The increasing concern about cancer is re­flected in this issue, from the report by Dr.Leon O. Jacobson, '39, on the future structureof cancer research to the celebration of thededication of the new quarters for the BenMay Laboratory, where such research has beena focus of activity for 25 years. Linus Paulinghad some provocative thoughts on "Preven­tive Nutrition" on that occasion, and they arereprinted herein.Another concern, the relationship of a majorteaching and research center with the sur­rounding community, is reflected in Dr. PeterRosen's analysis of the problems of the BillingsEmergency Room.COVERDr. Leon O. Jacobson, '39, still takes everychance he can to return to the laboratory tocontinue his work on diseases of the blood.But his duties as Dean of the Division of theBiological Sciences and The Pritzker School ofMedicine, and Joseph Regenstein Professor ofBiological and Medical Sciences, make it moreand more difficult for him to "relax" at amicroscope.ContentsThe Conquest of Cancer: Cancer Centers and ResearchDr. Leon O. Jacobson, '397The Spirit of Love of Truth13Preventive NutritionLinus Pauling15The Emergency RoomDr. Peter Rosen19Building New Faces26Answers When You Need Them:A Profile of Dr. Samuel Spector28NewsIn Memoriam229Departmental NewsAlumni News3439Bulletin of the Medical Alumni Association of The University of ChicagoDivision of the Biological Sciences and The Pritzker School of Medicine1025 East 57th StreetChicago, Illinois 60637Volume 27Spring 1972No.1Editor: Anne GrantMedical Alumni Association: William R. Barclay, President; Richard landau, President-Elect;Marcel Frenkel, '58, Vice-President; Henry P. Russe, '57, Secretary; Katherine T. Wolcott,Executive Secretary. Council Members are: Lampis Anagnostopoulos, '61; William MosesJones, '32; C. Frederick Kittle, '45; Charles Kligerman, '41; Robert L. Schmitz, '38; andFrancis H. Straus, II, '57.NewsCryo-Electron MicroscopePassesSuperconductivity TestsThe electric power industry may be astep closer to transmission of hugeamounts of power without loss as theresult of superconductivity experimentsby Dr. Humberto Fernandez-Moran ofthe Department of Biophysics. He hasconducted over 100 successful tests of theworld's only operating closed-cycle super­fluid helium system coupled to a high­voltage electron microscope.Dr. Fernandez-Moran is the A. N.Pritzker Professor in the Department ofBiophysics.Certain materials known as supercon­ductors will transmit electricity with vir­tually no resistance under temperaturesof near-absolute zero.Liquid helium which can be used tomaintain superconductivity in the systemat The University of Chicago continuedflowing for a record 29 minutes after thecurrent was shut off in a recent test. Thesuperfluid helium system is based on priorresearch and development work in super­conductivity by Samuel C. Collins, for­merly of M.I.T.The device, which Dr. Fernandez­Moran spent eleven years developing, to­gether with his associates and with col­leagues at M.I.T., is in effect a giant re­frigerator occupying parts of five storiesof the Research Institutes complex.It supplies power to a modified highvoltage electron microscope adapted witha special liquid helium stage by Dr. Fer­nandez-Moran in collaboration with Mit­suo Ohtsuki, who came from Japan tohelp Dr. Fernandez-Moran develop andoperate the cryo-electron microscope.The Fernandez-Moran low-temperatureapparatus was also used in the study ofnew layered organometallic compoundsprepared by F. R. Gamble of Esso Re­search Laboratories, T. H. Geballe ofStanford University, M. Cais of the Tech­nion-Israel Institute of Technology, F. J.DiSalvo of Bell Telephone Laboratories,and J. H. Osiecki and R. Pisharody ofSyva Research Institute. This work wasreported in the October 29th issue ofScience.Over 40 feet of pipe are cooled to 1.802Kelvin and 4.20 Kelvin (i.e., 1.80 and4.20 above absolute zero) by a liquidhelium system extending from the topfloor of the Research Institutes down tothe basement where the microscope is lo­cated.Dr. Fernandez-Moran paid tribute tothe workmanship of Helmut Krebs andother expert technicians at The Univer­sity of Chicago who helped build thesuperconducting pipe and liquid heliumcold stage, which "must be leak-proof,in view of the unique non-viscous flowproperties of the superfluid helium," ac­cording to Dr. Fernandez-Moran,Support was obtained for developingthe equipment from the National Insti­tutes of Health, National Aeronautics andSpace Administration, the A. N. PritzkerFund, and The University of Chicago.Test TubeBrain TissueUniversity biologists A. A. Moscona andBeatrice B. Garber have constructed em­bryonic brain tissue in the test tube fromsuspensions of single brain cells.They performed this feat with cells iso­lated from the forebrain (cerebrum) ofmouse embryos and with a specific cellu­lar "glue"-type material which they ob­tained from cerebrum cells. This material,referred to as cerebrum cell-ligand, linkstogether only cerebrum cells. Other kindsof brain cells appear to produce their ownspecific ligands.Moscona and Mrs. Garber explain thatthe cerebrum cell-ligand material coatsthe surfaces of the cerebrum cells whichproduce it. "Because of its molecularproperties this material makes these cellsstick together to form brain tissue," saidMoscona. "Moreover, it enables cells to'identify' each other by 'coding' the cellsurface with molecular identificationmarkers. This makes cerebrum cells 'rec­ognize' each other as being distinct fromother nerve and from non-nerve cells andcauses them to associate with each otherinto cerebrum tissue. If they are mixedwith cells from other tissue, cerebrumcells distinguish like from unlike and ad­here only to each other."This is the first instance of isolation ofsuch a specific cell-binding material frommammalian cells. The possibility of ob­taining them from brain cells and of "syn­thesizing" tissues from cells in the testtube opens up new ways of studying tissueformation and brain development.Moscona is Professor in the Depart­ment of Biology and the Committee onGenetics in the Division of the BiologicalSciences and The Pritzker School of Med­icine. Mrs. Garber is Assistant Professorin the Departments of Biology and Anat­omy.All tissue-cells in the embryo are be­lieved to carryon their surfaces suchligands for mutual recognition and selec­tive adhesion of cells into tissues. In fact,similar ligand materials were previouslyobtained by Moscona and his associatesfrom other kinds of cells.Commented Moscona:"The aim of this work was to explainone of the most important and hithertoelusive problems in biology-how do cellsassociate into tissues? How do differentkinds of cells in the embryo recognizeeach other and assemble into complexsystems?"The discovery of specific cell-ligandsrepresents a major step towards solutionof these problems. It now becomes pos­sible to study the biochemical nature anddetailed mode of function of these spe­cific cell-ligands. Such information willDrs. Garber and Moscona(above) Talking with a young patient at theformal opening of the Muscle Clinic in Wyler areDr. Nicholas Vick, '65, assistant professor of neurology,former heavyweight champion Ezzard Charles, andsportscaster and former professional football playerJohnny Morris. Morris is a member of the boardof directors of the Muscular Dystrophy Association,which supports the clinic.(right top) Dr. Robert Wissler, '49, professor andchairman of pathology, receives the American HeartAssociation Award of Merit from Dr. J. Willis Hurst,AHA president. Dr. Wissler is president-electof the Chicago Heart Association.(bottom) On behalf of the Gastrointestinal ResearchFoundation Jerry E. Poncher presents UniversityPresident Edward H. Levi with a check for $50,000as Dr. Leon O. Jacobson, '39, Dr. Joseph B. Kirsner,and University Trustee B. E. Bensinger look on.The Foundation last year contributed $100,000toward the building of new quarters for researchin digestive diseases in the North Wing of theHospitals and Clinics.3contribute not only to fundamental bio­medical knowledge, but may have even­tually important medical implications, es­pecially with respect to birth defects andcancer," he said.Early in their work, Moscona and Mrs.Garber learned how to disassemble em­bryonic tissues into live cells and how toprepare suspensions of live cells fromvarious parts of embryonic brain. Theyaccomplished this by treating isolatedbrain tissues with the enzyme trypsin,which breaks down the cell-linkingligands. The dispersed cells could bemaintained live in a suitable nutrientmedium.Next, they learned how to collect frombrain cells these cell-ligands and foundthat addition of these materials to sus­pensions of cerebrum cells caused a mas­sive aggregation of these cells into largemasses of tissue. It thus became possibleto construct in the test tube brain tissuefrom cellular building blocks.Equally remarkable was the findingthat cell-ligands from mouse cerebrumDr. UltrnannAnA Elects New MembersBeta chapter of Alpha Omega Alpha haseJected eleven members of the class of1972. They are: Kenneth W. Andre,H. Lee Frank, Sandra J. Ginsberg, AllenL. Horwitz, Eric P. Lester, James V.Lustig, Edward Oklan, Stephen I. Scha­bel, Edward F. Schlenk, Robert H. Wa­terston, and Mary Margaret Weinstein.4function also on cells from chick cere­brum. "This suggests that although theseligands are specific for their class of cells,their effect is not limited to the samespecies," said Moscona."It is not surprising that in the courseof higher vertebrate evolution certaincommon traits of cell surfaces have beenconserved," comment Moscona and Mrs.Garber in their report in the Februaryissue of Developmental Biology. "It seemsreasonable that among conserved traitsare those relating to fundamental mecha­nisms of cell recognition and patterns ofembryonic tissue formation, since thesepatterns are basically similar in highervertebrates."Not too long ago it seemed incon­ceivable that it would be possible to con­struct by design, various tissues, includingbrain tissue, from single cells outside thebody. We have a long way to go withthese problems," said Moscona, "but astart has been made and the results so farand their potential implications to humanbiology encourage us to go on."Dr. Arthur Rubenstein, Associate Pro­fessor of Medicine, was elected from thefaculty to AnA membership.Faculty and student AnA memberselected Dr. Frank W. Fitch, '53, Profes­sor of Pathology, as Faculty Councillor,and Dr. Joel E. Murray, '66, AssistantProfessor of Medicine, as Faculty Secre­tary-Treasurer. Both will hold office forthree years.The new members elected EdwardSchlenk as president and Steven Schabelas treasurer.The annual Alpha Omega Alpha Lec­ture will be May 22 at 5 :00 p.m. inBillings Auditorium. The speaker will beDr. Paul Hodges, Professor Emeritus andformer Chairman of Radiology. Dr.Hodges is now Visiting Professor of Ra­diology at the University of FloridaSchool of Medicine in Gainesville. Dr.Hodges will speak on "Medicine in China300 B.C. to 1951 A.D."After the lecture, a meeting will be heldto formally initiate the new members.Dr. John Ultmann, Professor of Medi­cine, has completed his three-year termas Faculty Councillor, and Dr. SylviaGriem, Assistant Professor of Medicine,retires as Faculty Secretary-Treasurer.Contraceptive PillsConsideredNot DangerousDr. Charles B. Huggins made the follow­ing statement on October 28, 1971, inamplification of statements he had madeat Michigan State University on October11, 1971. Dr. Huggins is the William B.Ogden Distinguished Service Professor inthe Ben May Laboratory."It is now 18 years since Dr. GregoryPincus of The Worcester Foundation forExperimental Biology, Shrewsbury, Mas­sachusetts introduced estrogen and pro­gesterone and its derivatives (known asprogestational compounds) as a methodto prevent pregnancy. The contraceptivepills have been used extensively world­wide, and two conclusions have beenreached:1. Among the women who have takenthe pill for prolonged periods the inci- .dence of breast cancer and uterus cancerhas been far less than expected.2. My studies concern cancer of thebreast from the standpoint of experimen­tal medicine. We have devised and studiedextensively a simple method to elicitbreast cancer in rats. A single feeding ofhydrocarbons, the most potent of which isDMBA, when fed by mouth to youngfemale rats, produces breast cancer inevery animal. The incidence is 100 per­cent. However, when these animals aretreated just before or just after the hydro­carbon with steroids similar to those inthe contraceptive pill, cancer of the breastis prevented. In the treated animals theincidence is 20 percent. Let us make thisperfectly explicit-20 per 100. In the un­treated animals that did not receive con­traceptive steroids, the incidence is 100per 100.In 1938, E. C. Dodds introduced stil­bestrol and estrogenic compound in thetreatment of menopause. Since then, lit­erally tons of estrogens have been con­sumed by women. There has been noepidemic of breast cancer. To the con­trary, the incidence of breast cancer hasdeclined. Conclusion: from the standpointof clinical observation and experimentalmedicine, the combination of estrogenand progestational compounds has extin­guished early cancer in animals. It hasDr. Sheila Sherlock, chairman of the De­partment of Medicine at the University ofLondon and author of the classic textbook,Diseases of the Liver and Biliary System,was in residence November 1-3 as the sec-ond Walter L. Palmer Visiting Professor Inthe Gastroenterology Section. The profes­sorship was established in 1966 to honorDr. Palmer, the Richard T. Crane ProfessorEmeritus and a member of the originalmedical school faculty, on the occasion ofhis 70th birthday. Dr. Sherlock's visit In­cluded lectures, rounds, conferences, socialevents, and a chance to chat with Dr.Palmer (lower left).5not been followed by an increased inci­dence of cancer in women.The combination of these steroids hasbeen worthwhile in the treatment ofwomen with far-advanced cancer of thebreast. In patients, the combination ofhuge amounts of progesterone and ofestradiol, injected intramuscularly, in­duced measurable and worthwhile im­provement in patients with far advanceddisseminated mammary cancer, both inwomen and men. Moreover, benefit wasobtained in patients in whom other formsof endocrine therapy such as adrenalec­tomy and oophorectomy had previouslypromoted tumor regression followed byrecrudescence.It is only fair, right, and just that thisstory emerge now and that women bereassured that contraceptive pills are notdangerous.Surgeon Workingin ColombiaDr. Joseph P. Evans, Professor Emeritusof Neurologic Surgery, has been ap­pointed by the American College of Sur­geons as its first professional liaison inLatin America. Dr. Evans, who was onthe medical school faculty from 1954 to1971, is living in Medellin, Colombia.He will be working for 12 to 18months with the Pan American Federa­tions of Medical Schools, extending theCollege's cooperation with graduate edu­cational programs in Central and SouthAmerica.For several years he has been making6Dr. Evansa study for the American Association ofNeurological Surgeons of the "braindrain" involved when medical graduatesfrom other countries receive neurosurgi­cal training in the United States. Thisstudy is sponsored by the Adlai StevensonInstitute of International Affairs.Canadian Honors forHuggins, JacobsonTwo University of Chicago cancer ex­perts were honored by Acadia University,Wolfville, Nova Scotia on March 25.Dr. Charles B. Huggins, the William B.Ogden Distinguished Service Professorand Director Emeritus of the Ben MayLaboratory for Cancer Research, was in­stalled as honorary chancellor of Acadia.He is a 1920 graduate of Acadia, andreceived his M.D. from Harvard in 1924,coming to the University of Chicago in1927.Dr. Leon O. Jacobson, '39, Dean ofthe Division of the Biological Sciencesand the Pritzker School of Medicine, andthe Joseph Regenstein Professor of Bio­logical and Medical Sciences, was givenan honorary D.Sc. by Acadia.Dr. Huggins and Dr. Jacobson bothgave papers at a morning scientific ses­sion before the ceremonies; Dr. Hugginsspoke on "Transformation of NormalMammalian Cells," and Dr. Jacobson on"Hormonal Control of Red Cell Forma­tion."1971 Alumni AwardsThree awards presented at the AnnualAlumni Banquet last year were omittedfrom our last issue. They are:-The Hilger Perry Jenkins MemorialAward, presented by the graduates to amember of the house staff who excelledin the performance of academic and pa­tient-oriented service. The award wasgiven to Dr. Shirley Levine (wife of Dr.Barry Levine, '69), who is now com­. pleting her residency in California, andDr. Frank Kozin, '69, a second-yearresident in medicine at Billings.-The Nels M. Strandjord MemorialA ward, to the graduating senior who hasdone outstanding work in radiology. Itwent to Dr. Joel Bernstein, '71, now anintern in radiology at Billings.The Conquest of Cancer:Cancer Centers and ResearchBy Dr. Leon O. Jacobson, '39Dean of the Division of the Biological Sciencesand The Pritzker School of MedicineDr. Leon O. Jacobson, who is also the Joseph Regenstein Profes­sor of Biological and Medical Sciences, has been Dean since 1966.He had been Chairman of the Department of Medicine for thefour years previous and Head of the Hematology Section from1951 to 1961. His discussion of cancer centers and research wasgiven December 9, 1971 at the Conference on Planning for Can­cer Centers, sponsored by the American Cancer Society and theNational Cancer Institute in Washington, D.C. It is scheduledfor publication in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.In a recent ceremony at The University of Chicago dedicatingthe new Ben May Laboratories for Cancer Research, the Presi­dent of our University, Edward H. Levi, said, "The pur­pose of the new facilities, quite simply, is to give support tothe ways of working, that combination of individual inquiryand communication which has made for discovery-yester­day, today, and tomorrow. But undoubtedly, we also hope,even though we know the wish is frequently not realized, thatthrough new facilities we may help continue, as a legacy forthe future, the spirit and quality of this laboratory. We know,of course, that the arrangement of space and the furnishing ofequipment, however indispensable, cannot buy for posteritythe present vitality. How shall we describe for ourselves andmake known to later years-for the example and guidanceare important-the formula of this accomplishment?"There is, I realize, an almost irresistible impulse to giveas the appropriate answer: Have the good fortune to havemen of genius in the proper complementary relationships andthen do not hinder them. The question is: Can we do some­thing more?"Many years ago, an educator, whose life and thought arereflected in The University of Chicago, called for the creationof a School of Medicine which would give primary emphasisto investigation and research. William Rainey Harper [thefirst president of The University of Chicago] made his mean­ing and his choices unmistakably clear in words which aresometimes annoying to the modern temper. 'I do not have inmind,' he said, 'an institution of charity, or an institution thatshall devote itself merely to the education of a man who shallbe an ordinary physician; but rather an institution which shalloccupy a place beside the two or three such institutions thatexist in our country . . . one in which honor and distinctionwill be found for those only who make contributions to thecause of medical science.' The institution would be concernedwith basic knowledge and thus would study the prevention ofdisease as well as its cure."To this faith in the possibility and importance of intellec­tual discovery for mankind's well-being, Harper always addedan insistence upon the interrelationship of knowledge. He wasopposed to separatism for any part of the University, andmost particularly the professional schools. Perhaps becausehe was a biblical scholar involved in the upheavals of theHigher Criticism, which made use of discoveries from manyfields of learning, he believed in the importance of the sharingof knowledge. He thought the road of fruitful investigationlay across many disciplines."These quotations from two great scholars and intellectualleaders raise questions of vast philosophical and practical im­portance to all of us as we prepare to embark on one of thelargest, the most comprehensive, and perhaps the most coor­dinated attacks on a disease entity in the history of mankind,"The Conquest of Cancer."The debate as to whether such a concentration of effort,talent, and money is justified at this time is perhaps irrelevant.In my opinion, we are not in the same position as were Fermiand his colleagues before they built and operated the firstchain-reacting uranium pile in Stagg Field at The Universityof Chicago in 1942. They already knew of the fission reaction,and they knew that if they could produce pure enough fission­able material and could moderate the predicted chain reactionunder various conditions, they could revolutionize power pro­duction and thereby produce constructive and destructive re­actors and bombs. In other words, the basic knowledge wasalready there, but achievement of the objectives required thebrains and cooperation of many disciplines of the physical andengineering sciences.So it was with the moon shots. But where do we stand interms of knowledge that will bring us to the point of preven­tion, diagnosis, and cure of cancer?The enormous revolution in the biological and physicalsciences of the past three decades has not produced thisknowledge to the extent that we need only to ask technologyto show us or help us to apply it properly and successfully. Asyet, alas, we have only bits and pieces of information con­cerning the elusive mechanism of cancer formation. The re­search required to find these answers appears to be more diffi­cult than the task of unraveling the causation and preventionand cure of infectious disease which began to unfold morethan a century ago, and even today has only been partiallyachieved.It is well to remember that in spite of the enormous stridesthat have been made in understanding the cause, prevention,and cure of infectious disease, many entities, among which arethe common cold and infectious hepatitis, remain to be solvedand bridled. In my opinion, enough background informationis available to justify a crash program to solve and resolve theremaining problems in the control of infectious disease. Con­sidering the morbidity and mortality of infectious disease theworld over, such a crash program might be a logical objective.Nevertheless, even if by such a crash program we were tolearn the cause and the means of cure of all infectious dis­eases, or any other single type or group of disease prevention,we would only be part of the way. The obvious approach isto translate available information as it appears into channels.,"An ideal cancer institute is one that has a strong basic sciencecomponent, a strong clinical science and professionalcomponent, and a medical facility or medical center with ahospital or hospitals integrated with a large and efficientoutpatient facility."89that produce an informed and receptive public and find a pro­fessional and public health cooperation such that what is ap­plicable and effective reaches the people.So, let us admit that we lack much of the fundamentalinformation required to set a timetable for solution of thecancer problem. Flow sheets or protocols are wonderful aslong as one fully realizes the inadequacy and unreliability ofprognosticating the pace of forward motion in science. A flowsheet is like a capillary bed--each tributary has its periods ofswift forward or even backward motion or stagnation. Occa­sionally an unpredicted shunt develops that changes and evenrevolutionizes forward progress.Today we share the opportunity and the responsibility todiscuss and clarify the role of "Cancer Centers" in achievingour common goal of (a) exploiting the applicable informationwe already possess for improvement in care and treatment ofthe cancer patient, and (b) developing a coordinated effortin research which maximizes the fruits of the "business of dis­covery" without stifling the individual genius essential to ourprogress.A cancer center should not conform to any stereotypedconception. Let us rather examine the possible types of so­called cancer centers that could hasten progress toward ourcommon goal.It should be made abundantly clear from the outset thatevery existing medical school, every major hospital, everycancer institute or research institute cannot become a cancercenter: It would be impossible to find the trained and experi­enced personnel to achieve this objective today even if costwere not a factor.In my opinion, an ideal cancer center is one that has astrong basic science component, a strong clinical science andprofessional component, and a medical facility or medicalcenter with a hospital or hospitals integrated with a large andefficient outpatient facility capable of handling the new, thereferral, and the follow-up patient population so necessary forclinical research as well as for long-term care. Ideally, allthese components should be in a single geographic unit inorder to maximize communication and collaboration betweenits various components and to provide the milieu for an effec­tive educational program.It would be essential in such an ideal arrangement that thecommitment of the participants and the very spirit of theoperation clearly be to promote the business of discovery, aswell as to apply and disseminate this knowledge in the interestof the public. This requires dedicated people, public-spiritedpeople, and, above all, a wide variety of well-trained peoplewith common interests.Are there in existence any sucb cancer centers that fit withthis ideal?There are a few, but not all of them are quite perfect. TheNational Cancer Institute in association with the clinical cen-1f"1ter in Bethesda has great breadth in research. It has accom­plished much, but its coverage, both clinically and education­ally, is perhaps too selective. The Sloan-Kettering MemorialHospital complex affiliated with Cornell University has a goodtrack record in basic and clinical research, clinical cancerpatient care, and training. The M. D. Anderson Hospital inHouston has many of the components of which I speak andwill soon be an integrated part of a medical school. The Bos­ton Children's Hospital Center has been outstanding, but itsefforts are largely confined to a pediatric population.Turning to smaller cancer research operations such as theMcArdle Institute at the University of Wisconsin, the BenMay Laboratories for Cancer Research and the Argonne Can­cer Research Hospital at The University of Chicago have notonly made great discoveries of fundamental importance to thecancer field but have trained large groups of leaders in thisfield. Additionally, they have repeatedly followed throughwith their discoveries and have brought them to the clinic andthe bedside. I refer particularly to the outstanding examplesof Charles Huggins, Charles Heidelberger, Elwood Jensen,Paul Harper, and others.These latter institutes or research laboratories, like manyothers, do not fit my ideal of a cancer center because eachforms only part of a great university that has yet to mobilizeand integrate its potential forces in an attack on the cancerproblem. I am not suggesting that these institutions shouldrenounce their overall educational program in order to jointhe fight against cancer. I am saying that the institutions, inorder to qualify as cancer centers, must have within them thebasic aspects of my ideal and mobilize these parts to makethe attack one of vigor and devoid of "lip service" to the ob­jective.Beyond this ideal cluster, what must a cancer center do?It must have affiliations or working agreements with hos­pitals and clinics and private physicians in its immediate local­ity. This should be a requirement because facility sharing,educational programs, and cooperative ventures in patientcare and clinical research are necessary if costs are to be keptunder control and if we are to succeed in teaching our stu­dents, our house staff, our physicians, and other health-relatedprofessions to extend the frontier in cancer prevention, diag­nosis, and cure.Must all cancer centers be in university medical schoolcenters?Ideally, yes. But, clearly, institutions without a universitysetting have achieved this status in the past and could do soagain in the future. It has become increasingly apparent, how­ever, that the educational component, the basic and clinicalresearch, is done by many full-time professionals who preferto be a part of a university faculty. I personally believe thatsuch institutions should be required to have a viable affiliationor relationship with a medical school, if for no other reasonthan to facilitate the achievement of the broad educationalobjectives, facility- and program-sharing, and maintenance ofthe highest professional standards of basic research, clinicalresearch, and patient care.How many cancer centers need there be?This question can only be answered in the context of geo­graphical and population considerations. But perhaps one canvisualize establishing 15 to 25 centers that fit the ideal in thenext year or two. Eventually, as more personnel are trainedand available, and as institutions and medical schools developthe component parts and the cooperative approach, then Ibelieve as many as 100 will be needed. In large metropolitanareas such as New York, Los Angeles, Detroit, and Chicago,undoubtedly more than one will be required to meet the chal­lenge of patient load, of management of inter-institutionaleducational programs and cooperative ventures in clinicalpatient care and focused clinical research.Should there also be cancer centers that do not qualifyunder my suggested ideal?Emphatically yes! Institutions that are primarily orientedto the basic sciences but are currently unrelated to a medicalschool or medical center must be encouraged to develop can­cer research programs or we will be bypassing the genius ofmany. Already many such institutions are involved throughindividual grants or by contractual relationship with the Na­tional Cancer Institute, the American Cancer Society, the U.S.Atomic Energy Commission, private foundations, or individ­ual philanthropy. Perhaps such institutions can be encouragedto develop foci of even greater significance to our nationalneed for more fundamental research on cancer. In addition,there already exist within many medical school complexes focior the potentials for foci of cancer research which must besought out and encouraged to participate with the nationalprogram even if the medical school itself has no organizedprogram in relation to a cancer center.We may think then of cancer centers as being of two types:( 1) The all-encompassing type, which should ideally existwithin a medical school-medical center complex, and (2) themore basic research-oriented type, which mayor may notexist within a university or medical school.How should cancer centers relate to one another and to thegovernment?If the government is to finance and manage a massive andoverall integrated attack on cancer, and if the dollar cost isto remain within our national capability, then( 1) The mechanisms for coordination of the overall effort,dissemination of information, minimization of unnecessaryoverlap and duplication, searching out and encouraging studyand solution of obvious gaps in our knowledge, and pushingpromising leads-all these must be done at the national orgovernmental level with the wholehearted support and par­ticipation of individuals not only from our non-governmenteducational institutions but also from private industries.(2) Centers must relate to each other in focusing on re­search problems with other institutions-sharing information,collaboration where opportunity and talent exist, inter-insti­tutional utilization of costly equipment and services whenappropriate, and cooperating on education programs thatrange from basic research to clinical training.What training programs must be sponsored at the nationallevel to meet our needs of today and tomorrow?If our national goal is to be met and maintained, then avariety of training programs are essential:( 1) The manpower in certain medical specialties must beincreased and encouraged. Among these are radiology in gen­eral and radiotherapy in particular. Anesthesiology is short­handed, and pathology is strained.(2) Clinical and clinical research training must be steppedup to provide and encourage the development of career clin­ical oncologists, some of whom may be generalists and manyof whom may be more specialty-oriented. These are needednot only for patient care but for clinical research and teachingas well.(3) The M.D.-Ph.D. or the Ph.D.-M.D. type of trainingin cancer research needs special emphasis, since these indi­viduals are and will become increasingly necessary for ourmedical school and institutional faculties as well as in privateindustry.(4) Selected health-professional components important tothe cancer field will require expansion and more attractivecareer opportunities.(5) Administrative management expertise is in short sup­ply in the health field generally. As cancer centers developand health delivery generally improves and expands, this needwill increase. Efforts should be made to increase and broadenthe health and research administration educational opportuni­ties to meet these needs.How should this national effort and the components I haveoutlined he financed?In general, I am categorically opposed to total financingby the Federal government. I firmly believe that the successof the great objective, the conquest of cancer, must in additioninvolve institutional and individual effort, and initiative to ex­cite and identify the community and its constituency, namely,business leaders, local philanthropists, auxiliaries, and indi­viduals, with the cause. Such participation serves as an inspi­ration to the institution and to the individual researcher toperform and produce, and gives the local community a per­sonal stake in the pride of progress.To return to center financing, I believe that local institu­tional conditions should dictate whether underwriting shouldbe a relatively large single-instrument type, a core grant, ora combination of a core grant with individual or focal groupfinancing on a grant basis. Core grants offer special advan-11tages in that they provide the common needs of a group thatrelies on individual grant support. Single-instrument grantsrequire special leadership but provide flexibility and greatopportunity for individual and collective effort. The problemof monitoring the many individual scientific programs withina single-instrument grant is difficult.Should patient hospitalization costs be provided to cancercenters?The answer is yes, but not for routine care. Only bed costsof patients involved in clinical research should be subsidized.In my opinion, this aspect must be carefully guarded. We canafford only a few beds, and these only if the clinical cancerresearch involving the patient meets the criteria already estab­lished for clinical research centers.How should we approach the question of new constructionand renovation for cancer centers?This is a most difficult problem because it is potentiallyvery costly and is usually insatiable. It requires careful studyand judgment. I tend to oppose total financing by the govern­ment and I would oppose a liberal new facility constructionprogram on a crash basis or on a first-come, first-served basis.Rather, let us look more closely at the requests that accumu-12late over some reasonable period. Then as we study our na­tional needs and the important problem of geographic distri­bution, we can go about the task with a rational and scien­tifically sound selection process.I am inclined to be more lenient about renovation butwould nevertheless set reasonable dollar limits and imposethe usual rigorous quality standards.In summary, I have tried to outline what, in my experienceand hope, cancer centers and subsidiary research foci shouldbe, in terms of making progress in the research, training, anddelivery of care in order to achieve the conquest of cancerin the next decade. The program obviously requires the un­selfish involvement of all who are capable of dedicating theirintellectual capacity and service to the cause, whether they arein government or educational circles, or are members of theconcerned population. This effort must not be visualized byinstitutions and individuals as a substitute for the generoussupport from federal and private agencies that existed in theSixties, but rather as a new approach, a challenge to a maxi­mum effort in cooperative basic and clinical research and edu­cation to solve one of the most dreadful yet fascinating of thediseases of mankind.The Spirit of Love of Truth"Ben May is ... more than a person and more than an insti­tution. Ben May is also a philosophy. It is a philosophy toserve as an inspiration to dedicate its scientists to attack theproblems of biology and medicine, so that we can live up toour motto: 'Discovery is our business.''' That was how ElwoodJensen, Director of the Ben May Laboratory for Cancer Re­search, introduced Ben May himself at the dedication cere­monies for the new facilities for the Laboratory. Dr. CharlesHuggins, the William B. Ogden Distinguished Service Profes­sor and Director Emeritus of the Ben May Laboratory,echoed these sentiments when he said, "I speak for the sixty­four workers of the Ben May Lab. It is not a department. Itis a cause."The November 15 ceremonies began, appropriately, witha scientific session on "Control Mechanisms in MammalianTissues" which included papers by Sune Bergstrom of theKarolinska Institutet, Stockholm, and Theodore T. Puck, Di­rector of the Eleanor Roosevelt Institute for Cancer Researchat the University of Colorado Medical Center. Followinglunch in the Quadrangle Club, the facilities were dedicated.After brief remarks by Dr. Leon O. Jacobson, Dean of theDivision of the Biological Sciences and The Pritzker School ofMedicine, and Dr. Huggins, Ben May spoke:"My main thought of the laboratory is never of the beauti­ful equipment that's here, it's of these young men who havecome here, most of whom have come out of sacrifice, financialand otherwise; and it is their work and their sacrifice thatkeeps and will keep the place going, we hope, with the samespirit of endeavor and without selfishness. It is a tribute toMr. Goldblatt, who gave us space, and it's the men, I thinkDr. Huggins in particular, who have sacrificed to make thisplace possible."Summing up, Edward H. Levi, President of the University,said:"Today, we dedicate this modern facility, 19,000 squarefeet on four floors, designed to enhance basic research. But itis important that this is still the Ben May Laboratory forCancer Research, made strong through a unique partnershipof respect and appreciation, winning the support of many,recognizing the value of the individual investigator, cuttingacross disciplinary lines, sharing the quest for discovery asthe highest form of teaching and learning, ennobled by itsefforts to mitigate human suffering."What is the formula for this accomplishment? It has manyparts. History and fate have helped to fit them together. Butthe spirit of the love of truth has held them in place. And theproof of that love, in the words of Roger Bacon, is in thework. It is with this spirit that Dr. Huggins has endowed theBen May Laboratory. May it be that way tomorrow andalways thereafter."13Dr. Fried14Preventive NutritionBy Linus Pauling,Professor of Chemistry at Stanford UniversityLinus Pauling won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1954 and theNobel Peace Prize in 1962. His work has been recognized alsowith the award of the Fermat Medal, the Paul Sabatier Medal, thePasteur Medal, and the Medal with Laurel Wreath of the Interna­tional Grotius Fund, as well as numerous honorary degrees, in­cluding an honorary Sc.D. from The University of Chicago in1941. He spoke on preventive nutrition at the banquet on No­vember 5, 1971, closing the dedication ceremonies for the BenMay Laboratory for Cancer Research at the University.1 have come into the field of medical research with a back­ground of knowledge and experience largely in physical chem­istry, physics, and mathematics, with great emphasis on thestructure of molecules and the relation between the physicaland chemical properties of substances and the detailed struc­ture of their molecules. In 1934 I began the study of hemo­globin, the red protein in the red cells of the blood, and alsoof other proteins. I became interested in immunology, thenatural mechanism of protection of the body against the vec­tors of disease, and then went on to the study of sickle-cellanemia and other molecular diseases; since 1954, 17 yearsnow, I have been studying the molecular basis of mental dis­ease. In the course of this work I developed some ideas thatI put together under the title orthomolecular medicine or,when applied to mental disease, orthomolecular psychiatry.Orthomolecular medicine is the preservation of good healthand the prevention and treatment of disease by varying theconcentrations in the human body of the molecules of sub­stances that are normally present, many of them required forlife, such as the vitamins, essential amino acids, essential fats,and minerals.Many of these substances normally present in the humanbody are a part of our diet. We get these substances into thebody by eating certain foods. To some extent orthomolecularmedicine is the use of a proper diet in improving health.Professor Roger J. Williams, who discovered one of thevitamins, pantothenic acid, has written a book, just published,with the title Nutrition against Disease. He raises many inter­esting points in this book, including the possibility that im­proved nutrition could decrease the incidence of cancer.When you break your leg, the doctor may set the break, ifnecessary, and put the leg in splints. After a while the breakhas healed. Has the doctor healed your broken leg? No. Yourbody has healed the leg, by organizing molecules of differentkinds into the right positions in the neighborhood of the break.In order to heal the break, it is necessary that the body haveavailable the molecules that are needed. If a person is notproperly nourished, if he does not have the right moleculespresent in the right amounts, the break will not heal.When a person succeeds in fighting off an infectious dis­ease, the drugs a physician prescribes for him may be of somevalue, but it is the body of the person that eventually succeedsin winning the fight, or in losing it. The body may well losethe fight if the right molecules are not available to it, andavailable in the right amounts.For a number of years I have been interested in the ques­tion of the control of schizophrenia by what is called mega­vitamin therapy, an example of orthomolecular medicine. Iknow four psychiatrists, Dr. A. Hoffer in Canada, Dr. AllanCott in New York, Dr. David Hawkins on Long Island, andDr. Robert Meiers in California, who among them have treat­ed about 7,000 schizophrenic patients by use of megavitamintherapy, in addition to other therapeutic methods that arecommonly used by psychiatrists. This megavitamin therapyinvolves the administration, day after day, of amounts ofcertain vitamins far larger than the usually recommendedamounts, as much as a hundred or even a thousand times aslarge as the recommended daily allowances. The vitamins areniacin or niacinamide, which is the antipellagra vitamin,ascorbic acid, and pyridoxine, vitamin Bo. The patients usual­ly are given about 3 grams of ascorbic acid, vitamin C, perday, several hundred milligrams of pyridoxine, and between3 grams and 20 grams of niacin or niacinamide per day. For­tunately these substances are among the least toxic substancesknown. Also, every person is accustomed to them, in some­what smaller amounts, because these vitamins are required forcontinued life and preservation of health. These physiciansare confident that the use of megavitamin therapy has much15value in the treatment of schizophrenia, though it is not suc­cessful in every patient.I have been interested, as many people know, in the use ofvitamin C in improving general health and preventing colds.The amount of vitamin C that I recommend is different fordifferent persons, perhaps only 250 mg a day or less for somepeople, 1,000 mg or even 3,000 mg a day for others, withlarger amounts taken, perhaps 1,000 milligrams an hour, atthe first sign that a cold may be developing. I still do notknow how effective vitamin C might be for a large popula­tion, if it were to be used in this way, but I think that itmight be very effective, especially if it were used by almosteveryone, and the incidence of colds dropped to such an ex­tent that people would rarely be exposed to cold viruses.The reason that I do not know how effective vitamin C isagainst the common cold is that the medical research menduring the last twenty-five years have failed to follow the leadsindicated by investigations in the period around 1940.At that time, for example, Drs. D. W. Cowan, H. S. Diehl,and A. B. Baker of the University of Minnesota carried outa very interesting experiment about the effect of a rather smallamount of ascorbic acid, 180 mg per day, on 208 students,with another group of 155 receiving an inactive tablet, aplacebo. The number of colds was 15 percent smaller for thevitamin C group than the placebo group, and the amount of. illness per student, as measured by the number of days lostfrom school, was 31 percent smaller. These investigators, oneof whom, Dr. Diehl, was Dean of the School of Medicine,pointed out that these decreases have high statistical signifi­cance, and probably are real, although they doubted that theeffect was large enough to be of practical importance.It seems to me that to have only two-thirds as much illnessis of practical importance, if it involves only taking a vita­min C pill every day; but, more important, as a physicalchemist I would immediately ask whether or not twice asmuch vitamin C would give twice as great protective effect.Apparently Drs. Cowan, Diehl, and Baker did not ask thisquestion, because after publishing their paper in J AMA in1942, they did not go ahead with an experiment in whichtwice as much or even three times as much ascorbic acid wasused in the same way as in their earlier experiment. Nor didother American physicians repeat this important experimentwith larger amounts of ascorbic acid.I have tried to find out why little attention was paid to thestudy by Cowan, Diehl, and Baker. I have decided that thework was largely neglected because the investigators were toomodest, or were attempting to protect their reputations. Thefact is that in the summary of their paper the investigatorsdid not mention the 15 percent decrease in the incidence ofcolds and the 31 percent decrease in the number of days ofillness per subject. Instead, they said that vitamin C did nothave any important effect in decreasing the incidence or se-16verity of the common cold. Then the writers of textbooks readthe summary, and quoted it to the effect that vitamin C hasno important effect on the common cold, or they were carelessand said only that vitamin C had no effect on incidence orseverity of the common cold.I think that if the authors had been more candid, less re­served, perhaps even more honest, in writing the summary oftheir paper in 1942, it might well have followed that carefuland thorough studies with larger amounts of vitamin C wouldhave been carried out 25 years ago, and a tremendous amountof illness and suffering from the common cold and from sec­ondary infections might have been avoided. Even now itseems to me that there is some misrepresentation going on.Dr. Hoffer in a published comment on the vitamin C contro­versy has said that the critics of vitamin C in respect to thecommon cold have a double standard. They ask me to quotethe most rigorous sort of evidence, based on extensive double­blind studies, to support my statement that vitamin C hasvalue against the common cold, whereas they are willing todiscuss possible side effects in a small number of people onthe basis of the flimsiest of evidence.As another example I may mention the work by Dr. R. B.Hornick and his collaborators at the University of Maryland,announced only two weeks ago. The researchers studied 21volunteers in a Maryland prison for about one month. Elevenof them were given 3 grams of vitamin C per day, and theother ten were given a placebo. After two weeks they all wereinoculated with a suspension of virus particles. Dr. Hornickreported that his conclusion from the results was that therewas no difference between the two groups in the incidenceof colds, whereas I would have expected the incidence of coldsto be only a little more than half as great for the ascorbic acidsubjects as for the placebo subjects, if they were exposed tocold viruses in the normal manner, by casual contact withother people who were spreading the viruses around. In fact,everyone of the eleven ascorbic acid subjects and everyoneof the ten control placebo subjects came down with a cold.I think that what this means is that you get under the con­ditions of their experiment, with the inoculation of the respi­ratory areas with a very large number of virus particles, almostcertain chance that a cold will be incurred, whether the im­proved resistance of the extra vitamin C is operating or not.This experiment is quoted as being of significance to the ques­tion of incidence of the common cold for subjects who areexposed to viruses in the normal way, but it does not havemuch bearing on this matter. The Hornick study was not de­signed to provide information about the protective effect ofascorbic acid under ordinary conditions. I am reminded of aninvestigation in which eleven chickens were fed a diet con­taining extra calcium and ten were fed the diet without extracalcium. The eggs were then tested with a sledge hammer.They all broke. The investigator concluded that extra calciumdoes not strengthen egg shells.(left top) Dr. Jacobson and Dr. Huggins hurry to catch up with Mr. May on hisway to dedication ceremonies; (center) Albert Szent-Gyorgi greets an old friend;and (bottom) some participants find time for a quick tour of the new facilities.(right) Eugene DeSombre, Assistant Professor in the Ben May Laboratory, atwork in the new quarters.17I can give another example of a poorly designed experiment,in the field of megavitamin therapy for schizophrenia. I readin a publication of the National Institute of Mental Healththat an experimental study had shown that niacin, which is ademethylating agent, did not neutralize the methylating actionof methionine. It is known that methionine causes schizo­phrenic patients to become more psychotic, and it is thoughtthat this effect might be the result of the transfer of methylgroups from the methionine to some substance in the brain,converting it into a schizophrenogenic substance. In the ex­periment the schizophrenic subjects were given 20 grams ofmethionine per day, which is enough to make them muchmore schizophrenic than before. Some of them were given3 grams of niacin per day, in addition to the methionine. Theybecame just as schizophrenic.The flaw in this investigation is an obvious one. The mole­cule of methionine is about the same size as the molecule ofniacin. Accordingly it would take about 20 grams per day ofniacin to neutralize 20 grams per day of methionine. Threegrams per day of niacin would neutralize only about one-sixthof the methionine. One cannot draw any conclusions from theresult of this experiment.Now, about cancer: As Roger J. Williams points out in hisbook, there are in the medical literature a number of papersin which the relation of nutrition to cancer is discussed. Thesepapers have been largely ignored.It is known that vitamin C is required for the synthesis ofcollagen by the body. It is required for wound healing. It isrequired for preserving the strength of blood vessels. Vita-Four Nobel Prize winners take a moment to relax during the Ben Maydedication festivities: (I to r) Linus Pauling, Albert Szent-Gyorgi, RobertMulliken, and Dr. Charles Huggins.min C is an anti-oxidant, and vitamin E is also an anti-oxi­dant. Tissues in the human body can be damaged by oxida­tion of some of the molecules that constitute them, especiallythe unsaturated hydrocarbon side chains in cell membranesand the constituents of the interstitial ground substance.Ascorbic acid is essential for the synthesis of the collagenfibrils in the ground substance, and it may well function inother ways to strengthen the ground substance and to preventthe infiltration of tissues by cancerous growths. Ascorbic acidis known to have antiviral activity, and some cancers involveviruses. Preserving the integrity of the tissues by proper nutri­tion could prevent cancer cells from penetrating through thetissues, and contribute to the prevention of the developmentof cancer and the spread of cancer. So far as I am aware, thisapproach to the cancer problem has been almost entirelyneglected during recent years. Only a few physicians, espe­cially Dr. W. J. McCormick of Canada and Dr. F. R. Klennerof North Carolina, have made trials of ascorbic acid for theprevention and control of cancer. They have reported that ithas value, but their results have been discounted or ignored.I believe that there are great possibilities for the future.If proper nutrition were to decrease the number of cases by10 percent, this would be a most important contribution,saving 15,000 or 20,000 lives in the United States per year.I believe that proper nutrition can control cancer to a muchgreater extent than 10 percent. Nutrition, vitamins used intheir proper amounts-these are matters that the scientistsand medical men have neglected too long. I hope now thatthe role of nutritional factors in the attack on cancer will bethoroughly investigated.18The Emergency RoomBy Dr. Peter Rosen,Director, Emergency Room DivisionDr. Peter Rosen, born in Brooklyn in 1935, received a B.A.[rom The University oj Chicago in 1955 and an M.D. [romWashington University Medical School in 1960. He completedhis internship at the University oj Chicago Hospitals and Clinicsand residency at Highland County Hospital. After Army servicein Germany, he was simultaneously on the staffs oj hospitals inThermopolis, Worland, and Basin, Wyoming before coming tothe University in 1971. He is a Fellow of the American Collegeof Surgeons, the International College of Surgeons, the AmericanGeriatrics Society, and the University Association oj EmergencyPhysicians.As everyone is well aware, the Emergency Room has enor­mously increased its workload. This has important ramifica­tions for the entire hospital and out-patient clinics.In 1970, patients were seen at a rate of approximately4,000/month; 1971 shows an average of 5,000/month withevery indication of a continuing rise (Figure 1). On Septem­ber 13, 1971, a new high of 197 patients within a 24-hourperiod was recorded. However, with the increasing flow ofpatients, this will probably be a standard workload in 1972.The major cause of input to the Emergency Room Depart­ment has been a change in attitude towards use of this facilityas a primary care department, combined with an increasingdesire for medical attention in the population serviced. Inaddition, due to the 1968 cutback in service at Cook CountyHospital (CCH), an increasing number of patients who here­tofore would have sought all medical attention at CCH, havelooked to Albert Merritt Billings Hospital (AMBH) for theircare. Finally, as the population density around Michael Reeseand Mercy Hospitals decreased, some of this workload be­came more directed to AMBH.Another contributing factor to this fantastic increase is thefact that there are no alternative sources of medical attentionfor this large population. The Mid-South Program has indi­cated that for the neighborhoods of Woodlawn, Hyde Park,and Kenwood, with a population about 160,000 strong, thereare approximately 91 private physicians, with half over age70. Few of these are at all interested in providing either pri­mary or emergency health care to indigent or low incomepatients.I recently made a survey of the other hospitals serving ourgeographic area. While all run an "Emergency Room," feware equipped to handle any sizable workload because of thecombination of (1) inadequate ability to staff the area, (2)inadequate specialty backup for massive emergency roomproblems, and (3) crowded in-patient facilities reserved onlyfor financially able patients. More than one administrator in­formed me that his hospital policy was to limit welfare ad­missions, minimize medicare admissions, but always manageto find room for the patient with good funds (either personalor via third party coverage) . As a result, they are facing a largegroup of patients they wish to dispose of elsewhere. In thepast, these were sent to CCH but at present CCH will notaccept transfers. They have therefore looked to AMBH Emer­gency Room as a repository for these patients.Problems are generated in caring for this large a load ofpatients. First, since most of the patients are nonacute, theability to deliver efficient and competent medical care to thebona fide emergencies is severely hampered. Second, the bur­den of caring for this "general practice" has fallen upon thehouse staff, who resent having to provide primary care 24hours a day at the expense of their learning and managementof the seriously ill patients. Third, and most important, is thegreat cost of this group of patients; even if they pay some­thing in cash, the bulk of these people provide neither thirdparty coverage nor payment in full. An equally serious factorto cost is that there is no place to refer the nonacute patientin terms of private M.D. or other public clinic facility; manyreferrals are made to the AMBH Out-Patient Department;5,000...- -- ----.4,500Billings Adult Emerge-hey1968-19712,000 '- -.l. -.L _..... _I I M A M I I A � (J N () I I hoI '\ M I I , v ( ) N I) I I M � M I I ., , t ) 1\ , I I I �, " M I I " , , I '" )196/1 '/l)(il) IW'O /4""19and even when the referral is made according to bona fidemedical specialty demand, a large percentage of these ap­pointments are broken. (In trying to determine why Emer­gency Room patients don't keep clinic appointments, I havefound that in most instances there is a combination of factors:(a) no money to pay in advance, (b) unfamiliarity with anypart of the hospital other than Emergency Room, (c) igno­rance of where the appointment is to be kept, with the patientshowing up again in the Emergency Room, (d) the clinicappointment being made to get the patient out of the Emer­gency Room, no effort is made to impress upon the patientthat he must keep his appointment).Analysis of the workload reveals rather persistent percent­ages: 80 percent ambulatory minor complaints and 20 percentbona fide Emergency Room traffic. The latter cases are aboutequally divided into medical and surgical problems. About 90percent of the former are medical. It is impossible to estimatewhat proportion of this 80 percent traffic require ongoing careor specialty workup in our Out-Patient Department but Ithink the percentage is not high. Most of these problems canreadily be solved with that particular Emergency Room visitor with one or two followups, at most.How then to deal with this problem?It is obvious that no matter how much space is allotted toa facility, with a constantly accelerating growth rate, any im­provement will quickly be swamped. Why bother trying tokeep pate?First of all, I think that unless we can physically separatebona fide emergencies from ambulatory patients, we cannotprovide good medical care to the truly sick patients. I am fre­quently called by staff or employees seeking special attentionfor relatives or patients of special interest. Their most frequent20request is that I do something to see that the patient not bekept waiting for the usual period of time. Needless to say, wemake no patients wait if we can help it, and that is preciselythe point. With our present facility, we cannot avoid longwaiting periods.Figure 2 will demonstrate the rate per hour. With the exist­ing facility, we have only two examining rooms for ambula­tory patients. By the time a patient has been carded, vitalsigns taken, and placed into the examining room, approxi­mately 15 minutes (and in busy periods 30 minutes) havepassed before a doctor can even start to see the patient. By30 minutes, there are 4 more patients waiting for the room.When you consider that even the most efficient physician willspend from 5-30 minutes per patient, not to mention furtherdelays for x-ray and laboratory as well as time spent waitingfor unit numbers, old records, etc., it is not hard to fathomhow a 4-5 hour delay is generated. The reason we don't useour other examining rooms or operating rooms to see ambula­tory patients is very simple. They are full of bona fide emer­gencies or must be kept available, since we cannot predictwhen a gunshot wound is to arrive. We are constantly triagingthe truly ill patients, and see these patients within minutes ofarrival.With the ability to physically separate the two categories ofpatient, we will have a very adequate facility for the bona fideemergency which can operate at peak speed and efficiency,and an ambulatory center which should be able to see 8-10patients/hour rather than 2, our present rate. If the workloadcontinues to increase at the present rate, within three yearswe will no doubt be back to long waits on the ambulatoryside, but at least we will be able to continue to process ourvery ill patients rapidly and effectively.AVERAGE NUMBER OF PATIENTS SEEN PER HOURACROSS 30 DAYS (JULY 30-AUGUST 28, 1971)TIME12-1 A.M ..1-2 .AVERAGE NO.AVERAGE NO.TIME12-1 P.M.1-2 ..2-33-4 .4-5 .5-6 ..6-7 ..7-88-99-10 ..10-1111-12 .9.89.08.98.38.27.47.67.87.86.7.6.15.52-33-4 .4.53.23.92.92.72.22.33.88.0. 10.5.10.99.84-5 .5-6 .6-7 .7-88-9 ..9-10 .10-1111-12FIGURE 2Before discussing a program for the manning and functionof the two areas, I would like to discuss the need for holdingarea and beds.In any busy Emergency Room Division, there are a signifi­cant number of patients who are neither desirable nor appro­priate hospital admissions but who at the same time shouldnot be cast out upon the streets before their condition hasstabilized. Examples are the alcoholic who needs to sleep forseveral hours; the minor head injury who is clearing rapidly;the nosebleed, recently repacked, who is not bleeding, butwho should be watched for several hours; the diabetic who iseither mildly out of control, or who has had a hypoglycemicepisode and whom one wishes to be certain of stabilizing; theasthmatic who has responded to treatment; the epileptic whois postictal; the hemophiliac who is receiving his globulin; therape victim who is hysterical. What I envision is a 10-bedarea which would be run by the present Emergency Roompersonnel. There would be a 12-hour maximum on patientshere. At the end of that period, if they were not stable enoughto discharge, they would be admitted to an appropriate ser­vice. No patient would be held in this area who required con­tinuous or intensive nursing or medical monitoring. We haveessentially had a holding area ever since the Emergency Roombecame busy: we use our carts, the hallway, or the examiningcubicles. Needless to say, this complicates our jammed facil­ity. We are not interested in serving meals or providing anybut minimal observatory nursing and medical care under thesupervision of our already existing Emergency Room staff. Ifa patient is well enough to eat, he is well enough to be dis­charged. In addition to these needs in the area outlined, wewould like to have a doctors' consultation room, and a doc­tors' conference room. At the present time, there is no placewhere a doctor can talk privately with a family; and there isreally no area where we can hold our Morbidity and MortalityConference, as well as teaching sessions.One of the chief causes of delay in our facility is x-ray.The Radiology Department is well aware of our inadequaciesand our needs at this time. As I understand the statistics, theEmergency Room Division accounts for approximately 25percent of all work done in the department. They have pre­sented me with a proposal to supply us with 2 machines and2 developing units. This would give us an almost foolproofsystem that would function 24 hours/day despite mechanicalfailures, the probability of simultaneous failure of both ma­chines and developers being quite low. Obviously they needspace for this and we would like to propose the area that wasformerly the Admitting Waiting Room. In addition, we wouldgive them Operating Room #1 and one examining room. Wewould retrieve the operating room from the x-ray room theywould vacate. This would also have an added advantageof sealing off the Emergency Room Division from the re­mainder of the hospital except to selected patients-a se­curity advantage considering the large number of drunks anddrug addicts passing through the Emergency Room. The Wcorridor, our proposed new extension, would be the siteof the ambulatory center. The basic patient flow resulting isdesirable no matter what program is instituted for staffing. Inessence, this would call for a basic triage as the patient entersthe Emergency Room, the patients being carded and havingtheir vital signs taken at the triage desk. The 20 percent acuteemergencies would then be taken immediately into the E cor­ridor (the present Emergency Room) while their relatives andfriends wait in the E waiting room area. The 80 percent am­bulatory patients would be sent to the A waiting room on the21W corridor (A corridor). There they would be called in turn,and under clerk and R.N. control placed into the 8 examiningcubicles in turn. Upon completion of their medical services,they would exit from the A corridor, as would the E patientsnot admitted to the hospital. This would eliminate much cross­fire of patients, and increase the efficiency and serviceability ofthe E corridor. It thus would be possible to see bona fideemergencies immediately on the E corridor. The A patientsmight still have to wait significant stretches of time, especiallyif the workload continues to increase, but they would be undercontrol and out of the E work area.In addition to space, there are new personnel positionswhich would be helpful in running an efficient operation.First, a most important addition, would be a patient servicerepresentative. I feel that at present, there is no one who hasthe time to devote to patients' non-medical needs. For exam­ple, the doctor decides a patient should appropriately be seenin Surgery 7 Clinic after some x-rays. Usually he tells this tothe patient or a clerk. The patient is lucky if the clerk hastime to make the appointments for him, and only rarely willsomeone explain where and when he should go. This leads tomany cancelled appointments. Again, no one person in theEmergency Room has information needed to refer patients foralcoholism, drug abuse, etc. By the time the individual resi­dents and interns have learned this, they rotate from the Ser­vice. This would be extremely helpful to have available. Thepatient service representative would also help provide peoplewith information about how they acquire access to third partycarriers. I have encountered many patients who had goodgreen cards or Medicare cards who were unaware of how touse these; and others that were eligible for some third partyassistance but were unaware of this. Finally, it would be in-valuable to have someone to field the myriad of trivial prob­lems and complaints and in general do internal public rela­tions.Another position we surely need is that of clerk-messenger.Many of our delays, which all increase the waiting period,are due to our wheelchairs or stretchers disappearing into thehospital with no one to track them down. Or, a laboratoryspecimen needs to be run and there is no one to take it. Final­ly, during the late hours when we have only one clerk, ourphysicians must spend their valuable time in the filling outof forms and other duties more appropriate to a clerk.An important consideration in the area is expense. I seeno quick way to increase the incoming funds, but there areareas where we need to increase our efficiency. For example,at present no laboratory fee is charged to Emergency Roompatients because someone in the past decided we would paymore in clerical billing expense than we would collect. As weare seeing more third party coverage, I feel this is no longertrue. Second, there is no professional component, and I feelthis definitely should be added into Emergency Room charges,if only in the form of raising the Emergency Room charge.Finally, if we can see patients more quickly and efficiently,on the A side, it might prove economically feasible to havea reduced charge on this side, and make a greater efforttowards cash collection. A side benefit to the A-E separationwill be the reduction in unnecessary laboratory and x-ray testsordered, frequently as an expedient to keep patients moving.An aspect of the Emergency Room Division which hasbeen sorely neglected is the educational opportunity that itaffords. First, it is the source of genuinely interesting pathol­ogy for the residents, as much as 30 percent of our in-patientscoming from the Emergency Room. Second, the ability to re-??act quickly and correctly to a critical problem is invaluableto all physicians no matter what their specialty. At presentwe involve our medical students to a very minor degree inthis area. I'm sure they would respond to the challenge ofresponsibility, especially if there were an organized program.Our residents and interns have also asked for a greater teach­ing commitment. I have instituted a Morbidity and MortalityConference, and daily rounds on patients admitted from thedepartment. I also try physically to be present several hoursof the day to see patients along with the housestaff, while stillleaving them with primary responsibility. The response to allinput has been very enthusiastic. I can foresee a need for helpfrom other specialties in faculty input, which would be grati­fying to both faculty and housestaff. A final reason for theA-E triage concept is that it would greatly simplify the orga­nization of teaching within the area, and could provide anopportunity for clinical research. It is also clear that thehousestafI should be seeking out this area as a service ofchoice rather than feeling oppressed by their service.In order to increase the educational value of this service,we need more commitment of residents and interns. I person­ally feel that 12 hours per day with a 60-hour work week isthe maximum workload that should be permitted in -this area.I realize that many services require many more hours perweek than this, but there is a qualitative difference in runninga busy Gastroenterology or Cardiology Service and in beingin the Emergency Room. The former, while demanding, al­lows time to relax and cogitate, but with the present work­load, the Emergency Room is a steady, continuous, and fre­quently irritating demand upon the resident. Also he is onlyspending 20 percent of his time in his chosen specialty. Theremainder is spent in service towards a very busy generalpractice. Minimum staffing should, therefore, provide per 12-hour shift: one resident each from Medicine and Surgery, andone intern each from Medicine and Surgery. In the Spring of1971, we experimented with hiring a faculty triage physicianto work from 3-11 p.m. It was found that he saw approxi­mately 40 percent of the patients during this time. In addition,he provided a physician who could continuously whittle awayat the A type patient without ever having to stop for the bonafide massive emergency. In essence, what we have been doingis running a partial A-patient clinic. This has been so helpfulthat in view of the fact that no further mobilization of resi­dents to the area will occur in 1971-72, we have decided tocontinue this position as long as possible, or at least until wecan open and staff the A corridor.There have been some problems generated by this expe­dient. First, psychologically it is poor to pay extra for whatwe demand as a normal part of the resident's workload.Second, it is hard to find faculty who will work on holidaysor weekends. Third, it would have been even more helpfulif we had been able to have this position filled from 11 a.m.­II p.m. but it has been difficult to find people for the 3 p.m.-7 p.m. shift and totally impossible for 11 a.m.-3 p.m. Theresident and intern commitment I have asked for above, there­fore, is that to satisfactorily staff the E side. If we are to ser­vice the A side with housestaff, we must have an additionaltwo residents. I think that we could conceivably run the Aservice 12 hours a day 11 a.m.-II p.m., although 16 hourswould be preferable, and probably necessary if the workloadcontinued to rise. The present resident crew is working on a24-hour-on, 24-hour-off basis. It is hard to see how anyonecan make reasonable medical decisions when he is as fatiguedas these men become. The interns have been rotated in acommon pool which has provided them with a 12-hour shiftand 60-hour work week. However, this has meant that wehave double intern coverage only from 11 a.m.c-l l p.m. Thisis really not adequate; it would be much better to have twointerns 24 hours per day. The problem therefore is to providereasonable float cover so that the above work schedule I haverequested can be provided. This must be worked out withinthe departments of Medicine and Surgery. I attempted to ro­tate the residents as a common pool but there were such seri­ous objections to this that we quickly reverted to the 24-houroff-on schedule.There have been many alternative suggestions to increasedresident commitments; I would like to review some of these.The most frequent suggestion is that full-time EmergencyRoom physicians be hired to take care of the problem. Todo so would require a staff of at least 4 physicians at a prob­able cost of at least $160,000 per year. In addition, I doubtwhether it would be possible to find doctors of a caliber con­sistent with the rest of the faculty. Finally, it would eliminatethe teaching function of the Emergency Room Division, whichI feel is extremely important to the training of our housestaff.A second suggestion is that the Emergency Room becomea faculty assignment with each staff member spending a cer­tain number of days per year. This has never worked in largeinstitutions. It is hard enough to get faculty now that we arepaying them extra. Also, it would be preferable to have anassigned rotation, as with the housestaff, rather than a differ­ent doctor every 4 hours as we are presently doing.A third alternative is to cover at least the A patient corridorwith senior medical students. While I think this would be avery appropriate place for medical students to have a rotation,I think that it would require very close faculty supervision,and that students would not be experienced enough.A fourth alternative is to use R.N. triage and treatment,as is done at Michael Reese. This has proved very satisfactorythere. The chief objection to this is that we are already shortof R.N.s, not only in the hospital but in the Emergency RoomDivision. To immediately multiply our needs by adding on4-5 R.N.s would produce great difficulties in staffing.A fifth alternative is to staff with paramedical EmergencyRoom technicians. I think this could be made very workablebut will not eliminate the need for an M.D. to be physicallypresent. It would reduce the need for one M.D. per shift andcould free the remaining M.D. for more teaching or clinicduties, e.g., to run a general medical clinic within the area ofthe A corridor which would service primarily referrals fromthe A corridor.In summary, the Emergency Room Division has becomeone of the busiest areas in the hospital. It shows every indi­cation of increasing in its workload. This has generated greatproblems financially, as well as in terms of housestaff andfaculty commitments. There is no question that some of theseproblems appear insoluble given present attitudes and com­munity climate; but with proper institutional support, a feasi­ble program can be obtained. This will require a significantadditional amount of equipment and capital expense, as wellas physician service. With this, however, I think that we canachieve a well-run Emergency Room Division that can playits proper role in education, as well as service to the largenumbers of patients passing through our portals.24Happy Birthday,Mr. GoldblattThe 80th birthday of Maurice Gold­blatt, who has brought more than$18,000,000 to the University forcancer research, brought honors andrejoicing. (Top left) Former Deanlowell T. Coggeshall presents Mr.Goldblatt with an honorary M.D.,complete with coat and bag; (bottomleft) Dean Jacobson leads a stirringrendition of "Happy Birthday"; (be­low, top) Louis Goldblatt joinsPresident Levi, Dr. Huggins, hisbrother, and HEW Secretary ElliottRichardson, the speaker; and (below,bottom) Dr. Sidney Schulman, '46,chats with Muriel and George Beadle.25Building New FacesA marriage between art and science at The University of Chi­cago may make it possible for people with major facial dis­figurements to recapture a more normal appearance.A pilot course for maxillofacial prosthetic technicians hasone student enrolled and is still under study. But initial evalu­ations seem to indicate that it does serve its purpose.The course and its purpose?A sculpture course, focused on the human head and limbs,is being offered by the University's Midway Studios of theDepartment of Art to technicians studying in the ProstheticsLaboratory of the Zoller Dental Clinic on campus.Its purpose is to acquaint prosthetic technicians with themuscular and skeletal structure of the human form so thatthey will be better equipped to produce more lifelike substi­tute features for patients.Virginio Ferrari, Sculptor-in-Residence and Assistant Pro­fessor of Art at the University, teaches the course. He worksclosely with personnel in the Maxillofacial Prosthetic Sectionof the Zoller Dental Clinic at the University, headed by Dr.John E. Robinson, Professor of Dental Surgery.Leah Karl is the maxillofacial prosthetic technician studentenrolled. Since April she has spent several hours each weekin the Midway Studios, working with Ferrari and live models.She has had no previous formal art training, yet after only. a few months her sculptures are remarkably life-like."In this type of course, we can't be interpretive," Miss Karlexplained. "We have to strive for a good representative pieceof work." .Miss Karl was appointed a Maxillofacial Prosthetic Tech­nician Trainee in the Zoller Dental Clinic in November, 1970.In the art course specially designed for her, she first startedsculpting in relief, then progressed to three-dimensional work."This is the first real art course I've ever had," she said."It's very interesting, Mr. Ferrari is an excellent teacher, andI think the course is proving very worthwhile."The impetus for the course came from Dr. Robinson, whoasked the Art Department for help in giving art training tomaxillofacial prosthetic technicians. He said:"Those attracted to dental science have superior manualskills, generally; further development of these skills througha basic learning experience in sculpturing and art greatly en­hances their potential for fabricating maxillofacial" prosthesesof near normal appearance."Harold Haydon, Associate Professor of Art and Directorof the Midway Studios, talked the idea over with the youngsculptor, Ferrari. Haydon explained:"I welcomed the idea of such a program because it seemedto me to be one more classic example of University of Chi­cago interdepartmental and interdisciplinary collaboration."Such a course, though, would probably not have been pos­sible without someone like Virginio Ferrari available. Whilehe is a thoroughly contemporary sculptor of distinguishedachievement, his European art training has made him com­pletely knowledgeable and fully trained in anatomy and tra­ditional sculpture methods. This is one of the great advan­tages of foreign-trained art teachers. They have the thoroughEuropean art school background no matter how 'far out' theirown sculpture work or painting is."So Ferrari designed the course and Miss Karl became thefirst, and thus far the only, pupil. Ferrari said:"What we are trying to do in this course is to give studentsan idea of how to integrate their prosthetic work with the en­tire facial structure."In other words, the technician who is called upon, for ex­ample, to prepare an artificial ear should know what the entirehuman ear is like, how it relates to the immediate part of thehead to which it is attached, how much alike it should be tothe other ear of the patient.Making artificial eyes calls for the same sort of knowledge.In cases where noses or chins or other parts of the face haveto be prepared, such knowledge is even more helpful.In addition to learning about sculpture of the human anat­omy, students are taught such things as how color relates tothe human skin.In the prosthetic laboratory, they learn how to use ma­terials to make substitute facial prostheses .George W. Barnhart, C.D.T., Master Maxillofacial Pros­thetic Technician and Laboratory Supervisor, teaches thetechnicians how to use medical-grade silicone rubber to makelife-like human features. His 24 years of experience in thisfield are a valuable asset to the University."We have developed the material, which we buy commer­cially, for our own purposes. We make our own colors toduplicate as best we can the colors in human features so thatthe color of the prosthesis will blend in with the color of thepatient's tissue around it," he said."The patients who come to the Maxillofacial ProstheticClinic depend on us to help them," Miss Karl said. "We liketo do just that. You get a real sense of reward in this kindof work."(top left) Miss Karl prepares an eye section; (center left)Mr. Ferrari explains sculpture modelling techniques toMiss Karl; (bottom left) he smoothes a section under theeyes for better effect; (top right) Miss Karl checks theproportions on the bust; and (bottom right) returns to herlaboratory in Zoller, where George Barnhart makes aminor adjustment to her work.Answers When You Need Them:A Profile of Dr. Samuel Spectorby Paul SpeckIt only takes a few minutes in the officeof Dr. Samuel Spector to make it clearwhy last year's senior class awarded himthe McClintock Award, given annually tothe best teacher.Dr. Spector is a short, slight man. Heinvites you in and leans back in his chair-trying to look relaxed. He's also tryingto pretend that the photographer isn'tthere and that he doesn't mind talkingabout himself. He does.Then the talk turns to pediatrics. Aftera minute or so, the right hand leaves thearm of the chair and begins to help inthe conversation. When the conversationreaches back to teaching in Cleveland,the other hand begins to help out, too.Dr. Spector spends ten to twelve hoursa day in the hospital, and is on call forthe other hours. He likes it that way."The biggest part of teaching is avail-ability. If students have a problem, youcan come down; it's better than givingthem a lecture or a specific conference.. . . They can get an answer when theywant an answer-not at another lecturesome time.""Sometimes, they call at night. 1 cansort of sense their urgency. Sometimes1 just tell them that they're doing allright and 1 go back to sleep. Sometimes,nothing 1 can say will relieve their anx­iety-it's easier to get up and come down.I sleep better and they sleep better."When coming down means leaving awarm bed for a cold car and a midnightdrive to the hospital, it's easy to under­stand why Dr. Spector got the McClin­tock Award.Dr. Spector has impeccable credentialsas a clinical researcher. He initiated thefirst studies to compare the effectivenessof inducing vomiting to the traditionallavage in children who had eaten toxicsubstances. This research did away withthe painful and traumatic lavage as stan­dard treatment. He is also known for hisresearch into cystic fibrosis of the pan­creas. He has written chapters in pedi­atrics textbooks on the clinical examina­tion of children and the treatment ofchildren with severe lead poisoning, andcurrently is revising Dr. Spock's book onchild care.What does he consider to be his great­est contribution? He doesn't even pauseto ponder."I think the greatest contribution is thething I've been able to impart to studentsand house officers. Just within the lastcouple of weeks, I've had calls from FortBenning, San Antonio, Cleveland. Theseare house officers that I've trained. Theyget into a particular problem and they'llstill call me. This sort of attachment ispersistent even though many years havegone by."He says the last line with pleasure. Notpride, really, but pleasure.Since we've been talking, Dr. Spectorhas gradually been leaning forward. Ashe talks about his students, the shynessleaves his voice. He seems to get biggeras he talks. When we rise to go, his short­ness is surprising.Dr. Spector is still a short, slight man.But he's one of the biggest short, slightmen in the University. Ask any medicalstudent.In MemoriamLIGHT AND GENTLENESSEleanor Mary Humphreys, Rush '311892-1971Eleanor Mary Humphreys passed awayquietly in Chicago on December 28, 1971at the age of 79. With her passing theUniversity has lost a great teacher; manyof us have lost a close friend. Her rootswere in rural Vermont, where she grew upin a farm family with four brothers. Shewas blessed with a warm enthusiasm andjoy for the beauties of nature, an in­satiable curiosity, a warm love of people,and a strong desire to make a contribu­tion to the betterment of mankind. AtSmith College (A.B. 1917), she learnedto love the classics, chemistry, and cheese.She delighted in recounting the midnightdorm parties which took place after hershopping trips, where the chief ingredientswere cheese and crackers, and where shewas known as the "big cheese."She soon put her knowledge of chem­istry to work as a physiological chemistat Highland Hospital in Rochester, NewYork, 1917-1918, and as physiologicalchemist and bacteriologist at the StateLaboratories of New York, 1918-1923,thus starting her career in the field thatwas later to bloom into clinical pathology.In 1923 she decided to pursue hergraduate studies at the young and vigor­ous University of Chicago. Here she soonattracted the attention of the renownedpathologist H. Gideon Wells, who in 1926granted her an assistantship in the then­combined Departments of Pathology andBacteriology. By 1929 she was an In­structor in Pathology at The Universityof Chicago and part-time medical studentat Rush Medical College, from which shegraduated in 1931. She was then pro­moted to Assistant Professor of Pathologyin the new Department of Pathology,which had just moved to its present lo­cation in Billings Hospital. Here she soonestablished herself as a teacher of raretalent and as Paul R. Cannon, her col­league for many years, pointed out, shebecame "indispensable because of hercooperativeness and willingness to helpothers in the analysis of problems in pa­thology." In July, 1946, Dr. Humphreyswas appointed professor.Remembered best for her personalizedapproach to teaching, on a one to onebasis she made herself available, day andnight, to discuss with student, intern,resident, or faculty member a particular­ly difficult case or a troublesome personalproblem. Thus she became the friend,teacher, counselor, and expert advisor forcountless members of her Billings Hos­pital "family" for over 30 years.During this period she made numerousscholarly contributions to knowledgewhich were published in over 40 scien­tific papers. These covered a broad spanof interests, from congenital heart diseaseto rheumatic fever and the cardiac in­volvement in lupus erythematosus, fromglycogen storage disease to Marfan's syn­drome, from selective adrenal corticalnecrosis to functional adrenal medullarytumors, from the effects of vagotomy onthe stomach to the association betweenulcerative colitis and cancer, from therenal effects of prolonged ulcer alkalitherapy to protein deficiency and its mani­fold effects on the liver and blood. Manyof these studies grew out of cases whichshe had studied and many were writtenin collaboration with her colleagues,young and old, in Medicine, Pediatrics,and Surgery, as well as in Pathology.Her scholarship was not limited tomedical subjects. She loved books andher knowledge extended from history tophilosophy, from natural science to theo­ries of education, from modern novelsand poetry to the classics. She had aspecial love for Greece and delighted inher post-retirement trip to Athens in1966.Many will remember her best for herstimulating teaching of Pathology 301,where she introduced hundreds of stu­dents to the fundamental principles ofcirculatory disease, degenerative disordersand inflammation. Others will rememberher as the Director of Surgical Pathology,a post she held from 1946 to 1958.Here she developed an open laboratorywhere everyone, student or professoralike, was welcome to drop in and dis­cuss a difficult clinical problem, to reviewthe slides from an important surgical pro­cedure or just to visit and enjoy thepleasant art of conversation. Her phe­nomenal memory made it possible for herto relate a current case to one or severalprevious ones. This often provided help­ful clues for the problem at hand.Many rejoiced with her when she wasrecognized for her achievements. Sheserved as President of the Chicago Patho­logical Society in 1943-44, as Presidentof our own Medical Alumni Associationin 1953-54. She was selected as one ofChicago's most dedicated women in 1959,for an honorary degree from Smith Col­lege in 1967, and for an honorary lifemembership in the Chicago PathologicalSociety in 1968.Only a few knew that she turned downan invitation from Eleanor Roosevelt toa White House luncheon because she feltshe couldn't leave her work in SurgicalPathology at that particular time.A memorable occasion for many of uswas the reception in her honor at thetime of her "retirement" in 1958. Thisbrought together many of her colleaguesand former students-all of them friendsand admirers. It was at this time that theEleanor M. Humphreys Loan Fund wasestablished, a fund which has since grownto be one of the University'S most im­portant resources for needy medical stu­dents, interns, and residents.Of course, this really wasn't her retire­ment because she continued to teach andconsult at Billings until 1965, while serv­ing as pathologist for Woodlawn Hospitalfrom February 1959 through 1965.It is with fond memory that we recallthe many happy years we worked withDr. Humphreys and we are particularlyglad that one of her most able studentsin pathology, Dr. Ting-Wa Wong, haswritten such a beautiful tribute to her forthis issue of Medicine on the Midway.Robert W. Wissler, Ph.D. '46,M.D. '49Professor of Pathology29Dr. Eleanor Humphreys ...Some Reflections Evoked by theEvent of Her DeathWith the death of Dr. Eleanor Hum­phreys, we have lost a teacher, a scholar,and a beloved human being. She was allthese beyond compare.Those of us who had had the oppor­tunity to study under her had often wit­nessed that near supernatural perceptionand imagination of the mind, the posses­sion of which gives a person the power topierce swiftly and surely into the secretsof nature, the power which her colleaguesand students recognized as her genius.Her mind was always keen and subtle,her judgment clear and sound, and herinsight both quick and deep. Added ontothese intellectual attributes were her infi­nite patience and supreme art in impart­ing knowledge, whether by the give-and­take of informal conversations or by for­mal pathological reports. The latter weremarked by their beauty of expressionwelling from a profundity of observation,at times touched with poetry.Yet these were not the reasons why shestood unique in the gallery of teachers.Some great men, in spite of their intel­lectual force, in spite also of a whollyupright and open character, never suc­ceed in gathering about them a body of30young men and women bound by the tiesof personal attachment. Such men aremasters in their writings only, not inthemselves; the bonds between them andtheir pupils are of the impersonal intel­lectual kind.It was not so with Dr. Eleanor Hum­phreys. Those of us who had heard hervoice, had watched her work in the Sur­gical Pathology Laboratory, and who hadknown her as a human being no less thanas a scientific worker, all loved, admired,and indeed venerated her, not only forher singular intellect and for the widegrasp of her mind, but also, and perhapsno less, for her charming character andmoral worth.All of us remember how engaginglyand graciously she chatted with youngmedical students or novice residents inpathology, for we had all been so bene­fited ourselves in one manner or another.She was uncommonly courteous and con­siderate to her co-workers and subordi­nates, and a most kind-hearted woman.For her natural good temper, she neverhad her equal. She could never chide asubordinate; when in charge she neveruttered a harsh command. Such sweetnessof disposition in so great and lofty a per­sonage was doubly endearing. Her kind­liness and generosity had charmed men,women, and children alike. In her unpre-tentious and gentle manner, she instilledin us, not only an image of what con­stitutes a great scholar, but also what ismost treasured in a man.I had known her only in old age, nearthe end of her official career. But ageseemed to have changed her charactervery little: perhaps time did not changeher at all, but only brought out moreclearly the fundamental warmth of hernature. She was always herself at bottom,however disfigured by the incrustations oflife.In the end, her body, always frail, wasravaged by all the ills which were thenatural consequence of age, and yieldedto that inevitable fate which awaits allthings composed of flesh and blood. Butthe spirit that dwelt within was impervi­ous to the erosion of time. Its noble char­acter, which it was our good fortune tobehold, will always remain a truth thatnothing can sully, for it is the stuff whichmakes life beautiful, good, excellent, andworth experiencing as a whole. Thus thisloss of contact with her brought on bydeath is for us merely like closing a bookwhich we keep at hand for another occa­sion; we know that book by heart. Thememory of it brings a lasting ray of sun­shine.We will always remember her, notmerely by her scholarship and learned­ness, but also by the elements of light andgentleness that she infused into all thosewho were fortunate to cross her path.Ting-Wa Wong, M.D. '57, Ph.D. '70Assistant Professor of PathologyEXCELLENCE AND EXPECTATIONHans H. Hecht, 1913-1971The death on August 12 of Dr. Hans H.Hecht, the Blum-Riese Professor of Medi­cine and Physiology and Head of theCardiology Section, was reported in thelast issue of Medicine on the Midway.The following tribute to Dr. Hecht wasdelivered by Dr. Alvin R. Tarlov, '56,Professor and Chairman of the Univer­sity's Department of Medicine, at thememorial service.In 1964 Hans Hecht interrupted a beau­tiful and idyllic mountain life in SaltLake City to cast his lot with The Univer­sity of Chicago as Professor of Medicineand Physiology and Head of the Sectionof Cardiology. A cardiovascular physiolo­gist and electrocardiographer of enviableinternational reputation, Hans steadfastlybelieved that progress in understandingthe heart's function and its disease couldbest be approached through a rich mix­ture of basic scientists and clinical scien­tists working side by side in a hospitalsetting under the steady influence of ques­tions generated by patients. The appealof his concepts and the strength of hisdetermination and character soon led tosuccess, and he assembled the most versa­tile and one of the most highly thoughtof sections of Cardiology in this country.This development of distinction attracteda good deal of attention and marked aturning point in the Department of Medi­cine. His standard has been, is, and longwill be the standard against which ourprogress will be measured.So great was the admiration for Hans,so great was the respect for his accom­plishments, that in 1966 he was appointedChairman of the Department of Medi­cine. The challenge of this post was metby his superior wisdom and enormousenergy and he gave to the Departmenttirelessly, devotedly, and with his life.Recognition of his abilities came by wayof lectureships and Visiting Professor­ships in our country and abroad, selectionby The University of Chicago as the firstBlum-Riese Professor of Medicine andPhysiology, selection as Man of the Yearby Modern Medicine in 1969, and recent­ly nomination as President of the Amer­ican Heart Association.Of all the contributions Hans made tothe Department of Medicine the mostimpressive to me was his imposition ofstandards of excellence and expectationin every aspect of the enterprise, patientcare, research, and teaching. Soon aftermy arrival at The University of ChicagoI was asked to speak at a Departmentof Medicine Clinical Conference on aWednesday afternoon at 5 o'clock. A pa­tient was presented who had abnormalaccumulation of iron in all tissues of hisbody. I was the principal discussant, Iprepared thoroughly for the conference;I was quite nervous and damp, and spokefor 20 minutes. Relieved with having itover, I returned to my office at 6 o'clockand collapsed into a chair. Soon, Hansopened the door, pardoned his intrusion,and entered to talk about the conference.Firstly, he discussed the scientific chal­lenge presented by this serious malady;in the next ten minutes he pointed out indetail the deficiencies of my presentationand how it could be improved, and finallyhe instructed me, unequivocally, to dobetter, much better, the next time, He leftwith a friendly smile, and said "We arecounting on you." My initial reaction washumiliation but this was soon replacedby appreciation, which has lasted.Hans, we are grateful to you for allthe things you have done for us in somany different ways. The momentum youdeveloped toward a more scientific medi­cine, and the standards of performanceyou established, will continue. The Ar­chives of the University will record theindelible effect you have had on it. Forme personally, I have emerged a differentperson through the warmth, generosity,and honor of your human qualities, andfor this I shall forever be grateful.The Hans Hecht Memorial Fundhas been established to receive do­nations to support annual lecturesin memory of Dr. Hecht.A LIFETIME OF LEADERSHIP:Fred L. Adair, Rush '011877-1972A 1938 biography of Dr. Fred L. Adair,Rush '0 I, began: "There are four FredAdairs. One-perhaps the best known­is the lifelong leader of the movement toextend prenatal and maternal care toevery corner of the country. The secondis the scholar who has made contribu­tions to almost every subject in the fieldsof obstetrics and gynecology. The thirdis the organizer under whom the researchof the University'S Department of Ob­stetrics and Gynecology has producedsuch results as the discovery of ergono­vine, the obstetric drug which reducesthe dangers of childbirth. The fourth isthe obstetrician, to whom fellow-practi­tioners thousands of miles away senddifficult cases. Since 1929 the Universityhas enjoyed the services of these fourmen-in-one."The University continued to enjoy theservices of Dr. Adair directly until 1942,when he retired, and indirectly throughhis continuing activities on behalf of thefield, as he went on to serve as chief ofthe Division of Infant and MaternalHealth in the Illinois Department ofHealth in 1943 and in the War FoodAdministration Section on Special Nu­tritional Needs. He later chaired theAmerican Commission on Maternal Wel­fare, and the First International andFourth American Congress on Obstetricsand Gynecology, and later the Fifth Con­gress. He was active in developing theInternational Federation of Gynecologyand Obstetrics and the Congress in Ge­neva, Switzerland in 1954 and was treas­urer of the organization from 1954-58.His research achievements were recog­nized in 1935, when the American Medi­cal Association presented its gold medalfor outstanding scientific achievement toDr. Adair and three colleagues, Dr.M. Edward Davis, Rush '22, of the De­partment of Obstetrics and Gynecology,and M. S. Kharasch and R. Legault ofthe Department of Chemistry. Under Dr.Adair's leadership, the team isolatedergotocin, contributing significantly tothe development of ergenovine. Ergotocin,a derivative of ergot, is a fungus whichattacks rye and other grains. Europeanmidwives knew of the medicinal effectsof ergot as early as the eighteenth cen­tury, but it remained for Dr. Adair'steam to introduce the application of thissynthetic product.In addition to his continuing interestin fetal pathology and human uterinemotility, Dr. Adair was deeply concernedwith maternal welfare. This concern hada significant effect on government poli-31cies, not only in the United States, butalso in Europe. The recognition that heso richly deserved for these efforts wasgranted him through so many awardsthat it would be impossible to list themall.Dr. Adair evidenced his faith in theUniversity by entrusting to it the edu­cation of his three children, Agnes J.Adair Kuhn (Ph.B. '34), Robert C.Adair (B.A. '36), and Richard P. Adair(B.A. '37); moreover, his son-in-law,John F. Kuhn, was a resident in surgeryhere ('32-'34).As Chairman of the Department, Dr.Adair continued and expanded the tradi­tion of original research and concernedclinical practice developed by the prede­cessor he so admired, Dr. Joseph B.DeLee. We who are privileged to carryon that tradition continue to be inspiredby his spirit.Dr. Frederick P. ZuspanThe Joseph Bolivar DeLeeProfessor and Chairman,Dept. of Obstetrics & GynecologyEDWIN M. MILLER, Rush '131889-1972Edwin M. Miller, Rush '13, President ofthe Medical Alumni Association in 1967-68, died February 4 of a stroke. Dr.Miller was professor emeritus of RushMedical College, surgeon emeritus ofRush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Hospital,and clinical professor emeritus of surgeryof the University of Illinois MedicalSchool. In 1963 the Medical AlumniAssociation presented him with its Distin­guished Service Award.32Following internships at Presbyterianand Cook County Hospitals, Dr. Millerjoined the faculty of Rush Medical Col­lege and the staff of Presbyterian in 1915.In 1916, he was appointed Nicholas SennFellow in surgery under Dallas B. Phe­mister. He served in both world wars,with the medical corps in France duringWorld War I, and as chief of surgery atGeneral Hospital No. 13 in New Guineaduring World War II. Dr. Miller was vicepresident of the medical staff of Presby­terian Hospital from 1947-1953 andchairman of its department of surgeryfrom 1949-1954. At the time of his deathhe was chairman of the Rush MedicalCollege Antiquities Committee and waspreparing material for a historical mu­seum of Chicago medicine.His many publications, while primarilyrelated to problems of surgery in children,included articles on physiology, experi­mental surgery, injuries to peripheralnerves, and varied clinical problems ingeneral surgery.During his lifetime he was active inmany surgical societies and had served astreasurer, vice president, and presidentof the Chicago Surgical Society.Dr. Miller is survived by his widow,Blanche, two sons, Edwin M. Jr. andDean (M.D. '56); and two daughters,Mrs. Mary Naquin and Mrs. NancyWynne.ALUMNI DEATHS'99. Branwell F. Stevens, El Paso, Texas,February 13, 1971, age 97.'03. John W. Dreyer, Aurora, Illinois,1971, age 94.'03. William G. Reeder, Wheaton, Illi­nois, November 28, 1971, age 93.'10. Arthur N. Kitenplon, Fort Lauder­dale, Florida, April 30, 1971, age 86.'10. John G. Ryan, Denver, Colorado,November, 1971, age 89.'12. Louis W. Allard, Billings, Montana,November 10, 1971, age 84.'13. Edwin M. Miller, Chicago, Illinois,February 4, 1972, age 83.'13. George L. Rathbun, Galesburg, Illi­nois, August, 1969, age 85.'13. E. Vernon Sheafe, Seattle, Washing­ton, May 29, 1971, age 86.'14. John H. Bridenbaugh, Billings, Mon­tana, February 17, 1971, age 85.'14. Gustave W. Lawson, Chicago, Illi­nois, November 20, 1971, age 85.'15. Frederik N. Berken, Aberdeen,Washington, November 9, 1971, age 83.'15. Frank R. Menne, Peebles, Wiscon­sin, August, 1971, age 83.'15. Burrell O. Raulston, Los Angeles,California, December 27, 1970, age 83.'16. Edward H. Brunemeier, Placentia,California, December 30, 1969, age 75.'16. Angus L. Cameron, Minot, NorthDakota, June 1, 1971, age 80.'17. Halard R. Beard, Glen Ellyn, Illi­nois, July 25, 1970, age 79.'18. Henry R. Powers, Emmetsburg,Iowa, July 18, 1971, age 79.'19. Harry J. Isaacs, Chicago, Illinois,November 22, 1971, age 77.'19. Alfred Nienow, Argo, Illinois, May16, 1968, age 77.'20. Clifford J. Barborka, Chicago, Illi­nois, May 16, 1971, age 79.'20. Luman E. Daniels, Denver, Colo­rado, July 21, 1971, age 75.'20. Charles E. Galloway, Evanston, Illi­nois, November 18, 1970, age 78.'20. Martin L. Minthorn, Washington,D.C., December 25, 1969, age 74.'21. Alvia Brockway, Los Angeles, Cali­fornia, November 8, 1971, age 76.'21. Raymond Householder, Chicago, Illi­nois, August 25, 1971, age 75.'21. Leonard S. Sluzynski, Chicago, Illi­nois, May 28, 1971, age 73.'22. Clarence E. Johnson, Long Beach,California, February 23, 1970, age 73.'22. Clare Miller, Des Plaines, Illinois,December 26, 1970, age 88.'23. Russell H. Miller, Whitewater, Wis­consin, March 26, 1971, age 72.'23. Alvah L. Newcomb, Wilmette, Illi­nois, October 10, 1971, age 73.'24. Owen H. Homme, Los Angeles, Cali­fornia, October 31,1971, age 76.'26. Mabel G. Masten, Palm Beach,Florida, September 14, 1971, age 73.'26. Archer C. Sudan, Lafayette, Colo­rado, October 25, 1971, age 79.'27. Frank H. Comstock, Chicago, Illi­nois, July 22, 1971, age 73.'27. Seymour Weinstein, Miami Beach,Florida, August 29, 1968, age 70.'28. Ronald P. Carter, Seattle, Washing­ton, January, 1972, age 69.'28. George W. Koivun, Moline, Illinois,August 6, 1971, age 76.'28. Arthur Stenn, Chicago, Illinois, No­vember 10, 1971, age 67.'29. Thomas D. Jones, Franklin, NorthCarolina, 1971, age 71.'29. Carl E. Long, Norton, Kansas, De­cember, 1971, age 80.'30. Louring W. Vore, Plymouth, Indi­ana, April 23, 1971, age 71.'31. Eleanor M. Humphreys, Chicago,Illinois, December 28, 1971, age 79.'32. Leland l. Bland, Tacoma, Washing­ton, January 19, 1970, age 66.'32. lames P. Lovett, Olney, Texas, May29, 1971, age 64.Calendar of EventsThursday, June 8Chicago. Annual Medical AlumniBanquet honoring Class of 1972,Rush Class of 1922, and Alumnirecerving awards. Pick-CongressHotel, 6:00 P.M. Reservations madethrough the Medical Alumni Office.Spouses invited.Speaker: Irvine H. Page, M.D.,Editor, Modern Medicine, "Man AsI Know Him."Monday, June 19San Francisco. Reception duringthe American Medical AssociationMeeting. Hilton Hotel, 5:30-7:00P.M. Spouses invited.News for Medicine on the MidwayHave you changed position, moved, published, lectured, traveled, been appointedto office in a medical society, or been honored by a medical or civic organization?If so, let us know ... we'd appreciate it. Clip this coupon, or, if more convenient,use supplementary sheet.Name, Class of _'32. Jeremiah Quin, Chicago, Illinois,May 12, 1971, age 66.'35. Paul T. Bruyere, Jr., Honolulu, Ha­waii, October 2, 1971, age 64.'35. Paul T. Lambertus, Quincy, Illinois,April 1, 1970, age 61.'36. Charles P. Catalano, New York,New York, September 16, 1969, age 60.'37. Edwin T. Arnold, Jr., Hogansville,Georgia, May 8, 1971, age 60.'37. William A. Withers. Raleigh, NorthCarolina, June 7, 1971, age 59.'38. Maxwell H. D. Johnson, Park Ridge,Illinois, February 23, 1971, age 59.'38. Carl D. Strouse, Los Angeles, Cali­fornia, August 26, 1971, age 57.'40. Milton O. Beebe, Jr., Rockville, Indi­ana, June 14, 1971, age 58.'40. Karl M. Lacer, La Grande, Oregon,August 28, 1971, age 55.'40. H. Lloyd Miller, Cedar Rapids,Iowa, July 26, 1969, age 59.'41. A. B. Curry Ellison, Charleston,West Virginia, August 3, 1971, age 57.'41. Alexander Hilkevitch, Evanston, Illi­nois, September 22, 1971, age 84.'42. Paul G. Hesse, Oak Park, Illinois,January 1968, age 51.'42. Irving Mack, Chicago, Illinois, No­vember 10, 1969, age 50.FORMER RESIDENTSBrahm Baittle (Resident, '51-'54, Psy­chiatry), Chicago, Illinois, January 25,1972, age 51.Sophia l. Kleegman (Resident, '26-'27,Obstetrics & Gynecology), New York,New York, September 26, 1971, age 70.Info:Address. ___Mail your item to Medical Alumni Association, University of Chicago, 1025 East57th St., Chicago, Illinois 60637.Departmental NewsANESTHESIOLOGYDr. Harry J. Lowe, Professor, was ap­pointed Chairman of the Department. Dr.Lowe had been Acting Chairman. Amember of the faculty since 1966, he re­ceived his M.D. degree in 1949 from theJohns Hopkins University School of Med­icine.Recently some of the department'soffices and laboratories moved into G-701-720 and S-702, space formerly oc­cupied by the Ben May Laboratory forCancer Research.ANATOMYDr. Donald Fischman, Associate Dean ofCurriculum, was promoted to AssociateProfessor of Anatomy and of Biology.Beatrice Garber, a developmental anat­omist, was appointed jointly to the De­partments of Anatomy and Biology as anAssistant Professor.Dr. Charles E. Oxnard, Professor inthe Departments of Anatomy and An­thropology, in the Committee on Evolu­tionary Biology and in the College, wasinvited to lecture to the Department ofAnatomy at the University of Birming­ham, England in November. Dr. Oxnardis Honorary Overseas Associate of theUniversity of Birmingham. He also wasinvited to contribute to a Symposium onHuman Evolution of the Society for theStudy of Human Biology, London.Dr. Oxnard34Dr. Ronald Singer, Chairman and Pro­fessor of Anatomy, Professor of Anthro­pology, and in the Committees on Evo­lutionary Biology and Genetics, lecturedat the' University of Arkansas MedicalCenter in December in their DistinguishedScientist- Lecture Series.Jack T. Stern, Jr., Assistant Professor,was awarded a Schweppe FoundationFellowship of $10,000 for three years.Only three are awarded each year.The department moved into its newgross anatomy laboratory on the first floorof Culver Hall this year and plans are inpreparation for converting the secondfloor into a histology-cell biology teachinglaboratory before the fall. The buildingformerly housed the biomedical library,now in the Joseph Regenstein Library.BIOCHEMISTRYE. A. Evans, Jr., Professor and Chairmanof the Department, was invited to lectureunder the auspices of the Robert A.Welch Foundation in Houston, Texas. Hespoke on "Infectious Molecules or SomeAspects of the Chemistry of BacterialViruses" at the following schools inMarch: Houston Museum of NaturalScience (co-hosted by The University ofTexas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tu­mor Institute and Baylor College of Med­icine), Sam Houston State University inHuntsville, and Austin College in Sher­man.Dr. SteinerDr. Donald F. Steiner, '56, the A. N.Pritzker Professor of Biological Sciences,received one of the five 1971 GairdnerFoundation Awards, one of Canada'smost distinguished medical awards, inrecognition of outstanding achievementsin insulin research.BIOLOGYJohn L. Hubby, a faculty member since1960, was promoted to Professor of Biol­ogy. Professor Hubby's basic scientificinterest is in the genetics of higher organ­isms.Thomas Park, Professor of Biology,has been named Eminent Ecologist for1971 by the Ecological Society of Amer­ica. The award is "restricted to ecologistswho have made important, and long sus­tained, contributions to the field." Work­ing with insects, as well as with statistics,Mr. Park has been investigating basic sci­errtific problems of population growth andregulation since his college days.MEDICINEDr. Leon O. Jacobson, '39, delivered the11 th Annual Dwight E. Clark Lecture atthe Roane Anderson Medical Society inOak Ridge, Tennessee. The lecture is inmemory of the late Dr. Clark, a formerchairman of surgery.Dr. Joseph B. Kirsner, the Louis BlockProfessor of Medicine, Chief of Staff ofthe Hospitals and Clinics, and DeputyMr. ParkDean for Medical Affairs, lectured at theSecond Hellenic Congress of Gastroen­terology in Athens, Greece in the fall, aswell as at Haifa, Tel Aviv, and Jerusalem.This year he has spoken at post-graduateprograms at the Northwestern UniversityMedical Center and Pass avant MemorialHospital and at the Alton Ochsner Medi­cal Foundation in New Orleans. On April5-6 he will speak at the Post-graduateProgram in Gastroenterology at the Uni­versity of Southern California in LosAngeles. Dr. Kirsner has been appointedto the USAN (the United States Pharma­copoeial Convention, Inc.) Review Boardfor 1972, and to the editorial board ofMedical World News.Dr. Edmund J. Lewis has been ap­pointed Associate Professor. Dr. Lewisreceived his M.D. degree from the Uni­versity of British Columbia, Vancouverin 1962. He took his residency at theJohns Hopkins Hospital and served as anassistant in medicine in the Renal Labo­ratory of Peter Bent Brigham Hospitaland a research fellow at Harvard MedicalSchool. After two years of service withthe USPHS he rejoined the Harvard Med­ical School.Dr. Irwin Rosenberg, Associate Profes­sor and Chief of the GastroenterologySection, addressed the Combined Nutri­tion Panel of the U.S.-Japan Joint Scien­tific Program at Massachusetts Instituteof Technology in the fall.MICROBIOLOGYKenneth Bott, Assistant Professor of Mi­crobiology and the College and in theCommittee on Genetics, left December31 st to become Associate Professor ofMicrobiology at the University of NorthCarolina School of Medicine, ChapelHill.Alvin Markovitz, Associate Professorof Microbiology and in the College andin the Committee on Genetics, has re­turned from a year's leave of absence inthe Department of Biochemistry at Stan­ford University School of Medicine,where he worked on DNA with ArthurKornberg, Nobel Laureate. His researchdemonstrated that ultraviolet light in­duced the formation of a stable linkagebetween DNA and DNA polymerase.A gift of $500,000 for the Ida B. and Walter Erman Fund is being used torenovate the Botany Building and to support research and teaching programs inthe Department of Biology. Here a workman engraves the building's newname, the "Ida B. and Walter Erman Biology Center," over the door.35Bernard S. Strauss, Professor andChairman, will participate in a courseof lectures on "Modern Aspects of Chem­ical Carcinogenesis" to be held at theCourt auld Institute of Biochemistry, Mid­dlesex Hospital Medical School, London,April 19-21.PATHOLOGYDr. James E. Bowman, Associate Profes­sor of Pathology and Medicine and Di­rector of Laboratories, has been desig­nated a Blood Bank Program Consultantto the State of Illinois Department ofPublic Health.Dr. Robert L. Hunter, Instructor, wasselected as a Schweppe Foundation Re­search Fellow for three years, effectivelast July.Dr. Chaim Lichtig, Assistant Patholo­gist and Vice Chairman of the Depart­ment of Pathology of the Rambam Gov­ernment Hospital, Haifa, Israel, joinedthe department as Visiting Assistant Pro­fessor in the fall quarter.Dr. Mitsumasa Nagase has been ap­pointed Visiting Instructor in Pathology.Dr. Henry Rappaport, Professor andDirector of the Surgical Pathology Labo­ratory, attended the U.S.-Japan Seminaron Malignant Diseases of the Hemato­poietic System in Nagoya, Japan last No­vember. The conference was sponsoredjointly by the U.S. National ScienceFoundation and the Japanese Society. Dr.Rappaport now is on sabbatical leaveworking with Dr. Georges Mathe, Di­rector, Institut de Cancerologie et d'Im­munogenetique in ViIlejuif, France.Dr. Hyman Rochman has been ap­pointed Associate Professor of Pathologyand Director of Clinical Chemistry. Dr.Rochman was a Visiting Assistant Pro­fessor last spring and summer.Dr. Benjamin Spargo, '52, Professor,is on sabbatical leave at Yale University,collaborating with two members of theYale faculty on a teaching monograph onrenal disease.Dr. Robert W. Wissler, '49, Professorand Chairman of the Department, ispresident-elect of the Chicago Heart As-Mr. Strausssociation and will take office in July. TheAmerican Heart Association recently pre­sented him with its Award of Merit "inrecognition of dedicated and distinguishedservice in advancing the American HeartAssociation's national program to reducedeath and disability from diseases of theheart and circulation." Dr. Wissler alsowas elected President of the AmericanAssociation for Accreditation for Labo­ratory Animal Care for 1972.In March the biennial Cancer Teach­ing Symposium on "Breast Cancer: AChallenging Problem" was held in theBillings Auditorium.PEDIATRICSDr. Rene ArciIla, Professor and Chief ofthe Pediatric Cardiology Section, del iv-Dr. Arcillaered the Medicine Centennial Lecture atthe University of Santo Tomas, Manilaon December 18. The lecture commemo­rated the 100th anniversary of the found­ing of the medical school. Dr. Arcilla isa 1952 magna cum laude graduate ofSanto Tomas school.Dr. Albert Dorfman, '44, the RichardT. Crane Distinguished Service Professor,was reappointed Chairman of the Depart­ment. Recently he was honored at theCity of Hope's fourteenth Annual Saluteto Medical Research for his "contribu­tion to the understanding of connectivetissue."Dr. Frank Thorp, '60, Assistant Pro­fessor, was appointed Director of theMental Development Clinic of the JosephP. Kennedy, Jr. Mental Retardation Re­search Center in Wyler Hospital.The department was host to a sessionof the American Academy of Pediatrics40th annual meeting in the fall. Partici­pants in the program, held at the DoraDe Lee Hall of Chicago Lying-in Hos­pital, included Dr. Albert Dorfman, Drs.Reuben Matalon and Robert Rosenfield,Assistant Professors, and Dr. John Mad­den Associate Professor. Dr. BurtonGrossman, '49, was chairman of the an­nual alumni dinner of Bobs Roberts Hos­pital-Department of Pediatrics Alumni�held during the meeting. Sixty alumniattended.OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGYDr. Uwe E. Freese has been promotedto Professor.Dr. Michael McKeown, Assistant Pro­fessor, was initiated as a Fellow of theAmerican College of Surgeons at theannual meeting in Atlantic City.Dr. Atef H. Moawad has been ap­pointed Associate Professor. Dr. Moawadreceived his medical education at CairoUniversity in Egypt and took his resi­dency at Jefferson Medical College, Phil­adelphia. He did post-doctoral work atWestern Reserve University and then re­ceived a two-year career developmentaward from the Brush Foundation, Cleve­land; one year was spent at the Univer­sity of Lund and the second year wasDr. Rappaportin the department of pharmacology atthe University of Alberta. Before joiningthe faculty, he was assistant professor ofpharmacology and obstetrics and gyne­cology at the University of Alberta.Dr. Douglas R. Shanklin, Professor,spoke at the dedication ceremony of theJ. Howard Ferguson Pathology Library,State University of New York, UpstateMedical Center, Syracuse last November.Dr. Mojmir Sonek has been promotedto Associate Professor.Dr. George L. Wied, the Blum-RieseProfessor of Obstetrics & Gynecology,Professor of Pathology, and Director ofthe Cytopathology Service, was a scien­tific director and faculty member of theSecond Tutorial on Human Chromosomesand Chromatin sponsored by The Inter­national Academy of Cytology and theAmerican Academy of ReproductiveMedicine, held at The University in Janu­ary. Other members of the departmentparticipating were Dr. Anthony Amarose,Associate Professor, and Dr. Frederick P.Zuspan, Professor and Chairman. In Feb­ruary, Dr. Wied also handled arrange­ments for the Fifth Tutorial on ClinicalCytology.OPHTHALMOLOGYDr. Alex Krill, Professor, spoke to theSan Diego Ophthalmological Society andto the Kansas City Society of Ophthal­mology and Otolaryngology in the fall.In November he was a visiting professorat the University of Wisconsin. Dr. Krillis serving as chief editor of Ophthalmol­ogy Digest.Dr. Frank W. Newell, Professor andChairman, was an Honored Guest at theannual meeting of the American Acad­emy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryn­gology. In October he delivered theA. Ray Irvine and Wendell C. IrvineMemorial Lecture at the Doheny EyeFoundation Postgraduate Conference inLos Angeles, and in November was visit­ing professor at the Willis Eye Hospitalof Temple University.Dr. Albert M. Potts, Professor, lec­tured at Washington University and tothe St. Louis Ophthalmological Society inNovember. He is president of the Chi­cago Ophthalmological Society.RADIOLOGYDr. Paul B. Hoffer, Assistant Professor,presented a paper on "The Future ofSolid State Detectors in Cancer Research"at the 1971 fall Nuclear Science Sym­posium of the Institute of Electrical andElectronics Engineers, Inc. in San Fran­cisco.SURGERYDr. Edwin L. Kaplan was appointed As­sociate Professor. Dr. Kaplan holds anM.D. from the University of Pennsylva­nia in 1961. He took his residency thereand served on the faculty as an instruc­tor. In 1967 he was a research assistantin the Mayo Clinic Graduate School ofMedicine. Dr. Kaplan came to Chicagoin 1968 as an attending physician in theDepartment of Surgery of Michael ReeseHospital.Dr. ShanklinThe following faculty participated inthe Annual Clinical Congress of theAmerican College of Surgeons meetingin Atlantic City last fall: Dr. JosephEvans, Professor Emeritus; Dr. EdwinKaplan; Dr. C. Frederick Kittle, '45,head of the Section of Thoracic and Car­diovascular Surgery; Dr. John F. Mullan,the John Harper Seeley Professor of Neu­rological Sciences and head of the Sectionof Neurosurgery; Dr. Edward Paloyan,'56, Associate Professor and secretary ofthe department; Dr. Gerald W. Peskin,Clinical Professor at Michael Reese; Dr.William J. Powell, Assistant Professor;Dr. Robert L. Replogle, Associate Pro­fessor and head of the Section of Pedi­atric Surgery; and Dr. Cornelius W. Ver­meulen, '37, Professor and Deputy Deanfor Academic Affairs.Dr. Harvey A. Zarem, Associate Pro­fessor and head of the Section on PlasticSurgery, and Dr. Norman Leaf, resident,spoke on "Correction of Contour Defectsof the Face with Dermal and Dermal-FatGrafts," at the American Society of Plas­tic and Reconstructive Surgery Meetingin Montreal in the fall.1'7Once more the Alumni Association offered new students achance to relax with the faculty at the annual wine and cheeseparty. (Right top) Dean Ceithaml has something serious tosay; (center) Jack Stern (I), Assistant Professor and StudentCounselor in Anatomy, and student Andrew Levy share alaugh; (bottom) Dr. Harry Fozzard, Professor in Medicine andPhysiology, Co-Director of the Cardiology Section, and thisyear's Senior Scientific Session Chairman, holds hisaudience spellbound. (below) Clusters of fervent conversa­tionalists were the order of the day.38Alumni NewsNEWS OF ALUMNI'33. Irene M. Josselyn, affiliated with theSouthern California Psychoanalytic Insti­tute, has written a book for counselors,educators, and parents, called A doles­cence. Written under the auspices of theJoint Commission on Mental Health ofChildren, it was published in Decemberby Harper and Row.'36. Joseph Post has been promoted toProfessor of Clinical Medicine at NewYork University School of Medicine. Afaculty member there since 1946, he hasbeen active in the clinical practice of in­ternal medicine and gastroenterology atUniversity Hospital and Lenox Hill Hos­pital and in research at the GoldwaterMemorial Hospital.'38. Arthur P. Klotz, head of the Gastro­enterology Section of the University ofKansas Medical School, was invited topresent a paper, "The Effect of ProteinDeprivation on Pancreatic Function," be­fore the Canadian-American PancreaticStudy Group.'41. Karl H. Pribram, Professor of Neu­ropsychology at Stanford University Med­ical Center, was appointed to the Behav­ioral Sciences Training Committee of theNational Institute of General MedicalSciences, a component of HEW's Na­tional Institutes of Health. The commit­tee reviews applications for researchtraining grants and advises the Instituteon training programs in modern researchtechniques in behavioral sciences.'43. Duncan A. Holaday, Professor ofAnesthesiology and Director of Researchin Anesthesiology at the University ofMiami School of Medicine, was a facultymember of the Maryland-D.C. Society ofAnesthesiologists Third Symposium onRespiratory Insufficiency held October 30in Baltimore.'44. Melvin Newman, Associate Profes­sor of Surgery at the University of Colo­rado Medical School, spoke at the SocieteInternationale de Chirurgie meeting inMoscow last summer.'45. Harry W. Fischer was appointedChairman of the Department of Radiol­ogy at the University of Rochester Medi­cal Center last September. Dr. Fischer,who is widely known for his experimen­tal work in diagnostic radiology, was for-merly professor of diagnostic radiology atthe University of Michigan and head ofthe Department of Radiology of WayneCounty General Hospital.'50. Donald W. Benson, Professor ofAnesthesiology at the Johns Hopkins Uni­versity School of Medicine and anesthe­siologist-in-charge, the Johns HopkinsHospital, was a guest speaker at the Four­teenth Annual Conference of the NewEngland Society of Anesthesiologists,Hyannis, Massachusetts last fall.'50. Henry M. Gelfand was appointedProfessor of Epidemiology effectiveMarch 1 in the School of Public Healthat the University of Illinois Medical Cen­ter Campus, Chicago. He leaves the U.S.Agency for International Development, inWashington, D.C. where he was Chief ofthe Evaluation Unit of the Office ofPopulation.'51. Clifford W. Gurney, Chairman ofMedicine at the 'University of KansasSchool of Medicine, has been appointedto the National Advisory General Medi­cal Sciences Council of the National In­stitutes of Health. The four-year appoint­ment was made by Elliot L. Richardson,U.S. Secretary of Health, Education andWelfare.'56. Harold Boverman was appointedProfessor in the Departments of Psychi­atry and Pediatrics at the University ofOregon Medical School, where he also isdirector of child psychiatry and of thechildren's psychiatric day hospital.'58. Louis F. Plzak, Jr., Chief of Pedi­atric Surgery at Jefferson Medical Col­lege, performed one of ten surgical pro­cedures telecast live to viewers during theAmerican College of Surgeons Meetingin Atlantic City. Dr. Plzak performed apediatric cardiac procedure.'58. A. Yvonne Russell has moved toDover, Delaware, where she is Directorof Community Health Services of theDivision of Physical Health in the De­partment of Health and Social Services.'60. Robert A. Moody left the Univer­sity in the summer to move to Fitchburg,Massachusetts, a community of 150,000,where he is the only neurosurgeon andneurologist serving five hospitals in thearea.'60. Guy D. Potter, Associate Professorof Radiology at Columbia-PresbyterianMedical Center, has written a book, Sec­tional Anatomy and Tomography of theHead, published by Grune & Stratton,New York.'60. Bruce E. Wiley, an Assistant Pro­fessor in the University's Department ofRadiology, has joined the Department ofRadiology at the Neurological Instituteof Columbia University, New York.'62. Edward B. Crowell, Jr. last July wasappointed Assistant Professor of Medi­cine, Section of Hematology, at the Uni­versity of Wisconsin. Dr. Crowell alsohas a two-year American Cancer Societygrant to study acute leukemia.'62. Frederick S. Mishkin was appointedProfessor and Director of the NuclearMedicine Division of the Charles R. DrewPostgraduate Medical School in Los An­geles. He holds a joint appointment inradiology at UCLA School of Medicine.Previously Dr. Mishkin was at the Indi­ana University School of Medicine as di­rector of nuclear medicine. He is a diplo­mate of the American Board of Radiol­ogy.'63. Thomas A. Borden completed histour of active duty with the U.S. AirForce as Chief of the Urology Serviceat the Medical Center at Wright-Patter­son Air Force Base, Ohio. In the fall hejoined the faculty of the University ofNew Mexico School of Medicine as As­sistant Professor of Surgery and Urology.Dr. Borden's special interests are pedi­atric urology and stone diseases. Heserved his internship and residency at TheUniversity of Chicago.'63. Howard Schachter is Assistant Pro­fessor of Medicine at Northwestern Uni­versity Medical School and associate tothe attending staff at the Chicago WesleyMemorial Hospital.'67. Howard Lutz has completed his mili­tary duty and is in the Department ofRadiology at the University of Washing­ton, Seattle.RUSH'24. Paul S. Rhoads. Professor Emeritusof Medicine of Northwestern UniversityMedical School. was awarded the Cole­man Award of the Institute of Medicinefor outstanding service to the community.39'28. I. M. Felsher, Professor Emeritus ofDermatology, Northwestern UniversityMedical School, has retired from practiceand is making his home at 300 DiplomatParkway, Hollandale, Florida.'40. Henry S. Kaplan, Professor andChairman of the Department of Radiol­ogy at Stanford Medical School, receivedthe 1971 Robert Roesler de VilliersAward for achievement in leukemia re­search. The award, consisting of a medaland a $1,000 prize, was presented to Dr.Kaplan by the Leukemia Society ofAmerica, Inc. at the 5th InternationalSymposium on Comparative LeukemiaResearch in Padua, Italy.FORMER FACULTYDr. William E. Adams, the James Nelsonand Anna Louise Raymond ProfessorEmeritus of Surgery, has been electedVice President of the Illinois State Medi­cal Society. In November, Dr. Adamsand Dr. Huberta M. Livingstone Adams(Anesthesiology '28-'52) participated,with Dr. Harwell Wilson (Surgery '32-'39), Chairman of Surgery at the Uni­versity of Tennessee, in the XII MedicalAssembly of the West held in Guadala­jara, Mexico.Dr. C. Knight Aldrich (Psychiatry '55-Dr. Aldrich40'71) left in the summer to become Pro­fessor and Chairman of the Departmentof Psychiatry of New Jersey College ofMedicine in Newark.Dr. C. Wesley Eisele (Medicine '34-, 51 ), Associate Dean for PostgraduateMedical Education in the University ofColorado School of Medicine, directshighly successful hospital medical staffconferences throughout the country. Foreight years he has conducted the over­subscribed meeting at Estes Park, Colo­rado for physicians who hold leadershippositions at local hospitals. In the earlyfall his conference at Estes Park had 534registrants from 39 states and more than500 applicants were turned away. A simi­lar conference was held in Massachusettsin October.Dr. A. Baird Hastings (Faculty '26-'35), the Hamilton Kuhn Professor Emer­itus of Biological Chemistry of HarvardUniversity, is the subject of the first ina series of documentary films sponsoredby the medical honor fraternity, AlphaOmega Alpha. The series records the livesand contributions of great men in medi­cine and research during the twentiethcentury and is planned for distribution tomedical schools and libraries as a teach­ing aid. The film outlines Dr. Hastings'contributions to medicine and research,with particular emphasis on his studies ofthe acid-base balance of the blood. Hismany affiliations, among them The Uni­versity of Chicago, are recounted in thefilm. Dr. Hastings resides in La Jolla,California, where he is a research associ­ate in the Department of Neurosciencesat the University of California at SanDiego School of Medicine. He is an ap­pointee on the 28-member National Ad­visory Committee of the White HouseConference on Aging.Dr. Daniel J. Pachman (Pediatrics '34-'41) was appointed Professor of Pedi­atrics at Rush Medical College. Dr. Pach­man also is Clinical Professor of Pedi­atrics at the University of Illinois Medi­cal School. He was president of the Illi­nois chapter of the American Academyof Pediatrics, 1968-71, and has been re­appointed chairman of the Illinois Pedi­atric Coordinating Council.Dr. A. Earl Walker (Neurosurgery '31-'47) is visiting professor of neurosurgeryat the University of New Mexico, wherehe is working on a contract from theNational Institutes of Health to determinecriteria upon which a doctor may basethe death of a brain. These criteria arebeing tested in a pilot study at eight medi­cal centers throughout the country, in­cluding The University of Chicago.Dr. HastingsDr. WalkerAlumnus In the NewsDr. David M. Hume, '43, has received a 1972 Distinguished Achievement Awardfrom Modern Medicine magazine. He is now professor and chairman of the de­partment of surgery at the Medical College of Virginia.Dr. Hume was cited in Modern Medicine "for innovative approaches to safeand ethical organ transplantation." He performed the first functioning renal homo­transplants in man twenty years ago and continues to develop and refine thisprocedure. Last June he received the Medical Alumni Association's DistinguishedAchievement Award.His current work centers on improving current methods of immunosuppression,expanding knowledge of the rejection process, and establishing a basis for clinicaltransplantation of all organs. The four key goals in this research are:( 1) Better methods of detecting and identifying antibodies,(2) Ways to prevent hyperacute antibody-produced rejection of a second renaltransplant in a patient whose original transplant failed,(3) Means to convert the destructive antibodies to enhancing antibodies thatwill promote prolongation of graft survival, and(4) An elucidation of the role of the spleen in the production of antibodies andof the effect of splenectomy on immunization and second-set rejection.Dr. Hume is also working on the problems of primary (cell mediated) rejec­tion, particularly on the development of a purified antilymphocyte globulin thatis specific for thymus-derived lymphocytes.A native of Muskegon, Michigan, Dr. Hume received the B.S. degree fromHarvard, where he began work on hypothalamic-pituitary interrelationships. Hethen entered The University of Chicago School of Medicine, where he continuedhis research under William Bloom of the Department of Anatomy.r n 1968, he co-edited Principles 0/ Surgery, which, according to the publisher,has become the best-selling first-edition medical book ever printed.MEDICINE ON THE MIDWAYTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOTHE MEDICAL ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONTHE PRITZKER SCHOOL OF MEDICINE1025 EAST 57TH STREETCHICAGO, ILLINOIS 60637•ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTEDRETURN POSTAGE GUARANTEEDNON-PROFIT ORG.U.S. POSTAGEPAIDPERMIT NO. 9666CHICAGO, ILL.