The University Record Volume IX JANUARY 1 923 Number 1 THE PRESIDENT'S CONVOCATION STATEMENT1 It is thirty years ago this Autumn that the University of Chicago opened its doors for instruction. It may be of interest for a few moments to contrast that first quarter in the Autumn of 1892 with the present quarter, the Autumn of 1922. The first convocation was held on Jan uary 2, 1893, as at the outset it was understood that the convoca tion would be held at the beginning of each quarter. It was afterwards changed to its present status of closing the quarter. It is needless to say that at that convocation there were no degrees given. The convoca tion was held in Central Music Hall, which stood on a site now covered by the Marshall Field building. The Faculty, Trustees, and students appeared in cap and gown in the procession, a custom which has been continued since. There was a large attendance composed of the friends of the University in the city. The address was given by Professor Hermann von Hoist, the German incumbent of our Chair of History, who spoke on "The Need of Universities in the United States." Natur ally he spoke from the German point of view and from, perhaps, the natural German idea that not many universities were in existence out side of the Fatherland. However, the address was interesting and impor tant, being especially significant at the opening of a new institution of that kind in the city of Chicago. Indeed, there was perhaps some doubt in the popular mind of Chicago just then as to what the new University was supposed to be. The popular conception of the University in those years was somewhat hazy. Probably it was covered by the notion of *Read at the One Hundred Twenty-seventh Convocation, in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, December 19, 1922. 2 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD an institution which was supposed to teach a great number of students. Perhaps even the number need not be great. There were many small institutions in those days which called themselves universities. Of course, the main thought in' the minds of the founders of the University of Chicago was not magnitude, but rather quality of work. The essential principle of the University of Chicago was to be its graduate schools and its devotion to the ascertaining of new knowledge. All the rest, important though it might be, was incidental to these two thoughts. In the development of the University since, these initial purposes have never been forgotten. I. THE TWO AUTUMN QUARTERS, 1892, 1922 The enrolment of students in the Autumn of 1892 was upwards of 500. The enrolment of the entire year from October, 1892, to June, 1893, was 744. Of these 217 were graduate students, being approxi mately 29 per cent of the total number. This was an encouraging beginning of the work of a real university, and the spirit of devotion to the new idea was very strong. Indeed, an exceptional body of men and women were gathered. Among these graduate students may be noted the names of Frederick Ives Carpenter, well-known later as a valued member of our Faculty; R. C. H. Catterall, afterward a distinguished professor in Cornell; E. J. Goodspeed, H. F. Mallory, F. R. Lillie, Myra Reynolds, T. G. Soares, J. W. Thompson, Elizabeth Wallace, H. L. Willett, and H. E. Slaught, now members of our Faculty. I find also the names of H. R. Hatfield, now professor in the University of California, E. H. Lewis, Professor in Lewis Institute, Chicago, W. B. Owen, Principal of the Chicago Normal School and President of the National Education Association, George E. Vincent, long a valued member of our Faculty and now President of the Rockefeller Foundation, and Otto Folin, Professor of Biological Chemistry at Harvard University. I can only trust that thirty years from now students who are here today may have made just as distinguished a record as those who were here thirty years ago. Of course, in all these years the number of students has increased. The present Quarter registered a total of 6,660. Of these there are 1,666 graduate students, or a trifle more than 25 per cent of the total enrolment. This percentage has not varied very much through the years since the beginning. The first degrees given by the University were in June, 1893, thirty- one in all. One of these was a Doctorate of Philosophy, given to a Japanese student. In the last completed year of 1921-22 the THE PRESIDENTS CONVOCATION STATEMENT 3 number of degrees given in the University was 1,365, of which 96 were Doctorates of Philosophy. At this present convocation the number of degrees is 154, of which 14 are Doctorates of Philosophy. During the thirty years ending with June, 1922, the University has given degrees to 14,531 persons, and of these 1,397 were Doctors of Philosophy. H. WHAT THE UNIVERSITY HAS ALREADY PLANNED FOR THE IMMEDIATE FUTURE AND FOR WHICH CERTAIN FUNDS HAVE BEEN PROVIDED 1. The Medical Plan. In 1916, just before the entry of the United States into the Great War, a very definite and elaborate plan for the development of medical instruction was adopted, It provides for a medical school on the Midway in which students shall be trained for the degree of Doctor of Medicine. It provides for a graduate school on the west side, in connection with the Presbyterian Hospital and Rush Medical College, in which those holding the degree of Doctor of Medicine may receive advanced training in special subjects. It provides further causes and prevention of disease. The whole plan was projected on very high standards in every department of its work. It involved con tractual relationships between the University on the one hand and Rush Medical College, the Presbyterian Hospital, the Sprague Memorial Institute, the Memorial Institute for Infectious Diseases, and the Chil dren's Memorial Hospital, on the other. In order to carry out the plan it was necessary to raise $5,300,000. Toward this fund the Rocke feller Foundation subscribed one million dollars, and the General Educa tion Board, one million dollars. The remaining funds were obtained in Chicago from a number of generous donors and the whole was completed by the spring of 1917. The Billings family gave one million dollars for the Albert Merritt Billings Hospital. Mr. Max Epstein gave $100,000 for a dispensary. Mr. F. W. Rawson gave $300,000 for a laboratory building to take the place of the present wholly inadequate biailding of the Rush Medical College. Of course, the war coming on made it impossible to proceed, and the condition since the war has been very difficult. Building costs have enormously increased and the cost of living has increased. The architect of the hospital has completed most admirable plans for a teaching hospital and laboratories in connection with the medical work in the quadrangles. It is obvious that in order to initiate the enterprise properly the present fund must be practically 4 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD 2. For the housing of the Divinity School a fund of $300,000 has been given by one donor and a fund of $50,000 by Mrs. Joseph Bond. The first fund is to provide an adequate lecture hall for the School and the second an accompanying chapel. The plans for these buildings have been completed, and as soon as building conditions warrant construction will proceed. 3. Part of Mr. Rockefeller's final gift of ten million dollars is the sum of $1,500,000 for the University Chapel. This the Board of Trustees has planned to erect on the land east of the President's house lying well back from 59th Street. Mr. Bertram Goodhue of New York has made a very interesting plan. The enormous increase in building costs has made it inadvisable to proceed with this matter also for the present time. 4. In 1918 Mr. Andrew MacLeish of the Board of Trustees gave the University $100,000 which may be used for an administration building. This building, of course, will cost much more than that under present conditions, but would be a great relief to the very extensive administrative work of the University in many of its branches. III. WHAT THE UNIVERSITY NEEDS IN ADDITION AND FOR WHICH FUNDS ARE NOT AT PRESENT PROVIDED 1. The plan of the School of Education calls for three supplementary buildings, one for the College and Graduate School, one for the secondary school, and one for physical training. 2. The Board of Trustees has set aside a block of land on the north side of the Midway and east of Cottage Grove Avenue for research in the Department of Botany. This involves a small laboratory with suitable greenhouses and gardens. This would involve probably not a very -large sum, but in order to carry out the interesting work of the depart ment it should be obtained at an early date. 3. The prosecution of research, the training of research students, and especially the application of chemistry and physics to the arts involve the necessity of another building, which may very properly be erected west of Kent Chemical Laboratory. This is a development of those departments which should also include the Department of Mathematics; and this again is of immediate pressing importance. , 4. The University has not yet developed its School of Technology, although that was part of the original plan at the outset. The most important service for that great field would be the establishment of a graduate institute of technology in which applications may be made THE PRESIDENT'S CONVOCATION STATEMENT 5 the industrial arts of the body of scientific knowledge produced by our departments of pure science. The building suggested above could be used for the Departments of Chemistry, Physics, and Mathematics. I have said a graduate institute for this reason. Unless funds are provided and allocated to the work of research and graduate instruction they are apt to be drawn off by necessity of the case for work of inferior importance but which must be cared for. One of the original gifts of Mr. Rockefeller was one million dollars, the income of which was to be used for a graduate school. The great extension of graduate work already in existence, and the further extension which should be provided in the future, of course, call for much greater endowment. A million dollars seems a large sum, but its income of forty or fifty thousand dollars after all does not go very far in covering the vast field of science. Of course, an undergraduate school of technology in the quadrangles would have the very great advantage of the existing great departments of undergraduate instruction. Mathematics, physics, chemistry, English, history, physical training are all highly developed. A reason able provision for buildings and their equipment, and a proper staff to provide technological instruction in civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering, present no serious difficulty. It has been understood that when the time should come these buildings would occupy the Midway front on the north side, and west of Ellis Avenue, thus linking up with the botany research block on Cottage Grove Avenue. 5. Provision has not yet been made for the two library buildings east and west of Harper, for which the present condition of the library makes a pressing demand. IV. THE NEW CENTURY NEEDS A NEW ORGANIZATION OF COLLEGE WORK The only object of entrance conditions should be to test whether stu dents can do the college work. Very much of the red tape should be eliminated. Graduation is too long deferred. The only land in the world where so much time is spent on preliminaries is the United States. Further, tests of excellence are too low. None should be admitted to college work but those who really want intellectual training and are capable of taking it. None should be permitted to continue in it but those who take it well. Learning in homeopathic doses is not of great value. An institution of learning is primarily for those who want learn ing, without regard to sex, or race, or social status. Are we to conduct an institution of learning, or an amusement park 6 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD V. THE FUTURE The next ten years of the University will call for the fulfilment of these various plans, nearly all of them formally or informally approved by the University Faculties and Trustees. Other important plans have been suggested for the near future and will receive careful consideration. The young men who will carry the heat and burden of the day in these coming years will have in their minds the inspiring history of a generation now past, and will have the clear vision of the University of tomorrow, a University greater not merely in magnitude but in the power of spiritual values and in facile adaptation to the great task of penetrating the secrets of new knowledge and applying them to the welfare of human THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS AT THE COMMEMORATIVE CHAPEL ASSEMBLY1 In the Autumn Quarter it has for some years been the custom for a statement to be made in regard to the history of the University. Many of these facts some of you have heard more than once. It may be espe cially significant at this time, however, because today is the thirtieth anniversary of the opening of the University of Chicago. It was on the first day of October, 1892, that the new University opened for its first exercises. It was thought by many that on that occasion of the opening of the new institution there would be a very elaborate ceremony. How ever, it was decided by those in authority that nothing of the sort should occur. It should begin as if it had been going on for many years. Stu dents had completed their registrations; professors were in their class rooms; assignments had been made for exercises; and altogether every thing went on as smoothly as if the University had been in session at least ten years. At 12:30 o'clock in Cobb Lecture Hall, at the north end of that building, the members of the University assembled for the first chapel exercises. The Faculty was there in a body, a large number of Trustees, and: the students. Among those who took part were: the first President of the University, Dr. William Rainey Harper, the Dean of the Divinity School, Dr. Hulbert, the first Dean of Women, Alice Freeman Palmer, the last President of the old University of Chicago, Dr. Galusha Anderson, and the Dean of the Colleges, the present Presi dent of the University. Almost a generation ago, thirty years! It is, we may say, the closing of an era, and we have now the opening of a new era for the development of the institution which then began its work. A few facts of material character may be of interest: Total area, University grounds, 1892 24 acres Total area, University grounds, 1922 98 acres Observatory site, Williams Bay, Wisconsin. 71 . 42 acres Geological Field Station, St. Genevieve County, Missouri 10 acres Total buildings, 1892 4 Total buildings, 1922 50 Total number of Faculty, 1892 140 Total number of Faculty, 1921-22 375 1 Address delivered by President Judson at the Commemorative Chapel Assem bly in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, October 2, 1922. 8 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD Matriculations, October i, 1892 551 Matriculations to October 1, 1922 98, 511 Registrations, 1892-93 742 Registrations, 1916-17 10,448 Registrations, 1921-22 12, 439 Total alumni in 1892 o Total alumni in 1922 14,95* Total assets, 1892 $2,778,166.00 Last year's budget expenditures $3,374,083.43 Now I speak of these things as being somewhat significant of the growth of the University in the last thirty years. What some of us hardly dreamed at that time has come to pass. There are other dreams which will come to pass in the not distant future. The material growth of the University has been marvelous. It will, I believe, in the near future be still more marvelous. What I want to say this morning is that these material things are after all of least importance in an institu tion of learning. They are the things which strike the eye. The things which are of more vital importance, however, are the things which affect the spirit of University life, the spirit of University work. They are far more important than the mere magnitude of the physical plant. Great spirit, not great wealth, means great things. There are some traditions which this generation has established, which I wish to call to your attention. Remember, the University of Chicago is in a great city. It is not in a country town. Whatever is done here is significant, and is seen by many. There are two or three things which we have worked out in the for the dignity of the University, which is largely in the hands of the students. Remember that you are members of this great University. What you do in the public eye forms the reputation of the University, of which we are all members. Bear in mind never to sacrifice the dignity of the institution. In the second place, we have learned a very fine spirit of loyalty to the institution. People sometimes think only of their own personal welfare. The tuition fees you pay represent less than half of the cost of your education. In return all owe complete loyalty to the University. Do your part for its welfare. Keep its name spotless. The University is not educating anybody. We can only give you an opportunity, and if you avail yourself of it you can get things that are priceless, that will last as long as you last, and will make you more of a man or a woman. I beseech all who are beginning their student life here to bear this well in mind, and what we hope is that these years of a life of study will make you richer in soul, riper in intellect, and therefore more worth while to yourselves, and more worth while to the THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES By J. SPENCER DICKERSON, Secretary GIFTS Mr. Carl D. Greenleaf, of the college class of 1899, has given to the University a full set of instruments for a band of 100 pieces. This gift is valued at approximately $10,000. Mr. Greenleaf is head of C. G. Conn, Ltd., manufacturer of musical instruments, Elkhart, Indiana. The Henry Strong Foundation has appropriated $1,000 for the Henry Strong Scholarships in the University of Chicago for the year 1922-23. Mr. C. D. Young, Master in Chancery, Morris, Illinois, has given the University a very valuable collection of fossils. The collection contains some 900 choice specimens of fossil plants and animals from Mazon Creek. The value of this gift is difficult to estimate, but it must be several thousand dollars. The Fleischmann Fellowship, yielding $800, in the Department of Physiological Chemistry, has been renewed for the year 1922-23. Professor R. A. F. Penrose, Jr., of Philadelphia, has again contributed $500 to help to provide the full eight issues during the year of the Journal of Geology which he declares is "undoubtedly the best geological journal to be found anywhere." By the will of Mr. Francis W. Parker $1,000 was bequeathed to the University to be used for some purpose to be designated by President Harry Pratt Judson, or by his successor. Provision was made by the late Jesse A. Baldwin, Trustee of the University for many years, for the founding of what are to be known as the Mrs. Jesse A. Baldwin and the Jesse A. Baldwin Scholarships. TRUSTEES' DINNER TO MEMBERS OF THE FACULTIES The third annual dinner of the Trustees given to members of the Faculties brought out an attendance of 247, including thirteen of the twenty members of the Board of Trustees. The dinner was served in the Refectory of Ida Noyes Hall. Mr. Harold H. Swift, the new President of the Board, presided. Mr. Donnelley introduced the new Trustees: Mr. Deloss C. Shull, of Sioux City, Iowa, Mr. William Scott Bond, and Mr. Albert W. Sherer, the last two being alumni. Addresses were delivered by Mr. C. R. Holden on behalf of the Trustees, by Professor William E. Dodd on behalf of the Faculties, and by President Judson. IO THE UNIVERSITY RECORD DEATH OF FRANCIS W. PARKER Mr. Francis W. Parker, a Trustee of the University since July 16, 1901, died on October 9, 1922. At the meeting of the Board held November 14, 1922, the following memorial was adopted: The Board of Trustees of the University of Chicago received with profound sorrow the news of the death of their fellow member, Francis W. Parker, which occurred at his home in Evanston on the ninth day of October, 1922. Mr. Parker became a member of the Board in 1901, and at once began to take an important part in its work. His devotion to the University was measureless; he gave to its affairs his closest attention, responding cheerfully whenever called upon for any service, great or small; he was an active member of the Committees on Finance and Investment, Press and Extension, and Instruction and Equipment, and took his full share of the work which devolved on special committees. Mr. Parker's sound legal and business training, coupled with his clear vision and logical mind, made him a wise counselor, and his broad conception of the functions of a great institution of learning enabled him to bring to the consideration of its problems understanding and sympathy. His enlightened public spirit showed itself in many other ways, notably in his service as State Senator and, during the late war, in his mission abroad as a representative of the Young Men's Christian Association. Mr. Parker was invariably courteous and considerate in his relations with his fellow members and had in the highest degree their regard and esteem. It is, therefore, with a real sense of great loss that they place on record this tribute to his memory and extend to his family their condolence. APPOINTMENTS In addition to reappointments the following appointments have been made by the Board of Trustees: Henry G. Gale, Dean of the Ogden Graduate School of Science. Mildred J. Roberts, Instructor in the Department of Pathology. Heber Pervis Walker, Teacher in the University High School. Mary Frances Honey, Teacher in the University High School. Nina Jacobs, Teacher in the Elementary School. Agnes Morrissey, Teacher in the Elementary School. Dr. Michael H. Ebert, Research Fellow. Leonard B. Loeb, National Research Fellow in the Department of Physics. Jared K. Morse, National Research Fellow in the Department of Physics. Louis T. Thompson, National Research Fellow in the Department of Physics. Dr. Hugh W. Josephs, National Research Fellow in Medicine, his work to be done in the Department of THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES II Dr. Louis Leiter, National Research Fellow in the Department of Pathology. George M. Curtis, Research Fellow in the Department of Anatomy. Dr. Alice K. Hall, Stanton Abels Friedberg Fellow in the Department of Medicine. Patrick A. Delaney, Associate in the Department of Anatomy. Theophil Grauer, Associate in the Department of Anatomy. Daniel B. MacCallum, Associate in the Department of Anatomy. Nathaniel Kleitmann, Associate in the Department of Physiology. RESIGNATIONS The Board of Trustees has accepted the resignations of the following members of the Faculties: Elizabeth Wallace as Dean in the Colleges to take effect December 31, 1922. H. M. Weeter, Instructor in the Department of Hygiene and Bacteriology. Mr. Weeter becomes Professor of Bacteriology in the Medical Department of the University of Louisville. R. W. Watkins, Instructor in the Department of Anatomy. Lucy Dunigan, Teacher in the Elementary School. LEAVES OF ABSENCE Leave of absence has been granted to Professor Frank R. Lillie for the Winter Quarter, 1923, to serve as chairman of the Division of Biology and Agriculture of the National Research Council in Washington. Leave of absence has been granted to Associate Professor George W. Bartelmez for the Winter Quarter, 1923, to complete in Washington an important investigation for the Department of Anatomy. MISCELLANEOUS The new laboratory for the Department of Hygiene and Bacteriology, now approaching completion, is to be known as Ricketts Laboratory South. The business office of the University is to be removed to the new Illinois Merchants Bank Building, at the corner of Clark Street and Jackson Boulevard, next May, or as soon thereafter as the building is THE UNIVERSITY AND THE NATION1 By WILLIAM E. DODD There is a growing inquiry in the nation as to the social value of the university, a constant query about students' work, about stadia and grandstand athletics. In times past, universities and colleges were not a problem. They supplied the professions with recruits and occasionally they contributed an educated gentleman of leisure to the community. At the present moment, there are hundreds of thousands of youths at the universities and colleges. Most of them are not consumed with a desire to learn what men have done and tried to do in the past; they do not feel the impulse to discipline their minds into instruments of thought. They seek the college degree for its social value, and they wish to "have a good time," indulging in " activities.' ' Meanwhile, the country is confronted with an ever increasing demand for men who know some thing and, above all, for men who are able to think. The country is growing impatient with young gentlemen of leisure, "activities," and fraternities. People ask constantly what the universities are for. I Let us take an inventory. Since the days of Darwin, university men and scientists outside of academic walls have gradually advanced the cause of knowledge, until today one of the fundamental sanctions of common men is thoroughly undermined. Few men now fear the ana themas of the clergy about the awful penalties of the life to come. The clergy that for a thousand years spoke with authority is losing its hold upon men. There has been no successor to Henry Ward Beecher, much as the country has needed another Beecher. The churches are agencies now of social betterment. They do not appeal strongly to men on the "after life." The preacher is a professional man like other professional men. He leads if he counts at all because of his character and the wisdom of his social methods. Science has robbed him of the divinity that once hedged him about. Science has taken away the mystery that once ruled so large a proportion of men. Thus millions of people have ceased to feel one of the great sanctions. Having taken away so great 1 Address delivered at the third annual dinner given by the Board of Trustees for the members of the Faculties in Ida Noyes Hall, December 14, 1922. THE UNIVERSITY AND THE NATION 13 a means of stabilizing society, does it not concern university men and scientists to return an equivalent? Of similar import is the fact that, during the three generations since William Lloyd Garrison's great agitation, the state has pretty nearly lost its grip upon society. In order to arouse men to the necessity of destroying the great economic wrong of slavery, the state was brought more and more into disrepute. The state had permitted itself to become the shield of slavery. The nation was likewise suffering from the same dangerous alliance with a great social wrong. But as the nation finally broke the hold of slavery upon its leaders, the nation came out of the agitation with high moral prestige. Lincoln's work and death democ ratized and hallowed the nation. But the prestige of the state was forever broken. Even if Garrison had not lived, the effect of two or three firmly lodged preconceptions of our life would have brought the state to its ultimate weakness. The delicate balancing of powers among three departments of all our state governments has the effect of undermining all sense of responsibility on the part of officers of the state. A governor may "pass the buck," as we irreverently say. The legislature, in deference to the supposed views of its constituencies, may likewise shirk responsibility. And the courts may, and do, avoid responsibility. The Fathers of the American democracy were so disgusted with the results of corrupt personal leadership in eighteenth-century Britain, that they went to the opposite extreme of trying to set up a system of laws instead of a system of responsible men. But laws do not operate automatically. One might cite scores of instances to prove that the most important laws ever enacted in the United States have not been enforced. The effect of the non-enforcement was fatal to the cause sought, for example, the failure to enforce the Sherman Anti-trust Law. We now begin to see that the elaborate division of powers and careful distribution of authority is failing, failing above all in the old states that once held so complete a sway over the emotions and lives of men. In the old eastern states, the failure to enforce prohibition is daily weakening the state. There must be some person, some leader who knows what modern life requires and who will take the responsi bility for acting, even against the apparent will of the majority. Such men have not been trained in the universities. The law schools set up legal practitioners, men who can "find themselves" in the maze of intricacies that now dominates the legal profession. Machine politics does not train such leaders, for the masters of political organization seek ever to know how best to combine race groups in the great cities or 14 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD to old prejudices in the country. Their aim is to keep their crowd in office and incidentally to make fortunes out of "the game." The distribution of powers has weakened the state; the failure of higher education and the failure of party politics have still further hastened the decay of the state. Society cannot long endure a process of undermining the very sanctions upon which social stability depends. That is exactly what our system has been subjected to since the Jackson epoch. But there is yet another aspect of the process. During the constitutional period, Americans set up the practice of requiring every representative to be a citizen of the district for which he spoke and voted in representative assemblies. This appeared to be democratic at the time. It was intended to thwart the control of legislation by groups of powerful men who might set up candidates for as many districts as they could finance in an election; people feared powerful economic groups and sought to democratize representation. The outcome has been to enable small minorities in the constituencies to control the representatives of the great masses of men who cannot make a business of politics. The representative pays heed ever to his district. He will rob the nation as a whole in order to enrich his constituents. He has lost character as a man, he has failed as a legislator. Such a representative is the natural subject of a boss. There is no incentive for him to study; independent action for the national good is his last thought. He is, in part, the cause of the political machine. Nothing, in my judgment, has more weakened the fiber of our state and national legislatures than just this fact. It is a calamity. II I have indicated two very serious developments of the last three generations of American history: the break-down of the sanction of the clergy, the church, the absence of all fear of the penalties of the life to come; and the break-down of the morale of the state, its social and its political inhibitions. Men no longer fear God nor tremble in the presence of the state. The preacher is just a man; the governor and the local judge are mere politicians. Reverence has gone. In part, this was inevitable. When science discovers truth and lays the foundation of vast social betterment, all men must be grateful, even if it undermines the faith of the masses. True men never fear the truth. In so far as this state of things is due to misconceptions of the proper methods of democracy, it has not been necessary. When men find that their political conceptions have failed, it is the business of education, both in institutions and in political organizations, to abandon false and set THE UNIVERSITY AND THE NATION IS real methods. Democracy cannot long function when its leadership fails. The elaborate machine system is a negation of responsible leader ship. It is a truism in our life that leadership has been failing with us now for thirty or forty years. There have hardly been great national leaders since Lincoln. Where both religious and political guidance fails, revolu tions breed. France and Russia are the outstanding examples. Shall the United States invite such a catastrophe? That is the query I have hoped to have everyone contemplate this evening. If the American nation is to escape, the university must train men to a different public attitude. Three-fourths of our divinity students realize their dilemma. Somehow they do not find a way forward. Three-fourths of our law students feel the hopelessness of the political situation, but they are not trained to be physicians to society. The vast majority of our undergraduates permit themselves to care more for grandstand football than they do for the fortunes of either state or nation. Yet the universities and the colleges receive perhaps hundreds of millions annually for the very purpose of training leaders for society. The fault is rather with the older than the younger generation. It is the failure of both higher and secondary education that gives occasion for uneasiness on the part of thoughtful men. With American society surely drifting into disorder, with politics stalled and deadlocked, there is no generation of enthusiastic young men to help us to a sane reform. The national situation is distressing, public opinion is chaotic; and every economic group is seeking to help itself at the cost of us all. Under such pressure, the poor security the bosses give must soon fail. The country has drifted into this position. There has been little statesmanship until recent years. In order to exploit the national resources more rapidly, our fathers imported European labor in unprece dented numbers. Unlike earlier immigrants, the later ones settled in the cities. Their labor enabled American industry to become the greatest industry in the world. But, slowly and surely, the hordes of immigrants came to feel hostile toward their employers and sometimes the country itself. Then another element became involved. The sons of farmers hastened to the growing cities. In order to better their lots and compete with "foreigners," they organized into unions. These unions soon came to think that their interest took precedence over all other interests. And labor, as it is called today, confronts employers with vast numbers, and demands what it can get. The result is great blocs of unassimilated population and far-flung organizations of workers. Labor fights for itself and against " foreigners " ; and the owners of capital, quite as well organized, fight for themselves. Nobody is for the i6 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD At one time the country sought immigrants from all lands. It was only sufficient to be poor and helpless. America was the asylum of the oppressed for a hundred years. Now business men wish fresh supplies of labor, but they fear the ideas that new laborers may bring with them. Now labor unions bitterly oppose the importation of fresh supplies of labor, lest their employers prove too strong for them. They wish no new competitors in the field of their activities. And the nation flounders, loath to close its doors so long wide open, loath to take in "anarchists," but afraid to exclude fresh labor. Democracy has grown afraid. The combination of industrial enterprise, vast resources, and the labor of a new and active population has given us an industrial power unmatched in all the world. The industrial output in 1920 was something like seventy billions' worth of goods. That is greater wealth than the world has ever known. The total property of Germany or France is hardly worth more than American industry creates in a single year. But the very existence of this vast wealth constitutes one of the greatest problems of all history. It might not have been a problem, if the plants of industry had originally been scattered all over the country, at water falls, near coal mines, wherever railroads could best be focused for general social purposes. But the people were not aware of the need for any such distribution until it was too late to distribute its social power. Business built the system to suit its immediate, not its ultimate, needs. hardships of life in a great city. Our legislators knew that Paris was the storm center of Europe, that the millions of poor people gathered there had long been the pawns of revolutions and reactions alike. They knew that Bismarck had built a similar storm center in Germany with his Hohenzollerns, his Prussian absentee junkers, his snobbish army officers, and his newly rich industrial masters. Few stop to think that this was one of the greatest causes of the Great War, this herding together of millions of men. With so much of fatal statesmanship before them, American law-makers and American business men reared their New Yorks and their Chicagos at places most convenient for them; and they still talk and plan even larger New Yorks and Chicagos. Nearly all the industrial wealth of the nation is concentrated in a narrow belt of city-covered land stretching from Boston to Minneapolis. So concentrated is this wealth that New York alone pays more income tax to the federal treasury than do all the states of the South. This fact is of itself a sore problem. The poorest and the richest of the country are brought into close juxtaposition. The rich speak one tongue; THE UNIVERSITY AND THE NATION 17 poor, in general, speak another. The rich have little enough wisdom to make vulgar display; the poor are so miserable they cannot avoid display; such stresses the American democracy was never intended to sustain. These displays and these contrasts are ever exaggerated. When there is work enough for all, laboring men urge strikes; when there is too little work, employers resort to lockouts, in the hope of lowering high costs of production. In summer, working folk sometimes seem to on earth," as some would have us believe. In winter, long lines of hungry proletarians stand shivering in the cold, waiting their turns at the coffee counter. And this is free America. In the presence of these contrasts and without thought of the danger, the railroads and builders of industry go on concentrating their vast plants, their huge banks, and their commercial exchanges. The greater part of the real power of the country is thus placed within the easy reach of masses of men who must, in the nature of things, one day be unem ployed and starving. Unemployed and starving men cannot be expected long to remain passive. There is but a short turn between starvation and revolution. In neither case does the worker without work stand to lose. He cannot make his case much worse; it may be that he can improve it. A leader among labor groups said at a dinner party recently, "The railroad terminals and the banks of a great city could be seized without the loss of twenty men." This may or it may not be a correct judgment. The fact that working people think such a thing possible ought to set men to thinking. And, outside the cities, there are the farmers. For half a century they have been declining in relative, and even actual, strength. Today they are the minority of the nation. They grow the wheat of the country at a loss. The workers of the city eat bread at war prices. The farmer who owns his home has to sell it to pay taxes; the tenant who ought ever to plan to buy a home does not think of buying. The former owner of land is becoming a tenant. The tenant is becoming a day laborer. Vast tracts of farm land are falling into the hands of city- dwellers who have been able to gather from industry or trade the means to buy lands. Men who have stakes in the country decline in number every year. It is plainly a repetition of the awful evolution that took place in Italy during the third and second centuries before Christ. This appears a very pessimistic view. Let the optimist read the figures of the last census. There he will find the cause of agrarian unrest and decadence. But unrest does not usually bring remedies. The unrest of 1893-96 was great and ominous. It brought no solution. The lucky turn 20 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD Petersburg, Virginia, to New Orleans), the planters were so situated that they could control states and their whole social system; and the South's delegations in the national Congress were likewise, almost without exception, owners of slaves and plantations in the so-called black belt. The black belt was like our industrial belt; its economic leaders governed. It was a marvelous civilization; southerners made remarkable leaders of men; they were classical scholars and profound students of the science of government. But their fear of the majority of common men proved their everlasting undoing. Ill Shall the nation again make the mistake of fearing democracy? We are in a position to do so. Our vast cities are filled with workers whom many of us fear; and our workers are more and more coming to dislike, even hate, their employers. The nation has accumulated its greatest wealth in these cities where it may easily become the object of violent strife. Several of the industrial states have, as I have said, set up constitutions that limit the power of the majority. Manhood suffrage prevails, to be sure,Jbut the fruits of manhood suffrage are denied. Our industrial states are free in outward form from industrial control, but, in fact, industrial control is apparent every day. What avails democracy if schemes and methods of popular restraint become the rule of life? Let us have faith; let us cast ourselves upon the ocean of public opinion; we shall be surprised how well we swim. Aside from the difficulties and the anxieties of the domestic situation, the foreign relations of the country are such that we are apt to have our electorates confused, and so intensify our problem, both from the point of view of democracy and from the point of view of national safety. In 19 14, the nation and its citizens owed the rest of the world a sum so great that the interest has generally been estimated at five hundred millions a year. Before the Great War was half over, all that indebtedness was paid in goods at war prices. Now, four years after the war, the nation and its citizens have loaned other peoples enough capital to yield more than a billion dollars a year. The people and the nation are thus the greatest creditor in the world, and the sum already loaned is increasing at the rate of a billion a year. That is a fearful fact. It is a reversal of role so sudden and so vast in its consequences that common folk have not become aware of the new state of things. They clamor for the pay ment of the interest and capital by Europeans who are too poor to feed their children. They demand payment in some cases as a matter of punishing hereditary enemies, for example, the Irish and German attitudes toward the English and French THE UNIVERSITY AND THE NATION 21 There was another great change of roles that came out of the war and the peace which followed. Hitherto, the nation had never been greatly concerned with international security. The people had never known what international fear meant. The war came; it taught them the meaning of Europe and the significance of war on a world-scale. For a time, all good Americans felt the imminent danger of German victory. At the peace, the United States was left secure. Few men were left with any sense of fear of any nation whatever. The German militarist plan had shown what could be done by that country. When Germany collapsed, there was no longer any power the United States feared. France, with its stationary population, could never attack the United States. England, dependent for its food and raw materials upon ocean traffic, could never make aggressive war upon the country. In fact, England has not in a century made aggressive war among great nations. Germany being subdued, there was security. That was a great gain. The people feel secure; they do not recognize the greatness of the boon. They cannot grasp, it seems, the reality of the fears of European peoples to whom the end of the war has not meant security. We think and vote as though we felt that other nations have only to say they are secure to be secure. These are great things, although the people of the United States are not aware of them. Another benefit has not been named. The Monroe Doctrine, by which the United States had practically guided the affairs of Latin America for two decades, had never been recognized by the rest of the world before the Great War. When recognition of that doctrine was duly made in the treaty of Versailles, the United States received more than any other nation received at Paris. The American commissioners did not seek the guaranty. They knew it to be dangerous, doubtful in so far as it would affect the peace of the world, and they refused to ask its recognition. The Senate of the United States, aided by Messrs. Bryan, Hughes, Root, and Cardinal Gibbons, compelled them to change their attitude. The other powers wrote recognition into the treaty, the greatest concession in the treaty. For now the United States and its citizens enjoy a sway and a prestige in all Latin America that equals the sway and prestige of ancient Roman citizens in the regions around them. It is a dangerous thing. It means enmity in all the countries south of us. It means interference with the internal affairs of small nations. It means economic exploitation in a region where peaceful trade might be far more valuable without it. Under it our government is disposed already to re-write the constitution of Mexico. The masses of democratic America 22 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD confused. They rarely think of the Monroe Doctrine as a means of aggression. They would feel affronted if they were told that the Monroe Doctrine means to the business interests of the country what the Drang nach Osten meant to the business men of Germany before the Great War. Thus the country has won three great advantages: economic leader ship, security against all the world, and recognized primacy in Latin America. Yet our political leaders and our newspapers continue to talk about our unselfishness and our innocence of all desire for gain. It is a dangerous obscurantism, if not an actual deception. Democracies do not know their foreign relations well. All people may readily be exercised about wrongs other nations commit against them, but rarely think of wrongs their own governments commit. Was there ever a time when education was more needed and when educators had less to say ? The country occupies the very middle position of the modern world, a position like that of ancient Rome with the Mediterranean peoples about her; but no one knows it. The country holds the economic whip hand over the world; and yet our leaders in Congress talk about our being cheated out of hard-earned savings; the United States is safe beyond all other peoples since the day of Augustus Caesar; and yet Congress is warned and the people frightened daily lest we be caught unprepared. Men begin to pick England for an enemy. We hear constantly of army and navy plans. With economic supremacy, with a position in the very middle of the world, what a terror we might be if there were an army and a navy, ready to fight at the "drop of the hat"! And, with all Spanish America under willing or unwilling tutelage, what more should the country ask ? Has Japan ever enjoyed such an advan tage ? Has any other people ever held so many of the great pawns of history ? I think not. With a domestic position critical, with wealth concentrated and suspicion growing so that men wish to try Bismarck's plan of limiting popular representation, it does seem that the country needs to train men to think, take lessons in reality, and ponder what distrust of democ racy means in our day. All the lessons of the recent war warn us; all the lessons of recent European history warn us; all the experience of American history says: "Beware." IV Since so many millions of men have lost their reverence for ancient religious sanctions; since the old states and their courts have no longer the prestige they once had; since clergymen and politicians alike THE UNIVERSITY AND THE NATION 23 been dethroned, either by the discoveries of science or by the workings of democracy, there seems to me only one resource left for modern American society. And that is the university. And with the university I associate the college and the whole army of teachers, high and low, throughout the nation. These constitute our hope. Yet how little have we taken thought of them! If there are some who think the university a place to prop the fortunes of men already secure, they are mistaken. If there are those who hope to make of the universities places where democracy is to be sneered out of existence, they have been grossly misled. The business of the univer sity is to serve and secure all groups. The universities may not have waked up; the colleges may still be indulging in false hopes as to their privileged positions, where young folk in easy circumstances shall be made happy and comfortable; but they are false hopes. It is too late to try again the role of the universities of the Old South. The university is now, and must ever become more, the home of learning and science, a resort for able men who love research. It is now, or must soon be, free; free to think, to teach, and to write. Without that freedom there can be no university. Germany tried to bolster her imperialism by university support, by guiding the thought of scholars and schoolmasters. Shall democratic America follow that example ? If the universities rise to the new demands, they will supply us the new sort of preachers, the better sort of lawyers, and young graduates who care less for grandstand athletics and more for the rewards of public service. And they will fill the country with teachers and writers of truth, with women whom legislatures and the leaders of business will delight to reward with salaries commensurate with the greatness of the task to be performed. Why should the teacher of our children be skimped in his living and crowded into poor, musty rooms for his resi dence ? Who is worth more to society than he who instructs the men and women of tomorrow ? A country less democratic cannot tide us over the dangers ahead; an ignorant electorate will not show us a rational foreign policy, nor shall we learn the great things of civilization by putting out the very light of history and science. If ever any nation had a great mission, it is ours. Let us not deceive ourselves; the examples and the precepts of Jefferson and Lincoln cannot yet be abandoned. If thinkers arise and teachers bestir themselves our great democracy shall yet not THE YERKES OBSERVATORY: A RETROSPECT OF TWENTY- FIVE YEARS By EDWIN B. FROST The formal dedication ceremony of the Yerkes Observatory took place on October 21, 1897, in the presence of the Trustees of the University, President Harper, Mr. Charles T. Yerkes, the donor, and a large company of invited guests. In recognition of the completion of twenty-five years of work of the Observatory, the President and Trustees were invited to the Observatory for the evening of Sep tember 30, 1922. Friends of the University and Observatory having summer homes at Lake Geneva, who in many cases were hosts of the Trustees and their wives on this occasion, were also present, making, with the Observatory colony, a company of about seventy-five persons. Exhibits had been arranged illustrating some of the work accomplished in different departments of the Observatory, chiefly by illuminated photographs and prints, and including the set of fifty-five volumes of the Astrophysical Journal. Unfortunately, a cloudy sky made it impossible to show the visitors, with the 40-inch telescope, certain celestial objects as planned. An address was made by Professor Edwin B. Frost, Director since 1905, descriptive of the development of the Observatory and its contribution to astronomical knowledge during the twenty-five years of its existence. An interesting letter was read from Professor George E. Hale, referring to the early history of the Observatory and some of the difficulties that had to be overcome before it was finally established. Director Frost's address, which was illustrated by lantern slides, was essentially as given below. When the Observatory was opened, in 1897, the University was just completing the fifth year of its existence, and the Observatory was one of the many enterprises in which Dr. Harper took a keen interest. This was later heightened by his residence for six months at the Observa tory, during the summer and autumn of 1904, when he was engaged in writing some of his last works, in an office in the Observatory. Owing to the heavy demands for funds in so many other directions, in 1897 the personnel and the equipment of the Observatory were necessarily small. The staff consisted of Professors Hale, Barnard, and Burnham (who then came to the Observatory for two nights a week, without hono rarium), an assistant professor, an optician, and one assistant. The equipment consisted of the 40-inch telescope, with an accessory spectro scope, and the 12-inch telescope. The further development of the equip ment was energetically undertaken by Professor Hale, the apparatus being manufactured, so far as possible, in the excellent shops of the < K pq THE YERKES OBSERVATORY 25 Observatory. Although the question of the scientific personnel is, of course, of far greater importance than instrumental accessories, yet it will be convenient to follow the development of the researches at the Observatory as the different equipment was prepared for them, rather than to consider it in terms of the specialists who were to undertake these researches. But it must be emphasized from the beginning that the Observatory was the conception of Professor George E. Hale, at a time when he was less than twenty-five years old, and it is to his genius for organizing and planning scientific research that the development of the Observatory has been due. He coped with every kind of difficulty, financial, mechanical, and scientific, and left the institution in 1904, after his plans had been carried out to such an extent that the future of the institution seemed assured. The study of the sun had fascinated Mr. Hale from his youth, and at his private observatory at the corner of Drexel Boulevard and Forty- sixth Street, Chicago, he had devised an important instrument for photographing the great eruptions around the edge of the sun and the remarkable markings upon the sun's surface. These are visible only through a spectroscope in the light of a single selected solar ray. This instrument he named the spectroheliograph, and it was the need of larger apparatus for the continuance of this work that inspired him to seek for someone to provide a great telescope. Meanwhile, the 12-inch telescope of the private observatory had been presented to the University by Mr. Hale and his father, and was housed in the northeast dome of the Observatory, where it has been in constant use. The design of a new spectroheliograph to be attached to the 40-inch telescope was imme diately taken up by Mr. Hale, and a powerful instrument was constructed with which very much important work has been done by Professor Hale and his assistant, Mr. Ellerman, and by a series of observers who have since used the instrument. Mr. Hale proved that by using different portions of the so-called dark line, from the center toward the edge of the line, records could be obtained of the distribution of the calcium vapors at different levels in the solar atmosphere. The name "flocculi" was given to the great areas of glowing vapors which were thus revealed with the instrument, and which would escape notice in a direct photo graph made without the spectroheliograph. The results of this work are described in the Astrophysical Journal, and in Volume III, Part I, of the quarto Publications of the Yerkes Observatory. The regular observa tion of the sun by this new method has been a principal item in the program of the Observatory, and over ten thousand photographs of 26 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD sun have thus been obtained by the different observers who have been assigned to that instrument, and who have discussed their results in papers published in the Astrophysical Journal. Another important accessory of the 40-inch telescope to be con structed was the Bruce spectrograph, designed for the photography of stellar spectra, and for the determination of the speed of the stars in the line of sight. Extended experiments by the writer and Mr. Ellerman, in 1898 and 1899, had shown that the stellar spectrograph which was included in Mr. Yerkes' gift was inadequate for the increasing refine ment of this work. With funds given by the late Miss Catherine W. Bruce of New York, who had also provided for the salary of a professor ship of astrophysics for five years, a new spectroscope was designed and constructed in the shops of the Observatory, with optical parts of the highest excellence then obtainable from the glass works of Europe. This instrument has been regularly employed on the 40-inch telescope for at least two nights per week, and more than eight thousand photographs of stellar spectra have been obtained with it, from which the speed of many stars has been determined, and many interesting binary systems of very short period have been discovered and studied. These plates also contain a wealth of information about the physical conditions of the stars, which has been only partially investigated. This department of research has been the particular charge of the writer, with the assistance of Messrs. Adams, Barrett, Lee, and several others. The construction of a great reflecting telescope and one of moderate size had been one of Professor Hale's early plans, and Mr. G. W. Ritchey came to the Observatory as optician to carry out this purpose. Mr. William E. Hale had purchased an immense disk of glass and provided the funds for it to be figured as a 60-inch reflector. This work went on during the first three years after the Observatory was opened. Meanwhile, a small mirror of 24-inches' aperture was finished in the optical shop and its entire mounting made in the machine shop. In 1901 the 2-foot reflector was put into operation in the southeast dome. Exquisite photographs of nebulae and other faint objects were obtained by Mr. Ritchey with this instrument, showing it to be equal, if not superior, to any reflector constructed up to that time. Since its erection, the instrument has been in constant use in photographing nebulae, variable stars, faint comets, and satellites, and for the purposes of stellar photometry. The collection of plates for different purposes obtained with this instrument now numbers 4,500. It will be remembered that a reflecting telescope brings rays of all colors to the same focus, THE YERKES OBSERVATORY 27 gives it an advantage over the refracting telescope; and further, the great advantage of accumulating impressions by prolonged exposure makes it possible for this instrument to reveal objects which can hardly be seen through the great 40-inch lens. Of the large field of oppor tunity which was opened for the 60-inch mirror, mention will be made later. During these busy days of equipping the Observatory the great 40-inch refractor was not idle; on the contrary, it was earning its well- deserved title of the busiest great telescope in the world.1 Assigned to some observer during every clear hour of every night of the year, it was constantly being employed for the study of objects faint enough or difficult enough to test its power. Professor Burnham, with his wonder ful devotion to that branch of astronomy in which he had become the master, was measuring the distances and angles of the double stars and gathering at the eyepiece the data necessary for the completion of his monumental work on double stars, published in 1904; and Professor Barnard was also using the same micrometer with the greatest skill in his long-continued work on the marvelous star clusters, in observing faint nebulae, comets, planetary satellites, and stars of varied kinds of nocturnal hours with the telescope were assigned to that assiduous observer, who was always eager for every opportunity to use it. In those days, the telescope was used photographically with the Bruce spectrograph for about one-third of the night hours; but a larger field of usefulness for it was being developed. Experiments were being made in employing it for photographing the stars directly. It was designed for work with the eye, and therefore the four surfaces of the two constituent lenses of the object glass were figured, by Alvan Clark, so that the most perfect images were given for the yellow, orange, and green rays, to which the eye is most sensitive. With an ordinary photo graphic plate, chiefly sensitive to the blue and violet rays, such a lens would give a rather fuzzy image. But a procedure was adopted (of which the original proposer is unknown) of discarding the blue and violet rays and using those for which the object glass was corrected, chiefly the yellow rays. This was done by placing a yellow filter just in front of the photographic plate, which then must be of the isochromatic sort, sensitive to the yellow rays. Some promising photographs of the moon 1 Several other large telescopes at other Observatories are just as busy at night, but the 40-inch telescope is the only large telescope regularly used for observing the sun as 28 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD were obtained in this way, by Mr. Hale and Mr. Ellerman, immediately after the Observatory was opened. In 1900 the experiments were resumed by Mr. Ritchey, who designed the necessary attachments for using the telescope as a camera and succeeded in obtaining in this way beautifully sharp images of the stars. The great length of the telescope gave the photographs a large scale, and they could be measured with a precision quite equal to that obtained by the skilled observers named above. Professor Ritchey secured some remarkably fine photographs of the moon and star clusters which have been very widely known and studied. The possibilities of this method of measuring the distances with great precision led Mr. Hale to invite Dr. Frank Schlesinger to come to the Observatory to work out a photographic method of finding the distances of the stars, one of the most delicate operations of modern astronomy. The result of his two years' campaign was very successful, and it was possible for Dr. Schlesinger to publish in the Astrophysical Journal, somewhat later, the details of the measurement of the distances of some thirty- two stars, with comparative ease and with an order of accuracy not previously attainable aside from a few exceptional stars. The pro cedure was adopted in several other American observatories having refractors originally intended for visual use, and the result has greatly enriched our knowledge of the distances of the stars. Since 1909 this work, with other similar investigations, has been a very important part of the program of the nocturnal hours with the 40-inch telescope, in which Messrs. Slocum, Mitchell, Lee, Joy, and Van Biesbroeck have par ticipated. The details of the determinations of the distances of 183 stars by these observers have appeared in the Publications of the Yerkes Observatory and the number has since been increased to 250 by including those awaiting definitive publication. In this department of astronomy, 6,700 plates have thus far been obtained. The value of these perma nent records on the photographs increases as time goes on and will form the basis, in the future, for very accurate determination of the motions of the great number of reference stars occurring on the plates. Thus it will be years before the wealth of information potentially contained in the plates will be fully evaluated. Using the 40-inch telescope in this manner, Professor Barnard has obtained excellent photographs of the planets, particularly Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, and of some planetary nebulae and clusters. The photog raphy of planets is much more difficult than the other branches of astro nomical photography, as the images have to be enlarged before THE YERKES OBSERVATORY 29 reach the plate, and the work can be done only under the most perfect conditions of atmospheric steadiness. At the time the Observatory was opened, at the solicitation of Pro fessor Barnard, Miss Bruce had made a gift of $7,000 for the construction of a photographic telescope with which he might continue his notable work in photographing the Milky Way and comets, in which field Professor Barnard had begun as a pioneer at the Lick Observatory a few years earlier. The greatest of care was taken in securing the most perfect photographic telescope possible for this purpose, and after many experiments a fine 10-inch doublet having four lenses was made by the John A. Brashear Company, and a new type of mounting constructed by Warner and Swasey. A neat wooden building was erected, in 1904, with interest accumulated from Miss Bruce's gift, and Professor Barnard began work with the instrument in the spring of that year. Two other photographic lenses are used simultaneously in this instrument as a check on the reality of any very faint objects which may be detected on the plates. No objects suitable for photography with this instrument have escaped Professor Barnard's assiduous attention: 1,400 negatives of comets and 3,500 of the Milky Way sufficiently attest to this. Of Comet Morehouse, which was discovered on plates taken with the Bruce telescope, Professor Barnard obtained no less than 350 negatives; of Halley's Comet, 230. Professor Barnard's studies of the Milky Way from these photographs of the faint nebulosities within it and of the extraordinary dark markings upon it, which we now have come to recog nize as dark nebulae, have made a new epoch in this field. In 1905 the Carnegie Institution of Washington made a grant for the publica tion of an Atlas of the Milky Way in the form of photographic prints, 35,000 of which were prepared under Mr. Barnard's supervision. After nearly twenty years of labor by Mr. Barnard, this Atlas is now nearly ready for publication. For nine months in 1905, the Bruce telescope was set up on Mount Wilson so that Mr. Barnard could get photo graphs of some portions of the Milky Way which could not be reached in the latitude of the Yerkes Observatory. The necessity for changing rapidly and conveniently from one type of spectroheliograph, or solar spectrograph, to another led to extensive experiments, by Professor Hale, with the use of horizontal telescopes in which the light was reflected by a mirror attached to a coelostat. With funds obtained from various outside sources, two provisional instru ments of this character were erected on the grounds of the Observatory, the mirrors and mechanical parts being made in our shops. The So THE UNIVERSITY RECORD horizontal telescope, which was housed in a very light shed of paper and wood, 80 feet long, was wrecked by a windstorm, and the second was burned; but the experiments had shown the serviceability of such an instrument where the various attachments could be successively swung or rolled into place as a change was to be made in the apparatus of observation. Through the friendly interest of Dr. George S. Isham, a gift of $10,000 was made by Miss Helen M. Snow for a more permanent building and instruments of the horizontal type. For the use of the horizontal telescope, however, particularly fine atmospheric conditions are desirable, and under a grant from the Carnegie Institution, Mr. Hale made an expedition to Mount Wilson, California, to investigate the advantages of a mountain site for this purpose. In the spring of 1904, the Snow telescope was transported to Mount Wilson and set up there in a building especially designed for it. When the Mount Wilson Obser vatory began its independent existence the Snow telescope was acquired by it, and the resulting Snow Fund of $6,000 was established at the Yerkes Observatory for the occasional purchase of instruments. The 60-inch mirror for a reflecting telescope was offered to the Uni versity by Mr. William E. Hale, conditional upon the erection of a suit able mounting and dome for it, and on the assumption of its future maintenance. Owing to the many undertakings of the University which were not fully financed, and to the fact that permanent provision for an adequate staff had not yet been possible, it did not seem feasible to erect another great telescope in connection with Yerkes Observatory. Moreover, a large reflector should be mounted in a more equable climate and at a point where the atmospheric conditions are the very best obtain able. Accordingly, to the satisfaction of all concerned, this valuable mirror was taken over by the Mount Wilson Observatory and finished in the optical shops at Pasadena. A fine mounting and dome were provided for it on Mount Wilson, and it has contributed greatly to the splendid work of that institution for the past twelve years. Another photographic telescope, having four lenses of special Jena glass, transparent to the ultra-violet rays, and two large prisms of the same material, was obtained from the Zeiss Company in 1906. This was equipped in the shops with the necessary tube and fittings, attached to a mounting belonging to Professor Parkhurst, and placed in a small temporary dome near his residence. Much valuable photometric and spectroscopic work has been done with this instrument, chiefly by him and the students working with him, and about 2,700 photographs have been obtained. In 1922 this telescope has been moved to a new THE YERKES OBSERVATORY 31 convenient dome erected at the north end of the Snow Building and commanding a fine horizon. This completes the list of major auxiliary instruments which have been constructed or acquired for the Observa tory during the past twenty-five years, but much valuable minor appara tus has been purchased, from the Snow Fund or from grants from funds of the National Academy, including several very important measuring machines which are now an indispensable part of the equipment of the Observatory in measuring photographs. Ten of these are now in regular use here. It is appropriate to say a word here as to the suitability of the site of the Observatory, chosen at Lake Geneva after careful consideration of numerous offers of locations in the general region around Chicago. Experience in many parts of the world has shown that the suitability of atmospheric conditions for an observatory at a given site cannot be determined in any short interval of time. Many years of use of telescopes under different conditions are required for positively answering the ques tion. After these twenty-five years, we can say that in our opinion a better site than that at Lake Geneva could not have been chosen at any place within two hundred miles of Chicago, and probably this limit could be extended to five hundred miles. The clearness of the sky has been as great as could be expected in the Central West; the elevation of about 1,100 feet above the sea has been undoubtedly of advantage; the beauty of the lake and its surroundings and the easy accessibility to Chicago have contributed to our satisfaction with the location. It has been no small advantage that several members of the Board of Trustees, par ticularly Mr. Ryerson and Mr. Hutchinson, have been summer residents here; their continued interest in the welfare of the Observatory and its staff, expressed in many helpful ways, has been of the greatest value. During the past twenty years, the average number of hours per year during which the 40-inch telescope could be used at night has been nearly 1,700. This will certainly compare very favorably with the European observatories and those in America, except in Arizona or on the Pacific Coast. But, unfortunately, such statistics are not kept at most institu tions. A comparison with Mount Wilson will show a superiority for that station of about one-third for the nocturnal hours. The clearness and steadiness of the air for the observations on the sun are probably as good here as anywhere in America, and it has become apparent that mountain sites, which may be very fine for night work, are not so desirable for work on the sun, because of the currents which necessarily rise up the slopes in the mountains under the action of 32 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD sun's rays. It appears that the conditions at Mount Wilson for work upon the sun are not superior to those here. Careful record during 1921 showed 113 perfect days at Lake Geneva, with 152 pleasant, while there were only 100 days wholly cloudy. It is not our policy to attempt to send expeditions out of the country to observe total solar eclipses, but it would, of course, be improper to neglect those which occur within our national boundaries. In 1900, for the eclipse of May 28, our party was stationed at Wadesboro, North Carolina, where we shared our camp with a party from the Smithsonian Institution under Professor Langley. The sky was clear, and excellent results were obtained. In 1918 the University provided the funds for a careful study of the eclipse of June 8 of that year. Our principal station was at Green River, Wyoming, with a second station at the Obser vatory of the University of Denver, the facilities of which, including the 20-inch equatorial, had been placed at our disposal by the director, Professor H. A. Howe, an alumnus of the old University of Chicago. It is seldom that the track of a total eclipse passes directly over a well- equipped observatory, and it was most unfortunate that the weather was totally cloudy at that point on the day of the eclipse. A third location was Matheson, Colorado, where two of the assistants of the observatory had a station in conjunction with other institutions on a site which we had previously selected. There was a break in the clouds at this point, and a good photograph of the corona was obtained. At Green River, where the larger part of our apparatus and observers was assembled, a great cloud, on an otherwise perfect day, lazily drifted across the sky and had not quite cleared the sun at the critical moment. We obtained many interesting results, but our more delicate spectro scopic observations were rendered futile by the cloud. Through the generous offer of Mr. William Wrigley, Jr., in contributing $5,000 toward the expense of an expedition to Santa Catalina Island, we expect to observe the total eclipse visible there on September 10, 1923. Education, as well as research is a function of the Observatory. One hundred persons have taken part in the work of the Observatory, either as Volunteer Research Assistants (chiefly prof essors and teachers in other institutions) or as graduate students of the University of Chicago. These have come from various parts of the American continent and from Italy, Greece, Holland, Russia, and Japan, while a longer or shorter stay has been made by guests from all civilized countries. The Doctor's degree has been given to nine persons (six men and three women) for work at the Observatory in Practical Astronomy and Astrophysics, and THE YERKES OBSERVATORY 33 Master's degree has been awarded to six students. It will be noted that this represents only a part of the work of research and instruction in the Department of Astronomy. At the University, for work in Mathe matical Astronomy under the able instruction of the three professors resident at the University, the Doctor's degree has been given to twelve persons. From the staff of the Observatory, which, including those who have come and gone, has numbered more than sixty, we have fur nished directors for nine observatories in addition to several who did not leave us directly to assume such positions elsewhere. It has not been the policy of the Observatory to issue the publica tions of its work in the form of bulletins, but those papers of an astro- physical character have appeared in the Astrophysical Journal; those in astrometry have been sent to the Astronomical Journal or to the transac tions of the astronomical societies; and a certain part of the necessarily detailed results which could not be appropriately included in journals have appeared in the quarto volumes of the Publications of the Yerkes Observatory, which are much in arrears. We have doubtless been much more at fault in publishing too little than too much, but this has been due, in part, to circumstances beyond our control. We frankly admit that we have accomplished in these twenty-five years far less than we could wish, but it is certain that the future will find a rich storehouse in the photographs which have been obtained in this period and which it has been thus far possible to study only partially. The Observatory has no spectacular achievements to record, but it has been the policy to carry on a program of observations which would be certain to be useful, rather than to spend much time in attempting to make discoveries which might not be realized. The growth of our staff has necessarily been slow, owing to the limited finances of the University, and it will possibly never be as large, particularly in respect to assistants and computers, as would seem to be required for the best efficiency. The contributions of the Observatory to research and education are not distributed solely by its publications on the printed page, or by the teachings of those who have shared in its work. It was found necessary more than twenty years ago to organize a department for making our photographs available, in the form of lantern slides, for the public lecture hall and the class room. The University of Chicago Press has cared for the business details, and something like 25,000 lantern slides have been made for colleges and schools in many countries. Hundreds of prints have also been made for use as illustrations in books and magazines, and for private 34 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD It is a pleasure to say that the members of the staff have taken part in their work with a zeal and a spirit of harmonious co-operation that is beyond all praise. The first break in the staff, due to death, was the loss of our senior partner, Professor Sherburne W. Burnham, who retired from active work in 19 14 and died at the age of eighty- two, in 192 1. For most of his life he had been busy as an officer of the Court, but in his leisure hours he accomplished a prodigious amount of work which con stituted a real revival in the knowledge of double stars. Under the careful supervision of Mr. Barrett, the Library has made a steady growth from its small state in 1897, when it numbered about 1,000 volumes, to its present enumeration of 6,000 volumes and 5,000 pamphlets. A few years ago, as the shelves were far more than full, a large room in the attic was fitted up with stacks taken from the old Library of the University at Chicago, and thus a very satisfactory pro vision has been made for the safe housing of many volumes which are less frequently consulted. This made it possible to continue to use our library room as the gathering place for meetings of the staff and for the presentation of lectures. It has never been the intention that the Observatory should specialize in meteorology, but we soon found that accurate records were important for our own convenience, and these have now been kept for twenty years with thermometers exposed outside the north window of the transit corridor. An improvement was made in 191 7, when a standard Weather Bureau shelter, giving an almost perfect exposure for the instruments, was erected on the grounds. The thermometers at the corridor window are still being maintained, so that a reliable comparison with the normals is always available. A barograph and two thermographs have also been in operation for many years. The United States Weather Bureau has invited our co-operation, and our monthly normals have accordingly been copied by them and printed. A report is sent each month to Milwaukee and thence to Washington, and a report in popular language is published locally each month. In the summers of 1898 and 1900, heat from the stars was first definitely measured at the Observatory by Professor Ernest F. Nichols, then of Dartmouth College. In 1913 the celebrated experiment on the rigidity of the earth, devised by Professor Michelson and executed by himself and Professor Gale, was carried out on the grounds of the Observatory. A self- recording apparatus was installed later, and the research was continued for about a year and brought to a successful conclusion in 191 THE YERKES OBSERVATORY 35 When the Observatory began its work, it was not the idea of the donor or of the officials of the University that visitors should be admit ted, but the natural curiosity of the public produced such a pressure that it was soon found necessary to set aside Saturday afternoons for this purpose. With increasing numbers of visitors arrangements had to be organized definitely, and four or five brief lectures, accompanied by demonstrations of the use of the great telescope, have been given by members of the staff, in rotation, each Saturday afternoon from June through September. At present the annual number of visitors is over 10,000, and the record shows that over 175,000 visitors have been thus far received. Although this task of university extension is somewhat of a burden upon members of the staff, it is nevertheless felt that it has helped to satisfy a popular interest in science and to exhibit one phase of the educational work of the University. For some years after the completion of the Observatory building, the grounds presented the appearance of an abandoned farm, which really corresponded to the facts. In 1905, through the kind interest of Mr. Hutchinson and Mr. Ryerson, Olmsted Brothers, of Brookline, Massachusetts, studied the grounds and presented a comprehensive plan (dated January 4, 1906) for the development of the grounds in an appropriate manner. Up to that time, there had been no proper entrance to the property of the University, and this was one of the immediate necessities urged by Mr. Olmsted. Accordingly, a tract of 4! acres lying to the north was purchased from various holders, so that a main avenue of approach could be obtained directly in line with the principal entrance of the building. In 1907 and 1908, a part of the grading was done and the principal driveways were laid out. The planting, according to the plan of Messrs. Olmsted, modified somewhat to meet local conditions, was made in 1913 and 1914, so that an appropriate setting has been secured for the architecturally impressive building. It certainly will be the ardent endeavor of everyone associated with the work of the Observatory that it may contribute its full measure to the progress of astronomy in the future, and that it may worthily repre sent the University of which it is a HELEN CULVER By THOMAS W. GOODSPEED Helen Culver was born in Little Valley, Cattaraugus County, New York, March 23, 1832. Next to Chautauqua, Cattaraugus is the south- westernmost county of the Empire State. At the time of Miss Culver's birth it had hardly ceased to be a part of the western frontier. It was still very largely a wilderness into which new settlers were moving and where the pioneers were hewing out of the woods homes for their families and transforming the forests into farms. In the last decade of the eighteenth century Robert Morris, super intendent of finances during the Revolution, had bought and later sold to a number of merchants of Holland, the whole of western New York, including more than seven counties and aggregating more than 3,000,000 acres of land. This is now one of the fairest, richest, and most populous regions on the continent. It was then an immense wilderness inhabited by possibly 3,000 wandering Indians of various tribes who were supposed to own this great region they neither occupied nor improved. Mr. Morris repurchased the lands from them, paying them $100,000 for their title and setting apart for them several reservations which were more than ample for the few hundred Indian families. This entire tract has passed into history as the Holland Purchase. After a careful survey it was opened for settlement about 1800 and offices were established for the sale of the lands. Some of these old office build ings of a hundred or more years ago are still standing quite unused, but preserved by the prosperous towns in which they stand, silent memorials of a vanished past. In that early day my own grandfather set out from Glens Falls on the Hudson River to make his way to the Holland Purchase, which was a kind of land of promise, and locate a home for his young family, and somewhere in the intervening wilderness perished. For some years after 1800, settlers entered this remote wilderness very slowly. There was no way to reach it save by the most primitive modes of travel through the forests of central New York over the most wretched roads, or the old Indian trails. There was no way of transport ing anything the settlers produced to eastern markets. The Erie Canal had hardly been suggested. That great waterway did not reach western HELEN HELEN CULVER 37 New York and fully open the Holland Purchase to settlement and com merce until a quarter of a century had passed. Yet settlers came, bringing a few cattle and sheep, each man making a little opening in the forest, building a log cabin and barn, raising enough of the simplest necessities of life to subsist on, but every year clearing a little more land and gradually improving his condition. Here and there very small villages began to appear with mechanics and merchants and the emergence of trade. Missionaries penetrated the wilderness, and scattered churches and primitive schools were established. With the passing of the years settlement became more rapid and the country began to be inhabited. But suddenly the current of settlement was dammed and began to flow backward. The War of 1 812 came on and in a little while the whole territory of the Holland Purchase was filled with apprehension. The British crossed the Niagara River, burned Buffalo, then an insignificant hamlet, and threatened an invasion of the state. Such was the panic in many parts of the Purchase that settlers abandoned their homes and fled eastward, some of them never to return. It was not till the war was over that the tide of settlement again set in, but it then rose higher than before. It was very soon after the close of the war that Noah Culver, the grandfather of Helen Culver, brought his family from Wallingford, Vermont, and bought one of the abandoned farms in the town of Little Valley, Cattaraugus County. The American ancestor of the family, Edward Culver, came to New England with John Winthrop, Jr., governor of Connecticut, in 1635. Landing in Massachusetts he first settled in Dedham, a few miles from Boston, later going to Connecticut where he became one of the 124 original settlers and landowners of the town of Wallingford. Toward the close of the eighteenth century, 135 years after Edward Culver helped to found Wallingford, Connecticut, some of his descendants broke away from the old home and traveling 150 miles north, together with a few neighbors, founded a new Wallingford in the wilderness of Vermont. The war of the Revolution soon came on, and one of the volunteers from the new settlement in the struggle for freedom was James Culver. It was a stalwart race in some members of which the pioneer strain long persisted. One of them was Noah Culver, a son of the patriot James, who a generation after the Revolution took his family, and making his way 350 miles westward, established a new home in the Holland Purchase. Cattaraugus County, in which he settled, lies south and southeast 38 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD Buffalo. It surface has been described as resembling a piece of rumpled calico. Two north and south valleys divide it, Great Valley on the east and Little Valley on the west. In Little Valley, Noah Culver found one of those abandoned clearings from which the owner had fled in the War of 1812. The loghouse in the middle of the clearing had been the lair of beasts of the forest during four or five years after its owner had fled from it, but, renovated, it now became the home of the Culver family. The claim, and indeed the whole country, was covered with a thick growth of pine and hemlock and many varieties of deciduous trees, maple, oak, elm, and others. The center of the county east and west was a series of high hills, rising 2,000 feet above the sea. Cattaraugus Creek, on the north of this ridge of hills emptied its waters into Lake Erie and the North Atlantic. The waters of the streams to the south found their way through the Allegheny, the Ohio, and the Mississippi into the Gulf of behind by the first occupants. It was a veritable godsend, and on it the weaving of the family was done for many years. The head of the family was a big man of great strength and endurance and of equally pronounced independence and self-reliance. On that western frontier he needed money badly, and money being due him from a neighbor in his old home which seemed uncollectible by mail, he went all the way back to Vermont to collect it in person. But the debtor could not or would not pay, and Mr. Culver, his stock of cash reduced to a pittance, was compelled to walk all the way back. His money did not hold out and, too proud to ask for bread which would have been given him freely, he walked the last three days without food. He would himself have cheerfully given a meal to a hungry passer-by, but he would not receive one from strangers. His three sons, Lyman, Eliphalet, and Henry were like him, all of them 6 feet or more in height, men of hardihood and courage. These four, father and sons, were deemed worthy at geneial training "to hold one side against the assault of the town. " The father's qualities were well illustrated by Lyman, the oldest son, who, at fourteen yeais of age, was sent to Vermont to bring back to the farm a small flock of sheep. Per haps these sheep constituted the payment of the debt the father had failed to collect. The boy made the journey of nearly 800 miles, much of it through the primeval forest, on foot, on his return driving the sheep before him. This boy, some sixteen years later, became the father of Helen HELEN CULVER 39 As Lyman Culver grew to manhood a village was started near the farm and took the name of the township, Little Valley. Mr. Culver was a man of energy and enterprise. He had good business qualities. When his first farm was cleared and brought under cultivation he rented or sold it and began straightway to clear another. He was a reading and thinking man of strong convictions and independent action. Although he was the only man in the township to do so, he regularly voted the abolition ticket. He knew it did not have the slightest chance of success, but, rain or shine, he was always at the polls, and quietly, without controversy, deposited the single abolition ballot of the town. He was a trustee of the Free Will Baptist Church of Little Valley and had the confidence and respect of his own community and of the neigh boring townships. About 1825 Mr. Culver married Emeliza Hull, sister of the father of Charles J. Hull. Charles, a very small boy at that time, was living a few miles away in Castile, Wyoming County, with his grandparents. Mr. Culver, clearing his first farm in the wilderness, soon had a little family growing up about him, two daughters, Susan and Aurelia, and a son, Robert. From the mother's side of the family there have come more than a few interesting personalities since Rev. Joseph Hull led his flock across the sea to Massachusetts in 1635 in search of religious liberty. Among them was the last woman martyr for conscience' sake, Elizabeth Dyer. As a result of the persecution of the Quakers many of the Hulls joined that faith, and not without significance, as showing persistent family traits, were the words of that martyr when offered her life if she would leave the colony: "The Lord hath brought me hither and here will I abide." Helen was the fourth of Lyman Culver's children and it is a curious fact that on the day of her birth, her cousin, C. J. Hull, with whom she was to be so long and intimately associated in after-life, was visiting the family. He was a boy of twelve, and their acquaintance and friendship of fifty-seven years began that day. The frontier had moved farther west in 1832 when her life began, but some of the conditions of the old wilderness life still continued. In her early childhood, in 1835-36, there occurred a widespread revolt of the settlers of the Holland Purchase against paying for their lands. At Mayville, in Chautauqua County, a few miles from her home, a mob burned the land office, expecting in this way to destroy the records of their indebtedness. William H. Seward, then a young lawyer, 40 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD ward a very famous figure in American history, was called in and by his consideration, tact, and wisdom quieted the disturbance in Chautauqua, made friends of the malcontents, collected the debts, and completed the sale of the lands. In an automobile trip through Chautauqua County with my family in June, 1922, I visited with interest the old land office Mr. Seward built in Westfield in 1836, a one-story brick building, now unused, but left standing to commemorate the residence in the town of a great man. Lyman Culver was not one of those who defaulted their payments, but paid for and cleared one farm only to sell or rent it and buy and improve another. The old loom appears to have descended to her father and was still in use during Miss Culver's girlhood. She unhappily lost her mother when only five years old. She was a delicate child with quiet and rather shy ways. The older sister, Aurelia, remembered that her mother, seeing her own end drawing near, said to her, "You must be good to your little sister when I am gone for I think you will not have her long." But the delicate little girl outlived all her youthful contemporaries. As she became older and stronger and her sisters left home to teach school, the old loom fell to her and gave her occupation, and she spent much time alone, spinning and weaving, for there was also a spinning wheel, these things being her special part of the work. It was a family in which industry was the law of life to which all submitted as a matter of course. But it was also a highly intelligent family, the older sisters early preparing themselves for teaching. Books were, indeed, still rare in the Cattaraugus woods, but such as she could come at Helen eagerly devoured, and early developed an extraordinary love of reading. The father was an intelligent man and encouraged this love for books. Even after the hard day's toil on the farm he shared the studies of his children. In clearing his lands he had occasion to float his logs down the Allegheny to market. On these trips he was always on the lookout for books. Perhaps the first he brought back for his daughter Helen was a copy of Shakspeare which has remained a precious possession throughout her long life. After the death of her mother one and another of her father's sisters cared for the family till a second mother came. As the years went on a second family was reared. The voices of children again filled the house. To secure quiet for reading, the studious sisters, Aurelia and Helen, in winter used to retire to the unwarmed room of the house and, wrapped in one great shawl, revel in the pages of Paradise Lost or some other English classic. Helen kept a book on the head of the spinning HELEN CULVER 41 where as she came and went she could catch a few words on nearing the wheel. She went through the district school and early exhausted its resources of instruction. She was eager to go on, but there were no schools at hand to carry her farther. Her father advised her to consult an intelligent neighbor as to what she could profitably take up. Rhetoric was suggested. A textbook was found and, there being no teacher avail able, the lessons were faithfully studied and recited to someone who held the book and followed the recitation in the text. I am not informed about the amusements or recreations of Miss Culver's youth. It is evident that her studies and reading were recrea tion. But her love of nature must have given her delight in the hills and valleys, the forests and streams that gave variety and beauty to the scenes about her. In an old book describing the Holland Purchase, I find this story of Little Valley: On lot 77 the summit of the hills is comparatively level and covered by a peculiar rock formation which has not inaptly been termed the Rock City. This city of stones covers an area of nearly 100 acres, elevated about 2,000 feet above tidewater and several hundred feet above the level of the valley and is truly a natural curiosity. The rocks are arranged in large masses resembling elevated squares, or stand upright in rows, with large fissures between them, like streets and alleys in a city. Very often these streets cross each other at right angles. These huge masses are composed of white pebbles conglutinated together and the passage ways have been caused by the dis integrating agencies of time which have wasted away the softer parts of the rocks. In the crevices of the rocks trees have sprung up and shaded the streets of the city. To this place of wonder the young people of the vicinity have long been accustomed to resort for picnics and it was well known to Helen Culver in her youth. She early developed qualities of initiative, self-reliance, and courage, prosecuted her independent studies and reading with ardor, and when she was fourteen was ready to take up teaching. She applied for a country school, and with some trepidation appeared for examination. The committee began by asking if she was one of Lyman Culver's daugh ters. And such was the reputation of Mr. Culver and his older daughters that she was* quickly assured that she could have the position. She was very young, but her evident mastery of the subjects to be taught, her interest in the work, her serenity, self-possession, and air of quiet author ity not only made her first school successful, but confirmed her in her purpose to get a better preparation for the work of teaching. About this time a school of higher grade, the Chamberlain Institute, was established at Randolph, only ten miles from Little Valley. Mean while her father had begun to clear a new farm still nearer to 42 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD and it became easy for her to enter the new school. Appreciating her hunger for an education her father assured her that she should continue her studies as long as she wished. She went on happily in the Academy for two or three years. She lived in Randolph, carrying supplies from home, returning for week-end visits or when her larder needed to be Academy was $12.00 and the price of a room and board in the village $1.50 a week. The four Culver children, Susan, Aurelia, Helen, and Robert, were students in the first years of the school. Helen was in her last year in 1851. And then, all at once, her world seemed to come to an end. Her big, vigorous father, who had hardly known a sick day, and never spent a day in bed, was taken sick, and within a few days died. He was serving on the grand jury when he and his fellow-jurymen were striken with typhoid fever and eleven of the panel died! Ignorance of sanitary laws and crude treatment were responsible. For Helen, the foundations of the earth had suddenly given away. Her father was a young man, only forty-eight years old. He had been energetic and resourceful, and had accumulated an estate not inconsiderable in those days and in that region for a man of his age. He left a widow and young children, and in a spirit of unusual self-sacrifice Miss Culver, her sisters, and brother surrendered all claim to the estate, deciding that they were old enough to fend for themselves. Helen's sole inheritance was her father's watch and the privilege of finishing her course in the Academy which she did, graduating with the first class in 1852. Her father had died in 1851 only a few months before her graduation. She was now twenty years of age and, by her own choice, dependent upon her own exertions for a living. There were few openings in 1852 for women who had their own way to make. Outside the home, teaching was one of the very few callings open to them. Happily Miss Culver had teaching gifts and had already decided to be a teacher. But she was not content to remain in the environment in which she was born. In 1852 our country was at the beginning of a new era. It was in that year that the eastern railroads reached Chicago. Access to the great new world of the West was for the first time made easy and its settle ment entered on a new stage. Rumors of the way the West was attract ing hundreds of thousands from every quarter and of the opportunities it presented for a career filled the older states and drew other HELEN CULVER 43 to the valley of the Mississippi. Among these were Helen Culver and her brother Robert. Their grandfather Noah, in whose veins the blood of the pioneer ran strong, had again sought the western frontier and found it in DeKalb County, about 60 miles northwest of Chicago. The brother and sister joined the great westward migration in 1853 and naturally made their first stopping-place with or near their grand father. The nearest village was Sycamore, and there Miss Culver opened a "select school" in a disused schoolhouse. It was so success ful that very soon an evening session was demanded which was attended by young people who were so employed that they could not be present in the daytime. In this most successful enterprise she associated with herself a Miss Kennicott of the family of Robert Kennicott, the first director of the Chicago Academy of Sciences. Her brother Robert had gone to Chicago, and her cousin Charles J. Hull and his family had permanently settled in that city. The day and evening work combined had become too strenuous in Sycamore, and in 1854 Miss Culver went to Chicago to seek a position in the schools of the young city. She found there only six public schools. Readily passing the examinations she was appointed principal of the primary department of "School Number 6" though she was only twenty-two years old. It is apparent from what I have already said that she was a young woman of uncommon abilities and a superior teacher. This became quickly evident to the school authorities and in a few months she was promoted to be assistant to the principal of " Grammar School No. 3." In this position she remained between two and three years when her unusual ability led to her promotion to the new high school which stood on Madison Street, a little west of the river. She had won her way by sheer ability from a country school to a position of dig nity in the high school of a city of nearly 100,000 people. She continued in this service for about three years. Then came a change which gave a wholly new direction to her life. During these first six years in Chicago, Mrs. Hull, the wife of her cousin Charles J. Hull, conceived for her a warm affection. She regarded her with so much confidence that when Mrs. Hull's health failed and she saw death approaching and reflected that her two children, Charles and Fredrika, would soon be left without a mother, she entreated Miss Culver to give up her teaching and assume the care of the children. The home was a spacious house in what was then a pleasant residence district on South Halsted Street made famous since that day as the central building of the Hull-House Social Settlement, presided over for 44 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD than thirty years by Miss Jane Addams. The promise made to Mrs. Hull was kept, and as soon as she could secure release from her high- school work Miss Culver took charge of the Hull home. This was the beginning of a new life. The remarkable thing about it is that Miss Culver was quite as successful in the care of a family and as a housekeeper as she had been as a teacher. The characters of the son and daughter developed, under her gentle and inspiring influence, in a way that greatly gratified their father. The son was prepared for college and, entering the old University of Chicago, graduated in 1866. The brother and sister were both eager in their school work in which "Cousin Helen" gave her intelligent and sympathetic aid. No one will understand Miss Culver who does not keep constantly in mind that she has always been a student, in love with books, passion ately devoted throughout her long life to reading and study. Her love of books and her teaching gifts made her an ideal companion, adviser, and helper to the two young people left in her charge during a most important period in their education. During this time she began the study of Latin and resumed the study of French. In those days Emerson, Holmes, Longfellow, Tennyson, and Browning were writing, and she reveled in the new literature then appearing as well as in the old. And she never dropped the habit of study even in her busiest years. She acquired a good reading knowledge of the German, French, Italian, and Spanish languages and literatures, taking up the study of Italian when over seventy years of age. Miss Culver's care of the Hull home was interrupted for a time by the call of the country for service during the Civil War of 1861-65. She had always had a deep interest in public affairs and the great war for the preservation of the Union stirred her profoundly. On the last day of 1862 and the first days of 1863 the desperate battle of Stone River in central Tennessee was fought. It might well have been called the battle of Murfreesboro, as it occurred in and around that town. In retreating from the field General Bragg left 2,500 of his wounded behind. The wounded of the Union army aggregated 7,245. The wounded were for the most part sent to the permanent and well-equipped hospitals back of the lines. But as the army of General Rosecrans made its headquarters at Murfreesboro for more than five months and conflicts continued to occur in the neighborhood, hospitals were necessarily main tained in that place. Not being permanent establishments, they were not well equipped, but for the period of their existence were an essential factor in the campaign which resulted in the recovery of Tennessee HELEN CULVER 45 the Union. For the care of this work the United States Sanitary Com mission assumed, in part at least, responsibility. It called for helpers from Chicago. Miss Culver responded with two other women, went to Murfreesboro and, showing administrative qualities, was put in charge of the nursing in one of the hospitals. There were about forty beds close together in one large room. The nurses lived in the hospital. They kept the hospital and the beds sanitary, kept the wounded clean and comfortable, prepared their food and administered their medicines, wrote letters for them, and rendered them all sorts of services. Miss Culver continued this work as long as Murfreesboro remained the headquarters of the Army of the Cumberland, a period of several months. In June and July the campaign began which culminated in the battle of Chickamauga and the occupation of Chattanooga. The hospitals at Murfreesboro were broken up and Miss Culver returned to her home duties in Chicago, her interest in the great conflict for the preservation of the national life intensified by the part she had taken in it, and her mind enlightened by the near view she had had of its horrors. Her life now went on quietly and uneventfully till 1866. Then came a tragedy in four lives. Mr. Hull's son Charles graduated from the old University of Chicago in June, 1866, and with the opening of the Autumn Quarter of that year entered the Law School. At the same time Miss Culver took the daughter Fredrika to Oberlin which she had chosen for the girl's college course. A few weeks later, in October, in a sudden return of the cholera which had visited Chicago, but was supposed to have spent itself, the brother Charles was attacked and died after an illness of only eleven hours. He was only nineteen years old, a most promising young man, tall and strong, gay and genial, looking out on life with high purpose. Miss Culver went to Oberlin to carry the word in person to the sister and be with her through the first days of her sorrow. Martha Ellen French. The friendship continued through the life of Miss Hull and brought Miss French and Miss Culver together in a close bond which was only broken by the death of Miss French more than fifty years later. After the graduation of the two younger women from Oberlin they went abroad together and spent perhaps two years when Fredrika returned home hoping that she might be useful to her father by entering his office. I am indebted to notes made by Miss French for many of the facts related in this sketch. She gives the following picture of Miss Culver as she looked at their first meeting in Oberlin in 1866. "She was 46 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD medium height and figure, with large gray eyes, blooming complexion, loosely curling bronze hair, and seemed enveloped in calm serenity in spite of her tragic mission." She was then thirty-four years old. After teaching sixteen years in various high schools and colleges, Miss French accepted an invitation to make her home with Miss Culver, as a com panion and assistant, particularly in her philanthropic work. During the last thirty years of Miss French's life the two made their home together. With the son gone and the daughter at Oberlin, the big house began to seem lonely and in 1868 it was given up. Miss Culver saw that Mr. Hull needed her in his business. He had been under a tremendous strain for ten years recovering from the financial crash of 1857. She had become fully acquainted with his affairs, and Mr. Hull soon discovered that she had business qualities of a high order. She herself awoke to the discovery that she possessed business gifts hitherto unsuspected. It was therefore inevitable that Mr. Hull should begin to advise with her, that she entered the business office as an assistant and adviser and that her influence, activities, and responsibilities continually increased. Her connection with Mr. Hull in the business continued to the end of his life, about twenty-one years. From being an assistant in the office she came to be an associate in the business and in the end its mainstay. Mr. Hull was accustomed to give frequent expression to his apprecia tion of the invaluable service she had tendered to the business. They were engaged in a great real estate enterprise, with headquarters in Chicago, but extending to Maryland, Georgia, Texas, Nebraska, and other parts of the country. The object in view was to encourage and assist the working classes in owning their own. homes. This took Mr. Hull away from Chicago much of the time especially in the winter, looking after the business in Baltimore, Savannah, and other cities. Miss Culver for the most part remained in charge of the Chicago office. Not all the time, however. In the early seventies they bought tracts of land in the outskirts of Savannah, Georgia, and encouraged and aided colored men to buy lots and build their own homes. In connection with this Savannah business they opened in their office a night school for the colored people. The school was wonderfully successful. There were more than 300 names enrolled, "and a clamor for new admissions." This was in the winter of 1871-72. The success of the school was not to be wondered at, for Miss Culver had that winter left the Chicago office and was conducting the Savannah HELEN CULVER 47 Mr. C. P. Treat, now of Stamford, Connecticut, who was then in the Savannah office and taught with Miss Culver writes me: "Every night but Sunday the place was packed with pupils of all ages, most learning to read and write, one man to study navigation. Never were more eager students, and never was there a more patient or successful teacher than Miss Culver." The business in Savannah was as successful as the school. The time came when one of the city papers stated that a larger proportion of blacks than whites owned their homes in Savannah and a larger proportion than anywhere else in the South. I cannot leave this Savannah episode without calling attention to the extraordinary picture of this cultivated woman toiling all day in the business of helping these poor and ignorant black men to acquire homes of their own and giving her evenings to teaching them and their children. I know few stories like this. For the most part, however, Miss Culver confined her personal activities to the headquarters in Chicago and the care of the great real estate business in that city. This main office controlled all transactions in other cities so that she came to have an oversight of all the operations of the widely extended business. For convenience she became a notary public, the first woman, it is said, to be so commissioned in Illinois. I do not know whether she was the first office woman in Chicago or not. She herself knew of no other when she entered the office. But I think it quite certain that she was the first business woman in charge of very large affairs. But she went her way so unconsciously bent upon her business as to attract little attention and to feel no embarrassment her self. Her entire business career was pursued, indeed, with the quiet unobtrustiveness so characteristic of her, and she seldom left her office except to make necessary visits at the banks, courthouse, or city hall. For many years during Mr. Hull's life, she gave herself to the business with absolute devotion, hardly taking a single vacation. As in Savannah so in Chicago she often gave her evenings, after working all day, to teach ing in the office where a school for newsboys was sometimes maintained. It will be recalled that the family home had been given up in 1868. There were hopes that it might be re-established on the return of Mr. Hull's daughter, Fredrika, from her period of European study and travel. Her own hope was that she might enter her father's office, while Miss Culver again made the home. It was a vain hope on every account. Fredrika's health gave way. She had to be taken South, where every effort was made to nurse her back to strength. She died, however, in July, 1874. She foresaw her end and anxiety for her father 48 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD over every personal consideration. She was not satisfied till she had secured from Miss Culver a renewed promise that she would remain with him. But aside from this, Miss Culver's connection with the business had become indispensable. There was no more thought of re-establishing a home for ten years. Miss Culver lived in a hotel, and Mr. Hull was much of the time absent from Chicago caring for the business in distant cities. But when in 1884 the insidious disease, which finally ended his life, appeared and it became apparent that he needed the comforts and care of a home, a house was built on Ashland Avenue, facing Union Park, and the family life re-established. Miss French came to be a member of the household and never thereafter left Miss Culver. Mr. Hull died on a business visit to Houston, Texas, in 1889. He left no family to inherit his wealth. Miss Culver had been associated with him in business for more than twenty years. He felt that she had had so much to do with accumulating his fortune that it belonged to her as much as to himself. She was his cousin. They had often conferred together as to the ultimate disposition of the estate. She was fully acquainted with his views and in entire sympathy with them. And, to sum it all up, she commanded his unbounded confidence. It was only natural, therefore, that the great estate passed into her possession with out conditions or limitations upon its use or disposal except such as she imposed upon herself, because of her knowledge of, and sympathy with, the desire of Mr. Hull that a considerable portion of it should ultimately be devoted in some manner approved by her to the public welfare. In the real estate office on West Lake Street, the widely extended business went on just as usual. Now its sole head, she was in her office early and late. In addition to the Chicago business, active real estate operations were being carried on in Baltimore, Savannah, and Houston, with local agents in those cities. Complete duplicate records of all their transactions were kept in the Chicago office from which Miss Culver supervised and controlled all the various operations. In Jacksonville, Florida, and Lincoln, Nebraska, and other places, minor activities were carried on by her directly without local agents. Mr. W. W. Grinstead, then a Chicago lawyer, now of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who was Miss Culver's attorney and business assistant and adviser from 1891 to 1904 has written me illuminatingly of her as a business woman. She had all the operations of the extended business well in hand. She had a thorough knowledge of the general HELEN CULVER 49 and of the different properties in the distant cities, and she decided promptly any questions which arose in the handling of different sub divisions and directed the operations of all her agents. In Chicago there were many improved pieces of real estate with numerous tenants, and many unimproved. "There were rents to be collected, leases to be made, repairs to be looked after, improvements to be decided upon, sales to be negotiated, taxes to be paid, loans and investments to be made, and the many other details incident to the handling of large real estate holdings." To these and all the multiplied interests of the business Miss Culver gave her personal attention. She knew and understood and directed every branch of her business. For many years after the death of Mr. Hull she continued the management of the business with the same ability that had had so large a share in accumulating the estate. In concluding this review of Miss Culver's business life I cannot refrain from quoting Mr. Grinstead's statement of the char acteristics which particularly impressed him in her business dealings. He says: In the first place she was absolutely fair in a business transaction. In the early days of our acquaintance she made a remark which I have never forgotten. It was to the effect that it had never seemed to her to be necessary that a business transaction should be profitable to only one of the parties concerned: that business intercourse of the right sort was a mutual thing and that it was by no means to be assumed that only one of the parties could be benefited. Her dealings with all classes of people were founded upon this truth, and her business success is proof of its soundness. The man of small business capacity was as safe in his negotiations with her as the man of wide business experience, and soon realized that she was considering his side of the proposi tion as well as her own and seeking an arrangement which would result in benefit to him as well as to herself. Another notable characteristic was her placid, even temperament. She approached a proposition without bias and with calm deliberation, never allowing herself to be hurried or disturbed and made her decisions only after careful study of the whole ques tion from every angle. When they were made, they were not easily changed and were pretty certain to be for the best interests of all parties concerned. She was gifted with a wonderful memory and an unusual capacity for mastering details. She made good use of these gifts to have at all times a thorough knowledge of her business. It was not often necessary for her to go to the records to acquaint herself with the situation, for she usually had the information at her fingers' ends. She was firm, but not aggressive in business, a leader rather than a driver. She was thorough and painstaking herself and expected the same qualities in those surround ing her, but she developed them in others by example and not by hard and fixed rules. In her relations with her employes and with those with whom she came in contact in business she was always courteous, considerate, and easy to approach, carrying into her business life the same gentle and amiable qualities which have called forth the admiration of those who have had the good fortune to be counted among her 5o THE UNIVERSITY RECORD In 1896 Charles Hull Ewing, Miss Culver's nephew, the son of her sister Aurelia, entered the office and displayed such ability that she very soon began to transfer the burdens of the office to his younger shoulders. As the years passed this was done more and more fully. For several years Mr. Ewing was a member of her family and gradually took over the care of the office, until as Miss Culver's years increased, he succeeded to the business, remaining, however, to this day in the closest association with her. Laying aside the burdens of business she sought a place where she could, after so many years, once more enjoy the rural delights of her youth. This she found in the early years of this century at the suburb of Lake Forest on the shores of Lake Michigan, 35 miles north of Chicago. Before any other city dwellers realized the charm of the second ridge of land west of Lake Forest, she bought on it a neglected farm and there built her summer home, which she called "Rockwoods." There she found pleasure in the outdoor life, and as long as she was able personally directed the improvement of the farm. Later she found a winter home at Sarasota on the west coast of Florida. West of Sarasota on one of the keys that fringe the entire coast she built a second home where she spends about half the year. It has given her happiness in her later years to renew the early family ties which distance and business tended to loosen on both sides. Broth ers and sisters, nephews and nieces, have been much about her and "Aunt Helen's" home has been a center of family life. One and another have been with her for years, and then the little ones of the next genera tion have come to brighten her life. One by one the brothers and sisters have passed away till she is left the last of her own generation. The sorest penalty of advancing years that Miss Culver has been compelled to suffer has been the gradual failure of her sight. When with her usual serenity of spirit she recognized the approach of blind ness she did a characteristic thing. She began to prepare for the evil day by committing to memory favorite poems. Among them are " Rabbi Ben Ezra," Wordsworth's "Ode to Immortality," William Vaughan Moody's "Gloucester Moors," Bryant's " Thanatopsis," many of Elizabeth Barrett Browning's poems, and innumerable shorter ones from many other poets. The passion for reading and study she conceived in early life char acterized her in her mature years, and, if possible, increased in her old age. Blindness did not dim the flame, but rather brightened it. No longer able to read herself, others read to her. It takes more than HELEN CULVER Si reader to meet her needs. Books she declares are the "breath of life" to her. Her companions are frequently at a loss to find new books for the current reading table, so rapidly does her eager and tireless mind devour biographies, histories, books of letters and travel. She smilingly rejects modern fiction. Listening to good books and listening every day and all day is her business in her old age. With a keen sense of humor, constantly bubbling up in original expressions or in merry laughter over the sallies of others in speech or in books, the classic humorists have a beloved shelf in her catholic library. I do not know how Miss Culver's personality could be better summed up than it was by Dr. Robert Collyer, her old pastor, when he said to her during a call she made on him in his last days: "Miss Culver, ye mind me o' my mother. If she had been on a ship in mid-ocean with the cap tain and the crew smitten down and it had been said to her: 'Ye'll have to bring this ship into port,' she'd a done it." The various publications which present very brief biographical state ments of prominent Americans begin their articles on Miss Culver as follows: "Helen Culver. Philanthropist." This is their interpreta tion of her life. It is a proud title and she has well deserved it. The public welfare and how she could promote it have been her life-study and particularly so during the past forty years. The will of Mr. Hull leaving his entire estate to her was made in 1881, eight years before his death. They had considered together beneficent uses to be made of a considerable part of the estate, and he had committed the whole matter to her with perfect assurance that she would carry out the altruistic purposes they cherished in common. In the very year in which Mr. Hull died, Miss Jane Addams, casting about for a place in which to begin the social settlement which was the dream of her youth, happened on the house on South Halsted Street which had been the home of the Hull family twenty-five years before. It appealed to her as the place she wanted. When she approached the owner it occurred to Miss Culver that Miss Addams was offering her the opportunity of beginning a work of true philanthropy. The Hull-House Social Settlement resulted. The conviction of its usefulness grew on Miss Culver. Her interest in it increased from year to year. Largely through her bounty the house and the entire block became the property of the Settlement. She gave $50,000 for the erection of a building for boys, and has for years made a considerable monthly contribution to the work among the boys. These are only a few of the things she has done for Hull-House. Recent large, unannounced gifts to the 52 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD fund have been made to relieve Miss Addams from the burden of the annual effort to raise by personal solicitation the funds to meet the current expenses. And to great gifts of property and money she has added during the past thirty-three years her personal friendship and sympathy and support for Miss Addams, not always agreeing with her, as Miss Addams assures me, but according her freedom and generous support. She has been one of the seven trustees of the Hull-House Association, Charles L. Hutchinson, Mrs. Joseph T. Bowen, Julius Rosenwald, Allen B. Pond, Jane Addams, and Mary R. Smith being the other members of the board. Miss Culver continued to serve actively as a trustee till 1920 when, the infirmities of age compelling her to with draw, she was elected honorary president for life and her nephew Charles Hull Ewing took her place in the list of active trustees. Miss Culver has always taken a deep interest in good government. As indicated by her service in the Murfreesboro hospital in 1863 she has been an ardent patriot. During the Great War she invested very largely in the Liberty Bonds, and finding that, in spite of her blindness she could still knit, she turned in more stockings for the soldiers than any other member of the group of women war workers at Lake Forest. Her interest in good government is well illustrated by the following incident. During a violent sickness when her hearing was for a time almost gone and her sight entirely so, though this was before her per manent blindness came on, and while her life hung in the balance, an important city election took place, in which there seemed a chance for better administration. When the doctor came in, the morning after the election, he asked sympathetically: "Miss Culver, is there anything you want ?" To his amazement her voice rang out suddenly clear and strong: "Yes, I want to know how the election went." In 1905 the City Club of Chicago undertook an inquiry into the municipal revenues of the city. This was financed by Miss Culver to the extent of several thousand dollars. The investigation was turned over to Professor Charles E. Merriam, of the University of Chicago, and with the aid of a number of assistants he worked out a somewhat elaborate report published later in 1905 and 1906 under the title of The Municipal Revenues of Chicago. Because of the attention attracted by this work, Professor Merriam was appointed a member of the charter convention by Governor Deneen and made chairman of the committee on revenue and expenditures. He was also appointed a member of the State Tax Commission by the gover nor. On entering the Council he undertook, 1909-n, a HELEN CULVER 53 inquiry into the expenditures of the city of Chicago, largely as a result of the interest and experience gained during the investigation for the City Club. As he and his associates neared the close of their City Hall investigation they concluded that it would be very important to set up a private agency to cover not only the city but other local governments in and around Chicago. Mr. Walter Fisher, Mr. Julius Rosenwald, and Mr. Merriam were most active in organizing this bureau. As another outgrowth of the work of the City Hall investigation there was established under the direction of the Civil Service Committee an Efficiency Division which for a number of years did extremely valu able work. In 1915 under the Thompson administration the employees of this division were dismissed, but the staff was taken over by the finance committee and is used for budget-making and inspection purposes through the year. All these important results were largely due to the work begun by of Miss Culver. A number of years ago Professor W. I. Thomas began a study of immigrant groups which it was hoped might not only be of scientific interest, but also enlightening as to the best measures to be taken relating to them after they reached our country. The results of the study were to be published in five large volumes. Experts racially connected with the several groups have assisted in the work. This important piece of work has also been made possible by the liberality of Miss Culver. These are illustrations of her interest and liberality in movements that promised benefit to the public. But they are only illustrations of the many channels through which the current of her bounty has run in a continuous stream. Ten days ago one who was just going abroad in the interest of world-reconstruction casually said to me, "Miss Culver has just sent me a check for $1,000." She gave $2,000 for the library building which was erected as a memorial of President William R. Harper. The story of the greatest of Miss Culver's public benefactions forms a very important chapter in her life and also in the history of the Uni versity of Chicago. In its educational plan the biological sciences cover a wide field, including zoology, anatomy, physiology, botany, pathology, hygiene, and bacteriology. The University began its work in 1892 with no provision whatever for housing these important departments. Six months before the opening, the Board of Trustees declared their intention "to appropriate the first $150,000, available for such 54 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD to the construction and furnishing of a biological laboratory." The need of such a laboratory increasingly burdened President Harper's mind. At the Summer Convocation in 1894 he declared that this was the greatest need of the University, that the biological departments, although they required the most carefully adjusted accommodations, were compelled to occupy rooms, some in one laboratory, some in another, scattered about on different floors, without unity of plan or adequate facilities and that it was literally impossible for the work to continue in the quarters then available. He concluded by saying, "The laboratory can be erected for $100,000. Who will build it ?" At every succeeding Convocation he urged this need, enlarging on it in December, 1894, reiterating it in June, 1895, when he added this despairing cry, "The situation, in a word, is so serious that we shall be compelled to give up a portion of the work already undertaken unless help comes most speedily." And help did come speedily. Those were interesting years in the University. Someting new, unexpected, surprising, was always happen ing. It was so in this crisis. On December 19, 1895, a letter was sub mitted to the Board of Trustees from Miss Culver in which she said: It has long been my purpose to set aside a portion of my estate to be used in per petuity for the benefit of humanity. The most serious hindrance to the immediate fulfilment of the purpose was the difficulty of selecting an agency to which I could intrust the execution of my wishes. After careful consideration I concluded that the strongest guaranties of permanent and efficient administration would be assured if the property were intrusted to the University of Chicago. Having reached this decision without consulting the University authorities, I communicated it to President Harper with the request that he would call on me to confer concerning the details of my plan. After further consideration I now wish to present to the University of Chicago property valued at $1,000,000, an inventory of which is herewith transmitted. The whole gift shall be devoted to the increase and spread of knowledge within the field of the biological sciences. By this I mean to provide: (1) That the gift shall develop the work now repre sented in the several biological departments of the University of Chicago by the expan sion of their present resources. (2) That it shall be applied in part to an inland experi mental station and to a marine biological laboratory. (3) That a portion of the instruction supported by this gift shall take the form of University Extension Lectures on the West Side of Chicago. These lectures shall communicate in form as free from technicalities as possible the results of biological research. One purpose of these lectures shall be to make public the advances of science in sanitation and hygiene. To secure the above ends a portion, not to exceed one half of the capital sum thus given, may be used for the purchase of land, for equipment, and for the erection of buildings. The remainder, or not less than one half the capital sum shall be invested and the income therefrom shall constitute a fund for the support of research, instruction, and HELEN CULVER 55 Among the motives prompting the gift is the desire to carry out the ideas and to honor the memory of Mr. Charles J. Hull who was for a considerable time a member of the Board of Trustees of the old University of Chicago. I think it appropriate there fore to add the condition that, wherever it is suitable, the name of Mr. Hull shall be used in designation of the buildings erected and of endowments set apart in accordance with the terms of this gift. Yours very truly, Helen Culver The relief and satisfaction this great, unsolicited benefaction gave to President Harper, the Trustees, the staff of the biological departments, and to the entire University can hardly be described. The property conveyed to the University by Miss Culver consisted of a large number of pieces of Chicago real estate, some of it vacant, but much of it improved with dwellings or with buildings used for business purposes. A very little consideration of the building problem made it plain that something more was needed than a "biological laboratory" to cost $100,000. Miss Culver consenting that $300,000 should be used for buildings, four laboratories were erected. They formed a quadrangle, Zoology on the northeast corner, Anatomy on the northwest, Physiology on the southwest, and Botany on the southeast. A cloister connected Botany with Zoology, and Physiology with Anatomy. A covered gate way leading into the quadrangle from Fifty-seventh Street connected Zoology and Anatomy. The four laboratories were thus in effect under a single roof. On the south between Botany and Physiology was a high iron fence with an ornamental gateway, opposite the imposing northern gateway. The space thus inclosed by the laboratories and fence was called Hull Court and the group of buildings is known as the Hull Biological Laboratories. It was found that this extensive group could not be built for the sum set apart for it, and in 1896 Miss Culver made a new contribution of $25,000 which made the building fund sufficient, and in 1897 she gave $15,000 more to complete the laboratory equipment. Owing to a serious depreciation in values the real estate did not realize the prices hoped for, and in 1898 Miss Culver added $143,000 to her gifts. In 1899 she made an additional donation of $10,000 and once more in 1902 of $60,000. The total fund including the cost of the laboratories exceeds $1,100,000. The cornerstones of the four laboratories were laid July 3, 1896, in connection with the University's Quinquennial Celebration. It was a great occasion. Professor Whitman 56 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD The Culver gift to Biology came to us all as a grand surprise. Our earliest days in the University were spent in the garrets and kitchens of a tenement house. We were then tenderly transferred to the unused corners of Kent Chemical Laboratory where .... we struggled for three years for bare existence Just as our hopes had cooled to near the freezing point came .... the story, told in all the brevity and gravity that befit great deeds: "A gift of a million to Biology." The laboratories were finished and occupied in the spring of 1897 and dedicated July 2 in connection with the Nineteenth Convocation. Professor William H. Welch, of Johns Hopkins University, delivered a dedicatory address in Hull Court on "Biology and Medicine" and Miss Culver presented the buildings to the University in the following most happily expressed statement: In some strenuous natures, anxiety regarding a happy personal hereafter is largely Carlyle puts it. To them it is not enough to add somewhat, daily, to the sum-total of to leave in concrete form a definite resultant, and give it such direction that it may move on as a continuation of personal effort. The son it is hoped may be heir to his father's spirit and purpose, or by some other means, power may be transmitted to succeeding generations and an immortality of beneficent influence be secured. It was in obedience to such a driving power that provision for these buildings was made. Since it has fallen to me to conclude the work of another, you will not think it intrusive if I refer briefly to the character and aims of the real donor. During a lifetime of close association with Mr. Hull, I have known him as a man of tenacious purpose and inex tinguishable enthusiasm, and above all things, dominated by a desire to help his kind. Much of his time for fifty years was spent in close contact with those most needing inspiration and help. He had also profound convictions regarding the best basis for social development in this country, and these directed the entire energies of his life. Looking toward the cessation of activity, it was for many years his unchanging desire that a part of his estate should be administered directly for the public benefit. Many plans were discussed between us. And when he was called away before he could see the work begun, I am glad to know that he did not doubt that some part of his purpose would be carried out. He would have shared our joy could he have foreseen the early creation of this great University, and it would have been a greater pleasure added could he have known the wide diffusion of its benefits sought by its management. I have indicated that, apart from my own interest in the matter, I have looked upon myself as the guardian of a trust, only the more sacred because unexpressed. That burden, to them, I pass the name, which no son or daughter is left to wear, with the material inheritance and the advantages and duties thereto attaching. I have believed that I should not do better than to choose as his heirs and repre sentatives those lovers of the light, who in all generations, and from all ranks, give their lives to the search for truth, and especially those forms of inquiry, which explore the Creator's will, as expressed in the laws of life, and the means of making lives HELEN CULVER 57 sound and wholesome. I have believed that moral evils would grow less as knowledge I shall attempt no further statement of the lines along which I have hoped good would flow from this foundation. Those possiblities would be better measured by some worker in the field of biological research. Mr. President and gentlemen, I leave the buildings and my responsibility with you. In receiving the buildings President Harper spoke with deep feeling. Briefly he told again the story of how the great donation had been made for the equipment and endowment of a school of the biological sciences and expressed the gratitude of the University to the modest lady who, in honor of another, had done this unspeakable service to the institution and to education. No one can estimate, much less measure, the greatness of this service. Great men have labored in the laboratories. Investigations which have resulted in inestimable benefits to mankind have there been prosecuted. Scholars have been sent out from the several departments who have already become eminent in the scientific world. The classrooms have been crowded, more than a thousand students now being enrolled every year, nearly half of whom are graduate students from many colleges and universities receiving their training as investigators who will devote their lives to the advancement of science. In these laboratories 300 men and women have earned the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Two of these have become presidents of institutions of higher learning. About forty have become deans, directors, and heads of departments in colleges and universities. More than 160 have reached professorial rank in universities in all parts of the world. Others are curators of collections, physicians, and investigators in institutions of research. It was the presentation of some of the fruits of her beneficence in the single Depart ment of Botany, made to her by Professor C. J. Chamberlain and his assurance that it would greatly gratify all the departments, that finally overcame Miss Culver's dislike of publicity and induced her to consent to the preparation of this sketch. But these results of those great gifts of Miss Culver do not complete the story. The University has continued to build on the foundation she laid. The work grew continually until the four laboratories became inadequate. In 19 15 the University out of its own funds built a labora tory for Pathology costing $60,000 to relieve conditions, and as I write it is erecting another for Bacteriology and Hygiene which will cost about the same amount. Both of these structures bear the name of Dr. Howard T. Ricketts, a former member of the Department of 58 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD who died, a martyr to science, in the city of Mexico near the end of an epoch-making investigation into the cause and cure of typhus fever, one of the worst scourges that has afflicted humanity. He discovered the cause, the bite of the body louse, and isolated the germ that occasioned the fever, when he was himself bitten in the hospitals where he was investigating the dread disease and became himself one of its victims. His work which will prove of incalculable value to the world was one of the direct results of Miss Culver's beneficence. And this is only one of many achievements which it would require volumes to present. The present expenditures of the six biological departments aggregate nearly or quite $300,000 every year. Perhaps 40 per cent of this amount is provided by the fees of students. The balance, $180,000, comes out of the income from the University's endowments. Such have been the fruits and developments of the first quarter- century following the great contribution of Miss Culver for the "increase and spread of knowledge within the field of the biological sciences." The donor is still living. Her thirst for information, her desire to increase her knowledge, her love of good reading, continue as great as ever. Essentially optimistic in nature, her instinct has always impelled her strongly toward faith in immortality, and she has even expressed an eagerness to enter upon the new life. But she retains all her interest in life and in the world about her. She continues an inspiration to her friends. Her outlook and sympathies are as wide and her judgment remains as sound as ever. Service to the world has been the ruling motive of her long and useful life. This could not be more happily expressed than in her own words at the dedication of the Hull Biological Laboratories: "I have believed that I should not do better than to choose as his heirs and representatives those lovers of the fight, who, in all generations and from all ranks, give their lives to the search for truth, especially those forms of inquiry which explore the Creator's will as expressed in the laws of life and the means of making lives more sound and U w o o < THE QUADRANGLE CLUB1 By HOWARD SHAW The Quadrangle Club is a free treatment of domestic Gothic carried out in a red brick like many of the colleges of Cambridge. By the use of this style and color note, the building is designed as a foil to the con tinuous grayness of the "Collegiate Gothic" of the University, where? because of the sameness of color, the various buildings are in danger of losing their individuality. Reynolds Club is improved by the plain red Quadrangle Club across the street, whose stone-mullioned windows and leaded casements re-echo the neighboring college buildings; while the big chimneys, glazed porch, and friendly and informal entrance suggest the domestic character of the Club House. Another departure from the University buildings is the change from red-tile roofs to the graduated slate of random width and color. When the grounds are planted and vines creep up the buttresses, the friendly quality of the building will be helped. With Dr. Ames's church now building, the four corners of this street intersection will be completed with more homogeneous character and use than usual on Chicago's street corners. Judicious tree planting on both streets would help the general impression. The main entrance is on Fifty-seventh Street, but a south entrance is more convenient from the quadrangles. From the stone-flagged lobby of the ground floor opens the office, the women's lounge and coatrooms, billiard- and cardrooms, and the men's coatrooms. Beyond the latter is a good sized locker-room with four showers, and a staircase down to a large basement room which it is proposed to use as a gymnasium. The stone staircase leads to a gallery on the second story whose floor is marble, walls, stone, and carved stone corbels carry the hewn-oak beams. To the west is the lounge, extending along the University Avenue front, paneled in oak to the ceiling, with big stone fireplace and bay windows. Bookcases, leather chairs, red hangings, and table lamps lend comfort. On the north, connecting with the lounge, is the writing- room with vaulted ceiling, and on the south a cardroom. 1 The new Quadrangle Club was opened to members with the Christmas Revels held on the evening of December 21, 1922. Mr. Shaw is the architect of the building. 6o THE UNIVERSITY RECORD With five great windows giving on to stone balconies, the garden room overlooks the new tennis courts. To overcome the large glass exposure in winter is a fireplace, and numerous tables for magazines, etc., to make this the "sunporch" of the club. Opposite, on the north, is the large private dining-room, accessible from the kitchen without passing through the main dining-hall. With floor lowered two steps and higher ceiling is the great dining- room with stone walls and paneled wainscot, a stone bay in the center of the south wall and opposite the fireplace. On the east, the breakfast room, with floor raised two feet and a half, affords a stage on occasion, when the garden room, private dining-room and gallery, opened up by broad folding-doors, will add materially to the seating capacity. The blue hangings, tapestry, some old brocade banners, and bits of painted glass give the color note. Small tables are used, although the long refectory boards of the English college halls would have been more effective. The service department occupies the northeast corner of this floor. The entire third floor is given over to living- and bedrooms for mem bers, seventeen suites, some with fireplaces, all with bathrooms, and all light. One suite is reserved for the University's guests. The general furnishings of these rooms are augmented with the personal belongings of their occupants. The floors are all of stone, marble, terrazzo, or concrete, and, with the stone frames and metal sash of the windows, add to the fireproof nature of the building; except a few wainscots and the furniture, there is nothing to burn. On the entrance porch, carved panels show the University Arms and the date of erection; on the west wall, two fierce dogs guarding a book, crowned, would seem to indicate certain educational requirements for X u a ii p O o <H [Id Q S < V< D C- H THE TOMB OF TUTENKHAMON By special invitation of Lord Carnarvon and Mr. Howard Carter, whose excavations in the Valley of the Tombs of the Kings, at Thebes, have had such important results, Professor and Mrs. James Henry Breasted, who were on their way down the Nile in December, were invited to inspect the tomb of Tutenkhamon, the last monarch of the Eighteenth Dynasty. A letter just received by Mrs. Judson, from Mrs. Breasted, gives the following graphic account of the visit, which was made on December 18, 1922. "We were requested to come without any of our staff of helpers and without mentioning to anyone where we were going; so leaving our donkeys and donkey-boys at the rest-house near the temple of Der el Bahri we proceeded to enter the Valley of the Tombs of the Kings by way of the steep and difficult path over the Gebel. "But, leaving all details of our reaching that wondrous Valley of the Tombs, let me tell you of the tomb of our quest. At the entrance we found Mr. Howard Carter and his assistant, Mr. Callander. Mr. Burton, photographer for the Metropolitan Museum excavations, was, at the moment, in the tomb, making exposures by the powerful electric fights which have been installed there. We waited till these were completed. Mr. Carter asked if my lady friend and I would feel hurt if Mr. Breasted and Mr. Winlock (of the Metropolitan Museum) had the first view of the tomb. Imagine any petty soul being hurt under such circumstances! This, for which these patient scholars had hoped for years! A royal tomb of the Pharaohs, undisturbed, as it had lain these three thousand, two hundred and fifty years, in all its magnificence and splendor! We were more than content to sit above and wait our turn indefinitely. But we were not asked to do that. Soon Mr. Carter beckoned us to enter the first doorway and sit outside the second and actual entrance of the tomb and view what seemed to be a dream rather than a reality. Before us lay, piled to the ceiling, the parapher nalia of an Egyptian king. Golden couches; golden chariots, inlaid with precious stones; a golden chair, with a scene upon the back, of the king and queen, wrought in wondrous colors of enamel and precious stones; chests, inlaid with ivory in patterns or in hieroglyphs; chests 62 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD hunting scenes of wild animals and processions so delicately drawn and colored that it would vie with any Japanese art of the finest type; these chests all filled with precious articles of various kinds such as royal robes, sandals, a golden head-rest, rolls of linen, golden serpents and no one knows what all, since only a few of the covers have been raised, lest anything come to grief of this precious outlay, which has lain these thousands of years in the silence of the tomb. "So limited is the space and so numerous are the articles that but two persons may be allowed to enter at a time. Under one of the couches are many sealed cases of food; some of these are in the form of fowl and animals. Between two of the couches, on the floor, stand four carved alabaster vases of such exquisite workmanship, that, for beauty alone, to say nothing of their age, they would be priceless. Then there are about a dozen canes or staves of marvelous workmanship. I might enumerate many more of the objects, but I should tell you something of a second chamber, into which no one has yet entered, but can peer, by stooping, under one of the couches, through a small, square opening in the wall. The strong electric light reveals objects of all descriptions piled to the ceiling on all four sides of the room. Drawing one's head back one sees on the right, against the wall, two life-size statues of the king, with sandals of gold upon their feet, and each with a gilded staff grasped in both hands. These seem to be guarding the space between them and this space is of white plaster and covered with great seals of the king, Tutenkhamon, whose royal cartouche is to be seen in other objects in the same chamber. Here, it is believed, is the entrance to the burial chamber of the king, and in February, when this chamber is to be opened, will be found the king, lying as he was laid away, three thousand, two hundred and fifty years ago. There are indications that ancient tomb robbers have hastily taken from the first chamber the objects of solid precious metal and it is possible that they did the same to the inner chamber, and the mortuary priests, discovering it, proceeded to seal it up again, together with the outer entrance, just as it was found by Mr. Howard Carter. My husband has been able to aid Mr. Carter in the identification of the tomb and to explain why it escaped discovery or vandalism in modern times. He will be sent for in February to aid in the opening of the mortuary chamber. How fortunate that he should be in Egypt at this time! It is the event of a EVENTS: PAST AND FUTURE THE ONE HUNDRED TWENTY- SEVENTH CONVOCATION The One Hundred Twenty-seventh Convocation was held in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, Tuesday, December 19, at 4:00 p.m. The Convocation State ment was made by President Harry Pratt Judson. The award of honors was as follows: Honorable mention for excellence in the work of the Junior Colleges: John Jacob Abt, Catherina Meyrick Clarke, Roy George Ehman, Gladys Louise Finn, Emma Albertine Mathilde Fleer, Maurice Harold Friedman, Adelaide David Glassner, Samuel Louis Goldberg, Ela Maurine Gore, Russell Greenacre, Lucile Marie Hoerr, Albert Chandler Johnston, Phyllis Schuyler Kerr, Herman Christof Kluever, Margaret Post Miller, Harry Gould Mitchell, Phillip Shapiro, Winifred Henrietta Wadsworth, Margaret Walker, Mary Belle Wilcox. Scholarships in the Junior Colleges for excellence in the work of the First Year: Annie Florence Brown, Virginia Carlson, Charles Vern Dinges, Hortense Louise Fox, Ira Freeman, James Virgil Huffman, Louis Stevenson Kassel, Edwin Joseph Kunst, John Kenneth Laird, Jr., Victor Levine, Evelyn Loretta McLain, Amy Clarie Root, Bernard Richard Rosenberg, David Shipman, Phillip Shapiro, Helen Josephine Stein- hauser, David Wark Stodsky, Lucy Lucile Tasher (Selz), Charles Thorne, Gladys Marion Walker. The Bachelor's Degree with honors: Queenie Harriet Black, Laura Elizabeth Bodebender, Elizabeth Donald Bowen, Earl Vincent Burfield, James Cekan, Louis Barkhouse Flexner, . Benjamin Bernard Garbow, Raymond Rosco Gregg, Wallace Regi nald Greiner, Paul Luther Gross, John Edward Guardia, Anna Mettine C. Holm, Willard Albert Johnston, Harold Korey, Esther Lucille Ladewick, Merritt Johnson Little, Edward Gowan Lunn, Waldeen Hogan Mahan, Frances Morris, Marion Ruger Norcross, Ernest Aloysius Obering, Dorothy Price, Dwight Tedcastle Vandel, Martha Reyburn Wagner, Emily Charlotte Westberg, Herbert Arthur Wildman. Honors for excellence in particular departments of the Senior Colleges: Queenie Harriet Black, History; Laura Elizabeth Bodebender, Greek; Elizabeth Donald Bowen, History and Sociology; Earl Vincent Burfield, Psy chology and Education; James Cekan, Political Economy; James Cekan, Law; Natalie Eleanor Chapman, English; William Aubrey Dawson, Geology; Louis Barkhouse Flexner, Chemistry; Edward August Fuhlbruegge, History; Benjamin Bernard Garbow, Latin; Raymond Rosco Gregg, Political Economy; Wallace Regi nald Greiner, Physiology and Anatomy; Paul Luther Gross, Chemistry; John Edward Guardia, Geography; Harold Korey, History; Esther Lucille Ladewick, Geology; Merritt Johnson Little, Political Science; Edward Gowan Lunn, Chemistry; Waldeen Hogan Mahan, Philosophy; Frances Morris, History; Frances Morris, Education; Marion Ruger Norcross, Ro mance; Ernest Aloysius Obering, Geology; Dorothy Price, Zoology and Botany; Dwight Tedcastle Vandel, Anatomy; Yui Hsun Woo, Mathematics and Physics. Election of associate members to Sigma Xi: Chang Kong Chuang, Mabelle Crystale Dame, Kuang Chi Fang, Jose* Maria Feliciano, Harry Victor Hume, Marian Eliza Hutchins, Marvin Sigmund Lauer, Edward Lewis Turner, James Marvin Weller, Ruby Kathryn Worner, John Churchill Wyeth. Election of members to Sigma Xi: William Clardy Austin, Constance Rummons Ballantine, John Perry Ballantine, Grace Barkley, Alfred Hannam Bell, William Emet Blatz, Edwin Jean Blonder, Julius Blumenstock, John White Bushnell, John Wesley Coulter, George Babcock Cressey, Patrick Arthur Delaney, Lincoln V. Domm, Bessie Chloe Engle, Benjamin Goldberg, Percival Allen Gray, Jr., Roy Lee Grogan, Richard Hartshorne, Leslie Hellerman, Harris Hazen Hopkins, Joseph C. Ireland, Judson Dunbar Ives, Francis Arthur Jenkins, Elmer Harrison Johnson, Hugh Wilson Josephs, Forrest Alexander Kerr, William Frederick Kroener, Mary Eugenie Maver, Alexander Maximow, 64 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD Frank Armon Melton, Lynette Myers, Laura Ida McLaughlin, James Birtley McNair, Edward Looman Reed, Con- stancio Pacifico Rustia, Roger William Ryan, John Richard Sampey, Jr., Jennie Tilt, Sarah Sheldon Tower, Frank Aldis Welton, Edward Staunton West, Henrietta Lydia Zollman. Election to the Beta of Illinois Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa for especial distinc tion in general scholarship: Walter Bartky, Queenie Harriet Black, Louis Barkhouse Flexner (March, "22), Ben jamin Bernard Garbow (March, '22), Elizabeth Greenebaum, John Edward Guardia, George Huling, Arthur Preston Locke, Frances Morris, Ernest Aloysius Obering, Marion Llewellyn Pool, Dorothy Price, Sydney Stein, Jr., James Marvin Weller, Herbert Arthur Wildman (June, '22). The National Research Fellowship in Anatomy, provided by the Rockefeller Foundation, was awarded to George Morris Curtis, Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1914; M.D., Rush Medical College, 1920. Degrees and certificates were conferred as follows: The Colleges: the certificate of the College of Education, 1; the degree of Bachelor of Arts, 2; the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy, 47; the degree of Bachelor of Science, 37; the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy in Education, 5; the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy in Commerce and Administration, 14; the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy in the School of Social Service Administration, 1 ; The Divinity School: the degree of Bach elor of Divinity, 2; The Law School: the degree of Doctor of Law, 2; The Graduate Schools of Arts, Literature, and Science: the degree of Master of Arts, 22; tie degree of Master of Science, n; the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 14. The Convocation Prayer Service was held at 10:30 a.m., Sunday, December 17, in the Reynolds Club. At 11:00 a.m., in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, the Convocation Religious Service was held. The Preacher was the Reverend Alfred Wesley Wishart, D.D., Fountain Street Baptist Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan. GENERAL ITEMS The University Preachers for the Autumn Quarter were: October 8, Pro fessor Theodore Gerald Soares, University of Chicago; October 22, Professor Francis Greenwood Peabody, D.D., LL.D., Har vard University; October 29, Reverend Lynn Harold Hough, D.D., Central Methodist Episcopal Church, Detroit, Michigan; November 5, Dr. Hough; November 12, Right Reverend Charles David Williams, D.D., L.H.D., LL.D., Bishop of Michigan; November 19, Bishop Williams; November 26, Rev erend Meredith Ashby Jones, D.D., Ponce de Leon Baptist Church, Atlanta, Georgia; December 3, Dr. Jones; De cember 10, Reverend Archibald Black, D.B., First Congregational Church, Montclair, New Jersey; and December 17, Reverend Alfred Wesley Wishart, D.D., Fountain Street Baptist Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan. Professor Henry Gordon Gale, of the De partment of Physics, has been appointed Dean of the Ogden Graduate School of Science, to succeed the late Dean Rollin D. Salisbury. Professor Gale, who has been Dean in the College of Science for ten years, received both his Bachelor's and Doctor's degrees from the University and has been connected with the Depart ment of Physics since 1899. He has been physicist and research associate of the Carnegie Institution of Washington at Mount Wilson, California, joint editor of the Astrophysical Journal for ten years, member of the International Commission of Annual Tables of Constants, and chair man of the Division of Physical Sciences, National Research Council. During the war Dean Gale was major and lieutenant colonel in the Signal Corps and was an officer in charge of a special service division at Tours, France. He was cited by the commander-in-chief of the American Expeditionary Forces for "especially meritorious and conspicuous service," and has recently received the decoration of the Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. In the course of a field trip the past summer with a class from the University of Chicago, Dr. Adolph C. Noe, Assistant Professor of Paleobotany, secured from Mr. C. D. Young, of Morris, Illinois, a very valuable collection of fossil plants and animals from the Mazon Creek district. Mr. Young, who is Master in Chancery of Grundy County, presented the collec tion to the University of Chicago. It consists of 900 choice specimens EVENTS: PAST AND FUTURE 65 from a great number which Mr. Young has been collecting through nearly forty years, and is the last great private collection of Illinois fossils available. The collection, which represents a value of several thousand dollars and was donated to the University without any conditions or reservations, will be housed in Walker Museum. The Bulletin of the American Associa tion of University Professors for October, 1922, contains an extended Committee Report on " Initiatory Courses for Fresh men," prepared under the chairmanship of Professor Ernest Hatch Wilkins of the University. On October 5, McGill University, at Montreal, marked the opening of its new Biological Building by formal public ceremonies. The building, provided through the generosity of the Rockefeller Foundation, contains laboratories for the departments of botany, zoology, phys iology, biochemistry, and pharmacology. One of the four addresses of the occasion was given by Professor John M. Coulter, of the University, representing botany. There was a large representation of scientific men from the United States and England. The University was represented at the inauguration, on October 7, 1922, of George Barton Cutten as president of Colgate University by Professor Benjamin Terry, a graduate of Colgate University in the class of 1878, and professor there from 1885-92. At the inauguration of Miss Marion Edwards Park as president of Bryn Mawr College, October 21, 1922, the University was represented by Professor Paul Shorey, who was professor of Greek in Bryn Mawr College from 1885-92. The University was represented at the inauguration, on October 28, 1922, of Samuel Paul Capen as president of the University of Buffalo by Professor Charles H. Judd. At the Cleveland meeting of the American Public Health Association in October, John F. Norton of the Depart ment of Hygiene and Bacteriology was elected Secretary of the Laboratory Section. Dr. August Krogh, professor of Phys iology in the University of Copenhagen, and winner of the Nobel Prize in Phys iology in 1920, lectured before the Biological Club of the University on Friday afternoon, October 27, in Kent Theater, on "The Motor Control of the Capillaries." In connection with the recent centenary of the foundation of the Camden Pro fessorship of Ancient History at Oxford University the London Times pays a special tribute to Professor James Henry Breasted, Chairman of the Department of Oriental Languages and Literatures and Director of the Oriental Institute at the University, who received at the celebration the honorary degree of Doc tor of Letters. The Public Orator at Oxford, after noting that a great amount of research work in ancient history is now done by American scholars, declared that of these Professor Breasted was among the foremost, especially in work on the history and records of Egypt. Through the American Ambassador to France the honorary degree of Doctor of the University has been conferred by the University of Paris on Professor Albert A. Michelson, who for thirty years has been the head of the Depart ment of Physics in the University. At the same time, the same degree was con ferred on Former Secretary of State Elihu Root and President A. Lawrence Lowell, of Harvard University. A full set of instruments for a band of 100 pieces has been given the University of Chicago by Carl D. Greenleaf, a grad uate of the University in the class of 1899. Mr. Greenleaf is the head of C. G. Conn, Ltd., the great manufacturers of musical instruments at Elkhart, In diana. The equipment was delivered to the University in time for use at the Princeton game, October 28, and includes a gigantic base drum eight feet and one inch in diameter, which is said to be the largest drum in the world. No little difficulty was experienced in getting hides large enough to make the drum heads. The workmen are reported to have become greatly interested in the manufacture of the instruments, which are valued at $10,000. Mr. and Mrs. Greenleaf were guests of President Harry Pratt Judson at 66 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD game, and witnessed the first appearance of the Band with the new instruments. The leader of the band is Morris Wilson, and the military side of the band's work has been very efficiently conducted by the Department of Military Science and Tactics, of which Major H. E. Marr is the official head. Lieutenant Lawrence Bixby has had immediate charge of the drilling. A paper on "Gabriele D'Annunzio, Poet of Beauty and Decadence," read by Associate Professor Rudolph Altrocchi before the Chicago Literary Club, November 6, 1922, was published by the Club in December, as one of the Club papers. Under the auspices of the School of Commerce and Administration, the Uni versity Journal of Business has been launched, the general purpose of which is to stimulate intellectual activity among students of collegiate schools of business. To this end it will have the co-operation of these schools at the universities of Illinois, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Nebraska, and Indiana University. It stands also for the development of a closer relationship between business edu cation and the world of practical business affairs. The November number contains an introduction by Carl P. Fales, the editor, and Leon C. Marshall, Dean of the School of Commerce and Administration, and contributions by Paul H. Douglas, V. D. Johnston, Jacob Viner, Harry D. Kitson, Samuel MacClintock, Elinor G. Hayes, N. W. Barnes, and L. S. Lyon. A striking illustration of the scope and extent of the work in the Graduate Schools of the University of Chicago is given in the new Register of Doctors of Philosophy covering the years from 1893 to 1 92 1. In the Social Sciences 313 Doctor's degrees have been conferred by the University; in the Divinity School 129; in the Classics 95; in Modern Lan guages 135; in Mathematics and the Physical Sciences 329; in the Earth Sciences 65; and in the Biological Sciences 283. The total number who have received the Doctor's degree from the University in the twenty-eight years covered by the new Register is 1,349. Governor Small has appointed Pro fessors John M. Coulter and Edson S. Bastin of the University as members of the Commission on Natural Resources and Conservation. Among the four recent winners of the Sears Prizes for distinguished work in the Harvard Law School was Mr. James M. Nicely, of Muncie, Indiana, a graduate of the University in the class of 1920. Dean Marion Talbot has been elected one of the group of charter Fellows of the American Public Health Association. Under the reorganization of the Associa tion the direction of its affairs is to rest, not with the members at large, but with a group of professional health workers known as Fellows. Professor John Matthews Manly, head of the Department of English, has been elected president of the Modern Human ities Research Association, an inter national society organized in London five years ago. Its object is to gain the widest co-operation in all research work in the fields of language and literature. The presidents elected before the choice of Professor Manly were: Sir Sidney Lee, of the University of London; Professor Otto Jespersen, of Copenhagen; Professor Gustave Lanson, of the University of Paris; Professor W. P. Kerr, of the Uni versity of London. Professor Tom Peete Cross of the University is the Chicago representa tive in the affairs of the Association. For more than two years past, a sub committee under the chairmanship of Professor A. C. Noe has been quietly at work in the University and the city seek ing funds for the relief of people in Austria, especially those with University connections. Mrs. Andrea H. Proudfoot has acted as secretary, and Mrs. Marianne Hainisch, mother of the President of the Republic of Austria, and Mrs. Julia Viditz-Ward have been its representatives in Vienna. As the result of this work 3,000 Austrian families are at present being taken care of by American phi lanthropy. Since January 1, 1922, $15,000 has been distributed directly through the subcommittee. The assist ance rendered to Austrian intellectuals through the subcommittee is now esti mated at about $60,000 a year, EVENTS: PAST AND FUTURE 67 would represent at this moment 840,000,000 Austrian crowns. The expenses of the subcommittee are borne by the members of it, every dollar of it going in full to Vienna. The work of the subcommittee has called forth countless expressions of gratitude from Austrian professors. The University of Innsbruck has conferred an honorary degree upon Mrs. Proudfoot, and both Innsbruck and Graz have conferred honorary degrees upon Professor Noe, the degree being similar in nature to that of Sc.D. con ferred by American universities. The University has recently become a subscribing member of the Association to Aid Scientific Research by Women. This association offers the Ellen Richards Research Prize of $1,000 for the best thesis written by a woman on a scientific subject embodying new observations and new conclusions based on independent laboratory research. Theses presented for a Ph.D. degree are not eligible. The theses offered in competition must be in the hands of the chairman of the Com mittee of Prizes, Miss Lilian Welsh, Goucher College, Baltimore, Maryland, by February 28, 1923. At the dedication of the Lorado Taft Monumental Group, the "Fountain of Time," at the west end of the Midway Plaisance on November 15, President Judson made an address on "A Century of Peace with Great Britain." On November 23 Dr. Emerson H. Swift delivered an illustrated lecture before the Renaissance Society on "The Church of Santa Sophia at Constanti nople." Mr. J. Spencer Dickerson has been elected president of the Renaissance Society. On December 2, 1922, Ralph E. Huston, of Cambridge, Illinois, was chosen by the State Committee of Selection for the Rhodes Scholarships as Rhodes Scholar from Illinois for 1923-25. The Scholar year for three years' study at Oxford University. Mr. Huston was born September 16, 1902, had a good record in the Kewanee High School, and entered the University of Chicago with an honor entrance schol arship. He received two honor scholar ships in his college course, and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa at the end of his Junior year. He is a Senior in the Uni versity, and is a member of the Cosmo politan Club, the French Club, and the Junior Mathematical Club in the Uni versity. He has studied in France, and has special recommendations^ for pro ficiency in mathematics. He is the first appointee from the University since 191 2. The third annual dinner given by the Board of Trustees to the members of the Faculty was held in Ida Noyes Hall in the evening of December 14. Two hundred and forty-seven persons attended. Mr. Harold H. Swift, the president of the Board of Trustees, presided. Mr. Thomas E. Donnelley introduced the new members of the Board, Mr. William Scott Bond, Mr. Albert W. Sherer, and Mr. Deloss C. Shull. Dean Albion W. Small introduced the new members of the Faculty. Mr. Charles R. Holden spoke for the Board of Trustees, and Professor William E. Dodd responded for the Faculties. President Judson made the closing address, emphasizing the place of research in the work of the University. At the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science held at Cambridge, Massachu setts, on December 26, Professor E. H. Moore, the retiring president of the Association, made the principal address. Professor Robert Morss Lovett has returned to his teaching at the Univeristy of Chicago after six months in New York as an editor of the New Republic. Professor Albion W. Small, head of the Department of Sociology, has been elected an honorary member to the sociological section of the Roumanian Social Institute, of which D. Gusti, professor of sociology in the University of Bucharest, is presi dent. Recently Professor Small received another honor from a foreign society, being elected president of the Institut International de Sociologie. Members of the Faculty, alumni, and other friends of the University of Chicago recently provided a fund for a portrait of Professor A. A. Michelson, the famous physicist, who for thirty years has been head of the Department of Physics in the University. The portrait, which