by George Ade, author ofthe play, has been closed, and Wil­liam G. Miller, a student at the Uni­versity of Chicago, has been ad­judged the winner. He will receivea prize of $25 for suggesting thefollowing:Gee, golly, gosh, darn,Deuce, devil, dang,Bingham college, Bingham college,Zip, boom, bang.One vote for first place and threefor honorable mention were awardeda yell submitted by O. N. Horner, ofLigonier, Ind. It is as follows:Buffalo, calico,Corduroy, gingham,Pluribus, make a fuss,Rah, rah, Bingham.Rare-bit, tear-a-bit,Scare-a-bit, stingemWho rah, we rah,All rah, Bingham.-Chicago TribuneCORRESPONDENCE[The Editors of The l!nz""ty of Chz"cago Magazz"ne welcome letters from graduates facultMd stu?en!s on University tOPIC� .. Correspondence should bear the signature of the writer. Tl'�agazzne IS not responsible for opmions expressed in contributions.]AN ASSOCIATION OF CLASSSECRETARIESEditor of the Magazine:Sir:. We have now over 4,000alumni of the colleges. Until theMagazine was established, two yearsago, there was very little to make theaverage bachelor feel any continu­ing attachment to the University.Almost the only sort of alumnus thatwas heard of in earlier days was theso-called "enthusiastic" species whoplayed both villain and scapeg�at inthe athletic extravaganza. It is notto be wondered at that athletics 'con­stituted almost the only bond of thedeparting graduate to the college.Chicago wasn't then the sort of placeto create lively sentimental attach­ments. The undergraduates had tofeel that they did not constitute byany means th� whole University,nor the most Important part of it.The atmosphere of research was avery rarified and dry one in which topropagate the tender affections of thecollege student. Then, too, it used tostrike us that the administrative or­ganization of the University hadbeen cut at least two sizes too larzeto allow for rapid growth; and th�tgives anyone an awkward feeling.Finally, there were no close classgroups to make the departing studentfeel that he belonged to anythingmore personal than a mathematicalformula. He didn't know what classhe belonged to till Mr. Gurney fig­ured It out.Several things have been at workchanging all this. First and f ore­most, sentiment has been adding itstouch of magic to the"tender mistOf delicate ivy, stealing up thestones."Human lives have built themselvesinto the gray walls. In the secondplace, the colleges and the graduateschools have gradually articulated. Holders of our own higher degreesare numerous among the teachers inthe colleges; and a steadily increas­mg number of our own bachelorsare in the faculties of both the col­leges and the graduate schools. Theconfidence of growing numbers ismakl,ng the graduates of the collegesconsiderably surer that the Univer­sity belongs to them. The outlines ofthe stru�ture. of the University havebeen filling m and rounding out· itfits us better than it did once. U n­questionably, too, there is beginning!o be somewhat more corporate unityIn the successive June classes.The propaganda of this increasingsolidarity among the alumni alreadyout is the immediate work of theAlumni Association. The Magazinehas helped tremendously. TheGeneral Secretary has found thecorrespondence of his office rapidlymultiplying. On his initiative sec­retaries have been designated forevery class (though patriotism com­pels me to note that the class of '02had already elected a president anda secretary), So far, however, myexperience leads me to think that thesecretaries have been of very littleuse. They have not yet done verymuch toward the group organization,the federal structure, which ournew activity and our increasing sizemake absolutely necessary. It goeswithout saying that we don't regardthat as altogether our fault. Therehas been very little to take hold of,we have not known how to take holdof that little, and we have had no co­operation, to cumulate experienceand stimulate activity.Here enters the Association ofClass Secretaries. The solidificationof classes into active unified societiescan be done. I have seen enough ofalu�ni to know t.hat all they arewarting for IS a little stirring, andthe crystallization will begin. ButTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEwe secretaries would be very greatlyhelped by an association which woulddraw up uniform class record-blanks,would keep up an interchange ofnotes and ideas, and would hold upsome standards of responsibility andexercise a steady and friendly stimu­lus.Cornell has such an association;so have Harvard and Yale, and, Ibelieve, Princeton. I believe it isour turn now.FREDERICK D. BRAMHALL, '02Chicago, January 8, I909THE ROCKY MOUNTAINALUMNIEditor of the Magazine:Sir: In our alumni club of ap­proximately IIO members, we have48 teachers, of whom IS are con­nected with colleges and normalschools, and 19 with high schools.There are 5 lawyers, 4 mining en­gineers, I architect, I civil engineer,I assayer and chemist, 6 ministers,2 physicians, 4 coaches and athleticdirectors, 2 printers and publishers,3 ranchmen, I fruit-grower, and therest are business men or house-wives.During the past year, Henry A.Lewis, our oldest member, who wasa freshman in '65, and who remem­bered Dr. Herbert A. Howe, whohas just been elected president ofthe alumni club here, as a boy inkilts, passed to his long rest. Hewas buried on December 20. Mr.Lewis, previous to his death, wasengaged in the real estate business.He had been in residence in theUniversity but the one year, and wasa member of Phi Kappa Psi.ELLA R. METSKER, '06Denver, January I, I909THE MILTON NUMBEREditor of the Magazine:Sir: The Alumni Association hasgood reason to' feel a just pride inthe January Magazine.When in Cambridge I visitedChrist's College, I would have feltgreat pleasure, bad I known ofits existence, to' see the mulberrytree planted by the hand of thatfair youth, so pure and blame­less of life that he was known:as the "Lady of Christ's." He was that same youth, who, having"in the classic land of Italy held highconverse with "the starry Galileowith his woes" and other choicespirits, returned with a "firm heartin a sound body" to render "light­some, clear and not lumpish obedi­ence to the cause of religion and hiscountry's liberty," to stand for "thehonest liberty of free speech," deal­ing such blows "as made all Europering from side to side." "Give me,"cried he, "the liberty to know, toalter, and to argue freely, above allliberties."How fitting that in an institutionfostered by those who hold fast tothe same faith as those unhappymartyrs "whose bones lay bleachingon the Alpine mountains cold," andwho ever stand for liberty of con­science, the memory of this greatprotagonist should be duly honored.GEORGE W. THOMAS, '62Chicago, January 6, I909.THE CLASS ,GIFT OF '05Editor of the Magazine:Sir: The class of '05 voted for adouble row of trees along the walknorth of Haskell, together with atablet proclaiming this particularplace to be '05 lane. President Har­per told us that if the class wouldfurnish the trees the Universitywould plant them. After his death,however, nobody seemed to knowanything about this understanding,and we were told by the Office ofBuildings and Grounds that it wasnot the plan to improve that partof the campus for several years.Dr. Goodspeed wrote me only lastyear advising that the money beturned into the Harper MemorialFund, assuring us that some featureof the new library, costing fourtimes as much as the money ad­vanced by the class, should be desig­nated as the class gift. I agreed tohis suggestion as the best way outof a misunderstanding. The moneywas turned over to the University in1905 by Treasurer Lee Maxwell, andaccording to my understanding, inter­est has been accruing on the principalsince that time.CLYDE A. BLAIR, '05,President of the ClassClearmont, Wyo., December 26CORRESPONDENCETHE MAIMONIDES CLUBEditor of the Magazine:" Sir: In your,} anuary is.sue, underGeneral News, you mention amonz"other denominational organization�in the University" the MaimonidesClub, which you say is composed ofJewish students.I wish to call your attention to thefact that the Maimonides Club isnot a denominational club, althoughthe impression that it is seems some­how to have taken root on thecampus. The Maimonides is a cluborganized for the purpose of study­ing and discussing Judaism, in itshistorical, sociological, and religiousphases. But it is no more a Jewishclub than would a club organized forthe purpose of studying the life andcustoms of the Ethiopians, be anEthiopic club.The Maimonides Club is open toall members of the University, ir­respective of race or creed. In factthe ultimate purpose of the club is,by the open discussion between Jewand non- Jew of questions dealingwith the relations between these twogroups, to bring about a better under­standing and a more mutual feelingof friendship than now exists insome quarters. It is true that mostof the members are Jews, but thisis, I suppose, because Jews are moreinterested in the questions withwhich the club deals than non-Jews.Jewish students throughout theUnited States, especially those atChicago, are strenuously opposed tothe formation of denominationalclubs at universities; for such clubsmust necessarily be exclusive of cer­tain large groups of the student body.DAVID FIeRMAN, '!O,President of the M aimonides ClubChicago, January 7, I909A STUDENT'S VIEW OF THEMOTTO CONTESTEditor of the Magazine:Sir: In criticizing the recent cam- 173paign for a motto, one feels that heplaces himsel.f in the unlovely posi­tion of sneermg at or denouncing anearnest effort to attain an end withwhich ever� .stude1!t should sympa­thize. Realizing this, I am impelledto register the following complaintsonly by the desire to assist in asmall way in the correction of mis­takes by pointing out the possibilityof their occurrence.I t seems to me that the Councilsfailed to appreciate the magnitudeor the difficulty of their task andwere too much influenced by anatural desire to see immediate re­sults. Their appeal was too limited.It should by all means have includedthe faculty and the alumni whoseviews are indispensable in the diffi­cult task of expressing the para­mount purpose of the University inthe tabloid form of a motto. Theassertion that these bodies have beenapathetic, if true, does not warrantthe assumption that the students areall-wise in dealing with so importanta subject.The wisdom of the effort to rush�atters is open to grave doubt. Itinvited the ideas of shallow quickthinkers in preference to those ofthe slower and more careful. The"hurry-up" methods, moreover, tendto surround the motto with levityand even .ridicule, unsuited to anoble tradition.Above all, the attempts to obtain ascholarship, to bribe the student bodyinto action, seem to me to have been?- mistake. The honor is sufficientinducement to any right-thinkingstudent. He who responds on acommercial basis only has not suffi­ciently comprehended the ideals ofthe Ur�iversity to offer a worthysuggestion, The apparent desire toattract him tends to disgust thebetter type of student.M. F. CARPENTER, '10Chicago, January '8, I909UNDERGRADUATE LIFEATHLETICSDirector A. A. Stagg, of theDivision of Physical Cu1ture andAthletics, returned to Chicago onJanuary 4 and immediately tookcharge of the baseball and trackpractice in Bartlett Gymnasium. Dur­ing his absence Director Stagg at­tended the meeting of the Inter­collegiate Athletic Association at theMurray Hill Hotel, New York City,'�here, on January 2, he declaredhimself opposed to allowing collegeathletes to play in professional andsemi-professional baseball teamsduring the summer vacations. Hetook the attitude that if this practicewere allowed college baseball wouldbe dominated by professionals andthe purity of· American c�negesports would be endangered. DirectorStagg �o�md considerable support ofhIS position among the athletic rep­resentatrves present and does not be­lieve the question of allowingathletes. to play on professionalteams will be urged again. Fiftycolleges and universities were rep­rese_nted. Director Stagg was madea director of the Association, whileDr. Joseph E. Raycroft was placedon the basket-ball rules committee.Coach Stagg has appointed N or­man Barker assistant in track workand Fred Gaarde assistant' in base­ball, and is preparing to make thecandidates work hard. The veter­ans for the baseball team are Cap­tain Meigs, pitcher and third base­man; Page, pitcher; Ross, thirdbaseman; Pegues, shortstop; Sun­derland, pitcher, and Collings, out­fielder. Among the new men arePaul, of Morgan Park; Rockwell,catcher on the Freshman team twoyears ago, and Steinbrecher catcheron last year's Freshman te�m, whoare trying for Fred Gaarde's formerposition as catcher. Last year'sFreshman team also contributesTaylor, third baseman; Kassulker,outfielder; Charters, outfielder andRowe, third baseman. ' Dr. Raycroft hopes to be able tose�ure a date f?r a basket-ball gameWIth the U niversity of Denverwhere John Koehler, ex-ioz i�coach. March 2 is being consideredas a possible date.A�rangements for the intra- Uni­versity basket-ball series were com­pleted on January 6 when the cap­tams of the teams met in the officeof Dr. Raycroft to formulate rulesan? agree on a schedule for theW inter Quarter. The captains pres­ent were Robert Luckenbill forArts College, Harold Nickerson forLiterature, D. Levinson for Philoso­p�y, Rhuda for Science" StephenVIsh�r for the Seniors, and HarryHarriman for the Law School.They agreed that a man playing onthe varsity squad or the Freshmanteam cannot be eligible in the intra­University contests. Two bannersare to be awarded, one to the teamwinning the entire series and oneto the Junior College team winningthe inter-college series. The pen­nant was won last year by the LawSchool team. A schedule of thirtygames was adopted, the contests tobe called at 3 :?O o'clock in. the after­noon. The halves will be ---'fifteenminutes long, with a seven-minuterest. A. B. Houghton, captain of the'07 var�ity team, will be the referee.Candidates for the swimmingteams reported to Coach Knudson0.0 Tu�sday, January 5, for the firsttime 111 the Winter Quarter andthereafter met daily at 3: 15 o'clockfor hard, consistent work. CoachKnudson is confident Chicago wiltdevelop some strong contestantsduring the winter months. Thoseregi�tered are O. B. Bergerson, C.Benitez, W. Beverly, P. C. Bickel,E. Cary, P. Gardner, F. Kahn, R. B.Owen, W. R. Peacock, R. E. Lid­ster L. Rivera, J. F. Meagher, J.L. Macomber, C. F. Maxwell, H.Otten, R. J. Rosenthal, and E.Taylor.The withdrawal of Walter Steffen.I74UNDERGRADUATE LIFEfrom the track team causes Chicagoto lose a good hurdler and sprinter.Degenhardt, who had a record ofclose to six feet in the high jump,did not register for the WinterQuarter. Steffen is taking up thestudy of law and is unable to giveathletics as much time as hereto­fore. Crowley is expected to takehis place. The men are practicingdaily for the meet to be held withIllinois in Bartlett Gymnasium onFebruary 5. The Freshmen will meetIllinois at Champaign on February6 and in Bartlett Gymnasium onFebruary 27.SENIOR CLASS ORGANIZA­TIONWilliam P. MacCracken, presidentof the Senior Class, has appointedcommittees to take charge of theclass activities, naming eight chair­men, who will form the executivecommittee, of which Winston Henrywas made chairman. The executivecommittee will meet every Mondayafternoon at 5 o'clock in Cobb Hallto plan the class programmes. Thecommittee chairmen are: WinstonHenry, chairman executive com­mittee; president, Freshman Class,1906; leader of the Junior Prome­nade, 1907; member of the cham­pionship tennis team, 1907; cast of"Sure Enough Segregation," 1907 ;cheerleader, 1908 ; vice-president,Reynolds Club, 1908-9; Pen Club,Blackfriar, Chi Psi. Edward Mc­Bride, chairman class day com­mittee; president, Junior CollegeCouncil, 1907; treasurer, ReynoldsClub, 1908; Pen Club, Blackfriar,Beta Theta Pi. Renslow P. Sherer,chairman gift committee; president, 175Dramatic Club; president, SeniorCollege Council; vice-president,Sophomore Class, 1907; Blackfriar,Delta Kappa Epsilon. Walter P.Steffen, chairman reception com­mittee; captain, football team,1908; football and track, 1906, 1907,1908; Phi Delta Theta. Dean M.Kennedy, chairman programme com­mittee; hospitaller, Blackfriars;cast of "Sign of Double Eagle;"chorus of "Sure Enough Segrega­tion;" gymnastic team, 1907; DeltaUpsilon. Harry A. Hansen, chair­man song committee; president, PenClub; scribe, Blackfriars; managingeditor, Cap & Gown, 1907-8; asso­ciate editor, Daily Maroon, 1908;student editor, Magazine, 1908 ;author, Blackfriar plays, 1907 and1908; president, Junior CollegeCouncil, 1907; Sigma Alpha Epsilon.Howard P. Blackford, chairmanplay committee; prior, Blackfriars;cast of "Sure Enough Segregation,"and "Sign of the Double Eagle;"Pen Club, Chi Psi. Herschel G.Shaw, chairman social committee;abbott, Blackfriars; president, Tiger'sHead; Glee Club, Sigma Chl. WalterS. Morrison, chairman pin com­mittee; business manager, Cap &Goum, 1907-8; Sigma N u.SCHOLARSHIP HONORSThe quarterly awarding of honorsfor excellence in scholarship wasmade at the Convocation exerciseson December 18, 1908. The totalnumber of those receiving honorswas thirty-seven. This is a largefalling off from the number of stu­dents honored at the last WinterConvocation, when seventy-three re­ceived recognition. A peculiar cir-STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS, EXPENDITURES, AND ATTENDANCE OF FOOTBALLGAMES FOR 1908Game with Gross Receipts Net Receipts Gross Receipts Expenses AttendanceChicago OpponentsPurdue ..•...... $ 3,951•00 $ I,8II.OO $ 1,875.50 $ 374.00 4,291Indiana ..•...... 2,097.00 932.72 933.23 408.75 2,656Illinois ......... 9,814.00 4,431.7° 4,787.20 537·95 8,441Minnesota ...... :17,016.00 8,520.25 8,356.25 688.45 II,441Cornell ..•...... 25,160.00 12,194·55 12,427.53 819.10 14,589Wisconsin ...... 12,1I7·50 5,831.35 5,928.85 813.85 10,159Total ......... $7°,155.5° $33,721 ·57 $34�308.56 $3,642•10 51,577THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEcum stance was that none of thosewho were elected to membership inSigma Xi and Phi Beta Kappa werecandidates for degrees.The Selz Scholarship, for theyoung woman student with the high­est standing at the end of the firstyear in the Junior Colleges, wasgiven to Florence May Stead.Twelve were made members ofSigma Xi, the society for scientificstudents. Those elected are: HenryFoster Adams, Clyde Brooks, Her­bert Earle Buchanan, Thomas Buck,Emma Perry Carr, Sister Helen An­gela Dorety, Mabel Ruth Fernald,Alan Wilfred Cranbrook Menzies,Harvey Andrew Peterson, MargeryScheel Rosing, Arthur Howard Suth­erland, Mary Sophie Young.Four were elected to Phi BetaKappa. They are: Katherine MaySlaught, Lucia Von Lueck Becker,Willowdean Chatterson, and ShiroTashiro.Tashiro is a native of Japan, com­ing to Chicago in I 902. After work­ing two years he entered Hyde ParkHigh School, completed the fouryears' course in two years and re­ceived an entrance scholarship in theUniversity for his high record. Ineight quarters of residence workTashiro has completed 29Yz majorsof work of exceptionally high char­acter. During all this period he hasbeen practically self-supporting.Honors for excellence in particulardepartments of the Senior Collegeswere awarded as follows: WinifredBarnett, Latin; Christian AlfordFj eldstad, anatomy and physiology;Helen Ingham, French; JosephineLesem, history; Sister Antonia Me­Hugh, history.Honorable mention for high stand­ard of work in the Senior Collegeswas given to the following: WinifredBarnett, Carrie E. Tucker Dracass,Christian Alford Fj eldstad, HelenIngham, Sister Mary Joseph Kelly,Josephine Lesem, Sister Antonia l\rlC­Hugh, Ida Perlstein.Those who were given honorablemention for Junior College workare: Millington Farwell Carpenter,Fesus Newell Cofield, Herman MaxCohen, Emma Felsenthal, JessieHeckman, Herman Kuiper, AnnaBlaine La Venture. THE JUNIOR COLLEGESFinal examinations and reviewspreparatory to examination weekeliminated many social affairs in thesecond and third weeks of Decem­ber, which, together with the weekof vacation makes the chronicle ofstudent events somew hat shorterthan in other months. The JuniorColleges took up the election ofofficers and representatives on theJunior College Council at the firstmeeting of the Winter Quarter onTuesday, January 5. Five council­ors were chosen, as follows:Arts (women)-Miss Ina Rabb.Literature (women)-Miss MaryPhister.Philosophy (women)-Miss MaryEtten.Literature (men)-Aleck G. Whit­field.Philosophy (men,)-Arthur W.Wheeler.Philosophy College (men) alsoelected Reno R. Reeve, chairman forthe quarter, and E. A. Sturgeon,chairman of the executive committee.THE INTERNATIONAL CLUBConrado Benitez represented theInternational Club at the conferenceof the Association of CosmopolitanClubs at Ann Arbor from December3I to January 2. The meetingbrought together fifteen representa­tives of international clubs frommost of the universities of the West,where these organizations have beendeveloping to a great extent in thelast few years. The Association wasorganized in December, I907, whendelegates of the eight charter chap­ters met in convention at Madison,Wis. The last convention effectedan affiliation with the "Corda Fra­tres," a European organization ofinternational clubs having 63 chaptersand I5,000 student members. Threenew chapters were admitted to theAssociation and Cornell Universitywas chosen as the place for the nextannual convention. Important ad­dresses were made by President An­gell, of Michigan, Dr. Trueblood, andProfessor Bird. Fred Merrifield, '98,was a member of the reception com­mittee of the convention. The offi-UNDERGRADUATE LIFEcers of the International Club of theUniversity of Chicago are:President-Sifiore Muzaffar Raffie,Vice-President-Conrado J. Benitez,Recording Secretary- J. Paul Wan-der.Assistant Recording Secretary-SoEdwin Earle.Corresponding Secretary-C. P.McCullough.Assistant Corresponding Secretary­Herman Felsenthal.Treasurer-Nicholas Sankowsky.Benitez was chosen at a meetingon December 18 when the Interna­tional Club closed its work for theAutumn Quarter, which was pro­ductive of a series of successfulmeetings. The most important ofthese took place in the CommonsCafe on Wednesday, December 16,when the club entertained Louis P.Lochner of the University of Wis­consin, president of the Associationof Cosmopolitan Clubs, Mr. KatzuoMatsubara, imperial consul fromJapan, Hugo Varga, president of theCosmopolitan Club of NorthwesternUniversity, Professor Roscoe Pound,of the Northwestern Law School, andProfessor Charles E. Merriam, of theDepartment of Political Science ofthe University of Chicago. A largenumber of members of the Cosmo­politan Club of Northwestern werepresent. The guests of the eveningreiterated in their talks their beliefthat the future progress of theworld depended on a better under­standing between nations. Mr. Mat­subara declared the foundation ofpeace to be perfect mutual under­standing, in which the question ofrace or nation did not enter. Hedeclared different languages to beobstacles to a better internationalunderstanding and urged support forsuch movements as that of the Inter­national Club. Professor Pound saidhe believed the work of getting at abetter understanding among nationsshould be begun in the University.THE REYNOLDS CLUB CALEN­DARWith one exception all social activi­ties at the Reynolds Club during theWinter Quarter will be for mem­bers only. The open date is Feb­ruary I I, when the annual reception to President and Mrs. Harry PrattJudson will take place. This socialfunction has become an importantUniversity affair and is alwayslargely attended. The characteristicHard Times party, at which the en­tire University enj oyed a hugeamount of fun, was given on J anu­ary IS and proved very successful.The finals of the inter-fraternitybow ling contest will be rolled onFebruary 5. Dancing parties will begiven on February 26 and MarchI3· The entertainment committee is­composed of President John F.Dille, chairman; Renslow P. Sherer,Herschel G. Shaw, Walter P.Steffen, Daniel W. Ferguson, J.Craig Bowman, Weaver Chamber­lin, DeWitt B. Lightner, and WilliamP. MacCracken.THE BLACKFRIAR OPERACONTESTFour complete comic operas havebeen submitted to the judges of thesixth annual contest 0 f the Black­friars. The committee which willchoose the play was appointed thefirst week of the Winter Quarterby Abbott Herschel G. Shaw andis composed of Harry A. Hansen,chairman; Professor James W.Linn, of the English Department;Hilding Anderson, musical directorof the LaSalle Theater, HilmarBaukhage, and Earl Berry. ProfessorLinn, of the committee, collaboratedon "The Deceitful Dean" which wasone of the earliest comic operasgiven by University students, al­though not by the Blackfriars,while Berry and Baukhage both tookpart in last year's play, "The Signof the Double Eagle." The re­hearsals will begin after the Springvacation, the dates for the playfalling generally in the first orsecond weeks of May.THE UNIVERSITY GLEE CLUBThat the University Glee Clubwill do more than pose for its pic­ture for the Cap & Gown this yearis evident from the business-likemanner in which the managers areplanning the winter season. N ego­tiations have been opened with theglee club of Amherst College for aTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEj oint concert in Mandel Hall, or pos­sibly in a down-town theater, whenthat organization reaches Chicago onits regular tour west. On January24 the Glee Club gave a pro­gramme at Hull House. Otherconcerts are to be given at the Uni­versity Settlement, Oak Park, La­Grange, Kankakee and other nearbycities, to which trips can be madewithout interference with the studiesof the club's members.At a meeting on January 6 theappointment of Gordon Ericson asdirector, recommended by theTiger's Head, was accepted and thefollowing officers were chosen:President-Earle Goodenow.Manager-H. G. Stibbs.Librarian-George D. Falls.Member of the Executive Board-Herschel G. Shaw.WOMEN'S ACTIVITIESThe Young Women's ChristianLeague programme for Januaryreads as follows:Jan. s-New Year's Tea.Jan. 6-"The New Year in theLeague," by Miss Helen Peck. Jan. p-"The Value of GroupBible Classes," by members of Dr.Behan's class.J an. 13-"The Bible as Seen byStudents," by Dr. Behan.Jan. I9-"The Women of Turkey,"by Miss Willard.Jan. 2o-"Keeping Abreast of theTimes," by Miss Geraldine Brown.Jan. 26-Graduate Tea, Miss CoraGray, hostess.Jan. 27-Address by Dr. Price.The annual membership dinnerwill take place on February 2 inLexington Commons.In their effort to accumulate agymnasium fund, the women of thevarious classes have entered into a"penny" race. Each girl in each ofthe classes is to contribute the six­teen pennies necessary to measureone foot. The first class to reacha total of 84,480 pennies is to becounted winner.The Chicago chapter of the Col­lege Equal Suffrage Society hasbeen strengthened by union with theUniversity Socialist Club. On Janu­ary I I, Miss Lexon, secretary of thenational league, gave an address be­fore the Chicago club.THE ASSOCIATION OF DOCTORS OFPI-IILOSOPHYHERBERT E. SLAUGHT, PH.D., '98, SecretaryThe degree of Doctor of Phi­losophy was conferred upon two can­didates at the Winter Convocation,December 18, 1908. The two newDoctors are: Samuel MacClin­tock, Ph.B., The University ofChicago, 1896 ; Ph.D. in PoliticalScience, Political Economy, and Soci­ology. Thesis: Aliens under theFederal Laws of the UnitedStates. Anna Louise Strong, A.B.,Oberlin College, 1905; A.M., TheUniversity of Chicago, 1907; Philosophy and English. Thesis:A Consideration of Prayer from theStandpoint of Social Psychology.The total number of Doctors isnow 518, of whom nine are deceased.Subscriptions to the University ofChicago Magazine have come inrapidly. It is hoped that still largernumbers of the Doctors will availthemselves of this opportunity to keepin touch with the affairs of the Uni­versitv and the activities of itsDoctors.Dr. F. E. Beckman, '00, is at pres­ent in Seattle, Wash., teachingFrench, German, and Spanish in theBroadway High School of that city.Dr. Irving King, L'04, formerly ofPratt Institute and now assistantprofessor of education at the Uni­versity of Michigan, is the authorof a book on The Psychology ofChild-Study.Dr. J. R. MacArthur, '03, is headof the department of English in theAgricultural College of New Mexico,a position he has held since takinghis degree.Dr. J. M. Gillett, formerly of thenormal faculty at Valley City,North Dakota, is now professor ofsociology in the University at GrandForks, N. D.Dr. W. J. G. Land, '04, of theDepartment of Botany of the Uni­versity of Chicago, has spent the lastfour months with Professor CharlesR. Barnes in Mexico, securing ma- terial for research in the departmentof botany.Dr. H. M. Herrick, '00, recentlyof Stockton, Ill., is now pastor ofthe Congregational church at King­fisher, Oklahoma, and is also givinginstruction in biblical literature inKingfisher CoIIege.Dr. C. D. Howe, '04, has resignedhis position as associate director ofthe Biltmore Forest School NorthCarolina, to become lecturer' in for­estry at the University of Toronto.Martin Schilling, of Halle, Ger­many, has published a thread modelof the discriminant surface of theauintic eauation in the normalform: U5+IOX u3+Syu+t==0, madeby Dr. Mary E. Sinclair, '08, now inthe department of mathematics atOberlin College.Dr. E. J Williamson, '07, is pro­fessor of German at Hobart College,Geneva, N. Y.Dr. L. E. Gurney, '06, is pro­fessor of physics in the Universityof Idaho, Moscow, Idaho.Dr. R. B. Wylie, '04, has recentlybeen promoted from an assistantprofessorship to the professorshipof morphological botany in the StateUniversity of Iowa. He spent thesummer of 1908 as instructor inbotany at the Marine BiologicalLaboratory, Friday Harbor, Wash.,having under his direction a classof ten students from the Universityof Iowa.Dr. N. D. Harris, "01, is professorof European diplomatic history atN orthwestern University. His pres­ent address is II34 Forest Avenue,Evanston, Ill.Dr. H. H. Newman, '05, formerlyassistant professor of zoology at theUniversity of Michigan, is now pro­fessor and head of the departmentof zoology in the University ofTexas. He has written severalpapers on various zoological sub­j ects since taking his degree.179180 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEDr. S. C. Mitchell, '99, is nowpresident of the University of SouthCarolina, Columbia, S. C. He is de­livering a· series of lectures on his­tory in Brown University duringthe present year.Dr. R. E. Sheldon, '08, assistantin anatomy at the University ofChicago, was connected wi th theUnited States Bureau of Fisheriesat Woods Hole during the summerof 1908.Dr. J. B. Overton, '01, assistantprofessor of botany at the Univer­sity of Wisconsin, will have anarticle in the January (19°9) num­ber of the Annals of Botany en­titled, "The Organization of theNuclei of Certain Pollen Mother­cells,"Dr. J. P. Munson, ,,'97, is directorof zoology at the seaside station ofthe University of Minnesota. Hisaddress is 709 North AndersonStreet, Ellensburg, Wash.Dr. Katharine Blunt, '07, is in­structor in chemistry at Vassar Col­lege, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.Dr. H. E. Davies, '00, is a prac­ticing physician and surgeon in Em­poria, Kan. Since taking his de­gree at Chicago he spent a summerin postgraduate work at the St.Thomas Hospital in London.Dr. C. D. Case, '99, is pastor ofthe Delaware Avenue Baptist Church,Buffalo, N. Y.Dr. W. S. Gordis, '04, professorof Latin at Ottawa University,Ottawa, Kan., is president of theKansas and Western Missouri Classi­cal .Association. He gave a paperon the "Teaching of Virgil' at theDecember, 1908, Classical RoundTable of the Kansas State Teach­ers' Association.Dr. N. L. T. Nelson, '99, in­structor in botany in the CentralHigh School, St. Louis, spent Julyand August, 1908, investigating theGunnison (California) Forest Re- serve in search of plants supposedto. be poisonous to cattle.Dr. T. C. Hopkins, '00, of Syra­cuse University, Syracuse, N. Y., isthe author of a book entitled Ele­ments of Physical Geography, pub­lished by Benjamin H. Sanborn &Company, Chicago, 1908. A re­viewer of the book says: "The en­tire work reflects a breadth ofscholarship that is rare. His widereading and the well chosen sub­j ect matter have left no essentialfeature unnoticed."Dr. Annie M. Macl.ean, '00, ofAdelphi College, Brooklyn, N. Y.,is the author of a book on Wage­Earning Women soon to be pub­lished by the Macmillan Company.She has an article in the N ovem­ber ( 1908) Journal of Sociology on"Life in American Coal Fields."Miss MacLean read a paper at themeeting of the American Sociologi­cal Society at Atlantic City in De­cember, 1908. During the past yearshe traveled extensively through theUnited States investigating the in­dustrial conditions of women forthe National Board of the YoungWomen's Christian Association.Dr. James B. Watson, '03, formerlyinstructor in the University of Chi­cago, has been appointed professorof psychology at Johns Hopkins Uni­versity and made director of thepsychological laboratory.Dr. Florence Richardson, '08, hasbeen appointed assistant professor ofpsychology in Drake University, DesMoines, Iowa.Dr. Grace M. Fernald, '07, form­erly at Bryn Mawr, has received anappointment at Lake Erie College,Painesville, Ohio.Dr. Clarence S. Yoakum, '08, hasheen appointed instructor in psy­chology at the University of Texas.Dr. Walter V. Bingham, '08, hasbeen appointed instructor in psychol­ogy in the Teachers College, Colum­bia University.THE DIVINITY ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONEDGAR J. GOODSPEED, D.B., '97, SecretaryLOCAL ALUMNI SECRET ARIESDistrict alumni secretaries, to re­port alumni news for their districts,have been appointed as follows:New England, C. M. Gallup, D.B.,'00, New Bedford, Mass.New York and New Jersey, B. S.Hudson, D.B., '04, Atlantic City, N. J.Ohio, F. I. Beckwith, D.B., '07,Canton, Ohio.Michigan, Orlo J. Price, D.B., '98,Lansing, Mich.Wisconsin, H. C. Miller, D.B., 'or,Fond du Lac, Wis.Kansas, J. T. Crawford, D.B., '98,Parsons, Kan.Nebraska, C. J. Pope, D.B., '86,Grand Island, Neb.California, George E. Burlingame,D.B., '99, San Francisco, Cal.ALUMNI NEWSL. W. Terry, D.B., '84, is the gen­eral missionary of the Baptist HomeMission Society for Washington,West, with his headquarters at Ta­coma.E. R. Pope, D.B., '85, is generalmissionary for Minnesota, represent­ing the Baptist Home Mission So­ciety. Mr. Pope's headquarters areat Minneapolis.F. G. Harrington, D.B., '86, hasbeen engaged in putting into Jap­anese Dr. John A. Broadus' Com­mentary on the Gospel of Matthew.Mr. Harrington is located at Y oko­hama.C. J. Pope, D.B., '86, is the BaptistHome Mission Society's general mis­sionary for Nebraska, with head­quarters at Grand Island.Edward M. Stephenson, Th.B., '88,has just published in collaborationwith H. T. Musselman, a book en­titled Child-Study" for the Sunday­School Teacher (Philadelphia, Amer­ican Baptist Publication Society),following out a suggestion once madeto Mr. Stephenson by Dr. G. W. Northrup. The degree of Doctor ofDivinity was recently conferred uponMr. Stephenson by the University ofDenver. Dr. Stephenson is the Bap­tist Publication Society's state super­intendent for Colorado.P. W .. Longfellow, D.B., 'or, isgeneral missionary for the BaptistHome Mission Society for NewMexico, with headquarters at Ros­well.The Chicago Sunday Evening Clubhas just completed the first year ofits work, under the presidency ofDr. Clifford W. Barnes, A.M., '93,the originator of the idea. The clubhas been a notable success from thebeginning, and is already being imi­tated in other cities.C. VV. Brinsted, D.B., '93, is gen­eral missionary of the Baptist HomeMission Society, for California,North, with headquarters at Berkeley.E. S. Stucker, Th.B., '94, has re­signed the pastorate of the Twenty­Third Avenue Church, San Fran­cisco, purposing henceforth to devotehimself to evangelistic and lecturework.J. F. Sanders, D.B., '95, pastor ofthe Baptist church at Keokuk, Ia.,has undertaken the erection of anew and commodious church build­ing.Theodore G. Soares, D.B., '97, hasjust published, at the University ofChicago Press, a volume of studiesentitled Heroes of Israel, in theseries of Constructive Bible Studiesedited by Professor E. D. Burton.Professor Soares' useful little work,entitled His Life, written in col­laboration with W. E. Barton andSydney Strong, is being put intoJapanese.Bruce Kinney, D.B., '97, representsthe Baptist Home Mission Society asdistrict secretary for the Southwest­ern district-Kansas, Oklahoma, Col­orado, and New Mexico. His head­quarters are at Topeka.I82 THE UNIVERSITYlOF CHICAGO MAGAZINER. M. Vaughan, D.B., '98, is hav­ing marked success as Old Testa­ment instructor in the BaptistTheological Seminary at Berkeley,Cal.J. c. Hazen, D.B., '02, and MissRuth Burchard, of Kankakee, weremarried at that place, on December22, 1908. They will make theirhome at Janesville, Wis., where Mr.Hazen is pastor.John W. Hoag, D.B., '05, and MissElizabeth Taylor, were married De­cember 24, 1908, at LaCrosse, Wis.Mr. and Mrs. Hoag make their newhome in Trenton, N. J.Roy W. Merrifield, D.B., '06, hasbeen preaching at Stillwater andFaribault, Minn.N. J. Peterson, D.B., '06, has ac­cepted the pastorate of the PortageSt. Baptist Church, Kalamazoo,Mich., and has entered upon hiswork there.VV. H. Beynon, D.B., '07, has re­signed the pastorate of the Baptist church at Freeport, undertaking un­denominational religious work in thesame place.L. R. Bobbitt, D.B., '07, has re­signed the pastorate of the Baptistchurch at Mishawaka, Ind., and hasbecome pastor of the Baptist churchat Webster City, Iowa.A. P. Garrett, D.B., '08, who hasrecently become pastor of the Bap­tist church at Green Bay, Wis., wasincapacitated by illness during De­cember.D. M. Simmons, '09, was ordainedJuly 23, 1908, at Paw Paw, Ill.,where he is pastor of the Baptistchurch.Guy C. Crippen, ex-ioo, pastor ofthe First Baptist Church of Wausau,Wis., was ordained there, December7, 1908.O. V. Wheeler, ex-too, has resignedthe pastorate of the Bethel BaptistChurch of Chicago, to become dis­trict missionary for Wisconsin.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO LAWSCHOOL .ASSOCIATIONRUDOLPH E. SCHREIBER, J.D., '06, SecretaryTHE LAW SCHOOL ASSOCIA­TION DIRECTORYThe secretary of the Law SchoolAssociation is planning to publish apamphlet which will contain a listwith addresses of all former lawstudents. All communications anditems of interest should be forwardedto the secretary, R. E. Schreiber, 912Monadnock Block, Chicago. ALUMNI NEWSThe address of Leslie J. Ayer is1314 Chamber of Commerce Build­ing, Chicago.John F. Tobin is practicing law inSalt Lake City, Utah.D. K. Woodward, Jr., is in theoffice of Fiset & McClendon, Austin,Texas. .HERBERT A. HOWE, A.B., '75PresidentDean, Universj ty of DenverFRED E. R, HELLEMS, Ph.D., '98First Vice- PresidentDean, University of Colorado VICTOR E. KEYES, J.D., '06Retiring PresidentAttorney-at-LawELLA R. METSKER, A.B., '06Secreta ry· TreasurerDean, University of DenverOFFICERS OFTHE ROCKY MOUNTAINALUMNI CLUBOTTO F. DUBACH, Ph.M., 'oSSecond. Vice- PresidentInstructor, Colorado Springs High SchoolTHE' UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI ASSOCIATIONTHE ROCKY MOUNTAINALUMNI CLUBGEORGE O. FAIRWEATHER_, S.R, '07, General Secretary"Innocents Abroad"J ohn Wellington Finch, A.M., '97"The Chorus Girl". Paul Whittier Pinkerton, ex-'09"A la Bien Aimee" (Schutt)Miss Eleanor CultonIn addition to this programme, andthe address of Professor Clark, Mr.D. R. Slauson, of Pueblo, sang, andsongs, yells, and stories went round.The officers for the ensuing .yearare, Dr. H. A. Howe, '75, president;Dr. Fred B. R. Hellems, '98, firstvice-president; Otto F. Dubach, 'oS,second vice-president; Clyde A.Blair, '05, third vice-president; andElla R. Metsker, '06, secretary­treasurer.The club now numbers one hun­dred and ten, of whom seventy-fiveare people holding degrees, and therest have done graduate or under­graduate work. All persons in thestates of Colorado or Wyoming,who have studied at Chicago, are in­cluded in the club, if the secretarycan learn of them. They are asked,but not compelled, to pay a mem­bership fee of fifty cents. The clubhas established a custom of issuinga bulletin at least once a year, pub­lishing the address list of the club,the treasurer's report, and otherdata of local interest.The letter of commendation fromPresident Judson, read to the clubat the business meeting, gave greatpleasure. The club felt highly hon­ored in having Professor and Mrs.Clark as guests.ELLA R. METSKER, '06S ecretary- TreasurerMILWAUKEE ALUMNI CLUBThe Rocky Mountain Club heldits second annual dinner on Tues­day, December 29, in the banquethall of the Albany Hotel, Denver, at6: 30 0' clock. Those reservingplates were Mr. and Mrs. WardnerWilliams, Mr� and Mrs. J. Welling­ton Finch, '97, Mr. and Mrs. LesterLinton, the Misses Cora D. Cow­perthwaite, '07, Grace Ellen Shoe,Daisy D. Metzler, Emily E. Max­well, Louada Newton, '06, EleanorCulton, Ella R. Metsker, '06, EmilyHaworth, Messrs. H. A. Howe, '75,Hayward D. Warner, '03, Paul W.Pinkerton, E. M. Stephenson, '88,George Bedell Vosburg, '83, Con­stantin, Rixson, Clarence Lyon, HarryC. Purington, '97, Earl Collins, andRalph L. Dougherty, '97, all of Den­ver; the Misses Achsa Parker, "04,Alice M. Krackowizer, '06, Messrs.Royal W. Bullock, '05,. Allen E.Cross, "06, Victor E. Keyes, '06,John Lister, all of Greeley; Mr. D.R. Slauson, '07, Pueb1o; Mr. O. F.Dubach, 'oS, Colorado Springs; Mr.Clarence Russell, "08, Golden; Mr.Taylor, Monte Vista; Miss Lucy E.Spicer, 'os. Delta; and Mr. S. L.Stoner, '04, Leadville.The guests of honor, Professorand Mrs. S. H. Clark, representedthe faculty of the University, and,in his address, Professor Clarkbrought messages and greetingsfrom the University, and. gave de­tailed information of the latestchanges, and the year's progress ofthe Alma Mater.The programme of toasts was:Rhapsodie G Minor (Brahms) All graduates and former studentsMiss Eleanor Culton of the University, now in Milwau-"When Chicago Alumni Meet" kee, are requested to communicateDr. H. A. Howe, A.B., '75 with J. H. Gagnier, '08, 367 Logan"Coeducation" Avenue, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, whoMiss Achsa Parker, A.M., '04 has undertaken to organize an alumni"Chicago' Athletics" club in that city. Mr. Gagnier isClarence Russell, B.S., '08"The Chicago Spirit" pastor of the Bay View BaptistHayward Dare Warner, B.S., '03 Church.[For News from the Classes, see advertising section, page 2.]183(Personal Letter No.4)cro The Faculty, cAlumni, Students,Former Students, and Friendsof The University of ChicagoOrganization is a very interesting feature of any business. Therefore, you, as themainstay of the University of Chicago Magazine, should know the system of this publication.The following diagram shows the working scheme of the Business Department:DIAGRAMCirculation and Advertising are the two basic divisions of the Business Department:The functions of the Circulation Manager are:I. To increase the subscription list.2. To see that the Magazines reach their p roper destination in good order and ontime.3. To report to the Business Manager all comments received, whether complimen­tary or otherwise, on the make-up and contents of the Magazine, and all requestsfor discontinuance of subscription, or lack of responsiveness on the part of thoserequested to subscribe.The functions of the Advertising Manager are:I. To increase the advertising list.2. To see that the advertisements are properly set up and correctly arranged.3. To report to the Business Manager all comments received, whether complimentaryor otherwise, which disclose the attitude of the advertisers toward the Magazine.The Business Manager is a general supervisor, and his duties are:I. To see that the policies and aims of the Magazine are carried ou t in the abovedepartments, and that each is doing its particular duty.2. To make a careful digest and study of the reports as rendered to him by theCirculation and Advertising Managers.3. And most important:a. To confer with the Editors in order that the subscribers will get the kind of Magazinethey desire, which is based on the reports submitted by the Circulation Manager.b. To communicate with the subscribers on the basis of the reports submitted by theAdvertising Manager, in order that the Advertisers will get satisfactory returns on theirinvestments.If this scheme of organization for the Business Department of your Magazine calls toyour mind any suggestions or criticisms we should greatly appreciate them.Yours very respectfully,PATRONIZE THESE ESTABLISHMENTSCLASSIFIED INDEX TO OUR ADVERTISERSAmusementsTheaters, pp. 34 & 35The Washington Prom., p. IIBanksCorn Exchange National Bank, p. 29Illinois Trust and Savings Bank, 237.LaSalle St.,p. 28Woodlawn Trust and Savings Bank, 451 E.63rd St., p. 28Western Trust and Savings Bank, La Salle andAdams Sts., inside back coverBaths and Barber ShopsR. P. Adams, 480 E. 63rd St., r- 36The Saratoga Barber Shop, 161 Dearborn St.,P·36Books and PublishersCallaghan & Company, II4 Monroe St., p. 14A. Kroch & Company, 26 Monroe St., front iThe University of Chicago Press, p. 15A. C. McClurg & Co., 215 Wabash Ave., p. 15Cement Roofing and Steam Pipe CoveringsThe Philip Carey Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, p. 7ChocolatesMary Elizabeth's Chocolates, 42 River St., p. 14American Commerce and Specialty Company,Chicago, p. 36CoalDow-Carpenter Coal Company, 446 E. 63rd St.,front ivConcrete MasonryHoeffer & Company, 614 Chamber of Com­merce Bldg., p. 7CostumesAmerican Cotillon and Carnival Works, 82Wabash Ave., p. 20CotillonsAmerican Cotillon and Carnival Works, 82Wabash Ave., p. 20 .DairiesThe Bowman Dairy Co., 1422 State St., p. 30DecoratingAmerican Cotillon and Carnival Works, 82Wabash Ave., p. 20 Delicatessen and BakeryHolmes, 404 E. 63rd St., p. 33Desks and Office FurnitureMatlock Co., 331 Wabash Ave., p. 36The Weis Manufacturing Company, Monroe,Mich., p. 37Dress Suits, etc.A. J. Gatterdam, 146 LaSalle St., p. 18EngravingThe Levytype Company, 96 Fifth Ave., p. 30Fire ArmsWinchester Repeating Arms Company, NewHaven, Conn., p. 17.Floor DressingStandard Oil Company, Chicago, p. 37FloristsA. McAdams, 53rd and Kimbark Ave., p. I IE. C. Moore, 272 E. 55th St., p. IIFoodsPostum Cereal Company, Battle Creek, Mich.,p. ICase & Martin Company, Wood and WalnutSts., p. 35Fountain PensL. E. Waterman Pen Company, New YorkCity, N. Y., p. 13The Conklin Pen Co., Toledo, Ohio, p. 3FursC. Henning, 88 State St., p. 12Mayer Miller, 163 State St., p. 12L. Probstein, 88 E. Washington St., p. 12Robert Staedter Company, ISS State St., p. 19P. Frenkel, 95 East Washington St., p. 19GlovesThe Fownes Glove, front iThe Perrin Glove, front iHardwareGilbert, Wilson & Co., 338 E. 55th St., p. 26HattersCharles W. Barnes, Wabash Ave. and Mon­roe St., p. 36Heat RegulationThe Johnson Service Co., 93 Lake St., p. 6HosieryEverwear Hosiery Co., Milwaukee, Wis., p. 31Holeproof Hosiery Co.,: Milwaukee, Wis.,front iiCLASSIFIED INDEX TO OUR ADVERTISERS-ContinuedHotelsBismarck Hotel, Chicago, p. 32Brevoort Hotel Company, Chicago, p. 24Cumberland Hotel, New York, p. 38Grand Pacific Hotel, Chicago, p. 25The Harvard Hotel, 57 14 Washington Ave.,p. 38Hotel Tuller, Detroit, Mich., p. 24The Union Hotel, 117 Randolph St., p. 36The Vendome Hotel, oznd St. and Monroe Ave.,p.25InsuranceMarsh & McLennan, 519 LaSalle St., p. 22North American Life of Toronto, TribuneBldg., Chicago, p. 22Ladies' TailorsUnity Skirt Company, 209 State St., p. 8P. D. Weinstein, 433 E. 55th St., p. 18LiveriesAmerican Livery Co., 4746 Cottage GroveAve., P: IIMechanical and Furniture RepairsUniversal Repair Company, 5509 CottageGrove Ave. and 5623 Jefferson Ave., p. 30MiscellaneousBattle Creek San ita r i urn, Battle Creek,Mich., back coverNational Clearing House for Information,Washington, D. C., front ivStolz Electrophone Co., Stewart Bldg., P: 16Sylvester J. Simon, 14 Quincy St., p. 3 IPhotographyThe University Photograph Shop, 397 E. 57thSt., p. 16PianosThe P. A. Starck Piano Company, 204 WabashAve., p. 27Piano TuningJ. J. O'Neill, 800, 209 State St., p. 30Pool and BilliardsThe Adams Billiard Parlor, 478 E. 63rd St.,p. 40Provisions and GroceriesIrwin Brothers Company, 449 and 5825 StateSt., p. 4Madison Avenue Packing Company, 6309Madison Ave., p. 4O. T. Wall, 407 E. 63rd St., p. 32QuarriesThe Bedford Quarries Co., 204 Dearborn St.,front xviRazor SuppliesKeenedge Com pan y, Keenedge Bldg.,Chicago., p. 35 RestaurantsCollege Cafe, 447 E. 55th St., p. 5Hill's Restaurant, 7 I 8 E. 63rd St., p. 32King Joy Lo, 100 Randolph St., front iiiKing Yen Lo, 275 Clark St., front iiiThe Capitol Tea Room, 209 State St., P: 5The Mrs. Knox Lunch Club, 45 Randolph St.,p. 19The Midway Dining Room, 57th St. and EllisAve., p. 33The Roma, 146 State St., p. 35Vogelsang's Restaurant, 178 Madison St., p. 5Union Hotel and Restaurant, 117 RandolphSt., p. 5SchoolsMary W. Hinman (Dancing), 179 E. 53rd St.,p. 30Northwestern University Dental School, p. 9Professor T. F. Ridge, 26 Van Buren St., p. 9Wayland Academy, Beaver Dam, Wis., p. 9SkatesBarney & Berry, Springfield, Mass., p. 17Sporting GoodsA. G. Spalding & Bros., p. 26Stationers and EngraversDunwell & Ford, 171 Wabash Ave., p. 33William Freund & Sons,45-49 Randolph St.,front ivSurgical InstrumentsW. J. Boehm, 171 East Randolph St., p. 7TailorsMilian Engh, 163 State St., p. 19Harry Parkes, 185 Dearborn St., p. 21John E. Spann, 185 Dearborn St., p. 21Teachers' AgenciesB. F. Clark, Steinway Hall, front iTobaccoE. Hoffman Com pan y, Chicago, p. 10National Cigar Stores, Chicago, p. 10Tools and SuppliesSamuel Harris & Company, 23 S. Clinton St.,p. 6Transfer CompanyThe Frank E. Scott Transfer Company, 402Wabash Ave., front iiTrunks, etc.Abel & Bach Co., 46 and 48 Adams St., p. 20TypewritersDavies Typewriter Exchange, 185 Dearborn St.,p. 13Hammond Typewriter Company, SecurityBldg., p. 23Plummer & Williams, 901 Postal TelegraphBldg., p. 33Secor Typewriter Co., 134 Van Buren St., p. 13The Typewriter Exchange, 319 Dearborn St.,p. 13Wearing ApparelHewes and Potter, Boston, Mass., inside frontcoverSometime, somewheresomeonemakefood " .,mayM.a purethe equalofGrape-NutsNever ., anyoneany-where, a betterone."Th R 9'ere's a eason.Grape -- Nutsfood is the result of study and science; nothing about it isguess work.It is made to supply a human need-for building backthe worn-out tissue in Brain and Nerve Centres.Postum Cereal Company, Ltd., Battle Creek, Mich., U. S. A.-1-NEWS FROM THE CLASSES[N ews items for these columns should be sent to the classsecretary-reporters, whose names are given at the head of thenews from each class. Death notices and engagement andwedding announcements should be sent direct to the Editors.]The following alumni are acting as classsecretary-reporters for their respective years;other secretary-reporters are indicated in thefollowing news columns. They will gladlyreceive information from any of their class­mates for insertion in this department.1862. George W. Thomas, 4039 Lake Ave.r867. Wm. W. Everts, Roxbury, Mass.1868. Henry A. Gardner, First NationalBank Building.1870. Charles R. Henderson, the Uni­versity.1872. Hervey Wistar Booth, 505 Monad­neck Block.1874. George Sutherland, Grand Island,Neb.1875. Dr. John Ridlon, Chicago SavingsBank Building.1876. Dr. John E. Rhodes, roo State St.1878. Eli B. Felsenthal, roo Washing-ton St.r879. Edward B. Esher, 84 LaSalle St.1880. Alfred E. Barr, 189 LaSalle St.I88!. George Warren Hall, 162 Washing­ton St.1882. Francis Humboldt Clark, 5 II-5 I4, II2Clark St.r884. Lydia A. Dexter, 2920 Calumet Ave.1885. David 1. Lingle, the University.r886. Lincoln M. Coy, Unity Building.1893. Jesse Dismukes Burks, Teachers'Training School, Albany, N. Y.r894. Warren P. Behan, 153 LaSalle St.r895. Jennie K. Boomer, 6025 Monroe Ave.18g6MRS. AGNES COOK GALE5646 Kirnbark A\ enueJOSEPH E. RAYCROFTThe UniversityHenry H. Hewitt is a member of the archi­tect firm of Biscoe & Hewitt, Denver, Colo.He lives at 1242 Race Street.Charles W. Stewart is a practicing physicianand surgeon in Denver, Colo. He lives atr434 Glenarm Place.1897EFFIE A. GARDNER36 Loomis StreetHenry M. Adkinson lives at III4 St. PaulSt., Denver, Colo. Mrs. Adkinson was InezD. Rice, '98.William Scott Bond has been elected adirector of the University Settlement.Ralph L. Dougherty is a member of the lawfirm of Dougherty & Wright, Denver, Colo.He lives at 665 LaFayette . Ave. John W. Finch is a mining engineer withoffices at 812 Odeal Bldg., Denver, Colo. Hishome address is 834 Emerson St.Eugenia Winston (Mrs. Chas. F. Weller),A.M., now resides at 5747 Howe St., Pitts­burgh, Pa. Mr. Weller has charge of theAssociated Charities in Pittsburgh.1898MRS. CHARLOTTE CAPEN ECKHARTKenilworth, Ill.JOHN FRANKLIN HAGEY252_:E. Sixty-third PlaceN. J. Lennes is an instructor of mathematicsin Brown University, Providence, R. 1.Ralph L. Peck is practicing law in thiscity with offices at r3II Fort Dearborn Bldg.1899JOSEPHINE T. ALLIN4805 Madison AvenuePERCY B. ECKHARTFirst National Bank BuildingRoberta Brotherton is now Mrs. R. M.Young and lives in Sidney, Iowa.Charlotte Teller Johnson, author of TheCage, lives at Grymes Hill, Staten Island,N. Y. ,A. E. Palmquist is pastor of the First Bap­tist Church of Connellsville, Pa. He wasmarried to Susie H. Wills, of Elwyn, Pa., in1907.Mary A. Reid, ex-'99, has been employedas one of the committee clerks in the Senateof the Iowa Legislature during the last ses­sion. She lives at Maquoketa, Iowa.Dr. Roger T. Vaughn has been in Germanysince r907. He will not return until nextsummer.John J. Walsh is at present city salesmanfor the American Glue Company in Chicago.He is married and lives at 6227 Madison Ave.J900MARGARET MARIA CHOATEBartholamew-Clrfton School, Cincinnati, Q.CHARLES S. EATON107 Dearborn StreetLouis A. Higley now lives at 26r8 ElimAve., Zion City, Ill.Clinton L. Hoy is an interne at St. Luke'sHospital. After graduation he worked forfour years in the Treasury Department atWashington and then studied at Rush.Gertrude Hughes, ex-'oo, is now Mrs. Wil­liam M. Weller and lives in Orcutt, Cal.James H. McCune is in the lumber and coalbusiness in Ipava, Ill.Continued on advertising page 4-2-Read what Mr. 1: A. Hewitt, whom you allknow, says about Conklin s Self- Filling Pen:B 0.. 0 K S We have one of the "Largest Assortments in the u. s. O.f New an. d_ t . Second Hand Books, such as are used in Colleges and High, SthoofsHEWITT'S 415 E. 57TH STREET, CHICAGO)The Conklin Pen Co.�Toledo, Ohioo Nov.19th,19G��Gentl,emen: -Well � must say that I think theConklins are all right. -I am using one con�stantly and find it faultless, though Istarted in with prejudice.No other fountain pen gives such all-round satisfaction as Conklin'sSelf-Filling Pen. That's because of its distinctive qualities-advantages notfound in other fountain pens. It costs no more than other fountain pens of thebetter grade and when you buy other makes you are not getting all you areentitled to for your money-complete fountain pen satisfaction.C klin' Self· Fountai Pon In S Filling oun am enis the most perfect, practical and convenient writing instrument made. A per­fect writer because it has a feed principle that is absolutely correct and a goldpen unequaled for smooth and easy writing qualities. The mostpractical because it is the most dependable.The most convenient because of the Crescent-Filler. No otherfountain pen has the Crescent-Filler, the wonderful, simple device bywhich pen can be filled instantly at any inkwell, without taking penapart, without the' aid of a mussy dropper. Sold in Chicago by -Marshall-Jackson ComPany 144 Monroe St.C. D. Peacock, Jeweler 197 State St.Hewitt's Book Store 415 East 57th St.And other leading dealers.ManufaCtured byTHE CONKLIN PEN MFG. CO., Manhattan Building, Toledo, Ohio, U. S. A.You will enj oy your business relations with these establishmentsTELEPHONE HYDE PARK 1322RESIDENCE 1986 HYDE PARKADISONAVENUEACKINGCOMPANY6309 MADISON AVENUEH. T. McGUIRE, Prop.CHICAGOIrwin BrothersCompanyPROVISIONDEALERS449�451 STATE STREETPhones Harrison 515 ... 516 ... 5175825 ST AT�E STREETPhone Wentworth 51 7CHICAGOOrders by Phone at 58th St. StoreMIIMII 1902L. HAZEL BUCK EWINGBlooming ton , Ill.FRED. D. BRAMHALLThe UniversitySarah F. Barrow, Ph.M, is with the MissWolcott School, Denver, Colo.Dr Edward V L. Brown is studying inVienna, Austria.Eva Cleveland, ex-toz, is the wife of J ona­than E. Webb, '99, and lives at Golconda, Nev.Mr Webb is secretary to William Kent, whohas large land and cattle interests in the West.William R. Jayne is a member of the lawfirm of Jayne & Hoffman, Muscatine, la. Heis married.Albert L Jones, ex-'02, lives at 32 VernonTerrace, East Orange, N. J. He graduatedfrom New York Law School in 1906.Benjamin G. Lee, ex-toz, is employed withthe Emery-Bedd- Thayer Dry Goods Co., Kan­sas City, Mo. He is married.Jane M. L. Pirscher has moved from 720Main Street to 9I2 Cedar Street, Ottawa,Kan.Benjamin Strauss is with tne Schwartz­child & Sulzberger Co, packers. He lives at5039 Michigan Ave.Class News continued from page 2Ruth E. Morgan, ex-'oo, is assistant cata­loguer in the University Library.Alice D. Robertson (Mrs. F. W. Griffith)lives at Rapid City, S. D.IgorARTHUR EUGENE RESTOR571I Kimbark AvenueRalph C. Brown is practicing medicine inHelena, Mont.Blanche L. lnce, ex-'or, has taught in FargoCollege, Fargo, N. D, since her graduationfrom Wellesley in I902.Adella Nelson (Mrs. A. C. Todd) is super­visor of primary work in the public schoolsof Leadville, Colo.Carl 1. Neptune lives at 1830 Grant St.,Denver, Colo1903EARLE B. BABCOCKThe UniversitySophia Berger has moved from La Crosse,Wis , to I578 Lexington Ave., N ew York City.Linn J. Bevan is a hydraulic engineer andis now engaged in installing a water-powerplant near Manitou, Colo. Mr. Bevan's homeaddress is Atlantic, Ill.Gertrude Caswell (Mrs. W. F. Spaulding)lives in Kersey, Colo.Charles V. Clarke is with the law firm ofEddy, Haley & Wetten who have offices inthe Temple, Chicago.William H. Haas is an instructor in theCentral High School, Pueblo, Colo.Continued on advertising page 6Say "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisersCollege Cafe447 Fifty ... Fifth St.NEAR LEXINGTON AVE.ONLY PURE FOOD STUF'FS USEDSERVICE UP"TO .. DATERegular Breakfast6.30 to 10.00 a. rn. 25cLuncheon11.30 a. m. to 2.00 p. m. 20c upDinner5.30 to 7.30 p. m. 25cSunday Dinner12.00 to 2.30 p. m. 35cLUNCHEON 5.00 to 7.00 P. M.SE� VICE A LA CARTE ALL DAYVogelsang'sRestaurantshows its appreciationof your patronage bythe elegant service_ itoffers you in return-Banquet Room for Fraternity DinnersVOGELSANG'S RESTAURANT178 Madison Street MIl liThe Capitol"TEA ROOM.For Ladies and Gentlemen232 REPUBLIC BUILDINGS. E. Cor. State and Adams StreetsLuncheon 1 to 4Table D'Hote Dinner, 5 to 7:30HOME COOKINGA delightful place for ladies unattended to dineMlOnion Hotel and RestaurantWill find Restaurants on two floorsWill find a special After-Theatre MenuWill find Splendid ServiceServing Only the Best theMarket AffordsFINEST ORCHESTRA IN THECITYHOLD YOUR FRATER­NITY AND ALUMNIDINNERS HEREIII-II7 Randolph StreetYou will enj oy your business relations with these establishments-5- lIMHeat RegulationTHE JOHNSON PNEUMATIC SYSTEMTHE RECOGNIZED STANDARDINSTALLED IN THE UNIVERSITY OF .cHICAGO BUILDINGSCOMPLETE SYSTEMS FOR ALL METHODS OF HEATINGHot Water Tank RegulatorsReducing Valves for air, water, steamControl of HumidityJOHNSON SERVICE COMPANYH. W. ELLIS, Mgr.Chicago Office, 93 LAKE STREETSAMUEL HARRIS & CO.MACHINISTS' ANDMANUFACTURERS'TOOLSANDSUPPLIES23 and 25 S. Clinton St.CHICAGO MIl Class News continued from page 4Ray P. Johnson is with the Warner GearCo., Muncie, Ind. He was married to MissAnna C. Davis, of Terre Haute, Ind., in I906.William R. Kerr, Jr., is with the Chicago,Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad. He livesat 5003 Washington Ave.Siegrid A. Lagergren has been teaching atthe John B. Stetson University and at theDeKalb, Ill., high school since graduation.George McHenry is assistant cashier ofthe First National Bank, Dennison, Ia., and isalso practicing law. In I905 he was secretaryto Leslie M. Shaw, then secretary of theTreasury.Claude C. Nuckols is purchasing agent forthe Consolidated Car Heating Co., 42 Broad­way, New York City. He was married toMiss Sue Swindell in I906.Merritt B. Pratt graduated from the YaleSchool of Forestry in I905 and .then enteredthe' Forest Service. He is now an assistanton the Tahoe Forest Reserve. He is marriedand resides at Nevada City, Cal.Hubert S. Upjohn has made application fora state credential certificate in California. Hehas moved from Pocatello, Idaho, to River­side, Cal.Albert R. Vail is pastor of the Unitarianchurch at Champaign, Ill., which he organ­ized in I907. ' His address is 3I I East HealySt.Harry E. Walsworth is now permanentlylocated in Chicago and is connected with theR. R. Donnelley & Sons Co., Plymouth Placeand Polk St.Olive M. Young, ex-'03, graduated from theUniversity of Nebraska last year.MI 19°4MARIE EVELYN THOMPSONSurf Street and Evanston AvenueTHEODORE B. HINCKLEYThe UniversityCarrie C. Burg, ex-loa, is now Mrs; EdwinPettit and lives at Stuttgart, Ark.William H. Hatfield is now at Harvard Uni­versity 'continuing his study of law.Charles R. Howe is in the banking firm ofJerome Howe & Co., Winona, Ill. He ismarried and has one daughter.Milton C. Potter, Ph.M., '04, lives at Pueblo,Colo.Edna M. Robinson has been doing graduatework in English at the University. She livesat 6530 LaFayette Ave.Martin E. Schryver, ex-'o4, is manager forthe Union Central Life Insurance Co.,. innortheastern Illinois. He lives in Polo,' Ill.,is married and has one son.Sanford L. Stoner is principal of the highschool at Leadville, Colo.Jane B. Walker lives at 283I Vernon Pl.,Cincinnati, O.Continued on advertising page 8Say "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-6-Chemical, Physical, Electricaland Surgical Glass Apparatus X Ray and Ultra Violet TubesMercurial Air Pumps, Etc.w. J. BOEHM1 71 E. Randolph StreetPhone Main 2700 CHICAGOManufacturer and ImporterCONCRETEReinforcedOr PlainRAILROADMASONRYBuildingsConduitsReservoirsHCJEFFER & CO.614 Chamber of Commerce Bldg.CHICAGOcA. c. WARREN� Mgt<. Tel. Ma�n 4790MII MITMAGNESIACOVERINGSTH.E dividend-earning capacity of a st.eamplant is greatly increased through theuse of Carey's Coverings on steam pipes,boilers and connections.Carey's Coverings will keep the heat in thepipes-none is lost through radiation and con­densation. They greatly reduce the amountof coal necess�ry to run the plant, becauseexcessive firing is obviated.Carey's Coverings are not harmed by theexpansion or contraction of pipes or byvibration. They last longer than other cov­erings. They will increase the capacity of theplant by delivering dry steam to the engines.Endorsed and used by the United StatesNavy, War and State Departments. Recom­mended and specified by architects and en­gineers. Recommended by technical institu­tions.Write for catalogue a n d further particulars.THE PHILIP CAREY COMPANYGeneral Offices: Sta. R, CINCINNATI, 0., U. S. A.BRANCHESIn all large cities through­out the United StatesCanada and Mexico fA()TORIEStockland, OhioHamilton" OntoPlymouth Meeting" Pa.MIIYou will enjoy your business relations with these establishments-7-14a�ir!i' Wailnriugat POPULAR PRICES<{The Unity system of producing High ClassLadies' Tailored Garments to measure at popularprices. is thoroughly appreciated by all womenwho admire perfect fit. style and workmanship.<{ This season presents some new effects in Ladies'Tailored Garments. that require the most skilfulstyle treatment as well as the most careful tailoring.WE CAN PLEASE YOUTAILOREDSUITS ($35.00andupcut to your measure \ -TAILORED SKIRTS ( $6.00 and upcut to your measure \ -UNITYSKIRTCO.209 STATE ST. 5th Floor. Republic Bldg.Say "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-8-Mll Class News continued from page 61905HELEN A. FREEMAN5760 Woodlawn AvenueCLYDE A. BLAIRClearmont. Wyo.Carl O. Bevan is a traveling salesman withthe Vonn Jewett Dry Goods Company ofChicago.Harry W. Ford, ex-log, is advertising man­ager for the Chalmers-Detroit Motor Co.,Detroit, Mich.Jacob W. Heyd, Ph.M., is instructor inGerman in the State Normal school, Kirks­ville, Mo.James B. McManns, ex-log, has been sup­erintendent of schools in LaSalle, Il1., since1900. He is married and has two sons.J ames Sheldon Riley has recently returnedfrom a trip abroad. The first of the year heleft for San Francisco, Ca1., where he willrepresent the firm of E. H. Rollins & Sons.Frederick A. Speik has been retained fornext year by Purdue University as footballcoach.Lucy E. Spicer is teaching in the high schoolat Delta, Colo.Schuyler B. Terry is studying in London.His adress is Hotel Russell, Russell Square,London, W. C.Josephine G. Thompson lives at 6522 La­fayette Ave.Anna P. Wells (Mrs. Lee W. Maxwell)resides at 271 East 46th St.George Schobinger is studying civil en­gineering at the Massachusetts Institute ofTechnology, Boston.1906HELEN RONEYFullerton PI ce , Waterloo, IowaF. R. !3AJI<DOmaha, Neb.C. Arthur Bruce is at present 111 Cerrillos,N. M.Harry Burns lives at Fort Atkinson, Wis.,where he is teacher in the high schoo1. Hewas recently married to Gertrude Taylor, '07.David C. Cook is with the Cook PublishingCompany, Elgin, Il1.Allen Cross, Ph.M., is associate professor ofEnglish in the State Normal School, Greeley,Colo. .Dwight Dickerson is practicing law in Chi­� cago with Holt, Wheeler & Sidley in theTacoma Building.Paul H. Dodge is instructor jn language andscience in the high school at Colorado City,Colo. He lives at 319 Colorado Ave.N. A. Fuessle lives in Omaha, Neb., wherehe is on the editorial staff of the Omaha Bee.Anne J. Gibney is teaching in the highschool at Franklin, La.Frederick D. Hatfield is with Colgate &Company as assistant manager of the Chicagobranch.Continued on advertising page 10Nort.hwestern UniversityDental SchoolThis School offers exceptional advantages to young men and women of education forthe study of dentistry. While great attention is paid to the teaching of technic and theory,practical instruction to develop operative skill and dexterity, and quick diagnostic judg­ment is not overlooked. The graduates of this school are admitted to examination forpractice in every state.The Faculty is Composed of a Large Staffof Experienced TeachersThe equipment and apparatus of the School are especially designed for the successfulteaching of modern dentistry. Its large clinic rooms for operative and prosthetic dentistryare unequaled anywhere. The opportunities offered students for special preparation to enterindependent practice are not exceeded by any other school.Advance students are permitted to remain in school under clinical instruction duringthe months intervening between the regular annual courses, the great clinics being opencontinuously the year around.The school year covers thirty-two weeks of six days in each of actual teaching. Thenext annual session begins October 5, I gog.For further information addressSECRETARY OF THE DENTAL SCHOOLDepartment FNorthwestern University Building87 Lake Street, Chicago MIWAYLANDACADEMYAffiliated withThe University of ChicagoBEAVER DAM, WISCONSINA co-educational homeschool, with excellentequipment, high stand­ards of work and moder-ate ratesSend for Catalogue toPrincipal EDWIN P. BROWNMIl Prof. T. F. RidgePrivate Dancing AcademyRooms 536-538 Athenaeum Bldg.26 Van Buren Street, Chicago, Ill.School of ActingSchool of DancingSchool of Dramatic ArtSchool of VocalCultureWaltz, Two-Step, Reverse andGraceful Le a d i n'g GuaranteedYou will enjoy your business relations with these establishments-g- MIlHERE'S A SMOKEYOU'LL ENJOYfar better than any other, becauseit is the best blend of the world'sfinest tobaccos. Made by hand,one pound at a time. Absolutelypure, natural flavor.��Without a bite or a regret; 3YJ 7Sc., %,lb, 7Sc, lib.$3.30. Ask for booklet, "How to smoke a pipe," free.E. HOFFMAN COMPANY, Mfrs., CHICAGOVICTOR 11fORSCH CO.�0@.Cd:tt 5<: €9wt1'FOR SALE EVERYWHERE MIlFor A SublimePipe-SmokeUse the aristocrat of alltobaccos-the one that has afragrancy and a virgin flavorwhich has done more to glorifythe pipe than all other mixturescombined. For particular andappreciative smokers,Tobin's Mixtureis especially made, and forsmokers not particular, it willmake them particular.If your dealer don't keepit we will send, prepaid,2 oz. for 40c.; 4 oz. for75c.; 8 oz., $1.50; 1 lb.,$3.00.14 different strengths.National Ci go ar Store, Inc.First National Bank BuildingDearborn Street SideWe Sell Tobacco-Not Premiums Class News continued from page 8MI Frank M. Hultman is connected with thelaw firm of Adams, Schaertzer & Clausen,San Francisco, Cal.Jesse R. Kauffman is an interne at the CookCounty Hospital. He graduated from Rushin 1907.Arthur E. Lodge, ex-too, is employed as civilengineer with the C. B. & Q. R. R. His head­quarters are at Lincoln, Neb., and PowderRiver, Wyo.Grosvenor Oliver, ex-'06, died September 2,1906.Zelia Perkins is instructor in chemistry inthe Stout Training Schools, Menomonie, Wis.George B. Robinson is now in the bondbusiness with Every & Co., 220 LaSalle St.He married Miss Gertrude Howard, June 9,1908.George R. Schaeffer is advertising managerof the Tobey Furniture Company. He mar­ried Miss Marian Chase of Blue Island in 1907and lives at 1624 Pemberton Ave., Chicago.Leroy A. Startzman, ex-too, is train auditorwith the St. Louis & Southwestern R. R. Hewas married in 1906.'E. Z. Vogt, ex-too, lives at Albuquerque,N. M., and is engaged in the sheep ranchingbusiness. ,Daniel C. Webb is a member of the lawfirm of GreenS; 'Webb with offices in the Bankand Trust Building, Knoxville, Tenn.1907EDITH B. TRRRV6044 Jefferson AvenueW. E. WRATHERCare Gulf Pip- Line, Beaumont, Tex.George VV. Cox is in the medical depart­ment of J ohns Hopkins University, Baltimore,Md.S. C. Fleming, ex-'07, is studying law atthe University of Virginia.Suzanne C. Haskell is doing social settle­ment work in Boston, Mass.Robert Kuiper lives at 10643 Perry Ave.Walter B. Lodge, ex-'07, has beep in thejewelry business in Omaha, Neb., and Lauder,Wyo. He was married in 1906.Sanford A. Lyon is in the real estate busi­ness in Seattle, Wash.Evelyn Newman, Ph.M., '07, lives at 702Seventh' St., South, Morehead, Minn. Sheteaches in the Normal School there.Hooper Pegues is spending the winter inMexico.William R. Reddinguis, ex-'07, is managerof the Canadian Elevator Co., Lumber Depart­ment, Davidson, South Canada.P. C. Stetson is principal of the Big Rapids,Mich., high school.Edith B. Terry is living at the GoodrichSocial Settlement in Cleveland, Ohio. She isengaged in immigration work in that city.MI1 Continued on advertising page 12Say "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-10-Coming!The Social Event of the University Year<the Washington PromFehruary 19;0 1909Meet Your Alumni Acquaintanceson This Occasion cAd dress all Correspondence toChsirmen, Finance CommitteeWashington Prom Unisiersiiy of ChicagoM2For Reliable and Prompt Livery Service'phone American Livery Co.4746-8 Cottage Grove Ave.Telephone Oakland 522 and 523M2OrchidsSweetpeasVioletsfor the Promk�d;Paf4k 18 A. Me Adams53d St. and Kimbaf4k Flort'stA'PenueM2 E. C. MOORE� FLORIST ��Telephone Hyde Park 38272 E. 55th St. ChicagoM2You will enjoy your business relations with these establishments-11-High ClassFURSc. HENNING86-88 State StreetCHICAGO, ILL.TELEPHONECentral 3525MAYER MILLERManufacturer of FINE FURSPhone:Randolphll768I6I-I63 State Street, CHICAGO, ILL.MIIFURS FURSFancy Furs in stock andmade to order. Garmentsre-fitted to the latest stylesL. PROBSTEIN88-90 East Washington St.Room 54 Phone Randolph 969M IIMII Class News continued trom page IONellie M. Wakely lives at 6033 Prairie Ave.,Chicago.Florence Williams, ex-'07, (Mrs. W. C.Rogers) lives at Rockford, Ill.George R. Martin, ex-'07, is paying tellerof the Seattle National Bank, Seattle, Wash.William A. McDermid, ex-'07, is adver­tising manager for the Sheldon School ofScientific Salesmanship with offices at 209State Street. Mr. McDermid is frequentcontributor to the Business Philosopher.Chancey J. V. Pettibone is an assistant inHarvard Medical College. He is also con­ducting certain scientific examinations forthe government.Florence Plimpton is a teacher at BlueRidge, Mont.Dudley D. Rush is practicing medicine inRockford, Ill.Thomas H. Sanderson has gone to Madi­son, Wis, to finish his law work in the Uni­versity of WisconsinClark C. Steinbeck is now secretary of theCongressional Committee on Wood Pulp.During the next few months he will be occu­pied in Washington, D. c., with his com­mittee in preparing its report to Congress.Grace Mills is instructor in science in Sulli­van, Ill.George F. Lussky is in charge of the de­partment of English at Concordia College,Ft. Wayne, Ind.Edna McCormack is teaching in the highschools of Indianapolis, Ind.Harold G. Moulton teaches history andpublic speaking in Northwestern Academy,Evanston, Ill. .A. Evelyn Newman is in teaching workat the State Normal School, Moorhead,Minn.Edna B. Nichol, A.M, is a teacher in thehigh school at Elwood, Ind.Frieda L. Schmidt is teaching in theSavanna, 111., high school.Alice R. Smith is in the high school atPomeroy, Wis •Jessie T. Solomon is in high-school workat Barrington, Ill.Margaret Spence teaches domestic scienceat Hinsdale, Ill.Seth Stetson Walker is a Fellow in chemis­try at the University during the present year.Hildur C. Westlund teaches in the Har­vard, Ill., high school.1908ELEANOR c. DAY6no Kimbark Av nueMary Appledorn is teaching 1D the highschool at Mendon, Mich.Hamilton C. Badger, ex-'08, is teachingscience in the high school at Pocatello, Idaho.Continued on advertising page I4Say "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-12-" Typewriters "TEL. 2653 CENT. AUTO. 7725ALL MAKES R.ented.For Sale and Repaired.FULL LINE OF TYPEWRITER SUPPLIES ATDavies TypewriterExchange3d floor - 185 Dearborn St.MIl,TELEPHONE HARRISON 4065The Typewriter ExchangeBRANCH AMERICAN WRITING MACHINE CO., INC.Sell, Exchange and Rent New, Rebuilt, and Second-handTypewriting MachinesA. J. COUSE, MANAGER ALL MAKES319 Dearborn Street, ChicagoMIIThe Secor Standard Visible Writing andBilling Machine embodies more new ideasthan have been combined in one typewritersince the first invention of writing machines.It will give longer service with less costthan any other typewriter made. It is theonly machine that has permanent alignment.It has a back spacer, paragraph key, remov­able escapement, decimal tabulater,. two­color ribbon, and will handle anything froma half-inch label to a fifty-page magazine.SEGOR TYPEWRITER GO •• Harrison 4266134 Van Buren St., Chicago. iii.MII PROTECT YOURSELFThink of theConvenienceand satisfaction of writing,day after day, for years,with your favorite pen nib;and carrying with you,wherever you go, yourtrusted Waterman's Ideal,to use wherever you hap­pen to be.It facilitates the routineof business life as well asthe exacting claims of prI'vate correspondence, anddaily proves of inestimablevalue.Whatever price you pay,v Wa t e r m a n t s Ideal"stamped on the holder of afountain pen guaranteesperfect satisfactionPor sale by the best dealers M IOeverywhere�e..\T.3�91,'ltBOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MONTREAL LON�ONYou will enjoy your business relations with these establishments-13-Made by herself and sisters inSyracuse, N. Y.A sweetmeat of food-valueNourishing to the bodyPleasing to the taste, andprepared with absolutecleanlinessMary Elizabeth'sChocolatesWHOLESALE DEPOT42 River Street, ChicagoE. HOSKINS, Mgr.Phone Central 1304When you want the Best ask forMARYELIZABETH'SCHOCOLATESMIlCALLAGHAN & CO.114 MONROE STREETUsually have For SaleLAW BOOKSRequired inTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOTHEY INVITE YOUto inspect their stockSTUDENTS are allowed special discountsTHE LARGEST generalLAW BOOK SELLERSand PUBLISHERSin AMERICACALLAGHAN &CO.MIl Class News continued from page 12Charles L. Baker lives at 6038 Monroe Ave.He is taking graduate work in the University.J. V. Balch is an instructor in the St.Alban's School, Knoxville, Ill.Jean S. Barnes now resides in Shelbyville,Mich.Hortense Becker is living at 5000 DrexelBlvd.Judson Bennett lives at 517 W. Yampa St.,Colorado Springs, Colo,Hannibal H. Chandler is with the MunseySyndicate as one of its Chicago representa­tives.Florence J. Chaney is teaching in the Aus­tin, Minn., high school.Celia M. Chase lives at Chadron, Neb.Evelyn Culver resides in Colorado Springs,Colo.Hazel Cummings is teaching German inElmhurst, 111., hig-h school,Grace B. Dotts is employed as a substituteteacher of mathematics in the Denver, Colo.,high schools.Marion Daniels is teaching mathematics inthe high school at Ionia, Mich.Sarah L. Doubt, S.M., is principal of theO'N eill, Neb., 3chools.H. W. Dunn is in the lumber business atKingsley, Mich.J ulia E. Gilbert is teaching languages Inthe Elmhurst, Il1., high school.V. C. Finch is the science teacher in theMt. Pleasant, Ia., high school.James H. Gagnier is pastor of the Bay ViewBaptist church. He lives at 367 Logan Ave.)Milwaukee, Wis.Alice Greenacre is a member of the fresh­man class of the Law School. She lives at1254 West 103d St.Florence M. Harper lives at IOI3 NorthLawrence Ave., Wichita, Kan.Mary Heap is at present in New York Citystudying the teaching of physical 'Culture.Elizabeth Parker is an instructor in Latinand history in the high school of Albia, Ia.Caroline Pierce recently moved from Chi­cago to Ithaca, N. Y., where she maybe addressed at 108 West Seneca Street.Vivian Rice, ex-'o8, is now Mrs. JamesMontgomery Gilchrist, ancl is living at 6027Kimbark Avenue.Ella Satterthwait is a classifier and cata­loguer in the Haskell Library of the U niver­sity.Elsie Schobinger is instructor of mathe­matics in Whiting, Incl.Inca Stebbins is in Chicago taking a practi­cal business course. After the first of theyear she will be associated with her father'sfirm.Charles C. Staehling is in charge of thecommercial branches of the Oklahoma Pre­paratory College, Tonkawa, Okla.Continued on advertising page 16Say "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-14-THE BEST PLACE TO BUY BOOKSBOOKS MAKE. THE BEST CHRISTMAS GIFTS.BOOKS ARE EASY TO BUY, EASY TO SEND,-AND COST VERY LITTLE. BUY YOURCHRISTMAS BOOKS AT OUR STORE, WHERE THELARGEST STOCK, THE GREATEST VARIETY, ANDTHE BEST FACILITIES ARE AT YOUR DISPOSAL.EVERYTHING IN BOOKSSEND FOR ANY OF THESE CATALOGSBooks for Libraries Books of Art Foreign BooksOld and Rare Books- Monthly Bulletin Technical BooksA. C. Me CL URG & Co. 215-221Wabash Ave.'_-IMPORTANT BOOKS�MODERN CONSTITUTIONS This collection contains the texts, in English. . translation where English is not the original Ian-By Walter Fazrlezgh Dodd guage, of. the constitutions or fundamental lawsof the Argentine nation, Australia, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Brazil, Canada. Chile, Denmark,France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Spain. Sweden,Switzerland, and the United States. These constitutions have not heretofore been available in anyone English collection, and a number of them have not before appeared in English translation.Each constitution is preceded by a brief historical introduction, and is followed by a select list ofthe most important books dealing with the government of the country under consideration. 2 vols.,724 pages, Svo, cloth; net $5.00, postpaid $5.42.PRIMARY ELECTIONS For students of American political history, and especially_. of American party history, this volume will be particularlyIBy C. Edward Merrzam- valuable. It gives a clear account of the various laws andcases and a critical discussion of the present primary question. The absence of literature on thissubject makes the appearance of the book especially timely. Many general readers, as well as thespecial students, will find it of interest. 300 pages, t zmo., cloth; net $I.25, postpaid $1.35 ..INDUSTRIAL INS URANCE This describes the systems of industrial insurance inGermany, Italy, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, Spain,IN THE UNITED S TATES Finland, and Australia; it explains the plans nowused by American business firms, such as Swift &By Charles Richmond Henderson Co., Studebaker Bros., The International Har-vester Co., Western Electric Co., New York Edison Co., Steinway & Sons, and the Standard Oil Co.Compulsory insurance is no more unreasonable than compulsory education or com pulsory taxation.It is a logical social development, and this book is the most comprehensive analysis of the move-ment yet published. 448 pages, 8vo, cloth; �et $2.00, postpaid $2.19. 'The University of Chicago PressAddress- Dept. 61 ChicagoNew YorkYou will enj oy your business relations with these establishments-15- MIlM2- LANTERNMr. Lecturer: SWe make THE LBEST lantern slides. JVery truly yours, DESCommercial Dept.UniversityPhotograph Shop397 E. 57th StreetNear KimbarkMI ,Do You Hear Well?The Stolz Electropholle- A New, Electrl('al, SclenUftc andPractleallnvelltlon for those who are Deaf or PartiallyDenf- MAY NOW BE TESTED III YOUR OWN HOlliE.Deaf or partially deaf people m�y now make a month's trial ofthe Stolz Electrophone at home. 'This personal practical testserves to prove that the device satisfies. with ease, everyrequirement of a perfect hearing device. Write for particularsat once. before the oifer is withdrawn; for by thispersonal testplan the Jlnal selection of the one completely satisfactory hear.'Ina aid is made easy and inexpensive for everyone.This new invention. the Stela.Electro­phone (U. S. Patent No. 163,57�) renders�r��:���rh:r���fl��vi��sU�lfr�tl�p���horns, tubes, ear drums, fans, etc. It is atiny electric telephone that fits on the earand which. the instant it is applied, mag·niJl,es the sound waves in such manner as tocause an astonishing increase in the clear­neSB of all sounds. It overcomes the buzz ..Ing and roaring ear noises and, also. so con.stantly and electrically exercises the vital partsof the ear that, usually, the natural DD."lded'healing itself IS'gradually restored.What Three Bu·sloess Men Say •.The Eleetrophllne fa very aatlefactol'Y. Belog Bm.n in alzeand great in htarlng qualit;eB tnaku It preferableto allJ 1 have tried and, 1 believe, 1 have _tried aUDftbem., M. W. HOYT, Wholl'aaleGrooer, Mich­__________ .-�1gan Ave. and River St., Chicago.)lR8. Q. LIDECKA, �3S 12tb ave., MI.,· I got ec deaf I could not btar ",Itb m,. speaJr:tngwood, Ill., wean an Electropbone, tube and 11'&1 �"Iaed to try tbe Electrophone.Le8Bconspicuouethaneye.glu"s, Arter fifteen "earl of deafnen. dlsoomfort Andworl'J I n ... w hftr perfectl, at ohurch and at con­oertl. ¥f.R. UTLEY. t:lalet Mgr., B. A. Muw.ll&: Co., Cbicaco,I bave DOW uled jour Eleotropbone onr .. ,.ear. and kn?w tbat It 111 & flnt.clu8,aeientlflo bearing device. Witbout It ,people have to about dueotly in my ear to makeme With it.I can bear dlaUncti, when .poken to in .. nordlrlary tone. Beat ofall.11' IIA8I1TOM.PEn MY Bl!AD !fOIRP. wbleh ",ere .. terrible acrmvatiollo LEWIS W. MAY,Cubler, 100 WalblnctoD. Ht., Cbloaco.Write to.oe call (call if you can) at our Chlcag? offices for particulars?tour personal test offer and list of other prominent endorsers who WIllanswer inquiries. Physkians cordially invited to investigate aurtste'QPinions. .Stolz Electrophone CO., 1299 Stewart Bldg., ChIcagoBranch -Officesr Philadelphia, Cincinnati. Seattle. Indianapolis. DesMoines. Toronto. Foreign Office: 82.85 Fleet St., London. Enz, Class N ews continued from page 14Nora Stevenson intends to return forgraduate work in the winter quarter.Helen T. Sunny may be addressed at 4933W oodlawn Avenue.Olga Vondracek teaches English and Latinin Whiting, Ind.Jesse C Waller is principal of the Com­mercial School in Tangipohoa, La.ENGAGEMENTS'02. W. Henry Elfreth to Miss Emily H.Allen, of Moorestown, N. J.'02. Charles A Huston to Margaret David­son, '03, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. GeorgeDavidson, 46II Union Ave., Chicago.Mr. Huston is professor of law at StanfordUniversity.'oS. Fred A. Speik to Miss Edith Lawtonof Davenport, Ia,MARRIAGES'98. Ward B. Pershing to Gertrude E.Haines, of Denver, Colo., June 16, 1908, at St.John's Episcopal Church, Boulder, Colo.Captain and Mrs. Pershing live at 574 HighSt., Denver, Colo.'00. Howard P. Kirtley to Adelaide E.Odell, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. G. T.Odell, Wednesday, November 19, 1908, at thehome of the bride's parents in Salt Lake City.Mr. Kirtley was president of the class of'00. He is now practicing medicine in SaltLake City with offices at 35 Mercantile Block.'04. Edward C Eicher to Miss HazelMount at the home of the bride at Washing­ton, Ia., on August 19, 1908.Mr. and Mrs. Eicher have been atsince October at 601 I W oodlawnChicago."oS, Horatio H. Newman, Ph.D., to IsabelC Marshall, of Toronto, Canada, on AugustI, 1907.Dr. Newman is head of the department ofzoology at the University of Texas.'oS. Victor H. Kulp, J.D., '07, passed thebar examination in October, 1908, and leftimmediately for Switzerland, where he wasmarried in the middle of November. He willreturn and practice law in Chicago, and willbe at home, after February I, at 1307 BalmoralAve., Chicago.'08. Ralph E. Sheldon, Ph.D., to EmilyEvans, on August 13, 1908, at Reisterstown,Md. homeAve.,DEATHS'oS. William J. Sherman died III 1906. Heentered Y. M. C A. work in the railroadfield after his graduation and was thus en­gaged at the time of his death.Continued on advertising page 18Say "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-y>-Roller Skatesfrom which weaknesses have beeneliminated and the limit of serviceand durability attained. Much moresatisfactory to own your skates than to take chances on what the rinksfurnish. Oui free catalogue shows complete line.Ice Skateswhich are the result of nearly half a century of experience and effortand which have brought us an enviable reputation. A II styles and gradesin our free catalogue.All First-Class DealersBarney & Berry, 172 Broad Street, Springfield, .m-ass."'2.351 Caliber High Power Self-Loading RifleThis repeater is reloaded by its own recoil. To shoot it sixtimes it is only necessary to pull the trigger for each shot.The ease and rapidity with which it can be fired make it a ,particularly effective rifle for hunting game often shot onthe run. Like all Winchesters, it is safe, strong and simple.Full tuuetraua deecriptton. Of this rIjIe-" The Gun Tltat snoou Throu(ll£ StCll"-8lnt upon request.WINCHESTER REPEATINC ARMS CO., NEW HAVEN, CONN.You will enjoy your business relations with these establishments-17-III��jj1.. 1... 111lil1 ij:11il111"1IiII[IiiiIf,itlI!!:·11 .•.11c!illill LADIES�TAILORSpecial Attention to StudentsREASONABLE PRICESSal1iwactD.on �1teedPJID.«»lIllfe: Dralie P_k :lIz$z4- 33 East Fifty- Fifth StreetNorthastt: Comer Lenngton Ave ..DRESS and TuxedoSuits, Prince Albertand en t a w ay Coals,Silk Opera HatsBought, Sold� RentedHligJln6tt: Pri<C6 Pal-iii[ f(Q)1rN e:aurlly New Cl<o>tthe$COL., A. ]0. GATTERDAMTAILORI4J-6 La SaUe StreetTEL MA]I]ST :12,3][ CHICAGO:v ILL", Class News continued from page ][6LITERARY NOTESJiR1EU:Q(Q)� liN 1r:J8lJE JP>lOOffiUC SCHOOLS"KJm iits J :atrm1l1laCY lffi1lllmlli>er the 1M (fJi{JJ([Jf2,'ilJrue noteditllie im]l_»<Q)rtatrnce placed on itllie iteaclbIIDg ofJneligi<Q)lffi m the schools m itJille J1Jlew book byProfessor Hamns" «Jljf Harvard U1I1liiwelrsiitty" en­tided. B(f!gi1lfl1111i1lfI!!lI§ ii1lll Inordl11!lsltrimdl Ed/lJl/lCdllltWJrfl_Presi<diellJlit Ha1t1tJl Pratt J11llds(Q)Im comes jf<Q):JJ:"WaltdiIm it1bJ.e El(f!1l7lll(f!1lfIltdJl7Tj.I S rcllul{}J({}Jff T eacher jfm" J anu­acy wiitlffi a pa]p)<elr eImtiitle<di ""Relligi<Q)JIll m the]P'1m1b>lic Schools," whldJl. attempts it<Q) an:naJlyzewlffiait O:n.risttn.;aum it:tr1l1lit]:ns n�a]]y :lfmm cen:n.<Q)1ll1glbl (Q)fa c(Q)mm«JlIm gJr<Q)1ll1:n:n.<di jf<Q)lr ann tdiellJl«Jlmmati(Q)JI]J.s toagree 11.1l]l_»<Q)lIJl_ Sit«llJrit:IDg «Jl1ll1t wiiili. (tlffie premizeit]:nait itlffie ]l_»11.1lblic schools lbd<Q)l1]g it<Q) a:ll the peopleand it]:nait ewecy @<el1]<Q)wlIJlaiti<Q)lIJl and 1b>diicef has arighit to msistr it]:na:1t lIJl<Q)itJffiiiJ1Jlg antagonistic ito i1tsteachings be taught, llne ifillm<dis itllnait itlln<e <Q)][(dimacylliist of essential religii«Jlus i<dieas is a code of·c<Q)JIlld1U!.d :If<<Jl11l11md m ewecy jfmm of rdigi(Q)]lJl aumd.iillJl every jfm:m.11.1ib.tiIQ)JIll C[J)jf ethics, fumdudfumg" 3.C­cording to a selection made 1b>y ProfessorV <Q)itaw" reverence, it:tr1l1l$it" obedience, :lfaiiit1bJ.jftnl­ness, iJ1Jltdimitcy" smceritty" ]:n<Q)lIJlesity" it1r11llitlffiflllillllJless�rig,-1I:n.ite<Q)mllJless" and ]J]ke wnn:it1l.1les_ Rdigii<Q)lIJl" saysPresident J u<diS({))J1Jl� embodies certain ideas wiitJl:nregard it(Q) God" it<Q) itlffie llil1U1man:n soul, it<Q) the rela­tim:n. c.Q>:lf me 1bt1lllm;tllllJl smnJl it<Q) me Diwfume" thejf1Ul.tmlre lIijfce" aImd me rdan<Q)JIll of oollJld11.lld m itmsIife it(Q) tl:n.e lijfe hereafter. He .. it1l:n.iimJb itt: im­possible it<Q) jfm-m.11.1ib.ite an:n.y doctrine willi regardto t1l:n.ese c<Q)J1]sn<dicerati(Q)lIJls wi1t1l:n.oult em1l»OOyIDg'some :@artii«.:n:nllar jfm:m. of it1l:n.e(Q)li<Q)gy itllnait w<Q)milldbe (O) <Q)jf pliace fum 1t1lne JPl1l1l.1b>lic sc]:n({))(O)k" w1l:n.khilJ)eli<Q)lIJlg to all itlffie ]I»e«Jl]l_»lle- Dr, J u<dis<Q)lIJl alsoc«JlllJlsii<diers tlffie a<diwisa1b>illiiiiy of it1ttl:trllJlmg ]I»art ofthe school taxes over to whldJ!. mighititeaiCJl:n Jrelliigi<Q)us it1r1t1lit1l:n.s according ito itheir de­JIll<Q)mrn.iu:n.ati<Q)J1]a:fi. wicews" :fum order ito meet the(Q)1b>jocti(Q)JlJlS of th<Q)se win<Q) declare 1t]ffiait mey arepayIDg taxes for Jrelliigi<o>1ill.s msitmruon it1bJ.aits1!:n.mlt1l<c1!. 1b>e" llilm1t is 1!].(Q)it" bughit ill thesd1:n.(Q)(Q)l Thls" D1r� Jtt!l.dis(Q)]]. feels '[(() be '''''"''"'''.."...,1't-11-'"'!l","",,,.it<Q) t1l:n.e ]l_»(Q)]iticaJJ. OOlffiwiW«JlJIllS tQ):lf llie]l_»e(Q)]l_»le" w1lMd:n. are it1l:n.e <Q)1l1titgmwt:llil <Q)jf the 1l.0]]gEltruw]J_j)ealffi <ex]J>erimce (Q)jf itlffie 111l1mion!]. o£ clffiurchan:ncdl straite. �j[<Q)11:·e({))werr-" he beJ1iewes it1l::n.att -meit<ea<c:llimg (Q)f re1ligio1!lls ibnmms m sepa1raitesdD.<Q)(Q)lls w(Q)1!1tll<dl. JIll<o>it be ]p)(Q)S;sibll.e witt1n<O>1l1!.it C(Ofi­<Q)lIJl :aumd <diissellJlsi<Q)J1Jl" :rmm,w tQ)1b>wiaited by me:lfad tTI:n.ait aJlll cwses ellJliter itlI:n.e same Jl))1IlI.1h>D.icsclffi<Q)<Q)l He emphasizes the impil)rta1mre ofiteacmJIllg 'c1i:n.arader iiJIll ithe sclffi(Q)<Q)lls" the sellJlse<Q)f c<Q)rrocit oolffi<di1Ul.d 1hait c<Q)mes. wiitlln itlIJJ.e pres­smure ojf p1Ul.1b>lic <Q)]l_»oo<Q)]lJl allJld 1b>eliewes the it:wom<o>sit :Rm]p>«Jlrtamit m(Q)tiwes alI"e 1tJf:n.e Se1!Jlse of per­s(Q)J1Jla:fi. digIDity an:n.d $eU-res]J>� almd raped: of«JlllJle" s asS«Jlciaites_ ""MaJlJly a ma:n:n. refn:-ain:ns frr-omjf:aillse1l:n«l><O>d orr- ilisIl:n.(Q)JIllesit:J' noit became he fearsithe Diwrume displleasltrune" J1JJ.oit bttame" 01Dl it1tne<Q)tlliler llilan:nd" he jfears itIl:n.e pellJl4lillty of oo11UtsSay ��IT!f OF CBIaGO � to the adwen.isen-IS-ROBERT ST AEDTER CO.155 STATE STREETBETWEEN MADISON AND MONROEPhone -:- -t- -:- Central 5334. Furs, Suits, Coats, Skirts, Milliner".'IN OUR FUR DEPARTMENT will be found a complete and variedstock of Fur Coats, Neckwear and Muffs at reasonable prices. Specialvalues in Russian Pony Coats, Mink Sets, and Black Lynx.Fur Remodeling and Repairing at moderate prices<, In our SUIT Section we are showing the bestvalues ranging in price from $25.00 up.Our MILLINERY of the latest mode ranges in price from $5.00,$7.50, $10.00 up to $75.00MIlTELEPHONE RANDOLPH 942MILIAN ENGH(!Jailor163 STATE STREET, SUITE 52CHICAGO, ILLINOISMIl PHONE CENTRAL 4051and Storedat very LOWRATES now.Old Furs andSeal Garmentsremodeled tolook like new.We call and De­liver.Will give thebest of Refer­ences.P. FRENKEL. �v��:ERLYCRAS. A. STEVENS & BROS.Room 43,95 E. Washington St.You will enjoy your business relations with these establishments-19- MITRUNKS, BAGSand SUIT CASESAFULL LINE OF SMALLLEA THER GOODS.WE ALSO CARRY A FULLLINE OF SMALL CASESSUITABLE FORCARRYING BOOKSABEL C8l BACH C0046 and 48 East Adams StreetRepublic Bldg., A few doors East of State St.MIlmerican CotiHonand Carnival Works80 ... 82 Wabash Ave., Chicago, Ill,MANUFACTURERSand IMPORTERS ofCostumes, CotillonFigures and FavorsSerpentinesand. ConfettiWe make, sell, and put up allkinds of Decorations for Ban ..quets, Balls, Receptions, etc., etc ..Would be pleased to submit esti ..mate on any decorating desiredfor your coming eventsMIl Class News continued from page I8of law, but because he respects himself somuch that he scorns what he regards as anunworthy action"President Judson feels that no schoolshould teach directly or indirectly anti-reli­gious doctrines. "It is no more the right ofthe public school to teach atheism than it isto teach any form of religion." He urges thatrespect for every form of religious organiza­tion be taught.FROM A FOREIGN VIEWPOINTTo see ourselves as others see U3 is alwaysinteresting, especially if the, comment comesfrom a foreigner. The newest discussionof the American college is furnished by aScot, Robert K. Risk, who tells, in Americaat College 0. Smith & Son, Glasgow) what hediscovered in a visit to a dozen representativeAmerican institutions, including Harvard,Yale, Cornell, Michigan, Chicago, Hobart,Johns Hopkins, Bryn Mawr, Wellesley, Co­lumbia, College of the City of N ew York, andPrinceton. Mr. Risk's generalizations do notseem based on an intimate knowledge ofAmerican conditions, nor can his study ofthe American college system be said to havebeen exhaustive. He finds here "the convic­tion that education increases the effectivevalue of a citizen is a more dynamic beliefthan with us," but also declares that Americahas not yet produced scholars, and that they"fulfil another part of their work, the form­ing of character, with great success. vVhenAmerica's universities are some centuriesolder they will produce scholars, as well asengineers, doctors, lawyers, agriculturists, andadministrators in politics and commerce.In the meantime they are training the kindof man required by a nation whose materialresources have only begun to be developed."Mr. Risk's closing sentence is characteristic:"It is a great country, America! In universitymatters, as in social and political affairs itdoes not know where it is going, but it isdetermined to get there."DR. HENDERSON) S NEW BOOKAnnouncement is made by the Universityof Chicago Press that during January it willissue a new book by Professor Charles Rich­mond Henderson, '70, d '73, entitled IndustrialInsurance in the United States. This book isimportant as the study of a new movementand is a result of the work of years on thepart of Dr. Henderson. It will· describe notonly the systems of industrial insurance inuse in Germany, Italy, Sweden, Denmark, Aus­tria, Spain, Finland, and Australia, but alsoexplain the plans followed by such Americanfirms as Swift & Co, Studebaker Bros., andContinued on advertising page 22Say 6'UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-20-MAKERS OF CORRECTGARMENTS FOR MENWe have a line of handsome New Woolens and beautifulmaterials at our command and are prepared to plan yourwardrobe for fall.The.colorings and patterns are those approved by intelligent,careful makers and the wearer has the comfortable assuranceof all that is fashionable in the world of dress.SPANN185 Dearborn Street CHICAGOCOLLEGE CLOTHES OF CLASS A�D DISTINCTIONFALL and WINTERCLOTHESCONSERVATIVE AND VOGUE PATTERNS OF STANDARDAND NOVELTY DESIGNS, WITH EXCLUSIVE IDEAS ANDTHE BEST OF TAILORING HAVE MADE MY REPUTATION-MY CONSISTENT WORK MAINTAINS IT. .THE NEWEST OF FALL FABRICS NOW ON HAND.HARRY H. PARKESTAILOR421-2-3 ADAMS EXPRESS BUILDING185 DEARBORN STREETCHICAGOPHONE RANDOLPH 1001MIYou will enjoy your business relations with these establishments-21- MIlMarsh & McLennanINSURANCEIn all its BranchesI 59 La Salle Street, Chicago54 William Street, N ew York123 Bishopsgate Street, LondonTHENORTH AMERICAN LIFEOf TORONTO, a company operating under direct Federalcontrol!Owing to a careful selection of risks, aMOST economicalmanagement, and ahigh rate of interestearned consistent withgilt-edged securities,the Company's finan­cial position today isunexcelled!Our rates are mo­derate, guaranteeshigh, and dividendsthe best yet!We make a specialtyof University of Chicago Faculty, Students,and Alumni.If not fully covered by Insurance (?) orwishing an agency, kindly communicatewithOEO. E. GARVIN, State ManagerRoom 912, Tribune Bldg. CHICAGOMIlMI Class News continued from page 20the International Harvester Co. The con­clusions of the author are founded upon amass of authoritative facts and statistics. Dr .. Henderson was recently appointed secretaryof the Illinois Industrial Insurance Commis­sion by Governor Deneen.ALUMNI IN THE LEGAL PROFESSIONThat alumni of the University of Chicagoare active in the work of the Illinois StateBar Association is shown by the report of thethirty-second annual meeting, entitled Proceed­ings of the Illinois State Bar Association,edited by John F. Voigt, '96, secretary of theAssociation. Mr. Voigt is a resident of Ma­toon, Ill. Three alumni members of the stand­ing committees are Frank A. Helmer, '78, onadmissions, Edgar B. Tolman, '80, on lawreform, and Edward B. Esher, "79, on legaleducation. The Proceedings includes a con­tribution by Mr. Tolman to a discussion on"The Ethics of the Bar," and a toast byDonald R. Richberg, 'OI, on "A Bill in Equity."given at the annual banquet.GREAT MEN OF THE CHURCHProfessor Williston Walker, of Yale U ni­ver sity, is the author of Great Men of theChristian Church) the newest contribution tothe "Constructive Bible Studies Series," whichis being published under the direction of Pro­fessor Ernest DeWitt Burton, of the U niver­sity of Chicago. The twenty biographies thatmake up the book are designed primarily forthe reader whose training in church historyis elementary, but in spite of this it is worthyof a place on the shelves of advanced students.From Justin Martyr to Horace Bushnell,Professor Walker has given the impor­tant facts in the life of each great leaderof the Christian church, and endeavoredto relate his work to his times. In this he hasbeen singularly successful No period in thedevelopment of the church has been ignoredand there can be no question that the menchosen as subj ects for the biographies areeasily the most representative of their times.A list of books for additional reading at theend of each chapter will prove helpful tothe reader whose interest is stimulated by thework. This series of studies was contributedto by President William Rainey Harper aswell as by Professor Shailer Mathews andProfessor Burton, Dr. Harper writing twoof the books, The Priestly Element in the OldTestament and The Prophetic Element in theOld Testament.Continued on advertising page 26Say "UNIVERSITY. OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers--22-KEEP SMILINGIn order to comply with this injunctionand to wear "THE SMILE THAT WON'T COME OFF,"you must preserve your good nature byUSING AHammond Visible, Model No.12WHOSEUNIFORM IMPRESSION, PERFECT and PERMANENT ALIGNMENT,INTERCHANGEABLE TYPE permitting the Writing of ALLLANGUAGES on ONE INSTRUMENT, and VISIBILITYand DURABILITY will materially assist you toKEEP SMILINGTHE HAMMONDTYPEWRITER COMPANY1006 SECURITY BUILDINGCHICAGOU. S. A.You will enjoy your business relations with these establishments-23- M2TheHotel BrevoortChicagoSPECIAL ATTENTION TOAFTER-THEATRE PARTIESNewThe Twentieth Century Hotel- Absolutely fireproof,VISIT THE Cf?.AINBOW ROOMRestaurant Grill Room BuffetUnsurpassed in Appointments and DecorationsMargulie's Orchestra. ARTHUR M. GRANT, Manager.MIlWhen in Detroit, stop atH ote 1 T ull er ::r!p::;, AbsolutelyCorner AdaDls Avenue and Park StreetIn the Center of the Theatre, Shopping and Business DistrictA la Carte CafeNewest and finest Grill Room in the CityClub Breakfast - 40C upLuncheon - SocTable d'Hote Dinners 75cMusic from 6 p.m. to 12 p.m.Every ROODl has Private BathEUR.OPEAN PLANRates $1.50 per Da7' and up::::::::::::.:::::.:::.:::::::::::::::::::::::::�:::::::::�<:::: L. W. TULLER M. A. SHAWMIlProprietor ManagerSay "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-24-Grand' PacificHotel Clark Street ,andJackson BoulevardChicagoTable UnexcelledPrices ModerateWe 1Ilake a specialty ofClub and Fraternity 'DinnersTHE VENDOME HOTEL----62d and Monroe Avenue, Ohicaqo, lIIinois---­CONDUCTED ON THE GOOD OLD AMERICAN PLAN-WITH A CUISINE UNEXCELLEDOffers to permanent and transient guestsaccommodations and service such as onlya' first-class management can give.Furnishings unsurpassed; 400 rooms, allen suite, and all with private bath.Transportation facilities unsurpassed­Illinois Central Express trains, South SideElevated Express, 6 I st and 63d St. surfacelines-within 15 minutes' ride of businessand amusement centers.w. S. SAlTER, PROPRIETORYou will enjoy your business relations with these establishments MIlMIlA. G. SPALDING & HROS.The Largest Manufacturers in the Worldof Official Athletic SUJ)J)liesfoot HallBasket HallIce SkatesHockey60lf Uniformsfor allAthleticSportsOfficialImJ)lementsfor allTrack andField Sports GymnasiumApparatusSJ)alding's handsomely Illustrated tataiogue of allsnorts contalns numerous suggestionsMailed free anywhereA. G. Spalding ®. Bros.New York Chicago Denver San FranciscoBoston Philadelphia Kansas City MinneapolisBuffalo Pittsburg Cincinnati New OrleansSyracuse Baltimore Detroit ClevelandWashington St. Louis Montreal, Can. London, Eng.MIlPhone Hyde Park I 160Gilbert Wilson& CompanyMake a Specialty ofRepairingGASSTOVES338-42 E. 55th StreetWe carry a com plete line ofHardware, Oils and Glass.MII Class News continued from page 22SIDELIGHTS TO BIBLICAL LITERATUREA new book just issued by the Universityof Chicago Press entitled Fragments fromGraeco-fewish WritersJ by Wallace NelsonStearns, professor in Wesley College, is anattempt to gather up from early Christianliterature scattered fragments of writer sotherwise overlooked. The author says: "Inpassing directly from the great classical auth­ors to the writings of the New Testament thestudent is liable to misconception. Losingsight of the great interval between these tworemote periods, he either makes too free useof the material from the earlier writers asillustrative of the later, or regards the NewTestament as something altogether unique.Between the classical period and the Christianera lie centuries of literary development andlinguistic change. Authors, secular and sa­cred, are to be interpreted as far as possiblein the light of contemporary literature. Thenwill biblical writers take their places, not asanomalies, but as members in a historicalseries." Among the authors considered areDemetrius, Philo, Theodotus, Ezekiel, Mal­chus, and Artopanas.THE MAGAZINESIn the December number of Human Lifethe leading article entitled "The Way of aMan in the World," was written by VanceThompson, ex-'83. It is a discussion of thecharacteristics of Georges Clemenceau, primeminister of France, and was written in anintimate vein that gave many new sidelightson this man's ability. Mr. Thompson com­ments on the astonishing vitality of thisstatesman of 67 years, his courage, his clearhead and his keen insight into the ways of .men. M. Clemenceau reported the Dreyfustrial at Rennes for the Chicago Daily N etas,receiving $20 a week for his service, accord­ing to Mr. Thompson.Bertha Payne, '07, of the School of Educa­tion of the University, embodies the result ofconsiderable study of the kindergarten in apaper on "The Kindergarten Programme," inthe January number of the Elementary SchoolTeacher.BOOKS RECEIVEDGreat Men of the Christian Church. ByWILLISTON W ALKERJ professor in Yale Uni­versity. The University of Chicago Press,Chicago. 378 pp. $1.50 postpaid.Literature and the A merican College. Es­says in Defense of the Humanities. ByIRVING BABBITT. Houghton, Mifflin & Co.,Boston. 263 pp. $I.25 net, postage I I 'cents.Continued on advertising page 28Say "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-26----The---Starck PianoMIlIs considered by all leading artists the BESTUPRIGHT PIANO IN AMERICA, espe­cially noted for its NATURAL SINGINGTONE, GRAND REPEATING ACTIONand GENERAL ENDURANCE.THE ONLY PIANO MADE BEARINGA MANUFACTURER'S GUARANTEE OF25 YEARSCut this out THIS COUPON is valued at $10.00 andaccepted as part of first payment on anew Starck Piano if presented at time ofsale at our warerooms, 204-206 WabashAvenue.P. A. STARCK PIANO CO.$IO.OODUE BILLWE WILL SEND YOu. A "STARCK"PIANO FREE on 10 DAYS TRIALanywhere in the United States, and, if not entirely satis­factory, we agree to take it back at our expense. Cata­logue mailed free upon application.Send us your order to-aayP. A. STARCK PIANO CO.204-206 Wabash Ave. Chicago, U. s. A.You will enj oy your business relations with these establishmentsIllinoisTrnst&1SatiruisBanl(CAPITAL AND SURPLUS$J3,200tOOO.OO� ....La Salle Street and Jackson Boulevard, ChicagoThis Bank Loans Exclusively on Collateral,is conservative in its methods and has the lar2"­est capital and surplus of any savings bank inthe United States.INTEREST-Allowed on Current AccountsCertificates of Deposit, Savings DepositsBond, Foreign Exchange andTrustDepartmentsCORRESPONDENCE INVITEDILLINOIS TRUST SAFETY DEPOSIT CO.SAfE DEPOSIT VAULTSMIl Class News continued from page 26Proceedings of the Illinois State Bar Asso­ciation for I908. Edited by JOHN F. VOIGT)'96, secretary. "Ethics of the Bar," discussedby Edgar B. Tolman, '80; "A Bill in Equity,"by Donald R. Richberg, 'OT. Illinois StateRegister Book Publishing House. Springfield.190 pp.MAGAZINE ARTICLESAtlantic (Jan.), "The Master Weaver." byMaude Radford Warren, '94.Associated Sunday Magazines (Dec. 26),"The Road from the Mountain," by MaudeRadford Warren, '94.Business Philosopher (Jan.), "The ClearedDeck," by William A. McDermid, ex-'08; "Onthe Trail of the Traveling Man," by NewtonA. Fuessle, '07; "The Millionaire," by HarryA. Ford, ex-'05.Elementary School Teacher (Jan.), "TheKindergarten Programme," by Bertha Payne,'07·Educational Bi-M onthly (Dec.), "The Ele­mentary Course in English, II," by JamesFleming Hosie, 'or.Human Life (Dec.), "The Way of a Manin the World," by Vance Thompson, ex-'83.The World To-day (Jan.), "The RudovitzExtradition Case," by Samuel N. Harper, '02.We solicit accounts Irorn Students,F acuIty, Fraternities, and all otherorganizations of The University ofChicago.Courteous treatment accorded to all.lmtnnblttntu IDrust & �tthtugs iAttUk45 I E. 63rd Street (near Woodlawn Ave.)MIISay "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-28-REPORT OF THE CONDITIO� OFTHE CORN EXCHANGE NATIONAL BANKOF CHICAGOAt the close of businessNOVEMBER 27th, 1908Time LoansDemand Loans Resources$29,308,960.097,373,609.99 1$36,682,570.08I,758.69I,350,000.002,968,99I.002,266,062. I 325,278,202.57$3,000,000.003,000,000.002,0 I 8,667.67475,200.00I83·00MARTIN A. RYERSONCHARLES H. HULBURDBENJAMIN CARPENTERCLARENCE BUCKINGHAMISAAC G. LOMBARDOverdraftsUnited States Bonds -Other Bonds -New Bank BuildingCashChecks for Clearing HouseDue from BanksDue from Treas. U. S. - $ I I,802,476.842,702,996.82Io,658,228.9II 14,500.00LiabilitiesCapital -SurplusUndivided ProfitsCirculationDividends UnpaidDue to Banks and BankersDeposits (Individual) $26,49I,983·7633,56I,55o.04Officers DirectorsJ. EDWARD MAASS Assistant Cashier EDWIN G. FOREMAN CHARLES LJ: HUTCHINSONEDWARD A. SHEDDERNEST A. HAMILL - - - President.CHARLES L. HUTCHINSON - Vice-Pres.'CHAUNCEY J. BLAIR � Vice-PresidentD. A. MOULTON Vice-PresidentJOHN C. NEELY - - - - SecretaryFRANK W. SMITH - - - - - CashierB. C. SAMMONS - - Assistant Cashier CHARLES H. WACKERCHAUNCEY J. BLAIREDWARD B. BUTLERWATSON F. BLAIRERNEST A. HAMILLM2JAMES G. WAKEFIELD Assistant Cashier FREDERICK W. CROSBYYou will enjoy your business relations with these establishments�29-Do You Dance the "Boston"?Would you care to learn a few new "Barn" dances?Are you interested in Gymnastic dancing, or Clogging?We can give you private lessons either in your home, at a timeconvenient to you, or at our Studio, 179 East Fifty,.third Street.To arrange for lessons, kindly telephoneHyde Park 2768 Mary Wood HinmanUNIVERSAL REPAIR COMPANY5509 COTTAGE GROVE AND 5623 JEFFERSON AVE.Sign Painting and Fancy Lettering.Painting and Decorating.House and Room Cleaning and PackingAll mechanical and Furniture Repairs.Nickel Plating. -:- Mirrors resilvered.Skates and Bicycles our specialty.,WE REPAIR, RENT� AND SELL THEM We make a Specialty of exterminating insects.FRANK DE GEER, PROP. Drop us a cardMIlCall upon us.or". Bowman Dairy Company >'T:1i1k bottled ,;:, the couxnry:Milk · Cream" Butter · ButtermilkDo our wagons serve you?\1Vhy not ��ve the beSl?4221"4229 St"ate Stree�Telephones at all d.ivision offices.�vat1#tov '?' Chicago ....... Oak 2Jar.kPiano Tuning (gl RepairingExpert W'ork GuaranteedRooUl 800, 209 State St. J. J. 0' N EI LL Phon.e Harrison. 5133MIlSINGER i- BOLOTINLADIES' TAILORSPhone Central 781 506 MASONIC TEMPLE M2Say "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-30- M2"The Hose withthe RealGuarantee" Sox youcan't kick outor'·Kick about"You will have no complaint to make about Ever�earSox no matter how hard you are on sox, or how quieklyyou'''kick out" a pair of the ordinary kind.Six pair of Everwear Sox often last a year--·and more-s­but they MUST and WILL last you six months, If. a hole,does appear in any pair we will give you a new pair free.We know 'that it will not be necessary for you to return asingle pair; that they will not only g ive you better wearthan any sock you ever put on your feet, but the most satisfactory wear=->more comfort and a better fit.EVERWEAR SOX are made of the finest Egyptian cotton. They will not shrink,stretch or fade. Being knit entirely without a seam, there are no rough placeksto chafe the feet. Men's Sox are made in light and medium weight. Color�, blac ,black with white feet, blue, steel gray, and light and dark tan. Ladies hosein black. black with white feet and tan. In boxes �f six paIr .. -$2.00, one size Ina box assorted colors If desired,Men's silk lisle hose, Summer and Fall weightscolors; black, blue, light and dark gray, tanand champagne; Ladies silk lisle hose inblack and tan, $3 per box of six pair,coveredby the same positive guarantee. Ask yourdealer for them today. Remember the name-»EVERWEAR. If he doesn't handle them sendus his name, with the price, stating the c\,lor andsize desired and we will shlp them postage PUld.Send for our interesting free booklet "AnEVERWEAR Yarn".Everwear HOliery Co., Dept.2SMilwaukee, Wis.A new pair for each pair thatdoes not wear six months.THIS new book, by Sylvester J. Simon, the well-known PhysicalCulturist, gives the key to the attainment of physical perfection,as the title indicates. It shows how to obtain and maintain themaximum of physical and mental health, strength and vigor. How torid one's self of bodily ailments by rational and scientific methods. Howto acquire "personal magnetism," and poise. It teaches women how tobecome more beautiful in face and figure, more graceful in carriage andrepose. It aids men successward by showing them how to developnerve force and brain power.IIPhysioal Perfeotion"Natural Treatment o'Bodily AilmentsIt is not a book of mere generalities. It tells just how to relieve different conditions of ill-health, without the aidof drugs. apparatus, or mechanical means of any kind. There are exhaustive chapters on the cure and avoidance bynatural methods of Obesity, Leanness, Dyspepsia, Constipation, Skin diseases, Rheumatism and other Blood troubles,disorders of Liver. Kidneys and Bladder, Nervous ailments, affections of Head, Throat and Lungs, etc.There are special chapters on the care of the body through all stages of life from infancy to old age-including oneon longevity. A valuable feature is a special index giving a ready key to exercises that develop or reduce variousmuscles, or that affect different organs or parts of the body.By Founder 0' Great Health InstituteThis book is thoroughly practical all the way through. It is the work of a man who has probably treated morepatients by drugless methods than any other person in the world. Professor Simon's nature-cure institute, occupyingan 8-story building at 14 Quincy Street, Chicago, is the largest and most successful of it's kind. Thousands, includingmany physicians, have sought PHYSICAL PERFECTION at this famous health home, and have found it. It was inpursuance of persistent requests of enthusiastic graduates that Professor Simon put his methods of instruction intoprint. No one who secures a copy of "Physical Perfection" would part with it for many times ita cost.Silk Cloth Edition, 208 pages, illustrated with 46 special plates drawn fromphotcgraphed models, printed on fine paper, $3.00 prepaid. Large illustrateddescriptive pamphlet, with table of contents, free upon application. Send at once.SylvesterJ.Simon, 14-A Quincy Street,Ohicago, III.You will enjoy your business relations with these establishments�3I-STAPLE andFANCY GROCERIESChoice Cuts of MeatsFish, Poultry, Oystersand Game in SeasonO. T. WALL & COMPANY407-409 East 63rd StreetBranch Store, 6515-17 Washington Avenue. Telephone Hyde Park 2372.Telephones Hyde Park 2 and 22o. T. WALL E. G. LANGFORDMIlPhone 3340 Hyde Park - Open All NightThe Best of Everything atReasonable PricesHILL'SRestaurant andLunch Room718 and 720East 63rd St.Bakery Lunch, Steaks, Chops, etc.MIOSay "UNIVERSITY OF CHICA<l.O MAGAZINE" to the advertisers.-32- MIW qr W nnr nf uny funrttnn uartmbiurtly Utitl1 tl1t quulity nf inuitutinns unbprngruntntts in USt. lit furnisl1 tl1t htst inituurt Jrngruntntts�ubitntinu!i nub,(ltnlltgt1 1J1ruttrnitY1 11;u11unb Jtrsnnul .stutinntry1iIuttUtrll att� 1J1nr�171 mUbU54 l\Ut.� (!t41tugn� 1I111un15MIlHOLMES'Delicatessen and Home BakeryPhone Hyde Park 3789The Home of Goodies ProperlyCooked, also Real EnglishPork Pies and �verything forEvening Spreads -:- - : - -:-404 East Sixty=Third StreetWE RENT, SELL AND REPAIRALL STANDARD MAKES OFTYPEWRITERS-LoWEST PRICESPLUMMER & WILLIAMSRoom 901 Postal Telegraph Bldg.TELEPHONE HARRISON 575I - CHICAGOMIllIM GO TOTHEMIDWAY DINING ROOM57TH ST. AND ELLIS AVE.FORA GOOD MEAL ATTHE RIGHT PRICETHE MIDWAY DINING ROOMTICKETS: $3.50 FOR $3.00You will enjoy your business relations with these establishments MIlPRINCESS THEATERCLARK STREET ---NEAR JACKSONMATINEES WEDNESDAYS AND SATURDAYSA Popular and Familiar. EntertainmentThe Honeymoon T railLA SALLE THEATERMatinees-Tues., Thur.s., and Sat.A New Musical PlayCalledThe Golden GirlSTUDEBAKERELSIE JANISIn the Latest College Play,with musicThe Fair Co= EdBy George Ade and Gustave LudersMAJESTIC THEATERMonroe Street, near StateT he Aristocrat ofVaudeville HousesPRICES . . I5C, 25C, 50C, 75C Whitney Opera HouseVan Buren, just off Michigan Ave.A Broken IdolWITHOTIS HARLANPopular PricesTHE AUDITORIUMMILWARD ADAMS :: :: :: MANAGERTHE LEFFLER=BRATTON CO.(INC.)�Present the Chuckling, BubblingComedy with MusicThe Newlyweds andTheir BabyILLINOIS THEATERCHAS. FROHMANpresentsGirls of GottenbergA MUSICAL COMEDYEvery NightMatinees Wednesday and SaturdayGRAND OPERA HOUSEARNOLD DALYIn the New FourAct PlayThe PickpocketsSay "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZIN�" to the advertisers-34-CHICAGO OPERA HOUSEWalker Whi tesidein Zangwill's great play onthe making of the AmericanThe Melting PotOLYMPIC MUSIC HALLCLARK AND RANDOLPHVaudevilleBargain Matinees Daily forLadies and ChildrenThe Most Luxurious Music Hallin the WorldIF YOU LIKE GOODPIEAsk for a Piece ofCase&Martin'sConnecticut Pie"Always Good"MIl GARRICKLulu GlaserIN THENEW OPERETTAM'lIe Mischief�eL�es��r�:�YG����ra��:��e� 2 �Csafety razor blades for only 2 �cents each. You can't afford to throwawayold blades when we will sterilize, resharpen,and made them better than new at thistrifling price. vVe return your own particu­lar blades. One trial will convince you ofthe merits of our service. Stamps taken inpayment. State number and make of blades and wewill send a convenient mailing package free: Wri te now.KEENED6E COMPANY, 841 Keenedge Bldg., CHICA60The ROMAItalian Table D'HoteSOc 15c $1 00Includi"g Win�. Also a la Carte ServiceOPEN DAILY AND SUNDAYS FROM,i A. M. TO 9 P. M.SPAGHETTIsuch as one gets in Italy146 ST ATE STREET.sECOND FLOORYou will enj oy your business relations with these establishments-35- M2MIOPURE - DELICIOUS - NOURISHINGFor Sale-Drug Stores and Cigar StandsWeslernAgencr AMERICAN COMMERCE & SPECIALTY CO.On S(1/e 01 "F{erno/ds Club :N:_oxlhweslern "Building, CHICAGOMITHE ADAMS BILLIARD PARLORWF. DELIVER ORDERS FORCIGARS AND CIGARETTESSpecial Rates to Students478-480 East Sixty-third StreetTELEPHONE H. P. 278Tonsorial Parlors in connection conducted bythe TWO CHARLIESMIl DESKSTABLESCHAIRSSAFESOFFICEAPPli­ANCES331-333 WABASH AYE.COMMERCIAL FURNISHERSMATLOCK CO.MILONG DISTANCEPHONEMAIN 905AUTOMATIC 6952Say "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisersHygienic Importanceof Dustless floorsThe hygienic importance of dustless floors is to-day of as muchsignificance as proper ventilation. Schools, hospitals, sanitariums,�tores, offices, corridors and public buildings all have large floor�ilac"s which collect dirt and dust with great rapidity. This dust,with its living millions of m ic ro-org a ni sm s, is easily set in ctrcula­tion, thus greatly increasing the dangers of contagion.The simplest and most satisfactory of all methods for eliminatingthe dust evil has been found inSTANDARDFLOOR DRESSINGThis preparation applied to floors several times a year will reducedust nearly one hundred per cent.Tests have proved corrcl usi vely that the atmosphere of rooms withuntreated floors contains twelve times more dust aud its accompany­ing germs than the air in roo IUS hav lng floors treatedwith Standard Floor Dressing.Moreover, it preserves the flOOTS and improvestheir appearance-prevents them from splinteringand cracking and greatly lessens the labor of caringfor them.Standard Floor Dressing is sold by dealers gener­any, In barrels, h alf-ba rrel s, one gallon and fivegallon cans.Not intendedfor household use.A Free DemonstrationWe will gladlr demonstrate the worth of Standard floorDressing by actua use. On request from proper authoritieswe will treat part of one floor or corridor in school, hospital,sanitarium. store or public building.-AT OUR OWN EXPENSE.Write for particulars,STANDARD OIL COMPANY(Incorporated)Four-DrawerVertical File(Capacity, 20,000 Letters)This is our famous No. 421 Vertical Let-ter File, a Solid Oak, Four-Drawer File,handsomely finished on all four sides, in Weathered or GoldenOak. It is solid and substantial, perfect in construction, andfirst-class in every detail. This File is now in use in everyState of the Union, and we have in print scores of letters fromsatisfied customers everywhere which we will be glad to sendon request. Every File is sold on our positive guarantee­satisfaction or your money back. Price $12.00 f. o. b. Monroe.Equal To Any Files Madein Capacity-each drawer holds 5,000 letters;in Convenience-every paper quickly ecceeeible :in Durability-built for permanent, hard service.Solid Oak-Dust Proof-:-Roller Bearings. Patent' Follower in EachDrawer-Oxidized Metal Fittings.O h S· No.321 Three -Letter Size Drawers $9.75t er izes: No.221 Two-Letter Size Drawers $6.75F.O.B. FACTORYTh etfi.�. Mf C 98 Union Street, Send for our cataloge g 0 and free booklet of• • Monroe, Mich. Vertical Filing.-You will enjoy your business relations with these establishments-37-PLACE TO L I V EAN IDE A LTHE HARVARDA HOME-LIKE PLACE FOR REFINED PEOPLETelephone Hyde Park 1533Twelve minutes to the Loop. Five minutes to Park. Lake. or University.Home Cooking. Social Advantages. O!:Jiet. Elite Neighborhood.HOTEL CUMBERLANDNEW YORKs. w. Corner Broadway at 54th StreetN ear goth St. Subway Station and 53rd St. ElevatedKept by a College ManSpecial Terms forCollege Teams Headquarters forCollege MenIdeal Location, Near Theatres, Shops,and Central ParkNew, Modern, and Absolutely FireproofMost Attractive Hotel in New YorkTransient Rates $2.50 with Bath and upTen Minutes' Walk to 20 TheatresSEND FOR BOOKLETS. \HARRY P. STIMSON R. J. BINGHAM.Formerty with Hote/lmperial Formerly with Hotel WoodwardSay "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE" to the advertisers-38- MIXMIX