The University Record Volume V JANUARY IQIQ Number i THE BRITISH EDUCATIONAL MISSION During the Autumn Quarter the British Educational Mission to the United States, which was sent by the British government on invita tion of the Council of National Defense, visited Chicago. The purpose of the Mission was "to inquire into the best means of procuring closer co-operation between British and American educational institutions, to the end of making increasingly firm the bonds of sympathy and understanding that now unite the English-speaking world." The mem bers of the Mission were as follows: Dr. Arthur Everett Shipley, vice- chancellor* of the University of Cambridge, master of Christ's College and reader in zoology; Sir Henry Miers, vice-chancellor of the Uni versity of Manchester and professor of crystallography; the Rev, Edward Mewburn Walker, fellow, senior tutor, and librarian of Queen's College, member of the Hebdomadal Council, Oxford University; Sir Henry Jones, professor of moral philosophy, University of Glasgow; Dr. John Joly, professor of geology and mineralogy, Trinity College, Dublin; Miss Caroline Spurgeon, professor of English literature, Bed ford College, University of London; Miss Rose Sidgwick, lecturer on ancient history, University of Birmingham. At the request of the Council of National Defense, the American Council on Education undertook all arrangements for the tour of the Mission. Of the recep tion committee the Hon. Elihu Root was chairman. The chairman of the committee immediately in charge was President Donald J. Cowling, Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota. The chairman of the Chicago committee was the Vice-President of the University of Chi cago, James Rowland Angell. The Mission arrived in Chicago on the 2 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD evening of November 7 and was escorted by members of the University to the University Club and the Hotel La Salle, places which remained headquarters until the Mission left the city after visiting the University of Illinois, Northwestern University, the Yerkes Observatory, and the meetings of the Association of State Universities. For the women of the Mission the Chicago College Club gave a luncheon on November 12. At the same time the University Club gave a luncheon for the gentlemen of the Mission. The members of the British Mission were escorted to the University of Chicago on Friday morning, November 8, and were received in the President's office by the Vice-President of the University and a recep tion committee: Mr. Ernest D. Burton, chairman, Mr. R. G. Moulton, Mr. T. C. Chamberlin, Mr. W. G. Hale, and Miss Marion Talbot. After a brief conference the guests visited the General Library and the Classical and Geology Departmental libraries. They then visited cer tain laboratories in which they were individually interested. At one o'clock Mrs. Harry Pratt Judson entertained the gentlemen of the Mission at luncheon. At the same hour Dean Talbot and other women of the University Faculties entertained the women of the Mission at Nancy Foster Hall. At three o'clock in the theater of Ida Noyes Hall there was a conference. At the tables in the center of the room were Vice-President Angell, and (to his right) Dr. A. E. Shipley, Sir Henry Jones, Dean Shailer Mathews, the Reverend E. M. Walker, Professor Paul Shorey, Miss Rose Sidgwick, Professor E. D. Burton, Mr. W. A. Payne, the Recorder of the University, Dean A. W. Small, Professor R. R. Bensley, Director C. H. Judd, Professor J. H. Breasted, Miss Caroline Spurgeon, Dean R. D. Salisbury, Dr. John J. Joly, and Sir Henry Miers. The following is a stenographic record of the conference: Vice-President Angell: This is an occasion which is altogether unprecedented in our own history and, I suspect, in the history of Ameri can colleges. We have an opportunity of talking, in an informal way, with the representatives of the great British universities who are our guests today, particularly with a view to setting on foot such measures as we can intelligently devise to improve the intimacy of our relations with one another, not only as regards our students, but as regards the faculties of our several institutions. It has been suggested to us, and we believe it has been an expression of the preference of our guests, that in place of the more usual formalities of a state visit of distinguished guests, with meetings of the public-assemblage type and formal THE BRITISH EDUCATION AL MISSION 3 we should come together in this informal way and discuss the topics which seem to us most fruitful for the purpose which brings the Mission here. As the result of a conference of our own Senate, we have ourselves sug gested a few topics which seemed, on the whole, profitable for some discussion. We have not designed to make these topics in any sense the coercive program of the afternoon, and we shall be glad to have our guests depart from them at any point they may desire. But we thought it might help to expedite the program if we kept these topics in our own mind and presented them very briefly, and, where they seemed to be particularly profitable for discussion, called upon our guests to make such comment as they cared to make before going on to another subject. Topics Suggested for Discussion reason to believe that American students are not likely to be attracted in large numbers to British universities for the purpose of securing degrees. On the other hand, the opportunities for advanced study in particular lines and with scholars of eminence are certain to attract many. The great libraries and other collections are likely to be peculiarly tempting. In establishing plans for improving international educational relations due weight should be accorded to these circumstances. For the use of students who do desire to obtain British degrees there should be an unequivocal interpretation of the relation between the Bachelor's degree from leading American universities and the "pass" and "honor" degrees of the British universities. In the case of British students who may be attracted to American institutions the same understanding is essential. Possibly some central board might be established to certify credentials. 2. Co-ordination of opportunities afforded by British universities with those of the always able to avail themselves of the facilities offered by the great British libraries and collections, to say nothing of the possibility of combining such opportunities with study at British universities. If some program involving co-operation on the part of these several agencies could be established it would greatly enhance the attractiveness of study and research in Great Britain. In this connection attention may be called to the desirability of a larger degree of co-operation on the part of British libraries in the matter of exchanges and of cata loguing systems. American libraries at present find it appreciably more difficult to deal with the British authorities in these matters than with those on the Continent. to the wisdom of emphasizing the establishment of highly paid fellowships or other devices of this character to enable young scholars who have already proved their scien tific productivity to spend a year or more in Great Britain, studying wherever men and materials are most attractive. This proposal would look to the migration of a small, carefully selected group rather than to the attracting into British institutions of a larger number of graduate students of the ordinary 4 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD experience, to the best forms of exchange professorships. ance of more intimate relations between the British and American universities there may well be established an Anglo-American University Commission, to the end that such measures as are adopted may reflect the best judgment of the educational authori ties of the two countries concerned. 6. The relation of British universities to American soldiers and sailors during the may put their resources at the disposal of American soldiers and sailors during the period of demobilization on the lines already more or less matured for Canadians. This plan has very great promise, especially if it be carried out in such a way as to provide short courses which could be attended by properly qualified men. The suggestion is made that if the plan be actually put in operation a certain number of American instructors, drawn from the American Army and Navy, or from American civil life, be secured to assist in estabhshing the adjustments. Such a plan would not only f acilitate the fitting of the student to the opportunities but would also serve to familiar ize American educational men with the actual inside workings of British institutions. Two other suggestions are offered, which it is not at present perhaps desirable to discuss in detail. The one relates to the necessity of bearing constantly in mind the intimate relationship of secondary to collegiate education. Any general program which disregards this consideration is likely to encounter grave difficulties. The other relates to the desirability of preparing a handbook for both American and British students, in which is set forth succinctly but intelligibly the opportunities afforded by the various British and American institutions. The committee in charge of our meeting has suggested that we begin the discussion with a very brief statement on the part of one or more of our own membership, and so a few of the members of the Faculty have been asked to introduce these topics, and then they will be thrown open to general discussion. I should like to have all the members of the Faculty who are present appreciate the informal character of our discussion. Those who have offered to open the discussion have no desire to monopolize the subject. The order in which the topics are listed is also quite unimportant; it merely represented the order which seemed to be convenient. The by Professor McLaughlin, who has unfortunately just had news of the loss of one of his boys in France and cannot, of course, be present. Professor Mathews has kindly consented to take his place. Professor Mathews: We are likely to be affected, I suppose, by the experience which American students have had in former years in going to foreign universities to study. Their purposes are, in a way, to be classified under three general heads. In the first place, THE BRITISH EDUCATIONAL MISSION 5 have gone abroad for the purpose of making degrees at foreign univer sities. At the same time, they have gone for the purpose of pursuing certain distinct, specialized studies and not intending to make a degree. And in the third place, they have gone for what might be called the general humanizing effect of contact with the associations of the academic halls of the great universities abroad. I should say, Mr. Chairman, that the details governing the first purpose, so far as they apply to the recognition of American universities by English universities, and the granting of degrees thereby, are pretty well cared for in the general plan which we trust the distinguished visitors will unfold to us and explain. The other matter, the desire to pursue certain courses and not make a degree, is, in the opinion of some of us, likely to be the largest element in the migration of American students to British universities, coupled, as of course it will be, with the third motive, that of getting in touch with a different civilization and social life for the sake of the general humanizing effect of such experience. I fancy that these latter provisions will be more difficult to meet than the first. The building up of a distinct curriculum in which the end shall be a degree is not so very difficult an undertaking. But the offering of opportunities for special research, which is to be co-ordinated with and made a part of the course which students are taking in Ameri can universities is something which will require undoubtedly a very con siderable amount of adjustment. There is the adjustment, for instance, of the matter of length of courses, of the prerequisites for certain specific courses; there is the difficulty which comes in all kinds of waste of energy between work in two universities. I am inclined to think that there will be a considerable number of students, if the proper arrangements could be made, who would be ready to take one year abroad toward a Doctor's degree, and that number will be vastly larger than the number who would undertake to work for a Doctor's degree completely in the universities of Britain. There will be many also who are not interested in laboratory research, but who are interested primarily in the more human and less technical aspects of life. I cannot help feeling that in that larger field there will be one of the great services the British uni versities will be in a position to render, both to those who study for a degree there, and to those who wish to relate special courses there to a degree taken in the United States. Vice-President Angell: Dr. Shipley, if you and your colleagues will be quite informal in commenting on these topics as may seem to you good, we shall appreciate 6 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD Dr. Shipley: I don't want to speak myself on No. i, except to say that so far as we are concerned we have opened our doors. They are not closed to you in the way you may think they are. We have made provisions which I am sure will be welcome to. you, and in the work leading to a degree in two years we are prepared to recognize work of one year done in another university. Therefore work of at least one year done in a recognized university will count, and only one year with us is necessary to lead to a degree. I want to widen No. 2 just a little. I quite agree that we must exchange books and publications of all kinds. Speaking as a zoologist, I want to exchange specimens. That may not mean much to you, but it means a great deal to the laboratories. We can send you things of no value to us but of great value to Chicago, and you can do the same; and possibly we could extend it to other things, because it is of the utmost importance that we do not allow the German trade in mathe matical models and such things to pass into the hands of the Japanese, and that is what is happening. We are not producing in Great Britain much of the material that we want. We have not even begun yet, and I understand that the Japanese have. I think that there is some sort of collusion between those two countries to replace what in future we cannot get from the Germans. I want also tp exchange editorials with the papers, but that, of course, is not an academic matter. I don't think I will say anything about No. 3, although it is very much in my heart. With regard to exchange professors, I think that that will more or less settle itself. I think that most universities will say: "We would like to have a course in such-and-such a subject," and will look around and do as they have done in the past and arrange for the exchange of professors. With regard to the University commission, I think that that must be international. Our mission is a broad one; it is not parochial. We want to bring people together, and we want to do it through the youth, because it is the youth that counts, and I think we must not forget our Allies. And here I will say something which I should say under No. a great deal to teach us. I want to take the widest possible view of these things, because if we Allies can keep together in peace as we have in war, there will be no more . THE BRITISH EDUCATIONAL MISSION 7 We hope to establish in England an office which will be able to grapple with the voluminous literature that the universities shower upon us. We are traveling through this continent on a roving com mission, and we can be traced by the piles of literature we are compelled by the shortage of labor to leave behind us. Finally I want to say two or three words because I am extraordinarily anxious to do something about the demobilization. Already we are receiving in England a considerable number of gentlemen whom we used to call colonials, but we now use the longer expression "from His Maj esty's Dominions beyond the seas," which means the same thing. We have a number of them already studying with us. We have prepared a number of .short courses for officers, and we are prepared to give after a term or two terms in residence, some sort of certificate signed by the instructor. I might remark that professors are comparatively rare in England. Most teaching is done by men who have not that title. I think that there are only about forty-five in my university. The cer tificates will be signed by some accredited teachers, and we hope that American universities will recognize them toward degrees. We want to get hold of these boys. Peace has not come yet, in spite of the evening papers, but you won't want as many of your officers in France as you have now. Let them come to some one of our uni versities for a few months or perhaps years. The tragedy of these boys' lives, because I know it and have lived among them, is that they have lost their education. Many of them didn't know what education was, and they told me that that was what they felt most in this war. So I do earnestly hope, as I told the war-office people in Washington, that some provision will be offered for your young men to come, when ever they can, to all the universities of the Allies, to get the education they seek, and I want them to go to the place where the man is whom they want to work under, because the man is more important than the place. Vice-President Angell: Are there any other comments anyone wishes to make? Professor Breasted: With regard to the exchange of specimens, may I ask whether the laws of the national museums are such that nothing can be alienated? I know it is so in the case of the British Museum. Dr. Shipley: They can't exchange a specimen which has been catalogued, but if you want a few specimens very much and you 8 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD the curator, there should be no trouble. We suffer a great deal of legislation which is quite out of date; ,. Dr. Joly: With reference to No. i and to No. 2, fellowships are referred to here. I understand that your ideal fellowship is a means of enabling a Senior student to pass from one country to another. Per sonally speaking, I think it would be much better if we could induce undergraduate students to take one of their concluding years in the other country than to influence older students, because my own recollec tion of undergraduate days is that I made far more friendships as an undergraduate than I ever did as an assistant teacher. I passed many years of my life as an assistant teacher, and there was always a kind of aloofness between me and my students. And I think it applies to all, much as we should like to know them. I would prefer then, if I could, to bring about an interchange of Junior students; I mean not in your Freshman and Sophomore years but in your Junior and Senior years. I think that it would be better, it would be more efficient, to get men of those standards to come over. Therefore I should like to to see something of that kind established, as I think it would do more good. In connection with that the question arises, under No. 2, Can you co-ordinate your courses in the British and American universities ? Can you co-ordinate your courses in the two countries so that a boy could be sent from, say, Trinity College, Dublin, to the University of Chicago, and we would be sure, in Dublin, that his studies were carried on along the same lines that they had followed in Dublin? There is no use in sending a boy over and dislocating his university work for a year in order that he should obtain other benefits. He would return and would probably fail in his examinations when he got back, and nothing would be gained. He would be put back in his university career., For this reason I think that it is important that there should courses of the American and British universities. Talking of Trinity College and the other universities in Ireland, I may say that in the Senior years the courses are generally elective, just as I learned this morning that your courses are here. That is to say, the student elects to take whatever he likes, as long as he confines his work to certain groups of studies so as not to be Jack-of -all-trades and master of none. A boy in Trinity College, Dublin, might be THE BRITISH EDUCATIONAL MISSION- 9 ing experimental sciences in his first two years. He would come over here and be placed in some class among your boys, and his educa tion would be carried on just as it was in Dublin. I think that might be possible, and I would like to hear from the members of this university as to whether there is any insuperable difficulty in taking a boy from one university to another and arranging the instruction so that he would be taught as he would have been in his own uni versity. That, I think, would be most desirable, and I am inclined to think that there would be no practical difficulty in carrying it out; and if it were done, I would suggest, as I have suggested elsewhere, that the proper way of raising money would be to establish memorial fellowships or exhibitions. There are many who have lost relatives in this war and who would gladly do anything they could to render the war of use to others in this way. What we are here for today is to try to make the results of this war such that Americans will benefit forever after. That is to say, we shall secure an enduring peace through the friendships between the various branches of the Anglo-Saxon race. That is, after all, the end of our mission here. In England the public has taken up that idea, and we could best contribute to carrying it into effect by would enable young men to pass from England to America, and from America to England. I think it would be practicable, and that is the thought I would like to contribute to this discussion. Just one more word, under the head of No. 3, provision for dis tinctly advanced research. I want to point out that in some of our universities at home we can provide material for research which would surely be attractive to American students. In Dublin there is a field for Celtic and Welsh philology which I think is unequaled by any other place in the world. Everything would be placed at your disposal. Our libraries are full of Celtic literature which has never been explored. This and the vast stores of Celtic literature in the Royal Irish Academy would all be at the disposal of your students. Dr. Walker: On No. 1 and No. 6 I have a few words to say, chiefly on No. 1. I hope I shall be absolved of any desire to speak of my own university. I simply want to say that the conditions for the exchange of students differ in different universities. Therefore I think it will contribute to the discussion if I confine myself to things I know. But I want you to know that Oxford is not the only university which has instituted the new degree. It has been instituted in some of IO THE UNIVERSITY RECORD northern universities as well. What I would like to point out, in the first under certain conditions. We have done that, but we have done some thing much more important. We have placed on an entirely new research work in the university. I would not for a moment wish it to be understood that opportunities for research did not exist before. What I mean is this: the whole system is now properly co-ordinated and properly organized, and a small committee has been appointed whose function it is to co-operate with the various faculties in the university for this very purpose. When the war is over, a program of studies will be issued. The American student who thinks of coming to Oxford and wishes to know whether a particular professor is lecturing during the current year and what he is giving, what facilities exist, the facilities of teaching, of supervision, of libraries, to whom he should apply to secure admission, etc., will find all that put into a form which can be mastered by an intelligent student in half an hour. This organization of research work means that the younger students are going to devote a great deal more time and energy to a particular form of work. With regard to the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, it is normally a three years' course, but the American student who pro duces evidence that he has done a year's work at an American university will be excused one year; and in any case, although the period is between two and three years, one of those three years can be spent at another university. He can spend that in London or Paris or elsewhere. The only two conditions required are that he must have graduated at an approved American university and must produce satisfactory evidence from the professor under whom he studied that he is properly qualified for the work. There are students of one class from America who are likely to avail themselves of this course, and they are the Rhodes Scholarship men, because they will have ample time to take this three years' course. But of course we have always believed that in the majority of cases students coming to Oxford for research work will not come for two or three years. They will not wish to take our degree, but will want to take the degree of their own university. What we have contemplated is that there might be certain students who might wish to come for one year. Now I don't think it will be likely that there will ever be a THE BRITISH EDUCATIONAL MISSION II large number of American students who will come to an English uni versity with a view to taking a degree of Doctor of Philosophy, or Doctor of Laws, or whatever it may be called, because I assume that the stand ard of the degree is going to be a very high one. What is expected is research work, and research work of a high order. It is most decidedly not going to be a cheap degree. You have to consider, not how many students there are from America who could attain that standard, but how many students there are from America who can afford to come to English universities for two or three years. We have purposely constructed . our system in such a way that the student who wishes to come for one year will get good advantages. He will get a certificate from the university, that he attended for one year and attained a certain standard, and we are hopeful that that certificate may be accepted by the American universities as the equiv alent of a year's graduate work at home. It seems to me that there must be a large number of American students who might wish to come to a British university for one year. Take, for instance, a student who is studying English literature in a graduate school here. He might wish to come to an English university for a year, in order that he might know England and learn to understand the background of English literature, or get in touch with the books on the subject, or study some particular feature. And that applies to a number of subjects. It is part of our business to consider the facts in this question and not merely indulge in optimistic views, if our object is to bring together students from the two countries. I think that there are likely to be, after the war, a very considerable number of English students who will wish to come to American universities, but I think it reasonable to suppose that the number who wish to come to American universities for a year will be much larger than those who wish to come for three years. It will apply both ways. Therefore, if there is to be considerable exchange of students we must not limit ourselves to those who come either to England or to America to take the Doctor's degree. They will be a small percentage of the total number who will come. But what I should wish you more clearly to understand is that that has been taken into account in our new system. All we have done to organize research will be at the command of the student who comes for one year as much as of the student who comes for three, and the student who comes for one year will get recognition, different in kind from the one who comes for three years, but recognition, and I hope that our certificate will be honored by your 12 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD With regard to No. 6, 1 think that it must be evident to everybody that nothing cafe be more important than that our students and yours, they have been actually fighting side by side and have shared together life in common. And I assure you that in English universities every possible opportunity will be given to American students who, after demobilization, wish to come to ,an English university. In the case of my own university an American student who had passed three years in an American university and served a year inHhe American Army, if he could come to Oxford and enter for a year, would find himself quali fied for a degree. Professor Small: It seems to me that what Dr. Walker has said should be supplemented by one point which has come within my own observation, relative to the small number of men who could be expected been distinctly recognized in this country that since the founding of Johns Hopkins University in 1876 the value of a European degree of Doctor of Philosophy to an American student has fallen relatively very rapidly, and within fifteen years I think that it has become the general judgment of men in departments with which I am particularly acquainted European university, which has usually meant a German university, has not been of itself an advantage. The American student who goes abroad and takes a degree of Doctor of Philosophy expects to teach. The modus operandi of getting a place to teach is, in a word, that the president of the institution which has a vacancy to fill applies to some man whom he knows or whom some member of his faculty knows, in some university conferring the degree, to find out not merely the aca demic qualities of the candidate but the personal equation also, and it has come to be a fact that our American colleges will hardly accept a man as an instructor on the basis of a Ph.D. degree unless there is a sponsor who can give testimony by which the personal value can be equated. Thus, while we must be impressed by the liberality, the hospitality, of these plans, they seem to be likely to appeal to us in the particular that Dr. Walker has emphasized, namely, the opportunity to take one year of that hospitality, or at the most two; but the undesirability, unless circumstances change very greatly, of taking three years abroad for the Doctor's degree is THE BRITISH EDUCATIONAL MISSION *3 Miss Spurgeon: I understand that you have a very large number of women in this university, and their problems are slightly different. In the first place, as Dr. Joly has emphasized, young men in their third and fourth years especially might come with advantage to a United States university, I think. As regards women, I think that my colleague and myself have come to the conclusion generally agreed to by women teachers in the states, that for women it would be very much better for the exchange to take place in their graduate work. We think that then they would be better fitted to take advantage of the exchange and would benefit in many ways, and we would like to see every facility provided for that exchange for women. With regard to No. 1, the motives controlling the migration of Amer ican students, that has already been dealt with by several of the speakers. Dr. Walker took advantage of the illustration I had in mind. If you are studying English literature, you will naturally benefit from studying student, for instance, who is studying English literature. One can see at once what an immense advantage it would be to come over to a professor of such world-wide fame as Professor Kerr. There is a difficulty, and perhaps a special difficulty, with regard to research. These graduate students come. The exchange takes place on two sides. If it is to be in any numbers and is to take place regularly and easily, there must be a substantial backing of finance. We must have a system of scholarships, and that is one of the problems to which we must devote ourselves. In England it is a real problem. Many women students, and men too, could not afford out of their own incomes to make the journey and provide their living at their own expense. I think that American students think less of the journey to England than we do of that to the United States, because they are becoming more accustomed to it, but we would like to see the flow becoming larger. I hope that we may get help, both from the state and from private endowment. With regard to the exchange professorships, that, I think, is very important. You have had it in connection with France and Germany, and we would like to have it established in connection with England. would welcome the exchange, and also we would like to see an 14 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD of junior teachers as well as of senior teachers. Here again it is a question of finance, whereby the college concerned could pay the junior teacher's salary, and possibly also the cost of the journey, for a year's residence in another university. The idea would not be to replace another teacher on the system of exchange, but to come as an additional member of the faculty, to . learn and assimilate the life of the college, and to give lectures on the subject he or she is a specialist in. We think, some of us, that that would be a very great advantage on both sides. to this, that in all the provincial universities the Ph.D. degree is, or is about to be, thrown open to women, and I think that in London it will very soon follow that a woman will be able to come over and work for her Ph.D. Vice-President Angell: There has been a good deal of comment on Nos. 2 and 3. Perhaps if Mr. Burton would present some of the points the Senate discussed the other day, it would be of interest. Professor Burton: I feel some hesitation in speaking on this topic for two reasons. Although I have been in England several times, it is a number of years since I was last there. Conditions may have changed since my last visit. Possibly what I may say may seem to be in the nature of criticism, which I would rather not offer. We on this side recognize very fully how rich the collections of Great Britain are, in the matter of both libraries and scientific material, and most of our universities do not hope in the very near future to equal these collec tions in richness and value. But we have an impression that possibly these collections have not been made quite as easily accessible to the students to English universities as is under consideration. I remember an incident of some years ago which could not happen, of course, in Great Britain. It illustrates the extreme difference between Continental and American universities in one small matter. Applying to the library for a certain book, I was told that I might leave my application for the book today and would get the book tomorrow. Now here in this university the order is that a book shall be delivered within five minutes of the time when it is called for. That is a very trifling matter, and yet if a student is diligently at work on a problem and needs a book, it is often a very serious thing to have to wait twenty-four THE BRITISH EDUCATIONAL MISSION is We have the impression also, and it is merely an impression, that it would be advantageous if more students could be given access to the the whole collection of books on the subject. I know there are dis advantages. I constantly meet them. We admit a limited number of students to the shelves, and some books are displaced, and there is delay in finding them, but it is our belief that the advantages of consulting the books as they stand on the shelves and learning of books one did not know of before are advantages for which it is worth while to pay a price. Then we have the impression that it would be desirable that one studying in a given university city should be able as far as possible to get access to the whole resources of that city without having to visit all the libraries; for instance, in Oxford, to go to one central point and learn the possessions of all the university libraries. That is a matter of very great economy of time and so of advantage to the student. And not only so, but it would be an advantage if it were possible for the student in some way to be able to obtain books for study which are not in that university at all. library of the university; but he can also obtain a book from any university library elsewhere, only in the latter case it takes a little longer. We are constantly receiving for our own investigations books from Harvard and sending books to Harvard, and we wonder if it is impossible to think that some such system might be evolved for exchanging books between English universities. Now, with regard to a subject about which I know very little student who will be in England for only a year to ascertain what are the resources of that great city in the matter of libraries, or in the matter of scientific material? Are the doors open to him, and how are those doors opened that he may obtain information? Is it too much to hope that some day there will be a clearing house or a central bureau in which one will be able to ascertain in a general way what is to be secured in all the libraries and universities? I do not mean to say that there should be a complete catalogue, but a complete list of museums and libraries, with information as to the extent of the collec tions and the specific value of them, and, so far as printed catalogues have been issued, these i6 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD One wonders whether some day it might not be possible that there should be telephone connection by which one who had learned where the richest collection in a particular field was might ascertain by tele phone whether a given book on that specialty was obtainable. Perhaps these are trifling things, but they present themselves to us as means by which the American student who has not yet attained eminence and therefore cannot claim admission to these various collec tions on his personal reputation, and who comes to England for only a year, may speedily get in touch with the material and economize the very short time at his disposal. I want to touch also, for a moment, on the possibility of com munication of information about libraries, and the extension of it on an international scale. There are places in this country where attempts are being made to assemble catalogues, not only of the collections of that university but also of the collections of American universities in general. That is made possible by the use, of course, of a common cataloguing system, and of the use of the printed catalogue card. Many institutions are now printing their cards and sending them to other institutions. I raise the question whether the time will come when an American library will be able to obtain such information as to books added to your collections, or titles added to the catalogue, such informa tion to be communicated to us that we may add the lists to the general catalogue. Thus there might possibly grow up in this country a central place, or possibly several central places, of information regarding your great collections. On our side, at least, it would be of very great value. These are merely suggestions of ways in which the collections of Great Britain, of such immense value to us, might be made more acces sible to the American student who comes to England without a reputa tion which will open your doors, and who has only a limited time to spend in study. Vice-President Angell: Mr. Breasted, will you comment briefly on what the members of the Senate had in mind regarding the interest of the more advanced student ? Professor Breasted: The matter has been stated better than I could state it now, in a letter which I had the privilege of sending to the Acting President in response to his inquiry about the subjects to be discussed here. But I should like to suggest, in a few words, why it is necessary to have such measures as proposed under the third head here. The thing I had in mind is the evidence of the fitness of the Doctor's degree to accomplish what it would accomplish. It has become a THE BRITISH EDUCATIONAL MISSION 17 monplace with us, and our visitors know it, that our young Doctors begin specializing so early that they have lost the opportunity to acquire breadth, such as the student so admirably acquires in British universities. Now, over against that kind of disadvantage in the Doctor's training we have supposed that we were training at least well-equipped teachers, but Dr. Small has just exploded that bomb, or at least produced evidence to show how far we fail in producing good teachers by turning out Doctors. We at least have had, however, as we thought, some ground for comfort in the conclusion that if we have failed in giving our young Doctors culture, or in turning out very good teachers, we have certainly turned out excellent investigators and research men. But I think that that conclusion of ours very largely lacks basis. The experience of our department, and I believe it is the same in others, is that in too many cases the young man issuing with the Doctor's hood from our university halls goes forth to assume in the first place the heavier expenses of family life. He begins to pay off the debts for borrowed money to carry on his undergraduate and graduate work. He begins to assume the burden of teaching. He lives in an atmosphere of hurry and anxiety. The atmosphere of quiet and meditation, the atmosphere that encourages the thirst for truth and creates what Carlyle so well referred to as the divine curiosity in man, disappears, and these things are slowly crushed out of his life. He is finally totally submerged in some provincial teaching post, and your embryo Galileo goes through a hopeless meta morphosis to emerge as an inglorious Ichabod Crane. Some of the natural sciences, of course, have been able to supply their young Doctors with positions permitting the continuance of re search; but in the humanities, looking at the whole group of Doctors we have put forth, I am sure we have not turned out the great group of research men who will carry the burden of research for new truth in future as it could be carried, if we could develop our Doctors' training, or the training that should follow that of the Doctor, a little farther. We simply bring a man to the point where he should know how to swim and throw him out into the water, and he is swept out of his depth and stays there and goes down. What we need is an organization to care for the more brilliant men who have made the Doctor's degree, so that they shall not become Ichabod Cranes. Of course I know that a large number of our Doctors deserve to be Ichabod Cranes and do not deserve to be anything else. We endeavor, by wise devices on the part of departmental heads, i8 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD weed them out, but unfortunately it is not done. A great many men who should never have been allowed to take a Doctor's degree are allowed to take it, whether through departmental pride, or what not; but over against that there is a very large percentage of promising men who go down after the Doctor's degree has been conferred. What I had in mind, therefore, was, as has been referred to by one of the ladies, the necessity for adequate support. After a brilliant man has obtained his Doctor's degree, give him a liberal fellowship, an income four or five times that of an ordinary American graduate fellowship, a fellowship on which he can marry if necessary, or go abroad if necessary, and enjoy the advantages of all the collections and libraries, about which there has been so much discussion this afternoon, and also enjoy contact with the leading men of science abroad, so that he can gain that attitude toward research which is so necessary in the quest for new truth. Lord Kelvin used to dwell on that, on the necessity for a man's living in an atmosphere of desire for more truth. I have no doubt that such men as Lord Rayleigh would not want to be troubled by a lot of budding young scientists from America coming into their studies, but there are many men of science who, if a man came to Europe with the imprimatur of a recognized central bureau here, would be willing to grant such a selected research man interviews in which the whole line of research the young man was engaged in and its relationship to other lines of study might be taken up; and such a sympathetic interchange between an older man and a young man is enormously helpful to the younger man. I am bound to say that, from reading the letters of some of the leading men of science, like Huxley, I conclude that the older man has profited also from the stimulus which the young man has brought into the study. That brings in many important considerations, like the raising of the money and the machinery for the selection of the young men who are to be the future leaders of scholarship and research, and the pro vision of bureaus on both sides of the water, so that when the men arrive on the other side the opportunities which they need and for which they have come shall be put into their hands in the shortest possible time and with the greatest possible effectiveness. Professor Stieglitz: As a matter of fact, in my experience with American university men, during the last fifteen years they have been going to Europe mostly for post-doctorate material. Men have gone to Germany to a large extent after they had taken their Doctor's degree in this country, and they have had opportunities to come into THE BRITISH EDUCATIONAL MISSION 19 relationships with the leading professors, who in fact invited them, and I want to raise the question whether the English plan would not provide for access to your great men. I know that our men would enjoy the privilege of working under your great men; but the gates have not been open, and it has been difficult to obtain access to such men. A second matter is the question of technical schools, like schools for dyeing, etc. The French have excellent schools of that character, as has Germany, and they are exceedingly attractive to American students who, after taking broad technical training, wish to specialize in a particular field. It is, in my judgment, this which holds the greater promise for future relationship between England and the United States. I hope that in the British plans facilities will be provided along these two lines. Vice-President Angell: I may have followed this discussion with a bias in my own mind, but I thought that the greatest interest was in the migration of American students eastward. I should like to hear from some of our guests a little about setting the tide in the other direction. Sir Henry Miers: As far as the tide from England is concerned, I really don't believe myself- that undergraduate students will come from England to the. states. I believe that you will get a number of graduate students and those working for Doctors7 degrees. They will come either for experience which cannot be obtained at home, or for the opportunity of working under special teachers whose names attract them. In engineering and mining, economics and administration, they will get an experience which they cannot get at home. I think that advanced students of that kind will be likely to come here, and I think that any information which can be forthcoming on both sides should show what opportunities will be open to students. At present there is no book giving information to English visitors coming to America for postgraduate work. Neither is there on our side any book which will give you the information you may desire, and I hope that one of the most profitable outcomes of this Mission will be the provision on both sides of the water of handbooks giving such information. I wish to point out that these new Doctors' degrees have not been established for themselves alone, but that there have been established new courses of advanced studies, not so much in the interest of our own institutions as. in the interest of yours. The degree has been 20 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD not to tempt students across, but merely as the symbol of the new courses of study which have been instituted. We already have in some of our universities provisions for students to go away to foreign universities and come back and conclude their home course. Those opportunities have been made use of to as great an extent as was expected, but I think that if information can be pro vided on both sides, of the postgraduate facilities available, you will get from our side a number of teachers, and advanced students will come over here. I think that it would be extremely important for both sides if we could get a list of the existing- possibilities in American universities in the way of fellowships which might be used by English students, and vice versa. I hope that the result will ,be ultimately that means will be provided to furnish this information, but I hope that if such a bureau is established it will not take the American students and apportion them to the different universities but merely give them all possible information regarding these universities. I think that anything in the way of more and more information being made available will tend to increase the flow of students. Vice-President Angell: If we can hear from other of our guests on this particular matter I think it would be interesting to know whether financial arrangements could be made, of the scholarship or fellowship kind, to stimulate the flow of students. As Sir Henry Miers said, the groups which would be interested in coming would doubtless be somewhat small, but I am not sure whether it would be effective to start financial inducements on our part. What would your judgment be about that, whether it is an essential part of the plan either that the universities should establish such funds or that public aid should be given ? What has been suggested is the necessity of more lubrication of a financial character. Sir Henry Miers: I think it is very important that funds should be established. We have the Rhodes Fund, and I wish that there might be some such fund to bring English students to America. Vice-President Angell: The migration of American students to Germany, which at one time assumed considerable proportions, was for the most part without financial stimulation. There were a few travel ing fellowships, but on the whole it was on the individual's initiative, because it was felt that academic opportunities would be greater for a German Doctor. Of course conditions have altered now. Miss Sedgwick: I think that for the majority oi women in English universities it would be impossible to come such a distance THE BRITISH EDUCATIONAL MISSION 21 financial stimulation. Someone was suggesting just now the different kinds of exchange. In our secondary schools it was found that for a teacher to spend a year, say in Chicago, even though her salary was paid, would mean that she would have to sacrifice a year's salary to pay her way, setting aside the question of living. I think that until women's salaries are raised very considerably in England it would be impossible. I hope that there may be eventually a central fund available for that purpose. Dr. Shipley: We might ask ourselves, How many of the Rhodes scholars would have come to study in England if there had been no Rhodes Scholarships? I don't think that we could possibly expect men to come over without some substantial help. I am very hopeful, however, of someone providing money. I think there will also be established this central office. I believe the students ought at least to be allowed passage money. I think we should try to raise funds, and I would like to be able to go around and see some of my wealthy and big business friends and see if anything can be done. Vice-President Angell: I would like to know what Dr. Shorey's opinion is. He is our great "exchanger." Professor Shorey: My impression is that while there is a generally cordial attitude with regard to exchange of professors between English and American universities, there is no great interest in the class. I myself can see that the exchange professorship belongs to that group of things illustrated by the epigram, I am not fishing for fish; I am fish ing for fun. The by-product of fish in this instance is the by-product of friendly intercourse. The Anglo-Saxon or English-speaking races have this fundamental trait in common, that they are good sportsmen and can play the game without this painful obsession of gain. That was, I fear, the chief cause of the partial failure of the German-American exchange. Our authorities in Berlin, were constantly fishing for fish. In their psycho logical naivete they assumed that we belonged to the widespread family of the Kaiser's. Now there would not be that difficulty in an Anglo- American exchange. I don't attach any great difficulties to minor details as the result of my experience. The main practical point that I would suggest is that we should always bear in mind two distinct kinds of service and action on the part of exchange professors. If he was a clever after-dinner speaker and a popular lecturer and a good mixer, as we call them, such a man might become a sort of 22 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD to literary and cultured circles. If he was only an eminent or competent specialist in his own particular domain, he would probably serve best by slipping into his unobtrusive niche and teaching a regular course in the ordinary work of the university to which he was assigned. I think it would be well to keep in mind those two kinds of service and to anticipate in advance the kind of service an individual would be expected to render, and not make anyone uncomfortable because he could not render both services. I don't know what American science and scholarship could offer to England. One would have to leave that to the courtesy and definition of our English friends. But back in 191 1 I could point out the detri ments to American scholars from contact with Germany. There is the detachment from your own environment and also the contact with the culture of a foreign country, and there is the loss by contact during a number of years with a foreign and more or less unfamiliar language like German; that would be absent in the case of England. Our great trouble has been the divorce of our scholarship from our culture. Greater association with the British universities would help to unite those things. But after all, as has been suggested by the first speaker, the main object of an exchange professorship is that which unity and friendship, on which I am sure you all are agreed depends the leadership of peace and good-will among mankind. Sir Henry Jones : I thank you for that thought. By means of our universities we want to bring the minds and the purposes of our two peoples together. I think if we keep that before our minds with the same earnestness that we keep in mind the things that pertain to our we shall find that the obstacles in the way of interchange can easily be remedied. The friendships of a young man's student days are priceless. Old men who have been students, meeting in old age, shake hands with a warmth that is quite unusual. The road is open, speaking generally, to all the universities in Great Britain for your students, whether they want to take a degree or not. You have only to look at our calendars to find that that is the case, and no doubt your own universities are just as open to our students. We must find out about one another. Then again, we question whether money will be necessary or not. Do you know anything that will go without money? Of course it is self-evident that help is necessary to students on both sides, and it THE BRITISH EDUCATIONAL MISSION 23 also evident that if we university men and women are equally resolute in doing all we can to bind the two races together, we shall go about if to see that money is obtained. It seems to me that the greatest thing in the world is the influence exercised by the universities. If I could form the soul of the universities I think it would not take long to form the soul of the nation. We need an instructed citizenship. No matter whether it is better libraries or how to find some new book, the important thing is the spirit of loyalty to great ideals. We have left to the care of accident the fostering of the spirit of citizenship to bind the two peoples together. What a help to our university men it has been to have known the greatness of the citizenship of England, how generation after generation has given its wealth of endeavor for the nation, and what we owe to the past. And our dead in this war, in which you have been fighting our battle of liberty as well as your own, will bind us more closely together. I didn't want to speak this afternoon because I knew I would speak too long. I know that we shall study nothing with greater interest than the great social forces which will join our two peoples together, and I do believe that if these two splendid peoples stand together we shall not hear much more of the miseries that are burdening thousands of homes today. And if we will keep the purposes of this Mission in our view at all times, we shall have the money needed to carry them out, and the difficulties will be overcome. Vice-President Angell: We have several other topics on our pro gram for the afternoon but it has come now to five o'clock, and I am sure we shall continue them to better advantage if we go below and have a cup of tea. The party thereupon passed to the floor below, where tea was served by the women of the Faculties. At half -past seven a dinner in honor of the Mission was held in the refectory, Ida Noyes Hall. At the speaker's table were the members of the Mission, the speakers on behalf the University of Chicago, and Mrs. Harry Pratt Judson, Mrs. James Rowland Angell, Mrs. Edith Foster Flint, Miss Elizabeth Wallace, Miss Marion Talbot, and Mr. La Verne Noyes. After the addresses, those present sang "God Save the King" and "The Star-Spangled Banner." The speeches are given herewith. Vice-President Angell: I am sure that I reflect the feeling of everyone connected with the University in greeting most heartily tonight our guests from Great Britain, and in saying that it is an unusual 24 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD and a very great honor to be able to welcome them to our home here at the University of Chicago. I say our home, not only because it is in fact our home, but because they come in a distinctly homelike spirit, and we hope that while they are with us they will feel that they are at an academic fireside. Their mission is, I think, wholly unprecedented, in that it is the first official university mission ever sent to us by the British government, and that, although an official mission, it comes with this cordial personal and family spirit. I know we are all resolved that, whatever else happens, after the peace comes we shall not lose the most perfect fruits of it by failing in any particular to make permanent the good which has already come to us from the war. And among these benefits the greater sympathy, the greater knowledge, the greater appreciation which we Americans have gained for our British and French and Italian brothers and sisters are certainly not the least. This Mission comes, not solely to deal with the practical questions of how we may more wisely and more fully enjoy one another's academic advantages, but in this larger spirit to open the hearts of our British brothers and sisters to our own and to invite us to enter into the old household anew. I am sure that you will feel this tone when they come themselves to speak, as presently they are to do. I am going to call first on one of our own number, a representative of the old classical tradition which we borrowed from our British fathers and mothers, the gentleman who is*the head of the Department of Greek, representing a language that is not at all so dead as the opponents of classics would have us believe, and one which never will be very dead so long as scholars of this variety pursue it. I present our most exchanged of exchange professors, Dr. Paul Shorey. Professor Shorey : During the nightmare of the last four years the humanities, in every sense of that all-embracing Ciceronian word, have been compelled to give place to efficiency. It is, however, our fervent prayer and faith that the restoration of world-peace will also restore to their due precedence the humanities of the heart, brushed aside perhaps for a little by the rough exigencies of war. These humanities of the heart have never been forgotten in the England of Florence Nightingale and in the France of Vincent De Paul, and, if we dare not say quite as much of the Germany whose god was enthroned amid Zeppelins, as Burns prayed that Auld Nick might even take a thought and mend his ways, so we may be permitted to dream that a new Germany may THE BRITISH EDUCATIONAL MISSION 25 to a nobler conception of what constitutes true Weltmerk. Humanity cannot live forever on this bitter bread of hate. But what of the humanities of the mind? I do not mean by that term the conjugation of Greek or Latin verbs, or the doctrine of the iota subscript, or even the broad, comprehensive study of the beautiful civ ilizations of Greece and Rome that have been my consolation. I mean none of these specialties, except in so far as they are essential constituents past, that distinguishes and discriminates the human being from the brute; the critical, the sympathetic, the imaginative study of all the products of the human mind from the time that the creature out of Lethe scaled the shining stairs of evolution and achieved a mind that we can at all recognize as distinctly human. It is my hope and faith that these things, which you all understand and which it is idle for me to characterize anew, will have their due place in the vast restorations and reconstructions to which humanity is already looking forward with inexhaustible and inextinguishable hope. A too-quick despairer might see many reasons to doubt it. There is, first, the stress that restoration after war lays upon immediate, practical utilities. There is the overwhelming absorption of the human mind in the thrilling panorama of the present that makes it indifferent to all the glorious panorama of the past. And then there is the thought, that we hardly dare dwell upon, of our losses. The Critic announced two years ago that it had already lost half of its redactors and more important con tributors. The young German boys to whom just five years ago today I was teaching Aristotle in the University of Berlin lie dead or are even yet attempting to kill the young British Aristotelians on the Western Front. Professor M , instead of publishing in his inaugural address the papers of his most brilliant graduate students, is writing their obitu aries. And the classical journals that come to us from different quarters of the world are pathetically thin. Our tradition is steadily interrupted and broken through. It is not so, quite, with the great tradition of those sciences which men prize as the minister and interpreter of nature, as we know it in our modern pride of nature's mastery. They too have had losses of incalculable potentialities, but they have not been crushed by the despairing sense of their own needlessness and futility for the immediate purposes of the day, and they have not felt helpless before the vast wave of popular feeling that proclaims them helpless. They have been stimulated by the rise of new problems and have been strengthened by the demand upon their faculties of even 26 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD services. Their tradition stands firm, their work is unbroken and unin terrupted, and if they should choose to maintain that there is an irrecon cilable conflict between their ideals and ours, if they should insist that these reconstructions to come will have no place for the things for which we wish to stand, and if they should use ruthlessly, to the utmost, their advantage before the bar of present popular opinion, there is very little that the classicist could say in reply; for science is secure, and there is none that can question the precedence of science in the world today. Science is the very bread and staff of life of the modern world, both in peace and in war. Do they wish, however, to make us try the experiment of living by bread alone ? Do they wish to breed up a race of university students who will open the New Testament solely to force a lie upon St. Paul by a misinterpretation of his text, and turn to the pages of Homer merely to compare the myths of the Greeks with those of the barbarians of the Fiji Islands ? That was not the temper of Huxley in the days when science hac\ to fight to win due recognition. It is not, I believe, the temper of real scientists today, compared with those whom I might charitably designate as the walking and talking delegates of science. It is not the temper of the American millionaires who built the school which crowns the Janiculum at Rome. It is not the temper of the Trustees of the University of Chicago, who, in the year when the Euro pean war broke out, built on the campus of this University a building devoted to the study of the classics, from which is issued from quarter to quarter one of the few classical journals which have not been compelled to lower their standard. It is not the temper of that England which in the very whirlwind of battle has completed the splendid edition of Jebb's Sophocles and the monumental edition of Cook's great monograph on Zeus, and pushes on, from volume to volume, the Cyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. And it is our faith and hope that it will not be the spirit of that new world of reconstruction and restoration to which we are all looking forward with mingled hopes and fears. I am unwilling, however, to sit down without saying one word to our guests, or rather a word evoked in my own heart by their mere presence use the expression in this connection. I have not forgotten Thackeray's satire on the effervescence of American after-dinner oratory, and I am not unmindful of the evening when Kipling sat stunned under a coruscating thunder of blatherskite and marveled that one of our own race should be made to stand up and be plastered with praise in our own THE BRITISH EDUCATIONAL MISSION 27 A great deal has happened, however, since those days when Americans and Britons were afraid to reveal their inmost sentiments. I am not going to praise my country, but am simply going to take this as the first occasion in my life, in the presence of English friends, to say in public just what I feel about their country. It has not always been easy for an American to say what he thought of England, at least before an audience composed largely of what used to be called German- Americans, or Irish- Americans. But we are all Americans now. The foolish text books which brought about misunderstandings in some minds never made the slightest impression on my mind. I knew as a boy that the England of Shakespeare and Milton, Burke and Fox, Bryce and Jowett, was my country too, and I can now say it to an American audience without any sense of apprehension. And that is one of the few consolations of the great tragedy now drawing to a close. I remember four years ago last August, when I stepped from a steamer on to English soil, how the lines of Swinburne came to my mind: England, Queen of the waves, whose green inviolate girdle enrings thee round, Mother, fair as the morning, where is now the place of thy f oemen found ? Still the sea that salutes us free proclaims them stricken, acclaims thee crowned. And during the long three years when America stood secure behind the guard of the British navy, waiting, trying to get together its hetero geneous population and make up its collective mind, my love and my admiration still were growing, and now at last an American can look a British guest in the eye and tell him what he really feels about that ideal England which in the fiery test has proved herself to be the England of sober, waking fact. England, mother of men and states, at last Thy giant daughter knows thee as thou art, Keeping the faith of that heroic past, Meeting the present need with pulsing heart, Laying a million sons beyond our praise, On war's red altar, with unquivering lip, Making of empire a school to raise The subject peoples to full fellowship. Never again shall that estranging sea Dissolve the bond that holds us to the rock Of English speech and law and liberty; The triple bar made strong against the shock Of war-crazed anarchs, while with eyes that mock Their hates, we face the future of the 28 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD Vice-President Angell: It is a common antithesis among com mentators to set our classical traditions over against our scientific tra ditions, and to urge that modern education is scientific, in a sense in which that implies an antithesis to humanism. Personally I have always felt that such an antithesis was fictitious in fact as well as in theory, and our own representative exponents of science considered it to be in large measure fictitious. I am quite certain that the speaker upon whom I shall now call, as representing the distinctly scientific tradition among us, reflects this enlightened attitude, which regards our scientific tradition as in no sense merely displacing the older classical and human istic tradition, but as taking up into itself much of what we believe to be of most permanent value in that and presenting it again with new surroundings, new meanings, new background, and new outlook, as perhaps the great contribution which we may hope in our own country to make to general educational progress. I take peculiar pleasure, therefore, in calling upon the next speaker, not only because I think he embodies so admirably this point of view and this tradition, but also because of the conspicuous sense in which he represents a large fraction day Belgium was invaded to this, has never hesitated for an instant in his vision of the right and his courage and outspoken condemnation of the wrong, a man who is in every sense an example of our most loyal and high- minded American citizenship, the president of the American Chemical Society, the head of our own Department of Chemistry, Professor Julius Stieglitz. Professor Stieglitz: I did not come tonight prepared to take up the subject of the sciences versus the classics, or the classics versus the sciences. I would say, however, that if Professor Shorey had hap pened by chance to study physics or chemistry, he would have found there that the highest appeal is made to that poetic imagination which attracted him to Greek. I think that a man of science who is at all successful must have a high sense of poetic imagination, because we deal with worlds which we do not see, we deal with forces which we cannot weigh. All our conclusions are based on imaginary factors, which are part of our Greek heritage. Therefore, although we pursue different objects, I feel that the spirit is the same. It is a special privilege on this happy occasion to have the opportu nity of extending to our honored guests from the universities of Great Britain a cordial welcome on behalf of the men of science of our Univer sity; for the opportunity gives us the rare chance to pay frank THE BRITISH EDUCATIONAL MISSION 29 before the representatives of Great Britain to the unusually heavy debt which science, nay the world as a whole, owes to British scientists. Our cousins of the tight little island are not given to vaunting their great deeds, either in peace or in war. Whether from modesty, from conscious pride, or from a simple sense of duty performed, the British, it has seemed to me, take their great men, as their great deeds, almost as matters of course. I can never forget the impression made upon me in reading in the life of Charles Darwin how toward the end of his life a great reception was tendered him in London and how, when he entered the hall and the audience with cheers rose to its feet, the great man turned around to see for whom the great reception was intended! That modest trait has somehow always seemed to me typical of the attitude of your great men of science, to ward their own achievements. And yet how great is the debt the world owes to your scientists! It is no exaggeration, I believe, to say that your Darwins, your Wallaces, and your Huxleys, naturalists so fitly represented by their modern successor, your Dr. Shipley, will in the ages to come to be considered to mark a period of transformation in the thought of man, in the social conscience of mankind, not one whit less profound in their influence than the writings and teachings of Luther were in their day in the spiritual life of the world ! With all the stern emphasis of scientific truth, the realization is unquestionably coming more and more clearly to mankind that its moral and physical welfare and future are in its own hands, not subject to chance, but subject to the inevitable, eternal laws of heredity, of environment, and of the personal rectitude of the individual. Society cannot escape this new consciousness of its duty, the inevitable sequel of the teachings of your great naturalists. No less great is our debt in the realm of the physical sciences. From the teachings of your Dalton of the atomic structure of matter to the brilliant discoveries in our own generation of your colleagues, Professor was indebted to you for a suggestion which led to one of his greatest matter, has had vast new realms of thought and power opened to it by British leaders. If possible the debt of physics, the sister fundamental science of the transformation of energy, is even greater, for your Newtons, Faradays, Maxwells, Kelvins, and the brilliant galaxy of your modern physicists, J. J. Thomson, Rutherford, Rayleigh, and Bragg, so worthily represented by our distinguished guest Dr. Joly, the inventor of modern color photography, have taken us into the very heart of the structure and forces of the universe as well as of the atom, to the profound of every scientist, in a way that has been indeed a wonderful stimulus in every branch of scientific endeavor. The debt is too great to delineate on this occasion. I have dimly outlined a part of it to give weight to my assurance on behalf of the Science Faculty of the University of Chicago that we shall most heartily welcome the opportunity of co-operating with our British brethren, to stand shoulder to shoulder with you, in the realm of science and education, to preserve liberty for all time, as we are just now co-operating in arms in the great struggle to re-establish liberty! I wish to give this assurance with the more emphasis because most of us must be quite convinced that the great reconstructive forces of the world, the statesman no less than the engineer, the sociologist no less than the manufacturer and the agriculturist, will turn to the wisdom of science for the healing of the terrible wounds this war has inflicted on society. To restore a measure of happiness and usefulness to the crippled and disabled men, to prevent the wastage of our bravest and noblest from permanently deteriorating the race, to stay the ravage of disease in enfeebled peoples, to offset the heavy load of debt by the development of more productive, more eco nomical processes of mining, manufacture, and agriculture, and by the which America will gladly join her forces with those of her British friends! Vice-President Angell: It is now our great privilege to hear from our guests, and I have the pleasure to introduce first Dr. Arthur Everett Shipley. Dr. Shipley: We owe you all a very deep debt of gratitude for the kindness with which you, have received us, the kindness which we find in every university we visit. We have hardly been in America thirty days, but our secretary informs me that we have visited thirty institutions. I want especially to emphasize that the more we visit, the better we seem to be treated. When it was agreed that we should all speak, we hoped that we might all speak at once; it would save so much time. Not being an orator, I propose to speak in a very brief way. With regard to what has been said about the classics and science, I have always deprecated the somewhat bitter discussion of their respective merits. I think that there is more than enough room in this great world of ours for both. I recognize that such scientific eminence as Cambridge has achieved in the last half-century is largely due to the support which in its struggling infancy it received from classical THE BRITISH EDUCATIONAL MISSION 31 which was, I think, more substantial than the help received from the mathematicians. I think that too much has been made of this question. A popular novelist in England, who has the ear of the press, recently proposed that the study of Latin and Greek should be replaced by the study of Hindustani and Russian. It is well known that there is little or no literature in Hindustani, and T am not sure that even Russian would supply the spiritual and intellectual comfort that Greek offers. I understand that your national Constitution forbids both cruel and unusual forms of punishment. Yet day after day we are made to get up and talk when we have absolutely talked ourselves out. No longer than three or four hours after I had landed on these shores I found myself making a speech, and I have been speaking ever since. Two days ago we had an interesting experience. Before ten o'clock on one day we each of us had made four speeches, twenty-eight in all. Thus we go through this continent. I don't know whether all of you are acquainted with the works of George Eliot, but those of you who are will remember Mrs. Cadwallader in Middlemarch was asked how she liked her husband's sermons. She said that she always liked the end. Now that is the part of an after-dinner speech which I like, and so here will I make an end. Vice-President Angell: It is a source of very great gratification to us at the University of Chicago to find that the commission has represented on it the ladies of Great Britain. At the University of Chicago women have filled a large part of our horizon. They are at the present moment filling a larger one than ever, because the women in the college are pretty much all that is left of the college as we knew it before the first of October. The University has always had the utmost respect for the position which they hold in our community, and has been glad to develop in every possible way their interests. I take great pleasure, therefore, in presenting Miss Caroline Spurgeon, of Bed ford College, London, and a little later I shall call on the other lady of the Mission. Miss Spurgeon: I should like, at the outset, to disclaim having had any part in drawing up this program. It has been no invention of mine. I should have been only too delighted to have been a passive and interested listener to the speeches of my colleagues, and not to have suffered the moment of torture, which can hardly be surpassed, just before one is called upon to get up. That moment, however, is now over for me, and I feel better than when I began. In spite of all the speaking that has taken place since we reached this continent, I do not think I ever get quite hardened to it; but even so I am very glad 32 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD to have this opportunity tonight to express my appreciation of the extraordinarily kind and cordial reception we have had here today, and of the very fruitful and interesting experiences that we have had in the few hours at our disposal. Vice-President Angell has said something about the objects of our Mission. He put it extremely well, and I think perhaps the best way I can spend the few minutes allotted to me is to give you a general idea of my conception of the genesis and object of our Mission. I look at the most extraordinary suddenness. It was as a thunderbolt out of an absolutely clear, blue, summer sky, quite literally the most beautiful summer sky, I believe, that England has ever known. It was a terrific shock. That, of course, in itself gave us an experi ence different from yours. I think that those who have lived through it will never forget what it felt like. Old landmarks were swept away, and chaos seemed to have come again. All the things we cared for appeared no longer to matter, and other things took their place. That shock, I think, brought with it two main results; at least, that is the way it has struck me. The first was a change in values; the second was a quickening of the imagination, a heightening of the national imagination. Now, in my view, this Mission is really the outcome of those two things. Let me try to explain a little more fully what I mean. First, the change in values : The things we had formerly valued seemed to be no longer of any account. Wealth, fame, material well-being, all those things were swept away, and in their place we found that courage, unselfishness, devotion, were the things that mattered supremely. Then there came a little later an awakening in England to the value of education. We began to ask ourselves if our system of education was as perfect as it could be, and if we could do anything to better it, and we began to reconstruct it. Secondly, there came this quickening of the imagination. That showed itself in many ways in England. I think one of the most interesting was the extraordinary hunger for poetry that began to be felt. That is a very remarkable feature. It began in the second year poets especially. I made some inquiry among the great bookshops in London during the second year of the war, and I found that one of the poets most in demand was Wordsworth, which is interesting, THE BRITISH EDUCATIONAL MISSION 33 other poets also were enormously in demand. There seemed to be a rebirth of desire for poetry. And in addition to that there followed the extraordinary output of poetry among our own soldiers and sailors. Go into any bookshop in England, and you will find piled up these little slender volumes of verse. When I see them, I feel very proud and I prising that the result of the war should be a desire for poetry and an increased output of it, for poetry is the expression of emotional experience. You will think I am wandering away from the object of our Mission, but I do not think I am. I said that one of the changes of values was a change in our attitude toward education. Further, I believe that we are here as the result of the stirring of our national imagination, on an ideal quest. A great ideal is at the back of it. We don't always speak about it; we have spoken today a great deal about other details, about the exchange of students, about degrees, about finance, but that is not because we are unaware of this great ideal at the back of our quest, but rather because we are very conscious of it, and so we are silent about it perhaps because of our queer, dumb British way. We have come, as you know, to inquire into your methods of educa tion in the states, to see what we can gather from what we learn, to improve our methods, and to arrange in any way that we can for inter change of students and teachers, because we believe that if we can draw together the intellectual youth of the two nations we will draw the two nations together, cementing them in a friendship that cannot be broken. And I, for one, and I am sure I may say the other members of the Mission, will do our very utmost to work out the details which will make this interchange possible. I think sometimes that this war has come like a great tempest, a devastating storm; and like a tempest it has not been wholly de structive. Like Shelley's west wind, it is sweeping away all the old, dead things, but it is at the same time quickening and scattering the seeds of a new birth, and if out of this high tragedy of nations there shall be born an enduring understanding and amity between the two great English-speaking peoples of the world, then indeed our soldiers and sailors will not have died in vain. Vice-President Angell: To most of us, I fancy, the British uni versities still mean Oxford and Cambridge; that, in part, because it 34 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD to the beautiful Oxford and Cambridge buildings that the ordinary tourist goes, and it is there that he tries to saturate his soul with the spirit of those places, so beautiful and persuasive are they. We know, as a matter of intellectual information, that there are other universities, Scottish universities that some of our traveling scholars have attended as students, others as visiting professors, from which they returned with gorgeous robes, the envy of the rest of us; we know there are institu tions of learning in the British manufacturing cities and in Ireland, but after all it is chiefly of Oxford and Cambridge we think when we use the phrase "the British universities." We are told, with what degree of truth I am not prepared to say, that in the great provincial cities like Birmingham and Manchester there are universities which in many particulars far more resemble our own institutions than do Oxford and Cambridge. It is said that the resemblance to our great state universities is in many respects very striking. In any event, we are glad to have represented on the com mission and with us this evening Sir Henry Miers, vice-chancellor of the University of Manchester, whom I now have very great pleasure in calling upon. Sir Henry Miers : We came here to hear you speak, and when we arrived we found your stenographers on hand waiting for us to speak! I have been immensely impressed in going through this university by the splendid equipment you have here in the way of buildings and laboratories, and I could not help thinking of the immense amount of learning collected here, what a great amount of opportunity is given to those who wish to learn, and how remarkably well blessed are your students in coming to a university such as this. When I go to any university I can't help asking myself the question, whether we are all of us doing what we should with these magnificent buildings .and lecture-rooms and opportunities, and are we doing as much for the world outside us as we should do ? In other words, are we spreading it, are we letting the general public get all the advantages that it should get from the presence in its midst of a great university ? I am reminded here of a little story. I remember being told some years ago that on a wet day very few came to attend a lecture at the university, and the lecturer noticed one man, with his head between his hands drinking in every word with an expression of unusually deep interest, and when the lecture was finished the man still remained there. The lecturer went up and spoke to him, because he evidently seemed so interested. He began to ask the man questions, and his listener THE BRITISH EDUCATIONAL MISSION 35 him that as it was a wet day he had decided to come inside to wait for his cab ! So you see that those who seem most attentive sometimes are not those who are the best students. However, there is a work in which the great civic universities such as the one I represent are especially interested at the present time, a work involving a new movement in Great Britain which I hope will very soon establish itself in this country. We have endeavored to bring the advantages of our university to the people at our doors. In the north of England the extension lectures have ceased to play the impor tant part that was expected. That is because the universities went out to the workers and offered them lectures on all kinds of interesting subjects; but it has been discovered recently that the working popula tions have a very real need of true university education, and they have in the last few years come to the university and asked us to give them what they want. They asked that they should have some voice in planning the courses, and that they should take part in them as fellow- learners with the teachers. There has thus grown up during the past ten years a large group which is getting real university ' education. Working-class people, after a hard day's work, undertake for three years in succession to attend evening classes, which are lectures followed by discussion, with essays prepared by the learners, in order that they might become wiser, better, and happier citizens. That is a movement which I believe will help to remove many dangers and inequalities in the present readjustment of the social structure. We are here to stimulate co-operation between American and English universities, and I hope that as time goes on we may co-operate along these lines, as well as along others, to open the door for these people so that they may come in and share with us the privileges we possess. Vice-President Angell: I have great pleasure in calling next upon the representative of another provincial university, Miss Rose Sidgwick, of the University of Birmingham. Miss Sidgwick: I feel that we have laid upon us tonight an exceed ingly difficult task. We are here, I suppose, to justify our existence in America at a time when everyone's thoughts are running on the three great related topics, war, peace, and reconstruction. As we came last night to Chicago, the news burst upon us that peace had already arrived. That, as we know, was premature. Psychologists tell us that when people are undergoing tests of their response to various stimuli 36 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD are always some people who respond a little before the stimulus is applied. Under that stress of new emotion I began to wonder whether our Mission would be any longer wanted, whether there would be a place at alb for a universities mission, and after some thinking upon the sub ject it occurred to me that after all the very idea of a university is, in a sense, a justification of itself in such times, and really in all times, for a university is an expression on a small scale of that idea of the whole which is the. political and social phantom which flits in front of us, and on account of the wounding of which, four years ago, we have been suffering ever since. Until that unity is realized again, we shall never rest. We would have you realize that our Mission here means more than patriotism; it means a desire to reach out to this international unity which is, I believe, the hope of the future. Well, someone may say, that is all very well, but in appealing to the university as the type of this idea you are proving too much. Universities have their faults, as I know very well, and I should like to say how deeply some of us feel the Old World. I hope that we may do something to repair those errors in the future. But the university stands for an idea of general good which will be absolutely necessary in the coming time. The other day we were watching with wonder that magnificent fall of Niagara, and we noticed the sea birds skimming about perpetually where the water falls, and Tasked a man what they wanted, and he said that a number of fish were broken in coming over the falls, and the birds were after the fish. And so it may be that in the times to come there will be individuals who will be trying to see what can be got in the cataclysm of this time, and that is something we shall have to guard against. We are proud to represent the idea of unity and also, if we may, to add something to bring together the various universities of the English-speaking world. The university is a complex whole. As Bryce said, it is a kind of large building covering lesser buildings, like your Constitution; and we should like to help to bring about, not in .any literal sense of the word, a union of universities, a common spiritual building, in which university people will find themselves, as your Vice- President has invited us to do tonight, at home. And if anything can be done toward that end, it must be done by individual contact. That is why we hope so strongly that your young people will come to iis THE BRITISH EDUCATIONAL MISSION 37 that ours will go to you, because it is only those personal relations which can in the future protect us against misunderstandings. We hope that when young Americans have lived in England and young English men in America the danger of collision will be greatly reduced. And so I hope that the individual contacts may become, as it were, the roots of those kindly thoughts which will bind together the shifting sands and make the best barriers against the incursions of such tidal waves as that which the world has just suffered. Vice-President Angell: We have long, as Americans, appreciated and been proud of the opportunities which Oxford and Cambridge have given to our American students, and it is a peculiar pleasure to call upon the next speaker, who I am certain is second to none in the energy and skill with which he has brought about conditions in Oxford which have made it possible for our American students to study there with success and with the feeling of being at home. I am happy, therefore, in introducing Rev. Edward M. Walker, of Queen's College, Oxford. Dr. Walker: I accept your invitation. At this moment I too am at home. I am looking out of a window, I am looking across a garden, and I see beyond the garden and between the trees two build ings standing in relief against the sky. One is a spire and the other is a dome. It would be difficult to imagine buildings more dissimilar in size and age. The spire dates from the thirteenth century; it was built in the reign of King Edward the First, and is adorned with the pomegranates of Castile, the symbol of his consort, Queen Eleanor. The dome was built in the middle of the eighteenth century. It is, of all views, the view I know best. The spire is the spire of St. Mary's Church, and the dome is the dome of Radcliffe Library. Now the strange thing is this, that while those two buildings are so dissimilar, yet as one views them he is conscious not of discord but of harmony. They go so well together, each would be poorer without the other. When you ask how it is that a building of the eighteenth century fits in so well with a building of the thirteenth, you find it is that each of these two buildings in its way satisfies the first two condi measure and the sense of truth. In the most unfortunate days of the past I imagine it would have gone over anybody's head to maintain that the difference between England and America, between the English character and the Ameri can, was in any degree comparable to this spire and this dome. Yet such, I think, would be a fair 38 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD This is my first visit to America, and of course when one finds one's self in new surroundings one is always looking about to discover differences, and when I looked about I found them very easy to discover. I found them in the coins and postage stamps and in the countryside houses. In fact, so long as I was content to let the view rest upon the surface I found differences everywhere. But once the view penetrated beneath the surface I found not difference but identity. And put the differences between the two as high as you please, still isn't it clear that these two peoples, these two nations, these two characters, were meant to go well together? They harmonize so well, if for no other reason than this, that that which is characteristic of both peoples, both char acters, is precisely this sense of proportion and this sense of truth. We in England are rather proud, I think, of our common sense, our recognition of facts, and I think that most of us in England who know anything of Americans and America would admit that we find precisely that same sense of fact oyer here; in other words, there is no conviction so deep-seated both in the American and in the English mind as the great conviction that we cannot alter the nature of things in our history, through perils that would have proved fatal to any other people ? Our sense of compromise carried not only us but our ancestors and yours through many a peril. And that sense of measure, that feeling for proportion, isn't it written in every line and sentence of your famous Constitution? Now, ladies and gentlemen, I suppose that everyone one meets at the present time is asking one the question, What do you think, or what do the people in England think, are going to be the consequences of this war? What is going to happen when the war is over? This morning, just as I was about to start to visit this university, I was delayed by an interview with a reporter, and he began to ask me a number of questions, not about the future of humanity, but about the question, "I suppose you would admit that one certain result of this war will be the democratization of your universities ?" I asked what he meant. "Oh," he said, "I suppose there will be another Ruskin Hall in Oxford." Well, now, one hesitates to venture on any prophecy as to what is going to happen after the war, because almost every prophecy of what was likely to happen during the war has been falsified. But as THE BRITISH EDUCATIONAL MISSION 39 already been indicated by one speaker, when peace comes we may be confronted with another foe not less perilous to the interests of civiliza tion than the foe whom we have just defeated. I don't think that for some time in the near future autocracy is going to be one of the great enemies of the human race, but I am disposed to think there is going to be another enemy not less to be dreaded, and that is anarchy. And now if that prophecy should be correct, I cannot help thinking that the two countries which are likely to offer the most successful resistance to that enemy will be England and America, if for no other reason than this, that it is precisely in England and America that this sense of proportion and this sense of truth are strongest. Those of us who have been in England lately know perhaps better than you in America know how much we owe in serious crises to the moderating influence of your own labor interests. But there are two other consequences of the war, I think, which we may safely venture to predict. The first is this: I think it is quite certain that one consequence of the war will be that the language which is spoken in England and America will be in a sense the universal lan guage; not, of course, in the sense that it will be the only language in the world, but in this sense, that it will be the modern language which everybody will learn who does not belong to the English-speaking race. Unfortunately my memory goes back far enough to recall the Franco- German War. I was in school when the war came to an end. I remem ber how remarkable was the result of that German success. I remember that Otto's German Grammar was introduced into the schools and we the pupils. German was more widely studied abroad than English. But now that is changed. Already, in India and Japan, and in China to some extent, the language of instruction is English. Thirty years hence I take it that everybody who seeks to address mankind at large will write in English. That is one of the two results which the war forever our old friend the "Anglo-Saxon." There is another result which the war will bring with it, and that is an opportunity, I think, to the universities of America. Since I have been here and have seen your universities one conviction has been steadily growing in my mind, and that is that after the war your uni versities are going to become international in a sense and in a measure in which they have not been international in the past. I am told that when the war broke out there were 5,000 foreign students in 40 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD universities. The day is not far distant when you will look upon 5,000 foreign students in American universities with a sort of humorous sur prise. That number will be multiplied many times over. Just think from the Near East, Japan, and China will be greatly on the increase. Students from those countries went largely to Germany, but they will not do so after the war; they will come to America. There will be infinitely more students coming from the countries of South America than in the past. And do you suppose that the only students who will come from the Old World are the students from England? I believe that you will have students from all European countries, and therefore I believe that one of the results of the war will be that your universities will become international in character to an extent which none of us can realize at the present moment. Those will be two great opportu nities. The opportunities of the English-speaking race and the opportunities of your universities will be opportunities that will carry with them I think that one can only hope and trust that the voice of the English- speaking race and the voice of your American universities will speak the message of proportion and of truth. Vice-President Angell: The next speaker undoubtedly supposes himself to be a stranger to us, but he is not. The English settlers came first, we are told, to our Atlantic seaboard and settled that coast, but after it was well settled, the Irish, as you know, came in and took po litical command, and we have been living under their government more or less ever since, and for the most part we have found it very agree able. It has saved us a great deal of trouble and responsibility, and I therefore take great pleasure in introducing an eminent representative of the race under which we live so happily, Professor John Joly, of Trinity College, Dublin. Professor Joly: This morning I was at a loss to know what I should speak about this evening. I decided to take refuge in the repu tation of my university, which is known as the silent sister. But I found that I was expected to talk just as long and just as noisily as my colleagues, and therefore I realized that I would have to find some sub ject to talk about. While in this state of doubt I had a conversation with a gentleman in this university, in which he said that there could never again be discord between England and America. The words sank into my mind. It struck me that I would say a word on that - THE BRITISH EDUCATIONAL MISSION 41 my text, and I would ask you to consider the doctrine contained in that statement to be a most dangerous one. I do not want to create an alarming impression of impending discord between the countries. There have been great questions in the past, and those questions have been dissolved. While at the present time perfect friendship exists between the two great branches of the Anglo-Saxon race, no one can say what may be in store for the future; some petty, trivial thing may upset us all. I remember, when I was a boy, reading a story about a Spanish cavalier who was one of the old adventurers of the fifteenth or sixteenth century. He had heard a legend that there was a fountain of perpetual of youth. And the story goes that he weathered storms and famine, and that island after island was visited and the waters were tasted by Ponce de Leon, but he didn't find himself getting any younger. As years went on he found himself getting old, and at last his companions saw that he was dying, and they brought him to an island where the legend says no bird had ever sung because there was no water on the island, and there they left him and sailed away. I think that our quest here may be just as futile as the search for the fountain of perpetual youth if we imagine that the friendship between these two countries is going to be perpetual, unless we resort to that fountain of youth which exists in the race. It is to the youth of the race we must look to keep this friendship alive. How can you appeal to the youth of the race? Only by appealing to them year by year, to see the same sights you see and to feel the same feelings you feel. That is why we are here. It is a great idea and a noble one, and I confess that I sometimes feel almost overwhelmed by its solemnity. How can we do it ? Well, we had a long and interesting discussion today, but I confess that I came away from that discussion with some anxiety lest we should become too academic and too divorced from human feel ings and human sentiment. Some of us believed that the plans we were advocating should be put into operation by memorial fellowships, to the memory of those who have been killed or have died in the discharge of their duty. Objec tions were made, and it was suggested that it was better to get money from the state. But I still believe that it would be better that this money should be raised by means of fellowships in memory of those who died to save the world. I would rather see this matter carried 42 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD by memorial fellowships, given by men of substance or out of the mites of the poor. It is right and fitting, it seems to me, that in this way our plan should be put into effect, whereby the principle we are fighting for should be carried on through the perpetual streams of youth. Vice-President Angell: If we have learned our politics from Ireland, we have learned a great deal of our philosophy and religion from Scotland, and I take great pleasure, therefore, in calling upon Sir Henry Jones, professor of philosophy of the University of Glasgow. Sir Henry Jones: I am very much like Miss Spurgeon in many ways, but in nothing more so than in the fact that I rise to speak with a great deal of trepidation. But in spite of that fact I have something to say to you which I think you will all be pleased to hear. I know that you will now like to hear what the ladies, of whom there are so I claim that I have made the most popular speech of the evening. Vice-President Angell: We are asked to bring the exercises of the evening to a close by singing one stanza each of the British and of the American national anthems. Before we do so I want to express our thanks to our guests for the pleasure they have given us, and to wish them Godspeed on their journey, with the hope that at some future day they may return again to this place. And so the meeting concluded with the singing of the first stanzas of " God Save the King" and "The Star-Spangled THE FRENCH EDUCATIONAL MISSION Under the patronage of the French government and with the encour agement of the government of the United States, a Mission made up of some of the leading scholars of France arrived in the United States in November. This Mission came in response to invitations from several American institutions of learning to have representative French scholars interpret to them the dominant elements of the culture of France as a means of binding France and America more closely together in intellec tual sympathy. The members of the Mission were as follows: Professor Theodore Reinach, Lieutenant Colonel in the French Army, editor of the Gazette des Beaux Arts, contributor of several important studies to the History of Greece, and a member of the "Institut de France, Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres"; Professor Emmanuel de Martonne, of the University of Paris, exchange professor at Columbia, 1916, one of the most widely known French geographers; Professor Fernand Balden- sperger, of the University of Paris, more recently of Columbia Uni versity, who has already lectured at the University of Chicago on comparative literature; Professor Louis Cazamian, professor of English Literature in the University of Paris, the author of a notable volume on the social aspects of English fiction of the nineteenth, century; Dr. Etienne Burnet, of the Pasteur Institute (Paris), surgeon in the French Army; Mr. Charles Koechlin, composer and musical critic; Mr. Seymour de Ricci, art critic and former editor of Art in Europe. At the University of Chicago, Friday, November 29, the members of the Mission were entertained at luncheon at the President's house and in other homes. In the afternoon lectures were given as follows: "The France of Today and Tomorrow," Lieutenant Louis Cazamian. Harper Assembly Room, 4:30P.M. "Experiences of a French Surgeon on Different Fronts," Dr. Etienne Burnet. Ricketts Laboratory, 4:30 P.M. In the evening Lieutenant Colonel Reinach delivered an illustrated lecture on "Martyr Monuments of France" in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall. On Tuesday, December 3, at three o'clock, Mr. Charles Koechlin lectured on "Modern French Music." The program of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, at four o'clock, in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, was made up of modern French compositions. THE VICE-PRESIDENT'S QUARTERLY STATEMENT The work of the Autumn Quarter has been marked by the inaugura tion of the Student Army Training Corps and its subsequent demobiliza tion. Applications to the number of nearly 2,000 for entrance to the Corps were received, but by reason of the delay in execution of the induction papers by the local boards, by reason of the general public belief that peace was near at hand, and finally by reason of the widespread epidemic of influenza, the actual number of men in the two sections of the Corps totaled approximately 1,300. A full report of the experiences of the" quarter will be prepared in due time. It is only just to comment here upon the unswerving loyalty with which every officer of the University attempted to carry out the program of the War Department in assisting in the training of men for the Army and Navy. It would be a pleasure to mention by name those to whose untiring fidelity we are particularly indebted for the establishment of the new conditions, but the list is too long. If the University had gained nothing else from the experience, it might still count as a great and permanent asset the evidence which has been given of the complete devo tion of the members of its staff to the interests of the country and of the institution. The total attendance of students for the quarter has been 3,192, against 3,368 for the Autumn Quarter of 1917, a loss of 176. Thanks to the S.A.T.C, the attendance in the Colleges shows an increase over last year of 1 20. The loss has been in the Graduate and Professional schools. It chances that we confer at the end of this quarter exactly the same num ber of degrees as at the Autumn Convocation a year ago, although the distribution among the several divisions of the University naturally varies a trifle. A number of interesting gifts have been made to the University dur ing the past quarter. Attention is directed to the following: The Eugene Field collection, consisting of rare editions of his works, original letters, and manuscripts, presented by Dr. Frank W. Gunsaulus. The gift is of special interest because of the high position already attained by the University Libraries in American literature due to the generosity of Mrs. Francis Neilson. THE VICE-PRESIDENTS QUARTERLY STATEMENT 45 A manuscript volume of great interest for the early history of Ken tucky, presented by Dr. William Allen Pusey, of Chicago, a valuable addition to the previous rich collection of manuscripts on Kentucky already in the possession of the University. Very important additions have been made by Mrs. Emma B. Hodge to her previous gifts of books and original manuscripts of the Reforma tion period. Mr. Andrew MacLeish, vice-president of the Board of Trustees, has presented to the University $100,000 for the erection of a building, with an expression of preference for an administration building. This is but one of a long list of benefactions for which the University is indebted to Mr. MacLeish, whose frequent generosity has marked its previous his tory, and whose untiring and devoted service on the Board of Trustees has been for years of inestimable value. The last news from President Judson reported him as in good health and starting back on December 2 from Northern Persia by way of Con stantinople and Paris. The date of his arrival here is still uncertain. Such messages as have come through indicate that the trip has been both interesting and successful. Throughout the period of the war the University has strained every nerve to render the largest possible service to the common cause. More than a hundred members of its Faculty and hundreds upon hundreds of its students and alumni have entered the national service. All have regarded it as a matchless privilege to give each to the limit of his powers. Now that peace has been restored the University will welcome back her sons and daughters, and take up once again the more familiar round of her usual academic duties ; but she is keenly alive to the fact that the old and new obligations now confront her. To these she sets her hand, resolute as in the past to give the best she has of intelligence, insight, and devotion. And with this purpose in mind she will open her doors to the new year, which promises to usher in a new THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES By J. SPENCER DICKERSON, Secretary GIFT OF ANDREW MacLEISH Mr. Andrew MacLeish has served as a Trustee of the University since 1890, having been one of the original Trustees selected by the American Baptist Education Society. At the meeting of the Board of Trustees held October 8, 191 8, the following communication was received from Mr. MacLeish: The Board of Trustees The University of Chicago Gentlemen: Appreciating as I do the pressing and increasing need of the Uni versity in the way of additional buildings, I take pleasure in turning over to the Uni versity for the purpose of helping to meet the need for a building (preferably for " administration" or "modern languages") the securities described in the list inclosed herewith, and therein closely approximating in value at the time of my gift $100,000. It is my desire that the Board of Trustees shall have full discretion as to the time when the proceeds and accumulations from these securities shall be applied to the purpose mentioned. Respectfully yours, Andrew MacLeish September 27, 19 18 The gift was gratefully accepted by the Trustees and at their request the Secretary acknowledged Mr. MacLeish's liberality in the following letter : Mr. Andrew MacLeish Carson, Pirie, Scott 6* Company Chicago Dear Mr. MacLeish: I am instructed by the Board of Trustees of the Uni versity to express to you on behalf of your fellow Trustees their thanks for your munifi cent gift received by them at the meeting held October 8, 1918. The duty imposed amount and object of the gift. Your gift is peculiarly significant by reason of your official connection with the University from the very beginning; indeed you were one of that group of farseeing men who participated in the counsels which led to the founding of the institution. Furthermore, you have been intimately connected with the administration of the University's business affairs, having been on the first appointed committees on build ings and grounds and that on finance. The building you first name as that to be built by your financial aid is that to house the University's administrative officers. THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 47 It is an occasion for justifiable pride that so many gifts to the University have come from its Trustees, men who best have known its ideals, its needs, its possibilities for good. You have once more added your name to this list of generous givers to wisely chosen objects. On behalf of the Board of Trustees, Very truly yours, J. Spencer Dickerson, Secretary October 14, 19 18 THE La VERNE NOYES FOUNDATION Upon recommendation of Vice-President Angell the Board of Trustees has adopted the following plan for the administration of the scholarships of the La Verne Noyes Foundation: According to the terms of the gift establishing the La Verne Noyes Foundation, the amount and character of evidence of qualification of applicants and selection from the applicants is left to the discretion and decision of the Board of Trustees of the University. The following plan for the administration of the scholarships provided by the La Verne Noyes Foundation is suggested to the Board of Trustees: 1. Each applicant will fill out a form, on page 1 of which are printed the terms applying to the scholarships. The questionnaire (on pages 2, 3, and 4) has been drawn so as to elicit the facts regarding eligibility and additional facts bearing upon quali fications. 2. These applications will be reviewed by a committee appointed by the Presi dent of the University. In the case of students already in residence, each application will be submitted to the dean before consideration by the committee. Until the working of the scheme has been sufficiently tested, the applications will be received and considered in the President's office. 3. The University Auditor has submitted the following proposal regarding a form of appointment: Appointments will be made in duplicate, the original to go to the appointee, and the duplicate to be kept in a bound book of 50 or 100 to the book. The appointment blank will indicate the name of the appointee, the cash value of the tuition which the appointment covers, and the quarter. A separate voucher will be issued for each quarter. The appointee will be instructed to present the voucher in lieu of cash for the payment of his tuition to the Cashier, from whose office it will come to the Auditor's .-office, where the amount will be charged against the La Verne Noyes Foundation. Applications for scholarships to the number of 350 have been received. For the Winter Quarter 160 scholarships have been awarded. APPOINTMENTS In addition to reappointments the following appointments have been made : Herbert Bell to an instructorship in the Department of Physics, from October 1, 48 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD Assistant Professor Wellington D. Jones as a dean in the College of Science, from October i, 191 8. William Raymond Meeker to an associateship in the Department of Anatomy, from October 1, 1918. Daniel L. Hoffer to an instructorship in Physical Education, School of Education, from October 1, 1918. Marie Dye as teacher of chemistry in the High School, School of Education, from October 1, 1 91 8. Lydia Jane Roberts to an instructorship in home economics, School of Education, from October 1, 1918. Evelyn G. Halliday to an instructorship in home economics, School of Education, from January 1, 1919. George L. Harris as Acting Principal of the High School, School of Education, from October 1, 1918. Kenneth B. Hunter to an instructorship in English in the High School, School of Education, from October 1, 1918. Laurens J. Mills to an instructorship in English in the High School, School of Education, from October 1, 1918. Helen B. Dickey to an instructorship in home economics, School of Education from October 1, 19 18. Marion G. Dana to an instructorship in home economics, School of Education, from October 1, 1918. Mildred Henderson to an instructorship in home economics, School of Education, from October 1, 1918. Faith M. McAuley to an instructorship in home economics, School of Eduction, from October 1, 1918. CoAa. Anthony to an associateship in home economics, School of Harvey B. Lemon to an assistant professorship in the Department of Physics, from January 1, 1919. Mrs. Katherine A. Graham to an instructorship in the Department of English, from October 1, 1918. LEAVES OF ABSENCE In addition to renewing leaves of absence already granted to mem bers of the Faculties, chiefly for service in connection directly or indirectly with th? war, the following leaves of absence have been granted: To Assistant Prof essor ' Charles C. Colby, of the Department of Geography, for the Autumn Quarter, 1918, the Winter and Spring Quarters, 1919. He visits Japan for the United States Shipping THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 49 To Professor H. Gideon Wells, of the Department of Pathology, from November i, 1918, to May 1, 1919. He visits Roumania and the Balkan States as medical officer of a Red Cross Relief Commission. To Professor George H. Mead, of the Department of Philosophy, from October 25, 1918, to January 1, 1919, to serve as director of war courses in the Student Army Training Corps for Missouri, Kansas, and Colorado. To Professor James H. Tufts, of the Department of Philosophy, from October 25, 191 8, to January 1, 19 19, to serve as director of war courses in the Student Army Training Corps for Illinois, Wisconsin, and Michigan. To Assistant Professor William D. MacMillan, of the Department of Astronomy, from October 1, 1918, for the duration of the war. He is a major in the Ordnance Department of the Army. To Principal Franklin W. Johnson, of the University High School, for one year from October 1, 1918. He is serving at a United States Army base hospital in New Jersey, with rank of major. To Associate Professor Harold O. Rugg, of the Department of Edu cation, School of Education, for the Autumn Quarter, 191 8. He is serving in the Army. To Dean James Parker Hall, of the Law School, for service in the Adjutant General's Office, of the War Department, from October 1, 191 8, for the duration of the war. To Instructor Richard Offner, of the Department of History of Art, from September 1, 19 18, to January 1, 19 19. RESIGNATIONS The Board of Trustees has accepted the resignations of the following members of the Faculties: John M. Crowe, teacher of English in the University High School, School of Education, to take effect October 1, 191 8. Associate George F. Sutherland, of the Department of Physiology, to take effect October 1, 191 8. Major Henry S. Wygant, Professor of Military Science and Tactics, to take effect October 20, 191 8. Assistant Professor Eugene A. Stephenson, of the Department of Geography, to take effect November 4, 191 8. Instructor James Kessler, of the Department of Romance Languages, to take effect October 1, 1918. He has entered the Beth Lemen, teacher in the University High School, of the School of Education, to take effect October i, 1918. Assistant Professor Shiro Tashiro, of the Department of Physiologi cal Chemistry, to take effect December 31, 1918. He takes a position with the University of Cincinnati. STUDENT ARMY TRAINING CORPS At the meeting of the Board of Trustees held November 12, 191 8, portions of a report made by Major H. S. Wygant, the first commandant of the Student Army Training Corps, to the War Department's Com mittee on Education and Special Training were read. This report contained the following: I desire to report upon the wonderful co-operation accorded the Military Depart ment by the University of Chicago authorities, from the head of the University, Dr. James R. Angell, to the last subordinate. The needs of the military department appear to have in most instances been anticipated, and every facility, regardless of the sacrifice it meant to the institution, in old established custom, expense, etc., was offered the Commanding Officer to effect and satisfactorily carry out the plans and wishes of the War Department. I cannot too highly commend this institution for its spirit of patriotism, sacrifice, and hearty and cordial co-operation with the military authorities. Major Wygant was succeeded as commandant by Major Ripley L. Dana, who remained until the Corps was mustered out in December. MISCELLANEOUS F. H. Tracht, for a number of years connected with the retail depart ment of the University of Chicago Press, has been appointed manager of the University bookstores under the general supervision of a sub committee of the Trustees' Committee on Press and Extension. Mr. and Mrs. J. L. Rosenberger have added $1,000 to the principal of the endowment of the Rosenberger medal and prize. The death of Mrs. Rosenberger on November 19, 1918, was reported to the Trustees at the meeting held December 10, 1918, and a letter of sympathy on their behalf was sent to Mr. Rosenberger. The Board of Trustees has formally voted to extend the leave of absence granted to President Judson for service abroad as chairman of a relief commission sent to Persia. It was the hope of the Trustees that he would remain in Paris so long as he deemed it desirable, especially in view of the early meeting of the Peace Conference at Versailles. President Judson was in Bombay in October; later he proceeded to Teheran, Persia, where he remained for some weeks. On December THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 5* he left Baku on the Caspian Sea, crossing Trans-Caucasia, for Batum, on the Black Sea. He expected to sail thence for Constantinople. He arrived in Rome on December 30, 191 8, immediately departing for Paris. In a letter to the President of the Board dated at Bombay, September 26, 1918, he wrote saying that "the work of the commission is proceeding well and I am rejoiced that I came. Results look promis ing." The latest cablegram from Paris announces that he will return to Chicago early in February. The University has invested $524,550 in Liberty Loan bonds of the first, second, and third issues. To the fourth Liberty Loan a subscrip tion of $125,000 was made. A lease has been closed with the Bryant & Stratton Business College for space for use of University College in the Lake View Building at 116 South Michigan Avenue. Upon the request of the American Council of Education, the Board of Trustees has voted to receive in the University one or more students who have served in the French Army and to grant them free tuition. They are mature men prepared for advanced work of graduate or tech nical character. The first of these men enters the Law School in the Winter Quarter of 1919. Twenty-one such soldier-students have already been received by American LETTERS FROM PERSIA From Harry Pratt Judson, Chairman of the Commission on Relief in the Near East: .... The commission has been showered with attentions .... From Arthur C. Boyce, the American Mission, formerly a student in the Department of Education of the University of Chicago: It has been a great treat for us here to be associated with Dr. Judson in this work, and we are hoping that his visit may mean much good for the future of Persia. I do not believe that any foreigner has been so royally received in Persia since the days of Shah Abbas and the early English ambassadors to the Persian court. The name of America is magic these days, and the people are expecting much from us in the future. The coming of this Commission has made the government and people feel that America has a special interest in the welfare of Persia, and, as one Persian gentleman expressed it at a meeting of our Relief Committee the other day, " that there is still upon the earth a people who will work for other and weaker nations sincerely and unselfishly." Dr. Judson will tell you no doubt about the way they have been received and honored and decorated1 by Shah and people, how they have been dinnered and teaed by every part of the community from Armenian Council to Zoroastrian Assembly. Professor Jackson's scholarship in things Persian and deep sympathy for the Persian people, together with Dr. Judson's fine diplomacy and keen appreciation of the difficulties under which the government is working, have greatly enhanced the name of America, and gives us who stay behind a great deal to live up to. xThe Order of the Lion and the Sun (of the first class with brilliants), the high est honor in the gift of Persia, was conferred on President Judson. fl)A XOYKS, THK COLLKC.K IDA NOYES By THOMAS W. GOODSPEED Ida Noyes Hall of the University of Chicago is a memorial building. It was erected by Mr. La Verne Noyes, of Chicago, in memory of his wife, Ida E. S. Noyes. The name thus commemorated is familiar to all the women of the University, and successive graduating classes will carry it to new communities and new countries until it is known in every land. As students and visitors realize the beauty and charm of the Hall, view its proportions, and consider its usefulness, they are likely to ask, "Who was Ida Noyes and was she worthy of the monument affection has built to her memory and of the mention that will be made of her through so many generations and in so many lands ?" She was born in the village of Croton, Delaware County, New York. Delaware, so named because within it are found the sources of the Delaware River, is in the second tier of counties west of the Hudson and the first north of the Pennsylvania border. At the close of the Revolution it was an almost unbroken wilderness. It was, however, rich in pine forests and in waterways to float lumber and logs to market. Well-authenticated stories are on record of white pine trees more than two hundred feet in height. The rumor of its attractions spread to New England, and colonies of Massachusetts and Connecticut Revo lutionary soldiers and their families began to settle in its forests and on its streams. Among them were the progenitors of Mrs. Noyes.. On her mother's side she traced her genealogy through the Wheat, Bolles, and Shephard families to William Bradford, the second governor of the Plymouth colony who came with the Pilgrim Fathers to the New World in 1620. Silas C. Wheat, the genealogist of his family, writes, after carefully tracing the line of descent, "This line makes all descendants of Captain Wm. and Mary Wheat the descendants of Governor Wm. Bradford, of Plymouth Colony." Captain William and Mary Wheat were the great-grandparents of Mrs. Noyes. On the two sides of the family there have been soldiers in all the wars of America, from the French and Indian down through two hundred and fifty years to the Great War, just now ended as this is written, that has saved the liberties of mankind. The father and mother of Mrs. Noyes were Joel W. Smith and Susan M. Wheat. Their families had migrated from New England to the wilderness of Delaware County in the first decade of 54 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD the century, the Smiths in 1800. Joel W. Smith was a graduate of Yale. He had eight brothers, and in 1868 the father and his nine sons cast ten votes for General Grant for president. Joel became a physi cian and was settled for a few years at Croton, near the old home, in Delaware County. This village has found it difficult to get a satis factory name, and during the last sixty years has been known succes sively as Croton, East Franklin, and Treadwell. Here, while the village still bore its original name, Mrs. Noyes was born on April 16, 1853, and was named Ida Elizabeth. A sister two years younger died in childhood. She remained the only daughter in a family of five chil dren, one of the brothers being older by two years, the others much younger than herself. The father, Dr. Smith, was one of that great army of Americans who in the fifties of the last century heard the call of the West. The father of La Verne Noyes yielded to it in 1854, but it was not until three years later that Dr. Smith left the home of his fathers to seek another in the new state of Iowa. Ten years only had passed since the admission of Iowa to the Union, and when in 1857 Dr. Smith settled in Charles City, Floyd County, he found himself in a country of pioneers. Charles City, or St. Charles as it was then known, is in northern Iowa, seventy-five miles west of the Mississippi. ^Railroads had not yet reached that part of Iowa. It was, in fact, the real frontier. The Indians still lingered in the neighborhood. Bears and wolves were found. Ida was about four years old when the family reached the new home. The older brother, Irving, was six. It was dangerous for the children to wander far afield, and alarm was felt if they were too long out of their mother's sight. Until 1864 there were only two of them, and they were inseparable companions and constant playmates. As they grew older together Ida became accustomed to the sports of a boy. The Cedar River flows through the village and in the family, traditions have come down of big pickerel caught by them. As the country settled they were allowed great freedom, and, with forest and stream inviting them, made much of the out-of-door life. Ida was notable throughout her girlhood for rather striking red cheeks, which she no doubt owed to this life in the open. In the early years the family endured many of the hardships incident to a pioneer life. Doctors were few and far between on those western prairies, and the father was often compelled to answer distant calls in all weathers. Nothing pleased his young daughter more than to ride with him, when weather and distance per mitted, on his visits into the country. The father's reputation IDA NOYES 55 practice constantly increased, until he became known as one of the leading physicians of the state. The railroad came, the village devel oped into a small but thriving city, and the conditions of life greatly improved. Dr. Smith was one of the most public-spirited of the citi zens. He was much interested in the village school from the first and was early made president of the school board. He had been a school teacher in early life, and his interest in and ambition for the schools of his western home were great and fruitful. It was said of him, "None but himself can know and eternity only can reveal the labors, the sacri fices, and the pecuniary cost to himself of the work which he has done for the schools of Charles City and vicinity." Both the children were exceptionally bright. The brother, Irving, had unusual intellectual gifts and ended his life at forty-four as pro fessor of pathology and therapeutics in Iowa State College. The sister, Ida, was perhaps equally bright, and at eleven years of age was in classes with boys and girls of fourteen and fifteen. Brilliant as her brother was, he kept only two years in advance of her, and he was two years older. When he went to Iowa State College as a student in 1868, at seventeen, it was only natural that the sister who admired him should resolve to follow him. This she did in 1870, when she too was seventeen. She was admitted to the State College in this wise: She wrote to the president a letter so well considered and in penmanship so clear and beautiful that he told her to come, and as some form of service was at that time required from all students he appointed her his private sec retary. After her brother's graduation she spent a term at the State University of Iowa City, but soon returned and completed her college course in the institution at Ames, where she was graduated with honors in 1874. A fellow-student says of her: "During her college days she was admired for her talent as a presiding officer, as a fine speaker, and as one greatly talented in reading and acting." She was a brilliant stu dent, learning with unusual facility, so that study was never a drudgery but always a delight. It was indeed so much of a delight that she con tinued to be a student to the end of her life. Her work in the class room is reported to have been well-nigh perfect, and she was a recognized leader in college activities. It was in the college at Ames that she and Mr. Noyes first met. He was a Junior when she entered, and was a classmate of her brother. They became acquainted, and he found the bright, vivacious, auburn-haired girl most attractive. The attraction indeed was mutual and resulted in something more than mere acquaint 56 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD Returning home after her graduation in 1874 she became a teacher in the Charles City High School. A popular and successful instructor, she continued teaching for two years or more, when her approaching wedding day took her away from her classes. She found much of her recreation during the three years between her graduation and marriage in horseback riding. A friend of the family had brought back from the South at the close of the Civil War in 1865 a young pony, which later came into her possession. Her slight figure matched the pony's small stature, and Daisy, whom she rode thousands of miles, continued for many years to minister to her health and happiness. Daisy accompanied her through all changes of residence, serving her to a very advanced age, and when too old longer to carry her hundred pounds was sent back to Iowa by Mr. Noyes and cared for to the end of her long and useful life. Daisy was believed to have lived fifty-four years, an age so great as to deserve recording. Ida Smith became Ida Noyes in 1877. The father of La Verne Noyes had brought his family from Genoa, Cayuga County, New York, to Springville, Linn County, Iowa, in 1854, when the boy was five years old. The son had grown up on his father's farm and had entered Iowa State College in 1868, graduating in 1872. He had later established himself in business in Batavia, Illinois. Mr. Noyes possessed in a very unusual degree two qualifications for success in life. He had by nature a genius not only for invention but also for the conduct of business. How many devices he has invented he probably does not himself know, but he has secured patents for more than a hundred. When he began his business life in Batavia it was in the manufacture and sale of his own inventions in improved haying tools and gate hang ers. The acquaintance of the two young people in college had developed into mutual affection, and an engagement had followed. As soon, therefore, as Mr; Noyes began to see his way in business they were married. The wedding took place in Charles City on May 24, 1877. Mr. and Mrs. Noyes did not set up housekeeping in Batavia. A gentle man with a large, fine house and a very small family asked them to make their home in his house, so that with slender resources they were rather sumptuously housed during their two years in that attractive village. It has been said that Mrs. Noyes was a student, and that studious application was not a task but a delight to her. It was impossible for her to be idle. Her small body was a dynamo of ceaseless activity. Newly married, in a new community where she had few social ties and no household duties, she applied herself to reading and study. IDA NOYES 57 ster's Unabridged Dictionary was kept at hand for ready reference. She found it heavy and hard to handle. She therefore suggested to Mr. Noyes that he, being an inventor, should devise something to hold it for her so that she would only have to turn the leaves. On her con senting to take over his correspondence and accounting, which she was perfectly qualified to do by her experience in college as secretary to the president, Mr. Noyes in the course of a few weeks invented the dictionary holder, which proved to be a stroke of genius and laid the foundation of their fortune. The new business so increased his labors that Mrs. Noyes continued for a number of years to keep the accounts and conduct the correspondence, and she proved a very able business associate through these early years. The success of the new business led them to Chicago in 1879, and that city was thenceforth their home. The correspondence and accounting were now given up for housekeeping, and they made their home at first on the West Side, later on the South Side, finally locating permanently in the North Division. In Chicago Mrs. Noyes found opportunities for the art studies which she had long desired. She lost no time therefore in making her way to the Art Institute and enrolling as a student. Her impulse toward art had appeared in her girlhood. She began her studies in drawing in Charles City and continued them in Batavia, making there also a beginning in painting. She cherished an ambition to become an artist and was encouraged in it by her husband. On coming to Chicago, therefore, she welcomed the opportunity which the then newly organized Art Institute afforded her for continuing her studies under competent teach ers. She and her husband conceived a life-long interest in the Insti tute, of which Mr. Noyes became a governing life-member. It goes without saying that Mrs. Noyes never intended to become a professional painter. But she earnestly desired to attain a degree of excellence that would help to enrich her life and add to its satisfactions. She had well-defined ambitions. This was one of them. Another was to see as much of the planet on which she lived as other occupations and duties would permit. She was ambitious to improve her mind, to widen her horizon, to add, to her information. She was mentally alert. She read much. But books only served to awaken and increase a desire to see the people and things of which she -read. These longings largely shaped her life. Mr. Noyes prospered in business, and this opened the way for her to realize her longing to continue her studies in painting in the Mecca of all students of art. It was in 1886, nine years after her 58 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD that she made her first trip abroad. She left Chicago in November, 1886, and did not return till the end of June, 1888. She wrote during this absence, as she did in all her absences from home, a series of most interesting letters to her husband, which have been carefully preserved. Her penmanship was perfect, and she wrote with great care. She did not sit down and write as things occurred to her at the moment but thought out and arranged in advance the contents of her letters and then wrote in a natural, simple, and charming style. A reader of her letters finds no difficulty in believing what she says in one of them that rhetoric and Karnes's Elements of Criticism were the most enjoy able studies of her college course. She began to write on the steamer, and her letters gave a detailed story of every day, from that on which she sailed to her arrival in port on her return. She did this on all her journeys (and these were not infrequent) to give pleasure to her hus band. She wrote twice and sometimes three times a week, and Mr. Noyes wrote just as often. On this first voyage abroad, after spending a month in Heidelberg with a friend, she went to Paris, passing through Coblenz, which she was assured was "impregnably fortified." Most of the nineteen months of her stay abroad at this time she spent in Paris studying French, drawing, and painting. She spent much time in the famous Julien School but tried out the methods of others also. In March, 1888, she writes of her daily routine as follows: In the morning I rise soon after daylight, which is not too early at this season, make my toilet, take the coffee and rolls, and get to work at the art school at half- past eight. Dejeuner occupies the noon hour, after which comes painting again till four or five o'clock. The time between this and getting ready for dinner is usually occupied with a walk for fresh air and exercise and doing little errands or making calls. You know all about the length of the dinner hour [Mr. Noyes had run over and visited her] and how easy it is to sit down afterward and talk with friends and acquaintances, or go somewhere in the evening. Still my evenings are not all spent this way, as you know I write an occasional letter, go to dancing school one evening each week, and up to this time have prepared French exercises for a class which I attended two afternoons each week. While I am quoting from this interesting series of letters I cannot resist the temptation to use the following passage, so full of significance and interest at the time this sketch is written at the end of the Great War which restored to France her lost provinces: One incident of the national fSte day which I witnessed deserved to be recorded. It was early morning and I was standing in the Place de la Concorde quite enraptured with the fairy-like appearance given to it by garlands of white globes, which, like festoons of flowers, were carried in all directions from lamp-post to lamp-post, where the ordinary burners and lanterns were replaced by an immense cluster of IDA NOYES 59 like a great spray of white flowers. Suddenly a solemn procession appeared at the northwest corner of the Place, marched slowly across the Place, and paused in front of the statue which symbolized the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. From the gravity of the procession, which consisted of men and youths, as well as the dirgelike music to which their steps were timed, I had at first supposed it must be a funeral, and had wondered that any French person, even in death, could be so inconsiderate of the feelings of others, or perhaps it were better to say, of the eternal fitness of things, as to intrude obsequies upon that festal day. But I was mistaken. There was no hearse, although the other symbols of grief, sad music, the mournful visage, the step which showed the heart bowed down, and the wreaths of immortelles were all there. The latter they had come to lay at the shrine of their loved and lost provinces. What could be more patriotic or more fitting the nation's day? And they tell me the people all say this shrine shall never be without flowers until their own is restored to them again. This letter was written July 24, 1887. Mr. Noyes was about to join her and had asked her to continue her letters as usual up to the day of his arrival. He came on July 25, and they spent a month together in Paris, in Switzerland, on the Rhine, in Belgium, and in England; then Mr. Noyes returned to his business in Chicago and she to her studies in Paris. A few months later he wrote to her: Many people have said to me that they did not see how we could stand it to be separated so long. I assure such people that it would be much pleasanter for us to be together, but that happiness in life for us is made up of many elements; that we can each read, write, think, and do many things that give enjoyment in the absence of the other; and that even when alone and thousands of miles apart we find life well worth the living, and that we hope by being separated for a time to make it better worth the living. Both were young in 1887 ; Mrs. Noyes was only thirty-four. Though a college woman, she was eager for a broader culture, and her husband sympathized with her ambitions. Her desire for improvement and excellence appears in this extract from a letter of October, 1887. " When one looks at the lovely Venus de Milo chiseled by human hands before the time of Christ and contemplates how its beauty has endured, is it not a wonderful incentive to do well that which we do ?" In April and May of 1888 she made a trip through Italy, visiting Rome, Naples, Venice, Milan, and Florence, returning to Chicago at the end of June. Continuing her studies, she added a knowledge of Spanish to her acquaintance with French. The year of her return from this first trip to Europe was one of the most interesting and important in the family life. It was the year in which Mr. Noyes organized the Aermotor Company for the manufacture and sale of steel windmills, which were so vast an improvement on 6o THE UNIVERSITY RECORD old wooden styles that they revolutionized that business and led him on to a career of uninterrupted prosperity. Mrs. Noyes was thereafter at liberty to spend her leisure as she wished. The thing that distin guished her from other women was the use she made of the opportunities which increasing wealth opened before her. She might have spent her summers at fashionable watering places or devoted her leisure to the distractions of the capitals of Europe. But these methods of employ ing her time do not seem to have occurred to her. It was her ambition for self-improvement, for acquiring new information, for increasing her knowledge of the world she lived in that controlled her. She felt that she had no time to waste in those places where the wealthy and fashion able gathered for recreation and amusement. Whether at home or abroad she was ceaselessly busy. It was her artistic instinct that made her a devotee of the camera. Always and everywhere she was taking pictures. She was fond of travel, and though she was never again absent from her home for as long a period as on her first sojourn in Paris, in pursuance of her ambitions she traveled much and far. And she journeyed in this fashion: Her camera was in constant use, ten, twenty, thirty times a day. Every point of historic or artistic interest was visited and studied and photographed. Notes were taken on the spot and at night written out more fully in a diary. Every expenditure, even the slightest, was set down in an account book, on the theory that what cost money was worth remembering, and that an expenditure account is a real and illuminating history of a journey. No days were wasted in idleness. The photographs were carefully catalogued, named, and numbered, and the films developed at the studio of the nearest expert. Then the frequent home letters and letters to other friends were faithfully written. There was much preparatory reading to be done of the places to be visited during the succeeding week, as well as routes of travel to be studied and passage to be secured. In reading the records of these journeys one is overwhelmed by the impression of the almost superhuman activity in sightseeing, photo graphing, souvenir buying, elaborate accounting, diary writing, letter writing, and other things which are not occasional but continue daily for weeks and months together. Yet there does not seem to be haste, only an ordered but ceaseless activity. She worked untiringly, but with a singular ease and enjoyment. Constant activity was not an effort but the law of her being. Her frequent jounfeys were made in the company of her husband or of some kindred-minded woman friend. She was not critical of people, but sympathetic and IDA NOYES 61 and made many warm and valued friends in the course of her travels. At the same time she had so keen an intelligence, so much independence and self-reliance, such an air of competence, that she never suffered from imposition in any part of the world. It is not intended to tell with any detail the story of Mrs. Noyes's journeys, nor even to mention all of them. The limits of this sketch forbid. The three daily diaries she kept on her trip around the world, telling the story of where she went and what she saw each day, of the photographs she took and the money she spent, these alone contain about ten thousand words, more than are here given to the story of her entire life. In the spring of 1892 she visited the Pacific Coast, and after seeing Oregon, Washington, and southern California extended her journey to Hawaii, spending on her return a few days in the Yosemite Valley. In February, 1894, she went abroad, visiting France, Belgium, and England. Mr. Noyes joined her in the spring for the later weeks of travel. The following winter and spring she spent three months in a trip which car ried her to Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Egypt, Palestine, Turkey, France, and England. In the summer of 1895 she and her husband went down the St. Lawrence and up the Saguenay, visited Montreal and Quebec, and gave two days to Bar Harbor and two more to iLake George and Lake Champlain. Before returning home Mrs. Noyes visited her birthplace in Delaware County and was taken by Mr. Noyes to see the house in which he was born in Cayuga County. In the summer of 1897 Mr. and Mrs. Noyes took a trip together through the West and Northwest of their own country. After ascend ing Pike's Peak and viewing the Garden of the Gods they crossed the continental divide amid scenery of which Mrs. Noyes wrote: "The views of castle-like rock formation all along the Grand River and near the Green River were so startlingly like the elaborate architectural work of man it was hard to believe it all Nature's unstudied handiwork. Sometimes the formations looked in the distance exactly like great fortified cities." They visited Great Salt Lake, where "La Verne tried the buoyant billows of the salty sea, but I did not," and took the trip down the Columbia River. But all this was only preliminary to their real objective, which was Alaska. The rush to the Klondyke was on, and their steamer was full of men on their way to the gold fields. They climbed the Muir Glacier and found themselves, as Mrs. Noyes wrote, in the "awe-inspiring presence of the majesty of congealed centuries." They went as far north as Skagway. There were so many scenes to 62 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD photographed that her supply of films became exhausted and could not be replenished till Tacoma was reached on the return journey. A great week followed in Yellowstone Park, and the beginning of Septem ber found them again at home. The combination of the beautiful, sublime, and marvelous that this journey had presented made such an impression on Mrs. Noyes that in closing her diary she quoted these lines: There are those who seek in other climes the joys they might have known Mid the mountains and the meadows of the land they call their own. The impression, however, was not abiding, though she loved and admired the "mountains and meadows" of no land above those of her own. But Greece and Palestine and Egypt had awakened in her a desire to see the Far East. On December 2, 1897, accompanied by an old Chicago friend then living in London, she spent six busy and happy months circling the globe. She followed a unique method in preparing for this journey. In 1895 a book had been published in Chicago, written Aunt Sarah Here, Aunt Sarah There. The author told the story of just such a tour around the world as Mrs. Noyes desired to make. She took this book, therefore, and wrote out a fifteen-hundred-word transcript of it. This was written in narrative form and reads like a diary of a trip taken by herself. It contained all the facts as to trains, boats, hotels, places worth seeing, etc., which she thought might be useful to her, and this transcript she took with her, apparently that she might have at hand the information she wanted for frequent reference. In the journey Bombay was reached on January 9, 1898, and six weeks were given to India. Mrs. Noyes found the people of India "fascinat ing." A few days were spent in Burmah, Ceylon was visited, and a few weeks were given to China. It took 6ve or six weeks to see Japan, which was enjoyed as much as India had been. The Spanish- American War was threatening, and Mr. Noyes warned her that the sea might be so unsafe that it would be necessary for her to walk home. But it did not prove to be so and the S.S. "China" took the travelers safely to San Francisco in May, 1898. During the entire trip Mrs. Noyes had been extraordinarily busy. She had been indefatigable in visiting places of interest. She had taken about two thousand photographs. She had purchased innumerable souvenirs, most of them of artistic interest and value. She found Mr. Noyes awaiting her on the dock in San Francisco, and together they visited southern California and the Grand Canyon of the Colorado. They reached Chicago IDA NOYES 63 in June, a little more than six months after the voyage around the world began. Only nine days later Mrs. Noyes went to Denver, Colorado, to attend a convention of the Federation of Women's Clubs. From this short trip of less than three weeks she brought back two hundred photo graphs. In 1899 she spent some weeks in Ireland, England, and France. In 1900 she made a pilgrimage to Oberammergau, Bavaria, to see and hear the Passion Play. It was the year of the World Exposition in Paris. The aermotor was among the American exhibits, and the young est brother of Mrs. Noyes was in care of the exhibit. She reached Paris at one o'clock at night and was much pleased to find her brother Fred erick at the station to greet her, the city being crowded with visitors. She gave only six days to Paris and the Exposition and then went on to Oberammergau, where she stopped at the house of Emmanuel Lang, brother of Anton, the Christus of the year's play. The house was a "lowly cottage, but entertained fourteen guests, in addition to the five members of the family." On Sunday, September 30, she wrote in her diary, "The long-looked- for and long-journeyed-for day to see 'the story that transformed the world.' .... Had seats 233 and 234 .... at just the right distance. Of the play shall not attempt to write, except that it riveted attention from beginning to finish in spite of the long, long hours of sitting still. .... Tableaux wonderful, acting astonishing." Leaving Oberam mergau, she visited Vienna, Prague, Dresden, and other German cities. In 1902 President McKinley appointed Mr. Noyes a delegate to the International Congress of Commerce and Industry which met at Ostend, Belgium, in August of that year. Mrs. Noyes accompanied him, and they visited together Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, France, and England. In 1905 they again went abroad together and spent July and August in Ireland, Scotland, England, and Wales. Through out this journey Mrs. Noyes was very busy with the camera, bringing home about six hundred pictures. In 1907 they visited once more Yellowstone Park, making a more extended stay than on their former visit. Many pictures were brought from a visit in 1909 to the Pacific Coast from Washington to California, which included the Yoserriite Valley. "A fascinating sojourn in the heart of the Big Horn Moun tains" in Wyoming, which she enjoyed with Mr. Noyes in the summer of 1910, greatly enriched her photographic collection. Mrs. Noyes made her last trip abroad in September, 19 10, at the request of a friend who was ill and desired to see her face once more. She took the round 64 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD on the "Campania" to London and back, contributing on the voyage an appeal in verse for seamen at a concert given on their behalf. This record of her travels is by no means complete. She visited the Panama Canal with Mr. Noyes and the islands of the Caribbean Sea, where many of her finest photographs were taken. It will be apparent from the foregoing that Mrs. Noyes was very fond of travel. The fact that she was never seasick gave her the liveliest satisfaction. She was proud to be able to write to her husband that in the wildest and most long-continued storms she never missed u meal and was often the only woman who appeared in the dining-room. Everything in her journeys seemed enjoyable; even while her fellow- passengers were miserable she was happy. She possessed great good-will and liked the people she met on trains and shipboard. Amiable and sociable, she made many delightful acquaintances. Everywhere she found friends. She had an unusual capacity for enjoyment and led a happy life. When she went to Hawaii in 1892 Mr. Noyes wrote: I was sure your trip would be one of unalloyed pleasure and enjoyment, partly because you always travel rather to enjoy yourself than to be miserable and uncom fortable, and one is likely to find what he hunts for; partly because you are a good traveler and know how to look for and find the good things, and partly because people like to help one enjoy who is a good enjoyer, which you are. Mrs. Noyes, it has been said by one who knew her, would have been conspicuous in any company by her inconspicuousness. She was petite in figure to an extreme, being about five feet one inch in height, but she made up in animation what she lacked in bulk. Her vivacity was spontaneously temperamental. She was physically and mentally alert and represented the type of woman the old New England academies prided themselves on producing. She carried the spirit of the well- brought-up girl into the sphere that was open to her in Chicago. Play ful and serious, she was a decidedly wholesome woman, devoted to those good causes that appealed to her. She was very much interested in the activities of women. She was a director of the Twentieth Century Club and of the Women's Athletic Club. She was a member of the Chicago Colony of New England Women. She was president of the North Side Art Club and was active in the Woman's Club. But the later years of her life were devoted largely to the Daughters of the American Revolution. The story of her ceaseless activities in the interest of this organization of patriotic women is worthy of a volume. She was secretary and later regent of the Chicago Chapter, the first organized in the country and the IDA NOYES 65 having over eight hundred members. She became vice-president gen eral of the national organization. This honor was conferred on her for the second time during her last illness, when she was not able to be present at the annual meeting. She gave much attention to the Illinois room in the national building of the D.A.R. in Washington, and it was largely furnished by her. She visited the Capitol often in the interest of this great organization and wielded a potent and beneficent influence in its affairs. She often spoke at the annual meetings, and a reporter of a great daily once said of her that she was the "most brilliant woman who had ever appeared before the Congress." She was a graceful speaker, her voice was sweet and musical and carried far, and she had a most winning personality. She devoted much time and attention to disseminating among foreign immigrants lessons of true Americanism, that they might quickly become good citizens. She devoted herself to organizing the boys and girls of the country in patriotic clubs and educating them in the duties of citizenship. She was particularly active in the D.A.R. in furthering its multiplied activ ities. At the request of the national board of that organization she wrote a paper on the forms of activity of the various chapters. To one not acquainted with them their variety and magnitude would be a surprising revelation. She was deeply interested in them all, and no one surpassed her in devotion to them. They included preserving and marking historic sites of buildings, battlefields, forts, roads, and trails, sustaining schools in remote mountain regions and night schools in cities, purchasing and equipping playgrounds in congested city districts, raising funds for patriotic educational work, sustaining lecture courses on American history among our foreign population, and so on, almost without number. Mrs. Noyes gave herself to all these things with the full strength of her enthusiastic nature. A friend who knew her inti mately says of her that "wealth made no change in her soul," and that she "never knew a sweeter nature or a stronger one." She was char acterized by great kindliness and sympathy and greatly delighted in helping young people to enjoy themselves. Having built an $18,000 cottage for the Park Ridge School for Girls, Mrs. Noyes took much pleasure in providing occasional entertainments for the girls whose home it was and ministering to their welfare and happiness. Mrs. Noyes's artistic instincts gave her a peculiar joy in beauty. In her journeys the galleries of art, the beautiful in architecture, like the great cathedrals and the Taj Mahal, the picturesque and sublime 66 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD nature, were the things that attracted her and made travel the delight it was. She took pleasure in becoming costumes and filled her house with beautiful things. Her penmanship was itself a work of art, simple, clear, natural, and well-nigh perfect, as the following facsimile will illustrate: 6> This Christmas card also illustrates how in the latter years of her life Mrs. Noyes developed a facility in writing occasional verse. One of her early attempts was written for her husband for a meeting of the Forty Club in December, 1906, when each member was required to introduce himself in verse. The two verses quoted will serve an evident purpose: In far-away New England Where words and speech are choice, My earliest ancestors Were always known as "Noyce." But in the "wild and woolly west" Among the Forty boys, To make a pun or turn a jest They always call me "Noise !" It came to be quite the thing for Mrs. Noyes to be called upon to write verses for birthdays, social gatherings, club meetings, and other occasions. After her death these were collected and published in a small volume. Once she wrote for herself during her last illness in 1912, and the result was received with great applause by the D.A.R. IDA NOYES 67 in Washington after her re-election as vice-president general. The seven verses are all good. The following are the first two: No matter how elections May really terminate, My heart will be contented, My spirits still elate. For if we win we're happy. And if we lose, we're glad To give to someone better The honors that we had. At the eighteenth D.A.R. Congress held in Washington in 1909 she read a response for Illinois in verse to the president general's address of welcome, which awakened great enthusiasm. It is related that when she concluded the French Ambassador left his place and came to con gratulate her, and after returning to his seat again left it to repeat his congratulations as the applause continued. The number and variety of the social functions for which her little poems were prepared indicate, in themselves, that she had a very wide circle of friends. They also clearly show that the ties which bound her to her friends were those of real sympathy and affection. Her letters to her husband often brought a company of them together to give an evening to hearing them. She had an unaffected liking for people and was fond of their society. All her instincts were social. Her vivacity was a distinct social asset and gave life and sparkle to every company. It resulted from all this that she was much in society. Her home was the center of an active social life. It was a pleasure to entertain, and she entered with zest into the social life of the city. She was, as this story indicates, often absent from Chicago. She was always ceaselessly active and busy when at home, but she found time nevertheless for meeting her social obligations, and she did this with the same interest and enjoyment that character ized all her multifarious activities. Mrs. Noyes's interest in art did not cease with her studies in Paris. Not only did she continue to study art, but she continued to paint, producing a large number of pictures, many being studies in heads and faces, and not a few landscapes. Many of these paintings were excel lent, some of them very successful. They were evidences of the excel lence she might have attained had she devoted herself to art. Her busy life, however, made this impossible. But her camera remained to the end her constant companion in almost daily use. 68 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD estimates have been made as to the number of photographs- she took, varying from thirty thousand to more than a hundred thousand. It is certain that she took many thousands of pictures, and the best of these she arranged with great care in bound volumes which she preserved. Her work with the camera was so perfect that publishers sought the use of. her photographs to illustrate their books. In Frederick Royce's The Burning of St. Pierre and the Eruption of Mont Pelee may be found extracts from the diary of Mrs. Noyes and a large number of pictures taken by her during a visit she and Mr. Noyes made to the Leeward and Windward Islands in March, 1899. In 1907 Mr. Noyes purchased a most attractive home at 1450 Lake Shore Drive. Mrs. Noyes found much happiness during the closing years of her life in furnishing and adorning this beautiful home. Into it she brought souvenirs of all the lands she visited. Every room con tains something unusual and interesting from far-away lands. Every thing fits into its environment as though made for the place it occupies, and all add to the harmony and unity of the design. After living in various parts of the city and during the summers at their country home at Midlothian, in going into the house on the Lake Shore Drive Mr. and Mrs. Noyes were entering their permanent home, where they hoped to have many happy years together. They made it a home of hospi tality. They had maiiy friends of whom they were fond, and in enter taining these they found much of their happiness. Mrs. Noyes had always enjoyed perfect health, and it was a grievous shock to both husband and wife when she was overtaken by serious illness. She made a courageous battle to regain her lost health, but the last year of her life she passed as an invalid. Not, however, a com plaining one. She studied to make the atmosphere of her room a cheer ful one. For her husband she always had a smile, and this smile was one she had for no one else. On the last day of her life, to the friend who passed that day with her she committed the following beautiful "La Verne's Smile," which was his alone, and which she was very anxious he should not miss when he came in to see her for the last time, and as she feared her sight might fail she charged her friend to give her .an agreed sign of his presence that she might not fail to give him his smile. And thus on the fifth of December 1912, at the age of fifty- nine, "passed the strong, heroic soul away." - That Ida Noyes was no ordinary woman is made evident by the .extraordinary tributes paid to her at the memorial meeting held in IDA NOYES 69 honor by the Chicago Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revo lution on December 19, 1912. Telegrams of appreciation were read from many other chapters. The president general, Mrs. Matthew T. Scott, sent a message which said, among other things: My personal feeling is too deep for utterance. The death of one so cherished, am stunned, groping in the dark .... for the reason why this bright, beautiful woman, so radiant with glorious vitality, bubbling over with wit and humor, so feminine in charm and personality, so masculine in brain and intellect, should have been taken from those who so loved and leaned upon her. Never again shall we hear from her smiling lips the sparkling, yet stingless raillery and pleasantry that have charmed and convulsed great assemblies; nor noble addresses that are stamped as I am sure I may be pardoned at this pathetic hour for alluding to her marvelous address in the Congress of 191 1 in illustration of the intellectual supremacy of this great woman Mrs. George A. Laurence, state regent of Illinois, said: .... who can consider her life as we have known her personally, as she has gone in and out among us, who does not feel a thrill of pride in her accomplishments. And especially as women do we rejoice that we have been so ably represented by one who, though slight and frail in body, was great in intellect and soul She was not an ordinary woman. Many a noble woman, possessing all the finer qualities of intellect and heart, fulfilling a splendid life of usefulness, has lived, served, and died within a small circle of friends, who alone knew of her merits. Our friend possessed all these qualities, and yet united with them that finer intellect and personal charm that drew others about her and made her a center of influence that was widespread. . ... As regent of the Chicago Chapter she attained distinguished success, and her influence in the state conference was a potent one. She was kind, she was thought ful, she was fair-minded, she did not stoop to the craft and wiles of the politician, but her voice was raised and her influence exerted to lift the standard of our work, and to advance that work along lines that would broaden in their scope as new occa sions and directions arose for the exercise of exalted patriotism She had a mind that conceived, a heart that resolved, and a hand that executed. Mrs. Benjamin A. Fessenden, called upon to speak of Mrs. Noyes as a friend, said: .... I say "our friend" because through long years of close intimacy I have never heard her say a cruel or unjust thing of any living soul She loved the beautiful in life, and with a generosity that was as boundless as it was modest she sought (out of her abundance) to make those whose lives lay along shadowed paths see the sunshine and by its light find joy and peace. Even as she watched 70 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD the gate to answer to her name she found comfort in the letters written to her by childish hands and coming direct from childish hearts, letters of love for the friend who was sheltering, feeding, clothing, and educating them for- a useful life and a helpful womanhood, letters of prayer that God would spare her to them for long, long years. She was a woman of distinct mentality and great executive ability. Had she given her life to either literature or art she would have made for herself a place in her day. She had keen wit, versatility, and a delicate sense of humor. .... Many of us here today recall her generous interest in and for the schools and colleges among the Tennessee hills and the Carolina mountains and for all children's organizations. She was always and ever the children's friend, and she remembered the widow in her desolation, and her little hands, full of helpfulness, were stretched out in mercy to the downtrodden and oppressed, and she seemed to walk through life with the pur pose of helpfulness. One who had known her since her college life wrote of her: She had a personality so much out of the ordinary that from childhood until the time of her death she always held a place distinctly her own. All that came into her life ministered to her education and development. .... She was superbly democratic. Attainments, position, wealth, only deepened this element in her dis position. .... She always had sympathy and kindness for any who, she judged, were unfairly treated. .... To clearness and accuracy in thinking is due much of the power she possessed for leadership In the early days of her husband's business life .... it was from her orderly little desk in their home that the beau tifully written letters were sent that were so helpful to his success j and at this desk the books were kept accurately and scientifically. Her wondrously beautiful hand writing has always been a joy to her hosts of friends Literature was a field she loved. Books were her delight. She knew them well and loved the best in many kinds. At the annual meeting of the Congress of the Daughters of the American Revolution held in Washington in the spring following her death Mrs. Fessenden was again called upon to speak of her. From the poem she read in memory of Ker friend the following fines are taken: She loved all civic good, She bent to lift the children of the poor From out the mire of stagnant want, The want that drowns their souls, And wrecks their bodies Ere they pass the portals Of life's earliest day. She loved all truth, And held her torch aloft, That those who passed along her way Might find the road that led To highest aims and truest IDA NOYES 71 She was a woman fair and sweet and true, And now that she has passed To higher usefulness She leaves to us who knew And loved her here A legacy of inspiration Toward the highest and the best That we can give In deed and word To this our time. So in this "in memoriam" hour We in all truth can say of her, Her works cannot Be reckoned up in faltering words, Her deeds shall live. God has recorded them. Such are the appreciations of those who knew Mrs. Noyes long and well. They leave no room for doubt as to the beautiful and noble qualities she possessed. But it is not these tributes that have con vinced the writer of these pages, he having never met Mrs. Noyes, of her exceptional abilities and the loveliness and strength of her char acter. Two quite other things have persuaded him of the essential truth of all these splendid eulogies. The first of these is Mrs. Noyes's correspondence with her husband. Many hundreds of her letters have been read with care and with equal interest and delight. They are the letters of a high-minded woman, written with rare intelligence and revealing a personality bent on self- improvement. Not one unworthy sentiment can be found in any of these thousands of pages of intimate personal letters. And they are not selected specimens but comprise all the correspondence with her husband through a period of a quarter of a century. They reveal her democratic spirit, the essential kindness of her heart, her warm appre ciation of her fellow- travelers. If at the beginning of a transatlantic voyage she does not find the crowd of strangers about her interesting, before it is over she has found delightful people and made valued friends. The style is never careless and slipshod, yet there is no attempt at fine writing. At the same time it is evident that she wrote her letters with extraordinary care. She usually made a detailed analysis, in advance, of what she wished to say and followed this in the composition. This was in pursuance of her desire for excellence, to do well whatever she did, and to make her letters worthy of her husband's perusal. They are a record of her daily and tireless worth-while activities in study 72 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD observation. They contain little sentiment. There was an evident understanding on this point between husband and wife, and no stranger can know all that was contained in such phrases as the following found in the last lines of all these letters. "I do," or "I do always," or "I do more and more," or "I do more than you do," or "You know I do." But evidence of the unique, endearing, and noble qualities of Mrs. Noyes, more convincing than her correspondence and the affectionate tributes of her friends, is the extraordinary appreciation of her husband. Not perfect, nay, but full of tender wants, No angel, but a dearer being. Her husband trusted in her, was supremely devoted to her, held her and still holds her in an admiration and affection which he does not wish to conceal. Nothing that he could do was ever too good for her. On him, a man of uncommon discernment, what he regarded as the great qualities of her mind and heart made a profound and indelible impres sion.' It is not surprising therefore that he welcomed the opportunity to commemorate her life and perpetuate her memory in that beautiful building for the women students of the University of Chicago, the Ida Noyes Hall. It was less than six months after the death of Mrs. Noyes when he announced to the Trustees his readiness to erect this hall "as a social center and gymnasium for the women of the Univer sity." The proffer was accepted, the plans for the building were made, and the cornerstone was laid on April 17, 191 5. Since April 16 was Mrs. Noyes's birthday, her husband chose to regard that ceremony as a celebration of the day. Firmly believing in the future life in which she was conscious and active, he addressed to her a very full letter, saying among other things: I am writing a letter to you this morning, to be sealed in the box in the corner stone of Ida Noyes Hall .... as if I knew that you would consciously receive it and get information from it and be pleased with its contents, as I know you would have been before your departure. If it does not come to your conscious mind, it may come to the hands of some living persons a thousand years hence I have It will contain a beautiful gymnasium, natatorium, and many other special, novel, and useful features. It will be an ideal Gothic structure, unsurpassed, probably, by anything in this country for beauty of design, perfection, and durability of archi tectural construction, and adaptation to the varied activities (social and otherwise) of the women student ^y 7/ .v- IDA NOYKS, THE ART IDA NOYES 73 In accepting this gift, the Board of Trustees of the University declared in formal resolution its "especial gratification that there is to be commemorated in the quad rangles of the University the name of a gracious and gifted woman whose rare qualities are well worthy of admiration and emulation by successive generations of our young women." Are souls straight so happy, that, dizzy with heaven, Mrs. Noyes had visited many countries, and her husband had followed her, with his letters, to them all. Now she was to him only in another country and had not forgotten "earth's affections," and he wrote to her, a little more seriously, indeed, but as naturally as when she had been in Paris. It was the result of the reaction of a healthy mind whose "thoughts and beliefs regarding the next transition have been comforting." The dedication of the building formed a part of the celebration of the University's twenty-fifth anniversary, in June, 1916. Ida Noyes Hall involved a contribution from Mr. Noyes to the University of half a million dollars, and it has added in an extraordinary degree to the welfare and enjoyment of the students of the University, men and women alike. Indeed the life of the entire University has been enriched. To his contribution Mr. Noyes has added a personal interest that leads him to invite the women of the Senior class each year to a luncheon at his house on the Lake Shore Drive, where they are encouraged to examine the many objects of interest the house contains.' Ida Noyes Hall was not the only memorial built in her honor. Mr. Noyes also gave to the Fourth Presbyterian Church, on the Lake Shore Drive, where they had a pew, the Cloister connecting the manse with the church edifice, in which is placed a tablet bearing, in gold, the fol lowing inscription: This Cloister Is Erected to the Glory of God and in Loving Memory of Ida E. S. Noyes 1853-1912 Vice-President General of the Daughters of the American Revolution Not quite a year after her death a portrait of Mrs. Noyes was unveiled by the De Witt Clinton Chapter of D.A.R. at Clinton, Illinois. Mrs. Scott, former president general made the address. A few sen tences from the tribute she paid her friend may fitly close this sketch. This lovely woman was rich in gifts, the best that intellect, character, and devo tion to high ideals represent in the great organization of which she was so vital a part. .... Her's a fidelity that never faltered, a loyalty that never relaxed, a 74 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD that never wearied, a wisdom, that rarely erred, and an unselfish devotion that knew no^limit. Never can we forget or cease to cherish her precious memory, rich in all that is most gracious in womanliness, strong and clear in intellect, pure in heart, sweet and noble in spirit, splendid in example, and with a magnetism that drew, all hearts to her. .... What she did and what she was contained the germs of greater enduring, though invisible, force that makes for the happiness and betterment and uplift of humanity. This sketch' is written chiefly for those women students of the University of Chicago to whose college life Ida Noyes Hall may con tribute some element of interest and charm. It has been the desire of the builder of the Hall that they should know who Ida Noyes was, that she should not be to them a name only, but a real woman, with wfyom, knowing the story of her life, they should feel acquainted, and from whose history they should perhaps derive 'some inspiration for studious, active, brave, high-minded, helpful, useful NATHANIEL NATHANIEL COLVER, D.D. By THOMAS W. GOODSPEED To the Rev. Charles Kendrick Colver belongs the distinction of hav ing made the first cash contribution for the founding of the new Univer sity of Chicago. The amount was $100 and was paid to the writer of these pages. There were earlier subscriptions, but the first actual cash received came from Charles K. Colver, son of Dr. Nathaniel Colver. Like his distinguished father he was a Baptist minister Born May 22, 182 1, in Clarendon, Vermont, he grew up in sympathy with his father's views on theology and reform. Graduated with honors from Brown University in 1842 and from Newton Theological Institu tion in 1845, he occupied various pastorates up to 1879, when he moved to Chicago, that his daughter might attend the University. He died in this city October 24, 1896. Susan Esther Colver was born in South Abington, Massachusetts, November 15, 1859. She was graduated from the old University of Chicago, class of 1882, receiving the degree of A.B., and later (in 1886) of A.M. She also became an accomplished musician. She inherited much of what may be called the typical Colver intellect and character as exemplified in her grandfather and father. She was also noted for generosity, geniality, independence, and energy. She gave her life unreservedly to the cause of education. She was in the service of the public schools of Chicago from October 26, 1882, to June 26, 1912. She was principal of the Horace Mann School from August 20, 1890, to March 21, 191 1, and principal of the Nathanael Greene School from March 21, 1911, to June 26, 1912. She was unusually successful both as a teacher and as a principal. In fact, many persons thought that as a principal she made her school one of the best in the city, this being especially true of the Horace Mann School. She was a member of the Immanuel Baptist Church of Chicago. She was married to Jesse L. Rosenberger, a lawyer of Chicago, July 2, 191 2, as the culmination of a long acquaintance. She died in Chicago November 19, 1918. Jesse Leonard Rosenberger was born in Lake City, Minnesota, January 6, i860. His youth was spent in the village of Maiden Rock, Wisconsin. When about 17 or 18, he taught several terms of country school. 76 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD He was a student at the old University of Chicago, but was graduated from the University of Rochester, receiving the degrees of A.B. and A.M. He was graduated from the Chicago College of Law, and received the degree of LL.B. from Lake Forest University. He was admitted to the bar of Illinois, and maintained an office in Chicago for the practice of , law until 191 5, but gradually came, by preference, to giving more and more of his time to various forms of writing, principally on legal and business subjects, for publication, as well as to doing some editing and publishing. Mr. and Mrs. Rosenberger had been students in the old Univer sity of Chicago, and personal reminiscence and family tradition com bined to interest them in the fortunes of the new University. In March, 191 5, they united in conveying to the University the old Colver home stead on Thirty-fifth Street, west of Cottage Grove Avenue, Chicago. The purpose of this gift was the founding of the Nathaniel Colver Lec tureship and Publication Fund, Mrs. Rosenberger desiring to honor the name and perpetuate the memory of her grandfather in the institution which was the successor of that in which he had given instruction fifty years before. On June 7 of the same year Mr. and Mrs. Rosenberger provided for the endowment of what will eventually be the Colver-Rosenberger Lec ture Fund, in this donation associating with their own name that of Charles K. Colver, Mrs. Rosenberger's father. Less than three months later, September 2, 191 5, they established a Colver-R.osenberger Fellowship Fund to provide ultimately a fellow ship, desiring in this to associate with their family name that of the father, Charles, and of the grandfather, Nathaniel. On February 4, 191 5, they provided for the doubling of this fund, and on the next day they provided for the eventual establishment of r what is to be known as the Colver-Rosenberger Scholarship, again asso ciating with their own the name of the father and the grandfather. On April 5, 1917, they, gave $1,000, later increased to $2,000, to establish at once a fund for an honor medal or cash prize to be known as The Rosenberger Medal or The Rosenberger Prize, founded by Mr. and Mrs. Jesse L. Rosenberger, the medal or prize "to be awarded in recog nition of achievement through research, in authorship, in invention, for discovery, for unusual public service, or for anything deemed of great benefit to humanity." It will be noticed that three of these benefactions are wholly or partly in honor of Nathaniel Colver, and this sketch has to do NATHANIEL COLVER, D.D. 11 larly with his life. He bore the name of his father and his grandfather, both Baptist ministers in New England and New York. They were not educated men, and, preaching in the scattered settlements of Revolu tionary and pre-Revolutionary days, received little remuneration, sup porting themselves largely by farming. They preached for the love of preaching. The Nathaniel Colver of whom I write was born, one of eleven children, in Orwell, near Lake Champlain, Addison County, Ver mont, May 10, 1794. He was little more than a year old, however, when his father took the family to a farm in Champlain, New York. They no doubt traveled the hundred miles by water, up the lake to Rouse's Point, the northeast corner of New York, and then five or eight miles by the Champlain River to the settlement of the same name where the new farm was located and where, although there were only thirteen families in two townships, the father began at once to preach as well as to cultivate his land. The country was a wilderness, but the population slowly increased and churches were organized in course of time in Cham plain and other places. The family was poor, none of them strong and well except the boy Nathaniel. He grew up to a life of toil. Either there were scant opportunities for schooling or the pressure of the family needs gave him no time for school. At all events two winters at school were all he ever had. He grew fast and became tall and robust. He was strong as an ox, red-blooded, and eager to get all he could out of his youth and the frontier wilderness about him. And what a country that was for an active, vigorous, fun-loving, adventurous, courageous lad. Within sight of his home to the north were the forests of Canada. A few miles down the river were the upper reaches of Lake Champlain. The rivers and brooks were the home of the trout. The woods were full of many kinds of game. In his last days Dr. Colver visited these scenes of his youth. "There," he wrote, "I learned to trap the musk- rat and the mink, and also the wolf and the bear. I could remember in what direction and about where, in the wilderness as it then was, my brother next older and myself caught four wolves in one winter. We caught them in fox traps, and by fastening the trap to the end of a pole the wolf was unable to pull his foot out," the heavy pole acting only as a drag. The boy was not able, however, to get out of this wonderful boy's world all the joy of youth he might have had under happier circum- cumstances. He continues, " In my father's family there was much hard sickness. I, only, had good health, and mine was the lot of service and toil." His lack of schooling was not compensated by any home advan tages. The only books he recalled as being in the house in those 78 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD years were the Bible, a "psalm-book," a spelling-book, and the "Third Part," so barren was his life of any opportunities of education. Being naturally eager for knowledge he became during these early years thor oughly familiar with the Bible. He says, "I had nothing else to feed my mind with, and so I ate up the Bible," which "my mother early taught me to read and love." When asked in later life where he gradu ated, he replied, "In the northeast corner of New York, in a log heap." The hard life of the frontier continued till he was fifteen years old, when the family moved to West Stockbridge, Massachusetts, where a little over fifty years before Jonathan Edwards had produced the works on which his fame is founded. Although young Colver was still a lad he was, in this removal, sent on in advance of the family, and all of the journey not made by water he accomplished on foot. He was now apprenticed to a tanner and furrier and learned, among other things, shoemaking. The war of 1812 came on, and, when in 18 14 New York was threatened, Colver, then in his twentieth year, volunteered and served for some months with the army concentrated in that city for its defense. He became shoemaker for his fellow-soldiers. Up to his army experience there is not the slightest evidence that the boy possessed any unusual gifts. But he now, all at once, gave proof of hitherto hidden powers. A comrade was arrested and taken before a magistrate. Young Colver, believing him innocent, appeared and asked permission to defend him and did this with such eloquence and power that not only was the soldier acquitted, but a gentleman present sought out the youthful advocate and offered, if he desired to make the law his profession, to put him in the way of obtaining a legal education. Although he was only twenty years old he was already contemplating marriage, and a long course of study did not appeal to him. The war ending, he returned home and on April 27, 181-5, a ^ew days before his twenty-first birthday, married Sally Clark and began life for himself. He fully intended to follow the business he had learned, but in 181 7, when twenty-three years old, he became the subject of an old-fashioned conversion and this changed the direction of his life. He did not indeed choose the ministry. It rather chose him. Immediately after his con version the people began to say that he must preach. A call coming from a neighboring church for someone to supply the pulpit, the deacons drafted young Colver into the service. Reluctantly he went and told the people that he could not preach, but would lead a prayer meeting. They assured him that this would not do. They were expecting a NATHANIEL COLVER, D.D. 79 mon and a sermon they must have. But he said, "I cannot preach. I have not even a text." Thereupon one of them suggested, "This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Jesus Christ came into the world to save sinners." "Well," the young man said, "I think I do know a little about that," and went into the pulpit. The record of his biographer, Dr. Justin A. Smith, is as follows : The subject opened to him beyond his expectation, and while all were delighted and surprised at the sermon which followed, he himself was more surprised than any of them. At the close it was announced without consulting him that he would preach again in the afternoon, and at the close of this sermon that he would preach a third sermon at a school house a few miles away. This last was the best of all. His father and mother were present, and the joyful old man, turning to his wife as the service ended, exclaimed, "Our Nathaniel is a preacher." That day's experience settled the question. He was, indeed, with out theological training. He did not even have a common-school edu cation. He suffered from these handicaps throughout his life. But he was a natural preacher and orator. He lacked the discipline of study, the intellectual acquisitions of learning, and the, culture of education, and these serious deficiencies long obscured the extraordinary natural abilities he possessed. He was ordained in 1 819 at West Clarendon, Vermont, being then twenty-five years old. Two years later he accepted a call to Fort Covington, New York, fifty miles west of Champlain, where he had spent his boyhood, and also on the Canadian border within five or six miles of the St. Lawrence River. It was a wilderness country. Almost any morning he could see deer from his study window. There was no church. Not a man in the town professed religion. He was called by and became pastor of the community. They promised him a salary of $400, of which $242 was to be paid in cash, the balance "in the produce of the country necessary for the support of the family." A strong church resulted from Mr. Colver's labors, and he preached as a missionary and an agent of Hamilton Theological Seminary all over that part of New York lying north of the Adirondack Mountains. Los ing his wife in 1823, he married in 1825 Mrs. Sarah F. Carter, of Platts- burg. After remaining eight years at Fort Covington he became pastor at Kingsbury and Fort Ann, in Washington County, New York, southeast of the Adirondacks. In 1834 he was called to Holmesburg, a suburb of Philadelphia. The circumstances which led to this call reveal the sort of preacher ten years of experience in wilderness and country places had made of him. Failing health having led him to visit Philadelphia 8o THE UNIVERSITY RECORD had gone into the First Baptist Church in which the distinguished pastor, Dr. Brantley, was conducting a "protracted" meeting. Having been introduced as a minister he was invited to preach. He had been preach ing but a few minutes when the pastor "discovered that the stranger was a man of no common power in the pulpit. As he progressed the impression was deepened, and by the time he had concluded his dis course, pastor and people were bathed in tears and made haste to thank the Lord for sending such a preacher among them," and at once prevailed on him to continue his preaching through the rest of the meet ing. So great was the impression that a year and a half later they sent for him to assist them in another meeting. Speaking of Mr. Colver 's preaching the pastor wrote: On Sunday evening the crowd was beyond all example in our place of worship. After all the seats above and below in our spacious house had been filled, the aisles were supplied with benches until no more could be introduced, and the whole space was literally crowded. The preacher's lips appeared to be touched as with a live coal from the altar. After remaining till ten o'clock at night without manifesting the least impatience, the congregation was dismissed; but though dispersed, the people appeared unwilling to leave the house and the greater part of them remained, whilst inquirers to the number of about one hundred came forward. Dr. Brantley did not rest until he had brought Mr. Colver to the suburb of Holmesburg. He remained, however, only a few months. But during that time he had the joy of welcoming into the church the son already mentioned, Charles K. Colver, then in his fourteenth year. The pastorate was brought to a sudden termination by an urgent call to the Union Village Church, Greenwich, New York, near his former field in Washington County. The church was one of the largest and most influential in eastern New York. Rev. Edward Barber had served it for more than forty years, Mr. Colver having been associated with him for a time while pastor at Kingsbury. On the death of its aged minister the church at once sent for Mr. Colver, and its position and prestige were such that he does not seem to have thought it possible to decline the call. It was during the two years previous to the old pastor's death that Mr. Colver had been associated with him and had devoted a great deal of his time to work in the church. Mainly as the result of these labors three hundred converts were baptized. His own sole pastorate in the Union Village church was one of the most remarkable and fruitful in his career. In the four years it continued he baptized three hundred and ninety, making, for the whole period of six years, six hundred and ninety. It was a wonderful experience and a NATHANIEL COLVER, D.D. 81 record. How could a man leave the pastorate of such a church in the midst of his usefulness and at the height of his success? That is the story I wish now to tell. In the early years of his ministry he joined the Masons, but as he took one degree after another he became increasingly dissatisfied, and when it came to oaths to protect Masons even though guilty of crime and of treason, he re volted, left the order and joined, at great personal sacrifice, the anti- Masonic crusade of the last century. Not that he neglected his duties as a minister. His ministry was always his first business. But after 1830 he held his place among the foremost advocates of anti-Masonry. He was called on frequently through many years to address anti- Masonic meetings and conventions in many parts of the country. Dr. J. A. Smith declares, "It is not too much to say that among those who were chiefly instrumental in arousing and directing public senti ment with reference to the wrong and peril of secret orders such as that of Masonry, Nathaniel Colver ranked always with the very foremost." No doubt much that he denounced has been reformed. Mr. Colver also early became an ardent advocate of the temperance reformation. He became a popular lecturer on temperance. He was sent as a delegate to conventions, and his eloquence placed him among the temperance leaders of the country. Writing of this phase of his work Dr. J. D. Fulton said: Memories of his rising in his place. at a great temperance convention in Saratoga, New York, where he confronted and opposed Governor Briggs on a question of policy, live in the minds of men at this hour. Such was his power that the currents of thought were changed. The master-spirit had appeared. He spoke over an hour, apparently without premeditation, but in so telling a manner that he carried the convention with him, and Governor Briggs, familiar with the palmiest efforts of Henry Clay and Webster, declared he had never listened to such oratory before. There was that in the squint of the eye, the pucker of the mouth, the wave of the hand, the tone of voice, which would set an audience into a roar of laughter, or smite the rock of feeling with the touch of his wand, causing fountains of tears to gush forth. The third great reform to which Mr. Colver devoted himself was antislavery. He became widely known as an ardent abolitionist. His zeal and abilities brought him into intimate association with antislavery leaders and he quickly came into wide prominence. In the Baptist de nomination he was one of the leaders in disfellowshipping slaveholders and organizing the American Baptist Antislavery Convention. He was a delegate from that Convention to the World's Antislavery Convention in London in 1840. William Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips were there. Taking an active part in the Convention were Prince 82 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD Clarkson, Daniel O'Connell, Lord Brougham, Guizot, and members of the English nobility. Early in the sessions Mr. Colver was called out and compelled to speak absolutely without premeditation. But it was in just these circumstances that his genius flamed forth. His speech produced so great an effect that he was publicly and warmly congratu lated and in the after-proceedings was one of the recognized leaders. Mr. Colver's championship of the cause of freedom continued with unabated zeal till the final triumph. This review of the three great reforms to which Mr. Colver gave his life brings us back to the reasons that led him to leave the Union Village Church and the seven hundred converts who had flocked into it under his ministry. In 1838 the reforms he advocated were none of them popular. If he had been seeking popularity and pastorates in large and powerful churches he would have eschewed them all. They raised up against him multitudes of enemies in his own denomination. Many churches, and most of all the large churches of the cities, were closed against him. They regarded him as a fanatic and a trouble breeder and would have nothing to do with him as a pastor. It so happened, how ever, that in the city of Boston there was a Baptist layman like-minded with him. This was Timothy Gilbert, who for years had cherished the purpose of founding a Baptist church in which the seats should be free and which should be committed to those reforms which Mr. Colver advocated. In his memoir of Timothy Gilbert, Dr. Fulton writes: In 1838 Mr. Colver was in Connecticut lecturing [on slavery]. He had been mobbed and vilified, but he had triumphed gloriously. Flushed with victory, he came to Boston and spoke at the Capitol and at Marlboro Chapel. There Timothy Gilbert saw him. Jonathan had found his David. He was at this time forty-four years of age. His power of mind was fully developed Timothy Gilbert no sooner saw him than he beheld a standard bearer. An agreement was made that if the brethren in Boston would procure a place of worship and organize a church op posed to secret organizations, intemperance, and slavery, and in favor of free seats, he would become their pastor. This was the way Mr. Colver came to leave the amazingly success ful work he was doing in the Union Village Church and undertake a pastorate in the metropolis of New England. He saw an opportunity of building up from the foundations a new church of his own faith, fully committed to all the great reforms he advocated, in the very center of culture, of population, and of power. It was thus he came to Boston in the autumn of 1839. He was in his forty-sixth year and during the thirteen years of his pastorate, reached the fulness of his great powers. That he had great powers as a thinker and an orator cannot be NATHANIEL COLVER, D.D. 83 There has never been a nobler group of preachers in Boston than there was during the fifties of the last century. But none of them had greater popular gifts than Colver. A distinguished southern minister after a long visit in Boston was persuaded to go and hear him. When asked how he liked him, his reply was, "I abhor the man's abolitionism, but he is the best preacher I have heard in Boston." He was above the middle height, large-framed, symmetrically built, with a benevolent but powerful face, altogether of a dignified and commanding presence. Telling of one of his missionary tours before this date, a writer begins thus, "A noble-looking man called at a public house in New Lebanon Springs, New York, just in the edge of evening and inquired if there were any Christians there who held evening meetings." That describes him exactly. He was a noble-looking man. He had a most expressive countenance and a voice of great sweetness, compass, and power. He had all the natural gifts of a great speaker and on occasions was an discipline of a liberal education. It was this lack that made him an occasional orator only. It was this that made him adopt a uniform, cast-iron method of preparing a sermon. I have before me a dozen of his plans of sermons. They are all constructed on the following model: (1) introductory exposition of the text; (2) doctrine; (3) reflections. He knew no other method. It was this lack of the mental discipline of a liberal education that made regular habits of daily study impossible for him and led him some times to enter the pulpit without having prepared a sermon or even chosen a text. He had a fatal gift of extemporaneous speech. But notwithstanding these handicaps he had a great and useful ministry in Boston. Out of that ministry came the church and move ment famous in Baptist history as Tremont Temple. In 1842 one hun dred and thirty-six converts were baptized. This pastorate was the thirteen years. The time came, however, when Deacon Gilbert began to criticize him because he had a shop in his backyard where he indulged his genius for invention, because he didn't spend enough time in his study, and because he was not enough in the homes of the people. The friendship of the two was not broken, but in 1852 Mr. Colver resigned. It was a curious coincidence that on the night he resigned Tremont Temple was destroyed by fire. The pastor went from the meeting as a guest of Deacon Gilbert and during the night the Temple was burned to the 84 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD Mr. Colver was now one of the most distinguished and capable preachers of the denomination and would naturally have gone to one of its important churches. But the prejudice created by his agitation against Masonry and slavery was so great and widespread that the only settlement immediately open to him was in a small suburb of Boston, South Abington. Here he remained only one year and then went to the First Baptist Church of Detroit, Michigan, where he had a not very fruitful pastorate of four years. The church was not a strong one, and in 1856 Mr. Colver accepted a call to the First Baptist Church of Cin cinnati, where he remained a little over four years. The church was a rather feeble body when he took charge of it. He was at the time sixty-two years old, but in Cincinnati he renewed his youth and labored with tremendous energy and power. He held great revival meetings, preaching every night for many months together. Hundreds of converts were baptized and the church was greatly strengthened. His Cincin nati pastorate extended from his sixty-second to his sixty-sixth or sixty- seventh year, and he received during this period the degree of D.D. from Denison University. He made the distinct impression that he was a great preacher and a great man. Rev. Dr. Aydelotte, a Presbyterian pastor of the same period, wrote of him as follows: After a brief exordium we were brought to feel the power of a giant intellect while he poured out one continuous stream of captivating, melting, richest, sacred eloquence. It was not merely the eloquence of intellectual talent, or of high moral born genius shedding a hallowed glow of beauty, of power, of sublimity over every statement, every argument, every appeal We have at times endeavored, not withstanding all the fascination of his eloquence, to listen with the severest critical accuracy: and we were filled with astonishment, when we called to mind the defi ciencies of his early education, that we could rarely discover a solecism or grammatical strict accordance with the nicest rules of rhetoric His was often the highest Dr. Colver. Such was the testimony of a fellow-pastor of another denomination. It is only one of many like it relating to Dr. Colver after he had passed threescore years. Dr. Colver's last pastorate was with the Tabernacle Baptist Church, Chicago. It began in 186 1 and continued till 1864. The church was not large and was badly located. The pastor was no longer in vigorous health. But, as Dr. Smith, his biographer, NATHANIEL COLVER, D.D. &5 The closing period of his pastorate was marked by an incident of the greatest interest and importance to the church .... putting the Tabernacle Church upon a basis wholly new, and starting it upon a course of prosperity unexampled in its Tabernacle Church. The house was taken down, removed to the new location on the corner of Morgan and Monroe streets, and there re-created, with improvements made then and since which rendered it one of the most attractive houses of worship in the city. The Tabernacle Church, with the members, some sixty in number, of the First Church proposing to join them, united in a new organization which, taking the name of the Second Baptist Church of Chicago, has now, with God's blessing, won a title to be named with the largest, most enterprising, most widely influential of the Baptist churches of America. [This was written in 1873.] While these changes were in progress Dr. Colver retained his pastorate of the Tabernacle Church. He felt, how ever, that the new church now formed should have a new pastor, a younger man, able to undertake a service impossible to one who had already reached his threescore years and ten. It was therefore with his most cheerful acquiescence that the joint church called to its pastorate Rev. E. J. Goodspeed, of Janesville, Wisconsin. He welcomed the new pastor to his field with cordial words, publicly spoken, and ever after, to the end of his own life, co-operated with him in every way .... rejoicing .... in the signal success which attended his ministry. At the close of 1864 the writer of these pages was beginning his ministry as pastoral supply of the North Baptist Church, Chicago. Responding in March, 1865, when he was twenty- two years old, to the last draft of the War of the Rebellion, he received ordination before reporting in Rochester, New York, for duty. He has always recalled with pride that his ordination sermon was preached by Dr. Colver, who was fifty years his senior. The service of three years with the Tabernacle Church was Dr. Col ver 's last regular pastorate, though he continued to preach as long as he could stand in a pulpit. He had no thought of ceasing from labor. After coming to the West he had felt an increasing interest in the edu cation of young men for the ministry. In Chicago he entered with enthusiasm into the plans for establishing the Baptist Union Theological Seminary. He had strong convictions as to the teaching of theology, believing that it should be strictly biblical. He was invited to inaugu rate the work of instruction preliminary to the establishing of the pro posed seminary, and in 1865 and 1866 he taught theological classes in connection with the old University of Chicago. In pursuance of his view that instruction should be purely biblical he prepared and gave to his classes a course of lectures founded solely on the Epistle to the Romans. Three of his personal friends in New England, W. W. Cook, of Whitehall, New York, and Mial Davis and Lawrence Barnes, 86 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD Burlington, Vermont, contributed $7,500 for the work of instruction, given originally to pay his salary, but surrendered by him to the seminary, and his former church in Cincinnati took preliminary steps to transfer a piece of real estate. But this work was cut short by a call that had behind it the impera tive of nearly half a century of warfare for the freedom of the slave. A movement was organized to educate colored men for the ministry among their own people, and Dr. Colver was induced to undertake the inauguration of the work of instruction for the freedmen in Richmond, Virginia. In feeble and failing health he began this new service in May, 1867. But a year of heroic toil brought him to the end of his strength, and he returned in 1868 to his home in Chicago to rest from his labors. He had lost his wife in April of that year. He himself died two and a half years later, on September 25, 1870, in the seventy-seventh year of his age. But the work in Richmond did not die. Started in Lumpkin's jail, an old slave pen, it developed into Colver Institute, now known as Richmond Theological Seminary, a part of Virginia Union University. Dr. Colver was a many-sided, highly gifted man. He had a genial humor and a very active wit. He rarely, if ever, met his superior in the give and take of debate. On occasions he was eloquent beyond almost any of the great orators of his day. He had a natural gift for poetical composition, writing for the choirs of his churches scores of hymns which were sung on special occasions. He often thought in numbers, as once when visiting John G. Whittier and invited by him to attend the Quaker meeting. Mr. Whittier told him he must keep silent, that a man named Beach was then in prison for speaking in their meeting. "It was a silent meeting," said Dr. Colver. "One man got .asleep and so did I." When they returned home and Whittier inquired how he liked the meeting Colver replied: Well, John, since thou a Quaker art, Go to, I'll tell thee all my heart. Quite plain, but neat, the place I found; A solemn stillness reigned around. I took a seat and down I sat, And gazed upon a Quaker hat, While all around, in solemn mood, I ween were thinking something good. The crown was low, the brim was flat, It canopied a noble pate, Who still in solemn silence NATHANIEL COLVER, D.D. 87 I thought him thinking of his God, When lo! the hat began to nod! The spirit moved to use my speech: I should, but then I thought of Beach. I longed his drowsy soul to waken, But thought it best to save my bacon; I gave it up and took a nap. Dr. Colver was a man of power. He always made this impression: "In stature higher than the average, the proportions of his figure were, in the days of his prime, well-nigh perfect, matched as they were by a face and head that were the fitting crown of a noble form." Men spoke of his noble presence; and the glory of his eloquence, which was the expression of an uncommon intellect, made an extraordinary impression of power. As he approached the close of his career his reflections on all that he had lost by his lack of early advantages led him to devote his later years to providing candidates for the ministry opportunities for an education which he in his youth had not had. This interest in the edu cation of young men for the ministry brought him into connection with the first University of Chicago. It made him one of the founders of the Baptist Union Theological Seminary and its earliest professor. All this makes it singularly appropriate and gratifying that in lectureships, fellowships, and scholarships his name, with that of his children, should be enduringly associated with the new University and its school of CHARLES H. SMILEY By THOMAS W. GOODSPEED A special interest attaches to the story of the establishment in the University of the Charles H. Smiley Scholarship. For Mr. Smiley was a colored man, probably, though not certainly, born in slavery and brought up in such poverty as to have had no opportunities of educa tion. It is uncertain when or how he reached Chicago or what his earlier employments were. He became, however, a waiter, and though this was a lowly calling his business insight revealed to him its oppor tunities. He saw that by frugality and good management he might become his own employer and this he finally did. He became a caterer and conducted that business for many years at 76 East Twenty-second Street under his own name, Charles H. Smiley. He developed remark able efficiency, and his uniform courtesy and sterling integrity made him a great favorite with many of the best people. He became indeed one of the best-known and most popular caterers of the city. He did not, however, without difficulties achieve success. Judge Jesse A. Baldwin, who knew him well, says: A good many years ago, while I was practicing law, he came to me and told me that he was tied up financially and that he would have to come to some understanding with his creditors. He gave me a list of his creditors with the amount he owed each one, and he gave me an account of his assets. He asked me to make the transfer. He came in a few days later, after I had seen his creditors, feeling downcast. " Charlie, your creditors feel sorry for you," I told him, "and I can settle with them for fifty cents on the dollar." With tears rolling down his face he said: "I couldn't do that, Mr. Jesse. My mother borned me poor, but she borned me honest. I don't care if there ain't anything left." The Judge concludes, "I never had a client who was more insistent on being honest." Mr. Smiley recovered from this temporary backset and, giving strict attention to business, prospered in a modest way until he came to be recognized as one of the successful colored men of Chicago. He numbered many white men among his friends, some of them men of high character as well as large means. . In March, 1909, Mr.. Smiley again visited his friend and attorney Judge Baldwin to consult him about making a will. Such was his con fidence in the Judge that he asked his recommendations as to the bene- CHARLES H. CHARLES H. SMILEY 89 ficiaries of his estate. He explained that he was becoming conscious of physical ailments and felt that he ought to make suitable provision concerning the disposition of the little property he had, aggregating in value a little more than $11,000. Having no wife, there was but one member of his family for whom he wished to provide. He then explained that Chicago had been very hospitable to him and that in Chicago he had acquired whatever he possessed of reputation and property, so that he would like to leave a liberal share to some institution in Chicago which would perpetuate his desire to make a little money useful in devel oping character. Not long after this conference with the Judge he returned and indicated that he wished to make a bequest that would help to give to poor young people, particularly of his own race, the advantages of education which had been denied to him. Like many other persons who contemplate making a will Mr. Smiley did not at once carry out his purpose. It was not until March 15, 191 1,. that his will was finally executed. It contained the following provision: I direct that my said Executor and trustee shall pay to the University of Chicago the sum of Three Thousand Dollars ($3,000) as and for Endowment, creating a Scholar ship to be known as "Charles H. Smiley Scholarship," which shall be administered by the Board of Trustees of said University, as they may from time to time decide be used for the benefit of poor but promising students, preferably of the colored race, though not at all intending this as any limitation upon their right to use the same as they see fit. I am making this bequest because of my limited opportunities to acquire an education and my desire to aid others in acquiring an education. While the executing of the will had been waiting for two years, the condition of Mr. Smiley's health had been growing more and more precarious. He died suddenly and unexpectedly on March 25, 191 1, only ten days after the signing of his will. The University received the full amount of the bequest, $3,000, on June 15, 191 2, since which time the scholarship, yielding about $150 a year, has been awarded to poor but promising students of the colored race as often as such students have made application. And thus this humble black man has made his life a fountain of perennial blessing to his race and to the GALUSHA ANDERSON At the meeting of the Board of Trustees of the University held August 13, 1 91 8, the Secretary was requested to prepare a memorial of the late Professor Galusha Anderson. He submitted the following, which was inserted in the minutes of the Board and also sent to Dr. Anderson's family : Galusha Anderson, professor of homiletics in the Divinity School of the University from 1892 until 1904, when he was retired, died at Wenham, Massachusetts, July 20, 19 18. He was born at Clarendon, New York, March 7, 1832. He was graduated from the University of Rochester in 1854 and from Rochester Theological Seminary in 1856. During these eighty-six years he lived a useful and strenuous life, serving in various positions of importance and exerting a beneficent and wide spread influence. In St. Louis, during the trying period of the Civil War, his outstand ing patriotism and loyalty to the Union were most helpful to the cause of freedom and to the stability of the national government, and these qualities of mind and spirit were manifested in a region where and at a time when to be true to the underlying principles of the Republic was often unpopular and sometimes dangerous. His ministerial labors, which began in Janesville, Wisconsin, and later were continued in St. Louis, Brooklyn, and Chicago, were char acterized by vigorous thinking and by earnest endeavor to help men and women to higher planes of living. His message sought to establish righteousness by changing the minds of men and thus developing high moral character rather than to play upon human emotions. It was as an educator, however, that Dr. Anderson will be longest remembered. He was professor of homiletics in Newton (Massachusetts) Theological Institution for seven years. In 1 878 he was elected president of the old University of Chicago and there remained until 1885. The period of his presidency was one environed by difficulties. The institu tion was hopelessly involved in debts, debts which at length caused its collapse. Chicago had not recovered from the financial losses and social upheavals of two great fires, nor from the commercial disaster of the panic of the seventies. The counsels of the University's friends were J'nhiteti by Frederii lint, GALUSHA GALUSHA ANDERSON 91 divided. The student body was. gradually disintegrating. Dr. Ander son's heroic struggle on behalf of the University proved unavailing, but it is not too much to say that his efforts to keep it alive had reward in the firmly established conviction that in the imperial city of Chicago there ought to be a great university. Subsequent to the passing of the old University he became president of Denison University at Granville, Ohio, and later professor of homiletics in the Baptist Union Theological Seminary at Morgan Park, which in due time became the Divinity School of the University of Chicago, in which he occupied the same chair. Dr. Anderson's vigor of mind appeared to be a logical sequence of his vigorous body. He impressed those with whom he came in contact and particularly his hearers with the sturdy character of his thinking and the tenacity with which he held to his convictions, notably those in which right and wrong were involved. He ever stood firmly for political honesty, justice, righteousness, and the good of humanity. Indeed, his whole career, as discerned in his sterling character and his moral earnest ness, was characteristic of the highest type of American manhood. His oldest son pays this noble tribute to his father: "He was built four-square to every wind that blew. He was simple, sturdy, honest, affectionate, generous, and brave. Sanity and devotion were the keynotes of his character. He was one of the hardest and most persistent workers I have ever known. He was a true leader, an efficient pastor, a master of extempore preaching, a clear and forcible writer, but pre-eminent as a practical teacher." It was moved and seconded to approve the memorial, to insert the same in the records of the Board, and to request the Secretary to transmit a copy to Dr. Anderson's family, and, a vote having been taken, the motion was declared SAMUEL WENDELL WILLISTON 1852-19181 DR. WILLISTON'S WORK IN ENTOMOLOGY, IN MEDICINE, AND AS STUDENT OF THE EVOLUTION OF LIFE By FRANK RATTRAY LILLIE, Ph.D. Professor of Embryology, Chairman of the Department of Zoology Dr. Williston came to the University of Chicago in 1902 as Professor of Vertebrate Paleontology. He succeeded George Baur (1892-97), an able scholar who brought the best traditions of paleontology to this University with the group of scientists from Clark University at the time of our foundation. Many of us remember Professor Baur as a fine type of scholar, exhaustive in his knowledge, burning with love for his subject, and an indefatigable investigator. Professor Baur was not only a paleontologist but an enthusiastic student of living vertebrates and of island fauna, and his studies of the Galapagos Islands and of the lizards and giant tortoises there found are classic pieces of work. After the death of Professor Baur in 1897 tne chair of paleontology remained vacant until the appointment of Professor Williston in 1902 continued its scholarly tradition. Many of his colleagues in the University of Chicago may think of Professor Williston as a man with one consuming interest which enlisted all his enthusiasm and activity. He came to us rather late in life, privi leged to devote himself heart and mind to the problems of the evolution of life that had been his chief interest in a varied career, running through the web of his life like a golden band. He was now released from the many administrative and pedagogical responsibilities which had accom panied him on his journey so far, and was to enter on that supreme privilege of the scholar in the afternoon and twilight of a busy life, the unimpeded pursuit of his subject and its extension by investigation, and by training a selected group of students in its technique and philosophy. from the University on expeditions to secure the materials of research 1 At a memorial meeting held in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, Sunday, Decem ber 9, 19 18, these addresses were delivered. Paintid by C. A. Conoin SAMUEL WENDELL SAMUEL WENDELL WILLISTON 93 from the strata of the West and Southwest; then returned to the Uni versity, working with loving care in the technique of preparation; laying bare the precious evidences of the life of bygone ages; drawing with his own hands, studying, and interpreting; superintending the prepara tion of the specimens for permanent record; publishing the results. Each specimen was studied, not only as accurately as possible as individual and species, but as representative of the great process of evo lution, the vague outline of which we clearly perceive, but the course and processes of which will always form matter for study. Some paleontologists have been primarily craftsmen, others have allowed speculation to outrun results. It was a great merit of Dr. Williston that his love for detail and his desire for generalization were sanely balanced. It was thus a matter not entirely of opportunity but also of selection on theoretical grounds that made the class of reptiles Williston's favorite subject of research. In the extinct members of this class are found the connecting links with lower vertebrates and also the ancestral forms of birds and of mammals. They exhibit besides an extreme of adaptive radiation which had run its course ages ago. They are a group in which all the great problems of paleontological research are abundantly illustrated. We can do no more than touch on Dr. Williston's chief interest. The esteem in which he was held may, however, be more readily appre ciated by these words of Professor Henry Fairfield Osborn, president of the American Museum of Natural History, himself now the leading ver tebrate paleontologist of the world, written for the present occasion: "Williston," as all his intimate friends called him, was the senior member of our profession in the United States; indeed, senior vertebrate paleontologist of the world. Since the death of Cope he has ranked as the foremost American student of the extinct reptilia. He has left a permanent mark on our knowledge of the marine reptiles of the Kansas Cretaceous, while his numerous contributions on the batrachians and reptiles of the Permo-Carboniferous are of capital importance. Recalling his peculiarly American career as a self-made scientist who overcame obstacle after obstacle, and who from his earliest days set his heart upon observation and research, we feel that Williston was in a sense a typical American. With his many-sided training in anatomy, in medicine, in entomology, and in geology he com bined the precision of an anatomist with the larger perspective of a naturalist; con sequently his studies of extinct life were always illuminated by careful reconstructions of the environment and of the living relationships. This combination of perception of form, of function, and of environment reached a high point in the volumes published by the University of Kansas and by the Uni versity of Chicago. It is a matter of everlasting regret that, beloved and 94 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD by all, he left the circle of our profession before he was able to complete what would have been his crowning life-work on the Extinct and Living Reptiles of the World. We can only rejoice that he has accomplished so much, and that he has encouraged so many of his younger colleagues, students, and successors, by his unstinted appreciation and enthusiasm, to follow in his footsteps. However, we obtain only a small measure of Professor Williston if we know only that segment of his life that he lived among us. His father was a blacksmith, who emigrated from Boston to Manhattan, Kansas, in 1857, when our friend was five years old. Frontier conditions prevailed there. The Manhattan colony was from New England, and many of its members were abolitionists who had come to Kansas to colonize the territory and help John Brown preserve it to the "Free States." With such traditions of the founders of the town, a school was naturally the first public building erected, and an agricultural college was soon started. Owing to the mother's insistence the Williston chil dren attended these means of grace regularly. Our friend, however, seems to have needed no urging; from the time he was seven years old he devoured literally every book on which he could lay his hands. He relates in his recollections that the Emigrant's Aid Society sent to Manhattan a large box filled with old second-hand and tattered books. Such of these as were of any use in the schools were taken out, leaving it about half full of a most heterogeneous collection, from Baxter's Saints9 Rest to goody-goody Sunday-school books. It was a gold mine to me, and I did not cease its exploration till everything readable was read, and everything was grist that came to my mill. At fifteen years of age he read Lyell's Antiquity of Man, sitting up all night to finish it while a dance went on downstairs. The teacher of science at Manhattan, Professor Mudge, was an important influence in his life and was no doubt chiefly responsible for the fact that Williston's life became devoted largely to natural science. Williston was of an enterprising and adventurous disposition. At nineteen years of age he left home, went into railway construction, and became a railway surveyor and engineer. This phase terminated in about three years, when he returned to college and graduated. A second adventure in railroad surveying and engineering was of short duration. The panic of 1872-73 was then on, and times were hard. After some miscellaneous adventures Williston settled down to the study of medicine in the old way with a family physician; he secured a collection of human bones by excavating an old Indian burial ground. He studied chemistry in Manhattan College, lectured on Darwinism, and earned much hard SAMUEL WENDELL WILLISTON 95 In the summer of 1873 he was invited to accompany Professor Mudge on a paleontological expedition to collect fossils for Professor Marsh, of Yale University. This changed the current of his life, and he became a paleontologist. Invited by Professor Marsh to come to Yale as his assistant, he reached New Haven in the spring of 1876. 'Refused per mission to study or publish in paleontology on his own account, he took up the study of insects, specialized on flies (Diptera), and labored inces santly during his spare time, nights and holidays, in this field, in which he made many discoveries and rapidly became the leading specialist; nor did he ever entirely abandon this field of work. He separated from Marsh as a consequence of illiberal treatment and resumed the study of medicine at Yale, earning his way by paleonto logical work for Cope, and graduated in medicine in 1880. He was then appointed assistant paleontologist in the government service, with residence at Yale. He took the degree of Ph.D. at Yale in 1885. There entomologist in Washington, the practice of medicine in New Haven, the appointment as health officer of New Haven, and professor of anatomy at Yale. As health officer he carried through successfully an epidemic of smallpox in 1888, and issued various publications on public health. In 1890 he was called to the University of Kansas as professor of geology and paleontology. This was an opportunity for which he hz d long waited, and he began at once that series of independent researches and publications in paleontology on which his fame chiefly rests. He became the leading spirit in the faculty and did valiant work for the sciences. He introduced variety into the zoological work at Kansas, and himself taught physiology and histology, osteology and ver tebrate anatomy, in addition to his regular work. He organized the medical school and became its dean; he was head and shoulders of the Sigma Xi Society and was prominent in the commercial club of the town, securing its backing for many University enterprises. His activity was prodigious. With it all he never for a moment relaxed his energy in research, and paper followed paper in entomology and in paleontology. His advice to his advanced students and associates was that they should religiously spend a certain amount of time in research each day, whatever the requirements of routine. Two of my colleagues in other institutions have testified to me that this advice was a saving factor in their lives; and there are many others who experienced the impetus of his impulsive, always genial, spirit in 96 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD When Williston went to the University of Kansas from Yale he at once interested himself in the problems of medical education. His own early study in medicine had been carried out under a system "with almost no educational requirements for matriculation; nearly every medical institution in this country would graduate the average student after two courses of lectures, the second a repetition of the first, and each but of four or five months' duration."1 Conditions had greatly improved when he went to Kansas, but the average medical school was still divorced from the university, and entrance requirements were low. He was one of the first, if not the first, to advocate the teaching of the fundamental branches of medicine by the university, and he succeeded in establishing a medical school in the University of Kansas to give only the first and second years' work in medicine by university departments. In 1897, twenty-one years ago, he wrote: It is through the great universities, and especially the state universities, that the solution of the problems of professional education must come, and in fact has come, for some of the professions. With such cultural training as is best adapted to the lawyer's needs, the college course should include all the strictly non-professional branches, leaving the student, after he has completed his course as Bachelor of Arts in Law, to take up the work of the professional school and complete it in two years with the degree of Doctor of Laws. In the medical course there are even greater opportunities than in law. The medical colleges should resign to the undergraduate arts course all the non-professional branches. And the work rightfully belongs there. The best chemical laboratories in the United States are not in the medical colleges but in the universities. Nowhere are physiology, histology, and anatomy better taught than outside medical colleges. As in engineering, there should be a har monious course leading through the high school to the Bachelor of Arts in Medicine, preparatory to two years of strictly professional work with the degree of Doctor of Medicine. When such training as this is demanded of all aspirants to professional practice we shall have uniformly well-educated men in the professions, and not until then. This was written after he had established the University of Kansas Medical School on such a. basis;, it was not vague theorizing but the outcome of experience. It is an interesting fact that the system advo cated by Professor Williston in medicine is almost precisely that adopted later by the University of Chicago; and, as this institution was enabled to organize in a much more thorough and effective way, the Chicago system became a model for several important institutions in the Middle West and West, and has exercised a strong influence on medical education. It is said that Professor Williston literally wept when he made up his mind to leave Kansas and come to the University of Chicago. He 1 Science, N.S., 1897, p. SAMUEL WENDELL WILLISTON 97 was leaving the state of his childhood, which he had seen grow from a poor frontier state to one prosperous and central; he was leaving the rich human associations of his early and middle life; he was leaving problems of administration and varied teaching responsibilities; he was leaving important paleontological collections that he had made largely with his own hands. That to which he was coming was the opportunity of the scholar to devote himself fully to his favorite subject. In spite of the varied nature of his early interests one feels that it was a con sistent decision, and it was one that I am sure he never regretted. In some brief recollections of his life written for his family Williston sums up his life thus: My plans and ambitions may seem fickle; first as an engineer, next as a physician, that ambition in a measure. I have published about 300 books and papers totaling about 4,000 pages. But the chief satisfaction that I find now in looking back over my life is that I have been the means, to some extent at least, Of assisting not a few young men to success in medicine and in science. The life of Professor Williston is a precious heritage of the Univer sity, which we do well to cherish and honor. The University is consist ent in so honoring him, for Professor Williston is only one of a number, already considerable, who have received from this University similar opportunities. Among all the many claims to the affection and respect of the community and country earned by the University of Chicago, none will last longer or rank higher than the tradition of opportunity and freedom for investigation so well established here. DR. WILLISTON AS A TEACHER By ERMINE COWLES CASE, Ph.D., CHICAGO, 1895 Professor of Historical Geology and Paleontology, University of Michigan In speaking to you of Dr. Williston as a teacher I find myself hesi tating between two strong inclinations. On the one hand I would pay tribute to the depth of learning, the skill in presentation, and the enthu siasm and sympathy which brought every student under his spell and made his Very technical subject a most fascinating study to all who attended his classes. In all verity he stirred the dead bones; he clothed the skeletons in flesh, and the long-stilled forms passed in procession through their proper environment before our eyes, revealing the evolu tion of each group as in a panorama; and all this without 98 THEgUNIVERSITY RECORD one necessary detail or one item of the truth to make the story more attractive. On the other hand I am tempted to relate a succession of anecdotes, many of them tinged with humor, that would reveal to you the real man as he was disclosed to us, his students, in the classroom and in the trying intimacies of remote camps. For the Doctor, as we liked to call him, was a very human person; with all his store of knowledge, his high position in the scientific world, and. the honors which came to him, he remained a simple-mannered, kindly, big-hearted man, always ready to respond to every request for help, be it the simple question of a tyro or the difficult problem of a colleague. In his office he would turn from his professional work or from the study of some intricate problem to solve the little personal troubles of a student, and in the field, in the "shadow of a great rock in a thirsty land," after a lunch of coarse camp food washed down with drink from a canteen filled with muddy water, he would slip into an informal lecture, suggested by some chance hap pening of the day or some new-found specimen, which would have graced in its content the hall of any learned assemblage. I believe that the "Mark Hopkins and a log" idea of a university was never more nearly realized than in Dr. Williston. His knowledge of men and things was so wide and his acquaintance with many branches of science so intimate that in the heat of a barren fossil field or under the stars at night by the side of a camp fire, some bird, or flower, or enthralled until hunger, thirst, and sleep were forgotten. Dr. Williston was very human. He made mistakes, not many rela tive to the amount of work he did, but a few, and his students sometimes rejoiced a little that they had caught their chief in a rare slip, but there was such quick recognition of error, with acknowledgment and credit given in generous measure where it was due, that it always brought us closer together. There were rare outbursts of good, honest wrath when things or men went wrong. I think some of us may tingle a little even yet, though the happening may have been years ago, but once the trouble was located, be it of weather or roads, or plain stupidity in students, vigorous action or kindly advice set all to rights or taught the philosophy which bears cheerfully what may not be mended. No man was more generous with the ideas of his own conception, and many a paper by his students or by colleagues is built around a sugges tion from Dr. Williston and bears the marks of his careful scrutiny SAMUEL WENDELL WILLISTON 99 criticism, and this is true of papers which would have been an addition to his own fame if he had published them himself. He taught not only by his lectures and writings; his life was a lesson to all who knew him intimately. The philosophy with which he met misfortunes large and small was as contagious as it was hard-learned in a hard school. In reviewing the life of a successful man we are likely to be attracted by his attainments and to fail to appreciate at their true value the details of drudgery borne and difficulties overcome. If this were the place, and I had the time at my disposal, I could relate a long series of stories told me by himself and his older friends illustrating his early struggles and his tireless industry. Enough to say that he once told me that the lowest stage of his fortunes was reached when as a youth he bailed water in a cofferdam and was discharged for lack of strength to do the work, with no idea where his next meal was to come from. The stages from that experience to this memorial meeting gave him a knowledge of life and a serene faith in the outcome of perseverance and endurance which he passed on, in part unconsciously, to all who came the reward of the work was the result accomplished, that the discovery of truth was greater than any recognition which might come to the suc cessful searcher. Few men have named more new forms of life than he, and yet he cared little for any credit that came to him as the author of a new name. He repeatedly declared to me, "I don't care whether they are named or numbered, just so we know what we are talking about." Few men have attained a greater mastery of their subject or reached a more dominant position in their chosen branch of science, and yet he was singularly free from the touch of dogmatism which frequently, and perhaps excusably, comes in the later years of a master's life. Only a few months before he died he wrote to me in half-comic despair concern ing some intricate problem of the morphology of the Permo-Carboniferous vertebrates, "The more we study these things, the more we don't know anything about them." The effort to reveal to you the man I knew so well is more grateful than the attempt to appraise, as briefly as I must here, the service that he rendered to his favorite branch of science. Others will tell of the value of his work in entomology, his leadership in the Sigma Xi Society, and his inspiration as a colleague; let me say but a few words of his work as a vertebrate paleontologist. A mere catalogue of his discoveries and contributions would mean little to anyone but a specialist, but it means much to all of us that the collections of the National Museum iod THE UNIVERSITY RECORD Washington and of the museum in Yale University were enriched by his discoveries when he worked as a young man in the fossil fields of Kansas, in the days when his rifle for defense from hostile Indians was never farther from his hand than his pick and shovel. The winters of those years were spent at Yale, and his work there upon the Mosasaurs of the Kansas chalk and the Dinosaurs of the Jurassic was far more than mere preparation of the fossils. The publications of Professor O. C. Marsh contain many of his observations and conclusions, and the quality of his work was recognized by the bestowal of the Ph.D. degree in 1885. For several years he remained at New Haven, serving part of the time as professor of anatomy in Yale University, and in 1891 returned to the state of his boyhood years, now as professor of geology and anatomy in the. State University of Kansas. There he again took up the study of the reptiles of the Cretaceous deposits, and the museum of the univer sity shelters treasures of his collecting. His monograph upon the Mosasaurs, published as a report in Kansas University Geological Sur vey, is the standard reference work upon that group as represented in America. His work upon the Plesiosaurs and Ptersaurs, though not presented in monographic form, is fully as comprehensive and authori tative. During these years he was training his first students in vertebrate paleontology, and their papers, prepared under his guidance, together with his own, make the volumes of the Kansas University Geological Survey the source books on the Cretaceous reptiles and fishes of North America. All this was done while he was fulfilling the duties of professor of geology, and for part of the time those of director of the geological survey, of head of the newly organized medical school of the University, and of state medical officer. When Dr. Williston joined the Faculty of the University of Chicago a new period began in his activities. A more limited field of work, better facilities, greater leisure, all contributed to the culmination of his career. A small beginning had been made before his coming, in the collection and study of the vertebrate fossils of the Permo-Carboniferous deposits in North America, and he realized at once the possibilities of the field. Active collection began at once and was continued to the time of his death. These collections, made and most skilfully prepared under his direction, have placed in this University an unrivaled assemblage of Permo-Caroniferous fossils, and they will always remain as one of the monuments to his work. Papers appeared in rapid succession from his pen, supplemented by contributions from his students, all resulting SAMUEL WENDELL WILLISTON IOI an enormous increase in our knowledge of the morphology of the group, an orderly taxonomic arrangement of the various forms, and some valu able and far-reaching conclusions in philosophic zoology. While it is true that all of his conclusions did not meet with acceptance by workers in the same field in this country and abroad, the points of difference never resulted in personal animosity nor bred anything but the most sincere respect for the honesty of his convictions and the weight of his arguments. To those who followed his lead and to those who differed from him on greater or lesser points he was always the master, to be followed with good faith and trust or to be opposed with deference and a large measure of caution. In this brief summary I have mentioned only the most important of his contributions, for to attempt a more detailed statement would be to cite papers upon nearly every group of the vertebrates and to recount collecting trips in nearly every fossil field of America and periods of study in every important museum in this country and many abroad. An adequate statement of his work in vertebrate paleontology alone and a just estimate of its value could only be compassed by the limits of a goodly volume. Facile and pleasing in public address, he was equally apt with pen and pencil. The results of his investigations have been interpreted to the general reader in two volumes from the University of Chicago Press, his Permian Vertebrates and his Water Reptiles of the Past and Present, both illustrated largely by his own hand. A more comprehensive work upon the class Reptilia, planned as summary of his studies in that class, lies uncompleted. I feel, however, that he would rather have passed with work still in hand than to have waited until his powers were exhausted. He grew weary in his later years, when grief and physical distress fell heavily upon him, and sometimes expressed a wish that he might rest, but he always turned again to the work that was his pleasure, and died with hand and brain still achieving for his chosen branch of science. , And now that I have given such appreciative measure of his work as time permits, my thoughts turn back to him as a teacher and a friend. I cannot think of him as quieted forever; rather let your memory and my memory be of his active, living, helpful personality, of his life as an inspiration that will be felt by many generations of workers. I can voice no better tribute from his students than this: We admired and respected the scientist, we revered the teacher, but we loved the 102 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD SAMUEL WENDELL WILLISTON By STUART WELLER, Ph.D. Professor of Paleontologic Geology In the passing away of Professor Williston the University has lost an inspiring teacher, science has lost a scholar famed for his research and the world has lost a man of noble character. Our friend is mourned not alone by those of us who have been closely associated with him in the University of Chicago, but by his former colleagues in the University of Kansas and in Yale University, and his loss will be deeply felt through out the whole body of men of science, among whom he held a position of honor and respect. Professor Williston was a born naturalist, one of those who can not help studying nature. His interests were broad, not being confined to a single small department of research. He attained world-wide fame in two fields as widely apart as vertebrate paleontology and entomology, but his interests were not confined to these subjects alone. He was interested in all of nature, in whatever phase it presented itself -to him. Professor Williston was a life-long advocate of the dignity of research. He believed in research and in the service which all research is destined to render to mankind. His belief in research was not of the selfish sort, justified because he himself delighted in the exercise of his ability in that direction, but it rested on his conviction that every addition to the sum total of human knowledge, however small and insignificant it may seem to be, is an addition to the reserve supply of energy which, when drawn upon, shall serve to further the progress of mankind. He continuously encouraged his students and associates in the belief that whatever they might accomplish in the line of discovery was worth their utmost effort, because it was sure to be utilized in due time in the interest of mankind. Professor Williston's great interest in research, and especially his interest in bringing the spirit of research into contact with students, was well exhibited in his zeal for the Sigma Xi Society, of which he was national president from 1901 to 1904. He it was who was primarily responsible for the establishment of the Chicago chapter of the society, and to the time of his departure he gave much thought to the develop ment of both the local chapter and the national organization. As a young man in New Haven, while an assistant to Professor Marsh in the study of fossil vertebrates, Professor Williston was not permitted the opportunity to contribute to the literature of paleontology, but his scientific ardor could not be repressed, and he sought another SAMUEL WENDELL WILLISTON 103 field in which his surplus energy might be employed. After a number of trials he selected the two-winged flies as a group of organisms suited to his purpose. The material for study was abundant and was to be had simply by going into the fields and collecting it, and the existing litera ture was not so extensive as to be beyond the reach of his slender purse. His devotion to the study of the flies, prosecuted wholly during spare moments, soon brought him recognition as a world-authority on the Diptera. His contributions in this field of science have been many, some being of monographic proportions, and his Manual of Diptera has probably been the starting-point for as many young entomologists as has any existing work of its sort. Who can say but what the studies of the lowly mosquito, prosecuted by this great man, may have been the real inspiration for those later workers who have done so much in establishing the relations between these insects and human disease ? It is certainly true that such work as was done by Professor Williston was essential to the later application of our knowledge of these creatures in the relief of human suffering. Genuine research, as conducted by such men as Professor Williston, involves the persistence into manhood of that quality of childhood which always asks the question, "Why?" Professor Williston was never satisfied with the mere recording of his observations upon the fossils or insects which he studied. He continually set his mind to answer the question, "Why?" concerning the features which he observed. Every new suture which he discovered in the skulls of the ancient reptiles and amphibians which he knew so well and every modification in their skeletons had to be reasonably interpreted in terms of the evolution of the creatures or in their life-habits before he was satisfied with his work. As a man of research Professor Williston's outstanding characteristic was his enthusiasm, which was of a most contagious sort. The pleasure which he felt in the discovery of something new he always wished to share with his friends, and he delighted to point out and explain these dis coveries even to those who were unfamiliar with the immediate field in which lay his work. Although the subject which Professor Williston taught was not one which brought him into contact with large numbers of students, no one who came under his influence ever lacked the feeling of obligation to him for what he had received. As a teacher Professor Williston carried the enthusiasm of his research laboratory into his classroom. His lectures were totally devoid of the atmosphere of the professional pedagogue; they were conversational in style, filled with 104 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD from the vast store of his knowledge of nature, every illustration chosen to drive home the facts which he wished to impress upon his hearers. His classroom work was stimulating to the last degree. Because of his wide experience in the field, from the days when the collecting parties in western Kansas had to receive military protection against the Indians, down to the present year, when he spent some time in Texas, he was able to supplement his teaching with innumerable personal experiences, which .were always chosen with care and for a purpose, and which added greatly to the interest of his lectures and aided materially in fixing the attention of his students upon points of importance. With his advanced students Professor Williston always established relations of closest companion ship. They were commonly given a key to his private office, worked at a desk next his own, and made use of his private library. He was never too busy to drop his work for consultation or advice with students or colleagues, and such consultation was always most cordial and friendly. The humblest Freshman received the same cordial treat ment as a colleague, and with one who showed a genuine interest in the subject he never in the least degree begrudged the time spent in answer ing questions and making explanations outside of the classroom. No student ever came under his influence who did not feel that he had gained through the association. Is it any wonder that a man of such a character should leave as a heritage a great group of disciples who occupy leading positions in science throughout our whole land? Through these men the spirit of Professor Williston will survive and will be transmitted to future generations. In his personal relations with his fellows Professor Williston was modest in the extreme. He was a most lovable, kindly, and com panionable man and enjoyed to the utmost association with congenial spirits. His hearty greeting to former students or to friends who called upon him at the University was delightful to listen to, showing as it did the warmth of his heart and his great loyalty. The first years of Professor Williston's connection with our own. University were discouraging to him because of the lack of materials upon which to prosecute his research work. However, this did not daunt him, and when he could not obtain fossils to work upon he went back to his files and prepared the final, fully illustrated, edition of his Manual. For more than a year he devoted his energies to this work and prepared with his own hand some hundreds of illustrations for the book, which became his crowning effort in the field of entomology. He soon began the accumulation of the magnificent collection of SAMUEL WENDELL WILLISTON K>5 vertebrates which the University now possesses, and the greater portion of his paleontologic research while connected with the University was devoted to these materials. The productivity of his research was amazing when it is remembered that his contributions were of necessity accompanied by large numbers of illustrations, practically all of which were drawn by his own hand. His last work, not quite completed at the time of his death, is a comprehensive treatise on the osteology of the reptiles, living and extinct, very fully illustrated by original drawings. When it is published, the illustrations and other matter in this book will undoubtedly be drawn upon for years to come to furnish materials for textbooks and other similar publications. The loss to the University and to the community of such a man as Professor Williston is irreparable. Someone will be found in due time to take his place in the classroom, but those of us who have been his close associates will always miss him, and there will always remain in our hearts a vacant spot that can never be filled. But his spirit will live and will manifest itself for generations to come through those who have been in contact with him during THE UNIVERSITY AND THE WAR THE UNIVERSITY PRESS AND THE WAR The Press, as one of the divisions of the University, has been especially active in its contributions to war service. The various phases of this war work have included the publication and distribution of War Papers and books bearing on the war, the furnishing of men for national and state military service, the different forms of Red Cross work, and the pur chase of bonds in the numerous Liberty Loans. WAR PAPERS The widely circulated series of Uni versity of Chicago War Papers issued by the Press embraces eight numbers, as follows: (i) The Threat of German World- Politics, by Harry Pratt Judson, Presi dent of the University; (2) Americans and the World-Crisis, by Albion W. Small, Head of the Department of Sociology; (3) Democracy the Basis for World-Order, by Frederick D. Bramhall, of the Depart ment of Political Science; (4) Sixteen Causes of War, by Andrew C. McLaugh lin, Head of the Department of History; (5) The War and Industrial Readjust ments, by Harold Glenn Moulton, Associate Professor of Political Economy; (6) England and America, by Conyers Read, Associate Professor of History; (7) Democracy and American Schools, by Charles H. Judd, Director of the Schools of Education; (8) Democracy and Social Progress in England, by Edith Abbott, Instructor in Sociology. These Papers have been issued under the auspices of the Publicity Committee of the University War Service and have been in wide demand by newspapers, schools and colleges, libraries, clubs, the State Council of Defense, Y.M.C.A. organizations, and individuals. They were also used in educational institutions as supplementary reading for war-aims courses. Some idea of the circulation and influence of these Papers may be gained from the following figures: The first four Papers required a special printing of 25,000 each to be distributed through the State Council of Defense; Paper No. 5, first printed under another title by the Union League Club of Chicago, had a total circulation of nearly 100,000; 155 periodicals in fifteen states used the War Papers in whole or in part, these periodicals having a total circula tion of 4,706,200. BOOKS BEARING ON THE WAR Among the books published in con nection with the war are a number that had a wide use in officers' training camps and the Student Army Training Corps. They include the following: Army French, by Ernest H. Wilkins, Professor of Romance Languages, Uni versity of Chicago, and Algernon Cole man, Associate Professor of Romance Languages, University of Chicago. Five impressions of this book were struck off in the first edition, and the new edition was especially revised to meet the needs of the Student Army Training Corps. First Lessons in Spoken French for Men in Military Service, by Ernest H. Wilkins, Algernon Coleman, and Howard R. Huse. First Lessons in Spoken French for Doctors and Nurses, by Ernest H. Wil kins, Algernon Coleman, and Ethel Preston. All royalties received from this book are devoted to the work of the American Red Cross. Le Soldat Americain en France, by Algernon Coleman, Associate Professor of French, University of Chicago, and Marin La Meslee, Professor of French, Tulane University. A handbook for those who already have some knowledge of French. Because of two series of volumes which the Press already had under way, one on "Materials for the Study of Economics" and one on "Materials for the Study of Business," it" has been possible to co operate immediately with the editors of the series in issuing two other books in Readings in the Economics of War, by THE UNIVERSITY AND THE WAR 107 J. Maurice Clark and Harold G. Moulton, of the University of Chicago, and Walton H. Hamilton, of Amherst College; and Readings in Industrial Society, by Leon Carroll Marshall, Dean of the School of Commerce and Administration, who is Director of Industrial Relations in the United States Shipping Board of the Emergency Fleet Corporation. The former volume, of 700 pages, interprets the economic aspects of the war and outlines its significance for the future organization of industrial society; while the latter, a volume of over a thousand pages, furnishes a foundation for a thorough understanding and intelligent handling of industrial questions now made so essential by the war. MEN IN MILITARY SERVICE As a contribution of the University Press to actual war activities, fifteen of in France, one in Washington, D.C., and others in various camps. Following is a list of the Press employees who are now in the national military service: Corporal Thure W. Larsen, 247th Aero Service Squadron, A.E.F.; Private Harry Han- num, 121st Aero Squadron, A.E.F.; Cor poral Elton T. Conley, 328th Aero Squadron, Supply Headquarters, Kelley Field No. 1, San Antonio, Texas; Nate Feldt, Printing Department, Instruction Bldg.j Main Camp, Great Lakes, 111.; Sergeant Donald P. Bean, Quarter master's Department, 1266 Columbia Road NW., Washington, D.C.; Cor poral Fred H. Sell, Battery E, 12 2d Field Artillery, A.E.F.; Sergeant Byron P. Rublee, Company K, 343d Infantry, A.E.F.; Second Lieutenant William T. Birch, Company K; 343d Infantry, A.E.F.; Arthur Newton, Armed Guard, U.S.N., City Park Barracks, Brooklyn, N.Y.; Corporal M. F. Baldwin, 37th Engineers, A.E.F.; Private Arthur Dreyi- kovsky, Motor Repair Division, Aero Squadron C, West Point, Miss.; M.'W. Parkinson, Great Lakes, 111.; Private F. B. Gallagher, 53d Field Artillery, Camp Travis, Texas; Private A. Hora- witz, Battery C, 123d Field Artillery, A.E.F.; PaulLaskowsky, Great Lakes, 111. Early in the war men from the Uni versity Press formed five squads for drilling twice a week on Stagg Field. A number of the men are now members of Company 13, Illinois Reserve Militia, as follows: Corporal F. A. Feller, Sergeant O. C. LaNard, G.'C. Crippen, J. E. Replinger, A. A. Green, S. S. Mar shall, D. McGowan. PURCHASE OF LIBERTY BONDS A remarkable record has been made by the women of the University Press in their subscriptions, often at actual personal sacrifice, to the four issues of Liberty Bonds. The subscriptions have been as follows: Issue No. of Women No. of Bonds Total Amount First Second . . Third... Fourth . . IO 34 38 60 II 35 42 75 $ 550-00 1,950.00 2,150.00 4,000 . OO Total. . 163 $8,650.00 In addition to these subscriptions of the women, the men in the University Press have given a very generous response to appeals to purchase Liberty Bonds. Their purchases for the four issues have been as follows: Issue No. of Bonds Total Amount First Second Third Fourth 14 64 6.1 65 $ 1,200.00 4,500.00 4,300 .OO 4,500 . 00 Total 204 $14,500.00 The combined purchases, therefore, of Liberty Bonds by men and women of the University Press amount to a total of $23,150.00. WAR WORK BY WOMEN To the various phases of the Red Cross work the women of the University Press have devoted much time despite their regular all-day employment at the Press. During the winter of 191 6-1 7 they gave one evening a week at Ida Noyes Hall to sewing for the Red Cross, and during the winter of 191 7-18 many were engaged in such work in neighborhood groups. With wool furnished by the Ida Noyes unit, the women of the University Press have already made and sent in thirty-five knitted sweaters and sixty-five