Ebe TUniversirs of Chicago Price $U00 founded by john d. rockefeller Single Copies Per Year 5 Cents University Record PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY CHICAGO VOL. V, NO. 41 PUBLISHED EVERY FRIDAY AT 3:00 P.M. JANUARY 11, 1901 Entered in the pqst office Chicago, Illinois, as second-class matter CONTENTS. I. Reports from the Zoological Club. By Dr. C. M. Child 365-367 II. Official Notices ------ 367 III. Calendar 368 REPORTS FROM THE ZOOLOGICAL CLUB* Prepared by DR. C. M. Child. The first meeting of the quarter, October 17, was devoted to a paper by Miss Mary Hefferan, giving the results of her researches on the variation of the teeth on the jaws of Nereis. This paper will appear in full elsewhere. At the second session of the club, October 31, Mr. R. S. Hillie gave an account of some experi mental work upon the reactions of Arenicola larvae, which was carried on by him during the last summer at Woods Holl. The following is a brief abstract of Mr. Lillie's paper. "In the swarming stage (in which three setiger- ous trunk segments are present) the larvae are positively heliotropic and negatively geotropic, and in consequence collect at the surface of the water on the light side of the dish. After the fourth segment has appeared the cilia are lost, the larvae settle to the bottom, and the heliotropism becomes negative. The heliotropic response is due to the rays at the blue end of the spectrum, the red rays being apparently inactive. *Meetings of the Autumn Quarter, 1900. :"The normal reactions of the swarming larvae are altered under the following artificially induced conditions : (a) rise of temperature of the sea- water, (5) dilution or concentration of the sea- water within certain limits, (c) alteration of the^ chemical constitution of the medium. Rise of temperature above 350 is followed by loss of heliotropism and a gradual settling of the larvae to the bottom ; on cooling, however, heliotropism and negative geotropism largely reappear. In dilute or concentrated sea- water the heliotropism in a large proportion of larvae is altered from positive to negative ; the same happens in slightly acidulated sea-water (though the effect here soon passes off and positive heliotropism reappears), and also in artificial solutions containing NaCl, CaCl2, and MgCl2, in certain proportions. " Solutions of different salts affect ciliary and muscular movements in definite and characteristic ways. A fact, of particular significance is that in the same, solution one form of motility may be affected very differently from the other. Pure. |- n NaCl solutions immediately arrest ciliary movement and cause a liquefaction and dissolu tion of the cilia ; towards muscular movement its section is decidedly less injurious. The poisonous effect of the pure solution is, however, diminished by dilution, and also by the addition of small quantities of other salts, especially CaCl2 and MgCl2. Solutions containing two salts in favor able proportions preserve ciliary and muscular activities for considerable periods, each form of activity having its own characteristic optimum solution which differs from that of the 366 UNIVERSITY RECORD Pure CaCl2 solutions and pure MgCl2 solutions, and their mixtures, quickly arrest muscular activity and cause the larvae to become perfectly rigid within -a few minutes ; while ciliary movement may continue in these solutions in some cases for hours after muscular movementJias ceased. The larvae, although capable of swimming about actively in these solutions, quickly lose all power of helio tropic orientation as their power of muscular movement disappears ; and in a short time they become collected in small groups or clumps, as a result of their inability to effect the muscular movements necessary to disengage them from the contact and adhesion of other larvae. The fact that ciliary activity can continue (in some cases for many hours) in solutions in which all muscular movement is impossible, proves that these two forms of contractility are essentially very dif ferent., " Solutions containing three salts in suitable pro portions are much more favorable than those con taining only two/ In solutions of the composition larvae may remain living and capable of growth for so long a period as two weeks. Mixtures of the above three salts are the most favorable ; the presence of KC1 is injurious since potassium acts as a specific poison on muscular tissue. The three most essential metallic ions for the life- activities of these organisms are apparently Na, Ca, and Mg ; K in very small proportions is prob ably also necessary. "On analysis of the normal swimming move ments of the larvae it appears that ciliary and muscular movements play separate and independ ent parts. Propulsion is effected exclusively by the action of the cilia ; while heliotropic orienta tion is a purely muscular phenomenon with which the cilia have nothing directly to do. That this is so is proved i) by direct observation, which shows that the cilia never exhibit a greater degree of activity on one side of the body than on the other, while the muscles of the more strongly illuminated side always show stronger contractions than those of the other; 2) by the fact of helio tropic orientation of the larvae in later stages after the cilia have disappeared ; and 3) by the fact that all power of heliotropic response is lost in solutions that remove muscular contractility with out at first interfering with ciliary movement." At the meeting of November 14, Mr. G. A. Allen reviewed a recent paper by Duncker on variation 1 in Palaemonetes, and Miss Minnie Enteman re counted her observations on the behavior of Polistes. Some of the more important points of this paper may be mentioned here : " Polistes, our common paper wasp, constructs for a nest a single flat plate of hexagonal ; cells, without an external covering. This renders ob servation on its habits and instincts very easy. Among the facts gathered concerning the activi ties of the larval, pupal, and imaginal life, the most interesting relate to those of the newly ex cluded worker. " 1. Fear is very generally exhibited, the young worker retreating precipitately when a strange object is presented to it; but this gradually di minishes with the repeated appearance of the awe- inspiring object. If an edible bit be presented the worker will, after five or six trials, come up, touch it with the antennae and exhibit "2. The feeding instinct. This consists in crushing the food in the mandibles, extracting and swallowing its juices, and when it has reached a vpulplike consistency, distributing it to the feeding larvae, which, occupy, the cells of the nest. The habit has been thought to arise by imitation of the queen or an older worker, but that it is independ ent of such example is proved by the fact, that it is acquired in all its perfection by wasps which have had no association with others of their kind. "3. The locality study. This is a mere desul tory alternation of short flights and strolls by means of which the wasp comes in contact with objects surrounding its nest. It appears to use these objects, to some extent as landmarks, but experiments indicate that the olfactor^ sense is also an important factor in guiding it. " 4. To a certain extent the wasp remembers. This is indicated by the way in which it accus toms itself to the appearance of strange objects, , and its behavior when a change is made in its nest. "5. Wasps learn nothing from ancestors. In stinct and individual experience account suffi ciently for their complex activities and their apparent cooperation is due entirely to the acci dent of being born in the same nest." At the session of November 28, Mr. C. M. Child gave a brief account of some zoological observations made during a recent trip to Florida and showed a number of specimens UNIVERSITY RECORD 367 Following this Mr. E. R. Downing discussed " Recent Experiments on Sea Urchin Eggs," re ferring chiefly to the work of Driesch. The last session of the club during the Autumn Quarter was held December 12. This was de voted to a paper by Mr. C. C. Adams, entitled " Geographical Distribution of Variations in Io" The paper was illustrated by a number of lantern slides, showing series of the shells from different localities. The following abstract gives an outline of Mr. Adams' work on this form : "The gasteropod genus lo is found only in the headwaters of the Tennessee River and its trib utaries. By the aid of a grant from the Amer ican Association for the Advancement of Science the Clinch and Powell Rivers were explored and the following facts concerning its geographical distribution and variations were found. "These shells are remarkably variable, all inter mediates being found between a smooth shell (lo fluvialis Say) and a very spinose shell (lo spi- nosa Lea). The extremes of variation do not occur promiscuously in all localities, but are quite definite in their occurrence. In the headwaters of both streams the smooth, shells form the dom inant population, but further down stream, in the case of the Clinch within 60 miles, the entire shell population changes from a smooth to a very spinose shell. In the intermediate region the shells are mixed, smooth, spiny and intermediate. "The headwater shells in the Powell are more globular * arid relatively stable, have low or no spines, distance between spines small and slightly variable. Down stream the shells are less globular and relatively variable, spines high and fairly stable, distance between spines wide and variable. " In the Clinch the headwater shells are more globular (similar to those in the head of the Powell) and relatively variable, low or no spines, distance between spines small and slightly vari able. Down stream the shells are less globular and relatively stable, spines are high and variable, distance between spines wide and stable. "Thus these parallel streams have parallel differences in their lo shells." , OFFICIAL NOTICES. In view of the coming of Madame Sarah Bern hardt and M. Coquelin the Romance Department has decided to give a series of explanatory read ings of Rostand's play "L'Aiglon." These readings, to which all members of the University are invited, will be conducted by Assistant Pro fessor Maxime Ingres and begin on Monday, January 14, at 4:00 p.m., in the Lecture room, Cobb Hall. Admission cards may be obtained at the Information Office of the University. Each auditor is requested to procure a copy of the play. The Courses of Open Lectures to be given by Dr. 0. L. Triggs on "An Introduction to the Study of Painting" and Mr. Ernest Ingersoll on "Phases of Animal Life and Intelligence" will be given in Kent Theater instead of Haskell As sembly Room. The class for the study of works of art in the Chicago galleries will meet Dr. Triggs at the Art Institute, Saturday morning at nine o'clock. The names of the following persons have been proposed for membership in the Graduate Club : Miss Henrietta Becker, 5604 Jackson av. Miss Elizabeth H. Dunn, M.D., 5525 Monroe av. Miss Anna Bushnell Pratt, Green Hall. Mr. Samuel Bower Sinclair, Quadrangle Club. Mr. F. M. Walters, 5753 Drexel av. Miss Alice N. Wilcox, 5329 Greenwood 368 UNIVERSITY RECORD THE CALENDAR. JANUARY 11-19, 1901. Friday, January 11. Chapel- Assembly : The Divinity School. Chapel, Cobb Lecture Hall, 10:30 a.m. Mathematical Club meets in Room 35, Ryerson Physical Laboratory, at 4:00 p.m. Assistant Professor Dickson reads : " Concerning the abstract group isomorphic with the general linear fractional group, with a discussion in particular of the groups of orders 60, 168, 504." Mr. A. R. Schweitzer reads " On an interesting func tion of a real variable." Saturday, January 12. Meetings of University Ruling Bodies, Haskell Oriental Museum : The Faculty of the Junior Colleges, 8: 30 a.m. The Faculty of the Senior Colleges, 10:00 a.m. The University Council, 11:30 a.m. Sunday, January 13. settlement sunday. Vesper Service is held in Kent Theater at 4:00 P.M. The address is given by the Reverend F. E. Dew- hurst. Monday, January 14. Chapel- Assembly : The Junior Colleges. Chapel, Cobb Lecture Hall, 10:30 a.m. (required of Junior College students). Mr. Ingersoll lectures in Kent Theater at 4:00 p.m. on "Our Wild Neighbors." (Illustrated.) Dr. F. W. Gunsaulus gives the first of a series of Lectures before the Divinity School on " Mod ern English Poets," in Congregation Hall, Haskell Museum, at 4:00 p.m. Assistant Professor Ingres , reads from Ro stand's DAiglon in the Lecture room, Cobb Hall, at 4:00 p.m. Tuesday, January 15. Chapel- Assembly : The Senior Colleges. Chapel, Cobb Lecture Hall, 10: 30 a.m. (required of Senior College students). Dr. Triggs lectures in Kent Theater at 4:oop.Mv on " Early Italian and Modern Pre-Raphaelite Painters." (Illustrated.) Botanical Club meets in Room 24, Botanical . Laboratory, at 5:00 p.m. Dr. H. C. Cowles discusses contributions to the ecology of plant tissues and organs during 1900. Wednesday, January 16. Division Meetings are held at 10:30 a.m. Pedagogical Club meets in Haskell Assembly Room at 8:00 p.m. Professor Coulter speaks on "Some principles in volved in teaching science." A cordial invitation is extended to all interested. Thursday, January 17. Chapel- Assembly: The Graduate Schools. Chapel, Cobb Lecture Hall, 10:30 a.m. Semitic Club meets. at the President's house at Professor Price reads on " The text of lonah." Dis cussion opened by Mr. Bode. Friday, January 18. Chapel-Assembly: The Divinity School. Chapel, Cobb Lecture Hall, 10:30 a.m. Romance Club meets in X3 c, Cobb Lecture Hall, at 4:00 p.m. Assistant Professor Howland reads on "Recent French dictionaries." Saturday, January 19. Meetings of University Ruling Bodies, Haskell Oriental Museum : The Board of the University Press, 8: 30 a.m. The Board of Student Organizations, Pub lications, and Exhibitions, 10:00 a.m. The Faculty of the Divinity School, 11:30 Material for the CALENDAR must be sent to the Office of Information by THURSDAY, 8:30 A.M., in order to be published in the issue of the same