The University Record Volume III OCTOBER igi7 Number 4 DEMOCRACY AND THE LAW OF NATIONS1 By JESSE SIDDALL REEVES, Ph.D. Professor of Political Science, University of Michigan In the seventeenth century blunt old Thomas Hobbes, of Malmes- bury, complained that a distinguishing feature of the universities of his day was a certain frequency of insignificant speech. More than a hundred years afterward the censorious doctor, Samuel Johnson, averred that the lecture as a means of imparting information had about run its course. What would either of these worthies say, could he visit an American university in the year of grace, 191 7! Lectures by the score, day by day, for almost twelve months in the year. We are talked to, lectured to, until it would seem that tongue could give, and the mind hold, no more. Much, we must admit, may be insignificant, but the demand continues, and, apparently, the supply never fails. At the present time, certainly, words might fail to move us. We seek relief in some sort of service must point our way as best we can by the spoken or written word. Upon an occasion like this it is perhaps easy to mount the tripod and to attempt the role of prophet. But the line of the Biglow Papers serves as a warning: Don't prophesy onless ye know. The Great War, with its causes, its progress, its aims, and possible results, stands out as the one absorbing topic of interest. From it our minds 1 Delivered on the occasion of the One Hundred and Fourth Convocation of the University of Chicago, held in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, August 31, 191 7. 250 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD cannot long stray, nor ought they if they could. To one phase of it I should like to direct your attention. Not that it is dramatic, or that it has had popular interest, but because, unless there is clear thinking in reference to it, the reconstruction of international society which this war must effect will lose something of its deeper and abiding significance. I refer to the subject of international law and its relation to democracy. I It is true that what may be called the prevailing and traditional opinion among English and American lawyers is that international law never has been and never can be law. It would be useless to enter upon the discussion of this question, which is, after all, one of logomachy, turning wholly upon the meaning of the word "law." In our speech law, fortunately in some respects, very unfortunately in others, is much narrower in meaning than the corresponding term in Latin or in any modern European language or, as I am informed, even in Japanese. In all modern tongues, save English, the term for law has a subjective and ethical element, and it is no mere coincidence that, with rare excep tions, there has been no denial of the legal character of the law of nations save by English and American lawyers. They generally delight in limit ing their legal ideas to those of the English common law, which is thoroughly positive in character. They delight also, consciously or not, for better or for worse, in having no legal philosophy, unless, indeed, the Austinian conception of law can be called a philosophy. Even among those whose special interest is in Anglo-American law and yet are willing to admit the legal nature of international law, there is observable a tendency to carry over into the field of international law the conceptions of our municipal law. Such a tendency is, no doubt, natural. But if it be remembered that but two of the fifty members of the family of nations base their legal systems upon the English common law and that nearly all the rest derive theirs from the law of Rome, it is obvious that intel lectual sympathy and legal kinship with other nations, so necessary to the acquisition of the international mind, are not fostered by the whole sale importation into international law, or by the analogical use therein, of the conceptions of our municipal law. Many of those, however, who would admit the legal character of inter national law as it was before August, 1914, now say that the whole fabric of the science has been destroyed even to its foundation. The phrase inter arma leges silent sets forth the common opinion as to the situation of international law at the present time. It is no longer existent, DEMOCRACY AND THE LAW OF NATIONS 251 one. It is a mere phrase, says another. A newspaper thus ridiculed it some time after the war opened: Two seedy individuals, strangers to each other, were sitting at a cafe table in some unnamed European capital. "How is business?7' asked one. "Very bad," said the other. " And what is your occupation ? " "A professor of the modern dances," was the reply. " Mine is bad too, very bad." " So ? And what is your thought will surely remove this common misconception. If a man kill another, it does not demonstrate that there is no criminal law; rather does it emphasize the fact that there is a law which calls killing murder and punishes it accordingly. The disorder and riot which recently occurred at East St. Louis we call lawless, not intending thereby to imply the absence of law, but to call attention to the shortcomings of its administration. The invasion of Belgium was such an infraction of the law of nations that thereafter the whole world seemed lawless. Bel gium's self-defense, the sacrifices she made for honor and not for "safety first," the entrance into the war of England, and, one by one, of the other Entente powers, the sacrifices made, and still to be made, by each all these bear witness to the fact that international law, though violated, still exists; that opposing the reign of force is the reign of law. The aim of law is the protection of the weak against the strong. "Das Gesetz ist der Freund der Schwachen" wrote Schiller. The strong needs no law to gain its mastery over the weak, but by law alone can the weaker survive against the strong. By law alone can the weaker plan his actions. By it only can the future be discounted, and today and tomorrow be joined so as to serve each other's needs. "Where there is society there is law." Without law there can be no society; without society there can be no law. For society connotes relationships between individual and individual, between group and group within the state, and, finally, between those groups, national or otherwise, which we call states, the think of, not merely as the command of a determinate sovereign, as John Austin in Hobbesian phrase would have had us believe, but as a social product. Those social relationships which organized society pro tects are legal relationships, within the state as municipal law, and trans cending the state as international law. The expanding social conscience expresses itself in terms of law. These are not hard and fixed like the laws of the Medes and Persians, but they tend, at least, to respond to the shifting conditions and changing ideals of society, as society 252 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD wider and wider horizons of life in family, clan, tribe, state, the civilized world, and in humanity, which, as Goethe said, stands above all the carrying out by force of the will of an infallible state, or as the most irrational method of settling international disputes, the anti-social act since the beginning of recorded history. In many respects it doubtless falls short of being a true law, for belligerents are already a Voutrance in war need no detailed and labored legal exposition. They are, for the most part, acts against which the civilized mind naturally reacts. The words "atrocity" and "brutality" need no judicial construction or inter pretation. They are the judgments of civilization and humanity upon savagery and the brutal. As they shock the sensibilities of normally constituted natures, that fact is after all the greatest deterrent from inhuman excesses in war. Inhibitions rather than prohibitions and a "decent respect for the opinions of mankind" are the sanctions of the law of war, whether that law be unwritten or set forth in a solemn declaration of The Hague. The following account of a recent incident will illustrate my meaning: American survivor of the British steamship Belgian Prince, which was sunk July 31 by a German submarine, with the loss of thirty-eight lives, today gave details of his experiences to The Associated Press. He said: "A torpedo hit the engine room. A submarine then quickly came to the surface about 200 yards to starboard and fired at our wireless apparatus. We left the Belgian Prince in three boats and had got fifty yards from the ship when the submarine came alongside and asked for our Captain, who was taken aboard and inside the U-boat. "The members of the crew were ordered to hold up their hands, and the Germans asked if there were any gunners among us. Although there were two, we said, 'No.' The Germans next asked if we had any pocket arms. "We were then ordered to the deck of the submarine, where we were told by the commander to remove our lifebelts and to lie on the deck. This we did. Then the commander went into the boats, threw the oars into the sea, and had his men remove the provisions. After that the plugs were taken out of holes in the boats, which were than cast adrift. "The submarine went to the northeast for twelve miles, the commander taking the lifebelts to the top of the conning tower and throwing them over board. I hid mine under a raincoat, and as the submarine began to submerge I tied it around my neck and jumped into the DEMOCRACY AND THE LAW OF NATIONS 253 "The rest of the crew stayed on deck until they were swept off by the sea as the boat dived. It was a terrible sight. One by one they threw up their hands and went down, or, fighting to keep up, they splashed water as they disappeared. " Of course this story may not be true. Unfortunately, it is not so unique that we are not justified in giving credence to it. To the mind capable of contriving such fiendish and wanton murder as this, no fear of reprisals, punishment in kind, will be sufficient restraint. To such a one the provisions of the Hague conventions are but as tinkling cymbals. The spirit of chivalry would have found such an act impos sible, and so would good sportsmanship. A scheme of thought which would excuse the invasion of Belgium, justify the deportation of women and children from northern France, praise the imposition of forced labor in occupied territory as sound economic policy, and condone the sinking petrator of this latest submarine exploit, if there is followed as a guid ing principle the doctrine that there can be no other source of law than force. From all of this we unhesitatingly avow ourselves to be sepa rated by an impassable gulf, a gulf which cannot be bridged by any claims of intellectual or moral sympathy. Force unregulated by law is brutality. To delight in brutality is to hearken back to the call of the wild, or else it indicates a perversion of human nature for which the psycho-pathologists may find a name. To dwell upon these things may be objected to as an elaboration of the obvious; it is the obvious, how ever, which we are most prone to overlook. The trite bores us, and we turn away our heads. Not to challenge at all times these assaults upon the most elemental claims of humanity is to nurse palliation and excuse. Here, as elsewhere, a Laodicean tolerance indicates a dulling of the moral sense, a deterioration of the moral fiber, and a lack of moral courage. II So deadened have become our sensibilities, so accustomed are we to each day's disclosures of the horrors of this war, that we are in danger of forgetting that, after all, peace and not war is the normal condition of mankind. It is primarily with reference to the peaceful relationships of international life that the law of nations has to do. In war, inter national society ceases to exist in any proper sense. In peace interna tional relationships are developed almost unconsciously. They grow more and more complex and intricate, and, as they become 254 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD regulated and perfected, they exist as law. The prime function of inter national law, then, is not the regulation of those abnormal situations which, in their totality, are comprised within the law of war, but in the development of the normal relationships of international society in the law of peace. As the purpose of law is the protection of the weak against the strong, the main business of international law is to prevent that overrunning of the weak by the strong, which is the very ideal of strategy and of war. It is of great moment, then, that we examine closely the foundation principles of the international law of peace. The system of international law, which properly claims Grotius as its founder, is based upon the doctrine or dogma of that exclusive terri torial supremacy of the state called sovereignty. The state which is sovereign has no earthly superior; its commands are law to all within; it yields habitual obedience to none without, whether another state or a group of states. The great work of Grotius appeared during the Thirty Years' War and gave expression to universal aspirations as a protest against the practices and excesses of that era. True, it was in many respects a counsel of perfection. But, giving to political communities a juristic form to the principle of live and let live, it found expression in the treaties of Westphalia, wherein the doctrine of exclusive terri torial sovereignty was recognized even for the three hundred and more anomalous members of the Holy Roman Empire. Not content with setting forth the foundation rights of the territorial state, Grotius called attention to the duties of states toward each other. Here, as in the elaboration of the primary rights of states, he had a body of law at his hand with which all canonists and civilians were familiar. The Roman law contained the so-called law of nature, a body of fixed, immutable principles which we might call the principles of justice, to which law individuals were subject. Grotius applied to states the principles which the Roman law of nature had applied to individuals. States were to each other as individuals in a state of nature; therefore the internationally binding rules of conduct among states were deduced nature. Ill So much has been said since the outbreak of the Great War about the German theory of the state, and Nietzsche, Treitschke, and Bern- hardi have been so often called as witnesses, that merely to name them in this connection produces a certain weariness. I do not venture to appraise the influence of Nietzschian philosophy upon political theory DEMOCRACY AND THE LAW OF NATIONS 255 upon German policy. We have excellent authority, however, for stating that Nietzsche's influence upon modern German legal philosophy is not inconsiderable. For Kohler, the most distinguished authority in legal philosophy in Germany, asserts that one of the first to recognize jurist, but a philosopher, whose like, since Hegel, the world has not seen." No one interested in the history of law can be unmindful of the enormous contribution of German scholars in this field. The great out burst of enthusiasm for historial investigation which characterized Ger man scholarship in the early decades of the nineteenth century produced the historical school of jurisprudence whose founder was Savigny. His influence was felt, not only in the historiography of Roman law, but in that of German and even of Anglo-American law. It was Savigny's point of view which Sir Henry Maine adopted, and, following him, the late Professor Maitland, incomparably the most distinguished name in the field of English legal history and, indeed, one of the most brilliant of English historians. The work of Grimm, Brunner, and Gierke, all German scholars of the historical school, must be reckoned with in any research in early English legal history. What has been said about the contributions of German scholars to legal history holds good in the other domains of science, literature, and art. Nothing will be gained and much is to be lost by the attempt to belittle the claims of German scholarship. The best that is German is universal and is the heritage of the world. The great contributions of the German mind are no longer German merely. They transcend Germany, and, notwithstanding the appar ently impassable chasm of the present, they remain as common elements by which civilization may seek to reunite itself. In the more restricted field of international law, the German writers of the early nineteenth century followed Grotius, clung naturally to the eighteenth-century doctrines of the law of nature, and stressed the fundamental rights of states. The German states being then relatively weak, it was natural that their publicists should emphasize the funda mental rights of independence and equality. This is to be seen par ticularly in the work of Kliiber, who gave a most elaborate treatment of the fundamental rights of states. Bluntschli, a Swiss, who occupied the chair of political science at Heidelberg, adopted the historical method. His colleague, Treitschke, lecturing upon modern history, evolved the doctrine of world-power in a manner which gained so much public applause that he was transferred to the University of 256 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD and there exerted an enormous influence. Treitschke never lost an opportunity of pouring ridicule upon what he deemed to be the timid and pacifistic doctrines of Bluntschli. After the unification of Germany under the Empire, Treitschke's doctrines, mixed with the philosophy of Hegel, more and more influenced juristic thinking. Given the organic theory of the state, logically the state becomes absolute and infallible. Law as the embodiment of the cultural idea is the voice of the infallible state. In foreign policy and even in international law, according to such a theory, there are not the same standards of morality as are associated with municipal law. The militaristic doctrines of Clausewitz also influenced juristic thinking. According to Clausewitz, war is the con tinuation by force of the policy of the state. As the standards of morality are not to be applied to the state in its external policy, if the state be infallible, then war undertaken by the state sanctifies all the measures selected for its victorious end. The doctrine of necessity, the idea that necessity makes law, not that necessity knows no law, we find elaborated in systematic works on international law appearing within a few years after the close of the Franco-Prussian War. This is the doctrine of Kriegsraison, for which, I am happy to say, there is no exact English equivalent. It means that the necessities of strategy or of larger state action take precedence over the generally recognized rules of warfare. The same idea that the state is power permits the state to interpret its treaty obligations in the light of its own existence, convenience, and policy. Treitschke proclaimed that in every treaty there was to be embodied the principle that circumstances alter cases, and that, if the state's policy so demands, it is not to be hindered by its treaty obligations. Again the same doctrine of an infallible state, which is power, finds expression in the principle of frightfulness which runs through the hand book on land warfare prepared by the German general staff. In this book we read that in war a state is justified in destroying the entire material, moral, and spiritual assets of the enemy. In German texts of international law appearing between 1870 and 19 14 may be found legal justification for all the acts of Germany during the present war: the invasion of Belgium, the deportation of women from occupied territory in France, forced labor in Belgium, the so-called ruthless submarine war fare, and the plotting of German agents in the United States and Mexico. Nor are these doctrines to be found only in the more learned treatises. We find them in elementary textbooks of law. Sohm's Institutes of Roman Law, in the twelfth edition, makes this DEMOCRACY AND THE LAW OF NATIONS 257 The principle which lies at the root of law is the self-maintenance of the people. Whatever serves the purpose of preserving the power of a people, that is, humanly speaking, just. Law is the formal expression of the means whereby a people organizes itself for the struggle for existence. Accordingly it is war that generates law. War, it is said, is the father of all things. Under the stress of the perils of war a people consolidates into an army, into a State. So far from being the power that destroys societies, war is the power that builds them up. This book is a widely used elementary textbook of Roman law, largely read, not only by students of law in Germany, but by those who are preparing for the civil service. It is noteworthy that the paragraph quoted did not appear in the earlier editions of Sohm's work. About 1896 Sohm, then professor of law at the University of Berlin, joined Naumann in the National Social Union, which had as a central idea the maxim of "reform within and power without." The influence of Treitschke's doctrine upon this organization was well recognized. Sohm declared to Naumann that whatever is proper for the conduct of war and necessary for its successful conclusion is not to be judged from the purely ethical standpoint. More consciously influenced by Hegel is Professor Josef Kohler, for a long time and now professor of law at the University of Berlin. Kohler's Philosophy of Law has been translated into English, and there one may see the extent to which the doctrines of Hegel and Nietzsche may be applied to law. Kohler suggests the idea of a superstate with a super- international law, the highest embodiment of world-cultural aims. At the outbreak of the war no name stood higher among living jurists than Kohler's; his influence in Germany has been enormous and, outside Germany, not inconsiderable. The foremost periodical printed in German devoted to international law is the Zeitschrift filr Volkerrecht, edited by Kohler. About a year after the war began, he printed in his journal an essay entitled " The New Law of Nations " ; in it Kohler pays tribute to the vitality of Hegel's influence in law, and undertakes to show that the development of international law can be undertaken only by those states which are capable of culture. Characterizing all states not in alliance with Germany in this war as incapable of culture and of scientific constructiveness or as treacherous falsifiers that should have nothing to do with the development of international law, he says: An international law based on international treaties can no longer be. International association can only lead to norms of law, if the peoples are actuated by legal endeavors. Treaties with liars and falsifiers cannot 258 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD sources of law; only those peoples can co-operate in the development of law who have a living conscience. Shall we recognize as brother-nations having kindred fidious company of peddlers, like the English, who from the first day of the war have flooded the world with statements which they know to be calumnies the fashion of Caesar Borgia, to undertake sneaking bribery in order to get rid of a Roger Casement ? Or a nation of barbarians, like the Russians, whose excesses in East Prussia have suddenly brought before our eyes the whole Mus covite brutality ? Or the Italians, among whom a miserable lottery-playing group made up of the immature and half -educated proletariat, and of phrase- drunken demagogues, could bring the government to violate sacred treaties and to fall upon the flank of their own sworn allies ? No, and thrice No. These ties are forever broken. And as for neutrals, the United States, glorying in an empty play of moral platitudes, with the blessing of the Vanderbilt- Morgan millions, has done enough injury to us with its munitions policy. Neutral states like Spain, Switzerland, and Sweden will always appear to us dear and worthy. On the other hand, a portion of Holland and of Norway and Denmark has wounded us sorely by its unjust treatment of us. And Holland has persuaded herself by putting her trade under English control to further England's war of starvation! The rebuilding of international law upon "historical foundations with a rationally constructed plan motivated from the cultural world," will be the task of Germany, a possible task, because German science alone is constructive. German science will join with German power and reconstruct the law of nations. Kohler concludes that " Germany will be so vastly fortified by her victorious war that she can undertake the pro tection of International Law, just as centuries ago the Lombard, Dante, invoked the German Emperor as the protector of law and the shield of justice." Such a doctrine as that of Kohler really denies the existence of a world-society unless organized upon the plan of a world-empire. The fundamental rights of states: existence, independence, sovereignty, and equality are cast aside, and nothing remains. Let us, however, listen to another German voice, that of Wehberg, of Dusseldorf, formerly a collaborator with Kohler in his Zeitschrift. It is the kind of voice which we do not often hear these days. "In the great crisis by which all mankind was confronted through the outbreak of the war it became the sacred duty of all learned men, at least within the field of science, to pay just and impartial tribute even to other nations and to uphold faith in a better future for DEMOCRACY AND THE LAW OF NATIONS 259 IV The same law of nature upon which Grotius founded the new science of international law led into another direction and came forth as a political philosophy of the seventeenth century as developed by John Locke, the philosophical apologist of revolution in general and of the English Revolution in particular. The state of nature produced natural rights, those of life, liberty, and property. The Declaration of Inde pendence gave eternal expression to Locke's doctrines. In it are set forth the natural rights of individuals and the fundamental rights of states. Akin to the natural rights of life for the individual is the funda mental right of existence for the state. The individual's natural rights of liberty and property are translated into the state's fundamental rights of sovereignty and independence. All states having fundamentally the rights of existence, independence, and sovereignty are therefore equal in law and before the law. Hence appears the fourth fundamental right of the state, the right of equality. The Declaration of Independence signalized the entrance of a new element in international society. Up to that time the family of nations had only a European membership. From 1776 to 1823 the United States was engaged in making valid the claims which the Declaration of Independence had dared to affirm. That period witnessed an enormous development in international law, in which process it was admitted that the United States played no in considerable part. The body of international law of 1776 was fitted for an extremely simple state of international society. Even that as limited to Europe was checked in its operation by the political ideas of balance of power. The United States was able in no small measure to develop international law, because it alone among states was in a position to insist upon the application of international law without regard to the limitations of European political conditions. The recognition by the United States of the Latin- American repub lics and the enunciation of the Monroe Doctrine emphasized the vast change in international society which had taken place since 1776. The score of new states claiming to be independent and recognized as such by the United States, and therefore equal with the states of Europe, gave a renewed emphasis to the fundamental rights of states, the more signifi cant as the Latin- American republics were not to be considered as within the range of European balances of power. These new states, remaining relatively weak and having little contact with the main channels along which international society developed during the nineteenth century, have consistently and logically emphasized the fundamental rights 260 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD independence, of complete and exclusive territorial sovereignty, and of equality before the world. In 19 1 5 there was founded the American Institute of International Law, composed of five members from each of the twenty-one republics of the Western Hemisphere. In this Institute the United States is represented by the Secretary of State, Mr. Lansing, and by two of his predecessors, Messrs. Elihu Root and Robert Bacon. The Institute has no official connection with the American republics, nevertheless its character is to some extent interpreted as official because of the positions of its various members. We are justified in giving more than academic value to the declaration of the rights and duties of nations which was proclaimed by the American Institute of International Law at its first session, held in January, 191 6, at Washington. In that declaration appears the most complete expression of the fundamental rights of states in international law ever formally enunciated. The Declaration of Independence is authority for what the Institute declares to be the right of every state in the society of nations, "to assume among the powers of the earth the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them." The duties of states as set forth by the same declaration consist in the recognition by each state of these fundamental rights of the others. Such a manifesto, set forth in the year 19 16, was no doubt directed against the claim, backed by force in 1914 and not yet defeated, that small and weak states have no rights which the powerful state is bound to respect. To that extent it is entitled to commendation. It is, how ever, not wholly compatible with the conditions of real life before this war, and certainly not in harmony with that development of international society which is to come. Then, it is to be hoped, the solidarity of the human race and the common aims of mankind will temper and modify the atomistic and separatist conception of the family of nations which the traditional doctrines of sovereignty and independence have come to limit. Mankind is still chained to the dogmas of that logical abstraction known as sovereignty. Indivisible, inalienable, imprescriptible sover as overpowering as that of the unconditioned absolute. States are not Each occupies, or at least claims, a very definite portion of the earth's surface. Each is made up of human beings. The government of each is in the hands of the same kind of human beings, weak or strong, but always fallible like the rest of mankind. Oxenstierne's remark to DEMOCRACY AND THE LAW OF NATIONS 261 son is still true: "With what little wisdom is the world governed!" Human relationships extend beyond the state so that no state is self- contained; no state can live unto itself. Even Austin, who stressed all of the consequences of absolute sovereignty, admitted that every state yields its will and judgment now and then to other states. Not only does the state do so in treaties, but it does so as it sustains any relation ship for itself or for its nationals, not occasionally, as Austin stated, but, under the conditions of modern life, constantly. The area of this international give and take of duties and rights is the sphere of inter national law. The world has become too small for the state to claim its right to exist as an end in itself. What touches one, touches all, and, as was long since said, must be approved by all. Even in war we have seen how world relationships have become so intimate that the human race cannot escape the burdens of war, if it would. For no longer can war be safely localized. This explains the almost complete bankruptcy of the law of neutrality in this present war. President Wilson said: "The condition of neutrality has become intolerable." Rightly so, for its law is, after all, the law of self-interest, and has always represented the more or less nicely balanced claims of belligerent and non-belligerent power. When war was localized and the preponderance of power was in non-belligerent hands, the neutral became, in a sense, the trustee and guardian of non-belligerent rights. As the world has become smaller, with time and distance annihilated, with ideas conveyed to all nations over night, world-relationships include a larger and larger factor of common conceptions of law, justice, fair dealing, and righteousness. Righteousness no longer exalts a nation merely, but joins all nations into common aspirations. As within the state recognition of the inter dependence of individuals re-creates the social conscience and develops a social will which limits the older free play of the individual in order to realize the public good, so in the world as well the increasing nexus of relationships, not only those of state with state, but of human beings mutually, limits the sphere in which the state in its absolute sovereignty has played the principal role, and dares to impose upon it new duties. These are duties not only to other states, but duties to human beings, whether nationals or aliens within its boundaries, or aliens without. In such a conception there are no "lesser breeds without the law." The foundation of modern international law is the desire and ability of a state through its government and people to maintain law and order within. International law is not worthy of the name if it act as a wall or barrier behind which the state can do as it will with its own. The 262 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD duty of the state in international law is to set its own house in order, to furnish to all within its boundaries a reign of law. Otherwise inter national law is but the servant of anarchy and corruption. The state may, in Rousseau's phrase, "be forced to be free." All this has a very practical application in our own situation. Gradu ally the United States has developed a sphere of influence in the Western Hemisphere, the limits of which are not easy to define. For some pur poses we have claimed that our sphere of influence is coterminous with the Western Hemisphere. Actually and today the political relationships of the United States with Cuba, Panama, Santo Domingo, Haiti, and Nicaragua are a denial that international society is organized as the declaration of the Institute assumes. While it sets forth the funda mental rights of states, the gradual extension of the American sphere of influence is based upon the conception of the international duties of the state. He is a superficial observer who sees in this extension of Ameri can influence the working out of an imperialistic idea. The "big-stick" policy of President Roosevelt was not one of imperialism, but a policy which insisted upon the performance of simple international duties. The best construction which is to be placed upon the taking of Panama is that it was done in the exercise of an international eminent domain. Whether it be admitted that such a right exists, it is at least true that the United States has used this acquisition, not in a narrowly selfish and nationalistic way, but with a view to the accommodation and benefit of all the world. The declaration of the Institute so emphasizes the primary rights of the states as to leave no room for the intrusion of those newer state duties which are based upon the solidarity of the human race and of inter national society. Under it the duties are negative. They consist solely in the recognition by other states of these fundamental rights. It gives us a situation of international laissez faire. Modern life makes duties positive. A duty means something to be done, not the merely passive recognition of a right. The older jurisprudence insisted that rights and duties are correlative. A newer jurisprudence based upon the claims of society does not find such a correlation necessary. Duties come first, and they are not merely to the individual, but to the group or to society organized as the state. Similarly, that society which sub sumes the state claims duties, and the rights which emerge are derivative emphasize the fundamental rights of states tends materially to cir cumscribe the development of international society and thus to DEMOCRACY AND THE LAV/ OF NATIONS 263 international law of much of its living force and power of development. With the manifesto of the American Institute of International Law, there is no room for the inclusion of a democratic program. Each state is a water-tight compartment, so that it is not the business of any other state to pass upon what form of government lies within it. Under such a scheme intervention is impossible and not legally to be justified in any circumstance, even for humanity. It may be objected that to deny the fundamental rights of states is to deny the right of the state to be, and to forbid the realization of nationalistic demands. No one, however, would nowadays seriously assert that the displacement of the doctrine of natural rights for one of social control entails the juristic destruction of individual personality. Every theory of social progress, whether collectivist or individualistic, rests ultimately upon the idea of human, that is, individual, perfectibility, associated with that of individual moral obligation. The state is but one, although traditionally the highest one, of the means by which these foundations are laid. Since the time of Plato it has been recognized that only in the state can the individual achieve the realization of himself. The state can act only through government, its concrete political organi zation. Government, however collectively it may be organized, can work only by the co-operation of individuals. Within our own memory we have seen the state undertake to subject groups within it to the standards of individual morality as expressed in terms of law. The corporation is no abstraction, but a real entity operating only by the co operative exercise of individual wills. Group morality is becoming identified with individual morality, not because the state as power commands it, but because society, organized in the state, "demands that equal standards are necessary for the protection of the individual and hence of itself. So with states. The state as power is the negation of moral, as well as of legal, obligations. None within can have rights against it, therefore it lies under no duties. But as states are the con crete realizations of organized society, they owe duties to all within and to each other. These duties of external action are moral only until there is a recognition of a status quo, and then they become legal. The growth of law is predicated upon the progress from the dynamic and moral to the static and legal, whence new moral duties emerge, which in turn become legal. New relationships create new responsibilities. These beget new moral duties and moral rights. As these, again, become legal, new relationships result with greater and greater complexity and 264 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD V "The world must be made safe for democracy," President Wilson says. Safe, that is, that nations existing as states shall have the right to exist in order that they may work out their problems in their own way. It cannot be taken to justify a program of democratic legitimacy. Not yet has international law proclaimed that the state has the right to be, only when the government is democratic in form. As to what constitutes democracy, there may not be agreement of opinion. Democracy may be social or industrial, as well as political. It may be direct or repre sentative, or it may seek to limit itself to the Jeffersonian doctrine that that government is best which governs least. ,Some states may have the form of democratic organization without the spirit of democracy, which alone giveth life. The world must be made safe for democracy in the sense that the democratic state may rule itself, and perfect itself, not that democracy is to be forced upon all peoples as the universal principle of governmental organization. Before that is undertaken, if ever it be attempted, the world must be made ready for democracy. The Declara tion of Independence insists that all governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed. This is not a principle of international law, but international law comes to the assistance of democracy by declaring that states have the right to exist because they have existed and do exist, and that states, therefore, have the right to determine their own internal organization, provided that that organiza tion is fit to perform the obligations which international society imposes upon it. In the family of nations there have always been autocratic states. Since 1776 there have always been states having democratic organization. International law does not deny the right of a state to an autocratic government, but it does deny the claims of a predatory state, whether autocratic or claiming to be democratic. A democratic state might conceivably deny the right of another democratic state to exist, and it might direct its power to the termination of that existence. The aggressive wars of revolutionary France sought to impose democracy upon all Europe. The Holy Alliance sought to instal the principle of monarchical legitimacy. The doctrine of modern international law is one of de facto states and de facto governments, according to which the form of government does not determine the right of the state to be, ' except in so far as that form is an impediment to the performance of the state's international duties. The predatory state is the state which violates the fundamental duties of international law. The state DEMOCRACY AND THE LAW OF NATIONS 265 is power, which inculcates a theory of infallibility, which sets force before right in international dealings, and commits the performance of that policy into the hands of an irresponsible man or group of men, is the anti social factor in international society. So long as it exists, there is no safety for democracy or for international law. The existence of both democracy and international law is now at stake. Unless the invasion of Belgium be undone and atoned for, there is an end of both. What ever may come in the near future, it is certain that the Machiavellian policy and "might makes right" are failures. The battle fronts of many lands, the out-pourings of common blood and treasure, have laid the foundations of a new international society. The extent to which our Allies and ourselves are willing to contribute to the common cause shows how deep these foundations have been laid. The invasion of Belgium stands out as the one great crime. It denied the existence of the family of nations. Today, in the midst of all the suffering which this war entails, the phrase the "brotherhood of nations" means more than it has ever meant before. The international law of the future is the law of this brotherhood of nations, from which is to be excluded none which recognizes the duties of states to other states, none which recognizes the right of states to exist and to work out their own destiny. Only with the victory of the Allies' cause can international society be put upon a foundation sufficiently stable to permit of the unlimited development of international law. International law must be expressive of those vastly complicated rela tionships of modern international society. This will more and more demand an organization, national first and then international, so as to realize THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES By J. SPENCER DICKERSON, Secretary APPOINTMENTS The following appointments have been made : Charles Grove Haines, of the University of Texas, Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science, from October i, 1917. Merle C. Coulter, Associate in the Department of Botany, from October 1, 191 7. Lloyd K. Riggs, Instructor in the Department of Physiological Chemistry, from October 1, 191 7. John Foote Norton, Assistant Professor in the Department of Hygiene and Bacteriology, from October 1, 1917. Benjamin J. Clawson, Instructor in the Department of Hygiene and Bacteriology, from October 1, 1917. Major John S. Grisard, U.S.A., Retired, Professor of Military Science and Tactics, from October 1, 191 7. Major Grisard is detailed by the War Department. The following appointments have been made in the University High School, School of Education, from October 1, 1917: Arthur Fairchild Barnard, Teacher in the Department of History. Howard Copeland Hill, Teacher in the Department of History. George William Friedrich, Teacher in the Department of Science. George Starr Lasher, Teacher in the Department of English. In other departments of the School of Education: Mabel Barbara Trilling, Teacher in the Department of Home Eco nomics, from October 1, 191 7. Allan L. Shank, Teacher in the Department of Woodworking, from October 1, 1917. Anna R. Parks, Teacher in the Department of Physical Education, from October 1, 19 17. Florence Williams, Teacher in the Department of Household Art, Elementary School, from October 1, 19 17. PROMOTION Associate Einar Joranson, of the Department of History, has been promoted to an ins true torship from October 1, 191 7. THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 267 RESIGNATIONS The following resignations have been accepted: Ethelwyn Miller, of the Department of Household Art, in the College of Education (to accept the headship of the Department of Household Art in Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa), to take effect September 30, 191 7. Nell Curtis, Teacher in the Elementary School, School of Education (to accept a position on the faculty of the Lincoln School, New York City), to take effect September 30, 191 7. Lucia W. Parker, Assistant to the Principal of the High School, to take effect September 30, 19 17. Miss Parker accepts an appointment with the Red Cross. Associate Professor Francis W. Shepardson, of the Department of History, to take effect September 30, 1917. He has accepted a position in connection with the direction of education in the State of Illinois. Associate William DeGarmo Turner, of the Department of Chemis try, to take effect September 30, 1917. Instructor Paul G. Heinemann, of the Department of Bacteriology, to take effect September 30, 191 7. Assistant Professor Frank C. Becht, of the Department of Physi ology, to take effect December 31, 191 7. He becomes Professor of Pharmacology in Northwestern University Medical School. STANDING COMMITTEES At the meeting of the Board of Trustees, held July 10, the following standing committees of the Board were appointed: Finance and Investment: Adolphus C. Bartlett, Chairman, Jesse A. Baldwin, Howard G. Grey, Charles L. Hutchinson, Julius Rosenwald. Buildings and Grounds: Charles L. Hutchinson, Chairman, Jesse A. Baldwin,, Thomas E. Donnelley, Howard G. Grey, Harold F. McCormick. Instruction and Equipment: Fred A. Smith, Chairman, Adolphus C. Bartlett, Charles R. Holden, Francis W. Parker, Harold H. Swift. Press and Extension: Thomas E. Donnelley, Chairman, Eli B. Felsenthal, Francis W. Parker, Robert L. Scott, Willard A. Smith. Audit and Securities: Robert L. Scott, Chairman, Eli B. Felsenthal, Charles R. Holden, Fred A. Smith, Willard A. Smith. Expenditures: the President of the University, the President and Secretary of the Board, the Business Manager, the Auditor. The President and Vice-Presidents of the Board of Trustees and the President of the University are ex officio members of above-named 268 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD MISCELLANEOUS The Board of Trustees has accepted portraits of Amos Alonzo Stagg, Director of the Department of Physical Culture, and of Dean Rollin D. Salisbury, Head of the Department of Geography. The portrait of Mr. Stagg has been placed in the Trophy Room of the Frank Dickinson Bartlett Gymnasium, and that of Mr. Salisbury in Rosenwald Hall. Walter George Sackett, of the Agricultural Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado, with the recommendation of the Departments of Pathology and Bacteriology, has been appointed to a Mr. and Mrs. Frank G. Logan Fellowship for the academic year 19 17-18. He is the first appointee to these fellowships, which are designed for research for the purpose of discovering new methods and means of preventing and curing disease. In the annual report of the Auditor, presented to the Board of Trustees at the meeting held August 14, 191 7, it is stated that the year has been successful from the point of view of the University's finances. "The assets of the University actually in hand increased over $2,000,000, and in addition those promised during the year amounted to about $5,000,000 M. RENE VJVIANI'S ADDRESS1 I cannot hope to sustain the reputation given me by the kindness of the American people; and you will excuse me for not rising to your expectations. But, as the words I am going to say come from my heart, I trust that they will naturally go to yours. I cannot say how deeply moved we were when, in this immense park, our eyes caught sight of this imposing university building whose massive structure seemed to reveal materially to us the magnitude of the work that has been accomplished here. Need I say that we do not suddenly discover the existence of the University of Chicago, or of the other great American universities ? We already knew what those universities have accomplished, and we had hardly landed in this country when we were reminded of it by our eminent ambassador, M. Jusserand, who is attached to you by so many bonds of sympathy and who, in the last few years, has worked with a silent activity, worthy of the country he represents, against the strenuous and noisy endeavors of another ambassador, whom you have sent back to his native land. In connection with his name let me mention that of our consul, M. Barthelemy, who by his constant self- possession and tact has gained, not only for himself, but for the whole of France, sympathies of which, I may say, he is fully worthy. We knew that the American university was a center of study and hard work, but we also knew that it was a center of patriotism, which sent most of the volunteers who have enlisted, fought, and died for France, the ambulances which took care of our wounded on our battle fields, and the aviators who have risen to the same height as ours and fought under our flag until, after you declared war, they won new fame as the Lafayette Squadron under the American flag. Let me pay a tribute to the memory of those valiant aviators who before leaving their native shores had given death a rendezvous, and who fell for France; and to that of many others who in the full bloom of youth have sacri ficed their dreams and their future to our French motherland and to the cause of liberty. I can hardly find words to express my thanks to the *M. Viviani's address was delivered in Hutchinson Hall, Saturday, May 5, 191 7, on the occasion of the visit of the French Mission. See the University Record, III, 213. The address is reprinted from "Addresses in the United States byM. Rene Viviani and Marshal Joffre" (Doubleday Page & Co., 191 7). 270 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD many men who in the generosity of their souls have enlisted in our Foreign Legion and have faced the enemy on the French front, side by side with the French and English soldiers. I have just learned with deep emotion that you intend to raise a memorial to French science, to science as you conceive it, in the form of a book which you are about to publish, and which contains forty chapters signed by illustrious University men. But it is not enough that at long intervals, after long silence and by occasional visits, we should exchange our views and opinions. I am a former Minister of Public Education and I should be happy to see the sending of American students to French universities promoted by the ample fellowships you grant your students and by an active propaganda such as the one you are about to start in your universities. They will enable your students to complete their scientific education in France after acquiring a solid foundation in America. I look forward to a time when we shall settle an old question that should have been settled long ago. I refer to the equivalence of diplomas, which, by giving the American degrees the same rights as French degrees in our universities, will enable your students to finish their education in France without any unnecessary delay. For in what country could they find better instruction ? It is not for me to remind the professors of this University, who are acquainted with the science and literature of the whole world, or its president, Mr. Judson, the distinguished jurist, whose loftiness of outlook, vast knowledge, and steadfast purpose are well known to us, of the accomplishments of the French nation in the world of science. As Mr. Judson himself said in words for which I thank him: From a philosophical point of view are there any teachings comparable to those of French philosophy ? Among us you would find the ever-burning light of science founded by Claude Bernard and his foremost pupil, D'Arsonval. As regards mathematics, are not such men as Appell and our Minister of War, Painleve, capable of teaching mathematics? Cannot the science whose monopoly has so long been held by our learned director of scientific education, the Dean of the Paris Faculty of Science, be diffused today as well ? And when I think of such men as Leon Renault in legal science, and Lanson in litera ture, it seems as if I was beholding an illustrious Areopagus, a gathering of scientists who are the honor and glory of France and who, let me assure you, are quite capable of teaching science, literature, or law to such of you as look for such instruction. I may say that in France you would find teachings worthy of yours. Undoubtedly there are great masters in Germany. Ours, unfortunately, are too modest; they do not M. RENE VIVIAN!' S ADDRESS 271 the world with the clamor of their reputations. But as regards method, clear or brilliant teaching, gift for synthesis, they are true masters. And in France, in Paris, in that illustrious Sorbonne which for fourteen years I had the honor of representing in the French Parliament, you would find a class of science and studies such as you would not find in Germany. We know what education and science wrongly conceived sion of the people by a small class of men. It was Kultur which gave birth to that generation of men which has fallen into such a state of folly that it believes it the duty of the whole universe to kneel at its feet. It taught a generation of men that no treaties should be respected, that there was neither right nor law, and that the strong should dominate the weak. Could two great free peoples like America and France kneel before such samples of German science ? American and French universities are alike. I will tell you what links connect them. The duty of a university is not only to form the mind of young men, to diffuse science, to make writers, scientists, physicians, and lawyers, to enable men to teach in their turn or to earn an honorable living in their profession. That is part of its duty, but it would not be true to its real mission and to its duty toward mankind if at the same time that it forms scientists it did not form men. It would not be true to its duty if at the same time that it elevates the mind it did not elevate the soul. Professors should gather, not only to dispense instruction, but to form men. We, in France, when the hour of fate struck, had ample proof that our universities and our teachers had brought forth men. I wish I could find fit words to relate the story of those young men of our High Normal School who were to form a scientific and literary hierarchy and were waiting to be raised to the rank of college teachers. When war was declared, they left for the front; and Marshal Joffre, who had them under his command, could tell you that out of those students of the High Normal School came his best officers. It was a wonderful alliance of science and truth, a full proof that universities shape, not only minds, but hearts also. Hecatombs of those students have fallen in the first line, flag in hand, and I cannot do better than apply to them those rhymes of our great national poet, Victor Hugo : lis sont tous sur le dos, couches en braves devant Dieu, Et si leurs yeux s'ouvraient, ils verraient le ciel bleu. (They have fallen like heroes, their brow to heaven, in the eyes of God, And if their eyes could open they would see the blue sky above 272 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD In words that have deeply touched us Mr. Judson said that America owed France a debt of gratitude. You have paid it in part already, and, besides, we are too much like brothers to stand, with regard to one another, in the position of a debtor and a creditor. We are too closely linked in a great common task to put forth any such claims. It is not only to France, heroic and valorous France, which, through its coura geous children, is fighting to defend its territory, but to the world, to humanity, to liberty, and to civilization, that you owe a debt, and it is to them you will pay it. It is in order that they may not perish, it is because, as you aptly said, the fall of France would be a disaster to the world, that you must arise and fight. You have said that you would give your last man and the last heartbeat to the cause. I thank you, Mr. President, for those manly words, carved as it were in bronze, and which we shall repeat to our fellow-citizens in France. When they fall from the lips of a man of such eminence and authority, who knows the weight of words and the value of promises, they cannot fail to find a way to our consciences and our hearts. Yes, to the last man, yes, to the last heartbeat, under the flag of liberty, so that universal democracy may prevail over the world! To the last man, to the last heartbeat, so that free men may live proud and happy ; to the last man, to the last beat ing of hearts, so that at last free peoples may look forward to everlasting international peace, and that the children of our children may live and work, free and peaceful, and enjoy the blessings of the sunshine without having to fear the return of such crimes as we have witnessed ! I thank you, Mr. President, for those kind words; I thank you, gentlemen, for the support you have given us. When I look in your faces, on which everyday work and deep thoughts have left an indelible mark, I feel that there is a definite promise in those words. I thank you for your welcome and for your ovations. But it is not to us your wel come goes, for we are nothing; it goes to our heroic France, whom you know so well, and whom you venerate as she deserves to be venerated. In the name of France, as well as in the name of all the universities of France, which, as Minister of Public Education, I had the honor of repre senting several times, I drink your health, Mr. President, and I drink to the honor and greatness of the University of Chicago and to the glory of all American THE UNIVERSITY AND THE WAR1 By DAVID ALLAN ROBERTSON Secretary of the University of Chicago War Service A report of the war activities of the members of the University of Chicago must of necessity be incomplete, for there are some important enterprises which cannot be publicly discussed at present, and there are besides many difficulties in assembling facts about the widely scattered alumni and former students of the institution. The following account of the University of Chicago participation in the national cause is pre sented, therefore, only to give preliminary information of the way the war has come to this University and to enlist co-operation in securing additional facts regarding Trustees, members of the Faculties, alumni, and former and present students. The President of the University immediately after the outbreak of the war was requested to serve on many important committees. He is a member of the Committee on Labor of the National Council of Defense and of the Subcommittee on Conciliation and Arbitration, as well as of the Committee on Education. The service which has required the most constant attention has been that of chairman of the Federal Exemption Board, District i. Summoned from his vacation, President Judson immediately organized his board and has since devoted only the time between eight-thirty and nine-thirty each morning to the adminis tration of the University; all the rest of his time, including evenings and frequently Sundays, has been given to the consideration of appeals for exemption and cases of discharge on account of occupation. Perhaps the greatest contribution of the President, however, has been his assist ance to clear thinking during a critical period. In response to demands from the press throughout the country, as an expert in international law he has clearly and promptly given expression to the rights of nations and the hopes of democracy. Through these newspaper interviews and through his public addresses he has contributed largely to the formation of a right public opinion. Of the members of the Board of Trustees, the first to be called from his business into active national service was Mr. Julius Rosenwald, who 1 A report presented to the faculties at the annual dinner in Hutchinson Hall, Tuesday, October 2, 191 7. 274 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD was appointed a member of the National Council of Defense. Mr. Harold H. Swift was appointed a member of the Red Cross Mission to Russia. Mr. Francis Warner Parker, on appointment by the Y.M.C.A., immediately went to France on business connected with the administra tion of the Y.M.C.A. in that country. Of the members of the Faculties, many have left their wonted occu pations, some of them for the period of the war. Dean James Rowland Angell is devoting his expert scientific knowledge of psychology and his administrative skill to the work of the Committee on Classification of Personnel in the Army under the direction of the Adjutant General. Dr. Frank Billings, Professor of Medicine, went to Russia as chairman of the Red Cross Mission to that country. Captain Elbert Clark, Assistant Professor of Anatomy, is in charge of Ambulance Company No. 3. Dean Henry Gordon Gale is in the training camp at Fort Sheridan, as are Dr. A. E. Harvey, Instructor in History, and Dr. Harry D. Kitson, Instructor in Psychology. Dr. B. C. H. Harvey, Associate Professor of Anatomy, is commandant at the instruction camp for medical officers, Camp Cody, N.M. Dr. Norman McLeod Harris, Assistant Professor of Bacteriology, is in England. He is a captain in the British Overseas Military Forces. Professor John M. Manly, head of the Department of English Language and Literature, long a student of ciphers used in the seventeenth century and earlier, placed his knowl edge of codes and ciphers at the disposal of the War Department, and at the beginning of the Autumn Quarter was summoned to Washington as a captain in the Intelligence Division of the War College. Professor Albert P. Mathews is a captain in the Quartermaster's Service, Chicago. Professor Robert Andrews Millikan, of the Department of Physics, was called to Washington on April 1 to act as chairman of the National Research Council. As executive officer of the National Research Coun cil, Professor Millikan was commissioned major in the Signal Corps and has directed the Science and Research Division of this corps. Dr. Charles E. Merriam, Professor of Political Science, is captain in the aviation section of the Signal Corps and a member of the Board of Examiners. Herman E. Oliphant, Assistant Professor of Law, is in the Food Administration. Lieutenant Franck Louis Schoell, French Army, Instructor in French, was wounded and is now in Switzerland. Dr. Pietro Stoppani, Instructor in French, joined the Italian army. Miss Elizabeth Wallace left Chicago late in October to undertake work in France under the direction of the Red Cross and the International Health Commission of the Rockefeller Foundation. Dr. H. G. THE UNIVERSITY AND THE WAR 275 Professor of Pathology, is a member of the Red Cross Mission to Rou- mania. Frederic C. Woodward, Professor of Law, is aide to Mr. Hoover in the Food Administration. Other cases of members of the Faculties are mentioned in connection with the departmental activities hereinafter listed. Some fifty members of the Faculties, including assistants and fellows, are absent from the University on service. I. INTELLIGENCE David Allan Robertson, Chairman In the collecting of information the Intelligence Committee has been hampered by the difficulty of securing prompt returns from widely scattered alumni and students. The committee has, however, filed, classified, and indexed the returns from thousands of alumni who desired to place themselves where they could be of service. These records have frequently been of use in making recommendations to various depart ments in Washington. The committee, moreover, has been endeavoring to secure as much information as possible about active service of students and Faculty members. Several hundred names are already in possession of the committee. This, however, represents only a small portion of the total. Every concrete bit of information regarding service is of assist ance in completing a record which will be of value to the committee of which Professor Conyers Read is chairman, a committee to which will be intrusted the record of the University of Chicago's participation in the war. The most effective means of securing information about men in service is direct communication with men whose names are already known. Letters of congratulation on securing commissions or other successes have elicited responses which prove the desirability and importance of maintaining communication with the University of Chicago men in service. Frequently a correspondent in addition to a modest statement of his own activities includes a budget of news regard ing other Chicago men. The assistance of all members of the Univer sity is sought in maintaining a natural and steady communication with our men. Members of the University will be glad to notify their friends in service that the University of Chicago is supporting the American University Union in Europe, and that all alumni, students, and former students are eligible to use the club provided in Paris and other cities. News of achievements and needs of members of the University or of men of the National Army trained on Stagg Field will be enthusiastically and gladly received by the Secretary of the 276 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD Service. It is planned to print as much of the material as possible so that those in service may easily be kept in touch with each other and with their Alma Mater. II. MILITARY TRAINING Leon Carroll Marshall, Chairman THE RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS In the Spring Quarter of 19 16 the Faculty of the Colleges approved a plan for the organization of Military Science and Tactics. In June an act of Congress providing for the organization of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps and for the detail of officers of the army to colleges and universities was passed. In September the War Department issued a Circular of Instructions and the Board of Trustees authorized the Presi dent of the University to apply for the detail of an army officer. In January, 191 7, the War Department assigned Major Ola W. Bell, United States Cavalry, who was duly appointed by the Board of Trustees as Professor of Military Science and Tactics. Late in the Winter Quarter, Major Bell arrived at the University, spoke at the Reynolds Club at a mass meeting, and on many other occasions. The men of the University became interested, but, because of the difficulty of adjusting hours in the almost completed Winter Quarter, only one hundred and fifteen men reported for drill in the closing weeks of the quarter. In the Spring Quarter, however, work began in earnest, not only for the regular members of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, who pursued five hours of Military Science each week, but for those who took only the drill, for which they received physical- culture credit. Members of the Faculty also formed a company under the leadership of Dean Henry Gordon Gale (see Edgar J. Goodspeed, "The Life of Adventure," Atlantic Monthly, August, 191 7). About four hundred of the regular members of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps drilled four hours a week and had one hour a week of lecture on Camp Sanitation and Personal Hygiene. Shortly after the work began, a demand for intensification of it arose, and, in response thereto, students were permitted to drop one major of the usual academic work and to substitute therefor one major more of Military Science, or, in the case of new men, to drop a course and to begin Military Science. The complicated arrangement of hours was simplified through the assign ment of student instructors, who, under the direction of Major THE UNIVERSITY AND THE WAR 277 proved to be very efficient. Fortunately this relieved Major Bell, who was appointed sole member of an examining board for the Fort Sheridan Training Camp, and was unable therefore to give all of his time to the direction of the University work. When the regiment of three battalions, each made up of three com panies, had fairly mastered close-order drill without arms, Colonel Penn on May 10 officially inspected the Corps. On Stagg Field, in beautiful weather, the inspection was a great success except for the lack of uniforms, packs, and rifles. The company marched past Colonel Penn, President Judson, and Major Bell. The sight was truly an inspir ing one and no one on the field that afternoon will forget the parade, and especially the retreat that night, the University band playing, the regiment at salute, and, against the western sky, the National Color slowly coming down. At the beginning of the Summer Quarter, Major Bell was detailed to Fort Sheridan, and President Judson induced Major E. B. Tolman, Illinois National Guard Reserve, to become Professor of Military Science and Tactics for the summer. Major Tolman led the second battalion of Illinois Infantry through the Spanish War and his leadership was enthusiastically anticipated by the student officers appointed for the Parker, Duehring, and Mooney, Captain Ettleson, Lieutenant Carlson, and Lieutenant Piatt. Each of these student officers was given a par ticular field to cover in theoretical discussion besides the work of drilling on the field. Of the registered men there were three groups, divided according to registration. The group taking three majors of work in the department spent each entire day in drilling, studying, reciting in the classroom, " hiking," often staying overnight in bivouac. The other com panies took work in proportion to the credit sought. Perhaps the greatest contribution of the department to the govern ment has been the plan worked out by President Judson and Major Tolman for the Reserve Officers' Training Corps to drill those men called to the National Army and who did not seek exemption. It was the belief that there would be great and immediate need for non commissioned officers in the National Army as soon as the drafted men were called, and that a great service might be rendered by training such men as, previous to their call, would undertake training. Ten thousand circulars were mailed to registered men; the newspapers gave publicity to the plan; and men soon came to Stagg Field in the evenings to receive free of charge military instruction. During the summer about 278 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD thousand men received training in this way. Every night the search lights on top of the Gymnasium and the 191 2 Gate have flooded Stagg Field, and every night these hundreds of men have been earnestly learn ing military movements. The results of the training are just becoming known in letters from Rockford. One man, for instance, has written as follows : In behalf of the selected men of District Eight, I desire to express our appreciation of the opportunity afforded to us to secure preliminary training in the school of the Soldier, Squad, and Company, before answering our sum mons to the training camp at Rockford. The service rendered by your organization has already shown wonderful results and one of my personal friends has advised me that it resulted in his being appointed First Sergeant almost the first day he landed in Rockford, and there are a number of others who have been appointed to positions as Corporals because of the training they received at the University of Chicago. My only regret is that some members of our district have not realized the great benefit to be derived from this training and I also regret that I myself did not start in the first day the work was inaugurated. There is certainly nothing that could keep me away from the remaining drill sessions until the time for my call and I feel that when I land in Rockford I will have prepared myself, with your most efficient aid, for the work that is ahead of me. I know that if at any time the men of District Eight can be of service to the University of Chicago, or any of its projects, they can be counted on for their full support as an expression of appreciation for the most wonderful work you have been doing and which I most certainly hope will be continued for the drafted men to come. I have always had more or less of a close attachment to the University of Chicago, although I have never attended the institution as a student, which is the case with the majority of the men who have been trained there, but the service rendered has affiliated us with you more closely than could have been possible in any other manner. I believe the methods you have used in training us have been equal to six months training in ordinary army life. I make this statement as one who has had three years of previous military training. We shall always look back to the University of Chicago as a benefactor beyond our ability to express in so simple a manner as this. The work is to continue this autumn as long as the men of the National Army appreciate the opportunity to secure in advance training which will assist them in camp. Of course, this work has been of value not only to the men of the National Army but to the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, for every student officer has been called upon to teach other men what he THE UNIVERSITY AND THE WAR 279 and every officer has responded enthusiastically. The spirit of the men who, after having worked all day, gave up their nightly entertainment to come to Stagg Field to drill, affected also the student officers. To take care of those men who lived far from Stagg Field, a lieutenant and three other officers were sent to Welles Park on the northwest side to give instruction to drafted men in that community. The foregoing letter probably explains why Leon Mandel Assembly Hall was packed to the doors on September n by the men who had received training on Stagg Field and by their friends. That night these men presented to the Reserve Officers' Training Corps the National Color. Music was furnished by the Illinois Naval Reserve Band; Mr. Frank Comerford presented the Color, Major Tolman received it on behalf of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, and President Judson accepted it on behalf of the University of Chicago. Sergeant Smith of the British Army then told the audience some things about trench war fare. After the exercises there was a battalion parade on the field with battalion drill. In the Autumn Quarter the plans will be carried forward under the supervision of Major John S. Grisard. Major Grisard was retired on account of wounds received in the Spanish War. He has already reported for active duty at the University and under his direction it is hoped that the military work will become even more important. THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO RIFLE CLUB W. J. G. Land, Chairman The University of Chicago Rifle Club has trained over five hundred men in the use of the service and subcaliber rifle, expending approxi mately 120,000 rounds of miniature and 12,000 rounds of service ammu nition. Outdoor target practice was had at Fort Sheridan every Saturday until the officers found it necessary to close the range. Thereafter, through the courtesy of Captain Moffett, the new range at Great Lakes Station was used. One of the greatest handicaps experienced by the club has been the lack of expert riflemen to serve as instructors. This has been overcome through the authorities at the Great Lakes Station assigning an instructor to each man shooting under the rules of the Navy and Marine Corps and according to the regulations of the National Rifle Association. Seventy-eight men have qualified with the service rifle: 55 marksmen, 16 sharpshooters, and 7 expert riflemen. The present indoor range beneath the grand stand on Stagg Field, although small, is exceptionally well equipped. During the 28o THE UNIVERSITY RECORD year it is the intention to use service rifles for gallery practice, satisfactory reduced charges having been worked out for these rifles by Mr. Land. In addition to members of the Rifle Club and members of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, a large number of men of the first call received instruction. The range has not been large enough to accommodate the number of men who come for practice. III. MEDICAL WORK AND TRAINING Robert Russell Bensley, Chairman THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO AMBULANCE COMPANY NO. 3 Of the organization of the University of Chicago Ambulance Com pany No. 3 there is a full account in the University Record, July, 191 7. The company reached Allen town, Pennsylvania, August 21. The Philadelphia Public Ledger printed this notice of the arrival of the Chicago men: of a good many men has made room for new ones, there arrived at the United States Grounds today the contingent of the University of Chicago, 180 men. It is not only the largest in the United States but the men as a whole are the biggest and most powerful. They were recruited nearly three months ago and because the camp here was overcrowded had been compelled to wait at Chicago ever since June 6 before getting word from Colonel Persons, the com mander of this camp, that there was room for them here. Many of the westerners are six-footers and a large proportion are athletes. Virtually all of them, superb physical specimens, have been under the training of the Chicago varsity coach, Alonzo A. Stagg. The officers of the camp gazed at the newest arrivals with undisguised admiration. Said one of them: "The Prussian Guard may be famous for its training and notorious for its terrorism, but I have traveled through Germany, and the Kaiser would have a hard job finding in all his Imperial German Empire a batch of men equal to these. What is more, they are nearly all football players, whose natural gift has been added to by Stagg's iron qualities." With Chicago on the grounds there are now in the United States ambulance camp representatives of forty-eight colleges and universities. For several months Colonel Persons repeatedly has said that the ambulance corps need never resort to the draft, since he had word that 5,000 volunteers were waiting to come on as soon as there was room in camp, and he always spoke of Chicago as having one of the finest and largest contingents. The more modest Captain Clark wrote to President Judson, Septem ber 12, 191 7, as THE UNIVERSITY AND THE WAR 281 You doubtless will be interested to hear something from us. The Univer sity of Chicago unit is now securely quartered and has drawn most of its supplies and is now on the same status as other companies that have been here for some weeks. The new organization provides for five companies to a battalion. The Chicago group has been divided into four complete companies of forty-five men each under the command of a first lieutenant. There will be one more company assigned to us; five companies thus constitute a battalion under command of a captain. This is the organization according to the French Army plan. There is, I believe, no question but that everyone here will be sent abroad to join the French Army. The Chicago men seem to have given an excellent account of themselves. We are the largest ambulance unit that has ever been organized in the United States and Colonel Persons took occasion to pay a high tribute to the University of Chicago group. In the matter of mechanics, musicians, cooks, and laboratory men we seem to be better equipped and organized than anyone else. The portable laboratory has attracted a great deal of attention among the medical men here. It is now being used as the post medical laboratory and two of the Chicago boys are doing all the labora tory work for the entire camp. It is probable that this arrangement will con tinue even after we get to France. SPECIAL INSTRUCTION A course was organized in First Aid along the lines of the course offered by the American Red Cross Society and announced in the Sum mer Quarter schedule. It afforded one-half major credit, and at the same time secured to the student completing it the Red Cross Certificate. The course was given by Drs. Benjamin F. Davis and Carl H. Davis, members of the Rush Medical Faculty, assisted by five young women demonstrators, selected from University women who had taken the First Aid Course last winter. It was taken by about two hundred women students. It is again offered this Autumn Quarter. A course was arranged to be given by Dr. Wells and assistants for persons desiring to prepare themselves as pathological laboratory technicians. There was little demand for this course, only twenty registering for it. IV. QUARTERMASTER AND ORDNANCE SERVICE TRAINING Leon Carroll Marshall, Chairman One of thirteen or fourteen educational institutions offering series of six weeks' training courses in preparation for army supply service, the University of Chicago, through its School of Commerce and Admin istration, opened its fourth section on October 1, 191 282 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD The history of such training courses is brief. To meet the govern ment's urgent need for skilled personnel in the supply service, the National Council of Defense, through its Storage Committee, early in May requested the School of Commerce and Administration, together with several other schools of commerce, to undertake to prepare young men for responsible positions in army supply work. The Ordnance Department and the Quartermaster Corps later confirmed this request. Accordingly, a class of eighty-one was organized and began work May 18. Even then the need for such skilled personnel was great. The demand increased materially during the following four months, and at the present time an effort is being made to admit to the work as large a number of students as is consistent with thorough work, with the expectation of offering such courses indefinitely at intervals of every six weeks. Typi cally, these classes are not undergraduate in character. The personnel is made up of graduates of colleges and universities, men with less academic training but years of business experience, together with many of our own undergraduates and graduates. At the request of the government bureaus, preference is consistently given to college Seniors and graduates. The work is characterized by the seriousness and mature purpose of the professional, the rigid discipline of thought and action imposed by the nature of the subject-matter, and the unification of the ideal of service. As the work is conducted at the University of Chicago, Dean Mar shall is supervisor. He is assisted in his work by members of the regular teaching staff of the School of Commerce and Administration and by a group of eight or ten " squad" leaders, composed of graduate students previously trained in supply-work. Lectures by outside experts and field trips to Chicago industrial plants supplement this instruction. Under the supervision of the government bureaus in Washington, with whose co-operation this work is constantly carried on, a six weeks' training at an arsenal or cantonment in actual government service com pletes the instruction. In this connection, the following statement is authorized by the Quartermaster General: It is contemplated that at the completion of the University course students will be assigned to duty according to the needs of the service (with pay) for further practical instruction. The services concerned will fall within the promotion upon merit. The Chief of Ordnance authorized the following statement: The Ordnance Department will give later training at the arsenals or at the cantonments. Enlistment will be authorized in the grade of THE UNIVERSITY AND THE WAR 283 Both the college and the arsenal training will have in view the filling of various positions which are held ordinarily by non-commissioned officers; hence most men should be able to qualify for a non-commissioned grade before beginning actual service. room discussion, study, and drill, with rather more emphasis on detailed discussion in "squad" meetings and lectures. Up to the present time, material for study has been available only in mimeographed form or in government publications. The needs for an appropriate text, readily available for the classroom, and numerous requests for syllabi of the course have led to the production of a book on Quartermaster and Ordnance Supply, organized and written by the director of the course and staff of assistants. This was published by the University of Chicago course 76 completed the work and 54 actually enlisted in the Ordnance Department. Of the 73 men in the second course (June 18-25), 57 enlisted. The third course (July 26-31), numbering at the beginning 95, approximates 100. The enlisted men of the first group completed their training at Rock Island and Watervliet arsenals, and are presumably on their way to France. The second group received orders to present to be followed by the third group the first week in October. Of the non-enlisted men who completed the course, eight, disqualified for enlistment in ordnance or quartermaster work, have since been drafted into the Ordnance Department. Twelve (some already enlisted) have been reserved or recommended for instructorships in the univer sities of Chicago, Michigan, Pittsburgh, and Northwestern. One is see ing civil service, and twelve have been recommended for responsible positions to the War Industries Board of the Council of National Defense. V. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND TRAINING Julius Stieglitz, Chairman Every member of the Department of Physics has been actively con nected in one form or another with war work. Professor Michelson is the chairman of a group formed in July by the National Research Council for work on submarine detection. He has spent some two weeks at Washington and at New London, Connecticut, in direct contact 284 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD this work and has in addition been directing activities in the Ryerson Laboratory upon certain aspects of the problem, which have been attacked in this laboratory. Further, he has been utilizing the labora tory for the construction of a new naval range-finder of his own design, a problem to which he was assigned by the Bureau of Ordnance of the Navy. He has also devised a new ear-protector, which it is hoped may lessen the injuries arising from shell fire. Professor Millikan has been in Washington since April i acting as Vice-Chairman and Director of Research of the National Research Council which is officially recognized as the Department of Science and Research of the Council of National Defense and which has also recently established similar relationships with the Signal Corps of the Army and with several of the other Bureaus of the War and Navy Departments. The activities of the National Research Council have been of two types. First, it has furnished and is furnishing in increasing amount the scien tific personnel of the Bureaus of the Army and Navy, which need men of high technical training, and, secondly, it has a personnel of its own whose function it is to keep in intimate touch with the scientific needs of the various divisions of the military machine, and to distribute problems which need investigation to the research laboratories of the country, governmental, industrial, and university, with which the National Research Council is associated. A large number of such problems in physics, chemistry, medicine, engineering, geology, and psychology have been so distributed, and the progress of the work upon these problems is being actively followed through the central offices of the Research Council. Professor Millikan as executive officer of the Research Council has been appointed by the Secretary of the Navy to membership upon the special submarine board of the Navy, which is the official body consisting of three naval officers and four civilians, charged with the direc tion of all anti-submarine activity in the United States. Professor Millikan is also chairman of the Optical Glass Committee of the War Industries Board and has received a major's commission in the Signal Corps, where he has charge of the science and research division of this corps. This division includes the sound-ranging service and the meteoro logical service of the army, and it also embraces the development and specification of aeronautical instruments. Professor Gale has been training recruits on Stagg Field throughout the summer and has now gone to Fort Sheridan, where he is to be in training during the coming quarter for a commission in the regular THE UNIVERSITY AND THE WAR 285 Associate Professor Kinsley is awaiting call to the Signal Corps? where his large experience in wireless makes him especially valuable. Dr. Lemon has been working with the Gas Warfare Committee of the National Research Council, and his work has actually furnished the basis for some of the newer successes which have been attained by this committee in the development of effective gas masks. Dr. Souder has gone to the Bureau of Standards, where he is one of the important links in the work of the Bureau of Ordnance in the develop ment of gauges for testing shells and other munitions. Dr. Dempster and Mr. Watson, along with Dr. Lunn of the Depart ment of Mathematical Physics, and Mr. Hall, have been actively at work upon certain phases of the submarine problem, which are under attack at the Ryerson Laboratory. It is expected that Dr. Dempster and Mr. Watson will both soon go into the army, and it is hoped that they may be detailed for the further prosecution under the military service of the work in which they are now engaged. All of the members of the Department of Chemistry are contributing in some form or other to the solution of problems connected with war request of the Bureau of Mines and has progressed to the stage of efficient removal of the gas on a laboratory scale but not as yet on the great scale demanded for effective gas-mask use. Work on this problem has been carried on and is being continued under the direction of the chairman of the Department and Professor Harkins, with the aid at sometime or other of Dr. T. D. Stewart, Mr. Leo Finkelstein, Mr. H. V. Tartar, Mr. L. E. Roberts, and Miss Mary Sherrill. At the request of the government, Professor Schlesinger, with the aid of Messrs. R. D. Mulli- nix, Popoff, and E. N. Bunting, has been working in collaboration with Armour and Company on the problem of improving the yield of potas sium permanganate, an important chemical needed for gas masks and other service. The Department has held itself ready to help manufac turers and contractors at a moment's notice if necessary to meet any difficulties in war problems and has been of such assistance on several occasions. The chairman of the Department is chairman of the Com mittee on Synthetic Drugs, a committee of the National Research Coun cil intended to assist the government, physicians, and manufacturers in the difficult situation created by the stoppage of the importations of patented drugs. Mr. R. Q. Brewster has assisted in this work. Mr. Leo Finkelstein, Instructor in the Department, Mr. W. E. Gouwens, 286 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD Dr. R. L. Brown, Fellow, and Mr. L. E. Roberts, Assistant, have taken commissions in war service, and Messrs. L. M. Larson, E. N. Roberts, and D. McLauren, assistants and fellows, are holding themselves in readiness to respond without delay when called. Various members of the Departments of Geology and Geography have been in consultation with branches of the Council of National Defense pertaining to matters of geology and geography. In addition, Professor Salisbury and Professor Barrows are preparing a report on the geology and geography of the region about Camp Grant, near Rockford, Illinois, for the use of the soldiers in training there. It is hoped to give them such fundamental instruction in geology that they may be able to utilize the simpler principles of the subject in any field where they may be in active service. Messrs. Robert S. Piatt, Harold D. Ward, Kenneth McMurry, assistants in Geography, and Paul MacClintock, Assistant in Geology, have left the University and are in training for service. Mr. Piatt, in the Reserve Officers' Training Camp at Fort Sheridan, has also taken up duties as an instructor in topography in the camp. Four men who would have been fellows or scholars in Geology and Geog raphy have gone into service. In the Department of Zoology, Dr. Heilbrunn has been commissioned in the Aviation Corps and Mr. William Buchanan is in an Officers' Training Camp. In the Department of Anatomy, Professor Herrick, with Dr. Emory Hill and Dr. C. B. Semerak, have been working on the problem of gas poisoning. This research has been facilitated by a grant of one hundred dollars from The Sprague Memorial Institute and a special fund of three hundred dollars raised by Mr. H. S. Hyman and other friends of the University. The following members of the Staff have entered the service : Professor B. C. H. Harvey, Major, Commandant of the Instruction Camp for Medical Officers at Camp Cody, N.M. Assistant Professor Elbert Clark, Captain, University of Chicago Ambulance Company No. 3, Allentown, Pa. Mr. Siegfried Maurer, First Lieutenant, at Camp Grant. Dr. McMicken Hanchett, First Lieutenant, in the Medical Officers' Reserve Corps, attached to Base Hospital Unit No. 13, has been on active duty at the Rockefeller Institute, New York City. In the Department of Physiology, Professor Carlson has been working on the question of shock, and is accepting a commission in the Sanitary Corps for work on problems of digestion. In the Department of Physiological Chemistry, Professor A. P. Mathews has entered the Quartermaster's Service as THE UNIVERSITY AND THE WAR 287 Professor Coulter is chairman of the Committee on Botany of the National Research Council, the fundamental purpose of which is to stimulate and co-ordinate the botanical research of the country. The war has brought to this committee a host of emergency problems, which are being cared for as rapidly as possible. At present this emergency work has been organized under three divisions: industrial establishments are continually seeking information concerning new sources of plant products, such as gums, oils, resins, fibers, dyes, drugs, etc. Almost daily requests are being received for such informa tion, and these must be referred to those who know best. ability of timbers for various uses in war service. It involves a large amount of work in testing. In this work the Forestry Service of the government is in co-operation with the Committee on Botany. culture and the Experiment Stations, the Committee on Botany, is undertaking to solve certain fundamental problems in crop production, involving not only larger and more desirable production, but also the prevention of destructive diseases. Provision for these phases of work, requiring the co-operation of botanists throughout the country, is pro viding the Department with full employment, all of the staff assisting as their special training is needed.1 In the Department of Pathology, Professor H. G. Wells, Director of the Sprague Memorial Institute, is in service in Russia as an officer in one of the government commissions sent to Russia. Dr. E. F. Hirsch is in the medical service. The department has been engaged on prob lems of emergency foods. Five members of the staff of the Department of Hygiene and Bac teriology are in active military service. A number of graduates and advanced students are in charge of medical or sanitary work at various cantonments. There is at present urgent need for bacteriologists in Red 1 To illustrate the incompleteness of these departmental reports the case of a member of the Department of Botany will suffice. In addition to the departmental work here indicated, which in his case was especially a study of the suitability of American peat mosses for dressing wounds, he has been the executive officer of the University of Chicago Rifle Club and for two years has given most of the time he could spare from University duties, to instruction in the use of the rifle; he found and reported on a new and abundant source of supplies for military explosives in a government has 288 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD Cross and Army work and the Department is taking special measures for the speedy training of suitable candidates. Professor Jordan is serving on a committee of three appointed by the Red Cross War Council to organize sanitary units to be sent to one of the allied countries and is also assisting in the selection of men for public health work at some of the cantonments. VI. GENERAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING Andrew C. McLaughlin, Chairman This committee was organized for the purpose of affording to mem bers of the Faculties of Arts and Literature such opportunities for national service as might be possible to men and women whose work was chiefly in the humanities. A committee on training in modern lan guages was made up of E. H. Wilkins, chairman, A. Coleman, and G. W. Sherburn. The chief work of the committee has been the provision of instruction in spoken French for men and women in military or Red Cross service. Nine sets of courses have been organized for various units at the University in the City of Chicago, at Fort Sheridan, and in the camp of the First Illinois Field Artillery at Highwood. Each set of courses in general has comprised several sections of elementary French and one or more sections of intermediate and advanced French. The courses downtown for nurses were organized by Miss Wallace; those at Fort Sheridan and at Highwood were organized in co-operation with the Y.M.C.A. Mr. Gilkey brought about the introduction of the first set of courses at Fort Sheridan. About forty men and women have partici pated in the teaching of these courses; among them, from the staff of the Romance Department, Messrs. Altrocchi, Coleman, Dargan, David, La Meslee, Neff , Northrup, Schinz, Wilkins, and Abbott; and from other Departments of the University Messrs. W. E. Clark, Cross, Knott, A. E. Harvey, and Off ner. The other instructors are for the most part present or former graduate students of the Romance Department or men from other institutions in or near Chicago, among them Professor Baillot of Northwestern University, who is now in service as a Y.M.C.A. secretary with the French Army. About nine hundred men and women have attended these courses. Professor Coleman also co-operated in the organization of courses at the Great Lakes Training Station, where seven or eight instructors and about one hundred and fifty men are engaged in the THE UNIVERSITY AND THE WAR 289 In the endeavor to stimulate the provision of such courses elsewhere, the committee, with the help of Professor Nitze, has carried on a con siderable correspondence with the War Department and with teachers of French throughout the country. The chairman of the committee is serving as Adviser on French to the Committee on Education, associated with the Commission on Training Camp Activities. The chairman and Professor Coleman, with the help of collaborators, have prepared three books for use in courses on Military Spoken French: "First Lessons in Spoken French for Men in Military Service," prepared with the help of Professor Huse of Sophie Newcomb College; " First Lessons in Spoken French for Doctors and Nurses," prepared with the help of Miss Preston of the University High School; and "Le Soldat Americain en France," prepared by Professor Coleman and Professor La Meslee. These books have been published by the University of Chicago Press. The committee has offered to furnish translators to the Citizens' War Board of Chicago and the State Council of Defense. Requests for translation have been received from the branch of the Naval Consulting Board which is associated with the State Council of Defense. In accord ance with these requests translation from Italian has been done by Pro fessor Altrocchi and translation from French by Professor Huse of Sophie Newcomb College. Codes and ciphers have long been a favorite study of the Head of the Department of English, Professor John M. Manly, who has fre quently been consulted concerning problems of seventeenth-century ciphers. At the outbreak of the war Professor Manly placed at the dis posal of the government this expert knowledge and volunteered to organize in the University of Chicago a course in codes and ciphers for the use of the army officers. At the beginning of October he was sum moned to Washington as a captain in the Intelligence Division of the War College. Food conservation has been encouraged in several ways. To the Food Administration in Washington the University has contributed Professors Frederic Woodward and H. E. Oliphant of the Law School, now acting as aides to Mr. Hoover. A very heavy and important enter prise is that which was announced in August and September in letters addressed by President Wilson, Mr. Hoover, the Head of the Food Ad ministration, and Mr. P. P. Claxton, Commissioner of Education. Presi dent Wilson has urged all teachers and other school officers to 290 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD materially the time and attention devoted to instruction bearing directly on the problems of community and national life. In the concluding paragraph of his letter, President Wilson says : In order that there may be definite material at hand with which the schools may at once expand their teaching I have asked Mr. Hoover and Commissioner Claxton to organize the proper agencies for the preparation and distribution of suitable lessons for the elementary grades and for the high-school classes. Lessons thus suggested will serve the double purpose of illustrating in a con crete way what can be undertaken in the schools and of stimulating teachers in all parts of the country to formulate new and appropriate materials drawn directly from the communities in which they live. The preparation of these lessons in community and national life has been undertaken by the Director of the School of Education, Charles Hubbard Judd, and the Dean of the School of Commerce and Administration, Professor Leon C. Marshall. Lectures on Food Conservation have been provided especially during the Summer Quarter, when the following lectures were given: LECTURES ON THRIFT "Thrift as a Means of Industrial Mobilization," Professor Moulton. "Thrift in the Utilization of Natural Resources," Professor Barrows. "The Relation of Thrift to the Demand for Labor," Professor Deibler. "Provision for the Future," Professor Hamilton. "Thrift versus Exploitation in Relation to Public Welfare," Professor Brown. "Thrift in the Choice of Farm Crops," Professor Nourse. "The Coming of Thrift in Farm Operation," Professor Nourse. "Economical Marketing of Farm Products in Chicago," Professor Nourse. LECTURES ON FOOD "Recent Investigations in Food Requirements," Miss Blunt. "Efficient Household Expenditures for Food/' Miss Hanna. "Increasing the Food Production in the United States," Mr. Crocker. "Scientific Nutrition and the War," Mr. McCollum. LECTURES ON CLOTHING "War and the Textile Industry," Miss Van Hoesen. "War and Clothing Design," Miss Miller. The garden movement was assisted by the assignment of one hundred and sixty-seven plots to individuals. The ground was prepared at the expense of the University and advice was given by the Department of Botany to the many THE UNIVERSITY AND THE WAR 291 In the training of public speakers for Bond Campaigns and other propaganda Professor S. H. Clark has been very active, not only at the University of Chicago, but also at Chautauqua, New York. Professor Clark himself has given a great deal of time to the delivery of speeches all over the country. Perhaps his most notable appearance was at St. Louis, when the newspapers trumpeted his proposed substitute for the imported slogan "Do your bit," the American one, "Do your damnedest." Members of the Faculties other than the Science Faculties have been contributing to many other movements. In addition to serving on exemption boards and committees, there should be mentioned here the addresses in support of the war. In the Divinity School it has been found that men might be of national assistance within the limitations of their usual work. Professor Shirley J. Case, for instance, has been de not only hopeless but wicked to try to make the world safe for democracy, because the worse the world gets, the closer it comes to the millennium! The delivery of public addresses, however, is chiefly supervised by the Publicity Committee. VII. PUBLICITY Shailer Mathews, Chairman The Committee on Publicity may be said to have begun its work with the course of lectures on "Why We Are at War," which were given in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall by President Judson, Professors McLaughlin, Shorey, Mathews, Bramhall, and Scott. These lectures were repeated by invitation at the City Club and again during the Summer Quarter. The Committee on Public Information has issued 50,000 copies of Professor McLaughlin's address. In addition, upon its more complete organization the committee proceeded to discover and tabulate the various services which men of the philosophical and social groups in the University would undertake. Notwithstanding the coming of the vacation season, the committee was able to bring about considerable publicity. The committee was organ ized into subcommittees on Speakers and Publications. Plans have been made for the publication of the war lectures given in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall already referred to. In addition, arrangements have been made for publications by the Faculty in the Chicago Tribune, Herald, and News, and in some cases with news syndicates. Thus far, articles 292 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD appeared by Professors McLaughlin, Mead, Reed, Mathews, and Scott. Public lectures have been given at Leon Mandel Assembly Hall under the auspices of the committee by Private Peet and other speakers. Speakers have been furnished also for service outside of the quadrangles : a large number of "four-minute men" in the Liberty Loan Campaign; lecturers on issues and problems of the war at the central Y.M.C.A.; high-school commencement speakers and speakers before clubs and the Association of Commerce. VIII. RELIEF AND SOCIAL WORK Albion Woodbury Small, Chairman Since the reorganization of the War Service the Committee on Relief and Social Work has continued such leadership as was involved in the financial campaign for the support of the prison-camp work of the Y.M.C.A., the provision of funds for the American ambulance in France, and the Red Cross campaign. At present the committee is assisting in the Second Liberty Loan campaign. The committee has sent to all members of the University the following statement of a plan for co operation in the Second Liberty Loan: SECOND LIBERTY LOAN BONDS Representatives of the Faculties and employees of the University of Chicago have made many inquiries as to the willingness of the University to assist its members in paying subscriptions for "Second Liberty Loan" Bonds. The Trustees of the University have considered the question, and have author ized the following statement: The Board of Trustees of the University of Chicago will purchase "Second Liberty Loan" Bonds for the members of the Faculties and employees of the University and members of their families, to an amount for which they sub scribe, not exceeding $1,000 for any one subscriber, on the following terms of payment to the University, on the basis of each $50 bond, the amounts, if desired, to be deducted from payments for salary. TERMS OF PAYMENT On November 1, 191 7, $5.50, and the same amount on the first day of each month thereafter to and including June 1, 19 18, and on July 1, 1918, $5.75. The University will allow interest at 3 per cent per annum on each instalment to July 1, 191 8. Upon the completion of the payments, the Uni versity will on or after July 1, 19 18, deliver to the subscriber a $50 United States Government 4 per cent "Second Liberty Loan" Bond with accrued interest from May 15, 1918, to July 1, 1918, which amounts to 25 cents. This is equivalent to the total of instalments paid in with interest at 3 per cent THE UNIVERSITY AND THE WAR 293 In case a subscriber fails to complete his payments on or before July 1, 1918, the total amount paid by him will be returned. Subscriptions may be made for multiples of $50 on the same basis of payment as that for each $50 bond. Should anyone desire to make the payments in fewer than the nine instalments mentioned, he may make arrangements with the Auditor therefor. In cases of employees receiving weekly wages, instalments may be made on a weekly plan, details of which will be given on application to the Auditor. Subscriptions may be made on the accompanying blanks and sent to the Auditor of the University on or before October 24, 191 7. Of individual endeavor some conception may be secured from the activities of Dean Sophonisba P. Breckinridge. Miss Breckinridge, in addition to being a member of the subcommittee on women of the Com mittee on Labor (Samuel Gompers, chairman), National Council of Defense, chairman of the subcommittee on Negro Women in Industry, a member of the Chicago Red Cross Committee on training volunteers, is director of the Chicago Institute in Civilian Relief Service, the dis trict which includes Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, Nebraska, and Kansas, a position to which she was appointed by the Director General of the Civil Relief Division of the American Red Cross. She is also conducting courses on Civil Relief in the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy and in the University of Chicago. . The following lectures on phases of war-time social work were delivered during the summer: "The Civilian Functions of the Red Cross," Mr. O'Connor. "The Responsibility of the Community for the Soldier's Family," Mr. Hunter. "Protection of Working Women and Children," Mrs. Kelley. "The Protection of Infant Life," Mr. Reynolds. "Canada's Care for the Soldier's Family," Miss Bird. "Medical Agencies in Relation to Social Service," Dr. Emerson. "Re-education of the Handicapped Soldier," Miss Thompson. "Lessons from Mexican Mobilization," Miss Van Nostrand. "Emergency Relief in Disasters Other than War," Mr. Mullenbach. "Woman's Work in War Time," Mrs. Robins. IX. WOMAN'S WAR AID Mrs. Harry Pratt Judson, Chairman The Woman's War Aid of the University of Chicago was organized May 7. Since that time the several component groups have been active in making supplies for the American Fund for French Wounded and the American Red Cross. Articles have included sweaters, 294 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD shirts,, helmets, bed pads, surgical pillows, comfort bags, etc. These articles have been furnished as follows: Ida Noyes Hall Group 865 Ida Noyes Red Cross Group 1,160 The Needle Work Guild Group 2,260 The Hyde Park Baptist Church Group 1,177 The University Congregational Church Group 1^870 Total 7,332 The Ida Noyes Hall Group, in addition to working for the American Fund for French Wounded and the Red Cross, made 725 kits for the University of Chicago Ambulance Company. The total number of those sewing in the several groups is not accurately known. In the Ida Noyes Hall Group in which work was done by members of Faculty families, alumnae, the University Dames Club, employees of the Uni versity Press, students and their friends, the estimated number of those sewing, some regularly, others occasionally, was two thousand. The treasurer of the Woman's War Aid shows that for the four months from May 29 to October 3, the total receipts have been $5,310 . 04. Of this amount $2,367.98 was expended for supplies. Cash on hand October 3 was $2,942.06. X. WOMEN STUDENTS' ACTIVITIES Edith Foster Flint, Chairman The war activities of women students are to be directed through two The former consists of: Mrs. George Goodspeed, Miss Gertrude Van Hoesen, Mr. E. W. Burgess, Miss Anne Elizabeth Taylor, Mrs. Edith Foster Flint. The latter will consist of one representative from each of the following organized groups: Women's Administrative Council, Young Women's Christian League, Women's Athletic Association, Graduate Women's Club, Home Economics Association, Kindergarten Association, Neighborhood Clubs, International Club, Medical Women's Club, Inter-Club Council, Women's Halls. It is plain that, once the field of operations is marked off and divided, the faculty committee shall chiefly become advisory and the work be in the hands of the central student committee and such subordinate committees as it shall create. The field of operations has been so far only roughly surveyed. But it will consist of at least three parts, having to do respectively with THE UNIVERSITY AND THE WAR 295 exercises, practical activities within the University, and connection with activities outside. Under the first head will come, among other things, lectures, chapel exercises, patriotic sings, perhaps added "war courses" in the curriculum. Under the second will come Red Cross work and various sorts of sewing, knitting, magazine and book collecting and campus activities to be determined upon later. The third group of operations has yet to be outlined even tentatively. The hope is that, even with the main part of a student's day pre-empted by classes and preparation therefor, regular periods may be arranged wherein she may aid in the social work at settlements, infant-welfare sections, and the like, now in special need of help because of the war. The chairman has been in communication with other colleges under taking to make place for similar work for women students and hopes that in spirit, if not in actual scheme, co-operation may ADDRESS AT THE COMMEMORATIVE CHAPEL SERVICE, OCTOBER, 1917 By PRESIDENT HARRY PRATT JUDSON On the first day of October, 1892, the University of Chicago opened its doors for instruction the first time. The only formal recognition of the fact was the regular chapel service which was held at noon in the room then reserved for chapel services in Cobb Hall. There was a simple religious service with no addresses. It has been customary at the opening of the Autumn Quarter since to have similar service at which, besides the religious exercises, a brief statement is made showing the condition of the University as com pared with the opening days. I have data at hand which show the gradual growth of the institu tion. The total number of students who have matriculated, thus hav ing had courses at some time in the University, is 65,602. The total number of students enrolled during the year closing June 30, 191 7, was 10,448, against 742 for the first year. Various other significant facts are recorded. However, I shall refrain from dwelling on these points and turn to another more vital. In 1892 our country was at peace with all of the world and there was no thought that at any time peace would be broken. We did not think in terms of international ideas. The principal matters which interested us were those relating to the home life of the republic. At that time the German Emperor had only been four years on the throne. He was a young man untested and little known. The vast Prussian schemes to conquer the world were hardly formulated; at least no one outside of Germany for many years learned that there were such schemes. In 191 7 the University of Chicago opens with the United States plunged into the greatest war the world has ever known. We know absolutely that while the University has been quietly growing and laboriously extending, the Pan-German plot has been industriously maturing. We know that the Prussian military machine is deliberately trying to put every nation under its heel. We are in the war to save freedom for all the world. from being a vassal of Prussia. ADDRESS AT THE COMMEMORATIVE CHAPEL SERVICE 297 We must echo the cry of our forefathers, "Millions for defense; not one cent for tribute." The University of Chicago will do its part. The members of the Board of Trustees, members of the Faculty, our alumni, and our students are in the national service. Many are in various branches of the army or the navy. Others are engaged in civilian activities in which they can be used to the advantage of the nation. Our duties as members of the University are plain. In the first place we should all maintain constant loyalty to our country in the war, loyalty in word, and loyalty in deed. We must remember that we are at war, not with a people, but with a system. We should then hate no men. We may hate their crimes and their principles. We must remember that there are many thousands of loyal Americans who have German blood in their veins, and whose position is distressing, but who are just as faithful to their duties as others. Finally we should all attend strictly to our University duties, fitting ourselves for our part when the time comes. Let us have no slackers to the University and loyalty to our THE UNIVERSITY A PARABLE OF THE CHURCH1 By FRANCIS A. CHRISTIE, A.B., D.D. Professor of Church History, Meadville Theological School Those who explore the physical world have wonderful things to tell us, wonders that fascinate and amaze. We envy them their knowledge. But often, perhaps, we find that their universe is not complete. It con tains only what is physical, only what has quantity and can be measured by units of extension and degree. You and I should not be here, we should not be what we are, if we were not acutely aware and incurably convinced of reality which is not quantitative but spiritual. The University of Chicago is very real to me, but it is essentially an unseen spiritual reality. I see the halls and laboratories. I delight in the ivied walls and stately towers. They the University. I see the men who teach and the men who study. They come and go, but the University is constant and abiding. I know that there are trustees, but they, too, are impermanent. They are men who for their time are intrusted with the University. They guard wealth and titles to wealth for the use of the University. What is the University then ? It is a purpose. It is a purpose to win and convey and extend the sum of knowledge. It is a spiritual thing. In that spiritual purpose we all find our unity, whether we are chemists, or biologists, or historians, or jurists, or theologians. In our varied diversity we are all working for a unity of purpose which is spiritual reality. You and I have the delightful privilege of executing that purpose, of intensifying that purpose, of making it more powerful and more effective, and the acts by which we thus increase and augment the spiritual reality of the University are ultimately the hidden, unseen acts of attention and resolve and loyal devotedness which are silent and motionless and imponderable, unmeasurable acts of the spiritual being in us, deeds of our personal selfhood enacting and perpetuating in the quiet of our inner being the spiritual purpose of the University. 1 An address delivered at the final Chapel Assembly of the Divinity School in Haskell Assembly Room, August 29, 19 17. THE UNIVERSITY A PARABLE OF THE CHURCH 299 And this is not the full statement of the spiritual reality acting here. There is something more, something that we do not think of as added to the purpose, but, since it is spiritual and not quantitative, interpenetrat lishes that purpose and protects the wealth required for its execution. But speedily the University becomes a richer spirituality than the law takes cognizance of. It becomes rich with personal memories. What delicate and yet what powerful elements are thus added to it! Who can live here today, for example, without feeling that he lives and breathes in an atmosphere shaped, directed, ennobled, by the enormous personal energy and supreme devotion of men like Harper and Hender son! It is not only a purpose that lays hold of us and unifies us. It is also a great memory. And, as the generations pass, what splendid wealth and intensity of this purposiveness and this memory will come to pass! It gives us a nobility to know that we are for the moment channels and custodians and responsible servants of the spiritual reality of a great institution founded for the elevation of the human race and for the special purification of our nation. Brethren, these things are a parable. I believe in the Holy Catholic rituals. These associated groups, these instituted politics, these varied usages of the solemn meeting, these differences of doctrinal statement something inclusive of Roman and Anglican and Lutheran and Cal- vinist. The University, I say, is a parable of it, for the Holy Church has its being in a great purpose and a great memory that lives and throbs in that purpose. It is a great divine purpose laying hold of men to shape them for the life of the perfect Kingdom of God. How ever we may differ in choice of means, we have one port and one goal. It is the blessed privilege of such a group of men as is here met to discern this common spiritual destiny and to win a stronger sense of the unity of all, however diverse our functions and our choice of meth ods. Never before was there such need of this spirit of federated unity in order that the world may be recast and reshaped in nearer image of the perfect life to which we are appointed. Nor need I dwell on the rich treasury of memory in which we all share as we participate in the spiritual reality of the church. can overtell the wealth and the beauty and the hallowing of these memo ries, and of all the long roll of names that are blazoned in our history, and of all the forgotten hidden saints who are but tender thoughts to us now without names as we realize the momentum they, too, in their unfamed fidelity have given to the life of the church through the long ages! Above all, our reverence and awe find their way to Him in whose life the church has its foundation. More and more we are taught today to know that the past may not be abstracted from the present, that it forever lives in the present and is the momentum of that continuity which is reaching forward to what shall be. In the house of worship and in such a house of devout studies we are daily aware of the supreme momen tum of life which lays hold upon us from the Man of Galilee. Where two or three are gathered in his name, there he is still in the midst of them and still will be vital in our lives until the end of the world. It behooves us, brethren, to take heed afresh of our responsibility. We are the channels and instruments, the agents and the trustees, which this great spiritual reality of absolute purpose and ineffable memory has elected for the permeation of the world. When we say that, we have made the most solemn appeal that can be made to any child of man. It exalts us, it humbles us. It stings us with repentance. It breathes a great hope and a great resolve. May we indeed become worthy of our sacred calling. A PRAYER OF DR. MARTINEAU O God, before whose face the generations rise and pass away, age after age the living seek thee and find that of thy faithfulness there is no end. Our fathers in their pilgrimage walked by thy guidance and rested on thy compassion; still to their children be thou the cloud by day, the fire by night. Where but in thee have we a covert from the storm or shadow from the heat of life. In our manifold temptations thou alone knowest and art ever nigh; in sorrow thy pity revives the fainting soul; in our prosperity and ease it is thy spirit only that can wean us from our pride and keep us low. O thou soul source of peace and righteousness, take now the veil from every heart, and join us in one communion with thy prophets and saints who have trusted in thee and were not ashamed. Not of our worthiness, but of thy tender mercy, hear our prayer. And may the spirit that was in Jesus be in us also, enabling us to know the will of God and to do it and to live in his peace. THE FIRST YEAR: OCTOBER 1, 1892, By ALONZO KETCHAM PARKER An account of the First Year would be quite incomplete if it did not, descending to small particulars, make it plain that academic dress, now altogether familiar and well understood, and on the proper occasion a matter of course, was then the subject of serious discussion and some times of naive joy. The Board of Trustees, by an action taken September 8, 1892, requested that the academic cap and gown should be worn by members of the University on these specified occasions: 1. On all occasions at which degrees are conferred or honors bestowed by pro fessors and students participating in the exercises. 2. At all final examinations for higher degrees by students and professors present. 3. At the regular chapel service by those who conduct the service or sit on the platform. 4. At all formal meetings of the Faculties, the University Council, and the University Senate. 5. At all public lectures delivered by instructors of the University, if they deem it best. 6. By students in all public exhibitions. 7. At all official University receptions. On motion of the University Council rule No. 4 was later rescinded. This request of the Board, warmly supported as it was by the Presi dent, was of course complied with even by the men who wished with all their hearts that it had not been made. But, although academic dress seemed to a few dissenters merely a meaningless mediaeval survival, and its formal adoption by a twentieth-century university quite inconsistent with the democratic spirit it professed to exalt, the matter nevertheless did not appear upon reflection important enough to justify the open protest of refusal. It was simpler and easier to be courteous and con form. It was first displayed to the Chicago public at the First Convo cation, in Central Music Hall, January, 1893. A contemporary account of that occasion shows that the surprising sight of the cap and gown called for the very best language the reporter could command. His 302 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD kindled imagination skipped lightly from America to England, to Athens, to Egypt: When the Faculty, clad in professional robes, filed solemnly down the center aisle the mind of the spectator was possessed instinctively with imaginings of similar scenes as they occurred in the halls of some storied university in old Europe. And when the learned processionists took their seats on the stage one almost wished that the surrounding decorations, to be in harmony with scholastic associations, were such as might be borrowed from ancient Athens or Thebes. Undergraduate opinion was divided on the question. By some the dress was scoffed at as snobbish and un-American. It was further objected to as involving an entirely needless expense, and as bringing upon the wearer the ridicule of the hoi polloi. When the Freshman class voted in all seriousness that the cap and gown should be worn at all class meetings, it was derisively suggested that the upper classes should go them one better and adopt the cap and bells. But a considerable body of students were even enthusiastic in its favor. They were anxious, not only to wear it dutifully on all required occasions, but on occasions when it was not required. They were cheerfully ready to accept what ever inconvenience or even opprobrium might be involved for the privi lege of showing that they were really and truly members of a University entitled to hold up its head in any scholastic company. At the close of the first quarter "it is reported/' to quote the Weekly of December 17, 1892, "that after Christmas the students as a body will wear the cap and gown constantly in all college work." It was proposed to encourage its general use by requiring academic dress at the meetings of the Under graduate Literary Society. A divinity student writes to the News (March 14, 1893) to protest that Divinity School has no distinctive gown. "I know," he says, "that many of the divinity students will not wear any gown until special provision is made for them." There were rumors that young women had been seen proudly displaying their mortar boards on State Street. In an editorial note of February 4 the News thus exhorts the indifferent and the laggards: Within a short time there will be three public occasions on which it will be proper to wear gowns, the meeting of the Union, February eleventh, Washington's Birthday, and the Convocation early in April. There will doubtless be during this time other occasions for wearing the cap and gown. The majority of the students and instructors already have them, but it is desirable that all should wear them on these occasions. We understand that there will be no gowns here for renting in the future; so it is essential that they be ordered at once to be here in time. All of us who have seen a whole university wearing the cap and gown will appreciate how the effect is marred by a few students not wearing them. Order your gowns at THE FIRST YEAR: OCTOBER i, 1892, TO OCTOBER 1, 1893 303 A member of the Faculty, then and now, offers this pleasing per sonal reminiscence of the self-conscious youthful days when the unso phisticated University was getting used to the cap and gown. President Harper was rather anxious to have University officers wear academic dress on all appropriate occasions. A few of us were invited to a reception downtown at the Press Club. In our zeal to carry out the President's wishes some of us wore our gowns when we left the street car at Clark Street. We were hailed by some of the sons of Belial who frequent that thoroughfare as "freaks from de Midway," and as we entered the Press Club reception wearing our gowns the attendants asked us politely if we did not wish to remove our overcoats. Of all places in the world for cap and gown, a Press Club reception! Who will question hereafter that the University was taking itself seriously in the memorable First Year ? But cap and gown legislation and the semi-official encouragement given to its general use on social occasions must not be regarded as merely a pretentious mimicking of the manners and customs of old- world universities. It would be doing President Harper a grave injustice thus to accuse him. He wished, of course, and in this he had the hearty approval of his colleagues, to dignify formal University functions by the wearing of the recognized University uniform. He abhorred slovenli ness, whether it were shown in the translation of a Hebrew text or in the ordering of a convocation procession. None the less he would have the University of Chicago democratic in its life and spirit. He conceived that academic dress, if commonly worn at social affairs, would go far to promote a feeling of entire social equality and freedom. Expense and trouble would be lessened by the provision of the dress always at hand and generally accepted as proper for any formal occasion. But to return to the early social affairs. It was in the Autumn Quarter that the Baptist Social Union extended hospitality to the Uni versity at a banquet at the Grand Pacific Hotel, with abundant and varied speech-making by the President, Dean Hulbert, Professor Cham- berlin, Assistant Professor Martha Foote Crowe, Professor von Hoist, Dean Burgess of the Morgan Park Academy, Director Stagg, Professor Hale, the stately and venerable Ezekiel Gilman Robinson, and Professor Lawrence of the University Extension Division. The Gentlemen's Social Union of the Hyde Park Presbyterian Church entertained the Faculty at dinner at the Hyde Park Hotel on October n, claiming thus " the distinction of bringing together in a social way the Faculty of the University." To this feast ladies were not invited. "The banquet/' says a reporter in his finest language, "was not coeducational. It would have been as difficult for a fair 'coed' to have entered oaken portals of the banquet board as to have braved the defending angels at the gate of the Mohammedan's heaven," which was certainly going it strong. The students were not forgotten in these neighborly amenities. Proffers of friendship were made to them early in the Autumn Quarter by the Young People's Union of the Englewood Baptist Church and by the South Park Congregational Church. The center of the University's social life during the first quarter was the "Beatrice," an apartment building on Fifty-seventh Street. It was rented by the University for the use of women students until it should be needed for World's Fair visitors. A dining-room was improvised on the second floor, and to its table men were admitted. Mr. R. G. Moul- ton, Mr. Laughlin, Mr. Judson, Mrs. Alice Freeman Palmer, Miss Talbot, Mr. Howland, were among the Beatrice boarders. Weird stories are told of the Beatrice, its scanty furniture, its small and crowded rooms. Miss Wallace, then a Fellow, and her roommate, "a little Freshman girl, the first of that kind in the University," occupied the kitchen of one of the Beatrice's many apartments, and a small servant's room adjoining, and the new and clean kitchen sink served for a time as a bed. With the cordial approval of Mrs. Palmer and Miss Talbot the Beatrice proposed to give a dance, a decorous cotillion. But to make assurance of its propriety doubly sure it was decided to invite only instructors, graduate men, and divinity students. Dr. Hulbert, the Dean of the Divinity School, ruled that his men should have permission to dance if they knew how. A few of them, it appeared, did know how, and the threatened scarcity of men was supplied. The dance was very successful, owing in no small part to the cheerful comments of under graduates who, present, if not participating, hung over the railing to watch the fun. The first formal student ball was held on the eve of Washington's Birthday in the Del Prado, then known as the Raymond Whitcomb Grand Hotel. It had been preceded by a number of smaller dances at Rosalie Hall. Late in the Winter Quarter Snell Hall was com pleted and the occupants of the Beatrice were transferred to it. The confusion in which this flitting was accomplished is still held in lively remembrance by the survivors. " Go about your regular duties with an easy mind, or go to the Fair if you like," said the paternal University officials, "we will see that your things are carried over." Some of the "things" were carried over, to be sought and claimed by their owners from the accumulations discharged from the wagons. Other "things" were carried away by the south wind and loitered and rustled for many days in the vacant lots north of Fifty-seventh Street, giving the THE FIRST YEAR: OCTOBER i, 1892, TO OCTOBER r, 1893 305 minded occasion to comment upon the unexpected applications of the University extension policy. There was no dining-room in Snell. The women were obliged to get their food at the Commons, or board them selves. They did this in some cases by the help of baskets hung out of the windows. The President thought this an unseemly spectacle, but in view of the urgency of the situation agreed to a compromise by the terms of which the baskets might be hung out after dark. No objection was made to the rows of milk bottles along the corridors. One remembered the bottles with satisfaction when invaded by fear of burglars. Perhaps no topic was discussed more frequently or with deeper feel ing by the students during the first year than the boarding table in the basement of Cobb Hall and the Halls adjoining known as the Commons. The use of these low dark basements for this purpose was not intended by the architect. It was confessedly a makeshift. But early plans for a dining-room could not be carried out, and close upon the opening day the Board decided with not a little reluctance that these rooms should be prepared for this purpose. What could be done was done to make them clean, dry, and attractive. Seven dining-rooms with four tables in each was provided. There was whitewash in abundance, there were electric lights, and even electric fans. Every one, stewards and stu dents, accepted with cheerfulness what the Commons had to offer. Its offering was not, to be sure, altogether satisfactory, but it was admitted to be the best that could be done under the circumstances. The Uni versity Weekly in the second week of the Quarter reports that "some complaints have been heard concerning the quality of both food and service but the constant tendency toward improvement inspires hope." A constant tendency toward improvement is, to be sure, about all that ever can be expected in any human endeavor; and even a sporadic ten dency in this direction enables one to withstand despair. The menu of the first Thanksgiving dinner has fortunately been preserved. One would say, on reading it, that on that testing day the Commons certainly did itself proud. Here are the really important offerings of its seven courses in the original language or languages. " Cutlets of Lake Superior Trout, with Sauce Madeira," "Turkey Roti with Oyster Dressing and Cranberry Sauce," "Ragout of Rabbit a la Financiere," "Lobster Salade au Mayonnaise." But of course appearances are sometimes deceiving. A menu is one thing and a dinner is another. And the distressing fact was by and by conferred by all, that the Commons was not climbing "constantly" from a good dinner yesterday to a better one today. Complaints multiplied. There were clamors for something 306 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD be done about it that no "under the circumstances" pleas availed to soothe. A students' mass meeting at last appointed a committee to do something. Late in the Quarter this committee reported a scheme for a dining association, which was approved. The constitution of this asso ciation was a wonder. It boasted a president, a board of directors impartially distributed among the several colleges of the University, and an auditor, a storekeeper, and a steward. The duties of these officers were carefully defined. And to make all safe, to turn the key in the lock as it were, a generous grant of privileges of interference at its discretion was given to the Board of Trustees. With the opening of the Winter Quarter the Student's Dining Association began operations. Certainly whatever could be done by organization to insure better conditions had been done. Barely three weeks pass before the Weekly is demanding that "immediate action" should be taken to improve the present man agement of the Commons. Its grievance, however, is obscurely formu lated. "The plan very probably is a feasible one as far as the boarders are concerned, but when it is applied to transients taking meals at irregular intervals, much dissatisfaction and discomfort is the result." But discontent deepens as the Winter Quarter goes on, as this wail of "A Victim," in the Weekly, March 4, will testify. A Holiday Feast On Washington's birthday When all the good folks say We ought to have something to eat: We went to the Commons, Led there by the summons Which came from a hungry physique. But Oh! when we got there And found out what bad fare They served on this great holiday, Our hunger staid with us, For the most that they gave us Was kraut served with sausage that day. The attack is renewed in the Spring Quarter when the News speaks its exasperated mind in a long article. "The butter substitute is uneat able, the fish is spoiled, the eggs are stale, the bread is sour and soggy, warmed over griddle cakes are served, there is quite too frequent an appearance of pork. The quality of the pork and the combinations of it that have appeared recently are such as to indicate one of two things : either a malicious disregard of all hygienic culinary principles, or THE FIRST YEAR: OCTOBER i, 1892, TO OCTOBER r, 1893 307 ignorance of those principles which is quite as bad as the disregard of them." The next issue of the News contains a contribution from "A Sufferer" from which one infers that conditions were nothing short of desperate. "If $3.00 a week will not furnish good, wholesome, nour ishing food, in Heaven's name," cries this outraged young gentleman, "raise the price. Most of the members of the Commons have been in chronic state of anaemia for the past three months and have almost for gotten what the sensation of being well fed is like." These violent objurgations will appear less unreasonable or childish when one remem bers that in the matter of food, at least for those who lived upon the Campus, it was frequently and quite literally the Commons or nothing. The restaurants a few blocks from Cobb Hall which now lure the epicure existed then only in the ardent hopes of hungry men. Remonstrance was, in the end, fairly effectual. At the annual meeting of the Dining Association held in April, new regulations in the interests of reform were adopted, and with the consent of the Board of Trustees the price of board was raised from $3 . 00 a week to $3 . 50, whereupon the placated Weekly promptly declares a truce. "The effect on the quality and the quantity of the food is very noticeable. Everything is better and more nearly what most of us are accustomed to." To a picture of University life during the first year, the Columbian Exposition must always form the background. Too often, indeed, it stepped boldly forward into the center of the stage, and fairly elbowed the University into a corner. By no possible discipline and concentra tion of his thoughts could the most conscientious student attain com plete indifference to the White City and its inhabitants. Not, of course, that anyone ever in his heart desired this attainment. It was pure joy in the drudgery of getting lessons or in the confinement of the classroom, just to think of Jackson Park and the Midway with their swarming mul titudes of architects, engineers, artists, contractors, builders, artisans, gardeners, concessionaires, and the picturesque advance guard of the representatives of all the nations that on the earth do dwell. The most delightful distractions sought us out insistently. Eyes and ears were assailed every hour of the day with some new marvel. We walked habitually on the tiptoe of expectation. Our hearts burned within us at the promise of surpassing wonders, not seen as yet. The formal dedication of the Exposition, with two shining days of civic and military parades and monster meetings in Jackson Park, over took us before matriculations were fairly over. Inevitably, for these two days, the University made holiday. It was impossible, of 308 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD "to keep school while all Chicago beside was at play. It would have been ridiculous to call for recitations while brilliant vari-colored pro cessions went swinging down the Midway with flaunting banners and throbbing drums. We were tremendously excited over the show, but we took it all very seriously nevertheless. We assured ourselves that we had souls above the childish delight in a gay spectacle. But these were epoch-making days. Participatation in this event was a high duty, even if it took the entire week." The elation of the time is reflected in an editorial of the University News, October 19. "Thursday and Friday are not days to pore over volumes of ancient history or to dig among the roots of old languages. In these days, history is making at our doors." It was most desirable, since history is not made at our doors every day, that we should have a part in this particular transaction. A petition was addressed to President Higginbothem of the World's Colum bian Exposition requesting that "we, the students of our great Univer sity, the twin sister of our great Fair, may be admitted to the dedicatory exercises in a body." It does not appear that this petition was granted, even though "we do hereby pledge ourselves not to take seats if our doing so will keep the same from other invited guests." But it was a hard heart surely that refused to a sister just arrived the modest boon of standing-room within the gates. If the News is to be trusted, the University displayed a regrettable apathy in the matter of decoration on this memorable occasion. It remonstrates, that although the procession will pass through Washington Park and down the Midway in sight of the University buildings, "Cobb Hall is probably the only building of its size in Chicago undecorated," a bad pre-eminence, surely. It refuses to suffer this reproach without at least a protest. It proposes that we shall have a mass meeting and do something about it. But discouraging as the situation is, the gloom is at least lightened by the assurance that the "young ladies of the Beatrice" will display the University colors. These particular festival days passed, and the University recalled her youth, sated for the time with the intoxicating spectacle of history in the making, to academic studies. But the Fair waxed continually bigger, noisier, more important. No one any longer dreamed of resisting its enchantments. Whatever one's particular study, history, ethnology, science, architecture, art, the Fair at his elbow cried, "Leave your books and come out and study Me." And indeed, the complete curriculum might almost have been found in Jackson Park. "We had not been fed up on architecture as we are now, and took a naive pleasure in every palace that arose, and discussed its THE FIRST YEAR: OCTOBER r, 1892, TO OCTOBER 1, 1893 309 But our interest in the Fair was by no means exclusively cultural, as witness this announcement in the News, "There will be a meet ing of all those interested in the Columbian Exposition Wheel Chair Scheme in the chapel at five this afternoon. Mr. John R. Adams will be present to explain the scheme in detail." Mr. Adams' proposition was no doubt most alluring. Here is your opportunity, young gentlemen, to see the Fair thoroughly and in the most refined society without once paying an admission fee, and to make, beside, a tidy little sum of money toward next year's expenses! Whenever young men met there was an animated discussion of the wheel-chair job. Where can you find more attractive employment for the vacation! But, it was objected, this is nothing less than offering manual service. You must wear a uniform. You will be expected to accept tips. The democratic News, speaking, it is probable, the prevailing sentiment of the student body, briefly dis missed the menial-service objection as "snobbish." But, however it is accomplished, the requisite time and money must be found for visits to the Fair. It was business as usual at the Univer sity on May 1, when the gates of the Exposition were formally opened to visitors, although there was grumbling enough that another holiday could not have been granted. But if the University was inexorable in the matter of holidays, there was always Saturday, and by foresight and prudence other days might be redeemed from toil for nobler uses, as these clever verses from the University Weekly witness: Cutlets She, most studious of lasses, never seemed to cut her classes Every day the one who taught her saw her waiting in her place, "She's," they said, "a student steady, with an answer always ready, And we're certain that we'll never from the classroom miss her face." But alas for man's delusion, can you fancy the confusion Of a good professor when he heard her talking on the stair: "I," she said (this maiden clever), "cut my recitations never, And even the dullest days of routine were not altogether dark. While we waited through the tedious leaden-footed week for the com ing of Saturday, there it unmistakably was, that dream made real, that incredible wonder world, that realm of enchantment, just on the other side of the fence. The shrill dissonances of the Chinese orchestras, which ceased not day or night, had power to stir the blood. There was lure in the meaningless uproar and hubbub which rose continually that thronged thoroughfare where all peoples of the earth were meet ing and mingling. The man who addressed his letter to the "Chicago University near the Ferris Wheel" was surely well informed. Who does not remember how undistinguished, how incidental a feature in the landscape appeared far below, as one swung heavenward in the Ferris Wheel, the University's single tiny row of gray stone buildings ? Uni versities might come and go. But surely the Ferris Wheel must endure. We learned too that at any hour the Midway might spill over into the Campus and bring unlooked-for joys to patient slaves grinding under their taskmasters at the mill. In the undergraduate journals we get glimpses of delightful incidents. Here at chapel, much stared at while he makes his devotions, is an inquiring and picturesque "Egyptian gentleman," a welcome harbinger of good things still to come. Here, casually encountered on the Campus, is a "Japanese Baron," if we are to accept his own account of himself, whose affable conversation is "done in French and German." This oriental nobleman has promised, in his condescension, to contribute to the Weekly by and by an unmistakable thriller, an account, namely, of his perilous adventures among the can nibals. Might not even drudgery become exhilarating when exposed to interruptions like these ? Attention is elsewhere called to the necessity laid upon the Univer sity by the presence of the Fair at its doors to strike from its calendar the Summer Quarter of 1893. There were other, although less impor tant, disturbances. Why are the young ladies of the Beatrice driven out in these April days from their happy home to seek shelter within the bare walls of Snell Hall, hardly yet deserted by the carpenters and plumbers ? Because the visitors from the North and the South, and the East and the West, for whose accommodations the Beatrice was built, are coming to town. Why are the young gentlemen of the Drexel drawing lots with tumult and shouting for whatever rooms are vacant on the upper floors of the Divinity Halls? Because the better-paying tenants, for whom the Drexel was built, are coming to town. But no one, surely, grudged the trifling inconveniences occasioned by the proximity of the Fair. The unforgettable joys of that Spring Quarter, 1893, repaid us a thousand fold. These joys were keener, more poignant, because we knew that they were fleeting. And although the stately walls of the city gray are rising still before our eyes, with battle- mented towers that shall endure, and our pride in it and our affection for it deepen as the years fleet by, neither shall the city white that THE FIRST YEAR: OCTOBER i, 1892, TO OCTOBER 1, 1893 311 fled the earth, the dream city, the city of enchantments, lose its hold upon our hearts. How dull and silent was the Campus in the late Autumn of 1893! How inconsolable for many, many weeks this loss! What compensation for the absence of our cheerful neighbors could the future possibly offer! The undergraduate anguish over this bereave ment finds expression in these words quoted from an anonymous poem in the first issue of the Cap and Gown: Across the road, where once arose A hundred domes and steeples, Where all the air was full of noise From bands and drums and peoples: No sound goes up, the air is still, The place, how changed today! A barren waste, a strip of sand, We miss the old Midway! In fancy, sometimes, as we pore O'er Latin, French, or Greek, We hear again the "call to prayer," We hear some Arab speak. Again in dreams among the crowds We wander night and day, We miss the old Midway! Sometimes we dream of "College night" And all the hours of pleasure, When Old Vienna blazed with light, And measure followed measure. The lively tune, the merry rout, The cheer and loud "hooray," Oh, good old days, we love you yet, We miss the old Midway! Already, before the University had matriculated its first student, more than one Greek-letter college fraternity was planning the estab lishment at Chicago of a new chapter, or the re-establishment of a chap ter inactive since the Old University closed its doors. President Harper deprecated the entrance of fraternities. He had had no personal knowl edge of their inner life. His residence at Yale had made him acquainted with the working of the unique Yale plan only and had given him in con sequence a quite erroneous conception of the normal secret society. He had been advised by men whose judgment he respected to discourage, if not to prohibit outright, these organizations. This advice appeared to him judicious, and he was disposed to act upon it. Certainly it 312 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD impossible to ignore the question. He anticipated embarrassments to the administration of the college resulting from the intimate relations established by fraternities between its students and the undergraduates of other institutions. He feared that the literary societies of the Uni versity, for whose success he was greatly concerned, would languish in competition with these enticing rivals, and even that loyalty to the fraternity would seriously conflict with the allegiance due to Alma Mater. But why not wait upon the lessons of experience ? These dreaded evils might never appear. Why not postpone legislation until it was plainly necessary? No. The matter was urgent. Alpha, Beta, Gamma, the entire Greek alphabet, in short, were already at the door, and confident of unchallenged admission. It would not be easy even now to dismiss them; but to dislodge them when once they had crossed the thresh- hold was a task before which the stoutest-hearted executive might quail. "If 'twere done when it is done, 'twere well that it be done quickly." At the first meeting of the Faculty of Arts, Literature, and Science, Saturday afternoon, October i, a communication from the Board of Trustees was presented requesting the Faculty to take this grave matter into consideration, and a motion was promptly offered that "under the restrictions already named by the President" (just what these restric tions were does not appear upon the minutes), "secret societies be per mitted." This motion did not prevail, and the question was referred with little or no discussion to a committee. Two weeks later this com mittee reported certain ingenious, not to say ingenuous, recommenda tions, to the following effect. On the whole, it would be better if the fraternities did not organize chapters here, provided that the social and other needs these fraternities undertake to meet can be otherwise filled. But, it would not be wise to forbid the students to organize. Discourage ment by "moral means" (particulars not given) might be possible. Stripped of verbiage it came to this: the fraternities must not be, in direct legislation, prohibited, but by no means must they be authorized. This inconclusive report, as might be expected, met with little favor, and it was "referred back" to an enlarged committee. But first, Faculty opinion on this vexing question was tested by an informal ballot, with this result: For entire prohibition 21 For non-interference 13 For non-interference or -regulation 25 For permission with regulation 7 For moral discouragement, with liberty of action .... THE FIRST YEAR: OCTOBER r, 1892, TO OCTOBER r, 1893 313 Plainly there is some mistake in these figures, or some members of the Faculty were guilty of shameless repeating, for 96 votes were cast by 52 persons. Ten days later the committee again submitted to the Faculty certain recommendations in reply to "the Honorable, the Board of Trustees of the University of Chicago." The Faculty deems the establishment of secret societies undesirable. By reason of their secrecy and their exclu- siveness they are undemocratic. They make against "a broadly fra ternal spirit and a primary concern with intellectual aims." But these objections, after all, are not serious enough to warrant absolute prohibi tion. They may even be authorized, on condition that they comply with specified regulations. This report was accepted by the Faculty, and its transmission to "the Honorable, the Board" ordered. On November n the President reported that the Board had accepted the recommenda tions of the Faculty, and that in consequence the organization of secret societies should be officially sanctioned by the University with these provisos : 1. Each chapter asking recognition must submit its House rules to the Faculty for approval. 2. Each chapter shall appoint a representative with whom the Faculty may confer at such times as may seem advisable. 3. Membership in these societies shall be restricted to students of the second year Academic Colleges, and students of the University Colleges. 4. The University reserves the right to withdraw from chapters permission to exist in the University. The Faculty is authorized (by the Board) to add any regulations which it thinks wise in consistency with the ones given above. In the evening of the day on which this action was taken the President addressed a student mass meeting on several topics already much discussed. His address, stenographically reported for the University News, contained, with much other matter, the anxiously expected pronouncement on the fraternity question. It was in these words: The Faculty deems the establishment of secret societies in the University of Chicago to be undesirable. In its judgment the end sought by these societies, so far as they are laudable, may be secured by other means, which shall be free from the objection of secrecy, of rigid exclusiveness, and of antagonism to the democratic spirit which is inherent in the highest scholarship and manhood and the most exalted citizen ship, and it would be deeply gratified if the high purposes and lofty feeling of the body of students should lead them to co-operate with it by voluntarily excluding everything that makes against a broadly fraternal spirit and a primary concern with the intellec tual aims for which the University was 314 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD But to the disapproval conveyed in this language was joined per President continued, addressing himself especially to the undergraduates: If you would do what in the opinion of your Faculty is the wisest thing, you would not organize secret societies We are beginning the life of a new institution. The spirit which pervades this body of students this quarter and this year is the spirit which in a large measure is to be perpetuated. Does the Faculty say you shall not organize societies ? No. The Faculty will not prohibit. It is for you to decide, as individuals, whether or not you will proceed to the organization of societies. Never theless, it is necessary if societies must be organized that they shall be regulated and authorized by the Board of Trustees and by the Faculty. Here followed the regulations already cited. But from the beginning there were differences of opinion on this matter elsewhere than in the Faculty. It must not be overlooked that student sentiment was by no means unanimous in its approval of the fraternity system. An article in the University News of October 22 states the objections to it in vigorous language: It is undemocratic, it establishes a caste, it is inimical to high ideals of scholar ship, it is even essentially unfraternal. The truth is, the system belongs to the past, not to the future. It belongs to the days of hazing, of locking up proctors and tying cows to bell-ropes; to the days of the old college, in short, not of the new college, and still less of the university. A few days later "Something from the Other Side" appeared on the front page of the News in which a prediction is hazarded which conditions at the end of a quarter of a century amply justify: Far from being on the decline, the American college fraternity system is growing stronger every day, and long after the quadrangles of Chicago are completed and are ivy-grown the fraternities will be busy in their work of encouraging the student in his college life, giving him the comforts of home, restraining him when he stops to wander , helping him if perchance he fall. Editorially the News supported the Faculty in its judgment that the introduction of fraternities was undesirable, and it urged its readers to accept the advice of the Faculty. "Under the present state of things, the introduction of fraternities is the first step toward the establishment of rules and the breaking down of the feeling of fellowship which now exists between the students and the Faculty." It is probable that the News represented a strong public opinion. Perhaps if a poll of the under graduate men had been taken on this question in the First Quarter it would have resulted in a majority for disapproval of fraternities. The discussion, as might be expected, so keen was public interest in everything pertaining to the new University, soon overflowed the THE FIRST YEAR: OCTOBER r, 1892, TO OCTOBER 1, 1893 315 daries of the Quandrangles. The Chicago dailies, of course, were keen on the scent of conflict. They would have it that "the students are greatly excited," that trouble is brewing, that the Athletic Department "is working against fraternities on the ground that they tend to destroy athletics by inciting factions among the boys." Newspapers the country over promptly and gladly took up the matter. The University was solemnly warned that its action in allowing fraternities under any restriction was an encouragement to riotous living. On the other hand it was ridiculed for bothering its head over these childish affairs, and cautioned against interference with personal liberty. To quote a typical utterance (Chicago Post, November 12, 1892): It is beneath the dignity of a great University to interfere in so small a matter as Greek Letter Fraternities among its students. The Senate of the University of Chicago have disappointed their more judicious friends by the petty enactment for bidding these fraternities to their freshmen and suffering them under restrictions to the upper classmen. With all respect to President Harper and his friends, they might better have left the matter alone. An influential Eastern daily (Boston Herald, quoted in University News, January 16, 1893) commended President Harper's position in an editorial which condemned sweepingly and severely the secret societies, "which everyone knows to be nests of iniquity and dangerous to the manhood of the men who belong to them." The Harvard Crimson approved of the University's disapproval of fraternities on quite other grounds (University News, November 29, 1892): We who have passed through the stage of secrecy in societies and with one excep tion have given up that characteristic to them can realize more fully that it is an absurd and nonsensical characteristic fitted rather for the school boy than for the college man. It is observable, moreover, that where there are secret fraternities in colleges the undergraduates are generally young and immature, and lack broad and sober views of college life which bring among other things an antipathy for secret societies. But the students who were directly interested concerned themselves only with the fact that permission had been given. Yes was yes, however hesitatingly it was spoken. Organization followed with suspicious promptness, for on the very evening of this important announcement from the President the Chicago chapter of a Greek letter fraternity was entertained at the home of one of its members. There was some grum bling, of course, at the reasonable conditions upon which official recog nition depended. There were gloomy predictions that under these harassing restrictions only "cheap and poor societies" would succeed in obtaining charters. But the dissent was insignificant and quickly for gotten. Even the prohibition of Freshman initiations was 316 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD accepted. An editorial note in the University Weekly of November 19 approves it outright with the sage remark, "The college fraternity can make or unmake a man in four years, and it is only right that he spend one of these years in obtaining a mature judgment as to where he shall spend the other three." This cordial acceptance, at the beginning, by a body of loyal stu dents of the principle of faculty supervision of fraternities has become an undergraduate tradition. Although the early regulations have, by amendment, been made somewhat more stringent, and new regulations have been framed to meet unforeseen conditions, this keener official scrutiny of fraternity life and methods is met with the rarest exceptions by an ungrudging consent. Not warfare, but co-operation, is the normal relation at the University of Chicago between the two parties which have been regarded, in other times and places, as irreconcilable foes. In this statement plainly appears the distinction, too often quite overlooked, between college and high-school fraternities. The college fraternity lives above board, sanctioned by the university and pledged to surrender its charter if the university should require it to do so. It is not to be denied that there have been in the history of the fraternities and the University brief interruptions of this halcyon peace, irritating misunderstandings, and even open transgressions. But at the worst there has been no formal repudiation of University control or of the principle of co-operation. Once upon a time, under what extreme and doubtless justifiable exasperation it is not possible at this distance of time to say, a committee on "The Relations of Secret Societies to the Social Life of Men in the University" reported to the Faculty the drastic recommendation that "all secret societies should be disbanded." That the recommendation was made without careful consideration of its implications appears probable from the fact that it was promptly laid upon the table. And there it lies today. The chairman of the indignant committee confesses to the writer that he has entirely forgotten what was the outrageous thing against which his wrath was momentarily kindled. The offending fraternities, it may be assumed, trembled when this innocuous thunder rolled over their heads, and straightway mended their disorderly ways. This brief recital of events that loomed large in troublous times may well conclude with the words used by President Harper in his Decennial Report (p. cxxxi) : The history of the Fraternity System in the University is one of more than usual interest. Much anxiety existed in the minds of a majority of the members of the Faculty lest the introduction of Fraternities might bring disturbance of many THE FIRST YEAR: OCTOBER i, 1892, TO OCTOBER 1, 1893 317 The facts show that their presence in- the University has been a source of great advan tage rather than of disadvantage. In almost every case the Fraternities have con tributed each its share not only to the social life of the institution but to its general welfare. The story of the sororities may be related in as few words as were required for the famous chapter on snakes in the history of Ireland. There are no sororities in the University of Chicago. And consequently there has never been a sorority question. The secret women's clubs, which in a measure take the place of sororities, are without exception local organizations, and none of these clubs made their appearance in the First EVENTS: PAST AND FUTURE THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH CONVOCATION At the One Hundred and Fourth Con vocation, held on August 31, the Con vocation speaker was Jesse Siddall Reeves, Ph.D., Professor of Political Science at the University of Michigan. ^ Professor Reeves, who received his Doctor's degree from Johns Hopkins University, was a lecturer on diplomatic history in that institution in 1905-6. For the next three years he was assistant professor of political science at Dart mouth College, and for the last seven years has been professor of political science at the University of Michigan. Dr. Reeves is the author of a number of authoritative works, including Inter national Beginnings of the Congo Free State, Napoleonic Exiles in America, and American Diplomacy under Tyler and Polk. The Convocation Preacher on August 26 was Dr. Alexander R. Gordon, Pro fessor of Old Testament Literature and Exegesis in the Presbyterian College of Montreal, Canada. GENERAL ITEMS Before the Renaissance Society of the University of Chicago the evening of July 17, an illustrated address in the Classics Building on "The Post-Impres sionists" was delivered by Alfred Vance Churchill, Professor of the History and Interpretation of Art, Smith College. In connection with the lecture there was a loan exhibition of paintings belonging to Mr. Martin A. Ryerson, which includes remarkable examples of nineteenth- century French painters, and also a loan collection of Professor Churchill's own paintings. The University Orchestral Association has made arrangements for the season of 191 7-18. The Chicago Symphony Orchestra, under the leadership of Frederick Stock, will give a series of eight concerts in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, the dates being as follows: October 16, November 6, December 4, January 15, January 29, February 5, February 26, and March 12. There will also be two artist's recitals: October 30, Miss Florence Macbeth, soprano; April 16, Eddy Brown, violinist. The first appointment to one of the new Logan Fellowships has been made to Professor Walter George Sackett, of the Agricultural Experimental Station, Fort Collins, Colorado, for the academic year 191 7-18. These fellowships of the Uni versity were recently endowed by Mr. and Mrs. Frank G. Logan, of Chicago, for research in experimental medicine for the purpose of discovering new methods and means of preventing and curing disease. The Ellen H. Richards Memorial Fellowship offered jointly by the Trustees of the Memorial Fund and the University of Chicago has been awarded to Minna G. Denton, S.B. and A.M., University of Michigan. Miss Denton's teaching expe rience at Milwaukee-Downer College, Lewis Institute, and Ohio State Univer sity has been supplemented with research work as Fellow in Physiology at the University of Chicago and in the prepara tion of various scientific papers. She is at present at work on a problem in food conservation, viz., "Alterations in Nutri tive Value of Vegetable Foods Due to Boiling and Canning." The fellowship carries a stipend of $500 and tuition fees for the year 191 7-18. To make possible the carrying out of plans for the creation and care of arbo reta, wild gardens, and refuges for birds and other wild life on the Island of Mount Desert off the coast of Maine,_ a corpora tion has been formed, consisting in part of private citizens and in part of univer sities and scientific societies. The Uni versity of Chicago has just become a member of this corporation, known as "The Wild Gardens of Acadia," the purposes of which are educational and scientific. The gardens and refuges are to be near the national park which has already been EVENTS: PAST AND FUTURE 319 created on Mount Desert under the name of a National Monument. Among the directors and officers of the American Judicature Society, an organi zation to promote the efficient administra tion of justice, are James Parker Hall, Dean of the Law School, and Edward W. Hinton, Professor of Law. Two former members of the Faculty are also members Roscoe Pound, dean of the Harvard Law School, and Horace Kent Tenny, former president of the Illinois State Bar Associa tion. The first number of the Journal of the American Judicature Society has just been issued. Professor Robert A. Millikan's volume on The Electron has been published by the University of Chicago Press as the latest addition to "The University of Chicago Science Series." The Spiritual Interpretation of History is the title of a new volume containing the William Belden Noble Lectures delivered at Harvard University in 19 16 by Dr. Shailer Mathews, Professor of Historical and Comparative Theology and Dean of the Divinity School. Among the books published in July by the University of Chicago Press is a new, revised edition of a work by Professor John Merle Coulter, Head of the Depart ment of Botany, and Professor Charles Joseph Chamberlain, The Morphology of Gymnosperms. Wide interest has been shown by educators in the results of teaching mathematics by the methods of correla tion illustrated in the series of textbooks based on many years of classroom experience in the University High School. A third volume in the series has been published by the University of Chicago Press under the title of Third-Year Mathematics for Secondary Schools, the author being Mr. Ernst R. Breslich, Head of the Department of Mathematics in the University High School. The University of Chicago Press is about to publish The Anatomy of Woody Plants, by Edward Charles Jeffrey, Harvard University. The University of Chicago Press has issued two publications of interest to as Exhibited through Tests and Laboratory Experiments, by Dr. Clarence Truman Gray, of the University of Texas; and one on The Kindergartens of Richmond, Indiana, by Assistant Professor Alice Temple, of the College of Education at the University of Chicago. Among the appointments recently made in the state department of educa tion and registration by the Governor of Illinois are those of Professor Thomas C. Chamberlin, Head of the Department of Geology, and Professor John Merle Coulter, Head of the Department of Botany, to the Board of Natural Re sources and Conservation. The Board of Natural Resources and Conservation is part of the state depart ment of education and registration, at the head of which is Francis Wayland Shep- ardson, formerly Associate Professor of American History. The University Preachers for the Autumn Quarter are as follows: For the month of October the first speaker will be Dr. James Alexander Macdonald, editor of the Toronto Globe, Toronto, Canada, who speaks on October 7. October 14 will be Settlement Sun day, when the work and interests of the University of Chicago Settlement in the Stockyards district will be presented. On October 21 and 28 Dr. Francis G. Peabody, of the Harvard Divinity School, will be the speaker. For the month of November the first speaker (November 4) will be Rev. Mal colm L. MacPhail, of the First Presby terian Church, North Side, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Rev. William C. Bitting, of the Second Baptist Church, of St. Louis, Missouri, will be the preacher on November n; and Bishop Charles D. Williams, of St. Paul's Cathedral, Detroit, Michigan, will speak on November 18 and 25. For the month of December Bishop Francis J. McConnell, of Denver, Colo rado, will speak on the first two Sundays (December 2 and 9), and December 16 will be Convocation Sunday. The University of Chicago is one of the American universities which have formed the American University Union in Europe. This organization, the head quarters of which will be in Paris with branch agencies in London and in 320 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD other cities of the Allies as may seem desirable, has for its general object the meeting of the needs of American Univer sity and college men who are in Europe for military or other service in the cause of the Allies. Among its specific objects will be the following: i. To provide at moderate cost a home with the privileges of a simple club for American college men and their friends passing through Paris on furlough, the privileges to include information bureau, writing and newspaper room, library, dining-room, bedrooms, baths, social fea tures, opportunities for physical recrea tion, entertainments, medical advice, etc. 2. To provide a headquarters for the various bureaus already established or to be established in France by representa tive American Universities, colleges, and technical schools. 3. To co-operate with these bureaus, when established, and in their absence to aid institutions, parents, or friends in securing information about college men in all forms of war service, reporting on casualties, visiting the sick and wounded, giving advice, serving as a means of communication with them, etc. All graduate students, non-graduate students, and prospective students of the University of Chicago are entitled to general privileges of the Union, subject to the rules and conditions laid down by the Executive Committee. The Board of Trustees is as follows: Anson Phelps Stokes, secretary of Yale University, chairman of the Board; H. B. Hutchins, president of the University of Michigan, vice-chairman; Henry B. Thompson, Princeton University, treas urer; Roger Pierce, secretary of Harvard University, secretary; President Good- no w, Johns Hopkins University; Presi dent Finley, University of the State of New York; President Graham, Univer sity of North Carolina; John Sherman Hoyt, Columbia University. In Paris the union has rented as head quarters The Royal Palace Hotel, Place du Theatre Francais, and in London the address is 16 Pall Mall East, S.W. 1. The French Scientific Mission, com posed of leading physicists, astronomers, and mathematicians, visited the Univer sity on July 30. The members of the Mission included Major Ch. Fabry, who is Professor of Physics in the Faculte de Science at Marseilles; Major Henri Abraham, Professor of Physics at the Sorbonne, Paris, who is also an expert in wireless telegraphy; Captain de Gramont de Guiche, and Captain Robert DuPouey, secretary of the Mission; and Lieutenant Giorgio Abetti, of the Italian Military Commission, the last mentioned being Assistant Professor at the Collegio Romano in Rome, formerly Volunteer Research Assistant at the Yerkes Observatory, and now member of the flying corps in the Trentino. The University gave a luncheon for the distinguished guests at the Quadrangle Club, attended by members of the scientific departments; and later the Mission inspected the Ryerson Physical Laboratory and the laboratory car of the University of Chicago Ambulance Com INDEX Ambulance Company, Presentation of Colors to the University of Chicago, 217. American University Union, 319. Appointments, 43, 108, 208, 266. Attendance: autumn, 40, 44, 86, 88; winter, 178; spring, 203; for the year 1915-16, 82. Atwood, Wallace Walter, address at presentation of Professor Salisbury's portrait, 129. Auditor's report, 268. Bell, Major O. W., Professor of Military Science and Tactics, 87, 114. Board of Trustees: annual meeting, 210; Alumni Council, two representatives of, to be appointed as members of Board of Student Organizations, Pub lications, and Exhibitions, in; appointments, 43, 108, 208, 266; Arnett, Trevor, leave of absence to serve Rockefeller Foundation, 212; attendance at the University, 44 (see also 82, 86, 88, 178, 203); Auditor's report, 268; Case, Shirley J., change of title, 45; Doctors of Philosophy, 109; fees, changes in, 211; Franklin Johnson, death of, 44 (see also 78); gardening, permission to use University land for purposes of, 212; gifts to the University, 44, no (see also 41, 176); leaves of absence, 43, 109, 209; Logan, Mr. and Mrs. Frank G., Fellowship, 268 (see also 318); Medical School, committee on, 45; Michelson, Pro fessor A. A., additional appropriation to continue experiments of, 45; mili tary training, 43; Moody, William Vaughn, Lectures, 109, 212 (see also 87, 109); Norwegian Baptist Divinity House and the Chicago Theological Seminary, no; Plimpton, Nathan C, appointment of as Assistant Auditor, in; promotions, 108, 209, 266; Quarter- Centennial report to be pre pared by Associate Professor David A. Robertson, 212; resignations, 43, 210, 267; Rosenberger Prize, 211; Rosenwald Tower, appropriation for, 45, 1 11; Schoell, Frank, reappointed as Instructor in Department of Romance Languages and Literatures, 45; standing committees, 267; war purposes, 211. Chamberlin, Thomas C, address at presentation of Professor Salisbury's portrait, 124. Chicago Theological Seminary and the Norwegian Baptist Divinity House, no. China and the United States (V. K. Wellington Koo), 29. Christie, Francis A., The University a Parable of the Church, 298. Commemorative Chapel Service, Address at the, President Harry Pratt Judson, 296. Convocation Addresses: V. K. Wellington Koo, China and the United States, 29. tion: R. G. Moulton, The Study of Literature and the Integration of Knowledge, 89. tion: Charles Andrews Huston, Our Nearest Neighbor: Some Thoughts on Our Relations with Canada, 185. tion: Jesse Siddall Reeves, Democ racy and the Law of Nations, 249. Democracy and the Law of Nations (Jesse Siddall Reeves), 249. Doctors of Philosophy, 109. Events, Past and Future: American University Union, 319; attendance in Winter Quarter, 191 7, 178; in Spring Quarter, 191 7, 248; award of fellow ships, 179; general items, 82, 173, 244, 318; Modern Language Associa tion, 82; One Hundred and First Convocation, 80 (see also 29); One Hundred and Second Convocation, 81, 173 (see also 89) ; One Hundred and Third Convocation, 242 (see also 185); One Hundred and Fourth Convocation, 318 (see also 249); Renaissance 322 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD Society, 244 (see also 55); scientific meetings, 81; University Orchestral Association, 243 ; University Preachers for Winter Quarter, 87; for Spring Quarter, 177; for Summer Quarter, 245- Fees, changes in, 211. Fellowships, The Award of, 191 7-18, 179. Field, James Alfred, address at Robert Franklin Hoxie Memorial Meeting, 69. First Year, The: October 1, 1892, to October 1, 1893 (continued) (Alonzo Ketcham Parker), 46, 152, 225; (concluded), 301. French Mission, The, Visits the Univer sity (Elizabeth Wallace), 213. Gifts to the University, 41, 44, no, 176. Hoxie, Robert Franklin, Memorial Meet ing, 69. Illustrations: President Harry Pratt Judson, facing p. 1; Robert Franklin Hoxie, facing p. 69; Franklin Johnson, facing p. 78; William Vaughn Moody, facing p. 89; Major Ola W. Bell, facing p. 113; Rollin D. Salisbury, facing p. 124; The French Mission at the President's House, facing p. 185; The French Mission Passing Nancy Foster Hall, facing p. 213; The University of Chicago Ambulance Company, facing p. 217, 219; Amos Alonzo Stagg, facing p. 224; The French Mission at the University, facing p. 237. Johnson, Franklin (John W. Moncrief), 78; death of, 44. Judd, Charles H., address at presentation of the Francis Wayland Parker Memo rial, 64. Judson, President Harry Pratt, address at presentation of the Francis Wayland Parker Memorial, 68; speech of acceptance at presentation of Pro fessor Salisbury's portrait, 136; address at Commemorative Chapel Service, 296. Koo, V. K. Wellington, China and the United States, 290. Leaves of absence, 43, 109, 209. Linn, James Weber, address at Robert Franklin Hoxie Memorial Meeting, 74. Logan, Mr. and Mrs. Frank G., Fellow ship, 268, 318. McLaughlin, David Blair, Prize, 142; Prize Essay, 191 6 (Mary Emma Quayle), 144. Mason, Arthur J., address at presenta tion of the Francis Wayland Parker Memorial, 58. Medical plans of the University, 203. Medical School, The, 1, 112, 203. Meteorological Observatory, equipment of, 175- Military Resources of the University of Chicago, Committee on Plans and Organization of, 118. Military training, 43. Modern Language Association, 82. Moody, William Vaughn, Lectures, 87, 109, 139, 212. Moulton, R. G., The Study of Literature and the Integration of Knowledge, 89. Nation, service to the, 207, 211. National Research Council, 84, 117, 175; appointment of Professors Hale, Coul ter, Michelson, and Millikan to, 84. Norwegian Baptist Divinity House and the Chicago Theological Seminary, no. One Hundred and First Convocation, 80 (see also 29). One Hundred and Second Convocation, 81, 173 (see also 89). One Hundred and Third Convocation, 242 (see also 185). One Hundred and Fourth Convocation, 318 (see also 249). Otho S. A. Sprague Memorial Institute, The Organization and Work of, 19. Our Nearest Neighbor: Some Thoughts on Our Relations with Canada (Charles Andrews Huston), 185. Parker, Alonzo Ketcham, The First Year: October 1, 1892, to October 1, 1893 (continued), 46, 152, 225; (con cluded), 301. Parker, Francis Wayland, Memorial, 56. Presbyterian Hospital, The, 15. President Judson, Honor to, 26. President's Annual Report, 120. President's Convocation Statement, The: at the One Hundred and First Convo cation, 40; at the One Hundred and Second Convocation, 105; at the One Hundred and Third Convocation, 203. Promotions, 108, 209, INDEX 323 Quayle, Mary Emma, David Blair McLaughlin Prize Essay, 1916, 144. Reeves, Jesse Siddall, Democracy and the Law of Nations, 249. Renaissance Society, The, 55, 244. Resignations, 43, 210, 266. Ricketts, Howard Taylor, Prize, award of, 245. Robertson, David Allan, The University and the War, 273. Rosenberger, Mr. and Mrs. Jesse L., Prize, 211. Rush Medical College, 10; and the University, 12. Salisbury, Rollin D., Presentation of Portrait of, Julius Rosenwald Hall, February 8, 191 7, 124; address, 137. Scientific meetings, 81. Shepardson, Francis Wayland, appoint ment as director of the Department of Education and Registration of Illinois, 245- Stagg Portrait, Presentation of the, 224, 268. Standing committees, 267. Stilwell Katharine, address at presenta tion of the Francis Wayland Parker Memorial, 59. Study of Literature and the Integration of Knowledge, The (R. G. Moulton), 89. Taft, Lorado, address at presentation of the Francis Wayland Parker Memorial, 56. University of Chicago Rifle Club, 116. University Orchestral, Association, 86, 243, 318. University Preachers: for Winter Quar ter, 87; for Spring Quarter, 177; for Summer Quarter, 245. University Prepares, The, 113. University, The, a Parable of the Church (Francis A. Christie), 298. Viviani, M. Rene, address of, 269. Wallace, Elizabeth, The French Mission Visits the University, 213. War service, 221. War, The University and the, 237; (David Allan Robertson), 273. Wireless telegraph apparatus, in Ryerson Physical Laboratory, 174. Woman's War Aid, 238,