HE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE VOLUME LXIX NUMBER 4 SUMMER 1977 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE Volume LXIX, Number 4 Summer 1977 Alumni Association 5733 South University Avenue Chicago, Illinois 60637 (312) 753.2175 Président: Charles W. Boand (LLB'33, MBA'57) Acting Director; Ruth Halloran Program Director: Gwen Witsaman Régional Offices 1888 Century Park East, Suite 222 Los Angeles, Calitbrnia 90067 (213) 277-7727 825 Third Avenue, Suite 1030 New York, New York 10022 (212) 935-1977 1000 Chestnut Street, Apt. 7D San Francisco, California 91109 (415) 928-0337 735 Fairfax Street Alexandria, Virginia 22314 (709) 549-3800 Second-class postage paid at Chicago, Illinois, and at additional mailing offices. Copyright 1977 by The University of Chicago. Published quarterly Spring, Summer, Fall, and Winter by the Vice-Président tor Public Affairs. CONTENTS On the Midway 2 Jaipur Notes 8 Susanne Rudolph and Lloyd Rudolph The Legacy of Robert M. Hutchins 23 Edward H. Levi Nostalgia 26 Alumni News 28 Postcard from Olympus Class Notes 38 For the Record 44 Letters to the Editor 46 Crédits 47 Index for Volume LXIX Convocation 1977 48 Charles W. Boand 33 47 Cover Note 49 Editor: Iris M. Poliski Assistant to the Editor: Bill Murphy Editorial Assistant: Paula S. Ausick ON THE MIDWAY Something for the Library The bibliographer for history of the Americas at the Regenstein Library has a request. If the loyal reader possesses printed materials describing local history of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, or Kentucky, the library would be most grateful to re- ceive same . . . assuming the loyal reader has finished with the material. That it be local history is stressed. This kind of information is diffkult for libraries to collect because of small print runs and limited distribution. However, much information on coun- ties, towns, or townships has been printed or reprinted in conjunction with the bicentennial year. If it can be gathered at the grass roots level, much can be preserved. Donors will be credited by appropri- ate bookplates and silently thanked by grateful histonans. Contributors may include ephemeral material such a pamphlets from local his- torical societies, privately published his toriés, and the like. The materials may be sent to Frank Conaway, Joseph Re genstein Library, 110 East 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637. Historical materials from other areas in the West and Midwest also will be gratefully accepted. University Woman Named Rhodes Scholar Daryl Koehn, a senior in the New Col- legiate Division in the Collège, is one of thirty-two students in the United States elected Rhodes Scholars to the Univer sity of Oxford for 197^- Ms. Koehn is one of thirteen women to receive the award this year, the first year in which i women are eligible. She will begin at Oxford this fall where she plans to study at the School of Philosophy, Politics, and Economies. Ms. Koehn, who entered the Collège through the Small School Talent Search, graduated as valedictorian from Con- cordia Junior/Senior High School in Concordia, Kansas in 1973 where she won prizes for debate and public speak- ing. She was also chosen as a National Merit Commended Scholar. In the Col lège, Ms. Koehn's awards hâve included Phi Beta Kappa, Maroon Key, Dean's List, and Student Aide. She was desig- nated a University Scholar and was awarded the Class of 1914 Scholarship. Rosenheim Directs National Humanities Institute Edward W. Rosenheim, AB '36, AM '46, PhD '53, became Director of the National Humanities Institute at the University on July 1. He is a professor in the Department of English and the Col lège. The Institute is a four-year program to enrich the teaching of humanities in American collèges and universities, funded by a grant from the National En- dowment for the Humanities. The first program year began September, 1976, with the arrivai of the first of three groups of NEH fellows from institutions nationwide. The first-year fellows hâve completed a year's délibération and re- search on the Institute's gênerai thème, "Technology and the Humanities." In the second program year, fellows will explore "Technology and Society." Subjects of study include: the organiza- tion of knowledge in various societies, the relationship between authority codes and technological change; the ways in which protests against technological change achieve artistic form; and the etfects of bureaucracy and professionalization upon humanistic values. Edward Rosenheim is a prolific and versatile writer whose by-line appears in both professional and popular publica tions. He is the author or editor of three books, co-editor of Modem Pbi/o/ogy, a scholarly journal devoted to médiéval and modem literature, and a récipient of the University's Quantrell Prize for ex cellence in undergraduate teaching. He succeeds Neil Harris as Director of the National Humanities Institute. Harris has returned to teaching after his two-year directorship. Lloyd, Ranney Appointed to Search Committee Mrs. Glen A. Lloyd and Mr. George A. Ranney hâve been appointed to the Committee of the Board of Trustées of The University of Chicago to recom- mend a nominee for élection as pré sident of the University in 1978. Robert W. Reneker, chairman of the Board of Trustées, had previously an- nounced the other members of the Committee; Gaylord Donnelley, Kingman Douglass, Jr., Stanford Goldblatt, Margaret Bell Cameron, Robert S. Ingersoll, and William B. Graham. Hermon Dunlap Smith is the committee's senior advisor. Mrs. Lloyd, the former Marion Mus- ser, is a member of the Women's Board and the Visiting Committee to the Divi sion of the Humanities. George A. Ran ney is Vice-Chairman of Inland Steel. Mrs. William W. Darrow Named Women's Board Chairwoman Mrs. William W. Darrow (Anita Wieboldt Straub), has been appointed Chairwoman of the University's Wom en's Board by John T. Wilson, président. Mrs. Darrow has been a Board member since 1964, a member of the Steering Committee since 1972, and Chairwoman of the Women's Board Project Committee this past year. The University's Women's Board, founded in i960, consists of women ac tive in civic and cultural affairs. It in- cludes women trustées, wives and widows of trustées, académie deans, and women officers of the University. Sport as Education "Walk down the street in any inner-city neighborhood," says Larry Hawkins, di rector of Spécial Programs for the Col lège, "and you can always start a con versation, provided you talk about one subject — sports." During the summer around the Uni versity, troops of youngsters, wearing maroon t-shirts, trek from Cobb Hall classes to Bartlett Gymnasium for orga- nized sports. On their t-shirts, embossed in white, is a simple phrase, THE PRO GRAM, which stands for The Pilot En- richment Program. THE PROGRAM and the young men and women who travel the campus wear ing the t-shirts are the children of one man, Larry Hawkins. Of course they are not Hawkins' children, in the literal sensé, but, judging by the efforts Haw kins makes on their behalf, sometimes it is hard to tell. Larry Hawkins is a social worker. He is also a coach. And, most would con- sider him an excellent teacher. Hawkins believes that sports and games can be enormously helpful in improving the quality of the educational expérience — particularly if the student is black, and if he or she cornes from a ghetto school. Hawkins does not talk about the rah- rah aspects of sports, nor does he em- phasize the virtue of winning, though he is obviously a man who plays to win. When Larry Hawkins talks about sports, words come out which sound strange to the unindoctrinated observer. He might say that sports can improve classroom attendence, or that the librarian of the school should come out to the playing fîeld, or even that a coach should be more than a field gênerai of his sport; he should be a teacher. Larry Hawkins feels that sports in inner-city schools mean something very spécial to the students. There, the per formance of individuals and teams gén érâtes strong interest and a great pride. Often, an inner-city youth's first expéri ence of success is in sports, perhaps in his high school gymnasium. Hawkins and his co-workers believe that this discovery of success, confirmed by coaches and friends, instills a new image of self. More important, it may help a student to create a more positive Personal outlook. Hawkins does not expect every youth to become a six-million dollar superstar. He goes to great lengths to explode the myth that professional athletics are an Larry Hawkins, director of Spécial Programs. effective path out of the ghetto. For the vast majority of young men and women there, sports obviously are not. How- ever, Hawkins believes that éducation linked with sports may be the way to the path and he looks to the fully integrated athletic/educational program as one pos sible solution. To Hawkins this means that high school coaches and teachers must work together to motivate students and keep them in the classroom, not on the streets. It means that the school librarian should take as much of an interest in the schools program as in the schools books. Most important, it means that the high school coach, the individual admired and respected by most high school youths, must be more than a leader of the team; he must hâve far greater skills than only a knowledge of the fundamentals of his sport. He ought to be trained in the areas of guidance, counseling, commu- nity organization, and group work. The coach, in short, should be a sort of hy- brid social worker, both teacher and athlète. This idéal, or what might be called the "scholar-coach", may not be a new con cept; to Hawkins, it is clearly a workable one. He has expérience to back up his claims. Larry Hawkins has lived ail of his life on Chicago's South Side. His own athletic career began on the city's play- grounds. In 1948 he was a prep star at Phillips High School. He received his degree in social work from George Wil liams Collège in 1956. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, he coached at Carver High School, which draws students from the Altgeld Garden apartments, a housing project, on Chicago's far South Side. During the early part of his career, Hawkins was one of two black coaches in the Chicago public school System. He began as what he calls a "gym teacher" conducting classes and coaching a few team sports. After a few years, Larry Hawkins started to experiment with some spécial programs, programs designed to get his players to think not only of sports but of classes as well. He decided to bring classwork into basketball practice. He worked not only to motivate students, but teachers too, bringing them into team practices for the first time. Success for Larry Hawkins was mea- sured in two ways while he coached at Carver High School. He will always re- member the teams he took to the Illinois State Basketball Championship Tour- naments. The first, in 1962, lost in the 3 title game by one point. The second, in 1963, won by the same margin — one point. More important than his basketball teams, though, were the players, the programs, and the philosophy he devel- oped while at Carver High School — programs which aided the students long after their playing careers were through. "Sports are still considered enter- tainment for people to watch, just as they were when we took our teams to the state championships," says Hawkins. "Everyone except the youngster playing is entertained." Now, more than ever before, what Hawkins is concerned about is the youngster. What happens to him^ Where does he go if he does not make the so-called big time? It was the désire to do more than merely win state championships which led Larry Hawkins to The University of Chicago. He joined the University in 1968, leaving behind a career as an athlète and a teacher of athlètes. Haw kins is a modest man, but, if coaxed, he will tell what it was like to leap for a rebound against Wilt Chamberlain, or how he coached Cazzie Russell at Carver High School. Today, Hawkins is concerned not only with seeing that students graduate from high school, but from collège as well. As he sees it, the first problem for inner-city school students is achieving a level of académie excellence which will win them admission to first-rate collèges and universities. This is not always easy, as students from ghetto schools do not perform well on standardized exams like the ACT and SAT tests (American Collège Test, Scholastic Aptitude Test), which most American collèges use as part of their admissions criteria, Hawkins admits. "Inner-city kids perform poorly on collège entrance exams not because they lack académie ability," claims Hawkins, "but because they are not thinking along the lines of the test." That proposition forms the basis for the new release-time program Hawkins has organized. By attending The Uni versity of Chicago two days of the school week, one hundred and ninty, ninth- and tenth-graders from the Carver and Hyde Park High Schools are being given spé cial préparation in reading, writing, and arithmetic. The nrne-release program is an exam ple ot the creativity ot the Collèges Di rector of Spécial Programs. Larry Haw kins is an individual who has the talent to shape ideas into workable programs. When he says, "The high school sports program could be used as a profound educational tool, if only educators would accept it as such," perhaps the time for such acceptance is not far off. — Micbael Krauss. AB'75, MBA'76 In Search of Chicago Softball One thing the athletic department keeps trying to tell the rest of the University is that the learning expérience can often occur just as easily on the field as in the classroom. Flabby monastics, of course, would be the last to agrée, but, then, wasn't it the late Mr. Hutchins who called this a community of scoffers? On any moderate-sized field on a nice spring day, one can learn of the exis tence and uniqueness of the 16-inch softball. For those who grew up in Chicago, its existence is no surprise. One can always enjoy the expérience of watching some poor benighted easterner pick up a 16-inch softball for the first time and wonder if his hand has shrunk. Of course this is even before he tries to hit it, putting ail his weight into a mighty swing and watching the bail defy ail physics and common sensé and sail lazily out to only second base. The aberration is really Chicago's, and it would seem that we owe the rest of the world an explanation for the origins of this thing. Since 12-inch softball is the prévalent game, or at least the game played by most référence writers, the re- searcher is faced with a philological problem: deciding which softball the référence books describe. The origins correspond to the 16-inch game, but the rules and régulations only apply to the 12-inch variety. Thus one turns to the purveyors of Chicago's oral history to discover the roots of 16-inch softball. Fortunately, Don DeBat of the Chicago Daily News made a similar search about a year ago, and was kind enough to provide us with the fruits of his work. Apparently, 16-inch softball started in an athletic club on Chicago's North Side in the 1880's. Since basket ball had yet to be invented, the men of this club needed something to fill the long winter months. One enterprising chap found a boxing glove and taped it together. He then dug up a broom and, in the simplicity of genius, a new game was born. The game was at first played indoors, which accounts for the screens on the inside of ail those old school gymnasium windows. Sooner or later, indoor softball moved to the playgrounds and once it moved outdoors, it began to be organized. By the 1930s there were city-wide leagues and cross-town rival- ries. "The whole reason the game caught on," argues Débat, "was that it was a game that could be played with a mini mal amount of expenditure. You don't hâve to hâve gloves to play, so about twenty guys can hâve a hell of a game for about three dollars. It's a working class, Back-of-the- Yards kind of game." He was unsure why the game is still only played in Chicago. "You'd probably hâve to ask a sociologist," he said. Although not a sociologist, at least not by training, Bill Vendl, assistant director of athletics in charge of intramural sports, suggested several reasons why the game is played at the University. Since many of the students attending the University in its earlier days came from Chicago, it was only natural that they would bring their game with them. Vendl pointed out that 16-inch softball had always been hère along with the consternation of those just introduced to it. Besides this tradition, Vendl had a much more pragmatic and graphie ex- planation for the sport. With some drama he pointed out to the Midway through the leaded Windows of his Ida Noyés Hall office and asked, rhetori- cally enough, "Now, where do we hâve space to play 12-inch softball?" But then, who would want to anyway? —David Rieser, AB 77 FOTA The Festival of the Arts (FOTA) is a rite ut spring at the University. The month- long séries of events include a Maypole dance, a circus, a paper boat race on Botany Pond, a pie-throwing contest, and a week of quizzes. However, the real spirit of the event may réside in an impromptu entertain- ment on the opening Sunday afternoon, on the main quadrangle. In the manner of the old "happenings" of the 1960s, a group of appréciative watchers, stu dents, and families, gathered to enjoy musicians from the Old Town School, country dancers, and a mime. The mime, wandering from group to group, sud- denly was leading a procession of small children. Their numbers were sufficient for an imaginary game of softball. With the children entering into the spirit of the invisible game, bats and a bail were created, and a small pitcher pitched, batters batted, and catchers caught the softball, while a young ob server leaned on an imaginary post, watching. Softball rapidly turned into touch football, ail done silently, the mime lead ing, and then it was time to order ice cream. One little girl importantly held out five fingers for five scoops. The ice cream-mime elaborately tossed and caught five invisible scoops on an in visible cône and handed it to her. She took it, lowered it to the ground, and jumped up and down to lick this unseen monument to conesmanship. She ges- tured to the mime. He hurried over and gave her a hoist up, so she could start at the top. The watchers were transfixed. And FOTA had begun. Susanne Rudolph Lloyd Rudolph Jaipur Notes The Rudolphs ivitb their collaborator. Mohan Sitigb Icenter). Prologue 8 October 1975 Jaipur, India We hâve written "notes" during each of our research years in India, starting in 1956 when we drove overland from London in a landrover. Notes help, we fînd, to understand what is happening to us and to clarify our thoughts in what has now become a second home. We hâve lived five years off and on in India, with a family that has grown from one child to three children since our second visit in 1962-63. Each expérience builds on the previous ones even while the change and the com- plexity of the country throw up new puzzles. It was in the grip of the "notes" habit and in the face of a remarkable change in India's political landscape and mood that we turned again in 1975 to disciplining im pressions and conversations by reducing them to the written word. The first note was written in a faintly défiant spirit less than three months after the emergency was imposed and soon after our arrivai in India. The atmosphère was un- friendly to the free inquiry and expression we had come to expect. At best, dissent (and there was, in the circles in which we moved in Jaipur, Delhi, and Cal cutta, considérable dissent) was expressed in metaphors and analogies, circumlocutions and euphemisms, except when we spoke to old friends in private. The notes bear witness to the changed atmosphère and new médium. Their tone of voice and language took account, almost despite ourselves, of the fact that they might be dis- covered, even though we used circuitous methods for spiriting them out of India. We wrote for a dull censor and a bright colleague. We did miss getting any response from those on our mailing list. Our friends in England and America prudently kept their reactions to them- selves, with the occasional exception of those who sig- naled us that they were reading the notes by comment- ing on our account of banana cake. When we began writing "Jaipur Notes," neither we nor those who were designing the emergency were very clear about what it was to mean, or where it was to go. Both we and "they" assumed a surer tone of voice as the year progressed. The dénouement in March 1977, when an élection swept Mrs. Gandhi and the Congress Party from office, could not hâve been intended or anticipated by her or her party. While our "Jaipur Notes" do not explicitly suggest such an outcome, they do anticipate an élection in March 1977 and point to a dangerous éro sion of support and legitimacy. What they do not foresee is the scale and intensity of the vote for free- dom. Our somewhat circuitous approach to this year's India led via London and Delhi to Jaipur, in the northwest Indian state of Rajasthan. The level of outrage with what is happening in India has diminished along the way. In London we met with W. H. Morris-Jones and with a philosophically inclined set around Amartya Sen, who is a Professor of Economies at the London School of Eco nomies. Sen and Morris-Jones had signed an English press advertisement in the London Times, which had been viewed with much chagrin hère, deploring the new political arrangements. Amartya had heard that two hundred and fifty Delhi faculty had been arrested and their pensions and benefits and salaries affected. (One hundred and twenty-five were arrested, for four days or so, which considerably shook the Delhi académie com- munity; their friends hère say the story about benefits is not true.) Both Sen and Morris-Jones were sharply criti- cal; Morris-Jones remarked on the deafening silence from the direction of India scholars. We discussed at some length how one would go about taking some posi tions that would help without having a back-lash effect. Both hère and in London there is considérable feeling that Delhi cares very much about how its actions are viewed. At Amartya's house we had a brisk discussion with Eric Hobsbawn and W. G. Runciman from Cambridge and a philosopher named Richard Jeffrey from Prince ton. We took the position that India was likely to be a Louis Napoléon state, with middle class notions of ef- ficiency and effectiveness, and a happy civil service able to accomplish what had been much harder to accomplish under the populist conditions of the last few years. Whether the state would also succeed in its more dis- tributional intentions had yet to be seen. Sen confirmed this image, saying that it was his impression that the business community, at least the large bourgeoisie, was not discontented, red tape having been reduced. Hobsbawn took the position that Louis Napoléon states are rather useful; on the other hand liberalism had its good sides, since without public access to information closed states are likely not to work very well. In Delhi, the London Times letter was causing a certain amount of consternation ail around. The information minister, Mr. V. C. Shukla, put his people on the télé phone to the influential intellectuals, asking them to sign a letter in response to the Times letter. The request 9 was awkward if one didn't wish to sign. Among our académie friends in Delhi, the politics of Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) was the liveliest topic; we didn't get over to Delhi University and didn't hâve much of a feel lor the situation there. Teacher's unions and other torms of legitimate influence and obstreperousness from faculties hâve been visibly affected and hâve exhibited an uncommon meekness. This has much to do with the fact that one can neither organize agitational public meetings nor take matters to court. Hère at Rajasthan, the philosopher-vice- chancellor, Professor G. C. Pande, who has himself been under some shadow as an alleged former Anand Margi (a Hindu fundamentalist society banned under the emergency) was able to eut out some one hundred temporary teachers. This move, which would hâve brought the university down around his ears a year ago, is indicative of his new capacity to act. However, matters hâve not utterly changed — he eventually took seventy- five teachers back, with six-month contracts. The JNU faculty, which considers itself an élite groups whose leftist propensities hâve given it a strong standing with the government, doesn't like strong vic- chancellors any better than other faculties do. When we arrived, there was a lively rhubarb about admis sions. The vice-chancellor had taken admissions in his own hands, reviewing ail departmental décisions; the same has happened at Rajasthan. At Delhi University, this review took the form of cutting out some known student leaders on the grounds that they were not "seri- ous." As far as we could make out, trouble-making in gênerai rather than its particular political forms was the target. The JNU situation is interesting. At Jaipur, many people expected that JNU would be very happy with the emergency, because of its left proclivities. But JNU has a considérable Communist Party of India-Marxist com- ponent (one of India' s two principal communist parties, it is independent of both Moscow and Peking), espe- cially among the students, and unlike the Communist Party of India (Moscow-onented and allied to Mrs. Gandhi's Congress), it is not supporting the emer gency. Some JNU students (we heard sixty-four) were arrested, although most were quickly released. Even though faculty hâve not been arrested, a number hâve expenenced unusual interest in their old tax returns on the part of the tax commissioner; requiring much trouble, many papers, and plenty of anxiety. Finally, there is something in the teaching vocation at JNU, which has a very able faculty, that makes most of them natural libérais despite themselves. Some of the figures with whom Arthur Schlesinger Jr., on a visit dur- 1 11 ing the late Nehru era, quarreled violently because of their failure to appreciate the communist menace, are at the fore of those advocating liberty for universities. Conversation has become less active, at least in Delhi, which this year as in ail other years is more hysterical and up-tight than any other part of the country. Political conversations take place in private locations and are mostly dyadic. General conversation covers safer topics. Sanjay Gandhi continues to surface. The papers re port that he has traveled to Bihar, which two weeks ago expenenced devasting floods, to inspect the affected area together with the chief minister; upon returning to Patna he convened a meeting of officiais to discuss with them the measures that should be taken. He is plainly on the scène. About August 28, Mrs. Vasudhevan, biog- rapher of the prime minister, interviewed him, and pub- lished the results in the India Express. He was quoted as saying that the public sector was a flop, and that re- covery and development depended on the private sector industrialists. He also conveyed the impression that most congressmen were a bunch of old hens and that the Communist Party of India (CPI) leadership and cadre were a sorry lot. The next day déniais were issued, but Mrs. Vasudhevan is sure that she did clear the text with Sanjay Gandhi. The interview adds another dimension to the Louis Napoléon state theory. The view from Jaipur has its own wrinkles. Susanne, pretending to be a good wife, goes out in search of filter paper so that Lloyd can hâve filtered coffee. She is fol- lowing up his détective work; he has discovered that filter paper can be found with scientific instruments suppliers and has located one supplier. Entering the office, she is instantly swept into a highly political con versation. The speaker, who has two brothers in j ail, is a Jan Sanghi ( Jan Sangh is the major party regarded by Mrs. Gandhi as Hindu-communalist), observes that the party, which has been called fascist, is now the only major defender of freedom in India. Some minor illicit publications are produced, respected Président Ford's views are applauded, and offers are made to tell more. The incident suggests that there may be more such opin ions to be found among the petty merchants and minor middle classes who hâve always made up the main sup port of Jan Sangh. Jaipur is a strong Jan Sangh city. The petty merchants hâve also been on the painful receiving end of some dramatic improvement efforts in Jaipur which look, from the higher reaches of the taste- ful middle classes, very attractive. For years, Jaipur ad- ministrators hâve tried to clean up the city by removing the hundreds of sidewalk stalls that hâve, since partition, disfigured Jaipur's beautiful broad sidewalks and grace- ful arcades. They hâve also tried to enforce uniform pink washing, to keep the city's réputation as a lovely old architectural monument. But the Jaipur municipality was as much the créature of the petty merchants who owned the disfiguring stalls as of the people who wanted to clean up. Now the situation is largely in the hands of the state government. Under the aegis of an active Jaipur city collector, merchants hâve been given the choice of painting their own shops with the régula tion wash or having the city do it for them and assessing them Rs. 80 an hour. The stalls hâve been removed; there is grumbling, of course, because the new locations designated for the stalls do not yet hâve any marked traffic pattern for économie activity, and the owners will surely lose in the short run. The shop signs above the arcades hâve been redone in a uniform height and style; one conséquence is that ail the English signs hâve come down because they are irregular, and the new régulation does not leave room for two Unes. Only Hindi speakers will find the Jaipur Caicle Shop. We look around to see how Jaipur is reacting to the arrest of what used to be its first and second citizens, the Maja-sahiba of Jaipur and her son, Maharaja Bhawani Singh, who lost their titles and privy purses as a resuit of a constitutional amendment introduced by Mrs. Gandhi. We hâve heard numerous accounts of the Maja-sahiba's situation. In a prison System that préserves the British distinctions between political prisoners and others, and between, first, second, and third class conditions of im- prisonment, she receives the privilèges of neither politi cal prisoners nor an ordinary bachelor of arts (who, under a spécial category of prison rules, would be enti- tled to hâve his own food brought in and hâve separate toilet and bath facilities). The treatment is perceived generally as exceptionally punitive. The charges against her are criminal, not political, but there is some feeling that the treatment is political. But while one hears thèse stories, there is relatively little outrage. Ten years ago, every Rajput we inter- viewed would hâve vowed to guard his sacred honor by defending that of the Maja-sahiba. We hâve heard no such vows; the spirit has gone out of the old order. Nava Ratri (Nine Days), which is observed with fasting by the martial castes in préparation for the holiday Dusserah, the great Rajput festival in thèse parts, has begun. But there won't be much of Dusserah, the Rajputs say, be cause who will celebrate it? The maharaja, even after losing his title and privy purse, continued to lead the Dusserah cérémonies, including the sacrifice of the goat at the Durga temple at Amber, and the worshipping of arms which follows in large assemblage. He is in ja.il, and no one has the heart to go ahead without him. Our house looks over a back compound wall toward Kanota House, which the diarist, Amar Singh, built, toward the little temple in which he worshipped, and where the cattle are kept to meet the need of Kanota House for milk. Our collaborator, Mohan Singh, in editing Amar Singh's eighty-seven volume diary, walks over often, as do small parties of his seven children, to make sure ail is well with us. Trays are brought over on feast days at lunch time, so we can share Kanota food. We send back banana cake. Tomorrow we will get a fridge that will make ice. The peacocks, cows, and Rudolphs are so far remarkably untouched by what is happening. 26 October 1975 Jaipur, India We continue to try to understand the meaning of what is happening around us. Among other things, there are the universities. The vice-chancellors hâve considerably more power since the emergency, and the effect on the university hère seems on the whole benign, although cer tain récent changes for the better can not be traced only to the new politics. The political science department has a better batch of students than in many previous years — curious, since there seem to be no long run trends that make it a more promising path to paying careers (by comparison, for example, with any of the sciences); free swinging political science analysis does not hâve as hospitable an environment as before. There is a gênerai feeling of contentment about the language situation, in sharp contrast to the déjection of five years ago. Our colleagues then complained that post-graduate teaching was seriously constrained by the incapacity of students to understand anything but Hindi. Now they say they can expect to be understood when they use En glish. The reason: a rearrangement of the patterns by which scheduled castes and other disadvantaged caté gories are admitted to collèges and universities. In 1970— 71, Rajasthan University's post-graduate departments were approaching something similar to open admission for the disadvantaged, and some relate both the level of university student discontent and the low intellectual level to that development. Now persons entitled to spé cial advantages are admitted to the post-graduate depart ments at Jaipur, where the university sits, only if they meet certain minimum marks. Those below the line are assigned to government collèges with M. A. programs in district towns. The effect has been to reduce the rural 11 component on the Jaipur campus. Our studies of stu dent unrest in 1970 and earlier showed that rural stu dents in urban collèges correlated very highly with un rest, and this insight seems now to hâve dawned on people hère. Ail this is preliminary to saying something about the effect of the emergency on the campus, because it re- minds us that other forces besides the emergency ac count for the current condition. That condition is an unwonted degree of peace. Some professorial friends who feel much hemmed in by the civil liberty con- straints of the emergency, nevertheless, express satisfac tion about the effects on attendance, punctuality, and work patterns of students. Rajasthan experienced a low point just the year before the emergency when the stu dent union superseded the administration, performed a puja with shoes (cérémonial profanation) of the re- gistrar, and ordered that ail communications must henceforth go via the student union président — university communications and ordinances, that is. The university administration found it difficult even under thèse rather extraordinary circumstances to call in the police. Now, by contrast, no one is allowed into the ad ministration building who is not working there unless he has a formai, written admission slip. The régulation is enforced. The work patterns of the university offices hâve come under severe scrutiny. Everyone is obliged to keep a diary — ail the lower division staff, that is — of their ac- tivities of the day; so many trips to the railway station to book tickets; so many letters written, etc. etc. Some of the secretarial staff whom we know suggest that the lower participants hâve learned to manipulate this or- ganizational device as well as previous ones — who will go to the railway station to check how long the alleged queue was at the booking office? Who will know if the letter was two Unes or two pages? But there is a certain atmosphère attending the ritual of the diary that has introduced some useful anxiety. People come on time; lunch hours may not be stretched out. Tardiness will lead to docking of leave time. While the newspapers are exceptionally obscure thèse days on the working of the political process, there is a rich gossip network at work which provides news, the validity of which is hard to verify. What is easy to get from the paper is the well adver- tised ordinances and officiai pronouncements. We hâve previously spoken of Mrs. Gandhi's enthusiasm for Gunnar Myrdal's analysis of India as a "soft state," and her turning around Kenneth Galbraith's quip, "India is a functioning anarchy," to "anarchy is dysfunctional for India." Among the areas in which the new toughness is being applied is labor discipline. In a séries of récent speeches Mrs. Gandhi holds up as a model an English labor leader who said he was doing his union members, not the Labour Party leadership, a favor by insisting the wage line be held steady; otherwise inflation will run away with the consumer's pocketbook. A new policy has been enunciated tying the future of wage bonuses to productivity. In a System where dear- ness allowances and bonus demands by government and industrial workers hâve been a prime object of public agitations, this is serious talk. While dearness allowances and bonuses seem to hâve increased slowly in the last ten years, it is by no means clear that they hâve kept up with the price spiral; real wages for organized industrial workers hâve declined over the past years. Hence sever- ity on bonus and dearness allowances will be hard on the urban clérical and labor classes. It is, of course, a policy that will affect the rural classes less. Insofar as there are political calculations in this, they must be that the stead- iness in priées that may be achieved will compensate for the toughness on incomes. It is also pretty apparent that the décline in priées, such as it is — and we hâve not seen any objective analysis of price indices since we came — is being achieved at the expense of a minor industrial recession. Everybody, from textile to steel mills, is crying about overstock. The government says the slack in domestic demand should be made up with exports; but that doesn't seem to cover the need, particularly in the wage goods area. Among the more ominous récent ordinances was one tightening up the Maintenance of Internai Security Act (MISA), the law and régulations that provide the opera- tive framework for much of the emergency. This récent amendment provided that persons arrested under the MISA régulations need not be informed of the charges against them and that courts can no longer ask the gov ernment to provide such information. Sobering. The annual session of the Indian National Congress is in the offing, and the All-India Congress Committee sub- committees are meeting to décide on the resolutions to be offered. There is much interest in constitutional changes. Congressmen believe that the writ pétitions issued by the courts, which are the means by which citizens can enforce their rights under the fundamental rights provisions of the constitution, hâve been misused, notably to foil implementation of land ceiling and other redistributional measures. As with many other aspects of current opinion, there is much in what they say, on the one hand. . . . Writ pétitions are used for ail sorts of curious purposes, such as preventing a professor from 12 being appointed because the appointaient infringes upon somebody else's seniority rights. In our éducation book we argued that the courts had gotten themselves into ail sorts of areas in which they had no business and had to make administrative judgments far beyond their competency. On the other hand, when, to use the same example, the university becomes hopelessly politicized, the courts hâve sometimes been the only force of re- straint. The writ pétition, surely often misused, includes the demands for habeas corpus and other devices which are the main tools the citizen has to make his rights meaningful. It will be interesting to see what the con- gressional session produces; it will probably suggest the outlines of the "new" constitutional thinking, which is thought to be more in Une with Indian traditions and requirements. Finally, we hâve listened about to find out what the components of the great Jaipur gold scandai might be. With her highness, the Maja-sahiba, and his highness, the maharaja, both in ja.il, what is the drift of local opinion on whether they knew where the gold was hidden that they are accused of not having disclosed to the wealth- tax authorities? The story is long and complex, and who knows how accurate. But it is told by sympathetic per- sons. The story begins with five boxes left by Maharaja Man Singh for his heirs — one for Bubbles (Bhawani Singh, the maharaja's successor); one for Joey; one for Pat (Prithvi); one for Jagat, the youngest and the only son by the third her highness, Gayatri Devi. The fifth box was undesignated. There is a presumption that it was a gênerai docu ments box meant for Bhawani Singh. Gayatri Devi, the story goes on, had the boxes unsealed in order to ex amine them. When she reached the fifth box, she found in it papers which indicated the location of the famous Jaipur treasure, always fabled but never found. Local theory has it that Man Singh was so rich that he didn't need to touch it early in his reign, and in récent times before his death, transfer had become a sticky matter. The fate of the treasure is believed to be the follow- ing: The treasure was kept in one of the palaces at Amber, the royal capital until Jaipur was founded in 1727, and the présence of many traditional guards at that palace seem to confirm this story. But Man Singh in fact had the treasure transferred to the little used, charming, modernized palace on Moti Dungri, which had only two guards and hence, seemed a most unlikely hiding place. A swimming pool was built at Moti Dungri to explain ail the digging and tunneling, and the treasure was installed. Enter Jagat. He is alleged, upon hearing the news from his mother, to hâve taken up the floor tile in Moti Dungri, taken out some of the gold, and sold it in Delhi — implication: to support his expensive tastes and other minor or major pleasures (Jagat's press is not good). The sale of the gold became known; the tiles were found loose; one version even has spare mohurs (ancient gold pièces) lying around the court- yard. This is a version of the discovery. Whether that treasure should be counted as hidden wealth, fraudu- lently concealed for purposes of the wealth tax, is yet another question. We vouch for none of this. At minimum, it reflects a local state of mind about the standing of the arrests. We ourselves assume that the Maja-sahiba's vigorous attacks on Mrs. Gandhi in récent years are by no means irrelev ant. The weather has suddenly and dramatically turned chilly and sharp. Last night, only sheets on the bed. Tonight, warm razais. 7 January 1976 Jaipur, India It is not often the case that political scientists can wit- ness régime change. In our case, it is creeping rather than revolutionary régime change, but in the end the resuit will be a fundamental transformation. Change is occurring at so deliberate a pace that it may be another two or three years before the new pattern is fully established. While the Congress party's executive be lieves the emergency must be continued because "the forces of destabilization are still actively at work within the country and outside," long range plans for in- stitutionalizing certain features of the emergency are being laid. What seems to be emerging is what can best be characterized as executive democracy with strong cor- poratist features. Parliament will advise and support government more than it will criticize and oppose it. Voluntary associations — trade unions, student associa tions, business councils — will convey and enforce gov ernment policies more than represent interests. The courts will serve the interests of the state more than protect the rights of citizens. The civil service will hâve a larger and more décisive voice in making policy and a freer hand in implementing it. The future character of the party System is less clear. Mrs. Gandins doctrine of responsible opposition and its corollary, that some op position parties and movements hâve endangered or 13 subverted democracy, suggests that opposition parties will hâve to ally with or support the Congress if they are to retain their legitimacy and légal existence. There has also been a rash of anti-fascist meetings, designed to purify the political atmosphère. The coun- try is warned against the prevalence of anti-democratic éléments, encouraged to protect democracy, work for the twenty point program, and oppose imperialism, fas- cism, and the CIA. Anti-fascist meetings held around the country expressed fraternal coopération between the Congress and the CPI. They were often addressed by the Congress président, Mr. K D. Barooah. They culminated in a "mammoth" international meeting at Patna in Bihar, the city, according to Patriot (the CPI's national voice), where "the fascists launched their agita tion last year in the name of pompous 'total révolution' with the sole object of undermining democracy and in- stalling an out and out reactionary régime." Patna was Jaya Prakash Narayan's stronghold and the jumping off point for opposition to Mrs. Gandhi's government. Patna, it seems, needed a spécial reminder about the true meaning of democracy. Since our last note from Jaipur, Mrs. Gandhi has suc- cessfully appealed her élection case. The suprême court held that she had not been in violation of the électoral law as retroactively amended by parliament after her conviction. The décision was no surprise, since the court's leadership is in the hands of men who to an extent share Mrs. Gandhi's views or are beholden to her. However, the court justices hâve shown some pro- pensity to differentiate themselves from their patrons in the executive, and Mrs. Gandhi's case was an instance. With a délicate Hobbesian sensé for their professional self-preservation, the judges expressed doubts about the validity of that part of a constitutional amendment, passed after Mrs. Gandhi's conviction, that withdrew the élection of the prime minister (and the président, vice-président and speaker) from the judicial review to which other cases of électoral irregularities are subject. Mrs. Gandhi's élection might be valid, but the judges wished to préserve the right to say so. "Free and fair élections (are) an essential postulate of democracy," Jus tice Khanna said, "and part of the basic structure of the constitution." A document, alleged to be a draft circulating in "the highest circles," outlining a new constitution, features what is thought to be an American style presidency and a civil law style judiciary. A président, who is the chief executive, will be directly elected from a national con- stituency. His/her cabinet need not be drawn from par liament; half might come from elsewhere. The con- stitutionality ot laws would be reviewed by a j udicial council.headed by the président and consisting of four- teen other persons, some of whom would be judges. The draft had little to say about parliament or funda- mental rights, except that it reduced parliament's voice and membership in the cabinet. (The draft eventually lost favor and was replaced by a substantively less sweeping amendment.) The friends, from whom we got the draft, are clearly and vocally opposed to the current drift of politics hère. But our discussion of the draft produced some curious anomalies suggestive of the ambivalence we find around us. It is an interesting question, our friends said, whether India is in fact capable of democracy. Ail of us agrée, they added, that in the last few years there was indeed a breakdown of discipline, a misuse of democ racy, a willingness to exploit the right of association in universities and factories. Their remarks reminded us of those of a young bank executive, equally opposed to the emergency, who regaled us with stories of his long, tedious, and eventually successful struggle against the bank union. It had virtually brought bank business to a hait while union affairs were conducted during work hours, and had almost succeeded, by numerous imagina- tive forms of intimidation in transferring bank authority from the manager to the union président — to the détri ment of whatever good this nationalized bank was do- ing. There is, then, among opponents of Mrs. Gandhi's actions, a strong feeling that democracy in India has become excessive, ail input and no output, with de- mands, mobilizations, and agitations over-running civic obligations and the capacity to pursue and realize com- mon purposes and the collective good. In such a con- text, Mrs. Gandhi's speeches in favor of discipline and productivity and against license and laziness strike a sympathetic cord even among her opponents, some of whose programs and language she has appropriated. The Delhi sign boards sum up her appeal: "The Only Magic to Remove Poverty is Hard Work, Iron Will, and Discipline;" "Let Us Get On With the Task of Nation- building;" "You Too Hâve a Rôle in the Emergency;" "Government Service is Service of the People;" "Pro duce More for Prosperity." The other night we went to a party, attended by some of the more élégant, cosmopolitan types in Jaipur, given to recognize us as historians of the state of Rajasthan — our standing as political scientists is minor at the mo ment. At about 9:30 P. M., Bhawani Singh, the maharaja of Jaipur, appeared. He is on parole, and had been allowed to leave Delhi to make a condolence visit at Jodhpur, where the raj-dadi, the grandmother of the présent maharaja and Bhawani Singh's aunt, had died. 1-i There was a vast silence when he arrived, intermittent warm greetings, more warm greetings, more silence, and then a resumption of the ordinary affairs. Jaipur doesn't quite know yet what to do with a highness fresh from jail, but the royal family still has a certain automa- tic charisma that is quickly felt at a social occasion. Bha wani Singh attends to others in a gentle, diffident, and charming way. There was much discussion after he left about whether he did or did not look "pulled down," and of what he was doing with himself. Unlike his step- mother, Gayatri Devi, a vigorously political woman who is playing Mary Queen of Scots to Mrs. Gandhi's Elizabeth, Bhawani Singh is not turned on by political combat; he prefers an apolitical style. Like his father, who took the position that he did not want to go into opposition because Jaipur had a tradition of cooperating with the rulers as Delhi (Moghuls, British), Bhawani Singh has resisted joining the opposition. There is a strong feeling that but for his stepmother, who is still in jail but no longer kept with the common criminals, he would hâve pulled on with Indira well enough and would hâve been given an ambassadorship. There is a mound of Christmas cookies, one stôllen, two fruitcakes, and a plastic Christmas tree from Sears (Woodstock, Vermont branch), in the back room wait- ing for the great Wassail that we are preparing for our Jaipur friends tomorrow. The cookies will be served on the Staffordshire onion pattern plates the diarist Amar Singh collected, and which Mohan Singh brought over, and the Wassail will appear in silver mugs engraved with A. S. Colonel Kesri Singh has sent a box of folding chairs that he used to take along when he led his highness' hunting expéditions. The Rambagh palace has informed us they do not hâve silver punch bowls any more, so we bought and borrowed Jaipur work bowls from our favor ite shopkeeper, Allah Baksh. Merry Christmas and Happy New Year. 9 April 1976 Mussoorie, U.P., India The great gap in the notes is due to the fact that ail our contemporary writing énergies for some time went into two papers for the 1980's project of the Council on Foreign Relations. We traveled to Calcutta — for the first time, after twenty years of India visits; and we moved ourselves to the hills for the hot weather. The books, the files, the kitchen equipment, the sheets, and the towels came in a small truck, a Matador; the rest of us drove up over two days. Hence we are now situated 6,500 feet higher than we were in the last Jaipur note. Our stone house with a large bay window lies above the Woodstock School, where ail three children go to school; they drop down two hundred feet after a 7:15 breakfast, ascend for a half hour lunch, and return at 6:30 for dinner and the night. Numerous wallahs come by and save Inam Khan, our Jaipur cook, who has a comfortable stomach, the trouble of going every day to the bazaar — five hundred feet and two miles down and up. A bread wallah brings Swedish rolls and cinna- mon cakes, unheard of in Jaipur; a cookie wallah brings peanut brittle and peanut cookies and vanilla wafers (ail in a large métal box carried on his head); and a fruit and vegetable wallah brings green mangoes when in season for compote. There is a man for coal — it has been terribly cold by comparison with Jaipur — and one for wood; and the morning représentative of the gênerai merchant who has everything, from Golden Syrup to Hayward's Old Tavern Whiskey. Oh yes, the shoe wallah; he just came by and persuaded Lloyd that he needed to hâve a pair of boots made. What is missing, and will need to be supplemented by an import policy, are middle class Indian friends. This side of the mountain is distinctly American Christian; every pièce of property in sight belongs either to the Presbyterians or the Methodists or the Médical Mis- sionaries. In conséquence, the Landaur section of Mus soorie is untouched by the horrid commercialism of Mussoorie proper, which was once a very elegent hill town but now appears as the old U.S. Route 1 to Maine used to look. The atmosphère is both more white and more upright than we can survive for the three months that we shall be hère. We hâve issued various invitations to Jaipur, and expect to populate the downstairs bedroom with congenial guests who want to read books in the day and talk at night. The matter is even more critical for An- nette, our German friend, who remembers the polo bail and the pleasures of the young sporting set in Jaipur. There will be polo at Dehra Dun, however, one and one-half hours down the mountain. We left Jaipur in a blaze of awkward notoriety. It ail began on Holi, the spring holiday on which neat and sober Indians mess each other up with colored powder, drink a good bit — if they drink at ail — and soak each other with hoses. Our neighborhood was visited by a large party — first maie, then female neighbors, who rubbed us with powder and embraced us — and then by several parties of friends from other places in Jaipur, who drank béer and messed us up more; and by one policeman, who encountered Mohan Singh (our col- laborator, whose large old mansion lies behind our gar- 15 den), on his way to our house feeling little pain after consuming large quantifies of his own and various friends' Asha ("court" liquor). The policeman said he'd like to interview the American professor, about whom some questions might be asked in the législative assem- bly. Mohan Singh told him to push off; was Holi a proper time to ask such questions? Come back tomor- row. Some hours later, in a more thoughtful mood, Mohan Singh reviewed his remarks, called the police, and said they should by ail means feel free to send a man tomor- row. This was the seventeenth. Tomorrow was the eighteenth, the day scheduled for our departure to Calcutta, where we were due to give seminars at Shantiniketan (Vashvabharati University); the American University Centre in Collège Street; and Presidency Collège. Before our departure, Lloyd was scheduled to participate in a seminar on a new book by Rajni Kothari, Footsteps Into the Future, at the University of Ra]asthan, with S. P. Varma, former chairman of the department and an excellent political scientist (wise, prudent, and surpnsingly courageous — a quality the times allow one to discover), Daya Krishna, chairman of the philosophy department to whom the same adjec- tives are applicable; and Kothari himself. Kothari is an excellent political scientist, who has participated in numerous international research efforts with both American and other international collaborators. Kothari has taken some very forthright and coura geous positions in récent months. The January issue of Seminar carried an article by him, among other critical offerings, which led to talk in Delhi of the end of Semi nar and led Kothari's friends to worry about his future. (Seminar was closed down in the autumn and Kothari left the country. ) The seminar on Rajni's book was vigorous to say the least, with ail three commentators offering sufficiently sharp remarks that Kothari, when he rose to respond, opened his speech with the sentence: "I hâve been se- verely attacked; I shall try to hold my temper." The content of the debate between him and Lloyd is of some interest, in view of the headline that appeared the next day, after we had left for Calcutta, in the Rajas than Patrika: "American Professor Makes Anti-Indian Propaganda," and of the resolution passed by a quickly- created Student Council of the University of Rajasthan (there is none; it was dissolved), to the effect that Amer ican forces, in the forms of films and of an anti-Indian lecture by Professor Lloyd Rudolph, were penetrating the university, and furthermore nineteen professors at the university (almost every respectable intellectual figure was on the list, including Varma and Daya Krishna) were CIA agents and ought to be fired. Lloyd said that Rajni's book was rather too Man- khaean, placing ail virtue in the third world, ail vice in the major powers, and that a less dichotomized view seemed more appropriate. The point on which the sharpest différence arose concerned Kothari's notion that the bureaucracy of the world constitutes a class, of which the Indian bureaucracy is a sub-sector, a class that shares the lifestyles, outlook, and values of technocrats, administrators, and their allied business interests and is, more or less, co-opted by them. His counterclass are the intellectuals. Lloyd said that he thought intellectuals were not notably less self-interested than bureaucrats; that they differed widely among themselves, would hardly make a united vanguard, and could not be counted on a press for the sort of more equal India that Kothari had in mind. In none of the seminar did the emergency come up except when the two other participants spoke of the décline of freedom and dissent in a new nation. The newspaper article did not cite Lloyd at any point; pre- sumably the author was not there, or if he was there, he merely noted heat between Lloyd and Kothari and in- vented reasons for it. The report of the discussion that came back to us from other observers was that Lloyd Rudolph had defended the government. In any case, we left for Calcutta, oblivious of the events behind us, and spent three excellent days at Shantiniketan, the school founded by India's first Nobel Prize winner in literature, Rabindranath Tagore. At Pre sidency Collège, there was spirited discussion with a large number of faculty, including two CPI faculty members who were sorry to observe that we thought there was any improvement in the Indian economy and mobility in its social structure, when they could see nothing but décline. We returned to Jaipur, to find that Annette had sus- tained two visits of government and police, a bronchial bout infecting our son Matthew, and a severe case of dysentry. Supportive noises and helpful gestures by var ious friends had helped. She and Mohan Singh looked as though they had had an adventurous week. A civilian government officer had come by on Wednesday eve- ning; he put to her the questions that were to be asked in the assembly. She answered them as best as she could. The questions raised by Ramanand Agarwal, the same CPI assembly member who, in 1972, set both the Rajas than government and the university on end by accusing Richard Blue, an assistant professor from the University of Minnesota, of being a CIA agent. The questions were the following: (We suppose we should cheer that the assembly je question hour has been restored; it wasn't functioning when we came.) 1. In ail of Rajasthan, how many American re- search scholars are there, how many times hâve they been hère, and what is their subject? 2. Is it true that there is an assistant professor L. I. Rudolph hère from The University of Chicago doing research on history? If so, how long has he been doing research and what is his subject? (Authors' note: Our sharpest complaints are that Mr. Agarwal had demoted Lloyd and that he is a maie chauvinist. Susanne never figures.) 3. Is it true that said Professor L. I. Rudolph had a party at the Rambagh Palace Hôtel on January 2, 1976 for retired army officers? If it is true, who was invited to this party and what was its purpose? (We've been at the Rambaugh twice for lunch this year, when somebody took us. No army officers. For a while we thought he was after our Wassail, before Christmas. He evidently wasn't.) 4. It is true that Professor Rudolph has a very close association with a high officer of one of the Birla enter- prises, National Engineering Industries? (We hâve a friend who fits that description; so has everybody else in Jaipur, as he is one of the most gre- garious men in town. Its very much a CPI question at this point. While Congress and Mrs. Gandhi hâve man- aged to win the support of the Birlas [who are India' s second largest industrial fortune], the CPI, despite its friendship with Congress, is still under the impression that Birlas are a symbol of ail that is oppressive in the capitalist order.) 5. Is the government keeping a sharp eye on thèse developments? The civil officer who visited Annette on Wednesday was followed by an uncivil one on Sunday. That day, a leather-faced hombre whom we hâve seen before keep ing order at the polo matches, and who is probably Gov- ind Narain, the head of the Jaipur police flying squad, appeared with a large truck and two constables. An- nette, who had heard us discussing the condition of civil rights under the emergency, including the possibilities of arrest without explanation, viewed him dimly. Officer Narain asked the first question and second question in a fairly straightforward fashion. When he came to the third, he said, "I saw you at Rambaugh with the Rudolphs on January 2. You were there, weren't you. And they were giving a party, weren't they?" Annette allowed that she didn't think she'd been at the Rambagh with the Rudolphs ever for any party, and not for one on the second. He tried it several times, insisting he had seen her. He asked her three times when we would return; she answered three times. The visit shook Annette, who called friends, who, in turn, called officiai friends and asked them to see to it that Annette was not further harrassed so long as the Rudolphs were out of town. The officiais did so. On the 22nd, the chief minister said that there were three Americans doing research: two Peace Corpsmen working on animal husbandry and one L. I. Rudolph working on the diary of Amar Singh, the third Thakur of Kanota. (That sounds like an answer from Mohan Singh. Did we say that the police and the Criminal Investiga tion Division [CID] also visited Mohan Singh and got a full set of answers from him? We think the CID man was a free-lancer without authorization, who was taking advantage of his acquaintance with Mohan Singh to get a few brownie points.) To go back to the Rambagh party (his first response was that government had no informa tion about such a party), the chief minister said that government had at first not wished to respond to the question at ail. But he thought he ought to clarify that ail foreign scholars were cleared by the minstry of external affairs and by the ministry of éducation, that as this was a central subject the state government did not consider it proper to interfère with their work. To judge from Chief Minister Har Deo Joshi's answers on this occa sion, it seems that he did not think it proper to respond to personal queries. And as far as keeping an eye on things was concerned, how could the opposition imag ine anything else! Of course they kept an eye on ac tivâtes. Meanwhile, back in the university, the police also paid some visits to find out more about the interesting meeting with Kothari and were told by a political sci ence colleague, who wasn't at the meeting, that Lloyd Rudolph had made some remarks against Indira Gandhi in his discussion with Kothari. (He didn't. We've been lambs.) Efforts were made to find out if Lloyd was as- sociated with the Department of Political Science (he is not), which could hâve been used against ex-chairman Iqbal Narain, whose inferiors and non-friends hâve tried for a good many years to discrédit both him and S. P. Varma. Both men hâve national réputations, do re search and writing, and are widely respected. The snip- ing by locals in search of readerships and control of the department is of very long standing. Did we mention that the paper also said that Rudolph absconded to Calcutta after that terrible speech? After ail that, Mussoorie seems remarkably un- political and eventless. None of this, by the way, has much to do with the emergency. Americans hâve been fair game, after ail, in législative assemblies ever since the Utter Pradesh assembly temporarily disinvited 17 American social scientists in 1955. We suppose it has to be accepted as part of the occupational hazards of being an India scholar. So far, our nerves are less raw than those of some of our Jaipur académie colleagues. After ail, we can go home and recuperate. They can't. 15 June 1976 Mussoorie, U.P., India As our year in India cornes to a close, we find our views about the post-emergency régime fundamentally un- changed. Compétitive politics and a free press promote liberty and we find both much diminished. The nature of the régime and its future are more difficult to discern. It is neither Ayub Khan's Pakistan (pace Ved Mehta in the March 22, 1976 New Yorker), nor Mussolini's Italy, nor Hitler's Germany, although there are interesting comparisons to be made with each. What has emerged is a curious blend: a concern to maintain the letter of procédural correetness; cor- poratist efforts to create and use officially certified or- ganizations in ail fields of public life; little terror but much fear; no visible résistance but uncertain support; party rhetoric and government programs to help the poor, but little willingness to let them represent them- selves. Included are appeals to discipline, unity and na tional strength coupled with disparagement of partial ("selfish") interests and their conflictual bargaining poli- tics; célébration of a leader, Mrs. Gandhi (Indira is India; India is Indira) who modestly claims that she is merely representing the people's will and speaks for their inter est; guarded support for the "private sector" combined with the imposition of discipline and a wage freeze on organized labor and the célébration of the high produc- tivity public sector; and a paranoid style of political rhetoric that justifies the emergency measures. It is not correct to picture the previous democracy in India as superficial, a plaything of the tiny middle class whose members were the only ones to hâve benefited from liberty and access to power. This is what Mrs. Gandhi would like the country and the world to believe. The excesses of democracy about which Mrs. Gandhi complains, and which she used to justify the imposition of the emergency, were real enough but they were not merely the product of a tiny élites machinations. India had become a highly mobilized and mobilizable nation, not of masses, but of communities, interests, and, to a lesser extent, of classes. Its ordinary citizens had learned how to make their demands felt by national, state, and local governments, usually through "parliamentary" means, sometimes through agitational. What was needed was not repression but leadership, a leadership which Mrs. Gandhi had it in her power to give after her great victories in the 1971 and 1972 élections, but which she conspicuously failed to provide. Mrs. Gandhi has been careful to observe con- stitutional requirements and the appearance of the rule of law. If her corporatist inclinations and practice re semble Mussolini's Italy, her concern for procédural legitimacy resembles the early phases of Hitler's Ger many. The emergency will probably end in time to allow the sixth gênerai élections to be held a year after they were required by law to be held if the emergency had not intervened, in February or March 1977. In the mean- time, Mrs. Gandhi's government is using procedurally legitimate means to equip the Indian state with powers to intimidate the opposition and tame the press. The Maintenance of Internai Security Act, which empow- ered the government to detain a person for one year without supplying him or a court with the grounds of his détention, was amended by presidential ordinance on June 16, 1976, so that a person can be held for two years under the same conditions. A day later, the Conserva tion of Foreign Exchange and Prévention of Smuggling Act was similarly amended, i.e., extending from one to two years the period for which government can keep under détention a person suspected of various économie crimes. Both ordinances will, no doubt, meet with the approval of parliament when it reconvenes in a few months. (Mrs. Gandhi's majority is large and automatic; the example of a few dissident members of her own party, as well as leading members of the opposition, having been locked up has stilled the voice of any who might be tempted to step out of line.) Before adjourn- ment, the parliament passed into law and the président signed, a bill dealing with the publication of objectional matter. Its most gênerai provision barred publication of matter tending to produce disaffection with government and removed press immunity for publication of state- ments made in parliament. Finally, the Swaran Singh committee, set up by the Congress party to report on suitable changes in the con stitution to reflect the "new India" (now part of the officiai vocabulary of the party), has recommended that the emergency articles be amended. The amendments would allow the président (on the prime minister's ad- vice), to place particular states or régions under emergency powers (pending parliamentary approval), and to remove unequivocally any possibility of the su prême court reviewing acts of parliament that amend the constitution. is The latter amendment was Mrs. Gandhi's response to the Suprême Court's 1973 judgment that parliament could not amend the constitution in ways that affected its "basic structure." The judges did not agrée on what éléments con- stituted the constitution's basic structure, but such things as free and démocratie élections, secularism, a republican form of government and fundamental rights (excluding fair compensation for property taken by the government) were among those offered. The court's exercise of judicial review, like the rôle of the op position parties and the press, is pictured by Mrs. Gandhi and her lieutenants as standing in the way of désirable goals, such as économie and social justice, and, by accident or design, protecting vested inter ests and reactionary forces. She is not willing to surren- der her claim to procédural legitimacy but at the same time she and her party colleagues regularly attack con- straints on the arbitrary exercise of power as standing in the way of their just and virtuous objectives. Indians may be losing their freedom but they may be gaining prosperity, power, and greatnesses. Agriculture has had its best year since Independence in 1947; one hundred eighteen million tons of food grain, ten million more tons than the next best year, were grown in 1975-76 and fifteen million are in reserve. If présent trends continue, industrial production for calendar 1976 will hâve increased ten percent. Already a rich poor nation, over the next décade, India may move from being a hâve not to a hâve nation whose interests in the world struggle over the relative priées of commodities and industrial goods may increasingly be located on the side of the industrial powers. With improved relations in the offing with China and Pakistan, the Soviet Union happy and the U.S. not unhappy, India seems secure. As China approaches the dangerous passage between Mao and some future form of leadership, a stable, prosper- ous, and powerful India is likely to appear in the eyes of developing and industrial states as not only the domi nant power in South Asia but also as a great power on the world stage. Mrs. Gandhi's next ten years may prove once again that prosperity, power, and greatness do not require freedom. If this proves to be the case, it will not make Mrs. Gandhi happy. She would like to be loved or at least respected and honored abroad as well as at home. Despite many disclaimers phrased in terms of the irrele- vance of foreign norms and practices for India, she would like to préserve the image of India as the world's largest democracy. She has allowed that as a girl she admired and iden- tified with Joan of Arc. Much can be read into this (by now) cliché entry into Mrs. Gandhi's character. Her iso- lated childhood, an isolation she shared with her mother, Kamala, and the fact that she did not do any one thing long enough to establish credentials or public ré cognition of her worth, may help to explain why she found attractive the image of an unknown. unsung, and by simple maid who was able, by steadfast belief in her own vision of the right course and the courage and the valor to lead others, to win a place in the hearts of her countrymen and in history. Playing Joan of Arc for contemporary India means following your own spécial vision of the nature of the crisis and its cure and playing by your own rules. Con- stitutional democracy and représentative government require constraints on the arbitrary exercise of power, délibération in the widest sensé, and legitimizing the struggle for power by observing rules that apply equally and impartially to ail. Mrs. Gandhi finds this difficult, not only because Joans of Arc did not do it that way, but also because she finds it difficult to crédit virtue and good will in others. She would like to play by rules of her own making that suit her purposes and convenience. But she cannot escape independent India's political in- heritance and traditions which survive in the political culture around her and, to an extent, in her own outlook and vocabulary. Willy nilly she remains the heir of Gan dhi (his photo looms over most party and many public occasions), who believed and practiced that means are more important than ends because wrong means destroy good ends. Mrs. Gandhi, like some who believe in the virtue of their own motives and objectives, seems to hâve convinced herself that good ends entail right means. She falls heir too to the traditions of her father, Jawaharlal Nehru, the father who was too occupied with making history to give much time or attention to his only child. He feared his own will to power; to curb it and to be true to his commitment to parliamentary de mocracy, he recognized and followed the rules of the game it laid down. Mrs. Gandhi can not easily abandon the ideas and practices of thèse two fathers of the Indian nation and state. They dominate independent India's political legacy; no amount of assertions will wash their legacy away. Some of our colleagues, who saw the rich spate of reporting on Sanjay Gandhi in an issue of Newsweek that did not circulate in India, hâve been speculating about his future. It is a tantalizing question, but indicators of his standing are mostly indirect: the Delhi gossip circuit and routine news handling. Sanjay clearly has support ers in the cabinet. Several state chief ministers hâve thought it prudent to pay him court in a most extra vagant manner. They occasionally compare him to the 19 sun, the moon, and other rising orbs. He is a force to be reckoned with, but how much of one? As students of Moghul history, we are reminded of the fact that Moghul princes prepared for the démise of the emperor, their father, by building up political sup port among dépendent rajas and the court bureaucracy. It was a recognizable political process, and Sanjay is engaged in a similar one. He has the advantage that he has no murderously inclined competing brothers, and the disadvantage that there is no recognized rule of dynastie succession — only a two, perhaps three- generation précèdent of Indira, Jawaharlal, and Motilal (who was président of the Indian National Congress). There are, presumably, a number of cabinet ministers and other politicians who think they might also be can didates in a succession struggle. In the absence of an open political process, it is difficult to assess anyone's support. In any case, the question is hypothetical; Mrs. Gandhi is fifty-eight years old and, by her own admis sion, more than usually hardworking and energetic since losing quite a few pounds some months ago. Delhi opinion is under the impression that there are in fact two cabinets, an officiai one under the mother and a shadow one under the son, and that the two do not always pull along amicably. The shadow one consists of the son, his friends in the cabinet, and influential lay advisers and party officiais outside it: it is "pragmatic," i.e., less enthusiastic about socialism and happier than the officiai cabinet with private enterprise when prac- ticed by the right people. Among Sanjay Gandhi's cabinet associâtes is the energetic and innovative ex- chief minister of Haryana state, Bansi Lai, who has now become défense minister of India. The relationship is of long standing. Bansi Lai is known for his free-swinging entrepreneurial spirit which helped make Haryana one of the most prosperous industrial and agricultural states in India. When Sanjay was still intent on being a manu facturer of automobiles, Bansi Lai helped him acquire an enormous tract of valuable agricultural and défense ser vices land not far from Delhi. On it Sanjay raised the gigantic Maruti complex, now a ghost factory. It is not clear that the Maruti would hâve been technically or economically feasible, but in any case, its producer has now turned to politics. The relationship to Bansi Lai may bear on Sanjay's relationship to the armed forces, a factor that is never without interest in a succession, and more so where court politics supercede compétitive politics. There is some indication that Sanjay has been interested in mak ing himself known in the military forces, but that they hâve insisted on "correct" responses in the face of his advances. Among the stories circulating in Delhi, one pictures him arriving with Bansi Lai at the inauguration ceremony of the naval chief of staff. Bansi Lai is said to hâve signalled Sanjay to leave his seat among the hon- ored guests in the audience and join him in the spécial seats arranged for senior officers and for the défense minister. An armed forces spokesman is said to hâve intervened to suggest that this would be an improper arrangement in a formai and cérémonial occasion in which Sanjay had no officiai standing. A second story pictures Bansi Lai bringing him along to an emergency meeting of the chiefs of staff, at which they were about to confer on the appropriate response to a threat by the Bangladesh stormy pétrel, Maulana Bashani, to march into India to get to the Farrakka barrage, a source of dispute between the two countries. In this case, objec tion was made to opening such a meeting to someone not officially designated to participate in défense plan ning of a highly sensitive and confidential nature. Sanjay, early on in his post-emergency political career, encountered similar résistance from civilian of ficiais and ministers, who tried to take the view that only officiai persons were in a position to issue orders. Such obstreperousness led to speedy transfers and early retirement. The Delhi circuit pictures Sanjay as capable of great fury at both the résistance to his orders and the effort to invoke rules and procédures against them. This impatience and willfulness is at once his great strength and a serious flaw. It strikes a sympathetic cord with those who share his innovative and entrepreneurial spirit and his désire for speedy realization of policies and programs unfettered by a too fastidious concern for means, particularly his criticism of bureaucratie procé dure and légal restraints. Others recognize that means matter, that "correct" procédure and observation of légal requirements afford protection against arbitrari- ness and too much discrétion in the use of public author- ity. Most senior civilian and military officers, imbued as they are with professional and service norms, prefer to take orders from officiai superiors than from a flam boyant figure with no governmental standing. As is the case with presidential assistants in the U.S., the matter is complicated by the fact that no one ever quite knows when Sanjay is speaking as his mother's delegate and when he is acting on his own. There is some indication that Sanjay's impatient and highly conspicuous campaign to make himself a major political figure in India has yielded in 1976 to somewhat more cautious, long-range strategy of building durable bases of support. Sanjay's earlier tours and political interventions were associated with front page photo graphie and news coverage in the national press, and by full page ads greeting and celebrating him, placed by 20 commercial and industrial firms and agencies of state governments. Recently, however, he has assumed a more modest profile; there hâve been fewer pictures and front page stories, in part, perhaps, because his political activities hâve become more routinized. It is interesting to speculate on the reasons for the shift in style and strategy. It is évident that some of his efforts to become an instant national leader incurred high risks. His political forays in the central territory of Delhi, which includes the nation's capital and the third largest city, led to am- biguous results. He is not a very sensitive politician, and in Delhi his unabashed upper middle class suburban view of urban slums, reminiscent of misguided Ameri can middle class planning and urban programs of the 1950's and 1960s, landed him in some very squishy ground. The bazaars and neighborhoods around Delhi's most important mosque, the Jama Misjid, were the first targets of his beautification efforts. They were mainly occupied by Muslims. So were the "slums" near Turkman gâte. Clearing them was like clearing Boston' s North End of Italians or Dorchester of the Irish. The Turkman gâte clearance led to riots and police firing in which an estimated sixty died. The trouble was fanned by orthodox Muslim leaders and organizations who sought to interpret the government's efforts as part of an anti-Muslim offensive. The Turkman gâte clearance coincided with the promulgation of the new policy on family planning, which some states are pursuing via in centives, disincentives, and quotas to be filled by gov ernment employées bringing in a certain number of eli- gibles. The program has become very nearly compul- sory, particularly for those who are employed by gov ernment or hâve anything to do with the organized sec tor of the economy. Muslim spokesmen in Delhi tied the two issues together; not only were Muslims to be cleared out, they said, but the family planning camp in the area had been set up to sterilize them as well, and dark reports of dire conséquences were circulated. New house sites were allocated to those being displaced, but at far distant places, well beyond their previous éco nomie activities. The means to construct houses, gov ernment loans, were made available only to those who, if they had three children, also had had vasectomies or tubectomies. There is irony in this situation. Mrs. Gandhi's creden- tials in the area of justice to minority communities are very strong. There is no reason to believe her son has a spécial animus against Muslims; but he does not hâve much political expérience, or the patience to look into the complexities and conséquences of a middle class city-beautiful campaign. Sanjay's incaution could do his mother considérable damage with her Muslim constituency. She has taken pains to disassociate herself from the term "compulsory sterilization," even while strongly supporting the new population policy by advocating incentives and dis incentives. She has also remained aloof from the récent feelers toward reforming Muslim personal law, which remains untouched by the secularization and codifica tion that has transformed the personal law of ail other Indian citizens. (Thus, in India, Muslim maies can still marry four wives and divorce them at will, while Hindu maies must be monogamous and follow légal procédures and requirements to obtain a divorce.) Muslim disaffec tion over being the victims of urban beautification and family planning thus became a cause of considérable concern. One of the more poignant efforts to regain lost ground was an "officiai press release" carried by ail the national press. The release argued that there was "no corrélation between family planning and religion," but then went on to argue that "the prophet himself made marriage conditional upon the availability of means." Where Sanjay appears to be strongest is among the large industrial and commercial interests and among young, ambitious, small scale entrepreneurs who dislike red tape, see socialism as a slow-moving engine that générâtes it (and Sanjay's support as a way of cutting it), and who would like to get rich while building a modem economy. Sanjay's appeal as a leader of the Youth Con gress, and his four point program, hâve been more at tractive to sections of India's small but influential middle class than to the poor agriculturist to whom his mother directed her slogan, gharibi hatao — eradicate poverty. Epilogue Two weeks before the Indian élection in March 1977, we received a letter from Mohan Singh, our Jaipur col- laborator. "Not a single person in the villages," he wrote, "will raise his voice for Congress. The opposition will win twenty-one of twenty-five seats in Rajasthan." Poor Mohan Singh, we said to each other, he has been swept away by wishful thinking. Our Jaipur secretary, a taciturn and prudent man, went to his home village in the neighboring state of Haryana to marry off his daugh- ter ten days before the élection. There he wrote us: Congress, he said, had no supporters and Bansi Lai, who figures in the "Notes," was particularly disliked and dis- trusted. Ail of Haryana's seats went to the Janata party and Bansi Lai lost by a crushing margin. 21 The élection of 1977 will surely go down as one of the most extraordinary in modem history. Where else has the ruler of an authoritarian régime called an élection, allowed it to be conducted freely and fairly, and ac- cepted the verdict by observing the conventions of the loyal opposition? How is it that illiterate and im- poverished villagers, confidently described as too con cerned about immédiate wants to worry about freedom, gave a massive no to repression? Some of the answers are anticipated in the "Notes." Sanjay was a major factor. His évident claim to the suc cession betrayed his mother's efforts to nourish her to constitutional legitimacy. He stood behind the "ex cesses" connected with the mass vasectomy campaign (seven million were done in one year) and slum clear ance; the extortion of funds (from petty merchants as well as rich industrialists); interférence from top to bot- tom in the work of administration; and the replacement of elected parliamentary représentatives sensitive to their constituents with sycophants and courtiers sensi tive to mother, son, and their political spirit. The Imam of the Jama Masjid, whose ancestors from Moghul times spoke for this, Delhi's largest mosque, campaigned across north India on the issue of vasec- tomies and the uprooting of the Muslim communities. He was received and celebrated not only by Muslims but also by orthodox and revivalist Hindus whose lead ers had been jailed for their opposition to secularism and their support of communalism, code words for being anti-Muslim. When early in the campaign Jagjivan Ram, India's most prominent untouchable and for thirty years a minister in Congress governments, quit to join the opposition, he added a massive following to its cause. Equally important, he broke the spell of in- fallibility that surrounded Mrs. Gandhi's every move. A remarkable and unprecedented coalition of forces now stood against Mrs. Gandhi's Congress in north India — committed Muslims, Hindus, and untouchables, ail of whom had come to fear and distrust her and her party. The Muslims and the untouchables, eleven and fifteen percent of India's population, had been the core of Mrs. Gandhi's support. They had been the poor, who, re- sponding to her pledge to eradicate poverty, created the "Indira wave" of 1971 that swept her back to power and gave her illusions of omnipotence. The new administration's response to the misdeeds of the emergency has been moderate but décisive. Some weeks ago, Sanjay Gandhi's and Bansi Lal's passports were picked up and judicial inquiries launched into their affairs and deeds. The bank assers of Maruti, Sanjay's non-functioning automobile firm, hâve been frozen. Questions are being raised about what happened to the enormous loans made to it by two of the nationalized banks and to the millions of rupees collected from pro spective dealers. Bansi Lai, défense minister and Sanjay's friend, has been expelled from the Congress Party. Sanjay has been allowed to resign. But two of the "gang of four" con tinue in the party. Mrs. Gandhi herself, with a few well placed tears and a good deal of activity behind the scènes, had her proxy, the former home minister, Brahmananda Reddy, elected président of the Con gress. With her usual capacity for clever and bold action, she has succeeded, at least for the présent, not only in avoiding the fate of Richard Nixon but in maintaining her leadership of the party in opposition. We wonder what will happen in Jaipur to the orderly sign boards, the uniform pink wash and the sidewalk stands that were removed? Will the city go back to the status quo ante? Will clerks and peons return to their more leisurely habits? Demands hâve been pent up for two years and are likely to surface soon and forcefully. The Janata government will no doubt try to keep some of the "gains of the emergency," especially those that help it to increase the levels of saving and productivity. It is likely to be less rhetorically committed to the poor than Mrs. Gandhi was, and also less to those who would like to become rich than Sanjay. It will continue her foreign policy, except that it will make it a little easier to be an American in Jaipur. "Balanced" non- alignment may mean being friendlier to the U.S. and less accommodating to the Russians. The "compul- sory" vasectomy program is gone, abolished when the Ministry of Health and Family Planning became the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. But the cabinet is eager to assure the country and the world that family planning based on strictly voluntary methods will re main an important part of national policy. Much will remain the same not only in the Janata government's policies but also in the routines of life throughout the country. American scholars will, no doubt, again be castigated in the Rajasthan state assem bly and the University of Rajasthan. A certain sporadic, ad hoc, anti-Americanism is a useful local political ploy that will persist so long as American power remains con- spicuous. We expect to return to Jaipur because our life, our friends, our research there, hâve become an intégral and compelling part of our lives. Susanne Hoeber Rudolph is Chairman of and Professor in the Department of Political Science and in the Collège. Lloyd L Rudolph is Professor in the Department of Political Science and in the Collège. n I speak of the legacy of Robert Hutchins to The Univer sity of Chicago. He assumed the leadership of the Uni versity in his thirtieth year. The University was then thirty seven years old. It was, he then said, one of the "notable institutions of the earth," and no man could come to its presidency "without being awed by the Uni versity and its past." The University had "held its course, striving to attain the ideals established at its be- ginning and coming closer toward its goal each year." He then proclaimed his faith that whatever changes in organization might come to the University, the spirit of the institution would remain the same. That spirit, as he then saw it, was characterized by an emphasis on pro ductive scholarship, by an emphasis on the individual scholar before anything else, on work with and for Chicago, and on an expérimental attitude. From the be- ginning, he had a strong sensé of his place in the con- tinuity of the institution and an overwhelming commit- ment to it. As the poem from Walt Whitman, to which he frequently referred, portrays: One génération playing its part and passing on, Another génération playing its part and passing on its turn, With faces turn'd sideways or backward towards me to listen, With eyes rétrospective towards me. The inaugural address of the new président of the University — a strikingly young and charismatic président — who the next day in greeting the students expressed his "infinité satisfaction and pleasure that I am older than you and shall continue to be" was given on November 19th, 1929- The great économie dépression was already upon us, although its full impact was not known. Robert Hutchins was later to write, in a familiar mood of self-deprecating candor and exaggeration, "the only idea I had of The University of Chicago when I went there was that it was great. It was my business to make it greater. The Dépression seemed to postpone any immédiate hope of making it greater in ways that I understood; I could not expect to make it richer; it was more likely that I would take it into bankruptcy. What was a great university, anyway?" This was the question he asked repeatedly during his stewardship of twenty- two years. He was a learning président, and many of his ideas changed as a resuit of his expérience or his own inten sive continuing éducation. He was steadfast in the values he was for, and firm in the iniquities he opposed. The influence of what he termed the "parsonage" or his mis- sionary past was "ineradicable." This included most im- 23 portantly a faith in the independent mind. The pré occupation of the University should be with the in- tellectual virtues. The University ought to be devoted to the intellectual love of God which is the pursuit of truth for its own sake. The free and independent exercise of the intellect was the means by which society would be improved. The enemies were ignorance, préjudice, in justice, brutality, mediocrity, self-satisfaction and stupidity. To speak out was his nature. Sometimes with pru dence or patience he controlled this tendency. In 1936, after a state sénatorial investigation into subversion at the University, he told the faculty and trustées: "We may hope for a happy new year because we hâve routed, or at least repulsed, the forces of darkness. Repulsed is probably the proper word, for we cannot be sure that the ignorant and misguided will not return to the charge. If eternal vigilance is not the price of académie liberty, certainly eternal patience is. Although I was oc- casionally in favor of more violent methods, I am satisfied now that the course we pursued in the sénato rial investigation was as successful as it was dignified." This was a gracious référence to his acceptance of the advice of a faithful trustée and lawyer that the Hutchins' tongue, which could be the sharpest and the wittiest in the world, be moderated in its responses at the hearing. Robert Hutchins' concern was with the intellectual leadership of The University of Chicago, the differentia- tion of universities from other institutions, the récogni tion of the spécial attributes of this place. In an effort to restate the aims of the University and the means to that end, he critieized the confusion of science with informa tion, ideas with facts, and knowledge with miscellaneous data. In a University dedicated to research, he thought it particularly important to question the collection of un- related insignificant information, even though this was sometimes called independent investigation. His was the first strong voice to criticize the inordinate length of the formai course of instruction through higher éduca tion, and to insist upon a greater commonality, among students and faculty alike, required for libéral éducation and impossible under the élective System. He thought a university seriously committed to éducation ought to do a good teaching job for its own students. He did not think this was the case when a large number of graduate students were giving instruction in the Freshman and Sophomore years. He acted upon his conclusions. "Lord Acton," Hutchins wrote, "has familiarized us with the notion that power corrupts. He might hâve added a word or two on the corruption wrought by the failure to exercise authohty when it is your duty to exercise it." The educational changes were far reaching. He believed and enforced a standard of excellence — "every course, every project, and above ail, every appointment". He did more than pass upon appointments. He attracted scholars to the University. But for him, they would not hâve come. He made it possible for them to be hère, judging their merits or promise on intellectual standards alone. His objective was to make of the University as a whole a center of independent thought and criticism, to combine discovery and discussion, to create an in tellectual community in which specialists, discoverers and experimenters, in addition to their obligation to their specialties, recognized an obligation to talk and understand one another. Characteristically, in his farewell address to the faculty, he placed upon himself the moral responsibility that agréât distance toward the achievement of this dedicated community had not been traveled. The goals which Robert Hutchins set often were un- realistic if they meant more than a determined direction. But they were intended to be this way. He believed in the importance of the normative. In 1956 he wrote, "This of course is not the way things are, but the way things ought to be. I hâve assumed the duty of the edu- cator is to try to change things from the way they are to the way they ought to be. I do not assume that ail or many of them can be changed. I would remind you of the words variously attributed to William the Silent and Charles the Bold: I hâve quoted them over and over. 'It is not necessary to hope in order to undertake. Nor to succeed in order to persévère." In his Message to the Young Génération — the farewell talk to the students at Chicago, he said, "The whole doctrine that we must adjust to our environment, which I take to be the pre- vailing doctrine of American éducation, seems to me radically erroneous. ... If we hâve to choose between Sancho Panza and Don Quixote, let us by ail means choose Don Quixote." The fact was that he acted upon thèse goals. "In prac- tical matters the end is the first principle." He made of himself the example. In spite of the burdens of ad ministration, or perhaps because of them, he continued to teach and to learn from teaching. If a community of discussion was required, he would create it. If people were timid to défend the worthy but unpopular in édu cation or affecting the good of the republic, he would do so. If there was almost universal acquiescence in the silly in éducation, then he would resist it. If it was important but impossible to hâve intelligence brought to great spéculative and practical issues, he would arrange it. So on the freedom of the press, the control of atomic en- ergy, a constitution of world government. The conséquence was that he could evoke a response denied to others. The students knew what he meant when he reminded them that the end of life is happi- ness. But that this did not mean contentment, cheerful- ness and self-satisfaction. It meant in the old phrase, activity in accordance with virtue, or the fullest development of one's highest powers. He believed in the individual, but he also believed in institutions. A great portion of his life was given to creating, recreating and defending institutions. He knew their aims and methods often required re- consideration. He attributed the greatness of The Uni versity of Chicago to this continuous self-scrutiny. In this spirit, in 1955, he looked back upon his own propo sais, and in 1964 contributed to the idea of the col- legiate divisions. The end was to facilitate communica tion among the disciplines throughout the whole educa tional process, including the graduate levels. The Com mittee on Social Thought represents that kind of direc tion. The goal is still far away but no one who knows The University of Chicago and other educational in stitutions could fail to see the distinctive mark of the collectivity, spécial wholeness and intellectual excite- ment of this place. It was through institutions he hoped to achieve that continuity of discussion, communion of minds and reconsideration of values essential to the good republic. In 1968 at this University, at an occasion of considér able sentiment to me and I believe to him, he said "the Une that keeps running through my head is 'Reclothe us in our rightful mind'." He said, "I think it is not blas- phemous to direct it now to the University. A child of the parsonage may perhaps be permitted to say that the University is the terrestrial instrument which the author of our being has placed at our disposai for the purpose of getting us clothed, and when necessary, reclothed in our rightful mind." It was not intended as such — or perhaps it was, but in any event it was a reminder of what had been and would be the guiding admonition, the standard of reconsidera tion for ail time, to the University which forever carnes within itself the image and the influence of his brilliant mind and noble spirit. This address was delivered at the Robert Maynard Hutchins Mémorial Service, June 8, 1977 at Rockefeller Mémorial Chapel. Edward H. Levi is the Glen A. Lloyd Distin- guished Service Professor and a président emeritus at The University of Chicago. 25 Robert Maynard Hutchins, 1899—1977 "Let it never be forgotten that a university is not a collection of buildings, nor a collection of books, nor even a collection of students. It is a community of scholars.1' — June 11, 1929 "What is it that makes the University of Chicago a great institution? It is the in tense, strenuous, and constant intellectual activity of the place. It is this activity which makes the life of the student an edu cational expérience. Presented with many points of view which are the results of the candid and courageous thinking of his dif férent instructors, he is compelled to think for himself. We like to think that the air is electric, and that from it the student dérives an intellectual stimulation that lasts the rest of his life. This is éducation." — Hutchins University of Chicago Citizens Board Dinner, September 26, 1941. "The Daring Young Man" A university président is supposed to go downtown and get the money. He is not supposed to hâve ideas on public affairs; that is what the trustées are for. He is not supposed to hâve ideas on éduca tion; that is what the faculty is for. He is supposed to go downtown and get the money. The trustées may use the money to buy résidence halls, stadiums, and chapels. The faculty may use the money, if there is any left over, to buy brains. The président, in the pursuit of his low occupation, must belong to the best clubs in town and agrée with ail the members. He must stick to those foggy platitudes which hâve been tested and found good. And he must not rock the boat. There hâve been — and there are — university présidents who defied the trasition and rocked the boat. They hâve not been numerous. They hâve not been popular. William Rainey Harper was known, according to his own testimony, as a despot; and the officiai historian of Harvard says of Eliot that at any time during the first fifteen years of his tenure both the faculty and the overseers would hâve voted against his continuance by a large majority. But it is men like Harper and Eliot who hâve advanced American éducation. In the office of the Président of the University of Chicago there sits — with his feet on the desk — a man who gets the money and rocks the boat and has ideas continuously. In appearance he com pares favorably with a Greek god. His classic profile — which he didn't get by reading the classics — melts into a dark "I still think, as I hâve thought lor many years, that the motto of the University should be that line from Walt Whitman, cSolitary, singing in the West, I strike up for a new world.'" — February 2, 1951 smile as readily as it hardens in stony disdain. His well-proportioned six-feet- three adapts itself just as easily to the true Yale swagger as it does to the terri ble stature of a Moses. And though he gets no exercise — or perhaps because of it — he grows no less handsome with the years. If he had been only a nice boy he might hâve become the most glittering représentative of a calling whose chief characteristic is the stuffed shirt. He might hâve whirled away a few years at Chicago — he was thirty when he took office — and then gone on to higher things, say, the chairmanship ot the pol icy committee of a great national party. But Robert Maynard Hutchins is not a nice boy. He is a natural-born stem- winder hell-raiser. What Henry Adams predicted of Wilson may be predicted of Hutchins at any stage of his career — that "he will quarrel with everybody at once, and especially with his friends, if he has any." Milton Mayer, former Tutor on the Committee for Social Thought, excerp- ted from Harper's /Magazine, March 1939. "On the principle laid down by Gilbert and Sullivan that when everybody is somebody, nobody is anybody: if everybody is abnormal, we dont need to worry about anybody. Nor should I be prepared to admit that a serions interest in being educated, the characteristic that distinguishes the students of The Uni versity of Chicago from ail others, is neces- sarily neurotic. It may be in thèse times in this country somewhat eccentric, but it seems to me an amiable eccentricity, and one that should be encouraged. The whole doctrine that we must adjust ourselves to our envi- ronment, which I take to be the prevailing doctrine of American éducation, seems to me radically erroneous. Our mission hère on earth is to change our environment, not to adjust ourselves to it. If we become malad- justed in the process, so much the worse for the environment." — Hutchins Farewell address to the students, February 2, 1951. A Réminiscence "Originally, he was a great maverick. My first recollection of him (other than in the newspapers) was, curiously enough, when I was a boy in Winnetka, Illinois. Winnetka was, at that time, a sort of sa- cred citadel of so-called progressive éducation, under the leadership of Carlton Washburn, a great proponent of individual progress and various forms of self-expression — very John Deweyish. "At any rate, this young university président, billed as a progressive educa- tor, cornes out to Winnetka and lays out the audience; it was the PTA or some group. I can still remember the collec tive wrath and incredulity of the natives, because in the midst of this 'go your own way' movement, he preached gênerai, uniform, largely traditional éducation, ancient philosophy, like Aristotle, Plato, Thomas Acquinas, and others nobody had ever heard of in Winnetka, although they had read John Dewey. That is my first memory of Hutchins. "The second one was coming hère as a freshman in the fall of 1935. Many people said you only saw Hutchins the day you got hère and the day he handed you your diploma four years later. There was, I suppose, some truth in it. He was not a familiar, immédiate présence the way John Wilson is. But there he was that first day. He was very tall and very straight and very handsome and very wry in manner and in what he had to say. "Most of us were startled. We had heard a talk from the jolly dean of stu dents and from the ROTC instructor, and out cornes this guy and he says, something like, 'Young ladies and gen tlemen, The University of Chicago is not a country club, although I am told those who seek récréation do so with some lit tle success. The University of Chicago is not a YMCA, although I understand spiritual solace is available for those in need of it. The University of Chicago is not a gladiatorial arena, although I am told on Saturday afternoons those who wish to do so, engage in football in Stagg Field. The University of Chicago is a community of scholars to which I wel- come you.' So there he was. "Roughly speaking, you could divide his career into two chunks: from 1929 to the War (about 1939), and from the War to 1951 when he resigned. In the first half, he was sensational, in every sensé of that word; in the second half, a great many people increasingly felt that he had outstayed his time. The War was a great kind of watershed . . . When it was over, Hutchins never quite regained the control he had had over people's imagi nations. "The de-emphasis of football alienated a lot of people, and so did his isolationist stand on the war — a com- pletely honorable pacifist stand — but he was in some very bad company . . . Then too, the Collège was a brilliant educa tional idea but, as an actuality, not uni- versally applauded. "I was out of town when I had heard that he had resigned, and also I heard that there had been some rejoicing. And I, frankly, felt it was certainly time he left. "Well, seventeen years later when Edward Levi got to be président of the University, at the inaugural dinner, the principal speaker was Hutchins. And he got up and spoke with such wit and such wisdom and such orginality and such grâce that I realized I was completely enchanted by him as I had been that September day in 1935. And I felt again the force of the Hutchins' paradox. He was such an austère, oddly inaccessible person . . . but what magie the man had!" Edward Rosenheim, Professor, Depart ment of English and in the Collège. 2^ —^1 ALUMNI NEWS Sir Alexander Oppenheim Receives Alumni Medal Tan Siri Sir Alexander Oppenheim, PhD' 30, chairman of the Department of Mathematics at the University of Bénin in Nigeria and an internationally re- spected mathematician, is the récipient of the 1977 Alumni Medal. He is one of the principal architects of the Malaysian university System and has continued to display his administrative acumen while serving West African institutions of higher éducation. The Alumni Medal is awarded for extraordinary distinction in one's field of specialization and extraordinary service to society. Thirteen Alumni Cited for Public Service, Professional Achievement The University's Alumni Association has honored six alumni for "créative citi- zenship and exemplary leadership in community service which has benefited society and reflected crédit upon the University." The following six received the Public Service Citation: Dean C. Burns, SBT9, MD'21, is founder and Director Emeritus of Burns Clinic Médical Center and Chairman of the Board of Trustées of North Central Michigan Collège. His work led to the establishment of the Petoskey, Michigan Burns Clinic in the 1930's and North Central Michigan Collège in the 1950's. Janet Gray Hayes, AM'50, Mayor of San José, California, is a dedicated pro- ponent of managed growth for San José and California's other sprawling cities and for the protection of California's natural resources. Helen Deuss Hill, SBT6, is retired Associate Professor of Genetics, Penn State University. Besides her great ser vice to the Red Cross and individuals in State Collège, Pennsylvania, she has for the past décade been instrumental in de- veloping an extensive aquatic program for the region's handicapped children and adults. M. Cari Holman, AM'44, is Président of the National Urban Coalition and functions as a political counselor, a tal ent scout for the civil rights movement, and a quiet strategist for progress for ail minorities in the United States today. Ruby Stutts Lyells, AM'44, is a worker for educational, social, and polit ical advancement in Mississippi, her project for some 40 years. She has served as a stabilizing force while devel- oping methods of political communica tion. Dorothy K. Powers, SM'52, is Pré sident of the League of Women Voters of New Jersey. She is a leader in New Jersey civic affairs, and promûtes public debate on pressing civic issues. Seven alumni were cited for pro fessional achievement. This alumni award recognizes those whose attain- ments in their vocational fields hâve brought distinction to themselves, crédit to the University, and benefit to fellow citizens. Marie Boroff, PhB'43, AM'46, is the William Lampson Professor of English at Yale University. Her work as a medievalist places her in the first rank of scholars in that field. She is acclaimed for her critical studies of Robert Frost, Wallace Stevens, Marianne Moore, and other modem poets. Harriet E. Gillette, SB'37, MD'40, is retired Director of Pédiatrie Rehabilita tion at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. She is a pioneer and major con- tributor in the field, especially relative to the care of the cérébral palsied. Robert A. Goldwin, AM'56, PhD'63, is résident scholar and Director of Seminar Programs for the American En terprise Institute, Washington, D.C. He has assisted in bringing the worlds of scholarship and public affairs into di alogue, most recently as Président Ford's Spécial Consultant. F. Sherwood Rowland, SM'51, PhD'52, is Professor of Chemistry at the University of California at Irvine. His collaboration (with Mario Malina) has made possible a better understanding of the photochemistry of the earth's stratosphère. His work has focussed concern on destruction by aérosols of the ozone layer in the stratosphère. Jesse H. Shera, PhD'44, is Dean Emeritus of the School of Library Sci ence at Case Western Reserve Univer sity. As a scholar, philsopher, and pioneer in documentation and informa tion science, he has been a leader in the library science profession. Stuart M. Struever, PhD'68, is Direc tor of the Northwestern Archaeological Program and Chairman of the depart ment. He has been able to communicate the relevance of anthropological ar- cheology to the public, partly through his work with the Southern Illinois Koster site, one of the archeological finds in the U.S. in this décade. Ernest F. Witte, PhD'32, is retired Dean of both the Collège of Social Pro fessions at the University of Kentucky and the School of Social Work at San Diego State University. His particular vision of the place and future of social work has made him a leader in social work and social work éducation. 28 Top left: M. Cari Holman, AM'44, accepts the Alumni Citations. He and five others received citations. Center left: Charles Boand, président of the Alumni Association, présents F. Sherwood Rowland, SM'51 , PhD'52, with the Association' s Professional Achievement Award. Rowland then gave the acceptance speech. Bottom left: Helen Deuss Hill, SB' 16, accepts her Alumni Citation from Charles Boand. Top right: On behalf of Tan Si ri Sir Alexander Oppenheim, PhD' 30, Miss Allegra Nesbitt accepts the Alumni Medal from Charles Boand. Miss Nesbitt is Professor Oppenheim's sister-in-law. Above: Anthony Turkevich engages Stuart Struever, PhD'68, in discussion. Turkevich is the James Franck Distinguished Service Professor in the Department of Chemistry, the Enrico Fermi Institute, and in the Collège. Struever, récipient of a Professional Achievement Award, is Chairman of the Department of Anthropology at Northwestern University. 29 Honor Thy Fellow Alumni At reunion time each year, the Alumni Association honors some of the University's outstanding alumni and alumnae. Despite the care that is taken in identifying the best candidates for thèse awards, there is always the possi- bility that we hâve overlooked someone eminently deserving of considération. For this reason we are asking readers to help us identify worthy potential award récipients. There are three kinds of awards: Pro fessional achievement awards which honor persons who hâve made distinct- ive contributions in their professional fields of endeavor, public service cita tions which recognize individuals who hâve practiced créative citizenship and leadership in community service. The alumni medal is awarded for extra ordinary distinction in the recipient's field of specialization and in service to society. Persons who wish to nominate an alumna or alumnus for one of thèse awards (the actual sélection is made by a committee of alumni), should write to the awards coordinator at the Alumni Association. Specify the achievements of the persons you suggest. Nomina tions received by October 15, 1977, will be considered for the 1978 awards. Please send us your suggestions soon. Reunion '77 The annual Alumni Reunion Weekend, June 3 through June 5, brought nearly a thousand alumni and members of their families to the Univer sity. During the weekend, the classes of 1927, 1932, 1942, 1947, 1952, 1962 and 1967 met, as did members of Nu Pi Sigma, the women's honorary society, and members of Phi Gamma Delta for the fraternity's 75th anniversary célébra tion. Eleven students and fourteen alumni were honored at the June 4 reunion luncheon and awards assembly. Daryl Koehn received the Class of 1914 Scholar Award. This was the 63rd year the award was presented, and the second year that Daryl Koehn received it. Although the sum varies, this year the award was $3,000. Ms. Koehn is a Rhodes Scholar, one of the first women elected to a Rhodes. Ten students were winners of the Howell Murray Awards. The awards were established in honor of a distin- guished alumnus and trustée to re cognize the outstanding achievement by graduating students. The récipients were Evelyn D. Asch, Vadis E. Cothran, Aaron G. Filler, Eugène P. Forrester II, Sylvia M. Hohri, Scott R. King, Daphne L. Macklin, David H. Ostwald, David L. Rieser, and Laura A. Silvieus. Cari Holman, AM '44, spoke on be- half of the six récipients of the Alumni Citation for Public Service. F. Sherwood Rowland, SM '51, PhD '52, accepted on behalf of the seven récipients of the Pro fessional Achievement Awards. Allegra Nesbit, sister-in-law to Tan Siri Sir Alexander Oppenheim, PhD '30, ac cepted the Alumni Medal on his behalf, relating Sir Alexander's cabled in structions to her: "Five minute talk. Enjoy occasion." The considérable dining that accom- panies a reunion weekend included an Order of the C dinner. There, guest speaker Willie Davis, MBA '68, de- scribed playing and winning with the Green Bay Packers. George Watkins, X '36, was master of cérémonies at Phi Gamma Deltas an niversary dinner, and the class of 1937 heard two emeritus members of the fac ulty: James Cate, PhD '35, on the sub ject of tabasco, and Norman Maclean, who read from his book, A River Runs Through It and Other Stories. Interior de signer and author Richard Himmel, X '42, was the featured speaker for the Class of 1942. A small group of Nu Pi Sigma members reunited more quietly at the Quadrangle Club; there is no longer an active chapter of the women's honorary society on the campus. After the 67th Annual Interfraternity Sing, and a séries of tours and other fes- tivities, a gala fireworks display next to Rockefeller Mémorial Chapel ended the weekend. Top left: Members of the Emeritus Club relax before dinner in the Quadrangle Club's Solarium. Lower left: Phi Gamma Delta Fraternity célébrâtes its Diamond Jubilee. Master of Cérémonies, George Wat kins, X'33, is third from the left, second row: Emeritus Professor James Cate, PbD'35, is the seated figure, far left. At right, top to bottom: Candid photos of Alumni from the Classes of 1967 , 1927, and 1933- Sharp eyes will recognize Ken- neth W. Scott (center photo, right) and Charles Boand and George Watkins (bot tom). 30 31 Robert Ingersoll Addresses Tokyo Alumni Group Eighty University alumni and guests from ail over Japan heard Robert S. In gersoll describe The University of Chicago's Japan Study Program. The gathering, late in May, marked the first meeting of the newly-formed Alumni Club in Tokyo. Ingersoll, pres- ently deputy and first vice-chairman of the Board of Trustées of the University, was ambassador to Japan from 1972 to 1973 when he became Assistant Secre- tary for Asian Affairs, then Deputy Sec- retary in 1974. Chairman of the club is Iawo Shino, MBA '55. His committee members are S. Kojima, MBA, '75; K. Murata, AM'47; Professor C. Nishiyama, AM '52, AM'56, PhD'60; I. Watanabe, AM '57; J. Mailing, MBA '55; and James Abegglen, PhB'48, PhD'56. The Japan Study Program, part of the Far Eastern Studies Program, con centrâtes on Japan's cultural history and its development as a modem society. Milwaukee Alumni Form Club The University of Chicago Club in Mil waukee met May 12, accepted by-laws, and elected officers and committee chairmen. Until a formai élection, Jim Breuss, MBA'67 is président; Gertrude Eichstaedt, AB'4l, treasurer; Roger Morse, AB'51, secretary; Joan Feitler, AM'55, secretary-treasurer; Ed Wiley, AB'49, campaign chairman; Mel Lurie, AM'51, PhD'58 program chairman; Chris Berry, JD'76, publications chair man; Bob Feerick, MBA'72, finance (alumni fund) chairman; Eric Erickson, AB'43, MBA'53, public relations chair man; and Janet Ervin, PhB'46, schools chairman. The executive committee meets once a month to discuss plans and programs. The group will ask each alumnus in the Milwaukee area to contnbute five dol lars in annual dues to the club. "Fm connng back to Chicago because the University endures with grâce and high commitments to its standards of excellence. And, as Jimmy Wilson recently said of Jimmy's Woodlawn Tap, 7 like it hère. The place keeps me young.' " — David Leonetti Leonetti Named Alumni Association Director David R. Leonetti, BA'58, is the new director of the Alumni Association. His appointment was announced by D. J. R. Bruckner, vice-président for Public Af fairs. Leonetti, who assumed his duties on August 15, cornes to the University from the University of California, Berkeley. He was the assistant director of the University's Art Muséum there. He has served The University of Chicago in the past. In 1963, he was program director for the Alumni Asso ciation; from 1963 to 1968 he was direc tor of the University's Eastern Régional Office in New York City, then régional représentative of the University in San Francisco, California. During thèse as- signments, he managed programs for alumni, student recruitment, annual giv- ing, development, and public relations. At the University of California muséum, he dealt with the development of exhibitions, collections, publications, films, and éducation programs. In addi tion to managing the administrative and financial opérations of the organization, he supervised campus and community relations programs. He had been assis tant gifts and endowments officer at Berkeley, before his assignment at the Muséum. David and Margaret Leonetti and their two daughters will live in the Hyde Park community. POSTCARD FROM OLYMPUS Calculating Math — Will It Rot Their Minds? At six-month intervais, and sometimes more often, concerned éducation writ- ers from major magazines and newspap- ers call the University to ask how many students use small, shirt-pocket size cal- culators, and whether using them is a good thing? We took thèse queries to Max Bell, associate professor in the Department of Education, who has been thinking about this subject in Judd Hall. Were the fears reasonable? What fears? he inquired. Well, fears that students using hand- held calculators will eventually become dépendent on them and be unable to add a column of figures without a me- chanical aid. Bell thought a moment. "There's a strong 'back to basics' reac tion in our schools right now," he said. "People notice that what are being taught as basic skills are essentially un- important and out of touch with current mathematics research and applications. So, school books are changed and teachers are urged to deal with kids in more open ways, giving them concepts and ideas and so on. Hence the so-called 'new mathematics' of the 1960s. But then there are complaints that the stress on concepts and problem-solving and other such 'frills' leads to neglect of cal- culation skills. So, there is a 'back to ba sics' counter-reaction. That is where we are right now, and it is in this context that the calculator problem appears. "But in elementary schools, where the 'basics' are lodged, things change very slowly if at ail, even during thèse periodic cycles of reform. In elementary school mathematics, although some dé tails change, the focus is on calculation, and the focus has always been on calcula tion. The discussion about whether the new math was 'good' or 'bad' for stu dents was not significant because, while the math books changed somewhat, the teaching and what the students did, scarcely changed at ail. "In any case, now everybody believes that it is terribly important that schools teach calculation. Furthermore, schools cannot teach anything else in mathmatics classes until they do teach calculation. So, in an effort to make everyone good at calculation, we spend eight years teaching that, to the exclusion of almost everything else. "Currently, much of the material that is proposed as 'basic' — adding, subtract- ing, multiplying and dividing — is done by most people (outside of schools) with calculators. So, there are adults who rarely do long calculations except with calculators who hâve become worried that those same calculators will keep kids from learning multiplication, long division, and so on. "Elementary schools are ill-equipped to deal with conflicts caused by the pro lifération of calculators on one hand, and fear that they may damage basic éduca tion on the other. Elementary schools change very slowly; prolifération of cheap calculators happens very rapidly. Four years ago there were none; today there are a hundred million. For people who did not like math and avoided arithmetic, they are a very powerful tool for adult éducation. Thèse people are doing things with numbers that they hâve not done for years, and they hâve discovered that it isn't so bad. "But in the elementary schools, there is the fear that the calculators will de- stroy the capacity to work without them. Well, we distributed calculators to local schools when they were still expensive and expérimental. The kids had great fun and never stopped calculating 'by hand,' partly, perhaps, because their teachers would not let them. But the kids did not stop their mental calcula tions either, because they soon found out that it was much more convenient to know that 7 times 8 was 56, than punch 7-times-8-equals-56. "I think that there are no grounds for the fear that kids will come to rely on calculators to find answers to 2 plus 2 or 23 plus 10. Kids know better. Also, essentially ail educators agrée that the ability to do easy mental calculations quickly and efficiently is very important in problem solving, making quick estimâtes in everyday situations, estimat- ing whether a given resuit (however ob- tained) is reasonable, detecting patterns and generalizations in working with numbers and so on. I am sure the learn ing of the multiplication tables is not threatened. "The major barriers to calculators hâve been knocked aside; calculators are cheap, portable, available. The remain- ing fears hâve to do with calculators as damaging to mathematics éducation. One fear (which I find as a strong thème in editorials), involves a standard horror story: a collège professor allows cal culators to be used on his test and one student's battery runs out, leaving him helpless, even though the test problem is fairly simple. Such stories miss the important issues in too many ways to discuss hère. The reply a colleague makes is, 'May be once, but not twice — he will learn to bring extra bat teries.' "Though I tend to discount worries about calculators as mind-rotters, I do worry about the lack of research. That is, I would be more comportable if good experiments were going on in settings where, if necessary, we could see and correct our mistakes. We must consider both the direct effects and the side ef- fects, and thèse hâve not been carefully investigated in situations where cal- 33 culators hâve been used for a year or for several years." Bell says that the low cost of hand- held calculators is important for their use in schools. Indeed, high or low unit cost is often the primary considération as to whether or not an object will be used at ail. As reinforcement for his unit cost comment, Bell invites doubters to examine school storerooms — repositories ot teaching machines, films, and language labs gathering dust ... ail too expensive to program or use and thus discontinued. "And the electronics industry says, 'A S5-calculator? We can make them dis- posable.' " But, even disposable, there is another barrier to the uses of calculators in schools — the lack of good teaching materials. Beyond many look-alike workbooks and some créative teachers' personally-devised problem sets, there are few curriculum materials, that exploit calculators. After playing cal- culator games and doing simple prob- lems, kids run out of things to do with them. "Then," says Bell, "we turn to the textbook publishers and ask them how they plan to react. And they say, 'Why, I don't know. Our plans are made for the next five years.' "Not only five years but millions of dollars are involved, for development of school textbooks is very expensive and anything that makes a textbook séries obsolète jeopardizes an enormous in- vestment. Unplanned obsolesence — that is terrible! With thèse barriers, change is likely to be slow, whatever happens in the world outside ot the elementary schools." It seems that, whatever the criticisms, the calculator will continue to grow in popularity both in and out ot schools, and at ail grade levels. If students are forbidden to use them in the classroom, they will use them outside. Where the slide rule once reposed, the calculator now résides: moreover, where the scratchpad rested, the calculator now blinks, its little cathode display ever- ready. "I hâve a hard time putting the phenomenon in simple terms," Bell says. "It happened too fast." Teaching Excellence Honored Norman Nachtrieb, Ralph Nicholas. and Hewson Swift are the récipients of the 19"~ Quantrell Awards, presented for excellence in undergraduate teach ing. Norman Nachtneb is a professor in the Department of Chemistry, the James Franck Institute, and in the Collège. Much of his scientific work has centered on atomie transport properties in crystal- line solids and liquid metals, and the ef fect ot high pressures on various prop erties of molten salts. Nachtrieb re ceived the Quantrell Award in 1962; he is the third récipient to hâve been so honored a second time. Ralph Nicholas joined the University faculty in 1971. He is a professor in the Department of Anthropology and in the Collège, and is editor of the Journal of Asian Studies. His work includes exten- sive anthropological field research in rural areas of West Bengal in India and in Bangladesh. Hewson H. Swift is Chairman of the Department of Biology, and Distin- guished Service Professor in the De- partments of Biology and Pathology, in the Collège, and on the Committee on Genetics. His research focuses on the rôle and arrangement of DNA (de- oxyribonucleic acid), in cells. He is also studying evolutionary changes in the DNAs of cell nuclei and small cell com- ponents known as organelles. The teaching awards were established in 1938, anonymously, by Ernest E. Quantrell, X '05, alumnus, trustée, and life-long advocate of excellence in teach ing. His endowment fund provided an nual SI, 000 pnzes. In 1952, he added to the fund and later consented to the for- mal naming of the awards. Formally, they are the Llewellyn John and Harriet Manchester Quantrell Awards, in honor ot Quantrell's parents. In récent years, the prize has been increased to $2,500. During his time at the University, Er nest Quantrell was a member of the Order of the C, of Owl & Serpent, Pré sident of Reynolds Club, class treasurer, and a member of Phi Delta Thêta frater- nity. He died in 1962. Endowment Fund Promotes Innovative Teaching An endowment fund to promote innova tion in undergraduate teaching has been established at the University, through a 5 300,000 grant from the William R. Kenan, Jr. Charitable Trust of New York City. The fund will free a faculty member, penodically, from other responsibilities to concentrate on revamping current courses, devising new curricula, or de- veloping new course materials. The foundation designated no particular area of undergraduate study to receive the money. The Dean of the Collège and a spécial faculty committee will administer the fund. The William R. Kenan, Jr. Charit able trust previously endowed a pro- fessorship at the University. It is held by Philip B. Kurland, a constitutional law expert who directs the undergraduate PEARL program, an interdisciplinary approach to the study of politics, éco nomies, rhetoric, and law. Harry G. Johnson, 1923-1977 Harry G. Johnson died in Geneva, Swit- zerland on May 9. He was the Charles F. Grey Distinguished Service professor in Economies, an editor of the Journal of Political Economy, and a member of the Committee on Public Policy studies. In a statement to the press, his col- league and department chairman, Ar nold C. Harberger, said: "Harry Johnson . . . contributed in important ways to every major innovation in the theory of international économies that occurred during his professional life. He was also one of that rarest of breeds among economists who not only knew that économies was a science of this world and for this world but also brought its insights forcefully to bear on problems of current policy. . . . "Intellectual honesty and courage pervade his work. He was impatient to the point of harshness with pomposity and self-deception. And what he refused to tolerate in others he scrupulously avoided in himself. He never blunted his messages in déférence to currently popular views, whether those views were help by the establishment' of the économies profession or by a larger lay public. ". . . he received thousands of letters from ail over the world, asking advice, assistance, or comment. Few men whose lives were half as busy as Harry's would find time for even a small fraction of such requests. It is a mark of the man that Harry was, that somehow, and in- credibly, he found time for ail." Mr. Johnson had published about four hundred and ninety-five scientific pa pers, was the the author of nineteen books, and the editor of twenty-four more. 3-4 Appointments In March, ten members ot the senior faculty were appointed to endowed chairs, and in April, three Distinguished Service protessors were appointed to chairs honoring three past présidents of the University. The endowed chairs are Distinguished Service Professorships, awarded to fac ulty in récognition of their scholarship and service to the University, and Named Professorships, awarded for dis tinguished scholarship in a chosen field. Herbert L. Anderson, named Distin guished Service Professor, worked with Enrico Fermi on ail the original experi- ments on neutron reproduction in uranium that led directly to the devel opment of the first sustained atomic chain reaction. Director of the Fermi In stitute from 1957 to 1963, he is a pro fessor there, and in the Department of Physics and in the Collège. Norman M. Bradburn, named the Tif- fany and Margaret Blake Distinguished Service Professor, is a member of the Committee on Public Policy Studies, and is a Senior Study Director in the National Opinion Research Center (NORC). A researcher in a wide variety of sociological and psychological sub- jects, he has a particular interest in sur- vey and public opinion research meth- odology. He has been Chairman of the Department of Behavioral Sciences since 1973. Edward C. Dimock, Jr., named a Dis tinguished Service Professor, has writ ten or edited eight books and more than a score of scholarly articles on the his tory, religion, literature, and linguistics of India, particularly of Bengal. A pro fessor of South Asian Languages and Civilization, since 1965 he has been Di rector the University's South Asia Lan- guage and Area Center. Arnold C. Harberger, named the Gustavus F. and Ann M. Swift Distin guished Service Professor, is a fréquent consultant to many public and private organizations in this country and abroad. Professor in the Chairman of the De partment of Economies, he has been Di rector of the Center for Latin American Economie Studies in the department since 1965. Philip B. Kurland, named the William R. Kenan, Jr. Distinguished Service Pro fessor, founded The Suprême Court Re- vieiv, an annual volume reviewing the work of the U.S. Suprême Court. He has written eight books on the high court and is an authority on con- stitutional law. He teaches both in the Law School and in the Collège. Edward H. Levi, named the Glen A. Lloyd Distinguished Service Professor, was Président of the University from 1968 to 1975, and Attorney General of the United States until January 1977. He was Dean of the Law School from 1950 to 1962, when he became Provost of the University. He is the author or editor of five books on jurisprudence and éducation. Stuart A. Rice, named the Frank P. Hixon Distinguished Service Professor, was the Director of the James Franck Institute from 1962 to 1968 and Chair man of the Department of Chemistry from 1971 to 1976. (He was named the Louis Block Professor in 1969) Joseph V. Smith, named the Louis Block Professor in the Division of the Physical Sciences, is a specialist in mineralogy and crystallography. He has been a principal investigator for the Apollo Projects since 1963, and is a Pro fessor in the Department of Geophysical sciences, Edward Wasiolek, named the Avalon Distinguished Service Professor, is Pro fessor and Chairman of the Department of Slavic Languages and Literature. He is the author oiDostoievsky: the Major Fic tion and the editor of five of Dostoievs- ky's working notebooks. In 1961, he won the Quantrell Award for excellence in undergraduate teaching. Dr. Robert W. Wissler, is a specialist in atherosclerosis and cancer pathology. His monkey studies on the effect of diet on expérimental atherosclerosis are internationally known. He is Director of the University's Specialized Center of Research on Atherosclerosis and was Chairman of the Department of Pathol ogy from 1957 to 1972 and Director of the University's interdisciplinary Clini- cal Cancer Training Program from 1962 to 1974. Appointed to chairs honoring three past University Présidents were Morris Janowitz, Yoichiro Nambu, and Hew son H. Swift. Janowitz, named the Lawrence A. Kimpton Distinguished Service Pro fessor, is an authority on political and urban sociology. He writes extensively on the sociological aspects of militarism and civil-military relations, and most re- cently on the volunteer U.S. Army. Nambu, named the Harry Pratt Jud- son Distinguished Service Professor, is a high energy physicist specializing in studies of "strange" particles — short- lived subatomic particles with unusual characteristics. In 1970, he was the ré cipient of the Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics. Swift, named the George Wells Be- adle Distinguished Service Professor, is a cell biologist who pioneered in the use of the électron microscope to study gènes and tissue growth. Professor in and Chairman of the Department of Biology, his interest centers on the func- tions of nucleic acids in the cell and in the structural aspects of the genetic mechanism. George Beadle, for whom Swift's chair is named, continues his research at the University. He was président from 1961 to 1968. Lawrence A. Kimpton, now living in Florida, was président from 1951 to 1960. Harry Pratt Judson was the University's second président, serving from 1907 to 1923. Paperback Books by Members of the Faculty Norval Morris and Gordon Hawkins, Letter to the Président on Crime Contrat, University of Chicago Press, 104 pp, $1.95. John A. Wilson, William A. Irwin, et al, The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man: An Essay on Spéculative Though in the Ancient Near East, UCP, 401 pp, $4.95. Marshall G. S. Hodgson, The Venture of Islam, UCP, 3 vols; 544, 618 and 476 pp, $7.95 each. Riccardo Levi-Setti, Trilobites: A Photographie Atlas, UCP, 224 pp, 158 plates, $9.95. Donald N. Levine, Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society, UCP, 248 pp, $3.95. Herrlee G. Creel, What Is Taoism? And Other Studies in Chinese Cultural History, UCP, 192 pp, $3.95. George J. Stigler, The Citizen and the State: Essays on Régulation, UCP, 224 pp, $4.25. Léonard S. Cottrell, Jr., Albert Hunter, and James F. Short, Jr., Ernest W. Burgess on Community, Family, and Deltnquency, UCP, 338 pp, $4.45. J. David Greenstone, Labor in Ameri can Politics, UCP, 458 pp, S5.95. Morris Janowitz, Military Institutions and Coercion in the DevelopingNat ions (an expanded édition oiThe Military in the Development of New Nations), UCP, $3.95. 35 The Campaign for Chicago, announced on November 13, 1974, has raised over $150 million to date. This remarkable accomplishment has been made possible by the hard work and generosity of the University's alumni and friends. The Campaign has already strengthened the University substantially. Twenty newly endowed professorships hâve helped the University attract renowned scholars and teachers to the Midway, and honor some of its most gifted faculty members of long standing. Outstanding faculty hâve created ambitious new académie programs. The Campaign has secured over $12 million to fund thèse impor tant course offerings. The University's students hâve benefitted from thèse curricular changes, and from the $9 million in new student aid which has enabled many of them to take advantage of the Uni versity's ever-increasing educational opportunities. The Campaign has already done much to as sure the University a future as distinguished as its past. More can and must be done, however, and we are inviting ail alumni to participate in the Cam paign now. Beginning this fall, each alumnus and alumna will be asked to make a spécial gift to the Campaign for Chicago, something over and above an annual contribution to the Alumni Fund. We hope ail alumni will respond with a gift of greater magnitude than anything they hâve given before. There are many examples in the history of this University of extraordinary giving on the part of alumni. Thus, we make this request with con fidence that alumni will understand our reasons for asking and again respond generously. To those alumni and friends who hâve already made their gifts to the Campaign, the University ex presses its deep appréciation. You hâve brought us to that impressive total of $150 million. To those who will support the Campaign for Chicago in the months ahead, the University extends its heartfelt thanks in advance. The tradition of loyalty and the spirit of which you are a part is The University of Chicago's greatest endowment. The Campaign at Work: New Programs— Top left, foreground: Arnold W. Ravin, Addie Clark Harding Professor, co-ordinator of the ASHUM (Arts and Sciences Basic to Human Biology and Medicine) program; Bottom right: Charles W. Wegener, Howard L. Willett Professor, program co-ordinator of PERL (Politics, Economies, Rhetoric, and Law). Newly Endowed Professorships— Top right: Saul Bellow, Raymond W. and Martha Hilpert Gruner Distinguished Ser vice Professor; Bottom left: Edward H. Levi, Glen A. Lloyd Distinguished Ser vice Professor. 37 1910 EDMUND JACOBSON, PhD '10, MD '15, last year celebrated the fifth édition of You Must Relax. The book, first pub- lished in 1929, was written for the lay public. Jacobson was a pioneer exponent of electromyography, the use of elec- tronic equipment to detect muscular movements by tiny electncal charges in muscles. He is Director of the Labora- tory for Clinical Physiology, in Chicago. 1919 Emory University recently dedicated the Kemp Malone Library in honor ot the late kemp malone, PhD' 19. The library contains the bulk of his collection of books on médiéval studies. Among the 20,000-volume donation made by his wife are books and correspondence dated slightly after Chaucer's time. Pro fessor Malone was a noted linguist and medievalist. 1924 Former National Executive Director of the Girl Scouts of America, and nation- ally known educator DOROTHY G. STRATTON, AM'24, received the "Mar- îon Mill Preminger- Women's Commit tee Award" at the opening banquet ot the annual meeting of the Présidents Committee on the Employment ot the Handicapped. 1926 The American Bar Foundation con- ferred honorary membership on wal- TER V. SCHAEFER, PhB'26, JD'28. 1927 GLADYS E. vail, SM'27, was awarded an honorary degree in science by Purdue University where she is Dean Emeritus of the School of Consumer and Family Sciences. 1931 HUGH A. EDMONDSON, MD'31, re ceived an honorary Doctor of Law de gree from the University of Southern California. He is an internationally known researcher and Professor Emeritus of Pathology. julian JACKSON, PhB'31 and Mrs. Jackson (ELEANOR STACK, x'47), were honored by the Jamaican Tourist Board on their 25th anniversary visit to the is- land. Mr. Jackson is immédiate past pré sident of the University's Alumni Asso ciation. 1932 BRUNSWICK A. BAGDON, PhB'32, re tired as régional commissioner for the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Mr. Bagdon directed opérations of the Bureau's southeastern région since 1948. 1937 MARY ALICE DUDDY, AB'37, SM'39, has been living in Brazil since 1953. In that time she has revalidated her nurses di- ploma, taught university students, and worked in wards and clinics in that coun try. She is now a member of a rural mobile health team and teaches local women simple health care. Chairwoman of the Board of Direc- tors of the First Wisconsin Trust Com pany in Milwaukee, Catherine b. CLEARY, AB'37, was elected to a four year term on the Board of Trustées of Mayo Foundation. PAUL HUME, X'37, received an hon orary degree from Rosary Collège in River Forest, Illinois. Mr. Hume is a music critic for the Washington Post. 1938 pal:l p. pickering, sb'38, sm'39, MD'4l, former président of the Ameri can Society of Plastic and Reconstruct- ive Surgeons Inc. and clinical professor ot surgery University ot California at San Diego, was re-appointed as the plas tic surgery delegate to the Inter- speciality Advisory Board of the Ameri can Médical Association. 1939 CHARLES BANFE, AB'39, is a senior check captain on Boeing 747 aircraft in charge of the mid-Pacific routes for Pan American Airways. Captain Banfe will retire from Pam American later this month. He is also on the faculty at Stan ford University teaching airline man agement in the Graduate School of Bus iness. FRANCES MECCA GRAY, AM39, re ceived an honorary Doctor of Humanities degree from Southwestern University at Memphis. She has been ac tive in the United Presbyterian Church hère and abroad since 1946. THOMAS S. GREEN, AM'39, was elected to a two-year term on the Board of Directors of Blue Cross of Mas sachusetts. Mr. Green is Vice-Président of Administration for Norton Company. 1941 EDWARD M. BERSHTEIN, AB'41, JD'49, AM'53, PhD'55, professor of political science at the University of Hartford, received a grant from the National En dowment for the Humanities to fund his participation this summer in a research seminar at the University of Wisconsin. GENE RICKEY CLEVELAND, X'4l, is included in the Tenth Edition of Who's Who' s of American Women 1977/1978. She is currently employed at the Uni versity of Kentucky. JOHN C. GERBER, PhD'41, retired as Carpenter Professor of English, Chair man of the Department of English, and Director of the School of Letters at the University of Iowa. Professor Gerber is currently Chairman of the Department of English at the State University of New York at Albany, and Chairman of the Editorial Board of the Iowa- California édition of the Works of Mark Twain. ANITAJ. MACKEY, AM'41, was named Santa Barbara Woman of the Year for 1976. 1942 Président Carter nominated DONALD C. BERGUS, ab'42, to be Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Démocratie Republic of Sudan. Mr. Ber- gus is Deputy Chief of Mission in Ank ara, Turkey. BRADLEY H. PATTERSON, JR. AB'42, 3 H AM'43, is a staff member at the Brook- ings Institution in Washington, D.C. Mr. Patterson, a fédéral career executive for 32 years, served on the staff of three présidents: Eisenhower, Nixon, and Ford. At Brookings he is a senior staff member in the Advanced Study Pro gram which conducts educational pro grams for senior executives in business, government, and the professions. Current treasurer of the New York State Dormitory Authority, ALBERT C. STEWART, SB'42, sm'48, was elected to serve a five-year term on the board of trustées of The American Muséum of Natural History. Mr. Stewart is an international businessman for Union Carbide Corporation. He also received an Alumni Citation from The University of Chicago. JOHN R. TOBIN, MD'42, was ap pointed the John W. Clarke Professor of Medicine at the Stritch School of Medicine at Loyola University. He was accepted into the Alpha Oméga Alpha honorary médical society at Chicago and won the Benjamin Rush Award in Medicine. 1943 SONIA WEINER KATZ, AB'43, AM46, presented her steel sculpture at an April National Academy of Sciences show in Washington, D.C. She exhibits her work throughout the Midwest. ROBERT W. WISSLER, SM'43, PhD'46, MD'48, received the Distinguished Achievement Award from Modem Medicine Magazine. He was one of ele- ven physicians and biomédical re- searchers honored for important con tributions to research, clinical medicine, surgery, and médical éducation. Dr. Wissler is the Donald N. Pritzker Dis tinguished Service Professor in the De partment of Pathology and Director o_f the Specialized Center of Research in Atherosclerosis at the University. 1944 M. CARL HOLMAN, AM'41, président of the National Urban Coalition, was elected to the Board of Directors of the National Center for Health Education. Mr. Holman has been author, news- paper editor, collège professor, commu nity leader, and civil rights advocate be fore assuming his présent post. 1945 EUGENE P. BERG, mba'45, was awarded an honorary degree in engineering by Purdue University. Mr. Berg is Pré sident and Chairman of the Board for Bucyrus-Erie Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. GRACE GREDYS HARRIS, PtiB'45, Am'49, associate professor of anthropol- ogy and religious studies at the Univer sity of Rochester, was appointed Chair woman of the Department of An- thropology. A specialist in the social an- thropological study of religious Systems, she has written a book, Casttng Out Anger, which describes the religion of the Wataita tribe of Kenya. The book will be published next year by Cam bridge University Press. 1946 FRANK L. ALLEN, SB'46, PhB'46, PhD'53, was elected Chairman of the Board of Arthur D. Little Systems Inc., Bur lington, Massachusetts. He continues as vice-président in charge of the parent company's information Systems activities at corporate headquarters in Cambridge. In récognition of research concerning elementary, secondary, and higher édu cation on a national basis, B. EVERARD BLANCHARD, am'46, was granted a Ken- tucky Colonel's Commission by the Governor ot Kentucky. The spring issue of the Journal for Improving Collège and University Teaching published Mr. Blan- chard's project results, based on a four- year survey of the Graduate School of Education at De Paul University, Chicago. JAROSLAV PELIKAN, PhD'46, was awarded an honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters by the Catholic Uni versity of America in Washington, D.C. Dr. Pelikan is a widely recognized Lu- theran scholar and historian. Affiliated with Yale since 1962, he has served there since 1972 as the Sterling Pro fessor of History and Religious Studies. WALLACE D. RILEY, PhB'46, was nominated for a three-year term on the American Bar Association's Board of Governors. If elected, Riley will repre- sent Michigan, Ohio, and West Virginia. He is a member of the Détroit law ftrm of Riley and Roumell, P.C., former pré sident of the Détroit Bar Association, and member of the Fédéral Bar Associa tion, and American Judicature Society. 1947 JOSEPH J. SISCO, AM'47, PhD'50, pré sident of American University, has been appointed a member of the Board of Di rectors of the National Bank of Wash ington. A former under-secretary for political affairs, Sisco has also served the State Department as principal advisor and deputy negotiator on Middle East ern issues, and as an assistant secretary for Near Eastern and South Asian af fairs. BERNARD STEIN/.OR, PtlD'47, ac cepted an appointment as a teacher with the Institute for Psychoanalytic Therapy at the University of Goteborg, Sweden, for a year beginning this September. 1948 RICHARD C. ATKINSON, PhB'48, was nominated by Président Carter as Direc tor of the National Science Foundation. An expérimental psychologist and applied mathematician whose research deals with the analysis of memory and cognition, Mr. Atkinson's early work — transforming intuitive ideas about the nature of memory into a theory based on mathematical terms — has been the basis for much of the current research on human memory and the learning pro cess. Internationally recognized physicist RICHARD L. GARWIN, SM'48, PhD'49, was appointed a Fellow of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. A student of Enrico Fermi, Mr. Garwin became an instructor and assistant professor at The University of Chicago for three years upon his graduation. MAX L. HUNT, mba'48, retired as ad- ministrator of Yakima Valley Mémorial Hospital on the day of his 26th anniver- sary in that position. Under his ad ministration, the hospital and services hâve doubled in size, while its assets hâve increased from two to ten million dollars. T. D. LINGO (PAUL T. LEZ-CHUK), PhB'48, AM'51, is Director of Ad venture Trails Research and Development Labo ratories in Blackhawk, Colorado. His récent seminar on the "Frontier of Con- sciousness" at the University of Col orado contended that the human race is capable of transcendent consciousness through "brain self-control" of the fron tal lobe tissue. Président Carter nominated DAVID E. mann, sm'48, phD'48, to be Assistant Secretary of the Navy. Mr. Mann was the Spécial Assistant to the Chief of Naval Opérations for Navy Advanced Systems Projects since 1973. For twelve and a half years until its closure, ARTHUR J. SORENSEN JR., AB'48, AM'52, was Réhabilitation Coor- 39 dinator for Chicago's Municipal Tuber- culosis Sanitarium. After completing a study on sheltered workshops by Greenleigh Associates as a field super viser, Mr. Sorensen was appointed Voc ation Services Coordinator for the Handicapped Development Center in Davenport, lowa. 1949 Named "Citizen ot the Year" in Woodstock, Illinois, DAN E. ANDREW, MBA'-)9, was elected to the Board of Di- rectors of the Des Plaines National Bank. Member of numerous civic and professional organizations, Mr. Andrew is presently the Executive Vice- Président for the bank. MARY Davis, SM'49, was elected to a six-member législative board as a trustée of the Village ot River Forest, Illinois. JAMES R. KING, MBA'49, was named Vice-Président ot Marketing, Chemicals Division for the Quaker Oats Company. Mr. King joined the Company in 1949. His most récent position was Vice- Président of Administration and Plan ning, Chemicals Division. Président of the Social Science Re search Council, ELEANOR BERNERT SHELDON, PhD'49, was among those honored at a banquet held in honor of women directors of corporations. Catalyst, a national non-profit educa tional organization to help women choose, launch, and advance their carecrs, sponsored the dinner in which five distinguished women who serve on the boards of directors of leading cor porations were recognized for their out standing achievements in the business community. 1950 BERTRAND N. BAUER, AB'50, MBA'56, is co-author of a torthcoming textbook on elementary statistics for collège business and économies students. Mr. Bauer is the owner of and chief consultant for Pa- rameter Investigation, a firm specializing in statistical Consulting and random sampling. It is his first book and is ex- pected to appear in 19T8. Dr. Ya-lun Chuu of St. John's University, Jamaica, New York, is the senior author, and Holt, Rinehart & Winston is the pub- lisher 1951 Professor ot political science at the Uni versity of Chicago, HERBERT J. STOR- IN'G, AM'51, PhD'56, was elected to the faculty ot the University of Virginia and appointed Project Director for the study of the American presidency. Mr. Storing recently finished a six volume analysis of the anti-federalist political position enti- tled The Complète Anti-Federa/ist. 1952 NORMAN T. PORILE, AB'52, PhD'57, professor of chemistry at Purdue Uni versity, won the F. D. Martin Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching. He is married to the former MIRIAM EISEN, AB'53. 1954 RUTH SACKS CHUSID, AM'54, has been experimenting for the past several years with methods of pain and tension réduc tion. As Director of the Pathways In stitute in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, she teaches relaxation techniques in- corporating numerous schools of body thérapies, méditation, body movement and massage. Former vice-président of administra tive services for Public Service of Indi- ana, REMI C. PATTYN, MBA'54, was elected Senior Vice-Président for Op érations. In his new post, he will be responsible for electric opérations and related services. 1955 DEAN H. FRANCIS, AM'55, was ap pointed Assistant to the Régional Direc tor at the National Labor Relations Board in Oakland, California. 1956 THOMAS L. HARRIS, AM'56, was named Président of Foote, Cône & Belding Public l; dations. Mr. Harris joined the organization in 1973 as Vice-Président for Public Relations. ROBERT P. PERRY, PhD'56, was elected to the National Academy of Sci ences. Mr. Perry is Professor of Biophysics at the University of Penn- sylvania. JOHN C. RENSENBRINK, PhD'56, was appointed Chairman of the Department of Government and Légal Studies for the 1977-78 and 1978-79 académie years at Bowdoin Collège. 1958 Mrs. Lillian Fryden has donated 52,000 to the Learning Resources Center of Truman Collège in San Francisco to pur- chase books in memory ot her son, FLOYD FRYDEN, AB'58, AM'60. Fryden was killed in 1972 at the âge of thirty- five in the Illinois Central-Gulf Commu ter train crash. 1959 JOHN V. GILHOOLY, JD'59, was pro- moted to Assistant Vice-Président of Texas Instruments Inc. He continues in his présent rôle as corporate légal coun- sel to this multi-national company. The former Minister of Education in Uganda, the Rev. luimbazi zake, mcl'59, is now the Professor of Cul- tural Anthropology at Governors State University in Park Forest, Illinois. 1960 SAUL D. BINDER, SB'60, was recently elected Président and Chief Executive Officer of the Jefferson State Bank in Chicago. Président of Hood Collège in Mary- land, MARTHA E. CHURCH, PhD'60, was named to the Philadelphia Régional Panel of the President's Commission of White House Fellowships. Along with nine others, she will help sélect candi dates for the 1977-78 White House Fel lowships. 1961 R. PHILIP EATON, MD'6l, is the As- sociate Director of the Clinical Research Center in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Affiliated with the University of New Mexico, the center is a combined gên erai and clinical cancer research area de- signed to bridge the gap between teach ing and delivery of médical care. Formerly working as a commerical art- ist, designer, and art director, STEVE HORAN, AB'6l, returned full-time to his own printmaking and painting. His prints are in a style influenced by Paul Cézanne and the illuminators of médiéval manuscripts. Horan's works are in collections across the country. ÎHADDEUS J. O'BRIEN, AM'6l, phD'72, joined the staff of Rohrer, Hi- bler and Replogle, Inc. RH&R is an international firm of management con sultants. Mr. O'Brien is in the Cleveland office. He was formerly the Assistant to the Président/Executive Director of the Educational Research Council of America in Cleveland. HAROLD RICHMAN, AM'61, PhD'69, was appointed to the President's Com mission on Mental Health by Président Carter. The Commission will analyze the current condition of services for the mentally ill, emotionally disturbed, and it mentally retarded and will also dé termine the form and fiscal accountabil- ity of the government and private sec- tors for services. 1962 DONALD E. BALDOVIN, MBA'62, was ap pointed the Division Administration and Economies Manager for Amoco Produc tion Company. He will be chief financial and économies advisor to the vice- président and division manager in Den- ver. 1963 MICHAEL L. BATES, AB'63, PhD'75, spoke at the First International Sym posium on Studies in the History of Arabia. As Associate Curator of Islamic Coins at the American Numismatic So ciety, Mr. Bâtes was one of a sélect group of Islamic scholars from through- out the world invited to participate at the conférence in Riyad, Saudi Arabia. Président Carter nominated DONALD ELISBURG, JD'63, as Assistant Secretary of Labor for Employment Standards. Under the Employment Standards Ad ministration, he will be responsible for enforcing a wide variety of fédéral labor laws, including those setting minimum wage, overtime pay, and child labor standards. GENE GODLEY, JD'63, was nominated by Président Carter to be an assistant secretary of the treasury. Last August he was director of the Mondale advance opération for the Carter-Mondale cam paign. Scholar of religion and literature GILES B. GUNN, AM'63, PhD'67, joined the faculty of Carleton Collège as the Helen Andrus Benedict Distinguished Visiting Professor. He is currently Pro fessor of Religion and American Studies at the University of North Carolina. JOHN R. MALONE, PtiD'63, associate dean of the Collège of Business Ad ministration at Notre Dame and found- ing director of its MBA program, left his administrative positions to return to teaching as a professor of marketing. RAYMOND B. WILLIAM, AM'63, PhD'66, was promoted to Professor of Religion at Wabash Collège in Indiana. The author of numerous articles on the study of religions, he has also received a fellowship in Asian religions for collège teachers at the University of Madras in India, and a post-doctoral fellowship for cross-disciplinary study at Cambridge University in England. ERIC L. ZORNBERG, SM'63, PhD'69, recently opened an appliance repair bus iness in Jérusalem. Mr. Zxirnberg also teaches a course in physics at the Jérusalem Collège of Technology. Prior to his exodus to Israël, he was an assis tant professor at Wellesley Collège. Mr. Zornberg and his wife, Anna Gottlieb, hâve a one year old daughter, Bracha. 1964 Président Carter nominated DOUGLAS M. COSTLE, JD'64, for Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. RAYMOND E. DEASY, MBA'64, has be come Président of Modernfold, an American-Standard Company, located in New Castle, Indiana. Président Carter nominated CHESTER C. McGUIRE JR., MBA'64, PtlD'74, to be Assistant Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Mr. McGuire is Vice-Président and Secretary of Berke ley Planning Associates, Président of McGuire Associates, and an assistant professor in the Department of City and Régional Planning of the University of California at Berkeley. WILLIAM VAN BOGAERT ROBERTSON, AB'64, joined the June entering class of the American Graduate School of Inter national Management in Arizona. His courses emphasize work with the Mid dle East. 1965 DAVID BACKUS, BD'65, is the author of an article on French language in Québec, which appeared in the February issue of French Review, a journal of the American Association of Teachers of French, and of a book of stories and essays to be re- leased late this year. A freelance writer and translator living in Land O' Lakes, Wisconsin, Mr. Backus is researching a second book on France and Italy. He is also preparing English translations of some little-known texts of Stendhal. RICHARD V. HARDIN, MBA'65, was named Director of Foundary Marketing, Chemicals Division for the Quaker Oats Company. Mr. Hardin joined Quaker in 1967 as Commerical Development As sociate. ERIC HIRSCHBORN, AB'65, joined Président Carter's Reorganization Proj ect, where he is working in the field of national security and foreign policy. He was formerly Chief Counsel to the Gov ernment Information and Individual Rights Subcommittee in the House of Représentatives. DANIEL G. ILLERICH, MBA'65, re ceived the Meritorious Service Medal at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas. Major II- lerich was cited for oustanding duty per formance as Chief of the Civil Engineer ing Division, 2578th Air Base Group, Ellington AFB. The major now serves at Kelly with a unit of the Tactical Air Command. An exhibition of ROBERT LIPGAR'S, PhD'65, photography entitled 'The Familiar Moment' was shown at the American Bar Foundation in Chicago in March. ANDREW L. RUFF, AM'65, was named to the newly created post of Manager of Employée Benefits for Borg-Warner Corporation and continues as Manager of Pensions. 1966 RICHARD W. MERCER, am'66, received a $15,000-fellowship from the National Endowment for the Humanities. The money provides for a year's study in a program designed to stimulate research that will contribute to teaching expéri ence and the possibility of publication. For a year Mr. Mercer will attend a seminar on comedy at Hofstra Univer sity. He is currently teaching English at Virginia Commonwealth University. 1967 Associate professor at Notre Dame, PERI E. ARNOLD, AM'67, PhD'72, was appointed Chairman of the Department of Government and International Studies there. Mr. Arnold is a specialist in American politics and public ad ministration. WILLIAMJ. DOUGHERTY, MBA'67, was appointed Assistant Corporate Comp- troller for International Harvester's Corporate Accounting Department. Mr. Dougherty's duties encompass the ad ministrative direction of gênerai ac counting and corporate reports. JAMES FISHER, AMÔ7, PhD'72, was promoted from an assistant to an as sociate professor of sociology and an- thropology at Carleton Collège. Mr. Fisher is the author of a number of arti cles on Népal. Zale Corporation in Dallas appointed ROBERT L. HECHLER, MBA'67, Vice- President and Controller, a new post for the company. Prior to his association with Zale, Hechler was Senior Vice- Président and Chief Financial Officer of Waddell & Reed, Inc., of Kansas City. Elected Vice-Président and Treasurer 41 of Time Insurance Company in Mil waukee, JAMES B. KEATING, MBA'67, di rects the activities in the investment de partment. Prior to his involvement with Time Insurance, he spent over eight years in the investments business as- sociated with major securities firms. After "nine years of freedom", JEAN MILNER, SB'67, is in her first year of médical school at the University of New Mexico. MICHAEL R. A. WADE, AB'67, opened his own business in New York, offering U.S. industry forecasts and investment surveys to foreign companies. MICHAEL ZUCKERT, AM'67, PhD'74, was promoted from an assistant to an as sociate professor of political science at Carleton Collège. A récipient of the A. D. White Award for American Studies, Mr. Zuckert was designated a Falk Fel- low in American Politics and an Earhart Fellow for Carleton. 1968 RUTH CALDWELL, AM'68, PhD'73, a French professor at Luther Collège in Decorah, Iowa, was granted tenure. She earned a Fullbright student grant, a Fullbright teaching fellowship and the University of Chicago Paris Exchange fellowship. Ms. Caldwell has been on Luther's modem language faculty since 1971. ARTHUR FINKELSTEIN, ab'68, re ceived his MD in May from the Médical Collège in Pennsylvania. JURIS G. ODINS, AB'68, received his master's degree in librarianship from the University of Denver last December. Since April of this year he has been working as librarian for the Oil, Chemi cal, and Atomic Workers International Union in Denver. JUDITH L. SEBESTA, AB'68, assistant professor of classics at the University of South Dakota, will be attending the 1977 National Endowment for the Humanities summer seminar in Rome. The program centers on "Problems in the Topography of Ancient Rome" and is directed by Professor Lawrence Richardson, Jr., of Duke University. 1969 Président Carter announced his inten tion to nominate ROGER C. ALTMAN, MBA'69, to be Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Capital Markets and Debt Management. Altman is a gênerai part ner with Lehman Brothers, Inc., a New York investment banking firm, and also worked on the Carter-Mondale transi tion staff, concentrating on the treasury department. GRANT E. GORMLEY, AB'69, has as- sumed the duties of Attorney for the South Dakota State Législative Audit. JOSIAH MEYER, SB'69, was appointed to the faculty of Eisenhower Collège in Seneca Falls, N.Y. Dr. Meyer, formerly a visiting professor at the University of Iowa, also taught at Washington Univer sity. He recently had an article appear in the Journal of Différent lai Geometry. JAMES H. RIAL, AB'69, was appointed Assistant Professor of History at Allegheny Collège in Meadville, Pen nsylvania. 1970 MICHAEL L. CHERNOFF, AM'70, is no longer at the University of Mas sachusetts. He is now Assistant Pro fessor of Sociology at Georgia State University. PAUL W. FITZNER, MBA'70, was ap pointed Midwest Régional Sales Man ager of Metromation, Inc., a supplier of computer Systems for process-control applications in the chemical and petro- leum industries. Président Carter appointed as his as sociate counsel, DOUGLAS B. HURON, JD'70. For six years after his graduation, Mr. Huron worked in the Civil Rights Division of the Justice Department, where he prosecuted cases of employ ment discrimination. Resigning to serve as counsel to the Carter-Mondale cam paign, he was responsible for ensuring compliance with Fédéral élection laws. CLYDE W. ostler, MBA'70, was ap pointed Manager of the Management Sciences Department for the Wells Fargo Bank in San Francisco. Mr. Ostler was elected a vice-président of that bank in 1975. ERNEST PANKERT, MBA'70, was elected a Principal of Towers, Perrin, Forster, & Crosby, international con sultants to management. 1971 GREGORY A. HANCOCK, AM'71, PhD'71, is the Fédéral Schools Commissioner for Australia. His wife, GLENICE HAN COCK, PhD'71, is a teacher éducation in- structor there as well. PHILIP R. McLOUGHLIN, JD'71, was elected Secretary and Counsel of Phoenix Equity Planning Corporation, a subsidiary of Phoenix Mutual Life In surance Company, Hartford, Con- necticut. Mr. McLoughlin is a past pré sident of the Connecticut Spécial Olym- pics, the Jaycees Courant Baseball League, and a former secretary of the Hartford Midget Football League. Travenol Laboratories appointed GARY M. MELBERG, MBA'71, manager of their good manufacturing practices train- ing program. Mr. Melberg was pre- viously Supervisor of Management De velopment. JEAN-PIERRE PINATTON, MBA'71, was elected a vice-président of the international investment banking and brokerage firm of Smith Barney, Harris Upham & Co. Inc., in Paris. Formerly a lieutenant in the French Air Force, he had been with the company since 1971 in corporate finance. RICHARD E. WAYMAN, MBA'71, is Manager-Budgets and Opérations Analysis at Amway Corporation in Ada, Michigan. 1972 JOHN D. BEAM, mba'72, was elected a partner of Tatham-Laird & Kudner Ad- vertising Agency. Beam is an account executive for TLK and has been with the agency since 1972. Last March, the THEODORE BER- LAND, am'72, column on dieting was retitled "The Thin Man" and moved to the Chicago Daily News. It previously appeared as "Dieting Today" in the Chicago Tribune. ROY BLEIWEISS, JD'72, opened a rare books and manuscripts store in Los Angeles. The shop specializes in first éditions, private presses, Americana, law, and medicine. Mr. Bleiweiss reports that the shop has been described by Los Angeles Magazine. THOMAS M. GANNON, PhD'72, re ceived the Faculty of the Year award from the Blue Key National Honor Fraternity of Loyola University. Rev. Gannon was also elected Président of the Association for the Sociology of Religion for 1977-78. WILLIAM C. GILPIN, AM'72, PhD'74, was installed as Assistant Professor of Church History at Phillips University in Enid, Oklahoma. An ordained minister of the Disciples of Christ, he had lec- tured on the history of Christianity at The University of Chicago and was ad ministrative assistant to the dean of the Disciples Divinity House. PETER JUST, AB'72, writes from Wash ington, D.C. that he has lost his gov ernment research job, but it's just fine, ¦42 since he is moving to Philadelphia where he will attend graduate school at the University of Pennsylvania. After twelve months of travel and a two year stint in the Army, EDWIN T. LEE, AB'72, is in the University of Texas School of Law. This spring he was a member of the team which won the Rutger's Award for the Best United States Mémorial in the 1977 Philip C. Jessup International Law Moot Court Compétition. He will be working for Texas Rural Légal Aid in Brownsville this summer, after which he will return to Austin for his final year in law school. After completing a year as a lecturer in personality theory at California State University in Fullerton, ARNOLD M. LUND, AB'72, will begin studying to wards a PhD in expérimental psychology this fall. He will be working as Dr. Be- nton J. Underwood's research assistant at Northwestern University. PATRICK L. REMY, MBA'72, was elected a partner of Tatham-Laird & Kudner Advertising Agency. Remy is an account executive and has been with the agency since 1972. 1973 Leaving the vice-presidency of Baitimer Electric Company in Houston, DENNIS J. FOLEY, MBA'73, rejoined Celanese Chemical Company as an As sistant Product Sales Manager for acetyl and methyl chemicals. 1974 GAIL ANN McGARY DREHER, MBA'74, has become a certified public account- ant. CHERYL MORGAN, AB'74, was ap pointed Assistant to the City Manager of the city of Compton, California. Born to ANTHONY SEEGER, PflD'74, and JUDITH SEEGER, AM'70,-on the first day of the Carnival in Rio de Janeiro, a daughter named Elizabeth Mapalu Seeger. LOUISE W. STANEK, PhD'74, was ap pointed Manager-Training and Devel opment for Philip Morris Incorporated. She is responsible for developing and recommending Philip Morris training and development policies. RONALD D. SANFIELD, AM'74, is the Primary Policy Analyst for Long-Term Care Régulation in the Rate Setting Commission of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. He was appointed a lec turer at Boston University. Mr. Sanfield is a professional (part-time) jazz pianist. BRIAN B. STRANGE, MBA'74, was elected an international banking officer by the American National Bank & Trust Company. Mr. Strange joined the bank in 1974 as a crédit analyst. 1975 PETER KARDON, AM'75, was one of nine winners of a "Young Scholars" compéti tion sponsored by the Médiéval Academy of America. He delivered his winning paper to the Academy's annual meeting in May, held in Toronto. MIKE KLINGENSMITH, AB'75, MBA'76, is Assistant Business Manager for Sports Illustrated in New York City. He is responsible for controlling pro duction costs, monitoring the circula tion, and other magazine opérations. At the University, he was a business man ager of the Manon. He has finished a season as coach of the Time Inc. basket ball team. SIGRID M. SCHMIDT, MBA'75, was elected an opérations officer by the American National Bank & Trust Com pany. Ms. Schmidt joined the bank in 1972 as a project coordinator in the op érations department. STUART J. SWEET, AB'75, MBA'76, is Director of the Economies Task Force of the Republican Policy Committee in the House of Représentatives. In March, Sweet married SUE TYSKLIND, AB'75, in Bond Chapel. 1976 E. THOMAS BAILEY, MBA'76, joined the New Jersey branch of American Hoechst Corporations's Film Division as technical manager. He accepted this po sition after spending eight years with Continental Can Company as Manager of Polymer Research. MARGARET BEALE, PhD'76, was ap pointed Assistant Professor of Psychol ogy at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. She previously had been a re search consultant and project director of a study on the éducation of mother and child at The University of Chicago. JOSEPH H. DELEHANT, JD'76, was admitted to the Bar of the District of Columbia. He is associated with the Washington law firm of Kominers, Fort, Schlefer, and Boyer. THOMAS C. HEAGY, AB'76, MBA'76, was elected Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of the South Shore National Bank of Chicago. Mr. Heagy, 32, is the youngest chairman in the bank's 38-year history. PLEASE SEND THE CHICAGO MAROON TO NAME ADDRESS CITY STATE ZIP make checks payable to chicago maroon o renewal Qnewsubscription $9 for one year (order received by 9-15) $6 for two quarters (order received by 12-15) $3foronequarter (order received by 3-15) *OUR ACADEMIC YEAR PUBLICATION SCHEDULE RESUMES ON FRIDAY. SEPTEMBER 23 AND CON TINUES EACH TUESDAY AND FRIDAY UNTIL JUNE. 43 FOR THE RECORD w»%C In Memoriam 1900-1919 HERBERT EARLE BUCHANAN, AM'03, PhD'09; JENNIE ELIZABETH HALL BARNES, PhD'03, an active leader in the Parent-Teacher Associations of Texas and Michigan, died last fall; HAYWARD D. WARNER, SB'03, a miler on the UC 1902 track team died March 1, in Den ver. LILLIAN STEICHEN SANDBURG, PhD'04, widow of poet and writer Cari Sandburg, died. LILIA BERTHA GARMS, PhB'07, died. MORGIA STOUGH GOODELL, PhB'08; MARY R. MORTON, PtlB'08; ELIZABETH PARKER CRILEY, PhB'08. ERNEST G. FISCHER, PhB'10, died in April. JOHN R. BUCKLEY, X'H; THOMAS C. GALLOWAY, SM'll, MD'12, developer of the treatment for bulbar poliomyelitis, died in Evanston: HARRIET EVELYN PENFIELD, X'H; CHARLES V. STANSELL, am'11, former associate editor of The Kamai City Star, died in December. GERTRUDE LOUISE ANTHONY, SB'12, AM'32, a retired mathematics teacher died on February 8; GILLIE ALDAH LAREW, AM'12, PhD'16, dean emeritus of Randolph-Macon Woman's Collège, died in Lynchburg, Virginia; JOHN ROBERT N'EWMAN, MD'12. GLADYS SWAIM, AB'14; MARGUERITE MILLER VISHER, PhB'14. MANIA HOLLAND FOGEL, PhB'15; LOIS GIBERT SUTHERLAND SPEAR, AB'15. LYNDON E. HOFFMAN, PhB'16; MAR- ION COLE-SCHROEDER, SB' 16, MD'18. JOSEPHINE H. ROGERS HARRIS, X'17; ROY W. KNIPSCHILD, PhB'17, a starting quarterback in the glory days of the University's football team, died in March; HERBERT WACHTER, PhB'17. ANNE MARSHALL ORR, AM'18; HER BERT C. SCHOSSER, SB'18, MD'20; MAN- DEL SHERMAN, SB'18, MD'20, PhD'27. DAVID M. levy, MD'19, a prominent psychiatrist, died in February. 1920-1929 EDGAR BERNHARD, Ph.B'20, JD'21, died February 2; ARTHUR B. CUMMINS, SB'20, died March 10; MARGARET LUCY PARK REDFIELD, PhB'20, Wldow of emi- nent University of Chicago an- thropologist, James Redfield, died Feb ruary 6; CHARLES SCHARF, SB'20, pastor of Immaculate Conception R. C. Church in Norwood, New Jersey, died February 23; MELVINA E. WALKER, PhB'20, died March 14; SIMON H. TULCHIN, PhB'20. HOWARD GOODMAN, X'21, a life trus tée of The University of Chicago who was responsible for rebuilding the pipe organ in Rockefeller Chapel, died Feb ruary 2; FRANK B. LEFFERT, MD'21, died in September. LOIS OLSON, SB'21, SM'27, retired geographer and editor, died January 13. AARON COLE, PhB'22, CHARLES B. COURSEN, PhB'22, died in April; SHULAMITE BEN-HAREL LIEBERMAN, SM'22, died January 29; FRANCES LANGWORTH MURRAY, AB'22, a founder of Horizon House, a headstart program in Chicago, and former dean of Win netka Graduate Teachers Collège, died February 28; ELIZABETH JUDD NOYES, PhB'22, died January 4; ROLFE MONTGOMERY RANKIN, AM'22, died June 2; FORREST G. TUCKER, PhD'22, a retired physics teacher, died December 29; BERNARD MORTIMER, SB'22, phD'26, MD'40, died December 10. HENRY L. D. MOORE, AM'23; WINIFRED RIDGLEY REW, Ph.B'23; JAMES M. WELLER, SB'23, PhD'27. JOSEPH H. FOTH, phD'24, former head of the Department of Economies and Business Administration at Washburn University, died January 26; HARRY J. HUNT, PhB'24; FLORENCE B. WICKERSHAM, PhB'24. WALTER HOLLENSTEINER, PhB'25; THEODORE KOESTER, Ph.B'25, vice- president of Rauscher Pierce Securities Corp. in San Antonio, died suddenly October 21; JOSEPHINE M. LANE, AM'25; GEORGE B. LOY, X'25. RICHARD B. AUSTIN, JD'26, senior judge of the U.S. District Court in Chicago, died in February; WILLIAM R. HAHN, PhB'26; KENNETH L. HERTEL, PhD'26, the inventor of the fibrograph, a cotton gauge, died last November; LOUISE HARRIETTE HOWE SOULEN, PhB'26; JAMES L. HAMIRE, JD'26; NILA BANTON SMITH, PhB'26, world re- nowned reading educator, died De cember 13; ELSA MAY SMITHIES, AM'26, a retired teacher and former assistant principal at The University of Chicago Laboratory High School, died January 11; RICHARD H. THORNTON, PhD'26, a writer and past président of Henry Holt and Company Publishers, died April 3. CHARLES J. GALLAGHER, AM'27; PEARL HOGREFE, PhD'27; WILLIAM F. LITTLE, LLB'27; GEORGE B. STERICKER, MD'27 died last July. RUFFIN JOHNSTON, PflB'28; BAIRD V. KEISTER, AM'28; HERMAN F. MEYER, MD'28; JAMES B. MITCHELLJR., PhD'28. CLAUDE L. BRIGNALL, SB'29; DANIEL A. MACPHERSON, PhD'29; STANLEY H. PRENTISS, PhB'29, JD'30; MABEL F. RICE, PhB'29; WILEY B. SANDERS, PhD'29. 1930-1939 SAMUEL BUBLICK, PhB'30, JD'32; JAMES C. CHAPEL, AM'30; JOHN GEDGOUD, SB'30, MD'35, died in January. EDWARD C. BOLMEIER, AM'31, PhD'36, nationally recognized author ity on school law and school administra tion, died January 14; DOROTHY HAGE- MEYER DOEDE, AB'31, chemist and co- founder of Quantum Inc., died Decem ber 6; LUTHER CALVIN GILBERT, PtlD'3 1 ; GEORGE N. HIBBEN, PhB'31, JD'33; WILLIAM JANCIUS, PhB'31; HARRIET MOORE, AB'31. VERNON R. DE YOUNG, MD'32; THOMAS L. DODD, PhB'32; JEANETTE VANDERWERP HAGER, X'32; JAMES A. HAMILTON, SM'32, actuary, died Feb ruary 27; MARGUERITT HARMON BRO, X'32; RUTH LYMAN HILL, SB'32; JAMES F. INFELT, AM'32; RICHARD M. PAGE, SM'32. HELLEN GRAVES ALLAN, PhB'33, AM'39; LAURENCE A. ANDERSON, AM'33; IRVING M. COBIN, MD'33; SAMUEL GARRICK, SB'33, MD'37; AGNES C. HAZEL, X'33; CHARLES F. NESBITT, AM'33, PhD'39; ARCHIE SMITH, jd'33; MARIAN SMITH, PhB'33; DOROTHY V. THOMAS, X'33. GWYNETHE WINTER BUBLICK, PhB'34, died March 8; MARTIN E. CARL- SON, a retired navy captain and chief défense at ail the Japanese war crime trials held in Guam, died in January; LUCILLE BAULE GATES, PhB'34; EDITH HENDRIE, AM'34; CARL STECKLER, MD'34. RICHARD EAGLETON, PhB'35, JD'36; ALMA C. NESPITAL, PhB'35, AM'40; GEORGE F. NICHOLS, AM'35, JD'36; IRWIN E. PERLIN, PhD'35. CHESTER F. GRAU, AB'36, MBA'4l; WILLIAM HAMMER, AM'36, PhD'37; CLAUDIA NEWTON JACKSON, AB'36. TORRENCE H. DODD, X'37; A. T. HAEREM, MD'37; WESLEY P. LLOYD, PhD'37; VERA MACNAIR, PhD'37; JOHN F. MAGER, AM'37; ABRAHAM PRO- STKOFF, SM'37; HELEN VICTORIA SEYMOUR, AB'37; MALCOLM B. STIN- SON, AM'37. ANTHONY STEFFENSEN CANNON, PhD'38; GLADYS L. DEWEY, Ph.B'38; RICHARD D. LEONARD, PhD'38; YEL- LENA SEEVERS, SB'38, MD'40; WILLIAM SICHER, SB'38, MD'40; EDITH KEELEY STOVER, AB'38, AM'47; MODDIE D. TAYLOR, SM'38, PhD'43. VERA ELLMAN BUSCH, AB'39, SM'50; JAMES A. DUNKIN, AB'39, JD'41; ORVIL M. KLOSE, SM'39; THEODORE R. LAW- son, x'39- 1940-1949 LEOLA E. GLADSTONE, SB'40, SM'42, PhD'48. MARY O'FLYNN PAULUS, AM'4l; ROSALTHA HAGAN SANDERS, PhD'4l. DONALD H. EDWARDS, DB'42, a foreign service officer specializing in Af- rican affairs, died January 24; ALEXANDER LICHTOR, MD'42, died February 17; ROSALIND ROWAN, AM'42; MILTON SHUFRO, x'42, civic leader and public relations executive, died March 7; GEORGE L. ZEVNICK, AB'42. CATHERINE MABRY KIGH, X'43, died January 11; MARTIN v. McGlLL, am'43. ERWIN J. BULS, SM'44, died last November. JACQUELINE LUCE KLEIN, AB'47, died January 12. WESLEY L. FISHEL, PhD'48; HYMAN J. KRAUSS, JD'48; NORMAN PATINKIN, SB'48, mba'64, died April 21. JOHN G. HAWTHORNE, PhD'49, an as sociate professor in the Department of Classical Languages and Literatures and the Collège at the University. 1950-1959 LEONARD Z. BREEN, AM'50, PhD'56, died April 16; CHARLES W. CULLEN, x'50; JOSEPH H. ROE, am'50, former state director for social services in Il linois, died in February. ROBERT L. AUSTIN, AB'52, JD'56, long-time foe of violence on télévision; BESSIE FANCHER, AB'52. ERNEST W. STEVENS, X'53, died last October. CHRISTOPHER C. SMITH, DB'55, a lec- turer in religion and psychological studies at The University of Chicago Di- vinity School, died in April. DOROTHEA LANE, AM'57. THOMAS J. BRUDIE, AB'58, died Feb ruary 2. 1 960-1 973 FRANK FRIGAN, SM'60; MARTIN R.RO- SENTHAL, MBA'60 THERESA ONEIL TOTHILL, AM'6l; CHARLES W. URSCHEL, MD'6l. LEE PRAVATINER, AM'62, co- ordinator of urban affairs for Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago, died in April. PATRICK THOMPSON KWAMI AIDAM, MBA'66, a senior lecturer in accountancy at the University of Ghana. LOURDES L. ARVISU, PhD'69, pro fessor of English at the University of the Philippines, died in December; CLIF- FORD DONALD VOJTA, MBA'69. RONALD PERRY MARKS, MBA'73, di rector of market research at the Mag- naflux Corporation, died in February. A Fund For Books When you hâve the occasion to honor someone you love, you want your gift to he both thoughtful and enduring. A gift of books to the University of Chicago Library will associate both you and the one you honor with the ongoing work of the University and will serve to enhance the collections of the Library. Each twenty-five dollar gift allows the Library to add a book to its collections. For each gift of that amount, the Library places an inscribed book plate in the book and sends copies of the plate to the person honored and to the donor. It is also possible to establish an en dowed fund for purchasing books and to make gifts in one's own name or that of a relative or friend. Détails on thèse oppor- tunities for giving are available from the Library's Development Office. Make checks payable to: The University of Chicago Library Mail to: The Director of Development The Joseph Regenstein Library' 1100 East 57 Street Chicago, Illinois 60637 I enclose $ for books. Gift in honor of Address City States Zip Donor Address City States Zip 45 The Cover, The Cover Received the Spring 1977 issue. Good heavens, who selected that dark blue paper? I would like to read the inside back cover about the picture on the front cover, but my eyes are too valuable to use them in such a way. In the few words I hâve deciphered, I note an error. Wierd, first Une, second paragraph from the bottom. I wish I could read the rest. Anyhow, thanks for the Tutankhamun article. Claudia Fallert, SB '37 Hinsdale, Illinois Whoever is responsible for the ink-job on the cover of the current Spring, 1977 issue of the Magazine might do well to take a course in how not to match colors: black on dark green which makes the lettering and the gargoyle in the lower right hand corner so indistinct as to almost insure that it would not be re cognized. When one receives as much junk mail as I do — much of it as badly color-planned — I came within an ace of tossing the whole thing in the waste- basket. The address label was so carelessly placed as to ail but block out the magazines identity. It was due only to a stroke of luck that I folded the issue and placed it in my pocket, to look again when I reached my house. Its contents were, as usual, high grade and such as to insure that I read it throughout, espe- cially the article on Architect Henry Ives Cobb. I was also much pleased at the brief commentary on the Divisional Master' s Program in the Social Sciences, whose chairman I had the honor to be for 14 years. Earl S. Johnson, MA '32, PhD '41 Baldwin City, Kansas Yes. We know about the cover. The samples of the paper later purchased were a tone lighter, so we were as sur- prised as some of our readers are testy at the resuit. But, Mr. Johnson, it is blue. — Ed. Comments and queries Please, never use such dark paper again for the cover. The frontispiece is bad enough, but the inside back cover is completely illegible, at least to old eyes, and maybe also to younger ones. Were Henry Ives Cobb and Silas B. Cobb re- lated? One gave Cobb Hall and the other designed it. Re your response to the letter from Herman Wolfson on page 47. I am sur- prised that some alumni apparently do not know much about the University seal and its inscription. And you felt ob- liged to give a translation to boot. It ought to be imprinted on every matricu- lation card, and in both languages. . . . Paul Shorey conceived it, as I recall. Am I right? Re the complaint of Gwendolyn Roddy Ferguson; I am surprised at her contentions of percentages of this and that. Is our whole System to be based on percents, like Mayor Daley's political concepts? When are we going to be Americans, and not hyphenated ones? Israël Zangwill wrote the "Melting Pot" seventy years ago and it was widely read and dramatized. Now we seem to be get- ting into a freezing pot. As a student be tween 1909 and 1913, and also being a Jew, I was never invited into a fraternity. There were no Jewish ones then, thank goodness. It did not bother me an iota. I was there to get an éducation. Now Ms. Ferguson should be somewhat satisfied by the huge success of Alex Haley's Roots. It has touched us ail. It has out- distanced Gone with the Wind, which was the other side of the issue. And both took 12 years to write. In the logograph on page 46, are the letters Greek, or Russian or what? I know a bit of Greek and I cannot figure it out. Alan D. Whitney, PhB '13 Winnetka, Illinois From the top: sorry about the cover. No, Henry Ives and Silas B. were un- related Cobbs. You are right about Pro fessor Paul Shorey, who was inspired by several lines from Tennyson's "In Memoriam." As to the "Letters" logo, we suspect that the architect's masons were ad-libbing and mixed an alphabet. — Ed. The Road to Eleusis In the Spring, 1977 issue of the Maga zine, inner back cover, there is mention of "Eleusis" which I had tried to locate since learning that my name, Conradi, means "son of Conrad, bold, counselor, soldier of Eleusis, 1397." A road from Athens to Eleusis is given as the site of a shrine to Zephyros, known to the Ro mans as Favonius and honored by them. A coat of arms which I now hâve is mounted on a plaque of wood from San- dringham, an estate of the Queen of En- gland, so this vouches for my grand- father having been in England (and a génération before in Germany). British cousins-once-removed having a genealogist-relative are responsible for this late interest in researching my name. My relatives are faculty members at Birmingham University where it is customary for people in their positions to provide a record of ancestry. Catharine M. Conradi, AM '48 Winter Harbor, Maine -t<< From the Hammond Atlas of the Ancient World, Eleusis was due north of the is- land then (and now) called Salamis. Its site is marked by the modem town of Elevsis, on the Saronic Gulf, northwest of Athens. — Ed. The Peripatetic Sweater Vacationing in Europe last summer with my family, we were ail interested and amused to see that the single most popu- lar item of clothing for teenagers seemed to be the collège t-shirt. Thèse shirts are obviously European- manufactured with a glorious disregard for accuracy. Among others, we saw the University of Texas in baby blue with white letters, Princeton in navy with a red university seal, and one whose color I forget, but whose legend I remember — it read Southern California University (Sic)! We were strolling along one of the mails in Amsterdam, when I spotted in a clothing store win- dow what was indubitably a University of Chicago varsity sweater. Although it had been cleaned and immaculately pressed, it was apparent from it's appear- ance and style that it dated from the 1930s. It was shown with a matching maroon turtleneck shirt, and priced at approximately thirty-five U.S. dollars. I would hâve rescued it, but we left before the shops opened the following day. The end of the story will forever be a mys- teryr I wonder how it got there. Cheryl Newman, PhB '45, BLS '48, AM '52, Red Bank, New Jersey Index Volume LXIX Number 1 Autumn 1976 The Private I: Philip B. Kurland Equadorian Roots: Donald Collier Wanted: New Hypothèses in High Energy Physics: Bruce Winstein Song of the Cicada: James Iorio Réminiscences of Mathematics at Chicago: Marshall H. Stone The Stone Age of Mathematics on the Midway: Félix Browder The Old Ones: Eda Houwink Importance of the Graduate Alum: Albert Rees The Longest and Most Successful Baseball Trip of Ail Time: Robert Baird Number 2 Winter1976 Scholarship as a Vocation: James Redfield Not Big Times, But Better Times: An Interview With Harold Metcalf Fear of Failing: Mark R. Horowitz The Quest for Prehistory The Tuti-Nama: Daniel J. Ehnbom Whatever Has Become of the "Chicago School?": Cesare Segre Number 3 Spring 1977 Henry Ives Cobb: The Grand Design: Julius Lewis Getting Through Treasures of Tutankhamun An Interview with Peter J. Wyllie: Teaching in the Collège An Interview with Dale Terbeek: Expérimental Phonetics Number 4 Summer 1977 An Interview with Larry Hawkins: Spécial Programs Jaipur Notes: Susanne and Lloyd Rudolph The Legacy of Robert Maynard Hutchins: Edward H. Levi An Interview with Max Bell: Calculating Math Crédits Photography Gwendolyn Cate: page 6 (right). Michael Shields: pages 29, 31. The World of Art: pages 3, 4, 5, 6 (left), 7. Jaipur photograph courtesy of Susanne and Lloyd Rudolph. Robert Maynard Hutchins photograph courtesy of the Office of Public Information. Spécial thanks to Skye Fackre for her assistance in editorial and production work for this issue. Design: Paula S. Ausick 47 Convocation 1977 1 congratulate each of you on the significant achievement of earning a degree from one of the extremely few, truly great universities of the world. You will find that the University is respected wherever you go. The respect increases with each passing year. On behalf of the Alumni Association I welcome you into an organization of over 86,000 alumni, which includes among its members numerous Nobel Prize winners, university présidents, former cabinet members, governors, senators, congressmen, judges, and leaders in business, the professions, and the arts. You hâve been privileged on this campus to study in an atmosphère which the late Robert Maynard Hutchins described as "the freest air on this continent." Your appréciation of the University and what you obtained hère will not be fully realized by you for many years. Yours has been a rare opportunity; and I hope that your love for the University will continue to grow, and that you will support it not only with your praise but with your treasure so that in the future others may hâve the opportunity made available to you — to study at this great institution. I wish you every success in whatever future activity you may choose. Charles W. Boand, LLB'33, MBA'57 Président of the Alumni Association Remarks to the graduâtes at réceptions given by the Alumni Association before the Friday, June 10, Convocations at Rockefeller Mémorial Chapel. ON THE COVER. The bottle in the arms of Notos, the south wind, is no friendly vessel. If there ever was such a thing as a truly ill wind, this one is it, or its parent. In the Middle West in the summer, the south wind generally only carries mois- ture up from the Gulf, occasionally spawning a tornado. But the intense humidity of the season may remind one of how enervating and heavy the south wind can be on the north coast of the Mediterranean. The name Notos seems to spring from the Greek word nous, humidity, dampness. Vergil, calling this wind Auster, says it is pernicious to the health of people and rots the roots of plants; Ovid calls it "aquaticus Auster" in the Métamorphoses, and, in the Tristia he suggests it is no friend of sailors. The south and the east winds in gên erai had a bad réputation among the an- cients. The poets gave them little of the romance of the Winter and Spring winds; ail accounts and références suggest much more ancient, superstiti- ous and grim associations. Pausanius saw citizens in the Troezen eut up a rooster and run around a monument trailing its bloody parts to appease one of thèse southerly winds and he gives a famous account of a priest performing secret prayers over four pits at night in Titane, to appease the fury of the winds, chant- ing over them the charms of Medea. To the south wind one offered the sacrifice of a black animal (Vergil says to offer a white one, on the contrary, to the kindly west wind of Spring). Storm winds, heavy with rain, brin- gers of the monsoon. Iphigeneia was sacrificed to still such a wind, says Aes- chylus. If the north and west winds, as we hâve noted, bred horses on Harpies and Gorgons, the south wind had Gor- gons and Harpies as their messengers and instruments. Pénélope in despair prays to be carried off by just such storm winds and calls them Harpies. It is the summer and the autumn winds that reminded the Greeks that winds were ghosts or soûls in one sensé, linked with the power of death as well as of life. An Athenian preparing to be married sacrificed to the "guardians and gatekeepers of the winds," as he was about to become an instrument of life, a servant of the soûls in the earth, what the Greeks called "a rearer of soûls" — which is what they also called the winds. Ail that in what Shakespeare would later call the deep dark and abysm of time. Hère and now it is still a hot wind and a wet one — aquaticus Auster, at times aquatic enough to flood the basements of the buildings around the Tower of the Winds on which our wind sits with her bottle. A x ** > en m n > in r m C »-< m z rr r »• r ?-. < > > m T) r » -< m 33 m m -t r> < D 73 o o T\ 01 D vu *J H D T D in m H 13 » H m m H r